WorldWideScience

Sample records for real-world positive affect

  1. Does obesity affect the position of seat belt loading in occupants involved in real-world motor vehicle collisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartka, Thomas R; Carr, Hannah M; Smith, Brittany R; Melmer, Monica; Sochor, Mark R

    2018-02-28

    Previous work has shown that the lap belt moves superior and forward compared to the bony pelvis as body mass index (BMI) increases. The goal of this project was to determine whether the location of lap belt loading is related to BMI for occupants who sustained real-world motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). A national MVC database was queried for vehicle occupants over a 10-year period (2003-2012) who were at least 16 years old, restrained by a 3-point seat belt, sitting in the front row, and involved in a front-end collision with a change in velocity of at least 56 km/h. Cases were excluded if there was not an available computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen. CT scans were then analyzed using adipose enhancement of 3-dimensional reconstructions. Scans were assessed for the presence a radiographic seat belt sign (rSBS), or subcutaneous fat stranding due to seat belt loading. In scans in which the rSBS was present, anterior and superior displacement of rSBS from the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) was measured bilaterally. This displacement was correlated with BMI and injury severity. The inclusion and exclusion criteria yielded 151 cases for analysis. An rSBS could definitively be identified in 55 cases. Cases in which occupants were older and had higher BMI were more likely to display an rSBS. There was a correlation between increasing BMI and anterior rSBS displacement (P obesity may worsen horizontal position but not the vertical position of the lap belt loading during real-world frontal MVCs.

  2. A real world dissemination and implementation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F; Szafranski, Derek D; Shead, Sarah D

    2017-03-01

    Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies is challenging in real world clinical settings. Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for affective disorders was developed with dissemination and implementation in clinical settings in mind. The present study investigated a voluntary local dissemination and implementation effort, involving 28 providers participating in a four-hour training on TBT. Providers completed immediate (n=22) and six-month follow-up (n=12) training assessments and were encouraged to collect data on their TBT patients (delivery fidelity was not investigated). Findings demonstrated that providers endorsed learning of and interest in using TBT after the training. At six-months, 50% of providers reported using TBT with their patients and their perceived effectiveness of TBT to be very good to excellent. Submitted patient outcome data evidenced medium to large effect sizes. Together, these findings provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of a real world dissemination and implementation of TBT. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Assessing the real-world cost-effectiveness of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER-2/neu positive breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hedden, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Among women with surgically removed, high-risk HER-2\\/neu-positive breast cancer, trastuzumab has demonstrated significant improvements in disease-free and overall survival. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the currently recommended 12-month adjuvant protocol of trastuzumab using a Markov modeling approach and real-world cost data.

  4. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Sáez, Aida; Viana, Mar; Barrios, Carmen C; Rubio, Jose R; Amato, Fulvio; Pujadas, Manuel; Querol, Xavier

    2012-10-16

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source apportionment by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was carried out to interpret the real-world driving conditions. Three emission patterns were identified: (F1) cruise conditions, with medium-high speeds, contributing in this circuit with 60% of total particle number and a particle size distribution dominated by particles >52 nm and around 60 nm; (F2) transient conditions, stop-and-go conditions at medium-high speed, contributing with 25% of the particle number and mainly emitting particles in the nucleation mode; and (F3) creep-idle conditions, representing traffic congestion and frequent idling periods, contributing with 14% to the total particle number and with particles in the nucleation mode (emissions depending on particle size and driving conditions. Differences between real-world emission patterns and regulatory cycles (NEDC) are also presented, which evidence that detecting particle number emissions real-world driving conditions.

  5. Evaluating Wi-Fi indoor positioning approaches in a real world environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hantoush, Raafat

    2016-01-01

    Global positioning system(GPS) does not provide generally a good positioning performance in an indoor location because of many reasons (Henniges, 2012). On the other hand, other alternatives such as the WI-FI technology has become recently in a popular use to provide indoor localization. And that is due to many reasons, such as the wide spread of WI-FI infrastructure in the indoor environments and the low cost of this technology. This study attempts to evaluate different WI-FI indoor position...

  6. A retrospective multicentric observational study of trastuzumab emtansine in HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer: a real-world experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vici, Patrizia; Pizzuti, Laura; Michelotti, Andrea; Sperduti, Isabella; Natoli, Clara; Mentuccia, Lucia; Lauro, Luigi Di; Sergi, Domenico; Marchetti, Paolo; Santini, Daniele; Magnolfi, Emanuela; Iezzi, Laura; Moscetti, Luca; Fabbri, Agnese; Cassano, Alessandra; Grassadonia, Antonino; Omarini, Claudia; Piacentini, Federico; Botticelli, Andrea; Bertolini, Ilaria; Scinto, Angelo Fedele; Zampa, Germano; Mauri, Maria; D’Onofrio, Loretta; Sini, Valentina; Barba, Maddalena; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Rossi, Ernesto; Landucci, Elisabetta; Tomao, Silverio; Alberti, Antonio Maria; Giotta, Francesco; Ficorella, Corrado; Adamo, Vincenzo; Russo, Antonio; Lorusso, Vito; Cannita, Katia; Barni, Sandro; Laudadio, Lucio; Greco, Filippo; Garrone, Ornella; Giulia, Marina Della; Marolla, Paolo; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Cocco, Barbara Di; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Maria, Ruggero De; Gamucci, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    We addressed trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) efficacy in HER2+ metastatic breast cancer patients treated in real-world practice, and its activity in pertuzumab-pretreated patients. We conducted a retrospective, observational study involving 23 cancer centres, and 250 patients. Survival data were analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves and log rank test. Factors testing significant in univariate analysis were tested in multivariate models. Median follow-up was 15 months and median T-DM1 treatment-length 4 months. Response rate was 41.6%, clinical benefit 60.9%. Median progression-free and median overall survival were 6 and 20 months, respectively. Overall, no differences emerged by pertuzumab pretreatment, with median progression-free and median overall survival of 4 and 17 months in pertuzumab-pretreated (p=0.13), and 6 and 22 months in pertuzumab-naïve patients (p=0.27). Patients who received second-line T-DM1 had median progression-free and median overall survival of 3 and 12 months (p=0.0001) if pertuzumab-pretreated, and 8 and 26 months if pertuzumab-naïve (p=0.06). In contrast, in third-line and beyond, median progression-free and median overall survival were 16 and 18 months in pertuzumab-pretreated (p=0.05) and 6 and 17 months in pertuzumab-naïve patients (p=0.30). In multivariate analysis, lower ECOG performance status was associated with progression-free survival benefit (p<0.0001), while overall survival was positively affected by lower ECOG PS (p<0.0001), absence of brain metastases (p 0.05), and clinical benefit (p<0.0001). Our results are comparable with those from randomized trials. Further studies are warranted to confirm and interpret our data on apparently lower T-DM1 efficacy when given as second-line treatment after pertuzumab, and on the optimal sequence order. PMID:28915642

  7. How does age-related macular degeneration affect real-world visual ability and quality of life? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Deanna J; Hobby, Angharad E; Binns, Alison M; Crabb, David P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review systematically the evidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) affecting real-world visual ability and quality of life (QoL). To explore trends in specific topics within this body of the literature. Design Systematic review. Methods A systematic literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsychARTICLES and Health and Psychosocial Instruments for articles published up to January 2015 for studies including people diagnosed with AMD, assessing real-world visual ability or QoL as an outcome. Two researchers screened studies for eligibility. Details of eligible studies including study design, characteristics of study population and outcomes measured were recorded in a data extraction table. All included studies underwent quality appraisal using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool 2011 Version (MMAT). Results From 5284 studies, 123 were eligible for inclusion. A range of approaches were identified, including performance-based methods, quantitative and qualitative patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). AMD negatively affects tasks including mobility, face recognition, perception of scenes, computer use, meal preparation, shopping, cleaning, watching TV, reading, driving and, in some cases, self-care. There is evidence for higher rates of depression among people with AMD than among community dwelling elderly. A number of adaptation strategies have been associated with AMD of varying duration. Much of the research fails to report the type of AMD studied (59% of included studies) or the duration of disease in participants (74%). Of those that do report type studied, the breakdown is as follows: wet AMD 20%, dry AMD 4% and both types 17%. Conclusions There are many publications highlighting the negative effects of AMD in various domains of life. Future research should focus on delivering some of this research knowledge into patient management and clinical trials and differentiating between the types of AMD. PMID

  8. A real-world comparison of apnea-hypopnea indices of positive airway pressure device and polysomnography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritwick Agrawal

    Full Text Available The apnea hypopnea index (AHI reported by positive airway pressure (PAP device is widely used in clinical practice, yet its correlation with standardized AHI obtained during the sleep study is not established. The current study was conducted to investigate the correlation between AHI estimated by the PAP device and reported on the smart card with the AHI found during the PAP polysomnography (PSG in the "real world" setting at an academic sleep center. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 280 patients who underwent a PAP titration PSG at Drexel sleep center, and were later prescribed a PAP device. The AHI was categorized in clinically relevant subgroups (as AHI ≤5 and AHI >5. The AHI at the final pressure on the PSG and the average AHI from the prescribed PAP device were compared. The results showed that in the majority (77.3% of patients (126 of 163, the AHI from both PAP device and PSG correlated well and were in the same category (AHI ≤5 and AHI >5 respectively. The majority of patients (80.7% with PSG AHI of 5, 61.5% patients reported good control, with AHI <5 on PAP device AHI. We conclude that in a majority of patients who were optimally titrated in the sleep laboratory, the PAP device continued to show optimal control at home.

  9. The Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, John Sears

    1981-01-01

    Relates personal experiences about what constitutes the "real world." Shows how experiences from philosophy, history, literature, art, and the movies add meaning to "reality." Stresses a compromise of imagination and sensation to make the real world palatable. (RL)

  10. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source

  11. The SWEET SPOTS study: a real-world interpretation of the 2012 American Diabetes Association Position Statement regarding individualized A1C targets

    OpenAIRE

    Bieszk, Nella; Grabner, Michael; Wei, Wenhui; Bonine, Nicole G; Stephenson, Judith J

    2016-01-01

    Nella Bieszk,1 Michael Grabner,2 Wenhui Wei,1 Nicole G Bonine,2 Judith J Stephenson,2 1Sanofi US, Inc., Bridgewater, NJ, 2HealthCore, Inc., Wilmington, DE, USA Objective: To evaluate awareness of the 2012 American Diabetes Association (ADA) Position Statement among physicians and assess its effects on patient-centered glycated hemoglobin (A1C) goals in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Research design and methods: The Summarizing Real-World Individualized TrEatmEnT GoalS and Potential ...

  12. Real-world outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    -down model of feeding back research findings to subjects” (Roberts and Sarangi 2003, 340) although, arguably, making results applicable to a real-world context ought to be an essential goal of researcher-practitioner studies. This issue forms the background of the presentation, in which it will be discussed...... how the dissemination of research findings may take place to ensure the creation of real-world outcomes for practitioners (cf. e.g. Nørreklit et al. 1987; Puchta & Potter 2004). The presentation will be centered around the interview study of the discursive constructions of culture in a Danish cross...

  13. Real-world usage and clinical outcomes of alectinib among post-crizotinib progression anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive non-small-cell lung cancer patients in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBonaventura, Marco D; Wong, William; Shah-Manek, Bijal; Schulz, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    Background Alectinib is an approved treatment for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Despite positive supporting clinical data, there is a lack of real-world information on the usage and patient outcomes of those treated with alectinib post-crizotinib progression. Methods Participating oncologists (N=95) in the USA were recruited from an online physician panel to participate in a retrospective patient chart review. Physicians randomly selected eligible patients (ie, patients who progressed on crizotinib as their first ALK inhibitor and were treated with alectinib as their second ALK inhibitor), collected demographics and clinical history from their medical charts, and entered the data into an online data collection form. Results A total of N=207 patient charts were included (age: 60.1±10.4 years; 53.6% male). The patients in our sample were older (median age of 60 vs 53 years), were more likely to be current smokers (12% vs 1%), had better performance status (45% vs 33% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] of 0), and were less likely to have an adenocarcinoma histology (83% vs 96%) relative to published clinical trials. The objective response rate was higher than in clinical trials (67.1% vs 51.3%, respectively) as was the disease control rate (89.9% vs 78.8%, respectively), though it varied by race/ethnicity, ECOG, and prior treatment history. Discontinuation (0.0%) and dose reductions (3.4%) due to adverse events were uncommon in alectinib. Conclusion Patients using alectinib post-crizotinib in clinical practice are older, more racially/ethnically and histologically diverse than patients in published trials. Real-world response rates were high and similar to those reported in clinical studies, though there is some variation by patient characteristics. Alectinib was well tolerated in clinical practice as reflected by the rates of discontinuation, dose reductions, and dose interruptions. PMID

  14. Serological follow-up of infants born to mothers with positive syphilis serology - real-world experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Harriet E; Broomhall, Harriet M; Isitt, Catherine E; Miall, Lawrence S; Wilson, Janet D

    2016-11-01

    The 2008 UK syphilis guideline recommends infants born to women with any positive syphilis serology be followed up until both treponemal and nontreponemal tests are negative to exclude congenital syphilis, whereas Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend using only nontreponemal tests. Historically, we had low infant follow-up rates with no coherent pathways. We initiated a change in multidisciplinary team practice of infant testing for syphilis in 2011 and evaluated the results before and after by retrospective review of testing of infants born to women with positive syphilis serology between 2005 and 2012. A total of 28 infants' mothers were treated in pregnancy (termed 'high risk'); 26 had adequate treatment prior to pregnancy (termed 'low risk'). There was a significant increase in serological testing after 2011 compared with before (83% versus 48%; OR 5.07 [95% CI 1.22-22.77] p = 0.01) but mainly in low risk infants with no significant improvement in high risk infants who are the priority group. Using nontreponemal tests only in the infants would have reduced the tests required by at least 50%, allowing health resources to be concentrated on achieving adequate follow-up for those infants most at risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Real world cost of human epidermal receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients: a longitudinal incidence-based observational costing study in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, G W J; Severens, J L; Hövels, A M; van Hasselt, J G C; Hooiveld, M J J; Neven, P; Raaijmakers, J A M; Schellens, J H M

    2015-05-01

    Currently, no country-specific metastatic breast cancer (MBC) observational costing data are available for the Netherlands and Belgium. Our aim is to describe country-specific resource use and costs of human epidermal receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive MBC in the Netherlands and Belgium, making use of real-world data. The eligibility period for patient selection was from April 2004 to April 2010. Inclusion and retrospective data collection begins at the time of first diagnosis of HER-2-positive MBC during the eligibility period and ends 24 months post-index diagnosis of MBC or at patient death. We identified 88 eligible patients in the Netherlands and 44 patients in Belgium. The total costs of medical treatment and other resource use utilisation per patient was €48,301 in the Netherlands and €37,431 in Belgium. Majority of costs was related to the use of trastuzumab in both countries, which was 50% of the total costs in the Netherlands and 56% in Belgium respectively. Our study provides estimates of resource use and costs for HER-2-positive MBC in the Netherlands and Belgium. We noticed various differences in resource use patterns between both countries demonstrating caution is needed when transferring cost estimates between countries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Real-world usage and clinical outcomes of alectinib among post-crizotinib progression anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive non-small-cell lung cancer patients in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiBonaventura MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marco D DiBonaventura,1 William Wong,2 Bijal Shah-Manek,3,4 Mathias Schulz2 1Ipsos Healthcare, Global Evidence, Value & Access, New York, NY, 2Genentech, US Medical Affairs, San Francisco, CA, 3Ipsos Healthcare, Global Evidence, Value & Access, San Francisco, CA, 4College of Pharmacy, Touro University California, CA, USA Background: Alectinib is an approved treatment for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK-positive patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Despite positive supporting clinical data, there is a lack of real-world information on the usage and patient outcomes of those treated with alectinib post-crizotinib progression. Methods: Participating oncologists (N=95 in the USA were recruited from an online physician panel to participate in a retrospective patient chart review. Physicians randomly selected eligible patients (ie, patients who progressed on crizotinib as their first ALK inhibitor and were treated with alectinib as their second ALK inhibitor, collected demographics and clinical history from their medical charts, and entered the data into an online data collection form. Results: A total of N=207 patient charts were included (age: 60.1±10.4 years; 53.6% male. The patients in our sample were older (median age of 60 vs 53 years, were more likely to be current smokers (12% vs 1%, had better performance status (45% vs 33% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] of 0, and were less likely to have an adenocarcinoma histology (83% vs 96% relative to published clinical trials. The objective response rate was higher than in clinical trials (67.1% vs 51.3%, respectively as was the disease control rate (89.9% vs 78.8%, respectively, though it varied by race/ethnicity, ECOG, and prior treatment history. Discontinuation (0.0% and dose reductions (3.4% due to adverse events were uncommon in alectinib.Conclusion: Patients using alectinib post-crizotinib in clinical practice are older, more racially/ethnically and histologically

  17. The SWEET SPOTS study: a real-world interpretation of the 2012 American Diabetes Association Position Statement regarding individualized A1C targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieszk, Nella; Grabner, Michael; Wei, Wenhui; Bonine, Nicole G; Stephenson, Judith J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate awareness of the 2012 American Diabetes Association (ADA) Position Statement among physicians and assess its effects on patient-centered glycated hemoglobin (A1C) goals in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The Summarizing Real-World Individualized TrEatmEnT GoalS and Potential SuppOrT Systems in Type 2 Diabetes (SWEET SPOTS) study used the HealthCore claims database to identify T2D patients, stratified by risk, and their treating physicians to assess primary care physician and endocrinologist awareness of the 2012 ADA Position Statement. Physicians completed online surveys on A1C targets before and after receiving an educational intervention to review the position statement. Of 125 responding physicians (mean age 50.3 years, 12.8% endocrinologists) who were linked to 125 patient profiles (mean age 56.9 years, 42% female, mean A1C 7.2%), 92% were at least somewhat aware of the position statement prior to the intervention and 59% believed that the statement would impact how they set A1C targets. The educational intervention resulted in mostly less stringent goal setting for both lower and higher risk patients, but changes were not significant. The proportion of physician-assigned A1C targets within ADA-recommended ranges increased from 56% to 66% post-intervention ( P ADA Position Statement and believe that it may influence treatment goals. While patient-specific A1C targets were not significantly impacted, physicians indicated that they would make targets more or less stringent for lower and higher risk patients, respectively, across their practice. Further research into optimizing physician education regarding individualized A1C targets is warranted.

  18. The SWEET SPOTS study: a real-world interpretation of the 2012 American Diabetes Association Position Statement regarding individualized A1C targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieszk N

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nella Bieszk,1 Michael Grabner,2 Wenhui Wei,1 Nicole G Bonine,2 Judith J Stephenson,2 1Sanofi US, Inc., Bridgewater, NJ, 2HealthCore, Inc., Wilmington, DE, USA Objective: To evaluate awareness of the 2012 American Diabetes Association (ADA Position Statement among physicians and assess its effects on patient-centered glycated hemoglobin (A1C goals in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Research design and methods: The Summarizing Real-World Individualized TrEatmEnT GoalS and Potential SuppOrT Systems in Type 2 Diabetes (SWEET SPOTS study used the HealthCore claims database to identify T2D patients, stratified by risk, and their treating physicians to assess primary care physician and endocrinologist awareness of the 2012 ADA Position Statement. Physicians completed online surveys on A1C targets before and after receiving an educational intervention to review the position statement. Results: Of 125 responding physicians (mean age 50.3 years, 12.8% endocrinologists who were linked to 125 patient profiles (mean age 56.9 years, 42% female, mean A1C 7.2%, 92% were at least somewhat aware of the position statement prior to the intervention and 59% believed that the statement would impact how they set A1C targets. The educational intervention resulted in mostly less stringent goal setting for both lower and higher risk patients, but changes were not significant. The proportion of physician-assigned A1C targets within ADA-recommended ranges increased from 56% to 66% post-intervention (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Physicians treating T2D are aware of the 2012 ADA Position Statement and believe that it may influence treatment goals. While patient-specific A1C targets were not significantly impacted, physicians indicated that they would make targets more or less stringent for lower and higher risk patients, respectively, across their practice. Further research into optimizing physician education regarding individualized A1C targets is warranted. Keywords

  19. Uncertainty in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Uncertainty in the Real World - Fuzzy Sets. Satish Kumar. General Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 37-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/02/0037-0047 ...

  20. Mathematics in the Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Matt

    1997-01-01

    The abstract nature of algebra causes difficulties for many students. Describes "Real-World Data," an algebra course designed for students with low grades in algebra and provides multidisciplinary experiments (linear functions and variations; quadratic, square-root, and inverse relations; and exponential and periodic variation)…

  1. Real-world driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Hendriksen, P.; Gense, N.L.J.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing complexity of engine management system there is a tendency for traditional driving cyles to become further and further removed from reality. So for a sensible evaluation of emissions and fuel consumption of road vehicles in the field there is an urgent need for 'real-world' driving

  2. Alice in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tom

    2012-01-01

    As a fifth-grade mathematics teacher, the author tries to create authentic problem-solving activities that connect to the world in which his students live. He discovered a natural connection to his students' real world at a computer camp. A friend introduced him to Alice, a computer application developed at Carnegie Mellon, under the leadership of…

  3. Reflections on "Real-World" Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom; Swift, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the history of real-world (applied) community psychologists trace their participation in the field's official guild, the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA), beginning with the Swampscott Conference in 1965 through the current date. Four benchmarks are examined. The issues these real-world psychologists bring to the…

  4. Learning from Dealing with Real World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an example of using real world issues as tools for science teaching and learning. Using real world issues provides students with experiences in learning in problem-based environments and encourages them to apply their content knowledge to solving current and local problems.

  5. Real world use of an Internet intervention for pediatric encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterband, Lee M; Ardalan, Kaveh; Thorndike, Frances P; Magee, Joshua C; Saylor, Drew K; Cox, Daniel J; Sutphen, James L; Borowitz, Stephen M

    2008-06-30

    The Internet is a significant source of medical information and is now being shown to be an important conduit for delivering various health-related interventions. This paper aimed to examine the utility and impact of an Internet intervention for childhood encopresis as part of standard medical care in a "real world" setting. Patients diagnosed with encopresis were given a Web-based information prescription to use an Internet intervention for pediatric encopresis. A total of 22 families utilized the intervention between July 2004 and June 2006. A chart review and phone interview were undertaken to collect user characteristics; defecation-related information, including frequency of soiling, bowel movements (BMs) in the toilet, and amount of pain associated with defecation; and information on computer/Internet usage. Three questionnaires were used to examine the utility of, impact of, and adherence to the Internet intervention. Program utilization was obtained from a data tracking system that monitored usage in real time. Overall, parents rated the Internet intervention as enjoyable, understandable, and easy to use. They indicated that the Internet intervention positively affected their children, decreasing overall accidents and increasing child comfort on the toilet at home. Of the 20 children who initially reported fecal accidents, 19 (95%) experienced at least a 50% improvement, with a reduction of accident frequency from one fecal accident per day to one accident per week. Although it is not clear whether this improvement is directly related to the use of the Internet intervention, patient feedback suggests that the program was an important element, further establishing Internet interventions as a viable and desirable addition to standard medical care for pediatric encopresis. To our knowledge, this is the first time a pediatric Internet intervention has been examined as part of a "real world" setting. This is an important step toward establishing Internet

  6. Analyzing Real-World Light Duty Vehicle Efficiency Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Chaney, Larry; Holden, Jacob; Jeffers, Matthew; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-06-08

    Off-cycle technologies represent an important pathway to achieve real-world fuel savings, through which OEMs can potentially receive credit toward CAFE compliance. DOE national labs such as NREL are well positioned to provide objective input on these technologies using large, national data sets in conjunction with OEM- and technology-specific testing. This project demonstrates an approach that combines vehicle testing (dynamometer and on-road) with powertrain modeling and simulation over large, representative datasets to quantify real-world fuel economy. The approach can be applied to specific off-cycle technologies (engine encapsulation, start/stop, connected vehicle, etc.) in A/B comparisons to support calculation of realistic real-world impacts. Future work will focus on testing-based A/B technology comparisons that demonstrate the significance of this approach.

  7. Studying Real-World Perceptual Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong eShen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature.

  8. Mathematics and the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the initial discussion of the untenability of the distinction between “pure” and “applied" mathematics is followed by looking at alternative approaches regarding the relationship between mathematics and the “real world” - with intuitionism and Platonism representing the two opposite positions. The notions of infinity as well as the totality character of spatial continuity (and its implied infinite divisibility turned out to occupy a central position in this context. In the final section brief attention is given - against the background of some perspectives on the history of mathematics - to an alternative approach in which both the uniqueness and the mutual irreducibility of number and space are conjectured.

  9. Symbolic Victimization and Real World Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael

    1983-01-01

    Examines the relationship between victimization of characters in television drama and susceptibility to the viewers' cultivation of a sense of personal risk in the real world. Found that viewers whose fictional counterparts are more likely to be shown as victims show stronger associations between viewing and perceived vulnerability. (PD)

  10. Infusing Real World Experiences into Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to encourage enhanced richness and relevance of the undergraduate engineering education experience, and thus produce better-prepared and more globally competitive graduates, by providing practical guidance for incorporating real world experience in US engineering programs. The report, a collaborative effort of the…

  11. Managing Uncertainty in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Managing Uncertainty in the Real World - Fuzzy Systems. Satish Kumar. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Satish Kumar1. Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute Dayalbagh, Agra 282005, India.

  12. Cellphones and Real-World Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his views on cellphones and real-world communication. He claims that the cellphone has changed society more than the home computer, which it has assimilated. Cellphones sound during worship, wakes, births, graduations, hearings, trials, and accreditation meetings--interrupting life-changing spiritual or secular…

  13. Real-World Data on Prognostic Factors for Overall Survival in EGFR Mutation-Positive Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with First-Line Gefitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zong-Han; Liao, Wei-Yu; Ho, Chao-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Shih, Jin-Yuan; Chen, Jin-Shing; Lin, Zhong-Zhe; Lin, Chia-Chi; Chih-Hsin Yang, James; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to identify independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring an activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and receiving gefitinib as first-line treatment in real-world practice. We enrolled 226 patients from June 2011 to May 2013. During this period, gefitinib was the only EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor reimbursed by the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan. The median progression-free survival and median OS were 11.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.7-14.2) and 26.9 months (21.2-32.5), respectively. The Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that postoperative recurrence, performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Grade [ECOG] ≥2), smoking index (≥20 pack-years), liver metastasis at initial diagnosis, and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were independent prognostic factors for OS (hazard ratio [95% CI] 0.3 [0.11-0.83], p  = .02; 2.69 [1.60-4.51], p  lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with first-line gefitinib may raise awareness of benefit from anti-HCV treatment in this patient population. Brain metastasis in the initial diagnosis or intracranial progression during gefitinib treatment is not a prognostic factor for OS. This study, which enrolled a real-world population of NSCLC patients, including sicker patients who were not eligible for a clinical trial, may have impact on guiding usual clinical practice. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  14. Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie E. Roos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or IAT revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or ALPS and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

  15. TRAX - Real-World Tracking of Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2007-01-01

    accuracy. This paper presents the TRAX tracking system that supports several techniques capable of tracking the current positions of moving objects with guaranteed accuracies at low update and communication costs in real-world settings. The techniques are readily relevant for practical applications......, but they also have implications for continued research. The tracking techniques offer a realistic setting for existing query processing techniques that assume that it is possible to always know the exact positions of moving objects. The techniques enable studies of trade-offs between querying and update...

  16. Numerical simulation of real-world flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayase, Toshiyuki, E-mail: hayase@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Obtaining real flow information is important in various fields, but is a difficult issue because measurement data are usually limited in time and space, and computational results usually do not represent the exact state of real flows. Problems inherent in the realization of numerical simulation of real-world flows include the difficulty in representing exact initial and boundary conditions and the difficulty in representing unstable flow characteristics. This article reviews studies dealing with these problems. First, an overview of basic flow measurement methodologies and measurement data interpolation/approximation techniques is presented. Then, studies on methods of integrating numerical simulation and measurement, namely, four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var), Kalman filters (KFs), state observers, etc are discussed. The first problem is properly solved by these integration methodologies. The second problem can be partially solved with 4D-Var in which only initial and boundary conditions are control parameters. If an appropriate control parameter capable of modifying the dynamical structure of the model is included in the formulation of 4D-Var, unstable modes are properly suppressed and the second problem is solved. The state observer and KFs also solve the second problem by modifying mathematical models to stabilize the unstable modes of the original dynamical system by applying feedback signals. These integration methodologies are now applied in simulation of real-world flows in a wide variety of research fields. Examples are presented for basic fluid dynamics and applications in meteorology, aerospace, medicine, etc. (topical review)

  17. Perils of using speed zone data to assess real-world compliance to speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anna; Clarke, Elizabeth; Chevalier, Aran John; Brown, Julie; Coxon, Kristy; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2017-11-17

    Real-world driving studies, including those involving speeding alert devices and autonomous vehicles, can gauge an individual vehicle's speeding behavior by comparing measured speed with mapped speed zone data. However, there are complexities with developing and maintaining a database of mapped speed zones over a large geographic area that may lead to inaccuracies within the data set. When this approach is applied to large-scale real-world driving data or speeding alert device data to determine speeding behavior, these inaccuracies may result in invalid identification of speeding. We investigated speeding events based on service provider speed zone data. We compared service provider speed zone data (Speed Alert by Smart Car Technologies Pty Ltd., Ultimo, NSW, Australia) against a second set of speed zone data (Google Maps Application Programming Interface [API] mapped speed zones). We found a systematic error in the zones where speed limits of 50-60 km/h, typical of local roads, were allocated to high-speed motorways, which produced false speed limits in the speed zone database. The result was detection of false-positive high-range speeding. Through comparison of the service provider speed zone data against a second set of speed zone data, we were able to identify and eliminate data most affected by this systematic error, thereby establishing a data set of speeding events with a high level of sensitivity (a true positive rate of 92% or 6,412/6,960). Mapped speed zones can be a source of error in real-world driving when examining vehicle speed. We explored the types of inaccuracies found within speed zone data and recommend that a second set of speed zone data be utilized when investigating speeding behavior or developing mapped speed zone data to minimize inaccuracy in estimates of speeding.

  18. Real World Connections in High School Mathematics Curriculum and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Karakoç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Making real world connections in mathematics curricula and in teaching mathematics is generally viewed favorably within the educational community, however, little empirical research has examined how and why to use real world connections in mathematics education based on the views of experts. This study describes the feasibility of the use of real world connections according to high school mathematics teachers and academicians of mathematics education. Opinions of high school mathematics teachers (n=16 and academicians (n=8 about advantages, disadvantages, and examples of real world connections are elicited and reported. Teachers and academicians report several advantages of the use of real world connections in teaching mathematics as well as its disadvantages and limitations. Suggestions about dealing with limiting factors for using real world connections are also reported. Keywords: Mathematics curriculum, real world connections, mathematics teaching

  19. The real-world safety potential of connected vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Sam; Grant, Alex; Anderson, Robert W G

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the safety potential of a current commercially available connected vehicle technology in real-world crashes. Data from the Centre for Automotive Safety Research's at-scene in-depth crash investigations in South Australia were used to simulate the circumstances of real-world crashes. A total of 89 crashes were selected for inclusion in the study. The crashes were selected as representative of the most prevalent crash types for injury or fatal crashes and had potential to be mitigated by connected vehicle technology. The trajectory, speeds, braking, and impact configuration of the selected in-depth cases were replicated in a software package and converted to a file format allowing "replay" of the scenario in real time as input to 2 Cohda Wireless MK2 onboard units. The Cohda Wireless onboard units are a mature connected vehicle technology that has been used in both the German simTD field trial and the U.S. Department of Transport's Safety Pilot project and have been tuned for low false alarm rates when used in the real world. The crash replay was achieved by replacing each of the onboard unit Global Positioning System (GPS) inputs with the simulated data of each of the involved vehicles. The time at which the Cohda Wireless threat detection software issued an elevated warning was used to calculate a new impact speed using 3 different reaction scenarios and 2 levels of braking. It was found that between 37 and 86% of the simulated crashes could be avoided, with highest percentage due a fully autonomous system braking at 0.7 g. The same system also reduced the impact speed relative to the actual crash in all cases. Even when a human reaction time of 1.2 s and moderate braking of 0.4 g was assumed, the impact speed was reduced in 78% of the crashes. Crash types that proved difficult for the threat detection engine were head-on crashes where the approach angle was low and right turn-opposite crashes. These results indicate that connected vehicle

  20. CODA Performance in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.J. Abbott; W.G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; R. W. MacLeod; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2000-01-01

    The most ambitious implementation of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition system (CODA) to date is for the CLAS spectrometer in Experimental Hall B. CLAS has over 40,000 instrumented channels and uses up to 30 front-end (FASTBUS/VME) crates in the DAQ subsystem. During the initial experiments we found that performance of the fully instrumented DAQ system did not scale as expected based on single point to point benchmarks. Over the past year we have been able to study various performance bottlenecks in the CLAS DAQ system including front-end real time performance, switched 100BaseT Ethernet data transport, and online data distribution and recording. Performance tuning was necessary for components on both real time (VxWorks) and UNIX (Solaris) operating systems. In addition, a new efficient Event Transfer System (ET) was developed to provide faster online monitoring while having minimal impact on data throughput to storage. We discuss these issues and efforts to overcome the real world problems associated with running a high performance DAQ system on a variety of commercial hardware and software

  1. CODA performance in the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; Jastrzembski, E.; MacLeod, R.W.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    1999-01-01

    The most ambitious implementation of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition system (CODA) to date is for the CLAS spectrometer in Experimental Hall B. CLAS has over 40,000 instrumented channels and uses up to 30 front-end (FASTBUS/VME) crates in the DAQ subsystem. During the initial experiments the authors found that performance of the fully instrumented DAQ system did not scale as expected based on single point to point benchmarks. Over the past year the authors have been able to study various performance bottlenecks in the CLAS DAQ system including front-end real time performance, switched 100BaseT Ethernet data transport, and online data distribution and recording. Performance tuning was necessary for components on both real time (VxWorks) and UNIX (Solaris) operating systems. In addition, a new efficient Event Transfer System (ET) was developed to provide faster online monitoring while having minimal impact on data throughput to storage. They discuss these issues and efforts to overcome the real world problems associated with running a high performance DAQ system on a variety of commercial hardware and software

  2. Impact Of Real-World Driving Characteristics On Vehicular Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Nesamani, K S; Subramanian, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    With increase in traffic volume and change in travel related characteristics, vehicular emissions and energy consumption have increased significantly since two decades in India. Current models are not capable of estimating vehicular emissions accurately due to inadequate representation of real-world driving. The focus of this paper is to understand the level of Indian Driving cycle (IDC) in representing the real-world driving and to assess the impact of real-world driving on vehicular emissio...

  3. Science writing in the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Mentis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to consider guides to technical writing. Since the professional writes what he does and does what he writes, guides to how you execute the one relate to how you perform the other, so this article is about more than just writing. While there is need for idiosyncrasy and individualism, there are some rules. Documents must have an explicit purpose stated at the outset. By their nature, documents in the applied sciences and business address real-world problems, but elsewhere activity may be laissez faire for which the cost-effectiveness in yielding innovations is contestable. A hallmark of written science and technology is that every statement is capable of being tested and capable of being shown to be wrong, and that methods yield repeatable results. Caution should be observed in requiring authoritative referencing for every notion, partly because of the unsatisfying infinite regress in searching for ultimate sources, and partly to avoid squashing innovation. It is not only the content of messages that matters, but reliability too. Probability theory must be built into design to assure that strong inference can be drawn from outcomes. Research, business and infrastructure projects must substitute the frequent optimistic ‘everything goes according to plan’ (EGAP with a more realistic ‘most likely development’ (MLD and the risks of even that not happening. A cornerstone of science and technology is parsimony. No description, experiment, explanation, hypothesis, idea, instrument, machine, method, model, prediction, statement, technique, test or theory should be more elaborate than necessary to satisfy its purpose. Antifragility – the capacity to survive and benefit from shocks – must be designed into project and organizational structure and function by manipulating such factors as complexity and interdependency to evade failure in a turbulent and unpredictable world. The role of writing is to integrate

  4. Affective match: Leader emotions, follower positive affect, and follower performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, F.; van Knippenberg, B.M.; van Knippenberg, D.

    2008-01-01

    Leader emotions may play an important role in leadership effectiveness. Extending earlier research on leader emotional displays and leadership effectiveness, we propose that the affective match between follower positive affect (PA) and leaders' emotional displays moderates the effectiveness of

  5. Bringing real-world problems into the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Physics in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Jim

    2000-05-01

    Listeners to science programmes on Canadian radio were invited to submit questions which were then answered, on air, by the author of this wee book. Its purpose, he says, is `to indicate that there are many questions in the real world to which there are no perfect answers' but most of the answers given `contain the essence, if not the whole truth, of the solution to the problem.' The questions, many of which are old chestnuts, range from the mythical - Why might Rudolph be red-nosed? Are high-flying larks harbingers of a hot summer? - through the mundane - Why does the glass handle of a cup of hot coffee stay cool? Is it easier to pull or push a wheelbarrow? - to the mystifying - How is it possible to walk barefoot on red-hot coals? - Is it true that when you take a shower large electric fields can be set up or chloroform released? As the answers were originally given on radio programmes and intended for `educated laypeople' they contain few references to mathematics and no equations! Nevertheless many of the problems are discussed in detail and most readers will find at least some of them fascinating and informative. Many of the answers will be of interest and value to science teachers. In this short book the questions and answers fill only 60 pages but there is a lengthy contents section at the beginning and, at the end, a glossary of many of the terms used throughout. At £8.99 for the UK edition it is pricy - so `feel the quality' of these sections! Outdoors contains questions such as: How is artificial snow created? Can fish really give an electric shock? Why do skates glide along ice? How can blowing on your hands sometimes cool them and sometimes warm them? Theoretical. Here questions on exponential growth, global warming, magnetic poles and energy consumption are answered. Home & Kitchen. Can clothes be whiter than white? How can you tell if an egg is boiled or not? How can a ketchup bottle explode? Why do leaves in a cup of tea collect in the centre

  7. Positive Affect Is Associated With Reduced Fixation in a Realistic Medical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Monique F; Brouwers, Sue; Forrest, Kirsty; Tan, Suyin; Loveday, Thomas; Wiggins, Mark W; Munday, Chris; David, Leila

    2017-08-01

    This study extends previous research by exploring the association between mood states (i.e., positive and negative affect) and fixation in practicing anesthetists using a realistic medical simulation. The impact of practitioner emotional states on fixation is a neglected area of research. Emerging evidence is demonstrating the role of positive affect in facilitating problem solving and innovation, with demonstrated implications for practitioner fixation. Twelve practicing anesthetists (4 females; M age = 39 years; SD = 6.71) were involved in a medical simulation. Prior to the simulation, practitioners rated the frequency they had experienced various positive and negative emotions in the previous three days. During the simulation, the patient deteriorated rapidly, and anesthetists were observed for their degree of fixation. After the simulation, practitioners indicated the frequency of these same emotions during the simulation. Nonparametric correlations were used to explore the independent relationships between positive and negative affect and the behavioral measures. Only positive affect impacted the likelihood of fixation. Anesthetists who reported more frequent recent positive affect in the three days prior to the simulation and during the simulation tended to be less fixated as judged by independent raters, identified a decline in patient oxygen saturation more quickly, and more rapidly implemented the necessary intervention (surgical cricothyroidotomy). These findings have some real-world implications for positive affect in patient safety. This research has broad implications for professions where fixation may impair practice. This research suggests that professional training should teach practitioners to identify their emotions and understand the role of these emotions in fixation.

  8. Using real-worldness and cultural difference to enhance student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    differences, influences the quality of students' learning in a Life Skills module ... Studies reveal that real-world experiences will allow students to activate .... comprised 78 female students of whom 69 were Afrikaans-speaking and nine English-.

  9. Properties of four real world collaboration--competition networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chun-Hua; Xu, Xiu-Lian; He, Da-Ren

    2009-03-01

    Our research group has empirically investigated 9 real world collaboration networks and 25 real world cooperation-competition networks. Among the 34 real world systems, all the 9 real world collaboration networks and 6 real world cooperation-competition networks show the unimodal act-size distribution and the shifted power law distribution of degree and act-degree. We have proposed a collaboration network evolution model for an explanation of the rules [1]. The other 14 real world cooperation-competition networks show that the act-size distributions are not unimodal; instead, they take qualitatively the same shifted power law forms as the degree and act-degree distributions. The properties of four systems (the main land movie film network, Beijing restaurant network, 2004 Olympic network, and Tao-Bao notebook computer sale network) are reported in detail as examples. Via a numerical simulation, we show that the new rule can still be explained by the above-mentioned model. [1] H. Chang, B. B. Su, et al. Phsica A, 2007, 383: 687-702.

  10. Neural mechanisms tracking popularity in real-world social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter S; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2015-12-08

    Differences in popularity are a key aspect of status in virtually all human groups and shape social interactions within them. Little is known, however, about how we track and neurally represent others' popularity. We addressed this question in two real-world social networks using sociometric methods to quantify popularity. Each group member (perceiver) viewed faces of every other group member (target) while whole-brain functional MRI data were collected. Independent functional localizer tasks were used to identify brain systems supporting affective valuation (ventromedial prefrontal cortex, ventral striatum, amygdala) and social cognition (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporoparietal junction), respectively. During the face-viewing task, activity in both types of neural systems tracked targets' sociometric popularity, even when controlling for potential confounds. The target popularity-social cognition system relationship was mediated by valuation system activity, suggesting that observing popular individuals elicits value signals that facilitate understanding their mental states. The target popularity-valuation system relationship was strongest for popular perceivers, suggesting enhanced sensitivity to differences among other group members' popularity. Popular group members also demonstrated greater interpersonal sensitivity by more accurately predicting how their own personalities were perceived by other individuals in the social network. These data offer insights into the mechanisms by which status guides social behavior.

  11. Real-world scenarios help improve selection of radiology employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, C L; Groff, K; Phillips, M

    1998-01-01

    Choosing the right candidate through the interview process is critical, particularly in light of rapidly changing skills in various technologies. The authors have changed the interviewing process at Jeanes Hospital in Philadelphia in order to examine and evaluate multiple objectives simultaneously. To do this, they created an instrument that elicits impromptu responses to real-world radiology situations. Such responses help assess a potential candidate's training, emotional strength, technical experience and growth potential. They also determine how much additional training the potential candidate will need to be effective in the department. Using the instrument helps sharpen the assessment of candidate traits such as face-to-face communication skills and response time. The impact on hiring is positive. Quality staff, improved patient care and improved patient safety are only some of the results. Many of the questions included on the instrument come from past problem situations and help the interviewers to determine whether a candidate understands underlying issues and the seriousness of situations. The goal is to ensure that patient care and productivity are not hampered by unusual situations. When a concrete difference is detected between a candidate's response and the department's needs, it is possible to assess the cost-effectiveness of training for the discrepancy. For entry-level candidates, the question is whether the person is trainable. Consistently using this interview document forces hiring managers to identify specific abilities, traits and experience desirable in the workplace.

  12. Real world evidence (RWE - Are we (RWE ready?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Ramesh Suvarna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Real world evidence is important as it complements data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Both have limitations in design, interpretation, and extrapolatability. It is imperative one designs real world studies in the right way, else it can be misleading. An RCT is always considered higher in the evidence ladder and when there is discordance between a real world study and an RCT, it is the latter which is always considered pristine because of the way it is conducted, e.g., randomization, prospective, double-blind, etc. A real world study can also be done prospectively, and propensity score matching can be used to construct comparable cohorts but may not be able to account for certain biases or confounding factors the way an RCT can do. Nevertheless, comparative effectiveness research in the real world is being resorted to, especially for efficiency studies or pharmacoeconomic analyses, and with the advent of machine learning, the electronic healthcare database mining can result in algorithms that help doctors identify clinical characteristics that correlate with optimal response of a patient to a drug/regimen, thus helping him/her select the right patient for the right drug.

  13. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alex D; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-05-25

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movements by semantic similarity among objects during real-world scene inspection and search. By selecting scenes from the LabelMe object-annotated image database and applying latent semantic analysis (LSA) to the object labels, we generated semantic saliency maps of real-world scenes based on the semantic similarity of scene objects to the currently fixated object or the search target. An ROC analysis of these maps as predictors of subjects' gaze transitions between objects during scene inspection revealed a preference for transitions to objects that were semantically similar to the currently inspected one. Furthermore, during the course of a scene search, subjects' eye movements were progressively guided toward objects that were semantically similar to the search target. These findings demonstrate substantial semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes and show its importance for understanding real-world attentional control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Medical Science Liaisons in Real-World Evidence Studies: Experience of AstraZeneca Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, Nikolay; Karaseva, Vera; Stukalina, Ekaterina; Sanay, Elkhan; Petrakovskaya, Vera; Bulatov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    There is no doubt that real-world evidence studies have the potential to improve and accelerate the development and delivery of safe and cost-effective innovative medicines to patients as well as influence the way we approach health and health care. Real-world evidence studies are a great challenge in terms of development and conduct, so there should be a good collaboration between the study team and clinical sites at all times, resulting eventually in timely and efficient enrollment. Engaging the sites and key external experts as early as possible during feasibility and routine visits, as well as highlighting the science rationale behind AstraZeneca's portfolio at investigator meetings and during medical science liaison (MSL) interactions, can create a positive impact on physician perception of a particular study and prioritization of patient recruitment in such studies. Therefore, we would like to underline the important role of MSLs in the risk-based monitoring setting of real-world evidence studies, with special attention to the studies with complicated patient profiles, tough timelines, and/or seasonal factors. This approach will be used further for other real world evidence projects of AstraZeneca Russia MC to ensure timelines and budget deliverables are met for the generation of high-quality evidence and eventually better health care for all of us.

  15. Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weise, Thomas; Michalewicz, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are population-based, stochastic search algorithms that mimic natural evolution. Due to their ability to find excellent solutions for conventionally hard and dynamic problems within acceptable time, EAs have attracted interest from many researchers and practitioners in recent years. This book “Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications” aims to promote the practitioner’s view on EAs by providing a comprehensive discussion of how EAs can be adapted to the requirements of various applications in the real-world domains. It comprises 14 chapters, including an introductory chapter re-visiting the fundamental question of what an EA is and other chapters addressing a range of real-world problems such as production process planning, inventory system and supply chain network optimisation, task-based jobs assignment, planning for CNC-based work piece construction, mechanical/ship design tasks that involve runtime-intense simulations, data mining for the predictio...

  16. StoryTrek: Experiencing Stories in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla; Barr, Pippin James; Greenspan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce StoryTrek, a locative hypernarrative system developed to generate stories based on a reader’s location and specific movements in the real world. This creates, for readers, an interplay between navigation, narrative, and agency, as well as between the fictional and real...... world experience. In early tests we observed the emergence of a number of recurrent themes in participants’ experiences which are characteristic of the StoryTrek system, but which also help us to understand locative media storytelling affordances more generally. In this paper we present the system...

  17. LabVIEW A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-01-01

    LabVIEW(t) has become one of the preeminent platforms for the development of data acquisition and data analysis programs. LabVIEW(t): A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration explains how to integrate LabVIEW into real-life applications. Written by experienced LabVIEW developers and engineers, the book describes how LabVIEW has been pivotal in solving real-world challenges. Each chapter is self-contained and demonstrates the power and simplicity of LabVIEW in various applications, from image processing to solar tracking systems. Many of the chapters explore how exciting new technologies c

  18. How context information and target information guide the eyes from the first epoch of search in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotorno, Sara; Malcolm, George L; Tatler, Benjamin W

    2014-02-11

    This study investigated how the visual system utilizes context and task information during the different phases of a visual search task. The specificity of the target template (the picture or the name of the target) and the plausibility of target position in real-world scenes were manipulated orthogonally. Our findings showed that both target template information and guidance of spatial context are utilized to guide eye movements from the beginning of scene inspection. In both search initiation and subsequent scene scanning, the availability of a specific visual template was particularly useful when the spatial context of the scene was misleading and the availability of a reliable scene context facilitated search mainly when the template was abstract. Target verification was affected principally by the level of detail of target template, and was quicker in the case of a picture cue. The results indicate that the visual system can utilize target template guidance and context guidance flexibly from the beginning of scene inspection, depending upon the amount and the quality of the available information supplied by either of these high-level sources. This allows for optimization of oculomotor behavior throughout the different phases of search within a real-world scene.

  19. Understanding the Value of Real-World Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camm, A John; Coleman, Craig I; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2018-01-01

    importance, there may be challenges in understanding the relevance of the differing study designs, endpoints and populations. Here, we summarize the value of real-world evidence and considerations pertinent to their use in clinical research. Owing to the variety of analyses being conducted using real...

  20. Integrating a virtual agent into the real world

    OpenAIRE

    André, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Integrating a virtual agent into the real world : the virtual anatomy assistant ritchie / K. Dorfmüller-Ulhaas ... - In: Intelligent virtual agents : 7th international conference, IVA 2007, Paris, France, September 17-19, 2007 ; proceedings / Catherine Pelachaud ... (eds.). - Berlin [u.a.] : Springer, 2007. - S. 211-224. - (Lecture notes in computer science ; 4722 : Lecture notes in artificial intelligence)

  1. Partnering for Real World Learning, Sustainability, Tourism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Gayle; Cater, Carl I.; Hales, Rob; Kensbock, Sandra; Hornby, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study how real world learning was used to engender and enhance sustainability principles and practices with 11 micro-, small- and medium-tourism business enterprises and 101 university tourism students enrolled across three university courses. Design/methodology/approach: Action research processes were…

  2. Cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in a real-world setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anne Sofie; Albertsen, Andi Eie; Christesen, Amanda Marie Somer

    2017-01-01

    .10-11.81). Major bleeding events occurred in four patients (0.58%) in the NOAC group and 11 patients (0.75%) in the warfarin group (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.25-2.43). Conclusion: In a real-world clinical setting with anticoagulation handled in a structured multidisciplinary AF clinic, the waiting time to cardioversion...

  3. Investigating Comprehension in Real World Tasks: Understanding Jury Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Charrow, Robert

    This paper discusses the results of part of an ongoing project studying an aspect of real world language usage, the comprehension of standard jury instructions. Problems in the comprehension of these instructions include the memory load that they impose, the fact that most instructions are read only once, and the fact that instructions are written…

  4. Community Action Projects: Applying Biotechnology in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong D.; Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Project-based learning and action research are powerful pedagogies in improving science education. We implemented a semester-long course using project-based action research to help students apply biotechnology knowledge learned in the classroom to the real world. Students had several choices to make in the project: working individually or as a…

  5. Network Coding Designs Suited for the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    design have produced a large influx of new ideas and approaches to harness the power of NC. But, which of these designs are truly successful in practice? and which designs will not live up to their promised theoretical gains due to real-world constraints? Without attempting a comprehensive view of all...

  6. Bringing the Real World into the Biology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    This study followed a small but diverse group of biology teachers through the first two years of the pilot for a new Advanced Level Biology course--Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology. SNAB aims to modernise A-level Biology using real world contexts and examples as the starting point, promoting conceptual understanding rather than factual recall,…

  7. Personality Polygenes, Positive Affect, and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Baselmans, Bart M. L.; Hofer, Edith; Yang, Jingyun; Okbay, Aysu; Lind, Penelope A.; Miller, Mike B.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Zhao, Wei; Hagenaars, Saskia P.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Snieder, Harold; Faul, Jessica D.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Tiemeier, Henning; Mosing, Miriam A.; Pattie, Alison; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C.; Schmidt, Reinhold; De Jager, Philip L.; Heath, Andrew C.; Jokela, Markus; Starr, John M.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Johannesson, Magnus; Cesarini, David; Hofman, Albert; Harris, Sarah E.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Schmidt, Helena; Smith, Jacqui; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt; Bennett, David A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Deary, Ian J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bartels, Meike; Luciano, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes personality domains. PMID:27546527

  8. Unified underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Zeng, An; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both cases. The model is validated using relatively big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the unified underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  9. Experiences in Automation and Control in Engineering Education with Real-world Based Educational Kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena SOARES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The well-known paradigm learning by doing is particularly important in engineering courses. Still, in some situations, there is a lack of real-world didactic workbenches due to the absence of financial support, human resources or maintenances restrictions. The authors of this paper have been overcome this difficulty by designing and implementing virtual and remote laboratories in Process Monitoring, Control and Automation teaching applied to Mechanical, Electronics and Biomedical Engineering. The goal of this paper is to present the work developed regarding the real-world workbenches to be used in automation and control practical classes as an integrated virtual and remote laboratory. Some important points include the modelling and control of Discrete Event Systems, Continuous Systems and Real-Time Systems as well as Industrial Control Networks. The physical parts were developed and connected, in a closed-loop configuration, with the respective controllers. The developed kits and systems were geared towards the engineering students’ needs. This integrated approach is very useful for providing students with a global set of skills in this domain. Quantitative and qualitative studies are continuously applied not only for obtaining students feedback but also to gather information to devise strategies for future virtual and remote laboratory applications development suitable for the target public. The positive results achieved so far are very encouraging attesting its efficiency not only in terms of students’ learning but also as a first contact to face real-world problems. The less positive identified point is concerned with technical aspects.

  10. Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...

  11. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  12. Applications of Temporal Graph Metrics to Real-World Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, John; Leontiadis, Ilias; Scellato, Salvatore; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Latora, Vito

    Real world networks exhibit rich temporal information: friends are added and removed over time in online social networks; the seasons dictate the predator-prey relationship in food webs; and the propagation of a virus depends on the network of human contacts throughout the day. Recent studies have demonstrated that static network analysis is perhaps unsuitable in the study of real world network since static paths ignore time order, which, in turn, results in static shortest paths overestimating available links and underestimating their true corresponding lengths. Temporal extensions to centrality and efficiency metrics based on temporal shortest paths have also been proposed. Firstly, we analyse the roles of key individuals of a corporate network ranked according to temporal centrality within the context of a bankruptcy scandal; secondly, we present how such temporal metrics can be used to study the robustness of temporal networks in presence of random errors and intelligent attacks; thirdly, we study containment schemes for mobile phone malware which can spread via short range radio, similar to biological viruses; finally, we study how the temporal network structure of human interactions can be exploited to effectively immunise human populations. Through these applications we demonstrate that temporal metrics provide a more accurate and effective analysis of real-world networks compared to their static counterparts.

  13. Multi-robot team design for real-world applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-10-01

    Many of these applications are in dynamic environments requiring capabilities distributed in functionality, space, or time, and therefore often require teams of robots to work together. While much research has been done in recent years, current robotics technology is still far from achieving many of the real world applications. Two primary reasons for this technology gap are that (1) previous work has not adequately addressed the issues of fault tolerance and adaptivity in multi-robot teams, and (2) existing robotics research is often geared at specific applications and is not easily generalized to different, but related, applications. This paper addresses these issues by first describing the design issues of key importance in these real-world cooperative robotics applications: fault tolerance, reliability, adaptivity, and coherence. We then present a general architecture addressing these design issues (called ALLIANCE) that facilities multi-robot cooperation of small- to medium-sized teams in dynamic environments, performing missions composed of loosely coupled subtasks. We illustrate an implementation of ALLIANCE in a real-world application, called Bounding Overwatch, and then discuss how this architecture addresses our key design issues.

  14. Real-World Evidence, Public Participation, and the FDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jason L

    2017-11-01

    For observers of pharmaceutical regulation and the Food and Drug Administration, these are uncertain times. Events in late 2016 raised concerns that the FDA's evidentiary standards were being weakened, compromising the agency's ability to adequately perform its regulatory and public health responsibilities. Two developments most directly contributed to these fears-the approval of eteplirsen, a treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, against the recommendations of both FDA staff and an advisory committee and the December 2016 signing of the 21st Century Cures Act, which encouraged greater use by the FDA of "real-world" evidence not obtained through randomized controlled trials. The arrival of the Trump administration-with its deregulatory, industry-friendly approach-has only amplified concerns over the future of the FDA. It is too early to know whether the recent developments are truly harbingers of an FDA less likely to prevent unsafe or ineffective products from reaching the market. But elements in the two events-the role of patient narratives in deliberations regarding eteplirsen and the enthusiasm for real-world evidence in the 21st Century Cures Act-raise critical issues for the future of evidence in the FDA's work. The rigorous, inclusive approach under way to consider issues related to real-world evidence provides a model for a similarly needed inquiry regarding public participation in FDA decision-making. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  15. Accent imitation positively affects language attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Stewart, Andrew J; Connell, Louise; Wood, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other's speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else's speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian) of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating) the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants). After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers' perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.

  16. Accent Imitation Positively Affects Language Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti eAdank

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available People in conversation tend to accommodate the way they speak. It has been assumed that this tendency to imitate each other’s speech patterns serves to increase liking between partners in a conversation. Previous experiments examined the effect of perceived social attractiveness on the tendency to imitate someone else’s speech and found that vocal imitation increased when perceived attractiveness was higher. The present experiment extends this research by examining the inverse relationship and examines how overt vocal imitation affects attitudes. Participants listened to sentences spoken by two speakers of a regional accent (Glaswegian of English. They vocally repeated (speaking in their own accent without imitating the sentences spoken by a Glaswegian speaker, and subsequently imitated sentences spoken by a second Glaswegian speaker (order counterbalanced across participants. After each repeating or imitation session, participants completed a questionnaire probing the speakers’ perceived power, competence, and social attractiveness. Imitating had a positive effect on the perceived social attractiveness of the speaker compared to repeating. These results are interpreted in light of Communication Accommodation Theory.

  17. Modeling Interdependent and Periodic Real-World Action Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Takeshi; Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2018-01-01

    Mobile health applications, including those that track activities such as exercise, sleep, and diet, are becoming widely used. Accurately predicting human actions in the real world is essential for targeted recommendations that could improve our health and for personalization of these applications. However, making such predictions is extremely difficult due to the complexities of human behavior, which consists of a large number of potential actions that vary over time, depend on each other, and are periodic. Previous work has not jointly modeled these dynamics and has largely focused on item consumption patterns instead of broader types of behaviors such as eating, commuting or exercising. In this work, we develop a novel statistical model, called TIPAS, for Time-varying, Interdependent, and Periodic Action Sequences. Our approach is based on personalized, multivariate temporal point processes that model time-varying action propensities through a mixture of Gaussian intensities. Our model captures short-term and long-term periodic interdependencies between actions through Hawkes process-based self-excitations. We evaluate our approach on two activity logging datasets comprising 12 million real-world actions (e.g., eating, sleep, and exercise) taken by 20 thousand users over 17 months. We demonstrate that our approach allows us to make successful predictions of future user actions and their timing. Specifically, TIPAS improves predictions of actions, and their timing, over existing methods across multiple datasets by up to 156%, and up to 37%, respectively. Performance improvements are particularly large for relatively rare and periodic actions such as walking and biking, improving over baselines by up to 256%. This demonstrates that explicit modeling of dependencies and periodicities in real-world behavior enables successful predictions of future actions, with implications for modeling human behavior, app personalization, and targeting of health interventions. PMID

  18. StoryTrek: Experiencing Stories in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla; Barr, Pippin James; Greenspan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    world experience. In early tests we observed the emergence of a number of recurrent themes in participants’ experiences which are characteristic of the StoryTrek system, but which also help us to understand locative media storytelling affordances more generally. In this paper we present the system......In this paper we introduce StoryTrek, a locative hypernarrative system developed to generate stories based on a reader’s location and specific movements in the real world. This creates, for readers, an interplay between navigation, narrative, and agency, as well as between the fictional and real...

  19. Pattern theory the stochastic analysis of real-world signals

    CERN Document Server

    Mumford, David

    2010-01-01

    Pattern theory is a distinctive approach to the analysis of all forms of real-world signals. At its core is the design of a large variety of probabilistic models whose samples reproduce the look and feel of the real signals, their patterns, and their variability. Bayesian statistical inference then allows you to apply these models in the analysis of new signals. This book treats the mathematical tools, the models themselves, and the computational algorithms for applying statistics to analyze six representative classes of signals of increasing complexity. The book covers patterns in text, sound

  20. Understanding Use Situated in Real-world Mobile Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    where the activity is happening) by leveraging three keyenablers: (1) the high penetration of smart phones, (2) their easy programmability and (3) the large-scale distribution channels for mobile applications that come with the platforms. My approach suggests a triggered response solicitation, which......  Our understanding of users' everyday practices in their natural contexts is still very limited. Insights are often only available from studies conducted outside of the context itself. I propose a new approach to study use situated in real-world everyday mobile contexts (at the time and place...

  1. A leadless pacemaker in the real-world setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Paul R.; Clementy, Nicolas; Al Samadi, Faisal

    2017-01-01

    , telemetry, and battery issues. Objective The acute performance of the Micra transcatheter pacemaker from a worldwide Post-Approval Registry is reported. Methods The registry is an ongoing prospective single-arm observational study designed to assess the safety and effectiveness of Micra in the post...... were low and stable. Conclusion Performance of the Micra transcatheter pacemaker in a real-world setting demonstrates a high rate (99.6%) of implant success and low rate (1.51%) of major complications through 30 days post implant. In particular, the rates of pericardial effusion, device dislodgement...

  2. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Alex D.; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movemen...

  3. Real-world innovation in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulder, I

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Mulder_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 46126 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Mulder_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 The Electronic Journal for Virtual... Organizations and Networks Volume 10, “Special Issue on Living Labs”, August 2008 REAL-WORLD INNOVATION IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA Ingrid Mulder1,2, Walter Bohle3, Shela Boshomane4, Chris Morris4, Hugo Tempelman5, & Daan Velthausz1,6 1Telematica Instituut...

  4. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    2013-01-01

    such as a dynamic propagation environment, human presence impact and terminals mobility. This chapter focuses on the practical aspects related to the real world-experimentation with distributed DSA network algorithms over a testbed network. Challenges and solutions are extensively discussed, from the testbed design......The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing...... to the setup of experiments. A practical example of experimentation process with a DSA algorithm is also provided....

  5. Data Modeling for Mobile Services in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Speicys, L.

    2003-01-01

    Research contributions on data modeling, data structures, query processing, and indexing for mobile services may have an impact in the longer term, but each contribution typically offers an isolated solution to one small part of the practical problem of delivering mobile services in the real world....... In contrast, this paper describes holistic concepts and techniques for mobile data modeling that are readily applicable in practice. Focus is on services to be delivered to mobile users, such as route guidance, point-of-interest search, road pricing, parking payment, traffic monitoring, etc. While geo...

  6. Family Caregivers' Patterns of Positive and Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Suzanne M.; Zarit, Steven H.; Duncan, Larissa G.; Rovine, Michael J.; Femia, Elia E.

    2007-01-01

    Stressful and positive family caregiving experiences were examined as predictors of caregivers' patterns of positive and negative affect in a sample of families providing care for a relative with dementia (N = 234). Four affect pattern groups were identified: (a) Well Adjusted (i.e., high positive affect, low negative affect); (b) Ambiguous (i.e.,…

  7. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone, and by combining psychophysiological measures with performance measures. For our study, we gathered data using questionnaires as well as by logging vehicle dynamics, environmental conditions, video data, and users' psychophysiological measurements. For the analysis, we used several novel approaches such as scatter plots to visualize driving tasks of different contexts and to obtain vigilance estimators from electroencephalographic (EEG data in order to obtain important results about the differences between the driving in the two contexts. Our belief is that both experimental procedures and findings of our experiment are very important to the field of serious games concerning how to evaluate the fitness of driving simulators and measure driving performance.

  8. Automatic guidance of attention during real-world visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl-Rathkopf, Katharina N; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Looking for objects in cluttered natural environments is a frequent task in everyday life. This process can be difficult, because the features, locations, and times of appearance of relevant objects often are not known in advance. Thus, a mechanism by which attention is automatically biased toward information that is potentially relevant may be helpful. We tested for such a mechanism across five experiments by engaging participants in real-world visual search and then assessing attentional capture for information that was related to the search set but was otherwise irrelevant. Isolated objects captured attention while preparing to search for objects from the same category embedded in a scene, as revealed by lower detection performance (Experiment 1A). This capture effect was driven by a central processing bottleneck rather than the withdrawal of spatial attention (Experiment 1B), occurred automatically even in a secondary task (Experiment 2A), and reflected enhancement of matching information rather than suppression of nonmatching information (Experiment 2B). Finally, attentional capture extended to objects that were semantically associated with the target category (Experiment 3). We conclude that attention is efficiently drawn towards a wide range of information that may be relevant for an upcoming real-world visual search. This mechanism may be adaptive, allowing us to find information useful for our behavioral goals in the face of uncertainty.

  9. Automatic guidance of attention during real-world visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl-Rathkopf, Katharina N.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Looking for objects in cluttered natural environments is a frequent task in everyday life. This process can be difficult, as the features, locations, and times of appearance of relevant objects are often not known in advance. A mechanism by which attention is automatically biased toward information that is potentially relevant may thus be helpful. Here we tested for such a mechanism across five experiments by engaging participants in real-world visual search and then assessing attentional capture for information that was related to the search set but was otherwise irrelevant. Isolated objects captured attention while preparing to search for objects from the same category embedded in a scene, as revealed by lower detection performance (Experiment 1A). This capture effect was driven by a central processing bottleneck rather than the withdrawal of spatial attention (Experiment 1B), occurred automatically even in a secondary task (Experiment 2A), and reflected enhancement of matching information rather than suppression of non-matching information (Experiment 2B). Finally, attentional capture extended to objects that were semantically associated with the target category (Experiment 3). We conclude that attention is efficiently drawn towards a wide range of information that may be relevant for an upcoming real-world visual search. This mechanism may be adaptive, allowing us to find information useful for our behavioral goals in the face of uncertainty. PMID:25898897

  10. Real change in the real world: an achievable goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    This commentary builds on the papers presented at the Vanderbilt Conference by emphasizing the importance of better understanding the process of change-making if real change in the real world is to be achieved. The commentary reviews several frameworks and research findings related to achieving large-scale sustainable change that benefits children and families. It calls for the application of systems thinking as a complement to the more micro-level research that was presented at the Vanderbilt conference. Such an approach would have implications for framing of the issue, for the strategies that are taken to try to achieve change, and for research/evaluation methods for studying complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems.

  11. Classification versus inference learning contrasted with real-world categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Erin L; Ross, Brian H

    2011-07-01

    Categories are learned and used in a variety of ways, but the research focus has been on classification learning. Recent work contrasting classification with inference learning of categories found important later differences in category performance. However, theoretical accounts differ on whether this is due to an inherent difference between the tasks or to the implementation decisions. The inherent-difference explanation argues that inference learners focus on the internal structure of the categories--what each category is like--while classification learners focus on diagnostic information to predict category membership. In two experiments, using real-world categories and controlling for earlier methodological differences, inference learners learned more about what each category was like than did classification learners, as evidenced by higher performance on a novel classification test. These results suggest that there is an inherent difference between learning new categories by classifying an item versus inferring a feature.

  12. Real-World Sorting of RHIC Superconducting Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Gupta, R.; Harrison, M.; Jain, A.; Peggs, S.; Thompson, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Wanderer, P.

    1999-01-01

    During the seven-year construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), more than 1700 superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and multi-layer correctors have been constructed and installed. These magnets have been sorted at several production stages to optimize their performance and reliability. For arc magnets, priorities have bene put first on quench performance and operational risk minimization, second on field transfer function and other first-order quantities, and finally on nonlinear field errors which were painstakingly optimized at design. For Interaction-Region (IR) magnets, sorting is applied to select the best possible combination of magnets for the low-β interaction points (IP). This paper summarizes the history of this real-world sorting process

  13. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  14. Uncertainties in real-world decisions on medical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C Y

    2014-08-01

    Patients, clinicians, payers and policy makers face substantial uncertainties in their respective healthcare decisions as they attempt to achieve maximum value, or the greatest level of benefit possible at a given cost. Uncertainties largely come from incomplete information at the time that decisions must be made. This is true in all areas of medicine because evidence from clinical trials is often incongruent with real-world patient care. This article highlights key uncertainties around the (comparative) benefits and harms of medical technologies. Initiatives and strategies such as comparative effectiveness research and coverage with evidence development may help to generate reliable and relevant evidence for decisions on coverage and treatment. These efforts could result in better decisions that improve patient outcomes and better use of scarce medical resources. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Wars, Revolutions and the First Real World Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es promover la discusión conceptual para una publicación más amplia “Los Ciclos del Imperialismo, Guerra, y Revolución”. Empieza desde una presuposición que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando una transición desde un contexto histórico amplio eurocéntrico hacia un contexto histórico amplio non-eurocéntrico. Continua con la discusión histórica de los conceptos relacionados con la guerra, la reforma y la revolución y explica porque, en el contexto de la fase actual de la transición mundial y la Primera Verdadera Guerra Mundial, a pesar de la discusión anterior acerca de las revoluciones y revoluciones mundiales, es razonable sugerir que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando la Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial._____________________ABSTRACTThe purpose of this article is to engage in a conceptual discussion for a broader publication on “The Cycles of Imperialism, War and Revolution”. It departs from a presupposition that our common world is experiencing a transition from a broad Eurocentric historical context into a non-Eurocentric broad historical context. It proceeds by a historical discussion on the concepts related to wars, reforms and revolutions and explains why, in the context of the actual phase of global transition and the First Real World War, it is, despite earlier discussions on revolutions and world revolutions, meaningful to suggest that our common world is experiencing a First Real World Revolution.

  16. Real-world Data for Clinical Evidence Generation in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozin, Sean; Blumenthal, Gideon M; Pazdur, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Conventional cancer clinical trials can be slow and costly, often produce results with limited external validity, and are difficult for patients to participate in. Recent technological advances and a dynamic policy landscape in the United States have created a fertile ground for the use of real-world data (RWD) to improve current methods of clinical evidence generation. Sources of RWD include electronic health records, insurance claims, patient registries, and digital health solutions outside of conventional clinical trials. A definition focused on the original intent of data collected at the point of care can distinguish RWD from conventional clinical trial data. When the intent of data collection at the point of care is research, RWD can be generated using experimental designs similar to those employed in conventional clinical trials, but with several advantages that include gains in efficient execution of studies with an appropriate balance between internal and external validity. RWD can support active pharmacovigilance, insights into the natural history of disease, and the development of external control arms. Prospective collection of RWD can enable evidence generation based on pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) that support randomized study designs and expand clinical research to the point of care. PCTs may help address the growing demands for access to experimental therapies while increasing patient participation in cancer clinical trials. Conducting valid real-world studies requires data quality assurance through auditable data abstraction methods and new incentives to drive electronic capture of clinically relevant data at the point of care. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. An accelerometry-based methodology for assessment of real-world bilateral upper extremity activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Bailey

    Full Text Available The use of both upper extremities (UE is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry.Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated.The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (ρ = 0.74, p<0.02, and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (ρ = 0.93, p<0.01 across tasks.These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments.

  18. The positive group affect spiral : a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, F.; Bruch, H.

    This conceptual paper seeks to clarify the process of the emergence of positive collective affect. Specifically, it develops a dynamic model of the emergence of positive affective similarity in work groups. It is suggested that positive group affective similarity and within-group relationship

  19. Positive and Negative Affect More Concurrent among Blacks than Whites

    OpenAIRE

    Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin

    2017-01-01

    Background: While positive and negative affect are inversely linked, people may experience and report both positive and negative emotions simultaneously. However, it is unknown if race alters the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect. The current study compared Black and White Americans for the association between positive and negative affect. Methods: We used data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans with an age range of 25 to 7...

  20. Positive affect improves working memory: implications for controlled cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hwajin; Yang, Sujin; Isen, Alice M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of positive affect on working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Given that WM involves both storage and controlled processing and that STM primarily involves storage processing, we hypothesised that if positive affect facilitates controlled processing, it should improve WM more than STM. The results demonstrated that positive affect, compared with neutral affect, significantly enhanced WM, as measured by the operation span task. The influence of positive affect on STM, however, was weaker. These results suggest that positive affect enhances WM, a task that involves controlled processing, not just storage processing. Additional analyses of recall and processing times and accuracy further suggest that improved WM under positive affect is not attributable to motivational differences, but results instead from improved controlled cognitive processing.

  1. Recognition and attention guidance during contextual cueing in real-world scenes: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmole, James R; Henderson, John M

    2006-07-01

    When confronted with a previously encountered scene, what information is used to guide search to a known target? We contrasted the role of a scene's basic-level category membership with its specific arrangement of visual properties. Observers were repeatedly shown photographs of scenes that contained consistently but arbitrarily located targets, allowing target positions to be associated with scene content. Learned scenes were then unexpectedly mirror reversed, spatially translating visual features as well as the target across the display while preserving the scene's identity and concept. Mirror reversals produced a cost as the eyes initially moved toward the position in the display in which the target had previously appeared. The cost was not complete, however; when initial search failed, the eyes were quickly directed to the target's new position. These results suggest that in real-world scenes, shifts of attention are initially based on scene identity, and subsequent shifts are guided by more detailed information regarding scene and object layout.

  2. Familiar real-world spatial cues provide memory benefits in older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Moscovitch, Morris

    2017-05-01

    Episodic memory, future thinking, and memory for scenes have all been proposed to rely on the hippocampus, and evidence suggests that these all decline in healthy aging. Despite this age-related memory decline, studies examining the effects of context reinstatement on episodic memory have demonstrated that reinstating elements of the encoding context of an event leads to better memory retrieval in both younger and older adults. The current study was designed to test whether more familiar, real-world contexts, such as locations that participants visited often, would improve the detail richness and vividness of memory for scenes, autobiographical events, and imagination of future events in young and older adults. The predicted age-related decline in internal details across all 3 conditions was accompanied by persistent effects of contextual familiarity, in which a more familiar spatial context led to increased detail and vividness of remembered scenes, autobiographical events, and, to some extent, imagined future events. This study demonstrates that autobiographical memory, imagination of the future, and scene memory are similarly affected by aging, and all benefit from being associated with more familiar (real-world) contexts, illustrating the stability of contextual reinstatement effects on memory throughout the life span. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  4. Performance of the "CCS Algorithm" in real world patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHaye, Stephen A; Olesen, Jonas B; Lacombe, Shawn P

    2015-06-01

    With the publication of the 2014 Focused Update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines Committee has introduced a new triage and management algorithm; the so-called "CCS Algorithm". The CCS Algorithm is based upon expert opinion of the best available evidence; however, the CCS Algorithm has not yet been validated. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of the CCS Algorithm in a cohort of real world patients. We compared the CCS Algorithm with the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Algorithm in 172 hospital inpatients who are at risk of stroke due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation in whom anticoagulant therapy was being considered. The CCS Algorithm and the ESC Algorithm were concordant in 170/172 patients (99% of the time). There were two patients (1%) with vascular disease, but no other thromboembolic risk factors, which were classified as requiring oral anticoagulant therapy using the ESC Algorithm, but for whom ASA was recommended by the CCS Algorithm. The CCS Algorithm appears to be unnecessarily complicated in so far as it does not appear to provide any additional discriminatory value above and beyond the use of the ESC Algorithm, and its use could result in under treatment of patients, specifically female patients with vascular disease, whose real risk of stroke has been understated by the Guidelines.

  5. Age differences in virtual environment and real world path integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E Adamo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate path integration requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular self-motion cues and age effects associated with alterations in processing information from these systems may contribute to declines in path integration abilities. The present study investigated age-related differences in path integration in conditions that varied as a function of available sources of sensory information. Twenty-two healthy, young (23.8 ± 3.0 yrs. and 16 older (70.1 ± 6.4 yrs. adults participated in distance reproduction and triangle completion tasks performed in a virtual environment and two real world conditions: guided walking and wheelchair propulsion. For walking and wheelchair propulsion conditions, participants wore a blindfold and wore noise-blocking headphones and were guided through the workspace by the experimenter. For the virtual environment (VE condition, participants viewed self-motion information on a computer monitor and used a joystick to navigate through the environment. For triangle completion tasks, older compared to younger individuals showed greater errors in rotation estimations performed in the wheelchair condition; and for rotation and distance estimations in the VE condition. Distance reproduction tasks, in contrast, did not show any age effects. These findings demonstrate that age differences in path integration vary as a function of the available sources of information and by the complexity of outbound pathway.

  6. Fitness networks for real world systems via modified preferential attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ke-ke; Small, Michael; Yan, Wei-sheng

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks are virtually ubiquitous, and the Barabási and Albert model (BA model) has became an acknowledged standard for the modelling of these systems. The so-called BA model is a kind of preferential attachment growth model based on the intuitive premise that popularity is attractive. However, preferential attachment alone is insufficient to describe the diversity of complex networks observed in the real world. In this paper we first use the accuracy of a link prediction method, as a metric for network fitness. The link prediction method predicts the occurrence of links consistent with preferential attachment, the performance of this link prediction scheme is then a natural measure of the ;preferential-attachment-likeness; of a given network. We then propose several modification methods and modified BA models to construct networks which more accurately describe the fitness properties of real networks. We find that all features assortativity, degree distribution and rich-club formation can play significant roles for the network construction and eventual structure. Moreover, link sparsity and the size of a network are key factors for network reconstruction. In addition, we find that the structure of the network which is limited by geographic location (nodes are embedded in a Euclidean space and connectivity is correlated with distances) differs from other typical networks. In social networks, we observe that the high school contact network has similar structure as the friends network and so we speculate that the contact behaviours can reflect real friendships.

  7. Multiplicative Attribute Graph Model of Real-World Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myunghwan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Leskovec, Jure [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2010-10-20

    Large scale real-world network data, such as social networks, Internet andWeb graphs, is ubiquitous in a variety of scientific domains. The study of such social and information networks commonly finds patterns and explain their emergence through tractable models. In most networks, especially in social networks, nodes also have a rich set of attributes (e.g., age, gender) associatedwith them. However, most of the existing network models focus only on modeling the network structure while ignoring the features of nodes in the network. Here we present a class of network models that we refer to as the Multiplicative Attribute Graphs (MAG), which naturally captures the interactions between the network structure and node attributes. We consider a model where each node has a vector of categorical features associated with it. The probability of an edge between a pair of nodes then depends on the product of individual attributeattribute similarities. The model yields itself to mathematical analysis as well as fit to real data. We derive thresholds for the connectivity, the emergence of the giant connected component, and show that the model gives rise to graphs with a constant diameter. Moreover, we analyze the degree distribution to show that the model can produce networks with either lognormal or power-law degree distribution depending on certain conditions.

  8. Tackling field-portable Raman spectroscopy of real world samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Neil C.

    2008-10-01

    A major challenge confronting first responders, customs authorities and other security-related organisations is the accurate, rapid, and safe identification of potentially hazardous chemicals outside a laboratory environment. Currently, a range of hand portable Raman equipment is commercially available that is low cost and increasingly more sophisticated. These systems are generally based on the 785nm Stokes shifted Raman technique with many using dispersive grating spectrometers. This technique offers a broad range of capabilities including the ability to analyse illicit drugs, explosives, chemical weapons and pre-cursors but still has some fundamental constraints. 'Real world' samples, such as those found at a crime scene, will often not be presented in the most accessible manner. Simple issues such as glass fluorescence can make an otherwise tractable sample impossible to analyse in-situ. A new generation of portable Raman equipment is currently being developed to address these issues. Consideration is given to the use of longer wavelength for fluorescence reduction. Alternative optical designs are being tested to compensate for the signal reduction incurred by moving to longer wavelengths. Furthermore, the use of anti-Stokes spectroscopy is being considered as well as investigating the robustness and portability of traditional Fourier Transform interferometer designs along with future advances in detector technology and ultra small spectrometers.

  9. Privacy-preserving record linkage on large real world datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Boyd, James H; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B

    2014-08-01

    Record linkage typically involves the use of dedicated linkage units who are supplied with personally identifying information to determine individuals from within and across datasets. The personally identifying information supplied to linkage units is separated from clinical information prior to release by data custodians. While this substantially reduces the risk of disclosure of sensitive information, some residual risks still exist and remain a concern for some custodians. In this paper we trial a method of record linkage which reduces privacy risk still further on large real world administrative data. The method uses encrypted personal identifying information (bloom filters) in a probability-based linkage framework. The privacy preserving linkage method was tested on ten years of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australian (WA) hospital admissions data, comprising in total over 26 million records. No difference in linkage quality was found when the results were compared to traditional probabilistic methods using full unencrypted personal identifiers. This presents as a possible means of reducing privacy risks related to record linkage in population level research studies. It is hoped that through adaptations of this method or similar privacy preserving methods, risks related to information disclosure can be reduced so that the benefits of linked research taking place can be fully realised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Field Balancing in the Real World: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracher, R.K.; Surrett, C.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a follow-up to an earlier paper, Field Balancing in the Real World, which was presented at CSI Reliability Week 1997 in Nashville. Case studies of excessive vibrations on fans at ORNL will be discussed. Except for a few small sections from the earlier paper, this paper is entirely new. The case studies are new. As in the first paper, all fans are rigid-rotor type fans. Normal operation, therefore, is at less than the shaft's first critical speed. The presentation of case studies with root cause problems other than unbalance is a major departure from the first paper. We believe they belong here, since unbalance is suspected most of the time when a fan is vibrating excessively, even when it is not the root cause. In reality, unbalance is the underlying cause of the excess vibration on fans we have fixed at ORNL only about half the time. Furthermore, the analyst's credibility could be called into question upon an unsuccessful attempt at field balancing when underlying causes are later discovered and fixed. A demonstration will follow the case study presentation. The additional tests described in this paper to confirm centrifugal force (probable unbalance) will be performed

  11. Load Disaggregation Technologies: Real World and Laboratory Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Butner, Ryan S.; Johnson, Erica M.

    2016-09-28

    Low cost interval metering and communication technology improvements over the past ten years have enabled the maturity of load disaggregation (or non-intrusive load monitoring) technologies to better estimate and report energy consumption of individual end-use loads. With the appropriate performance characteristics, these technologies have the potential to enable many utility and customer facing applications such as billing transparency, itemized demand and energy consumption, appliance diagnostics, commissioning, energy efficiency savings verification, load shape research, and demand response measurement. However, there has been much skepticism concerning the ability of load disaggregation products to accurately identify and estimate energy consumption of end-uses; which has hindered wide-spread market adoption. A contributing factor is that common test methods and metrics are not available to evaluate performance without having to perform large scale field demonstrations and pilots, which can be costly when developing such products. Without common and cost-effective methods of evaluation, more developed disaggregation technologies will continue to be slow to market and potential users will remain uncertain about their capabilities. This paper reviews recent field studies and laboratory tests of disaggregation technologies. Several factors are identified that are important to consider in test protocols, so that the results reflect real world performance. Potential metrics are examined to highlight their effectiveness in quantifying disaggregation performance. This analysis is then used to suggest performance metrics that are meaningful and of value to potential users and that will enable researchers/developers to identify beneficial ways to improve their technologies.

  12. Micro-oscillations in positive and negative affect during competitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS), Worcester affect scale ... Successful trials were characterised by higher PA (p=0.000) and lower NA ... Further clarification of the catalyst to the performance demise requires a ...

  13. Positive and Negative Affect More Concurrent among Blacks than Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    While positive and negative affect are inversely linked, people may experience and report both positive and negative emotions simultaneously. However, it is unknown if race alters the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect. The current study compared Black and White Americans for the association between positive and negative affect. We used data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans with an age range of 25 to 75. A total number of 7108 individuals were followed for 10 years from 1995 to 2004. Positive and negative affect was measured at baseline (1995) and follow-up (2004). Demographic (age and gender), socioeconomic (education and income) as well as health (self-rated health, chronic medical conditions, and body mass index) factors measured at baseline were covariates. A series of linear regressions were used to test the moderating effect of race on the reciprocal association between positive and negative affect at baseline and over time, net of covariates. In the pooled sample, positive and negative affect showed inverse correlation at baseline and over time, net of covariates. Blacks and Whites differed in the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect, with weaker inverse associations among Blacks compared to Whites, beyond all covariates. Weaker reciprocal association between positive and negative affect in Blacks compared to Whites has implications for cross-racial measurement of affect and mood, including depression. Depression screening programs should be aware that race alters the concordance between positive and negative affect domains and that Blacks endorse higher levels of positive affect compared to Whites in the presence of high negative affect.

  14. WIPP Waste Characterization: Implementing Regulatory Requirements in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper Wayman, J.D.; Goldstein, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    It is imperative to ensure compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. In particular, compliance with the waste characterization requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its implementing regulation found at 40 CFR Parts 262,264 and 265 for hazardous and mixed wastes, as well as those of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, as amended, and their implementing regulations found at 40 CFR Parts 191 and 194 for non-mixed radioactive wastes, are often difficult to ensure at the operational level. For example, where a regulation may limit a waste to a certain concentration, this concentration may be difficult to measure. For example, does the definition of transuranic waste (TRU) as 100 nCi/grain of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste mean that the radioassay of a waste must show a reading of 100 plus the sampling and measurement error for the waste to be a TRU waste? Although the use of acceptable knowledge to characterize waste is authorized by statute, regulation and DOE Orders, its implementation is similarly beset with difficulty. When is a document or documents sufficient to constitute acceptable knowledge? What standard can be used to determine if knowledge is acceptable for waste characterization purposes? The inherent conflict between waste characterization regulatory requirements and their implementation in the real world, and the resolution of this conflict, will be discussed

  15. Developing Humanoid Robots for Real-World Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Kuhlman, Michael; Assad, Chris; Keymeulen, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Humanoids are steadily improving in appearance and functionality demonstrated in controlled environments. To address the challenges of operation in the real-world, researchers have proposed the use of brain-inspired architectures for robot control, and the use of robot learning techniques that enable the robot to acquire and tune skills and behaviours. In the first part of the paper we introduce new concepts and results in these two areas. First, we present a cerebellum-inspired model that demonstrated efficiency in the sensory-motor control of anthropomorphic arms, and in gait control of dynamic walkers. Then, we present a set of new ideas related to robot learning, emphasizing the importance of developing teaching techniques that support learning. In the second part of the paper we propose the use in robotics of the iterative and incremental development methodologies, in the context of practical task-oriented applications. These methodologies promise to rapidly reach system-level integration, and to early identify system-level weaknesses to focus on. We apply this methodology in a task targeting the automated assembly of a modular structure using HOAP-2. We confirm this approach led to rapid development of a end-to-end capability, and offered guidance on which technologies to focus on for gradual improvement of a complete functional system. It is believed that providing Grand Challenge type milestones in practical task-oriented applications accelerates development. As a meaningful target in short-mid term we propose the 'IKEA Challenge', aimed at the demonstration of autonomous assembly of various pieces of furniture, from the box, following included written/drawn instructions.

  16. Neurocognitive systems related to real-world prospective memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria Kalpouzos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM denotes the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. It has been argued that standard laboratory paradigms fail to capture core aspects of PM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined functional MRI, virtual reality, eye-tracking and verbal reports to explore the dynamic allocation of neurocognitive processes during a naturalistic PM task where individuals performed errands in a realistic model of their residential town. Based on eye movement data and verbal reports, we modeled PM as an iterative loop of five sustained and transient phases: intention maintenance before target detection (TD, TD, intention maintenance after TD, action, and switching, the latter representing the activation of a new intention in mind. The fMRI analyses revealed continuous engagement of a top-down fronto-parietal network throughout the entire task, likely subserving goal maintenance in mind. In addition, a shift was observed from a perceptual (occipital system while searching for places to go, to a mnemonic (temporo-parietal, fronto-hippocampal system for remembering what actions to perform after TD. Updating of the top-down fronto-parietal network occurred at both TD and switching, the latter likely also being characterized by frontopolar activity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks.

  17. [Discussion on solutions to ethical issues of clinical researches in a real world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Cheng; Liu, Bao-Yan; Xiong, Ning-Ning; Xie, Qi; Zhang, Run-Shun; Zhou, Xue-Zhong; Qiao, Jie

    2013-04-01

    The paradigm of a real world study has become the frontiers of clinical researches, especially in the field of Chinese medicine, all over the world in recent years. In this paper, ethical issues which probably exist in real-world studies are raised and reviewed. Moreover, some preliminary solutions to these issues such as protecting subjects during the process of real-world studies and performing ethical review are raised based on recent years' practices to enhance the scientificity and ethical level of real-world studies.

  18. Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) by means of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule has received a remarkable popularity in the social sciences. Using a meta-analytic tool--namely, reliability generalization (RG)--population reliability scores of both scales have been investigated on the basis of a random…

  19. Exploring Online Game Players' Flow Experiences and Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Cheng, Chao-Yang; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted two studies to explore online game players' flow experiences and positive affect. Our findings indicated that online game are capable of evoking flow experiences and positive affect, and games of violent or nonviolent type may not arouse players' aggression. The players could be placed into four flow conditions: flow,…

  20. Facility for sustained positive affect as an individual difference characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola S. Schutte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies investigated a proposed new individual difference characteristic or trait, facility for sustained positive affect, consisting of tendencies that allow individuals to maintain a high level of positive mood. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in the creation of a measure, the self-congruent and new activities (SANA scale which identified two core aspects of sustainable positive affect, engaging in self-congruent activities and engaging in new activities. A higher level of facility for sustainable affect, as operationalized by the SANA scale, was associated with maintenance of positive mood for a month, fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, less negative affect, and more life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, work satisfaction, mindfulness, personal expansion and growth, and emotional intelligence. The results provided initial evidence that facility to maintain positive affect may be an emotion-related individual difference characteristic.

  1. Real-World Evidence: Useful in the Real World of US Payer Decision Making? How? When? And What Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Daniel C; Brown, Mary; Hurwitz, Jason T; Peters, Loretta; Graff, Jennifer S

    2018-03-01

    To examine how real-world evidence (RWE) is currently perceived and used in managed care environments, especially to inform pharmacy and therapeutic (P&T) committee decisions, to assess which study factors (e.g., data, design, and funding source) contribute to RWE utility in decisions, and to identify barriers to consideration of RWE studies in P&T decision making. We conducted focus groups/telephone-based interviews and surveys to understand perceptions of RWE and assess awareness, quality, and relevance of two high-profile examples of published RWE studies. A purposive sample comprised 4 physicians, 15 pharmacists, and 1 researcher representing 18 US health plans and health system organizations. Participants reported that RWE was generally used, or useful, to inform safety monitoring, utilization management, and cost analysis, but less so to guide P&T decisions. Participants were not aware of the two sample RWE studies but considered both studies to be valuable. Relevant research questions and outcomes, transparent methods, study quality, and timely results contribute to the utility of published RWE. Perceived organizational barriers to the use of published RWE included lack of skill, training, and timely study results. Payers recognize the value of RWE, but use of such studies to inform P&T decisions varies from organization to organization and is limited. Relevance to payers, timeliness, and transparent methods were key concerns with RWE. Participants recognized the need for continuing education on evaluating and using RWE to better understand the study methods, findings, and applicability to their organizations. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Is Ki67 prognostic for aggressive prostate cancer? A multicenter real-world study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantony, Joseph J; Howard, Lauren E; Csizmadi, Ilona; Armstrong, Andrew J; Lark, Amy L; Galet, Colette; Aronson, William J; Freedland, Stephen J

    2018-06-15

    To test if Ki67 expression is prognostic for biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Ki67 immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarrays constructed from specimens obtained from 464 men undergoing RP at the Durham and West LA Veterans Affairs Hospitals. Hazard ratios (HR) for Ki67 expression and time to BCR were estimated using Cox regression. Ki67 was associated with more recent surgery year (p < 0.001), positive margins (p = 0.001) and extracapsular extension (p < 0.001). In center-stratified analyses, the adjusted HR for Ki67 expression and BCR approached statistical significance for west LA (HR: 1.54; p = 0.06), but not Durham (HR: 1.10; p = 0.74). This multi-institutional 'real-world' study provides limited evidence for the prognostic role of Ki67 in predicting outcome after RP.

  3. Real-World Rib Fracture Patterns in Frontal Crashes in Different Restraint Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellen L; Craig, Matthew; Scarboro, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the detailed medical injury information in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) to evaluate patterns of rib fractures in real-world crash occupants in both belted and unbelted restraint conditions. Fracture patterns binned into rib regional levels were examined to determine normative trends associated with belt use and other possible contributing factors. Front row adult occupants with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3+ rib fractures, in frontal crashes with a deployed frontal airbag, were selected from the CIREN database. The circumferential location of each rib fracture (with respect to the sternum) was documented using a previously published method (Ritchie et al. 2006) and digital computed tomography scans. Fracture patterns for different crash and occupant parameters (restraint use, involved physical component, occupant kinematics, crash principal direction of force, and occupant age) were compared qualitatively and quantitatively. There were 158 belted and 44 unbelted occupants included in this study. For belted occupants, fractures were mainly located near the path of the shoulder belt, with the majority of fractures occurring on the inboard (with respect to the vehicle) side of the thorax. For unbelted occupants, fractures were approximately symmetric and distributed across both sides of the thorax. There were negligible differences in fracture patterns between occupants with frontal (0°) and near side (330° to 350° for drivers; 10° to 30° for passengers) crash principal directions of force but substantial differences between groups when occupant kinematics (and contacts within the vehicle) were considered. Age also affected fracture pattern, with fractures tending to occur more anteriorly in older occupants and more laterally in younger occupants (both belted and unbelted). Results of this study confirmed with real-world data that rib fracture patterns in unbelted occupants were more distributed

  4. High-performance HR practices, positive affect and employee outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the affective or emotional mechanisms that underlie the relationship between high-performance HR practices (HPHRP) and employee attitudes and behaviours. Drawing on affective events theory (AET), this paper examines a mediation model in which HPHRP influence positive affect which in turn affects job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs). Design/methodology/approach – Two-wave data was collected from a sampl...

  5. Dose intensity and efficacy of the combination of everolimus and exemestane (EVE/EXE) in a real-world population of hormone receptor-positive (ER+/PgR+), HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients: a multicenter Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Mariangela; Fabi, Alessandra; Moscetti, Luca; Cazzaniga, Maria Elena; Petrucelli, Luciana; Forcignanò, Rosachiara; Lupo, Laura Isabella; De Matteis, Elisabetta; Chiuri, Vincenzo Emanuele; Cairo, Giuseppe; Febbraro, Antonio; Giordano, Guido; Giampaglia, Marianna; Bilancia, Domenico; La Verde, Nicla; Maiello, Evaristo; Morritti, Maria; Giotta, Francesco; Lorusso, Vito; Latorre, Agnese; Scavelli, Claudio; Romito, Sante; Cusmai, Antonio; Palmiotti, Gennaro; Surico, Giammarco

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective analysis focused on the effect of treatment with EVE/EXE in a real-world population outside of clinical trials. We examined the efficacy of this combination in terms of PFS and RR related to dose intensity (5 mg daily versus 10 mg daily) and tolerability. 163 HER2-negative ER+/PgR+ ABC patients, treated with EVE/EXE from May 2011 to March 2016, were included in the analysis. The primary endpoints were the correlation between the daily dose and RR and PFS, as well as an evaluation of the tolerability of the combination. Secondary endpoints were RR, PFS, and OS according to the line of treatment. Patients were classified into three different groups, each with a different dose intensity of everolimus (A, B, C). RR was 29.8% (A), 27.8% (B) (p = 0.953), and not evaluable (C). PFS was 9 months (95% CI 7-11) (A), 10 months (95% CI 9-11) (B), and 5 months (95% CI 2-8) (C), p = 0.956. OS was 38 months (95% CI 24-38) (A), median not reached (B), and 13 months (95% CI 10-25) (C), p = 0.002. Adverse events were stomatitis 57.7% (11.0% grade 3-4), asthenia 46.0% (6.1% grade 3-4), hypercholesterolemia 46.0% (0.6% grade 3-4), and hyperglycemia 35.6% (5.5% grade 3-4). The main reason for discontinuation/interruption was grade 2-3 stomatitis. No correlation was found between dose intensity (5 vs. 10 mg labeled dose) and efficacy in terms of RR and PFS. The tolerability of the higher dose was poor in our experience, although this had no impact on efficacy.

  6. Obesity and the relationship with positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Williams, Lana J; Jacka, Felice N; Brennan, Sharon L; Berk, Michael

    2013-05-01

    To examine the cross-sectional association between overweight and obesity and positive and negative affect. Participants included 273 women, aged 29-84 years, who were enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). Weight and height were measured and overweight and obesity determined from body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) according to WHO criteria. Medical history and lifestyle exposures were assessed by questionnaire. Positive and negative affect scores were derived using the validated 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and categorised into tertiles. A pattern of greater negative affect scores was observed for increasing levels of BMI. Setting normal weight as the referent category, the odds for having a negative affect score in the highest tertile were sequentially increased for women who were overweight (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.72-2.40) and obese (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.02-3.73). The association between obesity and increased negative affect was diminished by adjusting for physical illness (adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.91-3.42). These associations were not substantially influenced by positive affect score or other exposures. No association was detected between BMI categories and positive affect scores. We report data suggesting that obesity is associated with greater negative affect scores, reflecting emotions such as distress, anger, disgust, fear and shame, and that this association is attenuated by physical illness. Further investigations are now warranted to explore possible mechanistic interplay between pathological, neurobiological and psychosocial factors.

  7. Learning about the "Real World" in an Urban Arts Youth Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Reed W.; Walker, Kathrin C.

    2006-01-01

    To make the transition to adulthood, youth must learn to function in the complex and unpredictable "real world" of adult life. This is an intensive case study of an urban arts program that sought to provide youth with experiences that prepared them for the real world of arts careers. We conducted 75 interviews with 12 youth and their adult leader…

  8. Exploring Non-Traditional Learning Methods in Virtual and Real-World Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, Rebeka; Krajnc, Majda

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies the commonalities and differences within non-traditional learning methods regarding virtual and real-world environments. The non-traditional learning methods in real-world have been introduced within the following courses: Process Balances, Process Calculation, and Process Synthesis, and within the virtual environment through…

  9. Application Exercises Improve Transfer of Statistical Knowledge in Real-World Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated whether real-world application exercises promoted students' abilities to spontaneously transfer statistical knowledge and to recognize the use of statistics in real-world contexts. Over the course of a semester of psychological statistics, two classes completed multiple application exercises designed to mimic…

  10. Network position and related power : how they affect and are affected by network management and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oukes, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    In network position and related power you learn more about how network position and related power affect and are affected by network management and outcomes. First, I expand our present understanding of how startups with a fragile network position manage business relationships by taking an

  11. Real World Learning: toward a differentiated framework for outdoor learning for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Winks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Real World Learning network (RWLn set out in 2011 to explore elements which contribute to a ‘deep and meaningful’ outdoor education experience. Following three years of work, the RWLn developed the ‘Hand Model’, a learning model designed to support educators in the development of Outdoor Learning for Sustainability (OLfS. Since its launch in early 2014, the model has been used for planning, delivering and reflecting upon OLfS experiences. Making use of the comments made in Činčera’s (2015 Real World Learning: a critical analysis which highlights inconsistencies existent within the model’s internal logic, this paper considers the perceived contradiction between emancipatory and instrumental approaches to learning. Beginning with a comprehensive introduction to the Hand model, this paper goes on to discuss the theoretical divide which the model spans between a goal-led, knowledge based approach promoted by the model’s focus upon understanding and values, and a pluralistic and exploratory approach typified by aspects of educational empowerment and experience. In response to this and augmented by examples, a differentiated conceptual framework is presented to facilitate a pragmatic application of the model from a practice perspective, making use of what has been termed a ‘blended approach’, whilst acknowledging degrees of inconsistency and dissonance from a theoretical perspective. Additionally, the model is viewed from a context perspective where questions are asked regarding the appropriateness of particular approaches depending upon the setting in which learning takes place. It is hoped that by moving beyond theoretically entrenched positions a mediated middle ground for the model’s application may be established.

  12. Circular contour retrieval in real-world conditions by higher order statistics and an alternating-least squares algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiping; Marot, Julien; Fossati, Caroline; Bourennane, Salah

    2011-12-01

    In real-world conditions, contours are most often blurred in digital images because of acquisition conditions such as movement, light transmission environment, and defocus. Among image segmentation methods, Hough transform requires a computational load which increases with the number of noise pixels, level set methods also require a high computational load, and some other methods assume that the contours are one-pixel wide. For the first time, we retrieve the characteristics of multiple possibly concentric blurred circles. We face correlated noise environment, to get closer to real-world conditions. For this, we model a blurred circle by a few parameters--center coordinates, radius, and spread--which characterize its mean position and gray level variations. We derive the signal model which results from signal generation on circular antenna. Linear antennas provide the center coordinates. To retrieve the circle radii, we adapt the second-order statistics TLS-ESPRIT method for non-correlated noise environment, and propose a novel version of TLS-ESPRIT based on higher-order statistics for correlated noise environment. Then, we derive a least-squares criterion and propose an alternating least-squares algorithm to retrieve simultaneously all spread values of concentric circles. Experiments performed on hand-made and real-world images show that the proposed methods outperform the Hough transform and a level set method dedicated to blurred contours in terms of computational load. Moreover, the proposed model and optimization method provide the information of the contour grey level variations.

  13. Positions of human dwellings affect few tropical diseases near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Some factors that possibly affect tropical disease distribution was investigated in about 500 randomize human dwellings. The studied factors include wild animals, domestic animals, wild plants, cultivated plants, nature of soil, nature of water, positions of human dwellings, nature of building material and position of animal ...

  14. Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Losada, Marcial F.

    2005-01-01

    Extending B. L. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada's (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N=188) completed an initial survey to…

  15. Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Losada, Marcial F.

    2005-01-01

    Extending B. L. Fredrickson’s (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada’s (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N = 188) completed an initial survey to identify flourishing mental health and then provided daily reports of experienced positive and negative emotions over 28 days. Results showed that the ...

  16. The Effect of Positive Affect on the Memory of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąbel, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of the memory of experimentally induced pain and the affect that accompanies experimentally induced pain. Sixty-two healthy female volunteers participated in the study. In the first phase of the study, the participants received three pain stimuli and rated pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, state anxiety, and their positive and negative affect. About a month later, in the second phase of the study, the participants were asked to rate the pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, state anxiety, and the emotions they had felt during the first phase of the study. Both recalled pain intensity and recalled pain unpleasantness were found to be underestimated. Although the positive affect that accompanied pain was remembered accurately, recalled negative affect was overestimated and recalled state anxiety was underestimated. Experienced pain, recalled state anxiety, and recalled positive affect accounted for 44% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain intensity and 61% of the total variance in predicting recalled pain unpleasantness. Together with recent research findings on the memory of other types of pain, the present study supports the idea that pain is accompanied by positive as well as negative emotions, and that positive affect influences the memory of pain. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…

  18. On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff; Jehlik, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

  19. Thinking back about a positive event: The impact of processing style on positive affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eNelis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory which was self-generated (Study 1, n = 70 or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n = 159, followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects: In Study 1, a ‘concrete/imagery’ vs. ‘abstract/verbal’ processing style was compared. In Study 2, a ‘concrete/imagery’, ‘abstract/verbal’, and ‘comparative/verbal’ processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavourable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather then general abstract/verbal processing per se. The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant’s tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery, and underline the search for parameters that determine at times deleterious outcomes of abstract/verbal memory processing in the face of positive information.

  20. Towards a conceptual framework for identifying student difficulties with solving Real-World Problems in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...... solver has to go through the steps and do the tasks of such a process. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of what it takes to solve three real-world problems, demonstrating how the framework presented captures the essential aspects of solving them. Moreover, it is argued that three steps critical...... for real-world problem solving – initial analysis of the problem situation, choice of relevant physical theory (the so-called paradigmatic choice) and mathematization – are not covered by existing models of problem solving in Physics. Finally, the existing research on student difficulties with problem...

  1. A System for Automatic Detection of Partially Occluded Objects from Real-World Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neskovic, Predrag; Wu, Liang; Cooper, Leon N

    2006-01-01

    In this work we consider the Bayesian Integrate And Shift (BIAS) model for learning object categories and test its performance on learning and recognizing different object categories from real-world images...

  2. RealWorld evaluation: working under budget, time, data, and political constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bamberger, Michael; Rugh, Jim; Mabry, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the challenges of conducting program evaluations in real-world contexts where evaluators and their clients face budget and time constraints and where critical data may be missing...

  3. Food for Thought: Cross-Classification and Category Organization in a Complex Real-World Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    1999-01-01

    Seven studies involving 256 undergraduates examined how people represent, access, and make inferences about the real-world category domain, foods. Results give a detailed picture of the use of cross-classification in a complex domain. (SLD)

  4. Could positive affect help engineer robot control systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirin, Markus; Hertzberg, Joachim; Kuhl, Julius; Stephan, Achim

    2011-11-01

    Emotions have long been seen as counteracting rational thought, but over the last decades, they have been viewed as adaptive processes to optimize human (but also animal) behaviour. In particular, positive affect appears to be a functional aspect of emotions closely related to that. We argue that positive affect as understood in Kuhl's PSI model of the human cognitive architecture appears to have an interpretation in state-of-the-art hybrid robot control architectures, which might help tackle some open questions in the field.

  5. Subliminal mere exposure and explicit and implicit positive affective responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joshua A; King, Laura A

    2011-06-01

    Research suggests that repeated subliminal exposure to environmental stimuli enhances positive affective responses. To date, this research has primarily concentrated on the effects of repeated exposure on explicit measures of positive affect (PA). However, recent research suggests that repeated subliminal presentations may increase implicit PA as well. The present study tested this hypothesis. Participants were either subliminally primed with repeated presentations of the same stimuli or only exposed to each stimulus one time. Results confirmed predictions showing that repeated exposure to the same stimuli increased both explicit and implicit PA. Implications for the role of explicit and implicit PA in attitudinal judgements are discussed.

  6. Real world vehicle fleet emission factors: Seasonal and diurnal variations in traffic related air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jonathan M.; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Zimmerman, Naomi; Healy, Robert M.; Evans, Greg J.

    2018-07-01

    Temporal variations of vehicle emissions are affected by various compounding factors in the real world. The focus of this study is to determine the effects of ambient conditions and post-tailpipe changes on traffic emissions measured in the near-road region. Emission factors allowed for the isolation of the traffic signal and accounted for effects of local meteorology and dilution. Five month-long measurement campaigns were conducted at an urban near-road site that exhibited a broad range of ambient conditions with temperatures ranging between -18 and +30 °C. Particle number emission factors were 2.0× higher in the winter relative to the summer, which was attributed to changes in particles post-tailpipe. Conversely, toluene emissions were 2.5× higher in the summer relative to the winter, attributed to changes in fuel composition. Diurnal trends of emission factors showed substantial increases in emissions during the morning rush hour for black carbon (1.9×), particle number (2.4×), and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3.0×), affected by fleet make-up. In contrast, particle number emission factors were highest midday with mean values 3.7× higher than at night. This midday increase was attributed to particle formation or growth from local traffic emissions and showed different wind direction dependence than regional events.

  7. OCA Oracle Database 11g database administration I : a real-world certification guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ries, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Developed as a practical book, ""Oracle Database 11g Administration I Certification Guide"" will show you all you need to know to effectively excel at being an Oracle DBA, for both examinations and the real world. This book is for anyone who needs the essential skills to become an Oracle DBA, pass the Oracle Database Administration I exam, and use those skills in the real world to manage secure, high performance, and highly available Oracle databases.

  8. Real-world and specific to vehicle driving cycles for measuring car pollutant emissions

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRE, M; JOUMARD, R

    2004-01-01

    In the frame of the European research project ARTEMIS, a set of representative real-world driving cycles has been developed, to ensure a coherency between the pollutant emissions measurements conducted in the frame of the ARTEMIS project and of on-going national campaigns and to enable the integration of all the resulting emission data in the European systems of emission inventory. The 3 real-world ARTEMIS driving cycles (urban, rural road and motorway) represent the observed European drivi...

  9. Positive affect, negative affect, stress, and social support as mediators of the forgiveness-health relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michelle; Decourville, Nancy; Sadava, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect, stress, and the interrelationship between negative affect and stress. There was limited support for social support and the interrelationship between positive affect and social support as mediators. The results suggested that the relationship between forgiveness and health is mediated rather than direct. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. TREATMENT OF PANIC DISORDER IN THE REAL WORLD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Panic disorder is classified as an anxiety disorder in the DSM-IV.1 It affects between. 2% and 4% of the .... behaviour therapy (CBT) may have the advantage of ... approaches.4 A trained therapist, who may be a ... Post-traumatic stress disorder.

  11. Welcome to the real world: reflections on teaching and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K J

    2000-12-01

    The author compares his former position as an assistant professor in a program preparing future teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students with his present position as an administrator of a public school program serving these students. He maintains that in some ways, teacher training programs in deafness and the public school settings hiring these graduates are separate worlds. The emphasis in teacher training programs appears to be on preparing graduates to work with deaf students in self-contained or residential school settings even though most teaching positions are with hard of hearing students mainstreamed in public schools. Other important areas, such as collaboration with general education teachers, litigation, parental relationships, and individualized education programs, seem to be overlooked by teacher training programs. The author employs the mockingbird metaphor from the novel To Kill A Mockingbird (Lee, 1960) to highlight differences between teacher training programs and public school settings, while making recommendations for strengthening connections between the two.

  12. Sunitinib in mRCC: A systematic review of UK Real World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Andrew Montgomery

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReal world data are increasingly used to inform drug reimbursement decisions, but it is unclear how well outcomes from real world studies compare to those of clinical trials. This systematic review seeks to compare outcomes for sunitinib in routine UK clinical practice with the sunitinib registrational and expanded access program clinical trials. MethodSystematic review of the real world published literature was undertaken. UK observational studies recording first or second line sunitinib efficacy were included. A qualitative summary of the results and comparison to the controlled clinical trials was conducted. 15 real world studies were included, 14 of which were only available as posters/presentations. ResultsReal world study reporting quality was generally low, making comparisons with the clinical trials difficult. Practice relating to starting dose, dose modification, timing of therapy initiation and other factors varied between centres. Median progression free survival and adverse events were generally comparable to the clinical trial outcomes, but overall survival was not. ConclusionsThere are few published data on sunitinib use in UK clinical practice. Studies are characterised by lack of peer reviewed publication and heterogeneity in design, reporting and analysis. For use of real world data in the reimbursement setting, data collection and reporting will need to improve.

  13. Development of database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qiang; Wagner, David Vance; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Yingzhi; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    A database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors, based on type and technology, has been developed following tests on more than 300 diesel vehicles in China using a portable emission measurement system. The database provides better understanding of diesel vehicle emissions under actual driving conditions. We found that although new regulations have reduced real-world emission levels of diesel trucks and buses significantly for most pollutants in China, NOx emissions have been inadequately controlled by the current standards, especially for diesel buses, because of bad driving conditions in the real world. We also compared the emission factors in the database with those calculated by emission factor models and used in inventory studies. The emission factors derived from COPERT (Computer Programmer to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) and MOBILE may both underestimate real emission factors, whereas the updated COPERT and PART5 (Highway Vehicle Particulate Emission Modeling Software) models may overestimate emission factors in China. Real-world measurement results and emission factors used in recent emission inventory studies are inconsistent, which has led to inaccurate estimates of emissions from diesel trucks and buses over recent years. This suggests that emission factors derived from European or US-based models will not truly represent real-world emissions in China. Therefore, it is useful and necessary to conduct systematic real-world measurements of vehicle emissions in China in order to obtain the optimum inputs for emission inventory models. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Voicing Solidarity: Linguistic Hospitality and Poststructuralism in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Structuralism has dominated the field of applied linguistics, which has consequences for the positioning of applied linguistics "vis-a-vis" policy makers, educational practice, and also theoretical and methodological innovations. These consequences pertain to how the field advocates, takes sides, balances its descriptive modes with its discursive…

  15. Does social capital help solving real world collective action problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannestad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of empirical macro-level studies show that social capital has various beneficial economic and political consequences. At the micro-level these beneficial effects are normally ascribed to the positive effects of social capital on transaction costs and/or the ability to solve colle...

  16. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Donges, Uta-Susan

    2017-01-01

    Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  17. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Suslow

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  18. The influence of positive vs. negative affect on multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney K

    2016-10-01

    Considerable research has investigated how affect influences performance on a single task; however, little is known about the role of affect in complex multitasking environments. In this paper, 178 participants multitasked in a synthetic work environment (SYNWORK) consisting of memory, visual monitoring, auditory monitoring, and math tasks. Participants multitasked for a 3-min baseline phase (MT1), following which they were randomly assigned to watch one of three affect-induction videos: positive, neutral, or negative. Participants then resumed multitasking for two additional critical phases (MT2, MT3; 3min each). In MT2, performance of the positive and neutral conditions was statistically equivalent and higher than the negative condition. In MT3, the positive condition performed better than the negative condition, with the neutral condition not significantly different from the other two. The differences in overall multitasking scores were largely driven by errors in the Math task (the most cognitively demanding task) in MT2 and the Memory task in MT3. These findings have implications for how positive and negative affective states influence processing in a cognitively demanding multitasking environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The ethology of empathy: a taxonomy of real-world targets of need and their effect on observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; Hofelich, Alicia J; Stansfield, R Brent

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is inherently interpersonal, but the majority of research has only examined observers. Targets of need have been largely held constant through hypothetical and fictionalized depictions of sympathetic distress and need. In the real world, people's response to life stressors varies widely-from stoicism to resilience to complete breakdown-variations that should profoundly influence the prosocial exchange. The current study examined naturally-varying affect in real hospital patients with serious chronic or terminal illness during videotaped interviews about quality of life. Participants viewed each video while psychophysiological data were recorded and then rated each patient's and their own emotion. Patients displayed three major emotion factors (disturbed, softhearted, and amused) that were used to classify them into five basic types (distraught, resilient, sanguine, reticent, wistful). These types elicited four major emotions in observers [personal distress (PD), empathic concern (EC), horror, pleasure], two of which were never discovered previously with fictionalized targets. Across studies and measures, distraught targets usually received the greatest aid, but approximately as many observers preferred the positive and likeable resilient patients or the quietly sad wistful targets, with multiple observers even giving their greatest aid to sanguine or reticent targets who did not display distress or need. Trait empathy motivated aid toward more emotive targets while perspective taking (PT) motivated aid for those who did not overtly display distress. A second study replicated key results without even providing the content of patients' speech. Through an ecological examination of real need we discovered variation and commonality in the emotional response to need that interacts strongly with the preferences of observers. Social interactions need to be studied in ethological contexts that retain the complex interplay between senders and receivers.

  20. The ethology of empathy: A taxonomy of real-world targets of need and their effect on observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie D Preston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is inherently interpersonal, but the majority of research has only examined observers. Targets of need have been largely held constant through hypothetical and fictionalized depictions of sympathetic distress and need. In the real world, people’s response to life stressors varies widely—from stoicism to resilience to complete breakdown—variations that should profoundly influence the prosocial exchange. The current study examined naturally-varying affect in real hospital patients with serious chronic or terminal illness during videotaped interviews about quality of life. Participants viewed each video while psychophysiological data were recorded and then rated each patient’s and their own emotion. Patients displayed three major emotion factors (disturbed, softhearted, and amused that were used to classify them into five basic types (distraught, resilient, sanguine, reticent, wistful. These types elicited four major emotions in observers (personal distress, empathic concern, horror, pleasure, two of which were never discovered previously with fictionalized targets. Across studies and measures, distraught targets usually received the greatest aid, but approximately as many observers preferred the positive and likeable resilient patients or the quietly sad wistful targets, with multiple observers even giving their greatest aid to sanguine or reticent targets who did not display distress or need. Trait empathy motivated aid towards more emotive targets while perspective taking motivated aid for those who did not overtly display distress. A second study replicated key results without even providing the content of patients’ speech. Through an ecological examination of real need we discovered variation and commonality in the emotional response to need that interacts strongly with the preferences of observers. Social interactions need to be studied in ethological contexts that retain the complex interplay between senders and receivers.

  1. Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  2. Positive affect and age as predictors of exercise compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is linked to individuals whose affect profiles are invariably positive and it induces anti-apoptotic and anti-excitotoxic effects, buttressing blood–brain barrier intactness in both healthy individuals and those suffering from disorders accompanying overweight and obesity. In this regard, exercise offers a unique non-pharmacologic, non-invasive intervention that incorporates different regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance, or resistance. In this brief report we present a self-reported study carried out on an adolescent and adult population (N = 280, 144 males and 136 females, which indicated that the propensity and compliance for exercise, measured as the “Archer ratio”, was predicted by a positive affect. This association is discussed from the perspective of health, well-being, affect dimensions, and age.

  3. Daily fluctuations in positive affect positively co-vary with working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Annette; Lövdén, Martin; Schmiedek, Florian

    2014-02-01

    Positive affect is related to cognitive performance in multiple ways. It is associated with motivational aspects of performance, affective states capture attention, and information processing modes are a function of affect. In this study, we examined whether these links are relevant within individuals across time when they experience minor ups and downs of positive affect and work on cognitive tasks in the laboratory on a day-to-day basis. Using a microlongitudinal design, 101 younger adults (20-31 years of age) worked on 3 working memory tasks on about 100 occasions. Every day, they also reported on their momentary affect and their motivation to work on the tasks. In 2 of the 3 tasks, performance was enhanced on days when positive affect was above average. This performance enhancement was also associated with more motivation. Importantly, increases in task performance on days with above-average positive affect were mainly unrelated to variations in negative affect. This study's results are in line with between-person findings suggesting that high levels of well-being are associated with successful outcomes. They imply that success on cognitively demanding tasks is more likely on days when feeling happier. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Positive and negative affect in individuals with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, J E; Smith, S D; Ethans, K D

    2013-03-01

    Participants with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) and healthy controls completed standardized questionnaires assessing depression level, positive and negative affect, and personality traits. To identify the specific characteristics of emotional experiences affected by spinal cord injury. A Canadian rehabilitation center. Individuals with SCIs were recruited from a list of patients who had volunteered to participate in studies being conducted by the SCI clinic. Healthy controls were recruited from the community, but tested in the SCI clinic. Thirty-six individuals with complete (ASIA A) SCIs and 36 age-, gender- and education-matched controls participated in this study. SCI participants were classified as cervical (C1-C7), upper thoracic (T1-T5) or lower thoracic/upper lumbar (T6-L2). All participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedules, the NEO Neuroticism Questionnaire, and the harm avoidance scale of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent-samples t-tests (when contrasting SCI and controls) and analysis of variance (when comparing across SCI groups). Participants with SCIs experienced significantly less positive affect than controls. The two groups did not differ in their experience of negative affect. Participants with SCIs also reported greater levels of depression. Depression scores improved with an increasing number of years post injury. Individuals with SCIs are characterized by specific emotional dysfunction related to the experience of positive emotions, rather than a tendency to ruminate on negative emotions. The results suggest that these individuals would benefit from rehabilitation programs that include training in positive psychology.

  5. Positive affect and markers of inflammation: discrete positive emotions predict lower levels of inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; John-Henderson, Neha; Anderson, Craig L; Gordon, Amie M; McNeil, Galen D; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Negative emotions are reliably associated with poorer health (e.g., Kiecolt-Glaser, McGuire, Robles, & Glaser, 2002), but only recently has research begun to acknowledge the important role of positive emotions for our physical health (Fredrickson, 2003). We examine the link between dispositional positive affect and one potential biological pathway between positive emotions and health-proinflammatory cytokines, specifically levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6). We hypothesized that greater trait positive affect would be associated with lower levels of IL-6 in a healthy sample. We found support for this hypothesis across two studies. We also explored the relationship between discrete positive emotions and IL-6 levels, finding that awe, measured in two different ways, was the strongest predictor of lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines. These effects held when controlling for relevant personality and health variables. This work suggests a potential biological pathway between positive emotions and health through proinflammatory cytokines. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Efficacy and safety of tenofovir in chronic hepatitis B: Australian real world experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Grace C; Nguyen, Tin; Iser, David M; Holmes, Jacinta A; Chen, Robert; Demediuk, Barbara; Shaw, Gideon; Bell, Sally J; Desmond, Paul V; Thompson, Alexander J

    2017-01-08

    : 0.833-0.967, P = 0.0046) and HBeAg positive status (OR = 0.373, 95%CI: 0.183-0.762, P = 0.0069). There was no difference in response comparing treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. Three episodes of virological breakthrough occurred in the setting of non-compliance. Tenofovir therapy was well tolerated. Tenofovir is an efficacious, safe and well-tolerated treatment in an Australian real-world tertiary care setting. Our data are similar to the reported experience from registration trials.

  7. Stress and burnout in anaesthesia: a real world problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama-Maceiras, Pablo; Jokinen, Johanna; Kranke, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Stress and burnout have arisen as relevant problems to the healthcare workers and the health systems themselves. As anaesthesiologists work in stressful areas of the hospitals, we are exposed to these problems. In this review, we summarize recent studies regarding stress and burnout, exploring possible solutions. Almost 50% of anaesthesiologists scored positive for some of the burnout domains in different surveys, with one-third reporting high levels. The management of this problem not only needs an institutional but also an individual approach. Some recent randomized clinical trials and longitudinal studies suggest that there is some benefit of using several techniques to control stress, although benefits are still modest and most of the studies are based on transversal surveys and self-reported questionnaires. There is a lack of definitive evidence to guide the management of stress and burnout in medical professions in general and in anaesthesiology in particular. Longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to better determine ways of action. In the meantime, creating a positive work climate and institutional support as well as promoting control over one's job and the autonomy of employees are the most recommended strategies. Workers should also learn how to cope with stressors and practice personal strategies of wellness and resilience to fight against burnout.

  8. Differences in Energy Consumption in Electric Vehicles: An Exploratory Real-World Study in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezhen Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs are widely regarded as a promising solution to reduce air pollution in cities and key to a low carbon mobility future. However, their environmental benefits depend on the temporal and spatial context of actual usage (journey energy efficiency and the rolling out of EVs is complicated by issues such as limited range. This paper explores how the energy efficiency of EVs is affected and shaped by driving behavior, personal driving styles, traffic conditions, and infrastructure design in the real world. Tests have been conducted with a Nissan LEAF under a typical driving cycle on the Beijing road network in order to improve understanding of variations in energy efficiency among drivers under different urban traffic conditions. Energy consumption and operation parameters were recorded in both peak and off-peak hours for a total of 13 drivers. The analysis reported in this paper shows that there are clear patterns in energy consumption along a route that are in part related to differences in infrastructure design, traffic conditions, and personal driving styles. The proposed method for analyzing time series data about energy consumption along routes can be used for research with larger fleets of EVs in the future.

  9. Facilitating knowledge translation in the "real world" of community psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Catherine L; Malchy, Leslie; Johnson, Joy L

    2010-11-01

    Tobacco use disproportionately affects the well-being of individuals with mental illness. In community psychiatric settings, there are culturally embedded attitudes and behaviors regarding smoking that enable practitioners to remain ambivalent about their clients' tobacco use. Given these cultural norms, the authors aimed to introduce evidence-informed smoking cessation interventions to a variety of interdisciplinary mental health care providers by using an innovative approach to knowledge translation. The authors used a case study design in which six community psychiatric settings were targeted. The organizational culture related to smoking was examined at each site before tailored tobacco reduction interventions were delivered. The study design was guided by the knowledge-to-action (KTA) process and two supplementary approaches to change: motivational interviewing (MI) and appreciative inquiry (AI). The principles of the KTA process, MI, and AI helped the authors to meaningfully engage with practice groups and change the organizational culture surrounding tobacco use in several community psychiatric settings.

  10. Invisible Support: Effects on the Provider's Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Claudia; Stadler, Gertraud; Knoll, Nina; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2016-07-01

    Social support that goes unnoticed by receivers (i.e. invisible support) seems to be most beneficial for the receivers' well-being. The providers' well-being, however, has been neglected so far. This study examines how invisible support is related to the providers' well-being and whether this association is dependent on the providers' relationship satisfaction. Overall, 97 non-smoking partners of smokers who were about to quit smoking were examined. Invisible support was assessed dyadically: partners' reports on smoking-specific provided social support together with smokers' reports on received support were assessed at baseline. Partners' relationship satisfaction was also assessed at baseline. Partners' positive and negative affect were measured at baseline and six-week follow-up. No main effects of invisible instrumental or emotional support occurred. However, partners' relationship satisfaction moderated the association between invisible instrumental support and change in partners' negative and positive affect: For partners with lower relationship satisfaction more invisible instrumental support was related to increased negative affect and decreased positive affect, whereas for partners with higher relationship satisfaction the inverse effects occurred. The study's results emphasise that invisible instrumental support might have emotional costs for the providers. Relationship satisfaction seems to serve as a protective factor. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  11. An exploratory investigation of real-world reasoning in paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, V; Brown, G P; Boyd, T; Wykes, T

    2014-03-01

    Paranoid thinking has been linked to greater availability in memory of past threats to the self. However, remembered experiences may not always closely resemble events that trigger paranoia, so novel explanations must be elaborated for the likelihood of threat to be determined. We investigated the ability of paranoid individuals to construct explanations for everyday situations and whether these modulate their emotional impact. Twenty-one participants experiencing paranoia and 21 healthy controls completed a mental simulation task that yields a measure of the coherence of reasoning in everyday situations. When responses featured positive content, clinical participants produced less coherent narratives in response to paranoid themed scenarios than healthy controls. There was no significant difference between the groups when responses featured negative content. The current study suggests that difficulty in scenario construction may exacerbate paranoia by reducing access to non-threatening explanations for everyday events, and this consequently increases distress. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Fuel consumption rates of passenger cars in China: Labels versus real-world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; Yao Zhiliang; He Kebin; Yu Xin

    2011-01-01

    Recently, China has implemented many policy measures to control the oil demand of on-road vehicles. In 2010, China started to report the fuel consumption rates of light-duty vehicles tested in laboratory and to require new vehicles to show the rates on window labels. In this study, we examined the differences between the test and real-world fuel consumption of Chinese passenger cars by using the data reported by real-world drivers on the internet voluntarily. The sales-weighted average fuel consumption of new cars in China in 2009 was 7.80 L/100 km in laboratory and 9.02 L/100 km in real-world, representing a difference of 15.5%. For the 153 individual car models examined, the real-world fuel consumption rates were -8 to 60% different from the test values. The simulation results of the International Vehicle Emission model show that the real-world driving cycles in 22 selected Chinese cities could result in -8 to 34% of changes in fuel consumption compared to the laboratory driving cycle. Further government effort on fuel consumption estimates adjustment, local driving cycle development, and real-world data accumulation through communication with the public is needed to improve the accuracy of the labeling policy. - Research highlights: → China requires new cars sold to show the test fuel use levels on window labels. → Real-world fuel consumption rates of cars are 15.5% higher than the label values. → Discrepancy between the test cycle and real conditions is a major cause for the gap. → China should adjust the estimates, collect fuel use data, and develop driving cycles. → More official and academic efforts are needed to improve the labeling policy.

  13. Vigilance in the laboratory predicts avoidance in the real world: A dimensional analysis of neural, behavioral, and ecological momentary data in anxious youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca B. Price

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vigilance and avoidance of threat are observed in anxious adults during laboratory tasks, and are posited to have real-world clinical relevance, but data are mixed in anxious youth. We propose that vigilance-avoidance patterns will become evident in anxious youth through a focus on individual differences and real-world strategic avoidance. Decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC could play a mechanistic role in this link. 78 clinically anxious youth completed a dot-probe task to assess vigilance to threat while undergoing fMRI. Real-world avoidance was assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA of self-reported suppression and distraction during negative life events. Vigilance toward threat was positively associated with EMA distraction and suppression. Functional connectivity between a right amygdala seed region and dorsomedial and right dorsolateral PFC regions was inversely related to EMA distraction. Dorsolateral PFC-amygdalar connectivity statistically mediated the relationship between attentional vigilance and real-world distraction. Findings suggest anxious youth showing attentional vigilance toward threat are more likely to use suppression and distraction to regulate negative emotions. Reduced PFC control over limbic reactivity is a possible neural substrate of this pattern. These findings lend ecological validity to laboratory vigilance assessments and suggest PFC-amygdalar connectivity is a neural mechanism bridging laboratory and naturalistic contexts.

  14. The real-world outcomes of treating Polycythemia Vera: Physician adherence to treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Chornenki, Nicholas L; Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree; Leong, Darryl P; Siegal, Deborah M; Hillis, Christopher M

    2018-06-04

    Therapy in Polycythemia Vera (PV), a myeloproliferative neoplasm, focuses on reducing cardiovascular (CV) risk without increasing bleeding or hematological progression. However, the real-world practice of treating PV in North America is understudied. We performed a retrospective cohort study of newly diagnosed PV (JAK2V617F mutation positive) patients in Hamilton, Canada to fill this knowledge gap. Out of 108 patients included, (n = 45, 41.7%) patients did not receive therapy consistent with contemporary treatment guidelines. Multivariable analysis showed increased white blood cell count at diagnosis (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14; p < 0.001), older age (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.23; p < 0.001) and diabetic history (HR, 3.71; 95% CI, 1.27-10.78; p = 0.012) associated with greater mortality. Not receiving pharmacological treatment according to guidelines was also independently associated with increased mortality (HR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.13-8.65; p = 0.029). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Affect and craving: positive and negative affect are differentially associated with approach and avoidance inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert C; Gwynn-Shapiro, Daniel; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Molnar, Danielle S; Lang, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    Research on reactivity to alcohol and drug cues has either ignored affective state altogether or has focused rather narrowly on the role of negative affect in craving. Moreover, until recently, the relevant analyses of affect and craving have rarely addressed the ambivalence often associated with craving itself. The current study investigated how both negative and positive affect moderate approach and avoidance inclinations associated with cue-elicited craving in a clinical sample diagnosed with substance use disorders. One hundred forty-four patients (age range of 18-65, mean 42.0; n=92 males) were recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit for substance abuse. Participants completed a baseline assessment of both positive and negative affect prior to completing a cue-reactivity paradigm for which they provided self-report ratings of inclinations to approach (use) and avoid (not use) alcohol, cigarettes, and non-psychoactive control substances (food and beverages). Participants with elevated negative affect reported significantly higher approach ratings for cigarette and alcohol cues, whereas those high in positive affect showed significantly higher levels of avoidance inclinations for both alcohol and cigarette cues and also significantly lower approach ratings for alcohol cues, all relative to control cues. Results for negative affect are consistent with previous cue reactivity research, whereas results for positive affect are unique and call attention to its clinical potential for attenuating approach inclinations to substance use cues. Further, positive affect was related to both approach and avoidance inclinations, underscoring the utility of a multidimensional conceptualization of craving in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Turning lemonade into lemons: Dampening appraisals reduce positive affect and increase negative affect during positive activity scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Leigh-Anne; Javiad, Mahmood; Jell, Grace; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Dunn, Barnaby D

    2017-04-01

    The way individuals appraise positive emotions may modulate affective experience during positive activity scheduling. Individuals may either engage in dampening appraisals (e.g., think "this is too good to last") or amplifying appraisals (e.g., think "I deserve this"). A cross-over randomized design was used to examine the consequences of these appraisal styles. Participants (N = 43) rated positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) during four daily walks in pleasant locations, whilst following dampening, emotion-focus amplifying (focusing on how good one feels), self-focus amplifying (focusing on positive self qualities), or control instructions. There was no difference between the two amplifying and control conditions, which all increased PA and reduced NA during the walks. However, the dampening condition significantly differed from all other conditions, reducing PA and increasing NA during the walk. Individual differences in anhedonia symptoms did not significantly moderate the pattern of findings. This evidence supports the view that dampening appraisals may be one mechanism driving anhedonia and may account for why positive activity scheduling can sometimes backfire when utilized in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oultram, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims.

  18. Intake of Mediterranean foods associated with positive affect and low negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Youngberg, Wes; Tonstad, Serena

    2013-02-01

    To examine associations between consumption of foods typical of Mediterranean versus Western diets with positive and negative affect. Nutrients influence mental states yet few studies have examined whether foods protective or deleterious for cardiovascular disease affect mood. Participants were 9255 Adventist church attendees in North America who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6. Scores for affect were obtained from the positive and negative affect schedule questionnaire in 2006-7. Multiple linear regression models controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, education, sleep, sleep squared (to account for high or low amounts), exercise, total caloric intake, alcohol and time between the questionnaires. Intake of vegetables (β=0.124 [95% CI 0.101, 0.147]), fruit (β=0.066 [95% CI 0.046, 0.085]), olive oil (β=0.070 [95% CI 0.029, 0.111]), nuts (β=0.054 [95% CI 0.026, 0.082]), and legumes (β=0.055 [95% CI 0.032, 0.077]) were associated with positive affect while sweets/desserts (β=-0.066 [95% CI -0.086, -0.046]), soda (β=-0.025 [95% CI -0.037, -0.013]) and fast food frequency (β=-0.046 [95% CI -0.062, -0.030]) were inversely associated with positive affect. Intake of sweets/desserts (β=0.058 [95% CI 0.037, 0.078]) and fast food frequency (β=0.052 [95% CI 0.036, 0.068]) were associated with negative affect while intake of vegetables (β=-0.076 [95% CI -0.099, -0.052]), fruit (β=-0.033 [95% CI -0.053, -0.014]) and nuts (β=-0.088 [95% CI -0.116, -0.060]) were inversely associated with negative affect. Gender interacted with red meat intake (Pnegative affect in females only. Foods typical of Mediterranean diets were associated with positive affect as well as lower negative affect while Western foods were associated with low positive affect in general and negative affect in women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Connecting Educators with Inter-Disciplinary Inquiry-Based Science and Students with STEM Careers with Real-World Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Our professional development workshops have provided participating teachers (inservice and pre-service with interdisciplinary experiences in earth and environmental science that have built their content into real-world problem based research initiatives (STEM, Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. One of our real-world issues has been the detection of phenol since it has been a concern in the real-world coal mining industry. Coal tars are a complex of variable mixtures of phenols. Phenol and phenol derivative compounds are widely used in the production of polymers, drugs, dyes, explosives, pesticides, stabilizers and antioxidants. These phenolic compounds are discharged into the environment and can represent a serious hazard, mainly by the contamination of superficial and underground waters. The toxic effect of phenol can cause comas, convulsions, cyanosis, liver damage, kidney damage, lung damage and death. The mining industry for coal is an alternative source of energy and used in thermoelectric power plants. However, the pollutant phenol that can be found in coal has high need to be detected and is an important aspect to keep an eye on due to these harmful chemicals such as phenol discharging into the environment. Our inquiry-based labs have engaged our inservice and pre-service students by visiting a mine and learning the positive and negative aspects of mining and the importance of water quality. Thus, this inquiry-based module will illustrate the use of an electrochemistry modified carbon nanotube poly-3-hexylthiophene electrode to detect such harmful chemicals as phenol by unique electrochemistry techniques such as Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV.

  20. Contribution of Road Grade to the Energy Use of Modern Automobiles Across Large Datasets of Real-World Drive Cycles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the real-world power demand of modern automobiles is of critical importance to engineers using modeling and simulation to inform the intelligent design of increasingly efficient powertrains. Increased use of global positioning system (GPS) devices has made large scale data collection of vehicle speed (and associated power demand) a reality. While the availability of real-world GPS data has improved the industry's understanding of in-use vehicle power demand, relatively little attention has been paid to the incremental power requirements imposed by road grade. This analysis quantifies the incremental efficiency impacts of real-world road grade by appending high fidelity elevation profiles to GPS speed traces and performing a large simulation study. Employing a large real-world dataset from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Transportation Secure Data Center, vehicle powertrain simulations are performed with and without road grade under five vehicle models. Aggregate results of this study suggest that road grade could be responsible for 1% to 3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles.

  1. 5th International Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wen; Ferrari, Federico; Zimmerling, Marco; Mottola, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This edited book presents the results of the 5th Workshop on Real-world Wireless Sensor Networks (REALWSN). The purpose of this workshop  was to bring together researchers and practitioners working in the area of sensor networks, with focus on real-world experiments or deployments of wireless sensor networks. Included were, nonetheless, emerging forms of sensing such as those that leverage smart phones, Internet of Things, RFIDs, and robots. Indeed, when working with real-world experiments or deployments, many new or unforeseen issues may arise: the network environment may be composed of a variety of different technologies, leading to very heterogeneous network structures; software development for large scale networks poses new types of problems; the performance of prototype networks may differ significantly from the deployed system; whereas actual sensor network deployments may need a complex combination of autonomous and manual configuration. Furthermore, results obtained through simulation are typically n...

  2. Comparison between Euro NCAP test results and real-world crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Anders; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to compare Euro NCAP safety ratings of cars with those published by the Folksam real-world injury ratings; and second, to compare injury risk measures between Euro NCAP 2 and 5 Star cars with real-world injury and disability outcomes using police and insurance injury data. Car models were grouped according to the Euro NCAP star rating scores. Folksam risk of injury ratings come from statistical analysis of real-world crashes using police and insurance databases. The paired comparison method using 2-car crashes was used to control for crash speed and the mass differences between cars of different weights were normalized. For all comparisons, 5-star rated Euro NCAP cars were found to have a lower risk of injury compared to 2-star rated cars (5-star cars were 10% ± 2.5% lower risk than 2-star cars). For fatal and serious injuries, the difference was 23 ± 8 percent, and for fatal injuries alone the difference was 68 ± 32 percent. By comparison, the Folksam 5-star rated cars had a relative risk of 0.020 ± 0.0024, whereas 2-star rated car risk was 0.028 ± 0.0016, corresponding to a 27 percent difference in risk between 5- and 2-star cars. Good correlation was found between Euro NCAP test results and real-world injury outcomes. The largest difference in injury risk between 2- and 5-star rated cars in Euro NCAP was found for risk of fatality, confirming that car manufacturers have focused their safety performance on serious crash outcomes. In addition, Euro NCAP crash tests were shown to be highly correlated with serious crash performance, confirming their relevance for evaluating real-world crash performance. Good concordance was found between Euro NCAP and Folksam real-world crash and injury ratings.

  3. How successful is secondary prevention for coronary artery disease (CAD) in the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.A.; Khan, N.; Khan, N.; Khan, I.; Hafizullah, M.; Mahmood, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To document the effects of secondary prevention on different risk factors in the real world situation. Methodology: It was a cross sectional comparative study carried out at a referral cardiac clinic in Peshawar from January 2010 to December 2010. Study subjects presenting with at least 6 months follow up were included from different parts of Khyber Pukhtunkhawa. All patients with positive history or objective evidence of CAD were enrolled. Study subjects were divided in two groups based on the fact that either taking or had stopped medication for the duration of the study period. Study variables were levels of lipids, glucose, blood pressure (BP), smoking and obesity. Results: A total of 843 patients were included in the study. Males were 70.4 % (593). Mean age was 58.74 +- 10.6 years. Patients taking regular medicine were 69.03% while 30.97% had stopped their medicine for at least three months. Diabetics, hypertensive and positive family history for CAD were 33.4%, 50.25% and 24% respectively. When compared to patient who had stopped medicine, mean systolic BP (p= 0.014), diastolic BP (p= 0.05), mean Cholesterol (p=0.000), mean LDL (p=0.000), mean HDL (p=0.000) and HbA1c% (p=0.049), was well controlled in patients who were taking medicine regularly. Mean BMI (p=0.786), triglycerides and smoking (p=0.761) had no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: Blood pressure, serum cholesterol, LDL, HDL, as well as HbA1c% were reduced with little effect on serum TGs, BMI and smoking in those who were taking medicine regularly compared to those who had stopped. (author)

  4. Affective health bias in older adults: Considering positive and negative affect in a general health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Brenda R; Bergeman, C S

    2016-09-01

    Because subjective health reports are a primary source of health information in a number of medical and research-based contexts, much research has been devoted to establishing the extent to which these self-reports of health correspond to health information from more objective sources. One of the key factors considered in this area is trait affect, with most studies emphasizing the impact of negative affect (negative emotions) over positive affect (positive emotions), and focusing on high-arousal affect (e.g., anger, excitement) over moderate- or low-arousal affect (e.g., relaxed, depressed). The present study examines the impact of both Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA)-measured by items of both high and low arousal-on the correspondence between objective health information and subjective health reports. Another limitation of existing literature in the area is the focus on samples suffering from a particular diagnosis or on specific symptom reports; here, these effects are investigated in a sample of community-dwelling older adults representing a broader spectrum of health. 153 older adults (Mage = 71.2) took surveys assessing Perceived Health and Affect and underwent an objective physical health assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the extent to which the relationship between Objective Health and Perceived Health was moderated by PA or NA, which would indicate the presence of affective health bias. Results reveal a significant moderation effect for NA, but not for PA; PA appeared to serve a more mediational function, indicating that NA and PA operate on health perceptions in distinct ways. These findings provide evidence that in our high-functioning, community-dwelling sample of older adults, a) affective health bias is present within a general health context, and not only within specific symptom or diagnostic categories; and b) that both PA and NA play important roles in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Discussion of solutions to ethical issues in real-world study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sicheng; Liu, Baoyan; Xiong, Ningning; Xie, Qi; Zhang, Runshun; Zhou, Xuezhong; Qiao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the paradigm of real-world study (RWS) has been at the forefront of clinical research worldwide, particularly in the field of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, basic features and nature of real-world clinical studies are discussed, and ethical issues in different stages of RWS are raised and reviewed. Moreover, some preliminary solutions to these issues, such as protecting subjects during the process of RWS and performing ethical review, are presented based on recent practices and basic ethical rules to improve the scientific validity and ethical level of RWS.

  6. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO2 emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO 2 emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO 2 emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO 2 emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO 2 emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO 2 emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO 2 emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO 2 emissions should, therefore, be adapted.

  7. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in real-world patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction: 1-year results by propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellino, Matteo; Sànchez, Federico Ariel; Boasi, Valentina; Perri, Dino; Tacchi, Chiara; Secco, Gioel Gabrio; Cattunar, Stefano; Pistis, Gianfranco; Mascelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-05

    European guidelines recommend the use of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This recommendation is based on inconclusive results and subanalyses from clinical trials. Few data are available on the effects of ticagrelor in a real-world population. To compare the effects of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in a real-world STEMI population, we conducted a pre-post case-control study examining all patients with STEMI included in the Cardio-STEMI Sanremo registry between February 2011 and June 2013. Cases and controls were defined according to P2Y 12 inhibitors, correcting the bias due to lack of randomization by propensity score analysis. Ticagrelor was introduced in 2012 in both in-hospital and pre-hospital settings independently of this study. Of the 416 patients enrolled in the Cardio-STEMI registry, 401 with a definite diagnosis of STEMI were included in this study. One hundred forty-two patients received ticagrelor and 259 received clopidogrel. Regarding clinical presentation and procedural data, those in the ticagrelor group had lower CRUSADE scores (23 [14-36] vs 27 [18-38]; p = 0.015] but a higher proportion of radial access (33% vs 14%; p word propensity score analysis, ticagrelor did not affect the risk of MACE during the hospital phase, or the incidence of hospital bleeding in patients with STEMI. However, in this mono-centric experience, ticagrelor resulted in improved 1-year survival, even after correction by propensity score.

  8. Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal among Referred and Nonreferred Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Jeff; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Catanzaro, Salvatore J.

    2011-01-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) seem ideal measures for school mental health screenings, because they are theory based, psychometrically sound, and brief. This study provides descriptive information and preliminary cutoff scores in an effort to increase the…

  9. The real world cost and health resource utilization associated to manic episodes: The MANACOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Undurraga, Juan; Reinares, María; Bonnín, Caterina del Mar; Sáez, Cristina; Mur, María; Nieto, Evaristo; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a relapsing-remitting condition affecting approximately 1-2% of the population. Even when the treatments available are effective, relapses are still very frequent. Therefore, the burden and cost associated to every new episode of the disorder have relevant implications in public health. The main objective of this study was to estimate the associated health resource consumption and direct costs of manic episodes in a real world clinical setting, taking into consideration clinical variables. Bipolar I disorder patients who recently presented an acute manic episode based on DSM-IV criteria were consecutively included. Sociodemographic variables were retrospectively collected and during the 6 following months clinical variables were prospectively assessed (YMRS,HDRS-17,FAST and CGI-BP-M). The health resource consumption and associate cost were estimated based on hospitalization days, pharmacological treatment, emergency department and outpatient consultations. One hundred sixty-nine patients patients from 4 different university hospitals in Catalonia (Spain) were included. The mean direct cost of the manic episodes was €4,771. The 77% (€3,651) was attributable to hospitalization costs while 14% (€684) was related to pharmacological treatment, 8% (€386) to outpatient visits and only 1% (€50) to emergency room visits. The hospitalization days were the main cost driver. An initial FAST score>41 significantly predicted a higher direct cost. Our results show the high cost and burden associated with BD and the need to design more cost-efficient strategies in the prevention and management of manic relapses in order to avoid hospital admissions. Poor baseline functioning predicted high costs, indicating the importance of functional assessment in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Spiromax, a New Dry Powder Inhaler: Dose Consistency under Simulated Real-World Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Arp, Jan; Keegstra, Johan René; Chrystyn, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Spiromax(®) is a novel dry powder inhaler for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The studies presented here provide further data on attributes (in vitro dosing consistency with budesonide-formoterol (DuoResp) Spiromax; flow rates through empty versions of the Spiromax and Turbuhaler inhaler) of importance to patients with asthma or COPD. Dose-delivery studies were performed using low-, middle-, and high-strength DuoResp Spiromax. Dose consistency was assessed over inhaler life. Total emitted doses (TEDs) were measured at various flow rates, after exposure to high and low temperature or humidity, at different inhaler orientations, and after dropping the inhaler. The criterion for evaluating dose uniformity was whether mean TEDs were within the product specification limits. In separate studies, flow rates were measured after training, using the patient information leaflets, and again after enhanced training as part of a randomized, open-label, cross-over study. Mean values for both budesonide and formoterol were within 85%-115% of the label claim for each strength of DuoResp Spiromax for initial dose uniformity and for the other investigated conditions (temperature, humidity, orientation, dropping, knocking), with the exception of approximately an 80% increase in first dose after dropping the inhaler (subsequent doses not affected). In the flow rate patient study, two patients' inhalations with Spiromax and six with Turbuhaler were 60 L/min. DuoResp Spiromax consistently meets dose uniformity criteria, under controlled laboratory conditions and with variations intended to mimic real-world use. Following enhanced training, all patients in the flow study were able to achieve the minimal inspiratory flow rate of >30 L/min, which is required for effective treatment.

  11. Leveraging Real-World Evidence in Disease-Management Decision-Making with a Total Cost of Care Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Nghia; Trocio, Jeffrey; Kowal, Stacey; Ferrufino, Cheryl P; Munakata, Julie; South, Dell

    2016-12-01

    Health management is becoming increasingly complex, given a range of care options and the need to balance costs and quality. The ability to measure and understand drivers of costs is critical for healthcare organizations to effectively manage their patient populations. Healthcare decision makers can leverage real-world evidence to explore the value of disease-management interventions in shifting total cost trends. To develop a real-world, evidence-based estimator that examines the impact of disease-management interventions on the total cost of care (TCoC) for a patient population with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Data were collected from a patient-level real-world evidence data set that uses the IMS PharMetrics Health Plan Claims Database. Pharmacy and medical claims for patients meeting the inclusion or exclusion criteria were combined in longitudinal cohorts with a 180-day preindex and 360-day follow-up period. Descriptive statistics, such as mean and median patient costs and event rates, were derived from a real-world evidence analysis and were used to populate the base-case estimates within the TCoC estimator, an exploratory economic model that was designed to estimate the potential impact of several disease-management activities on the TCoC for a patient population with NVAF. Using Microsoft Excel, the estimator is designed to compare current direct costs of medical care to projected costs by varying assumptions on the impact of disease-management activities and applying the associated changes in cost trends to the affected populations. Disease-management levers are derived from literature-based concepts affecting costs along the NVAF disease continuum. The use of the estimator supports analyses across 4 US geographic regions, age, cost types, and care settings during 1 year. All patients included in the study were continuously enrolled in their health plan (within the IMS PharMetrics Health Plan Claims Database) between July 1, 2010, and June 30

  12. Bringing Real World Underwater Science, Engineering and Technology in Tomorrow's Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, C.

    2012-04-01

    What do Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), Ocean Science, Engineering and Technology have in common with science education in today's classroom? They all meet the growing demand for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals in tomorrow's U.S. workforce. Engaging students in real world science experiences will help them develop skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, innovation, and creativity. These skills are crucial to building a strong, competitive workforce in an integrated global economy. Fifth grade students from St. Andrew's School of Math and Science in Charleston, SC, USA science classes were introduced to engineering and robotics by using a combination of two underwater ROVs programs from the Office of Naval Research (SeaPerch) and Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE). Students were grouped in teams as "real scientists" to design and construct a ROV. Students selected their role from a list of engineering positions, and researched how to construct the best ROV. Students created blueprints and models of their ROV design. Scientists/engineers from various local agencies were scheduled to come and share their expertise with the students. On World Ocean Day, a presentation was planned for fifth grade students to work closely with kindergarten through fourth grade students. The purpose of the day was two-fold; it provided students the opportunity to peer teach and the opportunity to present their experiences to a wide audience. All students presented their designs and demonstrated their ROV's movement capabilities in child size pools. They also modeled how submersible pilots communicate with scientists and other researchers while operating their newly designed ROV. As a culminating event, students visited a local marine science high school class with similar ROVs and evaluated their engineering designs in a fresh water pond.

  13. Designing design exercises – from theory to creativity and real-world use

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotze, P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a framework for design exercises for interaction design and HCI based on two theoretical frameworks and a set of knowledge transformers. The model scope design exercises on a continuum ranging from creativity to real-world use...

  14. Treatment of allergic rhinitis using mobile technology with real world data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Arnavielhe, S; Bedbrook, A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Large observational implementation studies are needed to triangulate the findings from randomized control trials (RCTs) as they reflect "real world" everyday practice. In a pilot study, we attempted to provide additional and complementary insights on the real life treatment of allergi...

  15. Waking up from the dream of reason; Rationality in the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hezewijk, René

    2007-01-01

    Review Essay of: Gerd Gigerenzer, Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. 344 pp. ISBN 0–19–513622–5 (hbk). Gerd Gigerenzer, Reckoning with Risk: Learning to Live with Uncertainty. London: Allen Lane/Penguin, 2002. 310 pp. ISBN 0–713–99512–2

  16. Caffeine Enhances Real-World Language Processing: Evidence from a Proofreading Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Rapp, David N.; Ditman, Tali; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended…

  17. Teaching Real-World Applications of Business Statistics Using Communication to Scaffold Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gareth P.; Jones, Stacey; Bean, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Our assessment research suggests that quantitative business courses that rely primarily on algorithmic problem solving may not produce the deep learning required for addressing real-world business problems. This article illustrates a strategy, supported by recent learning theory, for promoting deep learning by moving students gradually from…

  18. Making Real-World Issues Our Business: Critical Literacy in a Third-Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Lee; Lewison, Mitzi

    2000-01-01

    Reflects on the events that occurred during a six-month period in a suburban classroom. Documents the transformation that took place in learning and teaching as students took part in a critical literacy curriculum. Examines the significant curricular changes that occur when the "real world" is allowed to enter classroom discussions and…

  19. Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sharing skills and knowledge to confront real-world problems ... because 1.3 billion people cannot read English, and only 163 million people (a fraction ... childhood obesity in urban areas, caused by increases in junk food and lack of exercise.

  20. Robust Emission Management Strategy to Meet Real-World Emission Requirements for HD Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Nieuwenhof, R. van den; Kupper, F.; Willems, F.; Kooijman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low

  1. Robust emission management strategy to meet real-world emission requirements for HD diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.R.; Nieuwenhof, van den R.; Kupper, F.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kooijman, D.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-duty diesel engines are used in different application areas, like long-haul, city distribution, dump truck and building and construction industry. For these wide variety of areas, the engine performance needs to comply with the real-world legislation limits and should simultaneously have a low

  2. Hop, Step, Step and Jump : Towards Real-World Complexity @ Delft University of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.; Slinger, J.H.; Van Daalen, C.; Yucel, G.; Thissen, W.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with System Dynamics education at Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. It focuses more specifically on the quadruple jump approach towards dealing with real-world dynamic complexity. The paper starts with an overview of the System Dynamics courses, situated within the

  3. Discontinuation risk comparison among 'real-world' newly anticoagulated atrial fibrillation patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Pan, Xianying; Kamble, Shital

    2018-01-01

    Discontinuation of oral anticoagulants may expose non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients to an increased risk of stroke. This study describes the real-world discontinuation rates and compared the risk of drug discontinuation among NVAF patients initiating apixaban, warfarin, dabigatran,...

  4. A real-world Case Study in Information Technology for Undergraduate Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkel, Nicolaas; Spil, Antonius A.M.; van de Weg, R.L.W.

    1999-01-01

    Real-world case studies are important to complement the academic skills and knowledge acquired by computer science students. In this paper we relate our experiences with a course specifically designed to address this issue. The problem to be addressed is the replacement of a Hospital Information

  5. Building Real World Domain-Specific Social Network Websites as a Capstone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kwok-Bun; De Silva, Dilhar; Kim, Dan; Aktepe, Mirac; Nagle, Stewart; Boerger, Chris; Jain, Anubha; Verma, Sunny

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes our experience of using Content Management Software (CMS), specifically Joomla, to build a real world domain-specific social network site (SNS) as a capstone project for graduate information systems and computer science students. As Web 2.0 technologies become increasingly important in driving business application development,…

  6. What Is Real-World Data? A Review of Definitions Based on Literature and Stakeholder Interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makady, Amr; de Boer, Anthonius; Hillege, Hans; Klungel, Olaf; Goettsch, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite increasing recognition of the value of real-world data (RWD), consensus on the definition of RWD is lacking.  Objectives: To review definitions publicly available for RWD to shed light on similarities and differences between them.  Methods: A literature review and stakeholder

  7. Adapting to Change in a Master Level Real-World-Projects Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappert, Charles C.; Stix, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Our mission of capstone computing courses for the past ten years has been to offer students experience with the development of real-world information technology projects. This experience has included both the hard and soft skills required for the work they could expect as industrial practitioners. Hard skills entail extending one's knowledge…

  8. Alternative Assessment--Can Real-World Skills Be Tested? Policy Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Karen; Gregg, Soleil

    Many educators are shifting their teaching strategies and approaches to include more emphasis on critical thinking skills, the communication of ideas, a variety of approaches to content emphasizing varied student learning styles, and the need to draw explicit connections among topics for retention of learning. Real-world assessment measures, then,…

  9. Application of Ion Chromatography to the Investigation of Real-World Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Rebecca J.; Hannon, Theresa E.; Zare, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    The use of ion chromatography (IC) as a means to teach important analytical concepts while giving the students a valuable opportunity to identify and investigate a real-world system of interest to them is described. A single IC apparatus can be tailored for different classes of analyses by the selection of different column-eluent combinations.

  10. Tracking the reading eye: towards a model of real-world reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2018-01-01

    Eye tracking has helped to understand the process of reading a word or a sentence, and this research has been very fruitful over the past decades. However, everyday real-world reading dramatically differs from this scenario: we read a newspaper on the bus, surf the Internet for movie reviews or

  11. Emissions During and Real-world Frequency of Heavy-duty Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehl, Chris; Smith, Jeremy D; Ma, Yilin; Shields, Jennifer Erin; Burnitzki, Mark; Sobieralski, Wayne; Ianni, Robert; Chernich, Donald J; Chang, M-C Oliver; Collins, John Francis; Yoon, Seungju; Quiros, David; Hu, Shaohua; Dwyer, Harry

    2018-05-15

    Recent tightening of particulate matter (PM) emission standards for heavy-duty engines has spurred the widespread adoption of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), which need to be regenerated periodically to remove trapped PM. The total impact of DPFs therefore depends not only on their filtering efficiency during normal operation, but also on the emissions during and the frequency of regeneration events. We performed active (parked and driving) and passive regenerations on two heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), and report the chemical composition of emissions during these events, as well as the efficiency with which trapped PM is converted to gas-phase products. We also collected activity data from 85 HDDVs to determine how often regeneration occurs during real-world operation. PM emitted during regeneration ranged from 0.2 to 16.3 g, and the average time and distance between real-world active regenerations was 28.0 h and 599 miles. These results indicate that regeneration of real-world DPFs does not substantially offset the reduction of PM by DPFs during normal operation. The broad ranges of regeneration frequency per truck (3-100 h and 23-4078 miles) underscore the challenges in designing engines and associated aftertreatments that reduce emissions for all real-world duty cycles.

  12. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  13. Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmenta...

  14. Replacing a Hospital Information System: an example of a real-world case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkel, Nicolaas; Spil, Antonius A.M.; van de Weg, R.L.W.

    Real-world case studies are important to complement the academic skills and knowledge acquired by computer science students. In this paper we relate our experiences with a course specifically designed to address this issue. The objectives of the course are threefold: to train management and

  15. Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development (2 Volumes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigel, Ed.; Ferrara, Steve, Ed.; Mosharraf, Maryam, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Education is expanding to include a stronger focus on the practical application of classroom lessons in an effort to prepare the next generation of scholars for a changing world economy centered on collaborative and problem-solving skills for the digital age. "The Handbook of Research on Technology Tools for Real-World Skill Development"…

  16. Bringing the Real World in: Reflection on Building a Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundkur, Anuradha; Ellickson, Cara

    2012-01-01

    We reflect on translating participatory and experiential learning methodologies into an online teaching environment through a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) that simulates the "real-world" contexts of international development in order to develop an applied critical understanding of gender analysis and gender mainstreaming. Rather than being…

  17. Stochastic Real-World Drive Cycle Generation Based on a Two Stage Markov Chain Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balau, A.E.; Kooijman, D.; Vazquez Rodarte, I.; Ligterink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing and benchmarking light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench. The WLTP database, containing real world driving measurements, was used as

  18. Understanding the GOLD 2011 Strategy as applied to a real-world COPD population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.; Vogelmeier, C.; Small, M.

    2014-01-01

    Study objectives: The aim of this analysis was to understand the implications of the GOLD 2011 multidimensional system for the assessment and management of COPD, using data from a real-world observational study. Methods: Data were drawn from the Adelphi Respiratory Disease Specific Programme...

  19. Comparison of real-world and certification emission rates for light duty gasoline vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tanzila; Frey, H Christopher

    2018-05-01

    U.S. light duty vehicles are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. Emission compliance is determined by certification testing of selected emissions from representative vehicles on standard driving cycles using chassis dynamometers. Test results are also used in many emission inventories. The dynamometer based emission rates are adjusted to provide the certification levels (CL), which must be lower than the standards for compliance. Although standard driving cycles are based on specific observations of real-world driving, they are not necessarily real-world representative. A systematic comparison of the real-world emission rates of U.S. light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) versus CL, and emission standards has not been previously reported. The purpose of this work is to compare regulatory limits (both CLs and emission standards) and the real-world emissions of LDGVs. The sensitivity of the comparisons to cold start emission was assessed. Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) were used to measure hot stabilized exhaust emissions of 122 LDGVs on a specified 110 mile test route. Cold start emissions were measured with PEMS for a selected vehicle sample of 32 vehicles. Emissions were measured for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). For each vehicle, a Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) modal emission rate model was developed. The VSP modal rates were weighted by the standard driving cycles and real-world driving cycles to estimate the respective cycle average emission rates (CAERs). Measured vehicles were matched with certification test vehicles for comparison. For systematic trends in comparison, vehicles were classified into four groups based on the Tier 1 and Tier 2 emission regulation, and the vehicle type such as passenger car and passenger truck. Depending on the cycle-pollutant and the vehicle groups, hot stabilized CAERs are on average either statistically

  20. Driver trust in five driver assistance technologies following real-world use in four production vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; Cicchino, Jessica B; Reagan, Ian J; Kerfoot, Laura B

    2017-05-29

    trust in Audi (1.17) and Honda (1.23) systems. Coding of answers to free-response questions showed that more than 80% of complaints about Honda's adaptive cruise control were about the way it functioned and/or performed. Infiniti's side-view assist was the only one with complaints mentioning circumstances where it was used. Trust in forward collision warning, lane departure warning, and active lane keeping was not significantly different among vehicles. Driver trust varied among driver assistance technologies, and trust in adaptive cruise control and side-view assist differed among vehicles. Trust may affect real-world use of driver assistance technologies and limit the opportunity for the systems to provide their intended benefits.

  1. Real-world spatial regularities affect visual working memory for objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, D.; Stein, T.; Peelen, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional memory research has focused on measuring and modeling the capacity of visual working memory for simple stimuli such as geometric shapes or colored disks. Although these studies have provided important insights, it is unclear how their findings apply to memory for more naturalistic

  2. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    dry-box delivery) were instrumented for the collection of one year of operational data. The Part-2 FOT involved the towing and recovery and utility vocations for a second year of data collection. The vehicles that participated in the MTDC project did so through gratis partnerships in return for early access to the results of this study. Partnerships such as these are critical to FOTs in which real-world data is being collected. In Part 1 of the project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) established partnerships with the H.T. Hackney Company (HTH), one of the largest wholesale distributors in the country, distributing products to 21 states; and with Knoxville Area Transit (KAT), the city of Knoxville s transit system, which operates across Knoxville and parts of Knox County. These partnerships and agreements provided ORNL access to three Class-7 day-cab tractors that regularly haul 28 ft pup trailers (HTH) and three Class-7 buses for the collection of duty cycle data. In addition, ORNL collaborated with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to determine if there were possible synergies between this duty cycle data collection effort and FMCSA s need to learn more about the operation and duty cycles of medium trucks. FMCSA s primary interest was in collecting safety data relative to the driver, carrier, and vehicle. In Part 2 of the project, ORNL partnered with the Knoxville Utilities Board, which made available three Class-8 trucks. Fountain City Wrecker Service was also a Part 2 partner, providing three Class-6 rollback trucks. In order to collect the duty cycle and safety-related data, ORNL developed a data acquisition system (DAS) that was placed on each test vehicle. Each signal recorded in this FOT was collected by means of one of the instruments incorporated into each DAS. Other signals were obtained directly from the vehicle s J1939 and J1708 data buses. A VBOX II Lite collected information available from a global positioning system (GPS

  3. The Scope of Our Affective Influences: When and How Naturally Occurring Positive, Negative, and Neutral Affects Alter Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Karen; Danube, Cinnamon L

    2016-03-01

    To determine how naturally arising affect alters judgment, we examined whether (a) affective states exert a specific, rather than a general, influence on valenced-specific judgments; (b) neutral affect is associated with increased neutral judgments, independent of positive, negative, and ambivalent affects, and whether neutral judgments are associated with behavioral disengagement; and (c) the informational value of naturally arising states may be difficult to alter via salience and relevance manipulations. The results support several conclusions: (a) Affective states exerted a judgment-specific effect-positive affect was most strongly associated with positive judgments, negative affect with negative judgments, and neutral affect with neutral judgments. (b) Neutral affect influenced judgments, taking into account positive, negative, and ambivalent affects; and neutral judgments predicted behavioral disengagement. (c) With the exception of negative affect, naturally arising affective states typically influenced judgments regardless of their salience and relevance. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. Real-world effectiveness of everolimus-based therapy versus fulvestrant monotherapy in HR(+)/HER2(-) metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanni; Lin, Peggy L; Xie, Jipan; Li, Nanxin; Koo, Valerie; Ohashi, Erika; Wu, Eric Q; Rogerio, Jaqueline

    2015-08-01

    Assessing real-world effectiveness of everolimus-based therapy (EVE) versus fulvestrant monotherapy (FUL) among postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR(+))/HER2(-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC) after progression on nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). Medical charts of community-based patients who received EVE or FUL for mBC after NSAI were examined. Progression-free survival (PFS), time on treatment and time to chemotherapy were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for line of therapy and patient characteristics. 192 patients received EVE and 156 FUL. After adjusting for patient characteristics, EVE was associated with significantly longer PFS than FUL (hazard ratio: 0.71; p = 0.045). EVE was associated with better PFS than FUL among NSAI-refractory postmenopausal HR(+)/HER2(-) mBC patients.

  5. Evolutionary rate of a gene affected by chromosomal position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J; Ashworth, A

    1999-09-09

    Genes evolve at different rates depending on the strength of selective pressure to maintain their function. Chromosomal position can also have an influence [1] [2]. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of mammalian sex chromosomes is a small region of sequence identity that is the site of an obligatory pairing and recombination event between the X and Y chromosomes during male meiosis [3] [4] [5] [6]. During female meiosis, X chromosomes can pair and recombine along their entire length. Recombination in the PAR is therefore approximately 10 times greater in male meiosis compared with female meiosis [4] [5] [6]. The gene Fxy (also known as MID1 [7]) spans the pseudoautosomal boundary (PAB) in the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus domesticus, C57BL/6) such that the 5' three exons of the gene are located on the X chromosome but the seven exons encoding the carboxy-terminal two-thirds of the protein are located within the PAR and are therefore present on both the X and Y chromosomes [8]. In humans [7] [9], the rat, and the wild mouse species Mus spretus, the gene is entirely X-unique. Here, we report that the rate of sequence divergence of the 3' end of the Fxy gene is much higher (estimated at 170-fold higher for synonymous sites) when pseudoautosomal (present on both the X and Y chromosomes) than when X-unique. Thus, chromosomal position can directly affect the rate of evolution of a gene. This finding also provides support for the suggestion that regions of the genome with a high recombination frequency, such as the PAR, may have an intrinsically elevated rate of sequence divergence.

  6. Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill; Galbriath, Peter; Niss, Mogens

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmental that "enable" year 10/11 students to successfully begin the modelling process, that is, formulate and mathematise a real world problem. The 3-year study will take a design research approach in working intensively with six schools across two educational jurisdictions. It is anticipated that this research will generate new theoretical and practical insights into the role of "enablers" within the process of mathematisation, leading to the development of principles for the design and implementation for tasks that support students' development as modellers.

  7. [Exploration and demonstration study on drug combination from clinical real world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-ming; Wang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yong-yan

    2014-09-01

    Drug combination is extensive in the clinical real world,which is an important part and the inherent requirements of the post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The key issues and technology include multi-domain and multi-disciplinary such as the rationality, efficacy and safety evaluation of combination drug starting from clinical real world, study on component in vivo and mechanism of combination drug, the risk/benefit assessment and cost-benefit evaluation of combination drug and so on. The topic has been studied as clinical demonstration on combination therapy of variety of diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, insomnia, depression, hepatitis, herpes zoster, psoriasis and ectopic pregnancy. Meanwhile, multi-disciplinary dynamic innovation alliance of clinical drug combination has been presented, which can promote the academic development and improving service ability and level of TCM.

  8. The Map in Our Head Is Not Oriented North: Evidence from a Real-World Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available Like most physical maps, recent research has suggested that cognitive maps of familiar environments may have a north-up orientation. We demonstrate that north orientation is not a necessary feature of cognitive maps and instead may arise due to coincidental alignment between cardinal directions and the built and natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedestrians have difficulty pointing north while navigating a familiar real-world environment with roads, buildings, and green spaces oriented oblique to cardinal axes. Instead, north estimates tended to be parallel or perpendicular to roads. In Experiment 2, participants did not demonstrate privileged memory access when oriented toward north while making relative direction judgments. Instead, retrieval was fastest and most accurate when orientations were aligned with roads. In sum, cognitive maps are not always oriented north. Rather, in some real-world environments they can be oriented with respect to environment-specific features, serving as convenient reference systems for organizing and using spatial memory.

  9. Processing speed and executive functions predict real-world everyday living skills in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, O; Penadés, R; Baeza, I; Sánchez-Gistau, V; De la Serna, E; Fonrodona, L; Andrés-Perpiñá, S; Bernardo, M; Castro-Fornieles, J

    2012-06-01

    Cognition and clinical variables are known to be among the most predictive factors of real-world social functioning and daily living skills in adult-onset schizophrenia. Fewer studies have focused on their impact in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). The aim of this study is to examine the relationships and the predictive value of cognition and clinical variables on real-world daily living skills in a sample of adolescents with EOS. Cognitive, clinical and real-world everyday living skills measures were administered to 45 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized adolescent outpatients with EOS and 45 healthy control subjects matched by age and sex. Multi-variant analyses to compare cognitive and real-world functioning profiles between patients and controls and regression analysis to identify predictors of real-world functioning scores in patients were used. Adolescents with EOS showed a generalized cognitive and real-world daily living skills dysfunction. Several cognitive and clinical variables significantly correlated with real-world daily living skills functioning but only the processing speed and executive functions emerged as independent predictors of everyday living skills scores, explaining 25.1% of the variance. Slowness in processing information and executive dysfunction showed a significant impact on real-world daily living skills in EOS, independently from clinical symptoms and other cognitive variables. Nevertheless, much of the variance in the daily living skills measure remained unaccounted for, suggesting that other factors were involved as well in this young population.

  10. Effects of an Online Rational Emotive Curriculum on Primary School Students' Tendencies for Online and Real-World Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Ho, H. C.; Song, Y. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between online and real-world aggressive behavior among primary school students as well as the effects of an online rational emotive curriculum on reducing the tendency of students to display aggression online and in the real-world. We developed an online information literacy course integrated with rational…

  11. Designing and Using Projects with Real World Application in a MBA Managerial Accounting Class: The Case of The Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houke, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the purpose of designing and using projects with real world application in a M.B.A. managerial accounting class. Included is a discussion of how and why the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Project has been used in classes to link theory with practice by providing real world application of the BSC framework. M.B.A. students represent a…

  12. Turning the pink cloud grey: Dampening of positive affect predicts postpartum depressive symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, Filip; Smets, Jorien; Wessel, Ineke; Van Den Eede, Filip; Nelis, Sabine; Franck, Erik; Jacquemyn, Yves; Hanssens, Myriam

    OBJECTIVE: Maladaptive response styles to negative affect have been shown to be associated with prospective (postpartum) depression. Whether maladaptive styles to positive affect are also critically involved is understudied, even though anhedonia (a correlate of low positive affectivity) is a

  13. A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Real-World Electronic Cigarette Use: Implications for Measurement and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cooper, PhD; Melissa B. Harrell, PhD; Cheryl L. Perry, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An understanding of the real-world use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is needed to inform surveillance efforts and future state and federal regulation. This study investigates the behavioral aspects of e-cigarette use. Methods We used qualitative methods to examine salient characteristics of e-cigarette use. The lead investigator (M.C.) conducted in-depth, semistructured individual interviews to explore patterns and behaviors associated with e-cigarette use a...

  14. SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF REAL-WORLD DRIVING BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING FOCAL BRAIN LESIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Kelsey; Read, Katherine; Anderson, Steven; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Many patients with circumscribed brain injuries, such as those caused by stroke or focal trauma, return to driving after a period of acute recovery. These persons often have chronic residual cognitive deficits that may impact on driving safety, but little is known about their driving behavior in the real world. Extant studies tend to rely on driving simulators or controlled on-road drives. These methods of observation are not able to capture the complexities of the typical driving environment...

  15. Fairer machine learning in the real world: Mitigating discrimination without collecting sensitive data

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, M; Binns, RDP

    2017-01-01

    Decisions based on algorithmic, machine learning models can be unfair, reproducing biases in historical data used to train them. While computational techniques are emerging to address aspects of these concerns through communities such as discrimination-aware data mining (DADM) and fairness, accountability and transparency machine learning (FATML), their practical implementation faces real-world challenges. For legal, institutional or commercial reasons, organisations might not hold the data o...

  16. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network Translational Pharmacogenetics Program: Overcoming Challenges of Real-World Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuldiner, AR; Relling, MV; Peterson, JF; Hicks, JK; Freimuth, RR; Sadee, W; Pereira, NL; Roden, DM; Johnson, JA; Klein, TE

    2013-01-01

    The pace of discovery of potentially actionable pharmacogenetic variants has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the implementation of this new knowledge for individualized patient care has been slow. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN) Translational Pharmacogenetics Program seeks to identify barriers and develop real-world solutions to implementation of evidence-based pharmacogenetic tests in diverse health-care settings. Dissemination of the resulting toolbox of “implementation best practices” will prove useful to a broad audience. PMID:23588301

  17. An Unobtrusive System to Measure, Assess, and Predict Cognitive Workload in Real-World Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bethany K.; Palmon, Noa; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Irvin, Scott; Jenkins, Michael; Farry, Mike

    2017-01-01

    , designed to operate in real-world environments to be worn comfortably (e.g., positioned into a baseball cap or a surgeons cap) to measure changes in brain blood oxygenation without adding burden to the individual being assessed.

  18. Interreality in practice: bridging virtual and real worlds in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Raspelli, Simona; Algeri, Davide; Pallavicini, Federica; Gorini, Alessandra; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2010-02-01

    The use of new technologies, particularly virtual reality, is not new in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD): VR is used to facilitate the activation of the traumatic event during exposure therapy. However, during the therapy, VR is a new and distinct realm, separate from the emotions and behaviors experienced by the patient in the real world: the behavior of the patient in VR has no direct effects on the real-life experience; the emotions and problems experienced by the patient in the real world are not directly addressed in the VR exposure. In this article, we suggest that the use of a new technological paradigm, Interreality, may improve the clinical outcome of PTSD. The main feature of Interreality is a twofold link between the virtual and real worlds: (a) behavior in the physical world influences the experience in the virtual one; (b) behavior in the virtual world influences the experience in the real one. This is achieved through 3D shared virtual worlds; biosensors and activity sensors (from the real to the virtual world); and personal digital assistants and/or mobile phones (from the virtual world to the real one). We describe different technologies that are involved in the Interreality vision and its clinical rationale. To illustrate the concept of Interreality in practice, a clinical scenario is also presented and discussed: Rosa, a 55-year-old nurse, involved in a major car accident.

  19. Real-world Outcomes of Multiple Myeloma: Retrospective Analysis of the Czech Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, Roman; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Maisnar, Vladimír; Pour, Ludek; Špička, Ivan; Minařík, Jiri; Gregora, Evžen; Kessler, Petr; Sýkora, Michal; Fraňková, Hana; Campioni, Marco; DeCosta, Lucy; Treur, Maarten; Gonzalez-McQuire, Sebastian; Bouwmeester, Walter

    2018-06-01

    Real-world data on patient outcomes and treatment patterns in multiple myeloma (MM) are limited. The present noninterventional, observational, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected Czech patient medical record data from the Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies estimated real-world outcomes in adults with a diagnosis of symptomatic MM made between May 2007 and June 2014. In total, 2446 patients had initiated first-line treatment. The median overall survival since the diagnosis (primary endpoint) was 50.3 months (95% confidence interval, 46.1-54.5 months) and decreased with each successive treatment line. A similar trend was observed for progression-free survival and the depth of response. In line with European guidelines and clinical practice, bortezomib-, thalidomide-, and lenalidomide-based regimens were most commonly used across all treatment lines (42.3%, 28.9%, and 18.4%, respectively). In the first line, bortezomib and thalidomide were used most often, with lenalidomide the most commonly used agent in the relapse setting (second to fourth lines). Exploratory analyses revealed that younger age (≤ 65 years), lower international staging system stage, and previous stem cell transplantation were associated with significant improvements in overall and progression-free survival, especially in the early treatment lines. The present study is the first analysis of Czech data from the Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies, and it provides important insights into the real-world management of MM for physicians and healthcare providers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How Symmetric Are Real-World Graphs? A Large-Scale Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Ball

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of symmetry is a main principle in natural sciences, especially physics. For network sciences, for example, in social sciences, computer science and data science, only a few small-scale studies of the symmetry of complex real-world graphs exist. Graph symmetry is a topic rooted in mathematics and is not yet well-received and applied in practice. This article underlines the importance of analyzing symmetry by showing the existence of symmetry in real-world graphs. An analysis of over 1500 graph datasets from the meta-repository networkrepository.com is carried out and a normalized version of the “network redundancy” measure is presented. It quantifies graph symmetry in terms of the number of orbits of the symmetry group from zero (no symmetries to one (completely symmetric, and improves the recognition of asymmetric graphs. Over 70% of the analyzed graphs contain symmetries (i.e., graph automorphisms, independent of size and modularity. Therefore, we conclude that real-world graphs are likely to contain symmetries. This contribution is the first larger-scale study of symmetry in graphs and it shows the necessity of handling symmetry in data analysis: The existence of symmetries in graphs is the cause of two problems in graph clustering we are aware of, namely, the existence of multiple equivalent solutions with the same value of the clustering criterion and, secondly, the inability of all standard partition-comparison measures of cluster analysis to identify automorphic partitions as equivalent.

  1. The patient registry: a high-impact tool for real world evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BarickUttam, MohantyRituraj, GowdaArun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this world of seemingly infinite data across domains, one strives to acquire better tools and methodologies to fully exploit available data. This process begins with meticulous planning to gather relevant information and continues until there is an output in the form of credible evidence. The ability to generate real-world evidence would take such a process to new level: the factors that influence these processes under real-world conditions are varied, unpredictable, and unregulated. Results obtained in highly regulated or controlled conditions are universally accepted and sought after for regulatory approvals, but performance indicators in the real world will set the tone for the future. Hence, the demands for very reliant and robust tools and mechanisms for gathering evidence are all the more prominent and necessary. Patient registries fill this gap and stand tall among the various tools that could deliver the desired end results with acceptable accuracy. Over the years, pharmaceutical companies, along with policymakers and other stakeholders, have been actively involved in the development of such registries. Aims: Here we provide an overview of the usefulness of registries for the various stakeholders in healthcare in terms of conduct, approach, and barriers to initiating such studies. Conclusion: One of the impediments for the wider appeal and utility of registries is low awareness among the public and policymakers. Incorporating them as a part of the standard global healthcare system would involve setting up a regulatory framework.

  2. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Real-World Evidence (RWE is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1 includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2 defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3 applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. 

  3. Micro-oscillations in positive and negative affect during competitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In so doing, a greater understanding of the combined role of affect and goal expectation in pacing and ... level reflects the specific states of mood and emotion ... Moreover, highlighting the role of affective responses and motivation on ...

  4. The effectiveness of lane departure warning systems-A reduction in real-world passenger car injury crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternlund, Simon; Strandroth, Johan; Rizzi, Matteo; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2017-02-17

    The objective of this study was to estimate the safety benefits of in vehicle lane departure warning (LDW) and lane keeping aid (LKA) systems in reducing relevant real-world passenger car injury crashes. The study used an induced exposure method, where LDW/LKA-sensitive and nonsensitive crashes were compared for Volvo passenger cars equipped with and without LDW/LKA systems. These crashes were matched by car make, model, model year, and technical equipment; that is, low-speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) called City Safety (CS). The data were extracted from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition database (STRADA) and consisted of 1,853 driver injury crashes that involved 146 LDW-equipped cars, 11 LKA-equipped cars, and 1,696 cars without LDW/LKA systems. The analysis showed a positive effect of the LDW/LKA systems in reducing lane departure crashes. The LDW/LKA systems were estimated to reduce head-on and single-vehicle injury crashes on Swedish roads with speed limits between 70 and 120 km/h and with dry or wet road surfaces (i.e., not covered by ice or snow) by 53% with a lower limit of 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]). This reduction corresponded to a reduction of 30% with a lower limit of 6% (95% CI) for all head-on and single-vehicle driver injury crashes (including all speed limits and all road surface conditions). LDW/LKA systems were estimated to lower the driver injury risk in crash types that the systems are designed to prevent; that is, head-on and single-vehicle crashes. Though these are important findings, they were based on a small data set. Therefore, further research is desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of LDW/LKA systems under real-world conditions and to differentiate the effectiveness between technical solutions (i.e., LDW and LKA) proposed by different manufacturers.

  5. Results of a real-world study on vortioxetine in patients with major depressive disorder in South East Asia (REVIDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cheuk Ngen; Zain, Azhar; Hemrungrojn, Solaphat; Ung, Eng Khean; Kwansanit, Patanon; Au Yong, Koon Choong; Chong, Marvin Swee Woon; Inpa, Chalowat; Yen, Teck Hoe; Yeoh, Boon Beng David; Tay, Liam Kai; Bernardo, Carmina; Lim, Lionel Chee-Chong; Yap, Chin Hong; Fones, Calvin; Nayak, Ashwini; Nelleman, Lars

    2018-05-17

    The REVIDA study aimed to assess the evolution of major depression symptoms in South East Asian (SEA) patients treated with vortioxetine for major depression in real-world clinical practice. This non-interventional study was conducted from Aug 2016 to Apr 2017. A total of 138 patients (aged 18-65 years) with an active episode of major depression were recruited from Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Vortioxetine was initiated on the first visit and patients were followed for 3 months. Depression severity was assessed using the PHQ-9 questionnaire (patient-assessed) and CGI-S scale (physician-assessed); cognitive function was assessed with the PDQ-D questionnaire; work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI) was assessed with the WPAI questionnaire. At baseline, 89.9% of patients were moderately to severely depressed (PHQ-9 score ≥ 10). During the 3-month treatment period, mean±SD PHQ-9 score decreased from 18.7±5.7 to 5.0±5.3, mean±SD CGI-S score decreased from 4.4±0.7 to 2.2±1.1, and mean±SD PDQ-D score decreased from 42.1±18.8 to 13.4±13.0. By month 3, response and remission rates reached 80.8% and 59.0%, respectively. Work productivity loss decreased from 73.6% to 30.5%, while activity impairment decreased from 71.5% to 24.6%. Positive correlations were observed between PHQ-9, PDQ-D, and WPAI work productivity loss and activity impairment. By month 3, 82.0% of patients were either not depressed or only mildly depressed (PHQ-9 score ≤ 9). In real-world clinical settings, vortioxetine was effective in reducing depression severity and improving cognitive function and work productivity in SEA patients with major depression.

  6. Development of emission factors for motorcycles and shared auto-rickshaws using real-world driving cycle for a typical Indian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Prasenjit; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2016-02-15

    Vehicular emission is one of the most important contributors of urban air pollution. To quantify the impact of traffic on urban air quality, it is necessary to quantify vehicular emission. In many cities of India, such as Dhanbad, shared auto-rickshaw is the pre-dominant mode of transportation. Indian Driving Cycle (IDC) and Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) are used for emission testing of motorcycles, shared auto-rickshaws and passenger cars in India for regulatory purposes. IDC used for motorcycles and shared auto-rickshaws does not recognize the difference in two vehicle classes in terms of driving pattern. In real world, shared auto-rickshaws, behave differently than motorcycles. To quantify the impact of shared auto-rickshaws on urban air quality accurately, emission factors (EFs) are required to derive from real-world driving cycles (DCs). In heterogeneous traffic, vehicles of one class affect the behavior of vehicles of other classes. To estimate the emissions from different vehicle classes accurately, EFs for motorcycles and passenger cars are also required to be revised. In this study, real-world DCs were developed for motorcycles, shared auto-rickshaws and passenger cars in Dhanbad. Developed DCs were used to calculate EFs for respective classes. Shared auto-rickshaws were found to have the highest deviation from EFs derived using IDC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Concurrent measurement of "real-world" stress and arousal in individuals with psychosis: assessing the feasibility and validity of a novel methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimhy, David; Delespaul, Philippe; Ahn, Hongshik; Cai, Shengnan; Shikhman, Marina; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Malaspina, Dolores; Sloan, Richard P

    2010-11-01

    Psychosis has been repeatedly suggested to be affected by increases in stress and arousal. However, there is a dearth of evidence supporting the temporal link between stress, arousal, and psychosis during "real-world" functioning. This paucity of evidence may stem from limitations of current research methodologies. Our aim is to the test the feasibility and validity of a novel methodology designed to measure concurrent stress and arousal in individuals with psychosis during "real-world" daily functioning. Twenty patients with psychosis completed a 36-hour ambulatory assessment of stress and arousal. We used experience sampling method with palm computers to assess stress (10 times per day, 10 AM → 10 PM) along with concurrent ambulatory measurement of cardiac autonomic regulation using a Holter monitor. The clocks of the palm computer and Holter monitor were synchronized, allowing the temporal linking of the stress and arousal data. We used power spectral analysis to determine the parasympathetic contributions to autonomic regulation and sympathovagal balance during 5 minutes before and after each experience sample. Patients completed 79% of the experience samples (75% with a valid concurrent arousal data). Momentary increases in stress had inverse correlation with concurrent parasympathetic activity (ρ = -.27, P feasibility and validity of our methodology in individuals with psychosis. The methodology offers a novel way to study in high time resolution the concurrent, "real-world" interactions between stress, arousal, and psychosis. The authors discuss the methodology's potential applications and future research directions.

  8. Effectiveness of an annular closure device in a "real-world" population: stratification of registry data using screening criteria from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuršumović, Adisa; Rath, Stefan A

    2018-01-01

    Increased focus has been put on the use of "'real-world" data to support randomized clinical trial (RCT) evidence for clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of an annular closure device (ACD) after stratifying a consecutive series of "real-world" patients by the screening criteria of an ongoing RCT. This was a single-center registry analysis of 164 subjects who underwent limited discectomy combined with ACD for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. Patients were stratified into two groups using the selection criteria of a pivotal RCT on the same device: Trial (met inclusion; n=44) or non-Trial (did not meet inclusion; n=120). Patient-reported outcomes, including Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analog scale (VAS) for leg and back pain, and adverse events were collected from baseline to last follow-up (mean: Trial - 15.6 months; non-Trial - 14.6 months). Statistical analyses were performed with significance set at p population. Stratification of this "real-world" series on the basis of RCT screening criteria did not result in significant between-group differences. These findings suggest that the efficacy of the ACD extends beyond the strictly defined patient population being studied in the RCT of this device. Furthermore, reducing the reherniation rate following lumbar discectomy has positive clinical and economic implications.

  9. How positioning strategies affect co-branding outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wason, Hilary; Charlton, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Co-branding is a widely applied strategy, with research indicating differential benefits to the parent brands. Past studies suggest the source of these differences may be due to the partners’ relative market position, and characteristics such as brand familiarity, brand equity and proximity to the consumer have been explored. However, the role of brand positioning has received little attention in the context of co-branding. The current study attempts to address this gap, considering the posit...

  10. Positive Affect as a Source of Resilience for Women in Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Zautra, Alez J.; Johnson, Lisa M.; Davis, Mary C.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 124 women with osteoarthritis (OA) and/or fibromyalgia (FMS) completed initial assessments for demographic data, health status, and personality traits and 10 to 12 weekly interviews regarding pain, stress, negative affect, and positive affect. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekly elevations of pain and stress predicted increases in negative affect. Both higher weekly positive affect as well as greater positive affect on average resulted in lower negative affect both ...

  11. Feeling worse to feel better: pain-offset relief simultaneously stimulates positive affect and reduces negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Joseph C; Lee, Kent M; Hanna, Eleanor K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2013-04-01

    Although pain itself induces negative affect, the removal (or offset) of pain induces a powerful state of relief. Despite being implicated in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenomena, relief remains a poorly understood emotion. In particular, some theorists associate relief with increased positive affect, whereas others associate relief with diminished negative affect. In the present study, we examined the affective nature of relief in a pain-offset paradigm with psychophysiological measures that were specific to negative valence (startle eyeblink reactivity) and positive valence (startle postauricular reactivity). Results revealed that pain offset simultaneously stimulates positive affect and diminishes negative affect for at least several seconds. Results also indicated that pain intensity differentially affects the positive and negative valence aspects of relief. These findings clarify the affective nature of relief and provide insight into why people engage in both normal and abnormal behaviors associated with relief.

  12. Urdu translation and validation of shorter version of Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) on Pakistani bank employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Noreen

    2017-10-01

    To translate, adapt and validate shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale on Pakistani corporate employees. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi from October 2014 to December 2015. The study was completed into two independent parts. In part one, the scale was translated by forward translation. Then it was pilot-tested and administered on customer services employees from commercial banks and the telecommunication sector. Data of the pilot study was analysed by using exploratory factor analysis to extract the initial factor of positive affect and negative affect scale. Part two comprised the main study. Commercial bank employees were included in the sample using convenient sampling technique. Data of the main study was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis in order to establish construct validity of positive affect and negative affect scale. There were145 participants in the first part of the study and 495 in the second. Results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the two-factor structure of positive affect and negative affect scale suggesting that the scale has two distinct domains, i.e. positive affect and negative affect. The shorter version of positive affect and negative affect scale was found to be a valid and reliable measure.

  13. How positioning strategies affect co-branding outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Wason

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-branding is a widely applied strategy, with research indicating differential benefits to the parent brands. Past studies suggest the source of these differences may be due to the partners’ relative market position, and characteristics such as brand familiarity, brand equity and proximity to the consumer have been explored. However, the role of brand positioning has received little attention in the context of co-branding. The current study attempts to address this gap, considering the positioning of a brand and the impact of a co-branding strategy on customer perceptions. Using the Blankson and Kalafatis positioning typology, we explore the impact of co-branding on the parent brand perceptions from a hedonic vs. functional (utilitarian focus. The results suggest that for hedonically oriented positioning strategies, fit between the brands is more important than fit between the product categories in driving positive brand perceptions. For a functionally oriented positioning strategy, the reverse holds, with product fit a more important factor than brand fit in driving post-alliance perceptions.

  14. Effects of age on a real-world What-Where-When memory task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele eMazurek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cognitive abilities decline with aging, making it difficult to detect pathological changes against a background of natural changes in cognition. Most of the tests to assess cognitive decline are artificial tasks that have little resemblance to the problems faced by people in everyday life. This means both that people may have little practice doing such tasks (potentially contributing to the decline in performance and that the tasks may not be good predictors of real-world cognitive problems.In this study, we test the performance of young people (18-25 years and older people (60+-year-olds on a novel, more ecologically valid test of episodic memory: the real-world What-Where-When (WWW memory test. We also compare them on a battery of other cognitive tests, including working memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Older people show the expected age-related declines on the test battery. In the WWW memory task, older people were more likely to fail to remember any What-Where-When combination than younger people were, although they did not significantly differ in their overall WWW score due to some older people performing as well as or better than most younger people. WWW memory performance was significantly predicted by other measures of episodic memory, such as the single-trial learning and long-term retention in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning task and Combined Object Location Memory in the Object Relocation task. Self-reported memory complaints also predicted performance on the WWW task.These findings confirm that our real-world WWW memory task is a valid measure of episodic memory, with high ecological validity, which may be useful as a predictor of everyday memory abilities. The task will require a bit more development to improve its sensitivity to cognitive declines in aging and to potentially distinguish between mentally healthy older adults and those with early signs of cognitive pathologies.

  15. Learning from Mistakes --- A Comprehensive Study on Real World Concurrency Bug Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Lu; Soyeon Park; Eunsoo Seo; Yuanyuan Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The reality of multi-core hardware has made concurrent programs pervasive. Unfortunately, writing correct concurrent programs is difficult. Addressing this challenge requires advances in multiple directions, including concurrency bug detection, concurrent program testing, concurrent programming model design, etc. Designing effective techniques in all these directions will significantly benefit from a deep understanding of real world concurrency bug characteristics. This paper provides the first (to the best of our knowledge) comprehensive real world concurrency bug characteristic study. Specifically, we have carefully examined concurrency bug patterns, manifestation, and fix strategies of 105 randomly selected real world concurrency bugs from 4 representative server and client opensource applications (MySQL, Apache, Mozilla and OpenOffice). Our study reveals several interesting findings and provides useful guidance for concurrency bug detection, testing, and concurrent programming language design. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) Around one third of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs are caused by violation to programmers order intentions, which may not be easily expressed via synchronization primitives like locks and transactional memories; (2) Around 34% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs involve multiple variables, which are not well addressed by existing bug detection tools; (3) About 92% of the examined concurrency bugs can be reliably triggered by enforcing certain orders among no more than 4 memory accesses. This indicates that testing concurrent programs can target at exploring possible orders among every small groups of memory accesses, instead of among all memory accesses; (4) About 73% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs were not fixed by simply adding or changing locks, and many of the fixes were not correct at the first try, indicating the difficulty of reasoning concurrent execution by programmers.

  16. Impact of sacubitril/valsartan on heart failure admissions: insights from real-world patient prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Pieter; Lambeets, Seppe; Lau, Chirikwah; Dupont, Matthias; Mullens, Wilfried

    2018-06-17

    Sacubitril/valsartan reduced heart failure (HF)-admissions and cardiovascular mortality in the PARADIGM-HF-trial. However, real-world patients are often frailer and less able to tolerate high doses of sacubitril/valsartan. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients prescribed sacubitril/valsartan in a single tertiary HF-clinic between December 2016 and January 2018. HF-admissions were assessed in a paired fashion, comparing the amount of antecedent HF-episodes with incident HF-episodes after the initiation. Baseline risk for adverse events was assessed by the EMPHASIS-HF-risk-score Results: A total of 201-HF-patients were retrospectively identified (age = 68 ± 11 years, ejection fraction = 29 ± 8%). Real world patients were older, had higher serum creatinine and a higher New-York Heart-Association (NYHA)-class (p sacubitril/valsartan a total of 23-individual patients experienced at least one HF-episodes. Over the same time period preceding initiation of sacubitril/valsartan, 51 individual patients experienced a HF-episodes (p Sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced the rate of incident vs. antecedent HF-admissions, in patients with low or high baseline NYHA-class (II vs. III and IV; p value = 0.019 respectively p = .004) or patients with an EMPHASIS-HF risk score below or above the mean (p = .002 respectively p = .016). Patients older than 75-years exhibited a trend towards HF-reduction. Higher doses of sacubitril/valsartan were associated with more reduction in incident versus antecedent HF-episodes. Despite being frailer and older, real-world patients exhibit a significant and early reduction in incident HF-hospitalisations following initiation of sacubitril/valsartan. Higher doses might be associated with more reduction in HF-admissions, underscoring the importance of dose uptitration.

  17. Real-World Switching to Riociguat: Management and Practicalities in Patients with PAH and CTEPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Henning; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Halank, Michael; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Mielniczuk, Lisa; Chang, MiKyung; Vogtländer, Kai; Grünig, Ekkehard

    2018-06-01

    A proportion of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) do not achieve treatment goals or experience side effects on their current therapy. In such cases, switching patients to a new drug while discontinuing the first may be a viable and appropriate treatment option. CAPTURE was designed to investigate how physicians manage the switching of patients to riociguat in real-world clinical practice. Observations from the study were used to assess whether recommendations in the riociguat prescribing information are reflected in clinical practice. CAPTURE was an international, multicenter, uncontrolled, retrospective chart review that collected data from patients with PAH or inoperable or persistent/recurrent CTEPH who switched to riociguat from another pulmonary hypertension (PH)-targeted medical therapy. The primary objective of the study was to understand the procedure undertaken in real-world clinical practice for patients switching to riociguat. Of 127 patients screened, 125 were enrolled in CAPTURE. The majority of patients switched from a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) to riociguat and the most common reason for switching was lack of efficacy. Physicians were already using the recommended treatment-free period when switching patients to riociguat from sildenafil, but a slightly longer period than recommended for tadalafil. In line with the contraindication, the majority of patients did not receive riociguat and PDE5i therapy concomitantly. Physicians also followed the recommended dose-adjustment procedure for riociguat. Switching to riociguat from another PH-targeted therapy may be feasible in real-world clinical practice in the context of the current recommendations.

  18. Real-world use, safety, and survival of ipilimumab in metastatic cutaneous melanoma in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochems, Anouk; Leeneman, Brenda; Franken, Margreet G; Schouwenburg, Maartje G; Aarts, Maureen J B; van Akkooi, Alexander C J; van den Berkmortel, Franchette W P J; van den Eertwegh, Alfonsus J M; Groenewegen, Gerard; de Groot, Jan Willem B; Haanen, John B A G; Hospers, Geke A P; Kapiteijn, Ellen; Koornstra, Rutger H; Kruit, Wim H J; Louwman, Marieke W J; Piersma, Djura; van Rijn, Rozemarijn S; Ten Tije, Albert J; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; Wouters, Michel W J M; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A; van der Hoeven, Koos J M

    2018-07-01

    Phase III trials with ipilimumab showed an improved survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. We evaluated the use and safety of ipilimumab, and the survival of all patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma (N=807) receiving ipilimumab in real-world clinical practice in The Netherlands using data from the Dutch Melanoma Treatment Registry. Patients who were registered between July 2012 and July 2015 were included and analyzed according to their treatment status: treatment-naive (N=344) versus previously-treated (N=463). Overall, 70% of treatment-naive patients and 62% of previously-treated patients received all four planned doses of ipilimumab. Grade 3 and 4 immune-related adverse events occurred in 29% of treatment-naive patients and 21% of previously-treated patients. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Median time to first event was 5.4 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7-6.5 months] in treatment-naive patients and 4.4 months (95% CI: 4.0-4.7 months) in previously-treated patients. Median overall survival was 14.3 months (95% CI: 11.6-16.7 months) in treatment-naive patients and 8.7 months (95% CI: 7.6-9.6 months) in previously-treated patients. In both patient groups, an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (hazard ratio: 2.25 and 1.70 in treatment-naive and previously-treated patients, respectively) and American Joint Committee on Cancer M1c-stage disease (hazard ratio: 1.81 and 1.83, respectively) were negatively associated with overall survival. These real-world outcomes of ipilimumab slightly differed from outcomes in phase III trials. Although phase III trials are crucial for establishing efficacy, real-world data are of great added value enhancing the generalizability of outcomes of ipilimumab in clinical practice.

  19. Real-world objects are more memorable than photographs of objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C Snow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research studies in psychology typically use two-dimensional (2D images of objects as proxies for real-world three-dimensional (3D stimuli. There are, however, a number of important differences between real objects and images that could influence cognition and behavior. Although human memory has been studied extensively, only a handful of studies have used real objects in the context of memory and virtually none have directly compared memory for real objects versus their 2D counterparts. Here we examined whether or not episodic memory is influenced by the format in which objects are displayed. We conducted two experiments asking participants to freely recall, and to recognize, a set of 44 common household objects. Critically, the exemplars were displayed to observers in one of three viewing conditions: real-world objects, colored photographs, or black and white line drawings. Stimuli were closely matched across conditions for size, orientation, and illumination. Surprisingly, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for real objects compared to colored photographs or line drawings (for which memory performance was equivalent. We replicated this pattern in a second experiment comparing memory for real objects versus color photos, when the stimuli were matched for viewing angle across conditions. Again, recall and recognition performance was significantly better for the real objects than matched color photos of the same items. Taken together, our data suggest that real objects are more memorable than pictorial stimuli. Our results highlight the importance of studying real-world object cognition and raise the potential for applied use in developing effective strategies for education, marketing, and further research on object-related cognition.

  20. Real-world vehicle emission factors in Chinese metropolis city--Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-dong; He, Ke-bin; Huo, Hong; Lents, James

    2005-01-01

    The dynamometer tests with different driving cycles and the real-world tests are presented. Results indicated the pollutants emission factors and fuel consumption factor with ECE15 + EUDC driving cycle usually take the lowest value and with real world driving cycle occur the highest value, and different driving cycles will lead to significantly different vehicle emission factors with the same vehicle. Relative to the ECE15 + EUDC driving cycle, the increasing rate of pollutant emission factors of CO, NOx and HC are - 0.42-2.99, -0.32-0.81 and -0.11-11 with FTP75 testing, 0.11-1.29, -0.77-0.64 and 0.47-10.50 with Beijing 1997 testing and 0.25-1.83, 0.09-0.75 and - 0.58-1.50 with real world testing. Compared to the carburetor vehicles, the retrofit and MPI + TWC vehicles' pollution emissionfactors decrease with different degree. The retrofit vehicle (Santana) will reduce 4.44%-58.44% CO, -4.95%-36.79% NOx, -32.32%-33.89% HC, and -9.39%-14.29% fuel consumption, and especially that the MPI + TWC vehicle will decrease CO by 82.48%-91.76%, NOx by 44.87%-92.79%, HC by 90.00%-93.89% and fuel consumption by 5.44%-10.55%. Vehicles can cause pollution at a very high rate when operated in high power modes; however, they may not often operate in these high power modes. In analyzing vehicle emissions, it describes the fraction of time that vehicles operate in various power modes. In Beijing, vehicles spend 90% of their operation in low power modes or decelerating.

  1. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO 2 emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO 2 /km and the annual CO 2 savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  2. Android arcade game app a real world project : case study approach

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarzio, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Apress, the leading Android books publisher, continues to provide you with very hands-on, practical books for teaching and showing app developers how to build and design apps, including game apps, that can be built and deployed in the various Android app stores out there. Android Arcade Game App:  A Real World Project - Case Study Approach is no different in that it walks you through creating an arcade style Prison Break game app-top to bottom-for an Android smartphone or tablet.  This book teaches you the unique characteristics and challenges of creating an Arcade style game And it provides y

  3. The 'bookshelf illusion'--a real-world Zöllner-type illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLin, Otto H; Peterson, Dwight J

    2010-01-01

    We discovered an interesting perceptual distortion in our office where an upright lamp in front of a bookshelf was noticeably curved to form several subtle S-shaped bends. We realized that the books in the bookshelf fell in a particular manner, leaning in alternative directions, which caused the straight lamp to appear bent, creating what may be a real-world example of the Zöllner illusion. Evidence for the production of the illusion diagrammatically and an explanation for the effect are provided.

  4. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  5. Replication protocol analysis: a method for the study of real-world design thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kovacs, L. B.

    1996-01-01

    Given the brief of an architectural competition on site planning, and the design awarded the first prize, the first author (trained as an architect but not a participant in the competition) produced a line of reasoning that might have led from brief to design. In the paper, such ‘design replication......’ is refined into a method called ‘replication protocol analysis’ (RPA), and discussed from a methodological perspective of design research. It is argued that for the study of real-world design thinking this method offers distinct advantages over traditional ‘design protocol analysis’, which seeks to capture...

  6. Introducing a logic for real-world agents with degrees of belief

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, GB

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Gens_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3189 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Gens_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Introducing a Logic for Real-world Agents... the world could be. A further step to capture uncertain knowledge is to assign a likelihood to each state considered possible so that degrees of belief can be captured. Now as the robot acts and observes while completing its tasks, it will change its...

  7. Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cherinka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" environments and provide an assessment of applicability, benefits and challenges for implementation in large organizations.

  8. Project Manager Street Smarts A Real World Guide to PMP Skills

    CERN Document Server

    Zaval, Linda Kretz

    2011-01-01

    The perfect workbook for project managers and PMP exam candidates seeking practical experience New project managers and students pursuing the Project Management Professional certification are looking for practical experience to solidify their skills. The step-by-step tasks presented in this book offer them an opportunity to practice the common tasks project managers face in the real world. The authors, both expert project management trainers and consultants, explore each phase of project management: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control, and closing the project, with in-depth

  9. Real World NET, C#, and Silverlight Indispensible Experiences from 15 MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Evjen, Bill; Balassy, Gyorgy; Gleeren, Gill; Giard, David; Golesh, Alex; Grossnicklaus, Kevin; Jenkins, Caleb; Juday, Jeffrey; Lele, Vishwas; Likness, Jeremy; Millett, Scott; Nagel, Christian; Yöndem , Daron; Weyer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A team of MVP authors guides you through the .NET 4 Framework Written by a group of experienced MVPs, this unparalleled book delves into the intricate-and often daunting-world of .NET 4. Each author draws from a particular area of expertise to provide invaluable information on using the various .NET 4, C# 4, Silverlight 4, and Visual Studio tools in the real world. The authors break down the vast .NET 4 Framework into easily digestible portions to offer you a strong foundation on what makes .NET such a popular and successful framework for building a wide range of solutions.Breaks down the .NET

  10. The Robobo Project: Bringing Educational Robotics Closer to Real-World Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellas, Francisco; Naya, Martin; Varela, Gervasio

    2017-01-01

    The Robobo Project is a STEM-based project that aims to bring educational robotics, in primary and high school, closer to real-world applications. It is based on the use of a smartphone-based robotic platform called Robobo, a very flexible programming environment, and a set of lessons to integrate...... them. The smartphone provides high-level hardware capabilities in terms of sensors, communications and processing capabilities that allow to create more practical and realistic lessons that exploit human-robot interaction, with a small investment. In this paper, we present the main elements...

  11. Programming and Tuning a Quantum Annealing Device to Solve Real World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O'Gorman, Bryan; Fluegemann, Joseph; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2015-03-01

    Solving real-world applications with quantum algorithms requires overcoming several challenges, ranging from translating the computational problem at hand to the quantum-machine language to tuning parameters of the quantum algorithm that have a significant impact on the performance of the device. In this talk, we discuss these challenges, strategies developed to enhance performance, and also a more efficient implementation of several applications. Although we will focus on applications of interest to NASA's Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the methods and concepts presented here apply to a broader family of hard discrete optimization problems, including those that occur in many machine-learning algorithms.

  12. Towards Porting a Real-World Seismological Application to the Intel MIC Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    V. Weinberg

    2014-01-01

    This whitepaper aims to discuss first experiences with porting an MPI-based real-world geophysical application to the new Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture. The selected code SeisSol is an application written in Fortran that can be used to simulate earthquake rupture and radiating seismic wave propagation in complex 3-D heterogeneous materials. The PRACE prototype cluster EURORA at CINECA, Italy, was accessed to analyse the MPI-performance of SeisSol on Intel Xeon Phi on both sing...

  13. Mobile computing deployment and management real world skills for Comptia Mobility+ certification and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Mobile computing skills are becoming standard in the IT industry Mobile Computing Deployment and Management: Real World Skills for CompTIA Mobility+ Certification and Beyond is the ultimate reference for mobile computing. Certified Wireless Network Expert Robert J. Bartz guides IT and networking professionals through the fundamental and advanced concepts of mobile computing, providing the information and instruction necessary to get up to speed on current technology and best practices. The book maps to the CompTIA Mobility+ (MB0-001) exam, making it an ideal resource for those s

  14. Digital representations of the real world how to capture, model, and render visual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Theobalt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Create Genuine Visual Realism in Computer Graphics Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality explains how to portray visual worlds with a high degree of realism using the latest video acquisition technology, computer graphics methods, and computer vision algorithms. It explores the integration of new capture modalities, reconstruction approaches, and visual perception into the computer graphics pipeline.Understand the Entire Pipeline from Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Modeling to Realistic Rendering and ApplicationsThe book covers sensors fo

  15. Real World SharePoint 2010 Indispensable Experiences from 22 MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, Scot; Bishop, Darrin; Bleeker, Todd; Bogue, Robert; Bosch, Karine; Brotto, Claudio; Buenz, Adam; Connell, Andrew; Drisgill, Randy; Lapointe, Gary; Medero, Jason; Molnar, Agnes; O'Brien, Chris; Klindt, Todd; Poelmans, Joris; Rehmani, Asif; Ross, John; Swan, Nick; Walsh, Mike; Williams, Randy; Young, Shane; Macori, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Proven real-world best practices from leading Microsoft SharePoint MVPsSharePoint enables Web sites to host shared workspaces and is a leading solution for Enterprise Content Management. The newest version boasts significant changes, impressive enhancements, and new features, requiring developers and administrators of all levels of experience to quickly get up to speed on the latest changes. This book is a must-have anthology of current best practices for SharePoint 2010 from 20 of the top SharePoint MVPs. They offer insider advice on everything from installation, workflow, and Web parts to bu

  16. New Teaching Environments Near Real-World-Like Laboratories for Power Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    , and operating real-world systems. The tool to be presented here is mainly establishment of teaching facilities at the Technical University of Denmark adjacent to the research facilities and where nearness to the ‘real world’ is essential and implemented by clearly visible research activities and by close......The Technical University of Denmark offers educations within power engineering at all levels: bachelor, master and PhD. Relevant bachelor programs use the CDIO educational framework, which allows the students to learn engineering fundaments in a context of conceiving, designing, implementing...

  17. Creativity as an Attribute of Positive Psychology: The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect on the Creative Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Hutchison, Shannon; Snow, Lindsay; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Elliott, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology explores how optimism can lead to health, happiness, and creativity. However, questions remain as to how affective states influence creativity. Data on creative personality, optimism, pessimism, positive and negative affect, and current and usual happiness ratings were collected on 161 college students enrolled in an…

  18. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trait Affect, Emotion Regulation, and the Generation of Negative and Positive Interpersonal Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Stange, Jonathan P; Kleiman, Evan M; Rubenstein, Liza M; Scopelliti, Kate A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-07-01

    Positive and negative trait affect and emotion regulatory strategies have received considerable attention in the literature as predictors of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear whether individuals' trait affect is associated with responses to state positive affect (positive rumination and dampening) or negative affect (ruminative brooding), or whether these affective experiences contribute to negative or positive interpersonal event generation. Among 304 late adolescents, path analyses indicated that individuals with higher trait negative affect utilized dampening and brooding rumination responses, whereas those with higher trait positive affect engaged in rumination on positive affect. Further, there were indirect relationships between trait negative affect and fewer positive and negative interpersonal events via dampening, and between trait positive affect and greater positive and negative interpersonal events via positive rumination. These findings suggest that individuals' trait negative and positive affect may be associated with increased utilization of emotion regulation strategies for managing these affects, which may contribute to the occurrence of positive and negative events in interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Looking forward : In-vehicle auxiliary display positioning affects carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, O.X.; Bos, J.E.; Diels, C.

    2018-01-01

    Carsickness is associated with a mismatch between actual and anticipated sensory signals. Occupants of automated vehicles, especially when using a display, are at higher risk of becoming carsick than drivers of conventional vehicles. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of positioning of

  1. Primary Nonadherence to Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Real-World Data from a Population-Based Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Bernal, Clara L; Peiró, Salvador; Hurtado, Isabel; García-Sempere, Aníbal; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel

    2018-05-01

    Primary nonadherence (not filling a first prescription) is an important yet unstudied aspect of adherence to oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy. To estimate the rates of primary nonadherence to OACs and determine associated factors in real-world practice. This population-based retrospective cohort study set in the Valencia region of Spain (about 5 million inhabitants) included all patients with atrial fibrillation who were newly prescribed OACs during 2011-2014 (N = 18,715). Primary nonadherence was obtained by linking electronic prescription and dispensing data and assessed by type of OAC-vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Covariates were obtained from diverse databases, including electronic medical records. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess characteristics associated with primary nonadherence, adjusting for a propensity score to minimize confounding by indication. Primary nonadherence to OACs was 5.62% (VKA 4.29% vs. NOAC 10.81%; P 75 years); being a non-Spanish European (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.12-1.99); and having dementia (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.37-2.16) were positively associated with primary nonadherence. Electronic transmission of prescriptions (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.74-0.96); liver disease (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.54-0.99); and polypharmacy (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.50-0.70) were inversely associated with primary nonadherence. Overall, primary nonadherence to OACs was relatively low (5%). However, important differences were found between VKAs and NOACs. After adjustment, patients prescribed NOACs nearly tripled the likelihood of nonadherence compared with patients prescribed VKAs, which could negatively affect their effectiveness in clinical practice. Identified correlates were similar to those shown in the limited evidence for other medications. This work was partially supported by the 2013 Collaboration Agreement between the Fundación para el Fomento de la Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica (FISABIO

  2. Spontaneous mentalizing during an interactive real world task: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2006-01-01

    There are moments in everyday life when we need to consider the thoughts and intentions of other individuals in order to act in a socially appropriate manner. Most of this mentalizing occurs spontaneously as we go about our business in the complexity of the real world. As such, studying the neural basis of spontaneous mentalizing has been virtually impossible. Here we devised a means to achieve this by employing a unique combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a detailed and interactive virtual reality simulation of a bustling familiar city, and a retrospective verbal report protocol. We were able to provide insights into the content of spontaneous mentalizing events and identify the brain regions that underlie them. We found increased activity in a number of regions, namely the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, the medial prefrontal cortex and the right temporal pole associated with spontaneous mentalizing. Furthermore, we observed the right posterior superior temporal sulcus to be consistently active during several different subtypes of mentalizing events. By contrast, medial prefrontal cortex seemed to be particularly involved in thinking about agents that were visible in the environment. Our findings show that it is possible to investigate the neural basis of mentalizing in a manner closer to its true context, the real world, opening up intriguing possibilities for making comparisons with those who have mentalizing problems.

  3. Providing Geospatial Education and Real World Applications of Data across the Climate Initiative Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Bugbee, K.

    2015-12-01

    Various organizations such as the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) have developed a structure for general thematic areas in Earth science research, however the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) is addressing the challenging goal of organizing such datasets around core themes specifically related to climate change impacts. These thematic areas, which currently include coastal flooding, food resilience, ecosystem vulnerability, water, transportation, energy infrastructure, and human health, form the core of a new college course at the University of Alabama in Huntsville developed around real-world applications in the Earth sciences. The goal of this course is to educate students on the data available and scope of GIS applications in Earth science across the CDI climate themes. Real world applications and datasets serve as a pedagogical tool that provide a useful medium for instruction in scientific geospatial analysis and GIS software. With a wide range of potential research areas that fall under the rubric of "Earth science", thematic foci can help to structure a student's understanding of the potential uses of GIS across sub-disciplines, while communicating core data processing concepts. The learning modules and use-case scenarios for this course demonstrate the potential applications of CDI data to undergraduate and graduate Earth science students.

  4. Haptograph Representation of Real-World Haptic Information by Wideband Force Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Seiichiro; Irie, Kouhei; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    Artificial acquisition and reproduction of human sensations are basic technologies of communication engineering. For example, auditory information is obtained by a microphone, and a speaker reproduces it by artificial means. Furthermore, a video camera and a television make it possible to transmit visual sensation by broadcasting. On the contrary, since tactile or haptic information is subject to the Newton's “law of action and reaction” in the real world, a device which acquires, transmits, and reproduces the information has not been established. From the point of view, real-world haptics is the key technology for future haptic communication engineering. This paper proposes a novel acquisition method of haptic information named “haptograph”. The haptograph visualizes the haptic information like photograph. The proposed haptograph is applied to haptic recognition of the contact environment. A linear motor contacts to the surface of the environment and its reaction force is used to make a haptograph. A robust contact motion and sensor-less sensing of the reaction force are attained by using a disturbance observer. As a result, an encyclopedia of contact environment is attained. Since temporal and spatial analyses are conducted to represent haptic information as the haptograph, it is possible to be recognized and to be evaluated intuitively.

  5. Incidence of real-world automotive parent and halogenated PAH in urban atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pan-Pan; Zhao, Yi-Bo; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2018-06-01

    This study reports results from a tunnel experiment impact of real-world traffic-related particle and gas parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and HPAHs) on urban air. The traffic related emission characteristics and subsequent environmental behavior of these compounds were investigated. To understand the significance of real-world transport emissions to the urban air, traffic-related mass emissions of PAHs and HPAHs were estimated based on measured emission factors. According to our results, PAHs and HPAHs emissions via particulate phase were greater than those via gaseous phase; particles in 2.1-3.3 μm size fraction, have the major contribution to particulate PAHs and HPAHs emissions. Over all, contribution of traffic-related emission of PAHs (only ∼3% of the total PAHs emission in China) is an overstated source of PAHs pollution in China. Actually, exhaust pipe emission contributed much less than the total traffic-related emission of pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mid-level perceptual features distinguish objects of different real-world sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bria; Konkle, Talia; Cohen, Michael A; Alvarez, George A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how perceptual and conceptual representations are connected is a fundamental goal of cognitive science. Here, we focus on a broad conceptual distinction that constrains how we interact with objects--real-world size. Although there appear to be clear perceptual correlates for basic-level categories (apples look like other apples, oranges look like other oranges), the perceptual correlates of broader categorical distinctions are largely unexplored, i.e., do small objects look like other small objects? Because there are many kinds of small objects (e.g., cups, keys), there may be no reliable perceptual features that distinguish them from big objects (e.g., cars, tables). Contrary to this intuition, we demonstrated that big and small objects have reliable perceptual differences that can be extracted by early stages of visual processing. In a series of visual search studies, participants found target objects faster when the distractor objects differed in real-world size. These results held when we broadly sampled big and small objects, when we controlled for low-level features and image statistics, and when we reduced objects to texforms--unrecognizable textures that loosely preserve an object's form. However, this effect was absent when we used more basic textures. These results demonstrate that big and small objects have reliably different mid-level perceptual features, and suggest that early perceptual information about broad-category membership may influence downstream object perception, recognition, and categorization processes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Klasnja, Predrag; Riley, William T; Buman, Matthew P; Huberty, Jennifer; Rivera, Daniel E; Martin, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is important for behavioral interventions but there is debate on how best to support real-world behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to define products and a preliminary process for efficiently and adaptively creating and curating a knowledge base for behavior change for real-world implementation. We look to evidence-based practice suggestions and draw parallels to software development. We argue to target three products: (1) the smallest, meaningful, self-contained, and repurposable behavior change modules of an intervention; (2) "computational models" that define the interaction between modules, individuals, and context; and (3) "personalization" algorithms, which are decision rules for intervention adaptation. The "agile science" process includes a generation phase whereby contender operational definitions and constructs of the three products are created and assessed for feasibility and an evaluation phase, whereby effect size estimates/casual inferences are created. The process emphasizes early-and-often sharing. If correct, agile science could enable a more robust knowledge base for behavior change.

  8. One in the Dance: Musical Correlates of Group Synchrony in a Real-World Club Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ellamil

    Full Text Available Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music. In an evaluation of different preprocessing and analysis methods, giving more weight to front-back movement provided the most sensitive and reliable measure of group synchrony. During the club music set, group synchrony of torso movement was most strongly associated with pulsations that approximate walking rhythm (100-150 beats per minute. Songs with higher real-world play counts were also correlated with greater group synchrony. Group synchrony thus appears to be constrained by familiarity of the movement (walking action and rhythm and of the music (song popularity. These findings from a real-world, large-scale social and musical setting can guide the development of methods for capturing and examining collective experiences in the laboratory and for effectively linking them to synchrony across people in daily life.

  9. One in the Dance: Musical Correlates of Group Synchrony in a Real-World Club Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellamil, Melissa; Berson, Joshua; Wong, Jen; Buckley, Louis; Margulies, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music. In an evaluation of different preprocessing and analysis methods, giving more weight to front-back movement provided the most sensitive and reliable measure of group synchrony. During the club music set, group synchrony of torso movement was most strongly associated with pulsations that approximate walking rhythm (100-150 beats per minute). Songs with higher real-world play counts were also correlated with greater group synchrony. Group synchrony thus appears to be constrained by familiarity of the movement (walking action and rhythm) and of the music (song popularity). These findings from a real-world, large-scale social and musical setting can guide the development of methods for capturing and examining collective experiences in the laboratory and for effectively linking them to synchrony across people in daily life.

  10. Network resilience to real-world disasters: Eyjafjallajökull and 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Olivia; Thiemann, Christian; Grady, Daniel; Brockmann, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the resilience of the the world-wide air transportation network (WAN) to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the recent eruption of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull. Although both disasters caused wide-spread disruption, the number of airports that were closed and the volume of interrupted traffic were well below the percolation threshold predicted by the classical theory. In order to quantify and visualize network deformation before breakdown, we introduce a framework based on the increase in shortest-path distance and homogenization of shortest-path structure. These real-world disasters are a new type of disruption because the removal of all vertices (airports) is geographically compact. Our framework incorporates the dual perspective of individual airports and geopolitical regions to capture how the impact interacts with the sub-network structure.We find that real-world events have an impact signature which is qualitatively different from that of random or high-centrality attacks. Furthermore, we find that the network is more resilient to the 9/11 disaster, although it removed more airports and traffic than the volcanic ash-cloud. This is due to the network roles of Europe and North America. We discuss how regional roles influence resilience to a region's removal.

  11. Allocating effort and anticipating pleasure in schizophrenia: Relationship with real world functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serper, M; Payne, E; Dill, C; Portillo, C; Taliercio, J

    2017-10-01

    Poor motivation to engage in goal-oriented behavior has been recognized as a hallmark feature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SZ). Low drive in SZ may be related to anticipating rewards as well as to poor working memory. However, few studies to date have examined beliefs about self-efficacy and satisfaction for future rewards (anticipatory pleasure). Additionally, few studies to date have examined how these deficits may impact SZ patients' real world functioning. The present study examined SZ patients' (n=57) anticipatory pleasure, working memory, self-efficacy and real world functioning in relation to their negative symptom severity. Results revealed that SZ patients' negative symptom severity was related to decisions in effort allocation and reward probability, working memory deficits, self-efficacy and anticipatory pleasure for future reward. Effort allocation deficits also predicted patients' daily functioning skills. SZ patients with high levels of negative symptoms are not merely effort averse, but have more difficulty effectively allocating effort and anticipating pleasure engaging in effortful activities. It may be the case that continuously failing to achieve reinforcement from engagement and participation may lead SZ patients to form certain negative beliefs about their abilities which contributes to amotivation and cognitive deficits. Lastly, our findings provide further support for a link between SZ patients functional daily living skills their effort allocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of real-world personal familiarity on the speed of face information processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Balas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have explored the effects of familiarity on various kinds of visual face judgments, yet the role of familiarity in face processing is not fully understood. Across different face judgments and stimulus sets, the data is equivocal as to whether or not familiarity impacts recognition processes.Here, we examine the effect of real-world personal familiarity in three simple delayed-match-to-sample tasks in which subjects were required to match faces on the basis of orientation (upright v. inverted, gender and identity. We find that subjects had a significant speed advantage with familiar faces in all three tasks, with large effects for the gender and identity matching tasks.Our data indicates that real-world experience with a face exerts a powerful influence on face processing in tasks where identity information is irrelevant, even in tasks that could in principle be solved via low-level cues. These results underscore the importance of experience in shaping visual recognition processes.

  13. Impaired behavior on real-world tasks following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranel, Daniel; Hathaway-Nepple, Julie; Anderson, Steven W

    2007-04-01

    Patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortices (VMPC) commonly manifest blatant behavioral navigation defects in the real world, but it has been difficult to measure these impairments in the clinic or laboratory. Using a set of "strategy application" tasks, which were designed by Shallice and Burgess (1991) to be ecologically valid for detecting executive dysfunction, we investigated the hypothesis that VMPC damage would be associated with defective performance on such tasks, whereas damage outside the VMPC region would not. A group of 9 patients with bilateral VMPC damage was contrasted with comparison groups of participants with (a) prefrontal brain damage outside the VMPC region (n = 8); (b) nonprefrontal brain damage (n = 17); and (c) no brain damage (n = 20). We found support for the hypothesis: VMPC patients had more impaired performances on the strategy application tasks, especially on a Multiple Errands Test that required patients to execute a series of unstructured tasks in a real-world setting (shopping mall). The results are consistent with the notion that efficacious behavioral navigation is dependent on the VMPC region. However, the strategy application tasks were relatively time consuming and effortful, and their diagnostic yield over and above conventional executive functioning tests may not be sufficient to warrant their inclusion in standard clinical assessment.

  14. Harnessing real world data from wearables and self-monitoring devices: feasibility, confounders and ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Barick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing usage of smart phones has compelled mobile technology to become a universal part of everyday life. From wearable gadgets to sophisticated implantable medical devices, the advent of mobile technology has completely transformed the healthcare delivery scenario. Self-report measures enabled by mobile technology are increasingly becoming a more time and cost efficient method of assessing real world health outcomes. But, amidst all the optimism, there are concerns also on adopting this technology as regulations and ethical considerations on privacy legislations of end users are unclear. In general, the healthcare industry functions on some stringent regulations and compliances to ensure the safety and protection of patient information. A couple of the most common regulations are Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act (HIPPA and Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH. To harness the true potential of mobile technology to empower stakeholders and provide them a common platform which seamlessly integrates healthcare delivery and research, it is imperative that challenges and drawbacks in the sphere are identified and addressed. In this age of information and technology, no stones should be left unturned to ensure that the human race has access to the best healthcare services without an intrusion into his/her confidentiality. This article is an overview of the role of tracking and self-monitoring devices in data collection for real world evidence/observational studies in context to feasibility, confounders and ethical considerations.

  15. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling. - The comprehensive analysis of real-world stack data provides detailed default parameter values for improving vertical emission distribution in atmospheric modelling

  16. Paper based Flexible and Conformal SERS Substrate for Rapid Trace Detection on Real-world Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srikanth; Lee, Chang; Tian, Limei

    2011-03-01

    One of the important but often overlooked considerations in the design of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for trace detection is the efficiency of sample collection. Conventional designs based on rigid substrates such as silicon, alumina, and glass resist conformal contact with the surface under investigation, making the sample collection inefficient. We demonstrate a novel SERS substrate based on common filter paper adsorbed with gold nanorods, which allows conformal contact with real-world surfaces, thus dramatically enhancing the sample collection efficiency compared to conventional rigid substrates. We demonstrate the detection of trace amounts of analyte (140 pg spread over 4 cm2) by simply swabbing the surface under investigation with the novel SERS substrate. The hierarchical fibrous structure of paper serves as a 3D vasculature for easy uptake and transport of the analytes to the electromagnetic hot spots in the paper. Simple yet highly efficient and cost effective SERS substrate demonstrated here brings SERS based trace detection closer to real-world applications. We acknowledge the financial support from Center for Materials Innovation at Washington University.

  17. Frontal theta EEG dynamics in a real-world air traffic control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Guofa; Ding, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Mental workload and time-on-task effect are two major factors expediting fatigue progress, which leads to performance decline and/or failure in real-world tasks. In the present study, electroencephalography (EEG) is applied to study mental fatigue development during an air traffic control (ATC) task. Specifically, the frontal theta EEG dynamics are firstly dissolved into a unique frontal independent component (IC) through a novel time-frequency independent component analysis (tfICA) method. Then the temporal fluctuations of the identified frontal ICs every minute are compared to workload (reflected by number of clicks per minute) and time-on-task effect by correlational analysis and linear regression analysis. It is observed that the frontal theta activity significantly increase with workload augment and time-on-task. The present study demonstrates that the frontal theta EEG activity identified by tfICA method is a sensitive and reliable metric to assess mental workload and time-on-task effect in a real-world task, i.e., ATC task, at the resolution of minute(s).

  18. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  19. Psychological interventions used to reduce sports injuries: a systematic review of real-world effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Adam; Forsdyke, Dale; Murray, Eliot

    2018-02-20

    To systematically review studies examining the role of psychological interventions in injury prevention. The primary research question was: What is the real-world effectiveness of psychological intervention in preventing sports injuries? Mixed methods systematic review with best evidence synthesis. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Science Direct and PubMed. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-RCTs that included a comparison group, before and after study designs and qualitative methods. Studies were required to outline specific unimodal or multimodal psychological interventions used in relation to injury prevention in the real-world setting. Studies were independently appraised with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Thirteen papers (incorporating 14 studies) met the eligibility criteria, of which 93% (13/14) reported a decrease in injury rates (effect size range=0.2-1.21). There was an overall moderate risk of bias in reporting (52%). There is a dominance of stress management-based interventions in literature due to the prominence of the model of stress and athletic injury within the area. Psychological interventions demonstrate small (0.2) to large (1.21) effects on sports injury rates. The research area demonstrates a cumulative moderate risk in reporting bias (52%). CRD42016035879. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Can We Model Driver Perceptions? An In-Situ Experiment in Real-World Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. Tawfik, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that perceptions play a significant role in traveler decisions. Consequently, traveler perceptions are a corner stone in the feasibility of traveler information systems; for traveler information systems are only valuable if the drivers are incapable of accurately acquiring the provided information on their own, and if the provided information is relevant for the drivers' decision criteria. Accuracy of traveler perceptions has been repeatedly researched in public transportation, and has been found to vary according to different reasons. However, in spite of the clear significance of traveler perceptions, minimal effort has been put into modeling it. Almost all travel behavior models are based on traveler experiences, which are assumed to reflect traveler perceptions via the addition of some random error component. This works introduces an alternative approach: instead of adding an error component to represent driver perceptions, it proposes to model driver perceptions. This work is based on a real-world route choice experiment of a sample of 20 drivers who made more than 2,000 real-world route choices. Each of the drivers' experiences, perceptions, and choices were recorded, analyzed and cross examined. The paper demonstrates that: i driver experiences are different from driver perceptions, ii driver perceptions explain driver choices better than driver experiences, iii it is possible to model and predict driver perceptions of travel distance, time and speed.

  1. The real-world effectiveness of vedolizumab on intestinal and articular outcomes in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Fabio Salvatore; Orlando, Rosalba; Fries, Walter; Scolaro, Mariangela; Magnano, Antonio; Pluchino, Dario; Cappello, Maria; Morreale, Gaetano Cristian; Siringo, Sebastiano; Privitera, Antonino Carlo; Ferracane, Concetta; Belluardo, Nunzio; Alberghina, Nadia; Ventimiglia, Marco; Rizzuto, Giulia; Renna, Sara; Cottone, Mario; Orlando, Ambrogio

    2018-03-01

    The effectiveness of vedolizumab in real-world practice is under evaluation, while its role in inflammatory bowel disease-associated spondyloarthritis is still unclear. To report real-world data about the effectiveness of vedolizumab on intestinal and articular symptoms after 10 and 22 weeks of treatment. Web-based data from the cohort of the Sicilian Network for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SN-IBD) were extracted to perform a prospective multicentre observational study. 163 patients (84 with Crohn's disease and 79 with ulcerative colitis) were included. At week 10, a steroid-free remission was achieved in 71 patients (43.6%), while at week 22 a steroid-free remission was obtained in 40.8% of patients. A response on articular symptoms was reported after 10 weeks of treatment in 17 out of 43 (39.5%) patients with active spondyloarthritis at baseline, and in 10 out of 22 (45.4%) patients at week 22. The only factor associated with articular response was the coexistence of clinical benefit on intestinal symptoms (at week 10: OR 8.471, p = 0.05; at week 22: OR 5.600, p = 0.08). Vedolizumab showed good effectiveness after 10 and 22 weeks of treatment. A subset of patients reported improvement also on articular symptoms, probably as a consequence of the concomitant control of gut inflammation. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in real-world patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction: 1-year results by propensity score analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vercellino, Matteo; S?nchez, Federico Ariel; Boasi, Valentina; Perri, Dino; Tacchi, Chiara; Secco, Gioel Gabrio; Cattunar, Stefano; Pistis, Gianfranco; Mascelli, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Background European guidelines recommend the use of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This recommendation is based on inconclusive results and subanalyses from clinical trials. Few data are available on the effects of ticagrelor in a real-world population. Methods To compare the effects of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in a real-world STEMI population, we conducted a pre-post case-control study examining all patients with STEMI included in...

  3. Does Positive Affect Broaden and Negative Affect Narrow Attentional Scope? A New Answer to an Old Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The current research challenges the common view that positive affect and negative affect generate a broadened or narrowed attentional focus, respectively. Contrary to this view, two studies found that the link between affect and attentional focus as measured by a traditional flanker task (Study 1) and a modified flanker task (Study 2) reflects…

  4. Partial Sleep Deprivation Attenuates the Positive Affective System: Effects Across Multiple Measurement Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Patrick H; Quartana, Phillip J; Remeniuk, Bethany; Garland, Eric L; Rhudy, Jamie L; Hand, Matthew; Irwin, Michael R; Smith, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Ample behavioral and neurobiological evidence links sleep and affective functioning. Recent self-report evidence suggests that the affective problems associated with sleep loss may be stronger for positive versus negative affective state and that those effects may be mediated by changes in electroencepholographically measured slow wave sleep (SWS). In the present study, we extend those preliminary findings using multiple measures of affective functioning. In a within-subject randomized crossover experiment, we tested the effects of one night of sleep continuity disruption via forced awakenings (FA) compared to one night of uninterrupted sleep (US) on three measures of positive and negative affective functioning: self-reported affective state, affective pain modulation, and affect-biased attention. The study was set in an inpatient clinical research suite. Healthy, good sleeping adults (N = 45) were included. Results indicated that a single night of sleep continuity disruption attenuated positive affective state via FA-induced reductions in SWS. Additionally, sleep continuity disruption attenuated the inhibition of pain by positive affect as well as attention bias to positive affective stimuli. Negative affective state, negative affective pain facilitation, nor negative attention bias were altered by sleep continuity disruption. The present findings, observed across multiple measures of affective function, suggest that sleep continuity disruption has a stronger influence on the positive affective system relative to the negative affective affective system. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [The relationship of empathic-affective responses toward others' positive affect with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shigeo; Hayama, Daichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Kurazumi, Tomoe; Hagiwara, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Miyuki; Ohuchi, Akiko; Chizuko, Oikawa

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate the Empathic-Affective Response Scale, and to examine the relationship of empathic-affective responses with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors. Undergraduate students (N = 443) participated in a questionnaire study. The results of factor analysis indicated that empathic-affective responses involved three factors: (a) sharing and good feeling toward others' positive affect, (b) sharing of negative affect and (c) sympathy toward others' negative affect. Correlations with other empathy-related scales and internal consistency suggested that this scale has satisfactory validity and reliability. Cluster analysis revealed that participants were clustered into four groups: high-empathic group, low-empathic group, insufficient positive affective response group and insufficient negative affective response group. Additional analysis showed the frequency of prosocial behaviors in high-empathic group was highest in all groups. On the other hand, the frequency of aggressive behaviors in both insufficient positive affective response group and low-empathic group were higher than others' groups. The results indicated that empathic-affective responses toward positive affect are also very important to predict prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors.

  6. Looking forward: In-vehicle auxiliary display positioning affects carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Ouren X; Bos, Jelte E; Diels, Cyriel

    2018-04-01

    Carsickness is associated with a mismatch between actual and anticipated sensory signals. Occupants of automated vehicles, especially when using a display, are at higher risk of becoming carsick than drivers of conventional vehicles. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of positioning of in-vehicle displays, and subsequent available peripheral vision, on carsickness of passengers. We hypothesized that increased peripheral vision during display use would reduce carsickness. Seated in the front passenger seat 18 participants were driven a 15-min long slalom on two occasions while performing a continuous visual search-task. The display was positioned either at 1) eye-height in front of the windscreen, allowing peripheral view on the outside world, and 2) the height of the glove compartment, allowing only limited view on the outside world. Motion sickness was reported at 1-min intervals. Using a display at windscreen height resulted in less carsickness compared to a display at glove compartment height. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrode position markedly affects knee torque in tetanic, stimulated contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Taian M; Potenza, Paolo; Gastaldi, Laura; Botter, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how much the distance between stimulation electrodes affects the knee extension torque in tetanic, electrically elicited contractions. Current pulses of progressively larger amplitude, from 0 mA to maximally tolerated intensities, were delivered at 20 pps to the vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles of ten, healthy male subjects. Four inter-electrode distances were tested: 32.5% (L1), 45.0% (L2), 57.5% (L3) and 70% (L4) of the distance between the patella apex and the anterior superior iliac spine. The maximal knee extension torque and the current leading to the maximal torque were measured and compared between electrode configurations. The maximal current tolerated by each participant ranged from 60 to 100 mA and did not depend on the inter-electrode distance. The maximal knee extension torque elicited did not differ between L3 and L4 (P = 0.15) but, for both conditions, knee torque was significantly greater than for L1 and L2 (P torque elicited for L3 and L4 was two to three times greater than that obtained for L1 and L2. The current leading to maximal torque was not as sensitive to inter-electrode distance. Except for L1 current intensity did not change with electrode configuration (P > 0.16). Key results presented here revealed that for a given stimulation intensity, knee extension torque increased dramatically with the distance between electrodes. The distance between electrodes seems therefore to critically affect knee torque, with potential implication for optimising exercise protocols based on electrical stimulation.

  8. Treating depression in HIV-positive patients affects adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Y H Moosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine changes in adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART in HIV-positive patients with depression, following treatment with an antidepressant or psychotherapy. Methods. The study was prospective, randomised and controlled. Consenting volunteers aged ≥18 years and stable on ART for ≥6 months were included in the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained, and a clinical diagnostic evaluation and the Hamilton Depression rating scale (HAMD were performed on all subjects at entry to and at the end of the study. Participants found to be depressed were randomly assigned antidepressant treatment (20 mg citalopram or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT (5 sessions. Medication was dispensed at each visit and patients were asked to return all unused medication to determine ART adherence. The study was approved by the University of the Witwatersrand. Results. Sixty-two HIV-positive persons receiving ART participated; 30 were not depressed (control group and 32 were depressed (patient group. No significant differences in demographic characteristics existed between the control and patient groups. Mean ART adherence at the start of the study was 99.5% (standard error (SE ±0.46 and 92.1% (SE ±1.69 in the control and patients groups, respectively. Mean ART adherence at the end of the study changed marginally in the control group (99.7%; SE ±0.46 and increased significantly in the patient group (99.5%; SE± 0.13 (p>0.05. The mean ART adherence rate of patients who received pharmacotherapy increased from 92.8% to 99.5%, and of those who received psychotherapy increased from 91.1% to 99.6% (p>0.05. There was no significant association between the increased adherence in the patient group and baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, irrespective of antidepressant therapy or IPT (p>0.05. Conclusion. Successful treatment of depression with an antidepressant or psychotherapy was associated with improved ART adherence, independent of the type

  9. Real-world emissions of in-use off-road vehicles in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Huertas, Jose Ignacio; Prato, Daniel; Jazcilevich, Aron; Aguilar, Andrés; Balam, Marco; Misra, Chandan; Molina, Luisa T

    2017-09-01

    Off-road vehicles used in construction and agricultural activities can contribute substantially to emissions of gaseous pollutants and can be a major source of submicrometer carbonaceous particles in many parts of the world. However, there have been relatively few efforts in quantifying the emission factors (EFs) and for estimating the potential emission reduction benefits using emission control technologies for these vehicles. This study characterized the black carbon (BC) component of particulate matter and NOx, CO, and CO 2 EFs of selected diesel-powered off-road mobile sources in Mexico under real-world operating conditions using on-board portable emissions measurements systems (PEMS). The vehicles sampled included two backhoes, one tractor, a crane, an excavator, two front loaders, two bulldozers, an air compressor, and a power generator used in the construction and agricultural activities. For a selected number of these vehicles the emissions were further characterized with wall-flow diesel particle filters (DPFs) and partial-flow DPFs (p-DPFs) installed. Fuel-based EFs presented less variability than time-based emission rates, particularly for the BC. Average baseline EFs in working conditions for BC, NOx, and CO ranged from 0.04 to 5.7, from 12.6 to 81.8, and from 7.9 to 285.7 g/kg-fuel, respectively, and a high dependency by operation mode and by vehicle type was observed. Measurement-base frequency distributions of EFs by operation mode are proposed as an alternative method for characterizing the variability of off-road vehicles emissions under real-world conditions. Mass-based reductions for black carbon EFs were substantially large (above 99%) when DPFs were installed and the vehicles were idling, and the reductions were moderate (in the 20-60% range) for p-DPFs in working operating conditions. The observed high variability in measured EFs also indicates the need for detailed vehicle operation data for accurately estimating emissions from off

  10. Motor and psychosocial impact of robot-assisted gait training in a real-world rehabilitation setting: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira Fundarò

    Full Text Available In the last decade robotic devices have been applied in rehabilitation to overcome walking disability in neurologic diseases with promising results. Robot assisted gait training (RAGT using the Lokomat seems not only to improve gait parameters but also the perception of well-being. Data on the psychosocial patient-robot impact are limited, in particular in the real-world of RAGT, in the rehabilitation setting. During rehabilitation training, the Lokomat can be considered an "assistive device for movement". This allowed the use of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale- PIADS to describe patient interaction with the Lokomat. The primary aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of the Lokomat in an in-patient rehabilitation setting using the PIADS; secondary aims were to assess whether the psychosocial impact of RAGT is different between pathological sub-groups and if the Lokomat influenced functional variables (Functional Independence Measure scale-FIM and parameters provided by the Lokomat itself. Thirty-nine consecutive patients (69% males, 54.0±18.0 years eligible for Lokomat training, with etiologically heterogeneous walking disabilities (Parkinson's Disease, n = 10; Spinal Cord Injury, n = 21; Ictus Event, n = 8 were enrolled. Patients were assessed with the FIM before and after rehabilitation with Lokomat, and the PIADS was administered after the rehabilitative period with Lokomat. Overall the PIADS score was positive (35.8±21.6, as well as the three sub-scales, pertaining to "ability", "adaptability" and "self-esteem" (17.2±10.4, 8.9±5.5 and 10.1±6.6 respectively with no between-group differences. All patients significantly improved in gait measure and motor FIM scale (difference after-before treatment values: 11.7±9.8 and 11.2±10.3 respectively, increased treadmill speed (0.4 ± 0.2m/s, reduced body weight support (-14.0±9.5% and guidance force (-13.1 ± 10.7%. This pilot study indicates that

  11. The diagnostic journey of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis I: A real-world survey of patient and physician experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bruni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I is an inherited lysosomal storage disease. Affected individuals have disease ranging from attenuated to severe with significant disease burden, disability, and premature death. Early treatment with enzyme replacement therapy and/or stem cell transplantation can reduce disease progression and improve outcomes. However, diagnosis is often delayed, particularly for patients with attenuated phenotypes. We conducted a survey of 168 patients and 582 physicians to explore health care seeking patterns and familiarity of physicians with MPS I symptoms. Patients with attenuated MPS I typically first presented with stiff joints or hernia/bulging abdomen, and patients with severe disease with noisy/difficult breathing, or hernia/bulging abdomen. There was a mean delay from time of symptom presentation to diagnosis of 2.7 years for patients with attenuated disease, with a mean of 5 physicians consulted before receiving a correct diagnosis. MPS I was most commonly misidentified by physicians as rheumatoid arthritis (48–72%, with a wide variety of suspected diseases, including lupus. CONCLUSION: Patient and physician real-world surveys show that MPS I is under-recognized and diagnosis of MPS I remains delayed, particularly in patients with attenuated disease. Across regions and specialties, physicians require differential diagnosis education in order to improve early detection and early treatment initiation of MPS I.

  12. Pollutant emissions from vehicles with regenerating after-treatment systems in regulatory and real-world driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Novak, Philippe

    2008-07-15

    Regenerating exhaust after-treatment systems are increasingly employed in passenger cars in order to comply with regulatory emission standards. These systems include pollutant storage units that occasionally have to be regenerated. The regeneration strategy applied, the resultant emission levels and their share of the emission level during normal operation mode are key issues in determining realistic overall emission factors for these cars. In order to investigate these topics, test series with four cars featuring different types of such after-treatment systems were carried out. The emission performance in legislative and real-world cycles was monitored as well as at constant speeds. The extra emissions determined during regeneration stages are presented together with the methodology applied to calculate their impact on overall emissions. It can be concluded that exhaust after-treatment systems with storage units cause substantial overall extra emissions during regeneration mode and can appreciably affect the emission factors of cars equipped with such systems, depending on the frequency of regenerations. Considering that the fleet appearance of vehicles equipped with such after-treatment systems will increase due to the evolution of statutory pollutant emission levels, extra emissions originating from regenerations of pollutant storage units consequently need to be taken into account for fleet emission inventories. Accurately quantifying these extra emissions is achieved by either conducting sufficient repetitions of emission measurements with an individual car or by considerably increasing the size of the sample of cars with comparable after-treatment systems.

  13. Noise-robust cortical tracking of attended speech in real-world acoustic scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Søren; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Selectively attending to one speaker in a multi-speaker scenario is thought to synchronize low-frequency cortical activity to the attended speech signal. In recent studies, reconstruction of speech from single-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) data has been used to decode which talker a listener...... is attending to in a two-talker situation. It is currently unclear how this generalizes to more complex sound environments. Behaviorally, speech perception is robust to the acoustic distortions that listeners typically encounter in everyday life, but it is unknown whether this is mirrored by a noise......-robust neural tracking of attended speech. Here we used advanced acoustic simulations to recreate real-world acoustic scenes in the laboratory. In virtual acoustic realities with varying amounts of reverberation and number of interfering talkers, listeners selectively attended to the speech stream...

  14. The Geometric Construction Abilities Of Gifted Students In Solving Real - World Problems: A Case From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni YILDIZ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Geometric constructions have already been of interest to mathematicians. However, studies on geometric construction are not adequate in the relevant literature. Moreover, these studies generally focus on how secondary school gifted students solve non-routine mathematical problems. The present study aims to examine the geometric construction abilities of ninth-grade (15 years old gifted students in solving real-world geometry problems; thus a case study was conducted. Six gifted students participated in the study. The data consisted of voice records, solutions, and models made by the students on the GeoGebra screen. Results indicate that gifted students use their previous knowledge effectively during the process of geometric construction. They modeled the situations available in the problems through using mathematical concepts and the software in coordination. Therefore, it is evident that gifted students think more creatively while solving problems using GeoGebra.

  15. Cascade Probability Control to Mitigate Bufferbloat under Multiple Real-World TCP Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Linh To

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistently full buffer problem, commonly known as bufferbloat, causes unnecessary additional latency and throughput degradation whenever congestion happens in Internet. Several proposed queue management schemes, with the debloat mission, are almost based on the modification of one-loop feedback control where the instability and bad transient behavior are still big challenges. In this paper, we present a cascade probability control scheme using margin optimal method to address such challenges under different kinds of real-world TCP stacks. Simulation results guarantee the measured round trip time tracking to a low value of delay (e.g., ≈180 ms under TCP Reno, and ≈130 ms under TCP Cubic and ≈50% delay reduction in comparison to current deployed queue management schemes in network devices.

  16. Sacubitril/Valsartan: From Clinical Trials to Real-world Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Joanna M; Desai, Akshay S

    2018-04-23

    Compared to enalapril, use of angiotensin-receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan to treat patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is associated with substantial reductions in both cardiovascular mortality and heart failure progression. The purpose of this review is to discuss the real-world experience of sacubitril/valsartan. In the years following the publication of the landmark PARADIGM-HF trial in 2014 and its subsequent FDA approval, a growing evidence base supports the safety and efficacy of sacubitril/valsartan in a broad spectrum of patients with HFrEF. Updated clinical practice guidelines have embraced the use of sacubitril/valsartan in preference to ACE inhibitors or ARBs in selected patients. In this review, we highlight the clinical trials that led to these key updates to clinical guidelines, offer practical strategies for patient selection and utilization in clinical practice, and identify important areas of uncertainty that require future research.

  17. On the Impact of using Mixed Integer Programming Techniques on Real-world Offshore Wind Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Wind power is a leading technology in the transition to sustainable energy. Being a new and still more competitive field, it is of major interest to investigate new techniques to solve the design challenges involved. In this paper, we consider optimization of the inter-array cable routing...... optimization problem considers two objectives: minimizing immediate costs (CAPEX) and minimizing costs due to power losses. This makes it possible to perform various what-if analyses to evaluate the impact of different preferences to CAPEX versus reduction of power losses. Thanks to the close collaboration...... with a leading energy company, we have been able to report results on a set of real-world instances, based on six existing wind parks, studying the economical impact of considering power losses in the cable routing design phase....

  18. Replication protocol analysis: a method for the study of real-world design thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kovacs, L. B.

    1996-01-01

    ’ is refined into a method called ‘replication protocol analysis’ (RPA), and discussed from a methodological perspective of design research. It is argued that for the study of real-world design thinking this method offers distinct advantages over traditional ‘design protocol analysis’, which seeks to capture......Given the brief of an architectural competition on site planning, and the design awarded the first prize, the first author (trained as an architect but not a participant in the competition) produced a line of reasoning that might have led from brief to design. In the paper, such ‘design replication...... the designer’s authentic line of reasoning. To illustrate how RPA can be used, the site planning case is briefly presented, and part of the replicated line of reasoning analysed. One result of the analysis is a glimpse of a ‘logic of design’; another is an insight which sheds new light on Darke’s classical...

  19. The realism project reconciling nuclear power and radiation policies with the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodore Rockwell

    2006-01-01

    Let's get real. It is crazy to fear that one's health and life are threatened by entities known to be harmless, whether those entities are goblins under the bed or trivial levels of radiation from non-existent radiological catastrophes. The nuclear community is in that paranoid state, and no advice from public relations experts can cure it. Some people claim that overstating risk is a prudent thing to do, but in practice it may do harm. Let us recall what we have said and done to create this situation. Then let us look at what the real world tells us about those risks. And then we will consider what might be done to return to reason. (author)

  20. Accuracy and speed of material categorization in real-world images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Lavanya; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Adelson, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    It is easy to visually distinguish a ceramic knife from one made of steel, a leather jacket from one made of denim, and a plush toy from one made of plastic. Most studies of material appearance have focused on the estimation of specific material properties such as albedo or surface gloss, and as a consequence, almost nothing is known about how we recognize material categories like leather or plastic. We have studied judgments of high-level material categories with a diverse set of real-world photographs, and we have shown (Sharan, 2009) that observers can categorize materials reliably and quickly. Performance on our tasks cannot be explained by simple differences in color, surface shape, or texture. Nor can the results be explained by observers merely performing shape-based object recognition. Rather, we argue that fast and accurate material categorization is a distinct, basic ability of the visual system. PMID:25122216

  1. Local self-similarity descriptor for point-of-interest reconstruction of real-world scenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xianglu; Wan, Weibing; Zhao, Qunfei; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-01-01

    Scene reconstruction is utilized commonly in close-range photogrammetry, with diverse applications in fields such as industry, biology, and aerospace industries. Presented surfaces or wireframe three-dimensional (3D) model reconstruction applications are either too complex or too inflexible to accommodate various types of real-world scenes, however. This paper proposes an algorithm for acquiring point-of-interest (referred to throughout the study as POI) coordinates in 3D space, based on multi-view geometry and a local self-similarity descriptor. After reconstructing several POIs specified by a user, a concise and flexible target object measurement method, which obtains the distance between POIs, is described in detail. The proposed technique is able to measure targets with high accuracy even in the presence of obstacles and non-Lambertian surfaces. The method is so flexible that target objects can be measured with a handheld digital camera. Experimental results further demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. (paper)

  2. From the ideal to the real world: a phenomenological inquiry into student sojourners' reentry adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Feilin

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examines the thematic structure of reentry transition for international music therapy graduates who have returned home after studying in the United States. Emphasis is placed upon career development. Standardized open-ended interviews were used to obtain rich and in-depth descriptions of the participants' experiences. Ten music therapists from six countries participated in the study. The themes that emerged from the data include moving from the ideal to the real world, shifting from the role of student to professional, confronting reality and working through challenges, and achieving personal growth and self-transformation. The dynamics of cross-cultural comparison, confronting the home culture, and redefining music therapy and professional identities within the local cultural context are illustrated via quotations from the participants. Implications and recommendations for music therapy education and career preparation for international graduates are discussed.

  3. Experiences from Real-World Deployment of Context-Aware Technologies in a Hospital Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Mogensen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    and discuss our experiences from an ongoing deployment of a suite of context-aware technologies and applications in a hospital environment, including a context-awareness infrastructure, a location tracking system, and two context-aware applications running on interactive wall displays and mobile phones. Based......Context-aware computing is a central concept in ubiquitous computing and many suggestions for context-aware technologies and applications have been proposed. There is, however, little evidence on how these concepts and technologies play out in a real-world setting. In this paper we describe...... on an analysis of the use of these systems, we observe that many of the ideas behind context-aware computing are valid, and that the context-aware applications are useful for clinicians in their work. By reflecting on the nature of the designed context-aware technologies, we present a model which states...

  4. Getting Real Results with Ohio State University Extension’s Real Money. Real World. Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Ferrari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth development organizations have a unique opportunity to offer programs that help young people develop financial skills they need to become successful adults. This article describes Ohio State University Extension’s Real Money. Real World. (RMRW and the systematic approach used to evaluate its effectiveness. The RMRW curriculum includes an active, hands-on experience that gives young people the opportunity to make lifestyle and budget choices similar to those they will make as adults. The realistic simulation creates a teachable moment. The outcomes of the statewide evaluation clearly indicate the curriculum accomplishes its goals of raising awareness, changing attitudes, and motivating students to plan for behavior changes concerning financial management, education, and career choices. The article concludes with a discussion of the organizational outcomes of conducting the evaluation.

  5. Real-World Outcomes and Critical Thinking: Differential Analysis by Academic Major and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Real-World Outcomes is an inventory that measures everyday problematic behaviors that represent decisions where critical thinking is presumably absent; assessing the negative outcomes of poor daily decisions helps to infer the degree of critical thinking that mediates everyday reasoning. In the present paper, we describe the process of translation and cultural adaptation of this inventory to Portuguese. We present evidence of its administration to 259 college students concerning reliability, and differences based on academic major and gender. No statistically significant differences were found, either due to academic major or gender. Results suggest the value of this instrument to assessing daily decision making and life outcomes, and also, to estimate the quality of critical thinking in everyday life.

  6. Synthetic graph generation for data-intensive HPC benchmarking: Scalability, analysis and real-world application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Sarah S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lothian, Joshua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allows the emulation of a broad spectrum of application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report described the in-depth analysis of the generated synthetic graphs' properties at a variety of scales using different generator implementations and examines their applicability to replicating real world datasets.

  7. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  8. Drawing the Ideal World and Real World: A Study of Lesbian, Labour and Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Luiz Caproni Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the experience of lesbian women in Juiz de Fora on the scope of work, society and the individual, from drawings made by them. Discussed the experience of sexuality and lesbophobia as aspects present in their lives and at work, considering that fall into a heteronormative context. So, we conducted a qualitative study with the preparation of drawings and interviews that allowed the construction of categories: being lesbian, inclusion and social integration, personal and professional development, and real world and the ideal world. These drawings are shown as a rich and interesting technique to provide access to their subjective and symbolic dimensions as to their social and work experiences. Finally, we advocate a reflective and humanistic stance both in society and in organizations about the socially constructed and valued patterns that can marginalize or stigmatize those fleeing them.

  9. A Practical Framework for Sharing and Rendering Real-World Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Greg [Anywhere Software, Albany, CA (United States); Kurt, Murat [International Computer Institute, Ege University (Turkey); Bonneel, Nicolas [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The utilization of real-world materials has been hindered by a lack of standards for sharing and interpreting measured data. This paper presents an XML representation and an Open Source C library to support bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) in data-driven lighting simulation and rendering applications.The library provides for the efficient representation, query, and Monte Carlo sampling of arbitrary BSDFs in amodel-free framework. Currently, we support two BSDF data representations: one using a fixed subdivision of thehemisphere, and one with adaptive density. The fixed type has advantages for certain matrix operations, while theadaptive type can more accurately represent highly peaked data. We discuss advanced methods for data-drivenBSDF rendering for both types, including the proxy of detailed geometry to enhance appearance and accuracy.We also present an advanced interpolation method to reduce measured data into these standard representations.We end with our plan for future extensions and sharing of BSDF data.

  10. Accuracy and speed of material categorization in real-world images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Lavanya; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Adelson, Edward H

    2014-08-13

    It is easy to visually distinguish a ceramic knife from one made of steel, a leather jacket from one made of denim, and a plush toy from one made of plastic. Most studies of material appearance have focused on the estimation of specific material properties such as albedo or surface gloss, and as a consequence, almost nothing is known about how we recognize material categories like leather or plastic. We have studied judgments of high-level material categories with a diverse set of real-world photographs, and we have shown (Sharan, 2009) that observers can categorize materials reliably and quickly. Performance on our tasks cannot be explained by simple differences in color, surface shape, or texture. Nor can the results be explained by observers merely performing shape-based object recognition. Rather, we argue that fast and accurate material categorization is a distinct, basic ability of the visual system. © 2014 ARVO.

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of risk minimisation measures: the application of a conceptual framework to Danish real-world dabigatran data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeland, Martin Erik; Laursen, Mona Vestergaard; Callréus, Torbjörn

    2017-06-01

    For both marketing authorization holders and regulatory authorities, evaluating the effectiveness of risk minimization measures is now an integral part of pharmacovigilance in the European Union. The overall aim of activities in this area is to assess the performance of risk minimization measures implemented in order to ensure a positive benefit-risk balance in patients treated with a medicinal product. Following a review of the relevant literature, we developed a conceptual framework consisting of four domains (data, knowledge, behaviour and outcomes) intended for the evaluation of risk minimization measures put into practice in the Danish health-care system. For the implementation of the framework, four classes of monitoring variables can be named and defined: patient descriptors, performance-related indicators of knowledge, behaviour and outcomes. We reviewed the features of the framework when applied to historical, real-world data following the introduction of dabigatran in Denmark for the prophylactic treatment of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The application of the framework provided useful graphical displays and an opportunity for a statistical evaluation (interrupted time series analysis) of a regulatory intervention. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Green Routing Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment: A Case Study on California Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    New technologies, such as connected and automated vehicles, have attracted more and more researchers for improving the energy efficiency and environmental impact of current transportation systems. The green routing strategy instructs a vehicle to select the most fuel-efficient route before the vehicle departs. It benefits the current transportation system with fuel saving opportunity through identifying the greenest route. This paper introduces an evaluation framework for estimating benefits of green routing based on large-scale, real-world travel data. The framework has the capability to quantify fuel savings by estimating the fuel consumption of actual routes and comparing to routes procured by navigation systems. A route-based fuel consumption estimation model, considering road traffic conditions, functional class, and road grade is proposed and used in the framework. An experiment using a large-scale data set from the California Household Travel Survey global positioning system trajectory data base indicates that 31% of actual routes have fuel savings potential with a cumulative estimated fuel savings of 12%.

  13. Deconstruction of Interhospital Transfer Workflow in Large Vessel Occlusion: Real-World Data in the Thrombectomy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Felix C; Low, Essie; Andrew, Emily; Smith, Karen; Campbell, Bruce C V; Hand, Peter J; Crompton, Douglas E; Wijeratne, Tissa; Dewey, Helen M; Choi, Philip M

    2017-07-01

    Interhospital transfer is a critical component in the treatment of acute anterior circulation large vessel occlusive stroke transferred for mechanical thrombectomy. Real-world data for benchmarking and theoretical modeling are limited. We sought to characterize transfer workflow from primary stroke center (PSC) to comprehensive stroke center after the publication of positive thrombectomy trials. Consecutive patients transferred from 3 high-volume PSCs to a single comprehensive stroke center between January 2015 and August 2016 were included in a retrospective study. Factors associated with key time metrics were analyzed with emphasis on PSC intrahospital workflow. Sixty-seven patients were identified. Median age was 74 years (interquartile range [IQR], 63.5-78) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 17 (IQR, 12-21). Median transfer time measured by PSC-door-to-comprehensive stroke center-door was 128 minutes (IQR, 107-164), of which 82.8% was spent at PSCs (door-in-door-out [DIDO]; 106 minutes; IQR, 86-143). The lengthiest component of DIDO was computed-tomography-to-retrieval-request (median 59.5 minutes; IQR, 44-83). The 37.3% had DIDO exceeding 120 minutes. DIDO times differed significantly between PSCs ( P =0.01). In multivariate analyses, rerecruiting the initial ambulance crew for transfer ( P workflow represents a major opportunity to expedite mechanical thrombectomy and improve patient outcomes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  15. Green Routing Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment: A Case Study on California Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei; Holden, Jacob; Gonder, Jeff; Wood, Eric

    2017-07-13

    New technologies, such as connected and automated vehicles, have attracted more and more researchers for improving the energy efficiency and environmental impact of current transportation systems. The green routing strategy instructs a vehicle to select the most fuel-efficient route before the vehicle departs. It benefits the current transportation system with fuel saving opportunity through identifying the greenest route. This paper introduces an evaluation framework for estimating benefits of green routing based on large-scale, real-world travel data. The framework has the capability to quantify fuel savings by estimating the fuel consumption of actual routes and comparing to routes procured by navigation systems. A route-based fuel consumption estimation model, considering road traffic conditions, functional class, and road grade is proposed and used in the framework. An experiment using a large-scale data set from the California Household Travel Survey global positioning system trajectory data base indicates that 31% of actual routes have fuel savings potential with a cumulative estimated fuel savings of 12%.

  16. Trip Energy Estimation Methodology and Model Based on Real-World Driving Data for Green Routing Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Til, Harrison J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-09

    A data-informed model to predict energy use for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed in this paper. The methodology leverages nearly 1 million miles of real-world driving data to generate the estimation model. Driving is categorized at the sub-trip level by average speed, road gradient, and road network geometry, then aggregated by category. An average energy consumption rate is determined for each category, creating an energy rates look-up table. Proposed vehicle trips are then categorized in the same manner, and estimated energy rates are appended from the look-up table. The methodology is robust and applicable to almost any type of driving data. The model has been trained on vehicle global positioning system data from the Transportation Secure Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and validated against on-road fuel consumption data from testing in Phoenix, Arizona. The estimation model has demonstrated an error range of 8.6% to 13.8%. The model results can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations to reduce energy consumption. This work provides a highly extensible framework that allows the model to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

  17. The patient-physician partnership in asthma: real-world observations associated with clinical and patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, M; Vickers, A; Anderson, P; Kay, S

    2010-09-01

    It is hypothesized that a good partnership between asthma patients and their physicians has a direct and positive influence on the patients' clinical and patient-reported outcomes. Conversely, poor partnership has a detrimental effect on clinical and patient-reported outcomes. This paper uses data from a real-world observational study to define partnership through matched physician and patient data and correlate the quality of partnership with observed clinical and patient-reported outcomes. Data were drawn from Adelphi's Respiratory Disease Specific Programme, a cross-sectional study of consulting patients in five European countries undertaken between June and September 2009. A range of clinical and patient-reported outcomes were observed allowing analysis of the partnership between 2251 asthma patients and their physicians. Analysis demonstrates that the better the partnership between patient and physician, the more likely the patient is to have their asthma condition controlled (PPartnership is also associated with lower impact on lifestyle (Ppartnership is a contributory factor in the improvement of asthma treatment, and patient education may lead to improvement in a patient's ability to contribute to this. Device satisfaction is one of the markers of good partnership.

  18. Impact of emotional intelligence on risk behaviour with mediating effect of positive and negative affect

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, I. (Iqra)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Emotional intelligence and risk taking behaviour are considered as significant factors through which people engage in organizations and in daily life. This dissertation formulates the linkage between emotional intelligence, positive affect, negative affect and risk taking behavior. The underlying principle of this study was to develop a sense of relationship between emotional intelligence, positive affect, negative...

  19. Affective Development in Advanced Old Age: Analyses of Terminal Change in Positive and Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wiegering, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Late-life development of affect may unfold terminal changes that are driven more by end-of-life processes and not so much by time since birth. This study aimed to explore time-to-death-related effects in measures of affect in a sample of the very old. We used longitudinal data (2 measurement occasions: 2002 and 2003) from 140 deceased…

  20. A Dynamic Speech Comprehension Test for Assessing Real-World Listening Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Keidser, Gitte; Freeston, Katrina; Buchholz, Jörg M

    2016-07-01

    Many listeners with hearing loss report particular difficulties with multitalker communication situations, but these difficulties are not well predicted using current clinical and laboratory assessment tools. The overall aim of this work is to create new speech tests that capture key aspects of multitalker communication situations and ultimately provide better predictions of real-world communication abilities and the effect of hearing aids. A test of ongoing speech comprehension introduced previously was extended to include naturalistic conversations between multiple talkers as targets, and a reverberant background environment containing competing conversations. In this article, we describe the development of this test and present a validation study. Thirty listeners with normal hearing participated in this study. Speech comprehension was measured for one-, two-, and three-talker passages at three different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and working memory ability was measured using the reading span test. Analyses were conducted to examine passage equivalence, learning effects, and test-retest reliability, and to characterize the effects of number of talkers and SNR. Although we observed differences in difficulty across passages, it was possible to group the passages into four equivalent sets. Using this grouping, we achieved good test-retest reliability and observed no significant learning effects. Comprehension performance was sensitive to the SNR but did not decrease as the number of talkers increased. Individual performance showed associations with age and reading span score. This new dynamic speech comprehension test appears to be valid and suitable for experimental purposes. Further work will explore its utility as a tool for predicting real-world communication ability and hearing aid benefit. American Academy of Audiology.

  1. Fairer machine learning in the real world: Mitigating discrimination without collecting sensitive data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Veale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Decisions based on algorithmic, machine learning models can be unfair, reproducing biases in historical data used to train them. While computational techniques are emerging to address aspects of these concerns through communities such as discrimination-aware data mining (DADM and fairness, accountability and transparency machine learning (FATML, their practical implementation faces real-world challenges. For legal, institutional or commercial reasons, organisations might not hold the data on sensitive attributes such as gender, ethnicity, sexuality or disability needed to diagnose and mitigate emergent indirect discrimination-by-proxy, such as redlining. Such organisations might also lack the knowledge and capacity to identify and manage fairness issues that are emergent properties of complex sociotechnical systems. This paper presents and discusses three potential approaches to deal with such knowledge and information deficits in the context of fairer machine learning. Trusted third parties could selectively store data necessary for performing discrimination discovery and incorporating fairness constraints into model-building in a privacy-preserving manner. Collaborative online platforms would allow diverse organisations to record, share and access contextual and experiential knowledge to promote fairness in machine learning systems. Finally, unsupervised learning and pedagogically interpretable algorithms might allow fairness hypotheses to be built for further selective testing and exploration. Real-world fairness challenges in machine learning are not abstract, constrained optimisation problems, but are institutionally and contextually grounded. Computational fairness tools are useful, but must be researched and developed in and with the messy contexts that will shape their deployment, rather than just for imagined situations. Not doing so risks real, near-term algorithmic harm.

  2. Real-World Multicenter Registry of Patients with Severe Coronary Artery Calcification Undergoing Orbital Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Shlofmitz, Evan; Kaplan, Barry; Alexandru, Dragos; Meraj, Perwaiz; Shlofmitz, Richard

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the safety and efficacy of orbital atherectomy in real-world patients with severe coronary artery calcification (CAC). The presence of severe CAC increases the complexity of percutaneous coronary intervention as it may impede stent delivery and optimal stent expansion. Atherectomy may be an indispensable tool for uncrossable or undilatable lesions by modifying severe CAC. Although the ORBIT I and II trials report that orbital atherectomy was safe and effective for the treatment of severe CAC, patients with kidney disease, recent myocardial infarction, long diffuse disease, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and unprotected left main disease were excluded. This retrospective study included 458 consecutive patients with severe CAC who underwent orbital atherectomy followed by stenting from October 2013 to December 2015 at 3 centers. The primary endpoint of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 30 days was 1.7%. Low rates of 30-day all-cause mortality (1.3%), myocardial infarction (1.1%), target vessel revascularization (0%), stroke (0.2%), and stent thrombosis (0.9%) were observed. Angiographic complications were low: perforation was 0.7%, dissection 0.9%, and no-reflow 0.7%. Emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery was performed in 0.2% of patients. In the largest real-world study of patients who underwent orbital atherectomy, including high-risk patients who were not surgical candidates as well as those with very complex coronary anatomy, acute and short-term adverse clinical event rates were low. A randomized clinical trial is needed to identify the ideal treatment strategy for patients with severe CAC. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Interventional Cardiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Designing "Real-World" trials to meet the needs of health policy makers at marketing authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick

    2011-07-01

    There is increasing interest in conducting "Real-World" trials that go beyond traditional assessment of efficacy and safety to examine market access and value for money questions before marketing authorization of a new pharmaceutical product or health technology. This commentary uses practical examples to demonstrate how high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention may be gained earlier in the development process. Issues surrounding the design and analysis of "Real-World" trials to demonstrate relative cost-effectiveness early in the life of new technologies are discussed. The modification of traditional phase III trial designs, de novo trial designs, the combination of trial-based and epidemiological data, and the use of simulation model-based approaches to address reimbursement questions are described. Modest changes to a phase III trial protocol and case report form may be undertaken at the design stage to provide valid estimates of health care use and the benefits accrued; however, phase III designs often preclude "real-life" practice. Relatively small de novo trials may be used to address adherence to therapy or patient preference, although simply designed studies with active comparators enrolling large numbers of patients may provide evidence on long-term safety and rare adverse events. Practical examples demonstrate that it is possible to provide high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention earlier in the development process. Payers and decision makers should preferentially adopt treatments with such evidence than treatments for which evidence is lacking or of lower quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain-to-Brain Synchrony Tracks Real-World Dynamic Group Interactions in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikker, Suzanne; Wan, Lu; Davidesco, Ido; Kaggen, Lisa; Oostrik, Matthias; McClintock, James; Rowland, Jess; Michalareas, Georgios; Van Bavel, Jay J; Ding, Mingzhou; Poeppel, David

    2017-05-08

    The human brain has evolved for group living [1]. Yet we know so little about how it supports dynamic group interactions that the study of real-world social exchanges has been dubbed the "dark matter of social neuroscience" [2]. Recently, various studies have begun to approach this question by comparing brain responses of multiple individuals during a variety of (semi-naturalistic) tasks [3-15]. These experiments reveal how stimulus properties [13], individual differences [14], and contextual factors [15] may underpin similarities and differences in neural activity across people. However, most studies to date suffer from various limitations: they often lack direct face-to-face interaction between participants, are typically limited to dyads, do not investigate social dynamics across time, and, crucially, they rarely study social behavior under naturalistic circumstances. Here we extend such experimentation drastically, beyond dyads and beyond laboratory walls, to identify neural markers of group engagement during dynamic real-world group interactions. We used portable electroencephalogram (EEG) to simultaneously record brain activity from a class of 12 high school students over the course of a semester (11 classes) during regular classroom activities (Figures 1A-1C; Supplemental Experimental Procedures, section S1). A novel analysis technique to assess group-based neural coherence demonstrates that the extent to which brain activity is synchronized across students predicts both student class engagement and social dynamics. This suggests that brain-to-brain synchrony is a possible neural marker for dynamic social interactions, likely driven by shared attention mechanisms. This study validates a promising new method to investigate the neuroscience of group interactions in ecologically natural settings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementing Peer Learning in Clinical Education: A Framework to Address Challenges In the "Real World".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joanna Hong Meng; Canny, Benedict J; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Peer learning has many benefits and can assist students in gaining the educational skills required in future years when they become teachers themselves. Peer learning may be particularly useful in clinical learning environments, where students report feeling marginalized, overwhelmed, and unsupported. Educational interventions often fail in the workplace environment, as they are often conceived in the "ideal" rather than the complex, messy real world. This work sought to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing peer learning activities in a clinical curriculum. Previous peer learning research results and a matrix of empirically derived peer learning activities were presented to local clinical education experts to generate discussion around the realities of implementing such activities. Potential barriers and limitations of and strategies for implementing peer learning in clinical education were the focus of the individual interviews. Thematic analysis of the data identified three key considerations for real-world implementation of peer learning: culture, epistemic authority, and the primacy of patient-centered care. Strategies for peer learning implementation were also developed from themes within the data, focusing on developing a culture of safety in which peer learning could be undertaken, engaging both educators and students, and establishing expectations for the use of peer learning. Insights: This study identified considerations and strategies for the implementation of peer learning activities, which took into account both educator and student roles. Reported challenges were reflective of those identified within the literature. The resultant framework may aid others in anticipating implementation challenges. Further work is required to test the framework's application in other contexts and its effect on learner outcomes.

  6. Real world efficiency of retrofit partial-flow diesel particulate filters for trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Asch, R.; Verbeek, R.; Ligterink, N.; Kadijk, G.

    2009-11-01

    In 2006 the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) introduced an incentive scheme for retrofitting diesel particulate filters on Euro II and Euro III trucks. This scheme involves both partial flow and full flow diesel particulate filters (also called semi-open or open respectively wall-flow or closed filters). In the period 2007 till January 2009 about 15,000 partial flow filters and 8,000 full flow diesel particulate filters were installed. The minimum filtration efficiency requirement for the partial flow diesel particulate filters is 50% during the type approval test. In 2008 an engine dynamometer test programme was conducted to measure the filtration efficiency of retrofit open particulates filters of heavy trucks. This led to somewhat disappointing results with average filtration efficiencies in the range of 5-20% during city and national motorway driving conditions up to 20-40% during long distance motorway driving. This result leads to two main questions: (1) Is this result also representative for medium heavy trucks used for delivery, and (2) do similar efficiencies show up also in tests on entire vehicles, tested under conditions as close as possible to their real world usage profile. To this end, an additional measurement programme was defined, which is reported here. The objective of the study reported here is to determine the real world filtration efficiency of retrofit partial flow particulate filters for a number of trucks under different driving conditions such as city and motorway driving. The emphasis should be on medium heavy trucks typically used for national delivery.

  7. Investigating the effects of tea, water and a positive affect induction on mood and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einöther, S.J.L.; Baas, M.; Rowson, M.; Giesbrecht, T.

    2015-01-01

    Positive affect has been shown to be predictive of improved creativity. This study investigated the immediate effect of the tea experience on positive affect and creativity, compared to both a neutral and positive control condition. Regular tea drinkers (N = 150) were allocated to three conditions:

  8. Coping, goal adjustment, and positive and negative affect in definitive infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, V.; Garnefski, N.; Schroevers, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between coping strategies, goal adjustment and positive and negative affect were studied in 83 definitive involuntary childless people. Self-report questionnaires were filled out. The findings suggested that positive ways to handle the childlessness were related to positive affect,

  9. Heritability of Intraindividual Mean and Variability of Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; von Stumm, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    Positive affect (e.g., attentiveness) and negative affect (e.g., upset) fluctuate over time. We examined genetic influences on interindividual differences in the day-to-day variability of affect (i.e., ups and downs) and in average affect over the duration of a month. Once a day, 17-year-old twins in the United Kingdom ( N = 447) rated their positive and negative affect online. The mean and standard deviation of each individual's daily ratings across the month were used as the measures of that individual's average affect and variability of affect. Analyses revealed that the average of negative affect was significantly heritable (.53), but the average of positive affect was not; instead, the latter showed significant shared environmental influences (.42). Fluctuations across the month were significantly heritable for both negative affect (.54) and positive affect (.34). The findings support the two-factor theory of affect, which posits that positive affect is more situational and negative affect is more dispositional.

  10. A Comprehensive Review of Low-Speed Rear Impact Volunteer Studies and a Comparison to Real-World Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Joseph; Gwin, Lisa; Reinhart, Lars; Wood, Rawson; Bain, Charles

    2018-02-27

    This study combined all prior research involving human volunteers in low-speed rear-end impacts and performed a comparative analysis of real-world crashes using the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of neck pain between volunteer and real-world collisions as well as the likelihood of an injury beyond symptoms as a function of impact severity and occupant characteristics in real-world collisions. A total of 51 human volunteer studies were identified that produced a dataset of 1984 volunteer impacts along with a separate dataset of 515,601 weighted occupants in real-world rear impacts. Operating-characteristic curves were created to assess the utility of the volunteer dataset in making predictions regarding the overall population. Change in speed or delta-V was used to model the likelihood of reporting symptoms in both real-world and volunteer exposures and more severe injuries using real-world data. Logistic regression models were created for the volunteer data and survey techniques were used to analyze the weighted sampling scheme with the National Automotive Sampling System database. Symptom reporting rates were not different between males and females and were nearly identical between laboratory and real-world exposures. The minimal risk of injury predicted by real-world exposure is consistent with the statistical power of the large number of volunteer studies without any injury beyond the reporting of neck pain. This study shows that volunteer studies do not under-report symptoms and are sufficient in number to conclude that the risk of injury beyond neck strain under similar conditions is essentially zero. The real-world injury analyses demonstrate that rear impacts do not produce meaningful risks of cervical injury at impacts of similar and greater severity to those of the volunteer research. Future work concerning the mechanism of whiplash-related trauma should focus on impacts of

  11. On the link between different combinations of Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA) and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the assumed orthogonality of Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), the effects of the different combinations of NA and PA on work-related outcomes such as job performance have been neglected. The present study among 42 employees of a local social services department in the

  12. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    In order to confront the abstractness of the freshman chemistry syllabus and the consequent failure of students to relate what they learn to their everyday lives, we have designed a new freshman laboratory program. It is intended as an interface between the substances that surround the students in their ordinary lives and the abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms (1). A laboratory should provide the organized experiences and observations that underlie the intellectual constructs of chemistry, and tying these experiences and observations to the real world can help to provide motivation for study of the principles. The freshman laboratory program constitutes the foundation for subsequent laboratory courses. However, the good habits we strive to develop there (careful observation, thorough record keeping, proper use of equipment, objective data analysis) are essential to all scientific work, and are intended to provide lasting educational value for all students, especially those who do not take later laboratory work. What We Do A list of the laboratory exercises carried out during 1994-1995 is presented in Table 1. The course incorporates the following features. 1. The exercises deal with recognizable, everyday substances, not just with "chemicals". That "baking soda" and "sodium bicarbonate" are the same is a chemical truism of which the students may be aware, but the visible presence of the Arm and Hammer box nevertheless helps them to make connections to the world outside the laboratory. Perceiving the connections, students may be inspired by curiosity to understand chemical phenomena better, not just to tolerate what they are being taught, as an irrelevant hurdle in the pursuit of a career. 2. Since many significant substances around students in the everyday world are organic, we work in the lab with organic as well as the usual inorganic materials. These include analgesics, vitamins, antifreeze, foodstuffs, dyestuffs, plastics, and fibers. In

  13. Frontal and oblique crash tests of HIII 6-year-old child ATD using real-world, observed child passenger postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Katarina; Arbogast, Kristy B; Loeb, Helen; Charlton, Judith L; Koppel, Sjaan; Cross, Suzanne L

    2018-02-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of frontal and oblique crashes when positioning a Hybrid III (HIII) 6-year-old child anthropometric test device (ATD) using observed child passenger postures from a naturalistic driving study (NDS). Five positions for booster-seated children aged 4-7 years were selected, including one reference position according to the FMVSS 213 ATD seating protocol and 4 based on real-world observed child passenger postures from an NDS including 2 user positions with forward tilting torso and 2 that combined both forward and lateral inboard tilting of the torso. Seventeen sled tests were conducted in a mid-sized vehicle body at 64 km/h (European New Car Assessment Programme [Euro NCAP] Offset Deformable Barrier [ODB] pulse), in full frontal and oblique (15°) crash directions. The rear-seated HIII 6-year-old child ATD was restrained on a high-back booster seat. In 10 tests, the booster seat was also attached with a top tether. In the oblique tests, the ATD was positioned on the far side. Three camera views and ATD responses (head, neck, and chest) were analyzed. The shoulder belt slipped off the shoulder in all ATD positions in the oblique test configuration. In full frontal tests, the shoulder belt stayed on the shoulder in 3 out of 9 tests. Head acceleration and neck tension were decreased in the forward leaning positions; however, the total head excursion increased up to 210 mm compared to te reference position, due to belt slip-off and initial forward leaning position. These results suggest that real-world child passenger postures may contribute to shoulder belt slip-off and increased head excursion, thus increasing the risk of head injury. Restraint system development needs to include a wider range of sitting postures that children may choose, in addition to the specified postures of ATDs in seating test protocols, to ensure robust performance across diverse use cases. In addition, these tests revealed that the child

  14. Study of emissions and fuel economy for parallel hybrid versus conventional vehicles on real world and standard driving cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Samari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs increasing rapidly in the automobile markets. However, the benefits out of using this kind of vehicles are still concerned a lot of costumers. This work investigated the expected benefits (such as decreasing emissions and increasing fuel economy from using the parallel HEV in comparison to the conventional vehicle model of the real-world and standard driving cycles. The software Autonomie used in this study to simulate the parallel HEV and conventional models on these driving cycles.The results show that the fuel economy (FE can be improved significantly up to 68% on real-world driving cycle, which is represented mostly city activities. However, the FE improvement was limited (10% on the highway driving cycle, and this is expected since the using of brake system was infrequent. Moreover, the emissions from parallel HEV decreased about 40% on the real-world driving cycle, and decreased 11% on the highway driving cycle. Finally, the engine efficiency, improved about 12% on the real-world driving cycle, and about 7% on highway driving cycle. Keywords: Emissions, Hybrid electric vehicles, Fuel economy, Real-world driving cycle

  15. Leisure Activity Engagement and Positive Affect Partially Mediate the Relationship Between Positive Views on Aging and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie A; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2017-03-01

    To examine leisure activity engagement and positive affect as potential mediators for the relationships between positive views on aging (PVA) and two health outcomes: subjective health and physical limitations. Data from 5,194 participants from the German Ageing Survey (aged 40-91 years) were used to examine relationships between PVA to subjective health (assessed by self-rated health and perceived health change from past) and physical limitations (assessed via self-reported limitations on 10 activities). Leisure activity engagement and positive affect were examined as potential mediators in latent variable path analyses. Age moderation among these relationships was also examined. Leisure activity engagement and positive affect separately and jointly served to partially mediate the relationships between PVA and the health outcomes. When entered as joint mediators, positive affect no longer significantly predicted physical limitations, indicating a shared variance with leisure activity engagement. Age moderated the relationship between PVA and physical limitations; the relationship was stronger among older adults than among middle-aged adults. Leisure activity engagement and positive affect were shown to help explain the relationship between PVA and health, but differently for different health constructs and also among middle-aged and older adults. Findings provide further insight into ways in which PVA influence health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Associations between positive and negative affect and 12-month physical disorders in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    Associations between positive and negative affect and a range of 12-month physical disorders were investigated in the Midlife Development in the United States Survey, a nationally representative sample of 3,032 adults ages 25-74. These associations were examined, controlling for relevant sociodemographic and psychiatric covariates. High positive affect was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders, whereas high negative affect was associated with increased risk. However, associations between positive affect and physical disorders were partially attenuated following adjustment for concurrent negative affect. Additionally, high affect balance was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders before and after adjustments. These findings underscore the relevance of affective disposition in health status, suggesting that both positive and negative affect may serve as viable health risk parameters.

  17. An exploration of antecedents of positive affect among the elderly: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Positive affect contributes to the healthy life style, which, in turn, explains life satisfaction and psychological well-being among the elderly. Existent literature has reinforced that physical activity participation influences development of positive affect for the elderly. Because of the increased life constraints and physical problems, however, maintenance of positive affect might be challenging for elderly people. Methods : Data were drawn from a sample of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. A total sample of 3845 males and 3912 females aged between 65 and 103 years from 16 European countries was analyzed. Perception of life constraints, health problems, physical activity engagement and positive affect were measured by a structured questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis and a technique of structural equation modelling were employed using Amos 18 to examine the hypothesized relationships between study variables. Results: Perceived life constraints and physical problems significantly affected the acquisition of positive affect among the elderly. Physical activity was found to have a significant path coefficient towards the measure of positive attitude and emotion. Physical activity was also a significant mediator between physical problems and positive affect. Conclusions: This study extended our understanding of how the perception of life constraints and health problems influence the elderly’s daily experience. Study finding reinforced the goodness of physical activity participation to enhance positive affect among the elderly. We should administer sustainable and evidence-based physical activity including interventions and infrastructure to improve positive affect and psychological well-bing among the elderly. PMID:25829500

  18. The Relationship Between Trust-in-God, Positive and Negative Affect, and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadardi, Javad S; Azadi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test the relationships between Trust-in-God, positive and negative affect, and feelings of hope. A sample of university students (N = 282, 50 % female) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and a Persian measure of Trust-in-God for Muslims. The results of a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that Trust-in-God was positively associated with participants' scores for hope and positive affect but was negatively associated with their scores for negative affect. The results support the relationship between Trust-in-God and indices of mental health.

  19. Allostatic load in parents of children with developmental disorders: moderating influence of positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L; Greenberg, Jan S; Hong, Jinkuk

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether parents of children with developmental disorders are at risk of elevated allostatic load relative to control parents and whether positive affect moderates difference in risk. In all, 38 parents of children with developmental disorders and 38 matched comparison parents were analyzed. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between parent status and positive affect: parents of children with developmental disorders had lower allostatic load when they had higher positive affect, whereas no such association was evident for comparison parents. The findings suggest that promoting greater positive affect may lower health risks among parents of children with developmental disorders.

  20. Daily events are important for age differences in mean and duration for negative affect but not positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Susan T; Mogle, Jacqueline; Urban, Emily J; Almeida, David M

    2016-11-01

    Across midlife and into old age, older adults often report lower levels of negative affect and similar if not higher levels of positive affect than relatively younger adults. Researchers have offered a simple explanation for this result: Age is related to reductions in stressors and increases in pleasurable activities that result in higher levels of well-being. The current study examines subjective reports of emotional experience assessed across 8 days in a large sample of adults (N = 2,022) ranging from 35 to 84 years old. By modeling age differences before and after adjusting for daily positive uplifts and negative stressors, this article assesses the extent to which daily events account for age differences in positive and negative affect reports. Consistent with previous research, the authors found that older age is related to lower mean levels and shorter duration of a negative emotional experience in a model only adjusting for gender, education, and ethnicity. After adjusting for daily events, however, the linear age-related effects were no longer significant. For positive affect, adjusting for daily events did not alter age-related patterns of experiencing higher mean levels and longer positive experience duration, suggesting that other factors underlie age-related increases in positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Resilience in Adolescents with Cancer: Association of Coping with Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lexa K; Bettis, Alexandra H; Gruhn, Meredith A; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Compas, Bruce E

    2017-10-01

    To examine the prospective association between adolescents' coping with cancer-related stress and observed positive and negative affect during a mother-adolescent interaction task involving discussion of cancer-related stressors. Adolescents (age 10-15 years) self-reported about their coping and affect approximately 2 months after cancer diagnosis. Approximately 3 months later, adolescents and mothers were video recorded having a discussion about cancer, and adolescents were coded for expression of positive affect (positive mood) and negative affect (sadness and anxiety). Adolescents' use of secondary control coping (i.e., acceptance, cognitive reappraisal, and distraction) in response to cancer-related stress predicted higher levels of observed positive affect, but not negative affect, over time. Findings provide support for the importance of coping in the regulation of positive emotions. The potential role of coping in preventive interventions to enhance resilience in adolescents facing cancer-related stress is highlighted.

  2. The effects of mind-body training on stress reduction, positive affect, and plasma catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Kang, Do-Hyung; Jang, Joon Hwan; Park, Hye Yoon; Byun, Min Soo; Kwon, Soo Jin; Jang, Go-Eun; Lee, Ul Soon; An, Seung Chan; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2010-07-26

    This study was designed to assess the association between stress, positive affect and catecholamine levels in meditation and control groups. The meditation group consisted of 67 subjects who regularly engaged in mind-body training of "Brain-Wave Vibration" and the control group consisted of 57 healthy subjects. Plasma catecholamine (norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)) levels were measured, and a modified form of the Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) were administered. The meditation group showed higher scores on positive affect (p=.019) and lower scores on stress (pmind-body training is associated with lower stress, higher positive affect and higher plasma DA levels when comparing the meditation group with the control group. Thus, mind-body training may influence stress, positive affect and the sympathetic nervous system including DA activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How to do Research in the Real world: What is to know and Who is to gain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Anne Marie Anker

    2016-01-01

    a specific line of research. This, again, requires time. In the presentation, I will propose new concepts concerning real world research and knowledge production. The presentation will be based on data from a collaborative organizational field study. The aim of the study was establish a coherent practice...... of multidisciplinary collaboration between day-care and social services to support and aid children and families at risk. First, I propose the concepts of a) Development through Research and b) Research through Development. Both concepts are inter-dependent. They share development as a goal and both require applying......Real world research: The need for different types of knowledge requires two knowledge production processes In real world research, there are dilemmas. One significant dilemma is time. The field of practice needs a type of knowledge that is produced quickly and can be applied immediately...

  4. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2015-02-01

    It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures increase vehicle fuel consumption due to heat transfer losses, increased friction (increased viscosity lubricants), and enrichment strategies (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large set of real world drive cycle data and ambient conditions. This work leverages experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under various drive cycles and ambient conditions to develop a simplified modeling framework for quantifying thermal effects on vehicle energy consumption. These models are applied over a wide array of real-world usage profiles and typical meteorological data to develop estimates of in-use fuel economy. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this integrated testing/modeling approach may be applied to quantify real-world, off-cycle fuel economy benefits of various technologies.

  5. Associations of positive affect and negative affect with allostatic load : A Lifelines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Hendrika M; Jeronimus, Bertus F; van der Krieke, Lian; Bos, Elisabeth H; de Jonge, Peter; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Allostatic load (AL) reflects the deteriorating influences of stress on the body, and comprises a selection of biological markers. AL is associated with negative life events, stress, and negative affect (NA), as well as poor health outcomes. However, whether AL is also associated with

  6. Losing a dime with a satisfied mind: positive affect predicts less search in sequential decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Helversen, Bettina; Mata, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the contribution of cognitive ability and affect to age differences in sequential decision making by asking younger and older adults to shop for items in a computerized sequential decision-making task. Older adults performed poorly compared to younger adults partly due to searching too few options. An analysis of the decision process with a formal model suggested that older adults set lower thresholds for accepting an option than younger participants. Further analyses suggested that positive affect, but not fluid abilities, was related to search in the sequential decision task. A second study that manipulated affect in younger adults supported the causal role of affect: Increased positive affect lowered the initial threshold for accepting an attractive option. In sum, our results suggest that positive affect is a key factor determining search in sequential decision making. Consequently, increased positive affect in older age may contribute to poorer sequential decisions by leading to insufficient search. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Association Between NCAP Ratings and Real-World Rear Seat Occupant Risk of Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kristina B; Gruschow, Siobhan; Durbin, Dennis R; Curry, Allison E

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have evaluated the correlation between U.S. or Euro New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) ratings and injury risk to front seat occupants, in particular driver injuries. Conversely, little is known about whether NCAP 5-star ratings predict real-world risk of injury to restrained rear seat occupants. The NHTSA has identified rear seat occupant protection as a specific area under consideration for improvements to its NCAP. In order to inform NHTSA's efforts, we examined how NCAP's current 5-star rating system predicts risk of moderate or greater injury among restrained rear seat occupants in real-world crashes. We identified crash-involved vehicles, model year 2004-2013, in NASS-CDS (2003-2012) with known make and model and nonmissing occupant information. We manually matched these vehicles to their NCAP star ratings using data on make, model, model year, body type, and other identifying information. The resultant linked NASS-CDS and NCAP database was analyzed to examine associations between vehicle ratings and rear seat occupant injury risk; risk to front seat occupants was also estimated for comparison. Data were limited to restrained occupants and occupant injuries were defined as any injury with a maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or greater. We linked 95% of vehicles in NASS-CDS to a specific vehicle in NCAP. The 18,218 vehicles represented an estimated 6 million vehicles with over 9 million occupants. Rear seat passengers accounted for 12.4% of restrained occupants. The risk of injury in all crashes for restrained rear seat occupants was lower in vehicles with a 5-star driver rating in frontal impact tests (1.4%) than with 4 or fewer stars (2.6%, P =.015); results were similar for the frontal impact passenger rating (1.3% vs. 2.4%, P =.024). Conversely, side impact driver and passenger crash tests were not associated with rear seat occupant injury risk (driver test: 1.7% for 5-star vs. 1.8% for 1-4 stars; passenger test: 1.6% for 5

  8. Eye Movement Patterns during Locomotion in Real-World and Simulated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eye movements in a search-and-count walking task were compared between a simulated (SE and real-world environment (RE. Eye movements were recorded using the mobile WearCam in either RE or the StroMoHab locomotion simulator, a treadmill-based system for gait mobility rehabilitation. For Experiment 1, a RE was prepared with objects (coloured balls and occluding barriers placed along a 38 m long corridor. A video was captured from a walker's viewpoint at 1.3 km/hr. Fifteen subjects per environment reported the total object count after completing a walk while viewing the video in the SE (at 0, 1.3, or 2.5 km/h and RE (at 1.3 km/h. Examining the number of eye transitions (TotET between objects in relation to walking speed in SE, revealed significant increases between 0 and 2.5 km/h (F3, 56 =20.62, p = .02 and 1.3 and 2.5 km/h (F3, 56 =20.62, p = .039, despite no change in video speed; no significant difference was found between 0 and 1.3 km/h. In Experiment 2, 15 subjects viewed a static checkered screen and were instructed to ‘view the screen’ while walking. TotET decreased significantly, between 1.3 km/h and 5.2 km/h (F2, 27 =3.437, p = .014; no significant differences were observed between 2.6 km/h and either 1.3 km/h or 5.2 km/h. In real-world conditions, walking faster increases the difficulty of search tasks, with a likely correlated increase in eye movements. Apparently, the expectation of increased difficulty carries over to SE, even if the visual task is not more difficult. The findings point to physiological and perceptual correlations between locomotion and eye movements.

  9. [Characteristics and drug analysis associated with vertigo disease in real world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qian; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-09-01

    To explore the characteristics and influenced factors associated with the onset of vertigo disease, analysis of 3 719 cases of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease from the real world. Analysis the date of patients diagnosed with vertigo disease from the hospital information system of 19 grade-III class-A hospital from 2004 to 2011, include general information, the doctor's advice, other diseases combined, diagnostic information and the relationship with the onset of 24 solar terms, and the treatment drugs. The median age of hospitalized patients with vertigo disease was 59, the number of women (65.91%) was more than men (34.09%), manual workers (85.32%) were the majority career, most patients (81.63%) condition were general by the time they were hospital admission, patients more like admitted to neurologist (70.34%) when they first time to outpatient serves, hospitalization days were in 8-14 days (46.65%), 46.04% of the patients in the hospital total cost is in 5 000 RMB to 10 000 RMB, 73.86% of patients paid by National Health Medical Insurance. Hypertension (20.79%) was the most common underlying health problems, The most common syndromes was deficiency of liver-Yin and kidney-Yin(44. 21%) , followed by hyperactivity of liver-yang, disease of phlegm turbidity in mongolia and deficiency of Qi and blood. There were more deficiency syndrome and less excess syndrome. The highest rate of hospital admission solar terms in 2009 was the insects awaken throttle (5.21%), In 2010, the highest rate solar terms of hospital admission was the rain throttle (6.14%). The most frequently used traditional Chinese medicine was gastrodine injection (20.55%), the most frequently used western medicine for betahistine (10.19%), gastrodine injection was the most traditional Chinese medicine that combination with other western medicine. Hypertension was the most underlying health problems in the patients with vertigo disease in the real world, although the mental factors should

  10. Effect of hybrid system battery performance on determining CO{sub 2} emissions of hybrid electric vehicles in real-world conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Robert; Schlienger, Peter; Weilenmann, Martin [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Internal Combustion Engines, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can potentially reduce vehicle CO{sub 2} emissions by using recuperated kinetic vehicle energy stored as electric energy in a hybrid system battery (HSB). HSB performance affects the individual net HEV CO{sub 2} emissions for a given driving pattern, which is considered to be equivalent to unchanged net energy content in the HSB. The present study investigates the influence of HSB performance on the statutory correction procedure used to determine HEV CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe based on chassis dynamometer measurements with three identical in-use examples of a full HEV model featuring different mileages. Statutory and real-world driving cycles and full electric vehicle operation modes have been considered. The main observation is that the selected HEVs can only use 67-80% of the charge provided to the HSB, which distorts the outcomes of the statutory correction procedure that does not consider such irreversibility. CO{sub 2} emissions corrected according to this procedure underestimate the true net CO{sub 2} emissions of one HEV by approximately 13% in real-world urban driving. The correct CO{sub 2} emissions are only reproduced when considering the HSB performance in this driving pattern. The statutory procedure for correcting HEV CO{sub 2} emissions should, therefore, be adapted. (author)

  11. The role of sleep in adolescents' daily stress recovery: Negative affect spillover and positive affect bounce-back effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Amanda E; Gunthert, Kathleen C; Kim, Rebecca W; Alfano, Candice A; Ruggiero, Aria R

    2018-07-01

    The present study examined the role of sleep in daily affective stress recovery processes in adolescents. Eighty-nine American adolescents recorded their emotions and stress through daily surveys and sleep with Fitbit devices for two weeks. Results show that objectively measured sleep (sleep onset latency and sleep debt) moderated negative affective responses to previous-day stress, such that stress-related negative affect spillover effects became more pronounced as amount of sleep decreased. Total sleep time and sleep debt moderated cross-day positive affect "bounce-back" effects. With more sleep, morning positive affect on days following high stress tended to bounce back to the levels that were common following low stress days. Conversely, if sleep was short following high stress days, positive affect remained low the next morning. No evidence for subjective sleep quality as a moderator of spillover/bounce-back effects was found. This research suggests that sleep quantity could relate to overnight affective stress recovery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Momentary positive and negative affect preceding marijuana use events in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Lydia A; Ross, Craig S; Blood, Emily A

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT. among young people. This study examined how positive and negative affect differ before marijuana use compared with other times. Forty medical outpatients ages 15-24 years who used marijuana recreationally at least twice a week (M = 18.7 years; 58% female) reported momentary positive affect, negative affect, companionship, perceived ease of obtaining marijuana, and marijuana use several times a day for 2 weeks on a handheld computer. Mean momentary positive affect and negative affect scores in the 24 hours leading up to a marijuana use event (n = 294) were compared with affect scores in times further from subsequent use. Generalized estimating equation models considered as potential moderators perceived ease of obtaining marijuana and being with friends. Positive affect did not differ in the 24 hours before marijuana use compared with times further before use. Negative affect was significantly higher before marijuana use compared with other times. Being with friends and perceived easy marijuana availability did not moderate the associations. The association between negative affect and subsequent marijuana use was attenuated when negative affect was examined only for the moment just before use, suggesting that use may follow a period of increased negative affect. The findings support an affect regulation model for marijuana use among frequently using youth. Specifically, these youth may use marijuana to manage increased negative affect.

  13. Perceived health in lung cancer patients: the role of positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Floyd, Andrea R; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-03-01

    To examine the association of affective experience and health-related quality of life in lung cancer patients, we hypothesized that negative affect would be positively, and positive affect would be negatively, associated with perceived health. A sample of 133 English-speaking lung cancer patients (33% female; mean age = 63.68 years old, SD = 9.37) completed a battery of self-report surveys. Results of our secondary analysis indicate that trait negative affect was significantly associated with poor physical and social functioning, greater role limitations due to emotional problems, greater bodily pain, and poor general health. Positive affect was significantly associated with adaptive social functioning, fewer emotion-based role limitations, and less severe bodily pain. In a full model, positive affect was significantly associated with greater levels of social functioning and general health, over and above the effects of negative affect. Reduction of negative affect is an important therapeutic goal, but the ability to maintain positive affect may result in greater perceived health. Indeed, engagement in behaviors that result in greater state positive affect may, over time, result in dispositional changes and enhancement of quality of life.

  14. Trait emotional intelligence and mental distress: the mediating role of positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, emotional intelligence (EI) has received much attention in the literature. Previous studies indicated that higher trait or ability EI was associated with greater mental distress. The present study focused on mediating effects of positive and negative affect on the association between trait EI and mental distress in a sample of Chinese adults. The participants were 726 Chinese adults (384 females) with an age range of 18-60 years. Data were collected by using the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that EI was a significant predictor of positive affect, negative affect and mental distress. Further mediation analysis showed that positive and negative affect acted as partial mediators of the relationship between EI and mental distress. Furthermore, effect contrasts showed that there was no significant difference between the specific indirect effects through positive affect and through negative affect. This result indicated that positive affect and negative affect played an equally important function in the association between EI and distress. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.

  15. The multilevel analysis of surface acting and mental health: A moderation of positive group affective tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Shiu; Huang, Jui-Chan; Wu, Tzu-Jung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among surface acting, mental health, and positive group affective tone. According to the prior theory, this study attempts to establish a comprehensive research framework among these variables, and furthermore tests the moderating effect of positive group affective tone. Data were collected from 435 employees in 52 service industrial companies by questionnaire, and this study conducted multilevel analysis. The results showed that surface acting will negatively affect the mental health. In addition, the positive group affective tone have significant moderating effect on the relationship among surface acting and mental health. Finally, this study discusses managerial implications and highlights future research suggestions.

  16. Probabilistic Elastic Part Model: A Pose-Invariant Representation for Real-World Face Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoxiang; Hua, Gang

    2018-04-01

    Pose variation remains to be a major challenge for real-world face recognition. We approach this problem through a probabilistic elastic part model. We extract local descriptors (e.g., LBP or SIFT) from densely sampled multi-scale image patches. By augmenting each descriptor with its location, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is trained to capture the spatial-appearance distribution of the face parts of all face images in the training corpus, namely the probabilistic elastic part (PEP) model. Each mixture component of the GMM is confined to be a spherical Gaussian to balance the influence of the appearance and the location terms, which naturally defines a part. Given one or multiple face images of the same subject, the PEP-model builds its PEP representation by sequentially concatenating descriptors identified by each Gaussian component in a maximum likelihood sense. We further propose a joint Bayesian adaptation algorithm to adapt the universally trained GMM to better model the pose variations between the target pair of faces/face tracks, which consistently improves face verification accuracy. Our experiments show that we achieve state-of-the-art face verification accuracy with the proposed representations on the Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW) dataset, the YouTube video face database, and the CMU MultiPIE dataset.

  17. The Pale Blue Dot: Utilizing Real World Globes in High School and Undergraduate Oceanography Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Geoscience classrooms have benefitted greatly from the use of interactive, dry-erasable globes to supplement instruction on topics that require three-dimensional visualization, such as seismic wave propagation and the large-scale movements of tectonic plates. Indeed, research by Bamford (2013) demonstrates that using three-dimensional visualization to illustrate complex processes enhances student comprehension. While some geoscience courses tend to bake-in lessons on visualization, other disciplines of earth science that require three-dimensional visualization, such as oceanography, tend to rely on students' prior spatial abilities. In addition to spatial intelligence, education on the three-dimensional structure of the ocean requires knowledge of the external processes govern the behavior of the ocean, as well as the vertical and lateral distribution of water properties around the globe. Presented here are two oceanographic activities that utilize RealWorldGlobes' dry-erase globes to supplement traditional oceanography lessons on thermohaline and surface ocean circulation. While simultaneously promoting basic plotting techniques, mathematical calculations, and unit conversions, these activities touch on the processes that govern global ocean circulation, the principles of radiocarbon dating, and the various patterns exhibited by surface ocean currents. These activities challenge students to recognize inherent patterns within their data and synthesize explanations for their occurrence. Spatial visualization and critical thinking are integral to any geoscience education, and the combination of these abilities with engaging hands-on activities has the potential to greatly enhance oceanography education in both secondary and postsecondary settings

  18. Stress responses of Calluna vulgaris to reduced and oxidised N applied under 'real world conditions'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, Lucy J.; Leith, Ian D.; Crossley, A.; Van Dijk, N.; Fowler, D.; Sutton, M.A.; Woods, C.

    2008-01-01

    Effects and implications of reduced and oxidised N, applied under 'real world' conditions, since May 2002, are reported for Calluna growing on an ombrotrophic bog. Ammonia has been released from a 10 m line source generating monthly concentrations of 180-6 μg m -3 , while ammonium chloride and sodium nitrate are applied in rainwater at nitrate and ammonium concentrations below 4 mM and providing up to 56 kg N ha -1 year -1 above a background deposition of 10 kg N ha -1 year -1 . Ammonia concentrations, >8 μg m -3 have significantly enhanced foliar N concentrations, increased sensitivity to drought, frost and winter desiccation, spring frost damage and increased the incidence of pathogen outbreaks. The mature Calluna bushes nearest the NH 3 source have turned bleached and moribund. By comparison the Calluna receiving reduced and oxidised N in rain has shown no significant visible or stress related effects with no significant increase in N status. - Exposure to NH 3 reduces stress resistance and increases visible damage in mature Calluna

  19. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Hooker, Christine I.; Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal–striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ) participants show hypoactivation within these frontal–striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life. PMID:26413478

  20. External Prior Guided Internal Prior Learning for Real-World Noisy Image Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, David

    2018-06-01

    Most of existing image denoising methods learn image priors from either external data or the noisy image itself to remove noise. However, priors learned from external data may not be adaptive to the image to be denoised, while priors learned from the given noisy image may not be accurate due to the interference of corrupted noise. Meanwhile, the noise in real-world noisy images is very complex, which is hard to be described by simple distributions such as Gaussian distribution, making real noisy image denoising a very challenging problem. We propose to exploit the information in both external data and the given noisy image, and develop an external prior guided internal prior learning method for real noisy image denoising. We first learn external priors from an independent set of clean natural images. With the aid of learned external priors, we then learn internal priors from the given noisy image to refine the prior model. The external and internal priors are formulated as a set of orthogonal dictionaries to efficiently reconstruct the desired image. Extensive experiments are performed on several real noisy image datasets. The proposed method demonstrates highly competitive denoising performance, outperforming state-of-the-art denoising methods including those designed for real noisy images.

  1. Microinverter Thermal Performance in the Real-World: Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Akram; Xu, Yifan; Peshek, Timothy J.; Ji, Liang; Abramson, Alexis R.; French, Roger H.

    2015-01-01

    Real-world performance, durability and reliability of microinverters are critical concerns for microinverter-equipped photovoltaic systems. We conducted a data-driven study of the thermal performance of 24 new microinverters (Enphase M215) connected to 8 different brands of PV modules on dual-axis trackers at the Solar Durability and Lifetime Extension (SDLE) SunFarm at Case Western Reserve University, based on minute by minute power and thermal data from the microinverters and PV modules along with insolation and environmental data from July through October 2013. The analysis shows the strengths of the associations of microinverter temperature with ambient temperature, PV module temperature, irradiance and AC power of the PV systems. The importance of the covariates are rank ordered. A multiple regression model was developed and tested based on stable solar noon-time data, which gives both an overall function that predicts the temperature of microinverters under typical local conditions, and coefficients adjustments reecting refined prediction of the microinverter temperature connected to the 8 brands of PV modules in the study. The model allows for prediction of internal temperature for the Enphase M215 given similar climatic condition and can be expanded to predict microinverter temperature in fixed-rack and roof-top PV systems. This study is foundational in that similar models built on later stage data in the life of a device could reveal potential influencing factors in performance degradation. PMID:26147339

  2. Comparisons of MOVES Light-duty Gasoline NOx Emission Rates with Real-world Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D.; Sonntag, D.; Warila, J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown differences between air quality model estimates and monitored values for nitrogen oxides. Several studies have suggested that the discrepancy between monitored and modeled values is due to an overestimation of NOx from mobile sources in EPA's emission inventory, particularly for light-duty gasoline vehicles. EPA's MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) is an emission modeling system that estimates emissions for cars, trucks and other mobile sources at the national, county, and project level for criteria pollutants, greenhouse gases, and air toxics. Studies that directly measure vehicle emissions provide useful data for evaluating MOVES when the measurement conditions are properly accounted for in modeling. In this presentation, we show comparisons of MOVES2014 to thousands of real-world NOx emissions measurements from individual light-duty gasoline vehicles. The comparison studies include in-use vehicle emissions tests conducted on chassis dynamometer tests in support of Denver, Colorado's Vehicle Inspection & Maintenance Program and remote sensing data collected using road-side instruments in multiple locations and calendar years in the United States. In addition, we conduct comparisons of MOVES predictions to fleet-wide emissions measured from tunnels. We also present details on the methodology used to conduct the MOVES model runs in comparing to the independent data.

  3. Real-World Dosing Patterns of Atomoxetine in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabul, Samaneh; Alatorre, Carlos; Montejano, Leslie B; Farr, Amanda M; Clemow, David B

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the dosing patterns of atomoxetine monotherapy in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a retrospective analysis. Adult (≥ 18 years) patients with ADHD newly initiated on atomoxetine with ≥ 1 outpatient pharmacy claim for atomoxetine between January 2006 and December 2011 were selected from the Truven Health MarketScan(®) Commercial database. After a 30-day titration period, dosing patterns of atomoxetine monotherapy were analyzed in the 12 months following initiation. In addition, patient demographic and clinical characteristics were compared to identify characteristics associated with suboptimal versus recommended dosing. Of the 12,412 adult patients with ADHD newly initiated on atomoxetine, 4548 (36.6%) were suboptimally dosed, whereas 3323 (26.7%) were treated at recommended dose. Overall, study patients were treated at a mean (standard deviation [SD]) dose of 68.5 (44.9) mg/day. The suboptimal dosing cohort included significantly more females (54% vs. 44%, P atomoxetine therapy in a real-world setting are often dosed suboptimally. Increasing the awareness on optimal dosing strategy among clinicians and patients is warranted to maximize the therapeutic benefits of atomoxetine among adult patients with ADHD. © 2015 Eli Lilly and Company. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Parameterizing unresolved obstacles with source terms in wave modeling: A real-world application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Kakoulaki, Georgia; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Feyen, Luc; Besio, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    Parameterizing the dissipative effects of small, unresolved coastal features, is fundamental to improve the skills of wave models. The established technique to deal with this problem consists in reducing the amount of energy advected within the propagation scheme, and is currently available only for regular grids. To find a more general approach, Mentaschi et al., 2015b formulated a technique based on source terms, and validated it on synthetic case studies. This technique separates the parameterization of the unresolved features from the energy advection, and can therefore be applied to any numerical scheme and to any type of mesh. Here we developed an open-source library for the estimation of the transparency coefficients needed by this approach, from bathymetric data and for any type of mesh. The spectral wave model WAVEWATCH III was used to show that in a real-world domain, such as the Caribbean Sea, the proposed approach has skills comparable and sometimes better than the established propagation-based technique.

  5. Real-World Impact of Neurocognitive Deficits in Acute and Early HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Moore, David J.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    The acute and early period of HIV-1 infection (AEH) is characterized by neuroinflammatory and immunopathogenic processes that can alter the integrity of neural systems and neurocognitive functions. However, the extent to which central nervous system changes in AEH confer increased risk of real-world functioning (RWF) problems is not known. In the present study, 34 individuals with AEH and 39 seronegative comparison participants completed standardized neuromedical, psychiatric, and neurocognitive research evaluations, alongside a comprehensive assessment of RWF that included cognitive symptoms in daily life, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, clinician-rated global functioning, and employment. Results showed that AEH was associated with a significantly increased risk of dependence in RWF, which was particularly elevated among AEH persons with global neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Among those with AEH, NCI (i.e., deficits in learning and information processing speed), mood disorders (i.e., Bipolar Disorder), and substance dependence (e.g., methamphetamine dependence) were all independently predictive of RWF dependence. Findings suggest that neurocognitively impaired individuals with AEH are at notably elevated risk of clinically significant challenges in normal daily functioning. Screening for neurocognitive, mood, and substance use disorders in AEH may facilitate identification of individuals at high risk of functional dependence who may benefit from psychological and medical strategies to manage their neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:24277439

  6. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna Subramaniam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal–striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ participants show hypoactivation within these frontal–striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

  7. Buses retrofitting with diesel particle filters: Real-world fuel economy and roadworthiness test considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Rafael; Amiel, Ran; Czerwinski, Jan; Mayer, Andreas; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2018-05-01

    Retrofitting older vehicles with diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a cost-effective measure to quickly and efficiently reduce particulate matter emissions. This study experimentally analyzes real-world performance of buses retrofitted with CRT DPFs. 18 in-use Euro III technology urban and intercity buses were investigated for a period of 12months. The influence of the DPF and of the vehicle natural aging on buses fuel economy are analyzed and discussed. While the effect of natural deterioration is about 1.2%-1.3%, DPF contribution to fuel economy penalty is found to be 0.6% to 1.8%, depending on the bus type. DPF filtration efficiency is analyzed throughout the study and found to be in average 96% in the size range of 23-560nm. Four different load and non-load engine operating modes are investigated on their appropriateness for roadworthiness tests. High idle is found to be the most suitable regime for PN diagnostics considering particle number filtration efficiency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Standards of care issues with anticoagulation in real-world populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend anticoagulants for reducing the risk of stroke in appropriate patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and for the acute treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the prevention of recurrent VTE. Warfarin is the standard of care for both NVAF and VTE, yet International Normalized Ratio (INR) control remains suboptimal, even in the clinical trial setting. Maintaining INR within the recommended therapeutic range is associated with better outcomes in these distinct populations. In VTE, high rates of recurrence have been reported during the first few weeks of treatment, emphasizing the importance of surveillance during this time and of early optimization of anticoagulation therapy. The NVAF population tends to have more comorbidities and requires longer-term therapy. It is important to keep in mind that real-world patient populations are more complex than those in controlled studies. Patients with multiple comorbidities are particularly challenging, and physicians may focus on clinically urgent issues rather than anticoagulation optimization. Despite the many complexities associated with the use of warfarin, it remains a mainstay of anticoagulation therapy. Aligning financial incentives and improving care coordination are important factors in moving toward better outcomes for patients who need anticoagulation therapy. The increased focus on value-based care and evolving approaches to patient treatment could lead more physicians and payers to consider alternatives to warfarin, including the use of novel oral anticoagulants.

  9. Real-World Data: Policy Issues Regarding their Access and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Axelsen, Kirsten; Grabowski, David C; Meltzer, David O; Polsky, Daniel; Ridley, David B; Wiederkehr, Daniel; Philipson, Tomas J

    2016-12-01

    As real-world data (RWD) in health care begin to cross over to the Big Data realms, a panel of health economists was gathered to establish how well the current US policy environment further the goals of RWD and, if not, what can be done to improve matters. This report summarizes these discussions spanning the current US landscape of RWD availability and usefulness, private versus public development of RWD assets, the current inherent bias in terms of access to RWD, and guiding principles in providing quality assessments of new RWD studies. Three main conclusions emerge: (1) a business case is often required to incentivize investments in RWD assets. However, access restrictions for public data assets have failed to generate a proper market for these data and hence may have led to an underinvestment of public RWDs; (2) Very weak empirical evidence exist on for-profit entities misusing public RWD data entities to further their own agendas, which is the basis for supporting access restrictions of public RWD data; and (3) perhaps developing standardized metrics that could flag misuse of RWDs in an efficient way could help quell some of the fear of sharing public RWD assets with for-profit entities. It is hoped that these discussions and conclusions would pave the way for more rigorous and timely debates on the greater availability and accessibility of RWD assets.

  10. Sequencing of real-world samples using a microfabricated hybrid device having unconstrained straight separation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong; Elkin, Christopher; Kapur, Hitesh

    2003-11-01

    We describe a microfabricated hybrid device that consists of a microfabricated chip containing multiple twin-T injectors attached to an array of capillaries that serve as the separation channels. A new fabrication process was employed to create two differently sized round channels in a chip. Twin-T injectors were formed by the smaller round channels that match the bore of the separation capillaries and separation capillaries were incorporated to the injectors through the larger round channels that match the outer diameter of the capillaries. This allows for a minimum dead volume and provides a robust chip/capillary interface. This hybrid design takes full advantage, such as sample stacking and purification and uniform signal intensity profile, of the unique chip injection scheme for DNA sequencing while employing long straight capillaries for the separations. In essence, the separation channel length is optimized for both speed and resolution since it is unconstrained by chip size. To demonstrate the reliability and practicality of this hybrid device, we sequenced over 1000 real-world samples from Human Chromosome 5 and Ciona intestinalis, prepared at Joint Genome Institute. We achieved average Phred20 read of 675 bases in about 70 min with a success rate of 91%. For the similar type of samples on MegaBACE 1000, the average Phred20 read is about 550-600 bases in 120 min separation time with a success rate of about 80-90%.

  11. Web Browser History Detection as a Real-World Privacy Threat

    CERN Document Server

    Janc, A

    2010-01-01

    Web browser history detection using CSS $visited$ styles has long been dismissed as an issue of marginal impact. However, due to recent changes in Web usage patterns, coupled with browser performance improvements, the long-standing issue has now become a significant threat to the privacy of Internet users. In this paper we analyze the impact of CSS-based history detection and demonstrate the feasibility of conducting practical attacks with minimal resources. We analyze Web browser behavior and detectability of content loaded via standard protocols and with various HTTP response codes. We develop an algorithm for efficient examination of large link sets and evaluate its performance in modern browsers. Compared to existing methods our approach is up to 6 times faster, and is able to detect up to 30,000 visited links per second. We present a novel Web application capable of effectively detecting clients’ browsing histories and discuss real-world results obtained from 271,576 Internet users. Our results indicat...

  12. [Real world instantaneous emission simulation for light-duty diesel vehicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Chen, Chang-Hong; Dai, Pu; Li, Li; Huang, Hai-Ying; Cheng, Zhen; Jia, Ji-Hong

    2008-10-01

    Core architecture and input parameters of CMEM model were introduced to simulation the second by second vehicle emission rate on real world by taking a light-duty diesel car as a case. On-board test data by a portable emission measurement system were then used to validate the simulation results. Test emission factors of CO, THC, NO(x) and CO2 were respectively 0.81, 0.61, 2.09, and 193 g x km(-1), while calculated emission factors were 0.75, 0.47, 2.47, and 212 g x km(-1). The correlation coefficients reached 0.69, 0.69, 0.75, and 0.72. Simulated instantaneous emissions of the light duty diesel vehicle by CMEM model were strongly coherent with the transient driving cycle. By analysis, CO, THC, NO(x), and CO2 emissions would be reduced by 50%, 47%, 45%, and 44% after improving the traffic situation at the intersection. The result indicated that it is necessary and feasible to simulate the instantaneous emissions of mixed vehicle fleet in some typical traffic areas by the micro-scale vehicle emission model.

  13. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  14. Energy Consumption Prediction for Electric Vehicles Based on Real-World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric De Cauwer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV energy consumption is variable and dependent on a number of external factors such as road topology, traffic, driving style, ambient temperature, etc. The goal of this paper is to detect and quantify correlations between the kinematic parameters of the vehicle and its energy consumption. Real-world data of EV energy consumption are used to construct the energy consumption calculation models. Based on the vehicle dynamics equation as underlying physical model, multiple linear regression is used to construct three models. Each model uses a different level of aggregation of the input parameters, allowing predictions using different types of available input parameters. One model uses aggregated values of the kinematic parameters of trips. This model allows prediction with basic, easily available input parameters such as travel distance, travel time, and temperature. The second model extends this by including detailed acceleration data. The third model uses the raw data of the kinematic parameters as input parameters to predict the energy consumption. Using detailed values of kinematic parameters for the prediction in theory increases the link between the statistical model and its underlying physical principles, but requires these parameters to be available as input in order to make predictions. The first two models show similar results. The third model shows a worse fit than the first two, but has a similar accuracy. This model has great potential for future improvement.

  15. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Dutch Version of the Responses to Positive Affect Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 698 respondents selected from the community, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008 which measures ruminative and dampening thoughts in response to positive affect. In a first sample ('n' = 170, exploratory factor analyses largely replicated the 3-factor model obtained by Feldman et al. (2008 with the following factors: Dampening, Self-focused positive rumination, and Emotion-focused positive rumination. The 3-factor model revealed in the first sample was confirmed using confirmatory factor analyses in a second independent sample of 528 respondents. All subscales showed adequate internal consistency and evidence of convergent and incremental validity with concurrent measures of depressive rumination, depressive symptoms, trait hypomania, and positive and negative affect. Results underscore the value of assessing responses to positive as well as negative affect in the study of mood disorders.

  16. Positive Affect and Suicide Ideation in Older Adult Primary Care Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Chapman, Benjamin; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a significant public health problem for older adults. Identification of protective factors associated with reduced risk is important. The authors examined the association of positive affect and suicide ideation in 462 primary care patients ages 65 and older. Positive affect distinguished suicide ideators from nonideators, after controlling for age, gender, depression, negative affect, illness burden, activity, sociability, cognitive functioning, and physical functioning. There was ...

  17. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  18. Difficulties in emotion regulation mediate negative and positive affects and craving in alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Vahid; Sharifi Bastan, Farangis; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Kamali, Zoleikha

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of difficulties in emotion regulation (DER) on the relations of negative and positive affects to craving in alcoholic patients. 205 treatment-seeking alcoholic outpatients were included. DER, positive and negative affects as well as craving were evaluated by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive/Negative Affect Scales, and the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) respectively. Clinical factors including depression and severity of alcohol dependence were investigated by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) respectively. Results revealed that both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect indirectly influenced craving through limited access to emotion regulation strategies. It was concluded that limited access to emotion regulation strategies may be important in predicting craving for alcoholics who experience both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect. This suggests that treatment and prevention efforts focused on increasing positive affect, decreasing negative affect and teaching effective regulation strategies may be critical in reducing craving in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Development of a Teaching Strategy for Implementing a Real-World Business Project into Database Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Abbassi, Behrooz; King, Ronnie; Wiseman, Eddie

    2007-01-01

    Collaborations between business and academia provide valuable opportunities for students to connect classroom learning with practical work experience. To effectively reach a significant number of students, one approach is to meld a real-world business project and classroom assignment into a realistic business scenario that can be addressed by…

  20. Practical Implications of Using Real-World Evidence (RWE) in Comparative Effectiveness Research : Learnings from IMI-GetReal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makady, Amr; Stegenga, Heather; Ciaglia, Antonio; Debray, Thomas Pa; Lees, Michael; Happich, Michael; Ryll, Bettina; Abrams, Keith; Thwaites, Rob; Garner, Sarah; Jonsson, Páll; Goettsch, Wim G.

    In light of increasing attention towards the use of real-world evidence (RWE) in decision making in recent years, this commentary aims to reflect on the experiences gained in accessing and using RWE for comparative effectiveness research as a part of the Innovative Medicines Initiative GetReal

  1. How Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Spontaneously Attend to Real-World Scenes: Use of a Change Blindness Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhauser, Michal; Aran, Adi; Grynszpan, Ouriel

    2018-01-01

    Visual attention of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was assessed using a change blindness paradigm. Twenty-five adolescents with ASD aged 12-18 years and 25 matched typically developing (TD) adolescents viewed 36 pairs of digitized real-world images. Each pair of images was displayed in a "flicker paradigm" whereby a…

  2. Effects of an Augmented Reality-Based Educational Game on Students' Learning Achievements and Attitudes in Real-World Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Wu, Po-Han; Chen, Chi-Chang; Tu, Nien-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has been recognized as a potential technology to help students link what they are observing in the real world to their prior knowledge. One of the most challenging issues of AR-based learning is the provision of effective strategy to help students focus on what they need to observe in the field. In this study, a competitive…

  3. On the early detection of threats in the real world based on open-source information on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Rajadell Rojas, O.; Worm, D.T.H.; Versloot, C.A.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activities of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to detect threats in an early stage and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time

  4. Comparison and Extension of Existing 3D Propagation Models with Real-World Effects Based on Ray-tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kifle, Dereje W.; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Wegmann, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    antenna beam orientation like antenna tilting or when users are distributed in the third dimension (height) in multi-floor scenarios. Ray tracing based generated propagation maps that show the realistic propagation effect are used as 3D real world reference for investigation and model approval....

  5. What Is Real-World Data (RWD)? : A Review of Definitions Based on Literature and Stakeholder Interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makady, Amr; de Boer, Anthonius; Hillege, Hans; Klungel, Olaf; Goettsch, Wim

    Background: Despite increasing recognition of the value of real-world data (RWD), consensus on the definition of RWD is lacking. Objectives: To review definitions publicly available for RWD to shed light on similarities and differences between them. Methods: A literature review and stakeholder

  6. The Best of All Worlds: Immersive Interfaces for Art Education in Virtual and Real World Teaching and Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Janette

    2013-01-01

    Selected ubiquitous technologies encourage collaborative participation between higher education students and educators within a virtual socially networked e-learning landscape. Multiple modes of teaching and learning, ranging from real world experiences, to text and digital images accessed within the Deakin studies online learning management…

  7. The Design of an Instructional Model Based on Connectivism and Constructivism to Create Innovation in Real World Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirasatjanukul, Kanokrat; Jeerungsuwan, Namon

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of the research were to (1) design an instructional model based on Connectivism and Constructivism to create innovation in real world experience, (2) assess the model designed--the designed instructional model. The research involved 2 stages: (1) the instructional model design and (2) the instructional model rating. The sample…

  8. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of real world data comparative effectiveness research of systemic therapies in lung oncology: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Bas J.M.; Janssen, Vivi E.M.T.; Schramel, Franz M.; van de Garde, Ewoudt M.W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The growing interest in comparative effectiveness research (CER) based on data from routine clinical practice also extends towards lung oncology. Although CER studies using real world data (RWD) have the potential to assist clinical decision-making, concerns about the quality and

  9. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2001. Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah, Ed.; Alatis, James E., Ed.

    This book contains papers from the 2001 Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, "Linguistics, Language, and the Real World: Discourse and Beyond." Papers include: "Introduction" (Deborah Tannen); "A Brief History of the Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics" (James E.…

  10. Impact of triple antithrombotic therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in real-world practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Xiao; Fan, Jing-Yao; Nie, Shao-Ping; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Abu-Assi, Emad; Henriques, Jose P. Simao; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Saucedo, Jorge; González-Juanatey, José R.; Wilton, Stephen B.; Kikkert, Wouter J.; Nuñez-Gil, Iván; Ariza-Sole, Albert; Song, Xian-Tao; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Liebetrau, Christoph; Kawaji, Tetsuma; Moretti, Claudio; Huczek, Zenon; Fujii, Toshiharu; Correia, Luis Cl; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; Kedev, Sasko

    2017-01-01

    The optimal antithrombotic regimen for patients on oral anticoagulation (OAC) after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains debated. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of OAC plus clopidogrel with or without aspirin in a real-world

  11. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-07-05

    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  12. Real-World Evidence In Support Of Precision Medicine: Clinico-Genomic Cancer Data As A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Vineeta; Khozin, Sean; Singal, Gaurav; O'Connell, Claire; Kuk, Deborah; Li, Gerald; Gossai, Anala; Miller, Vincent; Abernethy, Amy P

    2018-05-01

    The majority of US adult cancer patients today are diagnosed and treated outside the context of any clinical trial (that is, in the real world). Although these patients are not part of a research study, their clinical data are still recorded. Indeed, data captured in electronic health records form an ever-growing, rich digital repository of longitudinal patient experiences, treatments, and outcomes. Likewise, genomic data from tumor molecular profiling are increasingly guiding oncology care. Linking real-world clinical and genomic data, as well as information from other co-occurring data sets, could create study populations that provide generalizable evidence for precision medicine interventions. However, the infrastructure required to link, ensure quality, and rapidly learn from such composite data is complex. We outline the challenges and describe a novel approach to building a real-world clinico-genomic database of patients with cancer. This work represents a case study in how data collected during routine patient care can inform precision medicine efforts for the population at large. We suggest that health policies can promote innovation by defining appropriate uses of real-world evidence, establishing data standards, and incentivizing data sharing.

  13. Teaching Basic Science Content via Real-World Applications: A College-Level Summer Course in Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul; Miller, Allison; Carson, Brian; Hermanson, John

    2018-01-01

    Learning and retaining science content may be increased by applying the basic science material to real-world situations. Discussing cases with students during lectures and having them participate in laboratory exercises where they apply the science content to practical situations increases students' interest and enthusiasm. A summer course in…

  14. Using Real-Worldness and Cultural Difference to Enhance Student Learning in a Foundation Phase Life Skills Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Mariette; Ebrahim, Hasina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to explore how real-world experience, inclusive of engagement with cultural differences, influences the quality of students' learning in a Life Skills module in pre-service Foundation Phase teacher education. The study was conducted with 147 students in their final year of the Bachelor of Education (Foundation Phase specialisation), at…

  15. The Salford Lung Study protocol: a pragmatic, randomised phase III real-world effectiveness trial in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Ashley; Bakerly, Nawar Diar; New, John P; Gibson, J Martin; Wu, Wei; Vestbo, Jørgen; Leather, David

    2015-12-10

    Novel therapies need to be evaluated in normal clinical practice to allow a true representation of the treatment effectiveness in real-world settings. The Salford Lung Study is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial in adult asthma, evaluating the clinical effectiveness and safety of once-daily fluticasone furoate (100 μg or 200 μg)/vilanterol 25 μg in a novel dry-powder inhaler, versus existing asthma maintenance therapy. The study was initiated before this investigational treatment was licensed and conducted in real-world clinical practice to consider adherence, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, and real-world factors. Asthma Control Test at week 24; safety endpoints include the incidence of serious pneumonias. The study utilises the Salford electronic medical record, which allows near to real-time collection and monitoring of safety data. The Salford Lung Study is the world's first pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a pre-licensed medication in asthma. Use of patients' linked electronic health records to collect clinical endpoints offers minimal disruption to patients and investigators, and also ensures patient safety. This highly innovative study will complement standard double-blind randomised controlled trials in order to improve our understanding of the risk/benefit profile of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol in patients with asthma in real-world settings. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01706198; 04 October 2012.

  16. Don't worry, be active: positive affect and habitual physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Jacka, Felice N; Williams, Lana J; Brennan, Sharon L; Leslie, Eva; Berk, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The aim of ths study was to examine the association between habitual physical activity and positive and negative affect. This cross-sectional study included 276 women aged 20 +, from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Habitual physical activity and other lifestyle exposures were assessed by questionnaire, concurrent with anthropometric assessments. Physical activity was categorized as very active, moderately active or sedentary. Positive and negative affect scores were derived from the validated 20 item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) self-report and were categorized into tertiles. There was a pattern of lower positive affect scores for lower levels of physical activity. With very active as the reference category, the odds for having a positive affect score in the highest tertile were sequentially lower for those who were moderately active (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.28-1.01) and sedentary (OR = 0.28, 95%CI 0.10-0.75). Associations were sustained after adjusting for body mass index and polypharmacy (OR = 0.50, 95%CI 0.26-0.96 and OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.72, respectively). These associations were not explained by age, negative affect score or other exposures. No association was detected between physical activity and negative affect scores. This study reports that higher positive affect scores, encompassing emotions such as interest, excitement, enthusiasm and alertness, are associated with higher levels of habitual physical activity. These observations warrant further investigations into possible mechanistic interplay between neurobiological and psychosocial factors that underpin this association.

  17. The Effect of Positive Mood on Flexible Processing of Affective Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol, Maud; De Raedt, Rudi

    2017-07-17

    Recent efforts have been made to understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying psychological resilience. Cognitive flexibility in the context of affective information has been related to individual differences in resilience. However, it is unclear whether flexible affective processing is sensitive to mood fluctuations. Furthermore, it remains to be investigated how effects on flexible affective processing interact with the affective valence of information that is presented. To fill this gap, we tested the effects of positive mood and individual differences in self-reported resilience on affective flexibility, using a task switching paradigm (N = 80). The main findings showed that positive mood was related to lower task switching costs, reflecting increased flexibility, in line with previous findings. In line with this effect of positive mood, we showed that greater resilience levels, specifically levels of acceptance of self and life, also facilitated task set switching in the context of affective information. However, the effects of resilience on affective flexibility seem more complex. Resilience tended to relate to more efficient task switching when negative information was preceded by positive information, possibly because the presentation of positive information, as well as positive mood, can facilitate task set switching. Positive mood also influenced costs associated with switching affective valence of the presented information. This latter effect was indicative of a reduced impact of no longer relevant negative information and more impact of no longer relevant positive information. Future research should confirm these effects of individual differences in resilience on affective flexibility, considering the affective valence of the presented information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The effect of the spatial positioning of items on the reliability of questionnaires measuring affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Leo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Extant research has shown that the relationship between spatial location and affect may have pervasive effects on evaluation. In particular, experimental findings on embodied cognition indicate that a person is spatially orientated to position what is positive at the top and what is negative at the bottom (vertical spatial orientation, and to a lesser extent, to position what is positive on the left and what is negative on the right (horizontal spatial orientation. It is therefore hypothesised, that when there is congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the spatial positioning (layout of a questionnaire, the reliability will be higher than in the case of incongruence. Research purpose: The principal objective of the two studies reported here was to ascertain the extent to which congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the layout of the questionnaire (spatial positioning of questionnaire items may impact on the reliability of a questionnaire measuring affect. Motivation for the study: The spatial position of items on a questionnaire measuring affect may indirectly impact on the reliability of the questionnaire. Research approach, design and method: In both studies, a controlled experimental research design was conducted using a sample of university students (n = 1825. Major findings: In both experiments, evidence was found to support the hypothesis that greater congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the spatial positioning (layout of a questionnaire leads to higher reliability on a questionnaire measuring affect. Practical implications: These findings may serve to create awareness of the influence of the spatial positioning of items as a confounding variable in questionnaire design. Contribution/value-add: Overall, this research complements previous studies by confirming the metaphorical representation of affect and

  19. An exploration of antecedents of positive affect among the elderly: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunwoo

    2016-02-01

    Positive affect contributes to the healthy life style, which, in turn, explains life satisfaction and psychological well-being among the elderly. Existent literature has reinforced that physical activity participation influences development of positive affect for the elderly. Because of the increased life constraints and physical problems, however, maintenance of positive affect might be challenging for elderly people. Data were drawn from a sample of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. A total sample of 3845 males and 3912 females aged between 65 and 103 years from 16 European countries was analyzed. Perception of life constraints, health problems, physical activity engagement and positive affect were measured by a structured questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis and a technique of structural equation modelling were employed using Amos 18 to examine the hypothesized relationships between study variables. Perceived life constraints and physical problems significantly affected the acquisition of positive affect among the elderly. Physical activity was found to have a significant path coefficient towards the measure of positive attitude and emotion. Physical activity was also a significant mediator between physical problems and positive affect. This study extended our understanding of how the perception of life constraints and health problems influence the elderly's daily experience. Study finding reinforced the goodness of physical activity participation to enhance positive affect among the elderly. We should administer sustainable and evidence-based physical activity including interventions and infrastructure to improve positive affect and psychological well-bing among the elderly. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Emotional stress-reactivity and positive affect among college students: the role of depression history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Boynton, Marcella H; Tennen, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Multiple theories posit that people with a history of depression are at higher risk for a depressive episode than people who have never experienced depression, which may be partly due to differences in stress-reactivity. In addition, both the dynamic model of affect and the broaden-and-build theory suggest that stress and positive affect interact to predict negative affect, but this moderation has never been tested in the context of depression history. The current study used multilevel modeling to examine these issues among 1,549 college students with or without a history of depression. Students completed a 30-day online diary study in which they reported daily their perceived stress, positive affect, and negative affect (including depression, anxiety, and hostility). On days characterized by higher than usual stress, students with a history of depression reported greater decreases in positive affect and greater increases in depressed affect than students with no history. Furthermore, the relations between daily stress and both depressed and anxious affect were moderated by daily positive affect among students with remitted depression. These results indicate that students with a history of depression show greater stress-reactivity even when in remission, which may place them at greater risk for recurrence. These individuals may also benefit more from positive affect on higher stress days despite being less likely to experience positive affect on such days. The current findings have various implications both clinically and for research on stress, mood, and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Smartphone-based psychotherapeutic micro-interventions to improve mood in a real-world setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Meinlschmidt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes.Method: As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects – after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition – underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good–bad, GB; awake–tired, AT; and calm–nervous, CN. Results: Twenty-seven men participated on at least eleven days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13% and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30% being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood (GB: b=0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI [0.068, 0.860], t(613.3=2.298, p=0.022 and became more awake (AT: b=0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t(612.4=2.456, p=0.014 and calmer (CN: b=0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t(612.3=4.137, p<0.001 from pre- to post-micro-intervention. These mood improvements from pre- to post-micro-intervention were associated with changes in mood from the first day until the last day with regard to GB mood (r=0.614, 95%CI [0.297, 0.809], p<0.001, but not AT mood (r=0.279, 95%CI [-0.122, 0.602], p=0.167 and CN mood (r=0.277, 95

  2. Is Real-World Evidence Used in P&T Monographs and Therapeutic Class Reviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Jason T; Brown, Mary; Graff, Jennifer S; Peters, Loretta; Malone, Daniel C

    2017-06-01

    Payers are faced with making coverage and reimbursement decisions based on the best available evidence. Often these decisions apply to patient populations, provider networks, and care settings not typically studied in clinical trials. Treatment effectiveness evidence is increasingly available from electronic health records, registries, and administrative claims. However, little is known about when and what types of real-world evidence (RWE) studies inform pharmacy and therapeutic (P&T) committee decisions. To evaluate evidence sources cited in P&T committee monographs and therapeutic class reviews and assess the design features and quality of cited RWE studies. A convenience sample of representatives from pharmacy benefit management, health system, and health plan organizations provided recent P&T monographs and therapeutic class reviews (or references from such documents). Two investigators examined and grouped references into major categories (published studies, unpublished studies, and other/unknown) and multiple subcategories (e.g., product label, clinical trials, RWE, systematic reviews). Cited comparative RWE was reviewed to assess design features (e.g., population, data source, comparators) and quality using the Good ReseArch for Comparative Effectiveness (GRACE) Checklist. Investigators evaluated 565 references cited in 27 monographs/therapeutic class reviews from 6 managed care organizations. Therapeutic class reviews mostly cited published clinical trials (35.3%, 155/439), while single-product monographs relied most on manufacturer-supplied information (42.1%, 53/126). Published RWE comprised 4.8% (21/439) of therapeutic class review references, and none (0/126) of the monograph references. Of the 21 RWE studies, 12 were comparative and assessed patient care settings and outcomes typically not included in clinical trials (community ambulatory settings [10], long-term safety [8]). RWE studies most frequently were based on registry data (6), conducted in

  3. Electrochemistry Experiments to Develop Novel Sensors for Real-World Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available These novel STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics Electrochemistry experiments have been designed to increase the integrated science content, pedagogical, and technological knowledge for real-world applications. This study has focused on (1 the fundamental understanding on the relationship of metal oxide films and polymers to electrochemical sensors, and (2 the development of new materials which have great application of electrode materials. Following the inquiry based learning strategy the research students learn to develop and study the electrode surfaces to meet the needs of stability and low detection limits. Recently, new advances in environmental health are revealing the anthropogenic or naturally occurring harmful organic chemicals in sources of water supply expose a great health threat to human and aquatic life. Due to their well-known carcinogenic and lethal properties, the presence of human produced toxic chemicals such as phenol and its derivatives poses a critical threat to human health and aquatic life in such water resources. In order to achieve effective assessment and monitoring of these toxic chemicals there is a need to develop in-situ (electrochemical sensors methods to detect rapidly. Electrochemical sensors have attracted more attention to analytical chemist and electrochemistry engineers due to its simplicity, rapidness and high sensitivity. However, there will be real challenges of achieving successful analysis of chemicals (phenol in the presence of common interferences in water resources, which will be discussed regarding the students challenging learning experiences in developing an electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical sensor developed (TiO2 , ZrO2 or sol-gel mixture TiO2/ZrO2 will be illustrated and the successes will be shown by cyclic voltammetry data in detection of 1,2-dihydroxybenzenes (catechol, dopamine and phenol.

  4. Stable operation of a Secure QKD system in the real-world setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Akihisa

    2007-06-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) now steps forward from the proof of principle to the validation of the practical feasibility. Nevertheless, the QKD technology should respond to the challenges from the real-world such as stable operation against the fluctuating environment, and security proof under the practical setting. We report our recent progress on stable operation of a QKD system, and key generation with security assurance. A QKD system should robust to temperature fluctuation in a common office environment. We developed a loop-mirror, a substitution of a Faraday mirror, to allow easy compensation for the temperature dependence of the device. Phase locking technique was also employed to synchronize the system clock to the quantum signals. This technique is indispensable for the transmission system based on the installed fiber cables, which stretch and shrink due to the temperature change. The security proof of QKD, however, has assumed the ideal conditions, such as the use of a genuine single photon source and/or unlimited computational resources. It has been highly desirable to give an assurance of security for practical systems, where the ideal conditions are no longer satisfied. We have constructed a theory to estimate the leakage information on the transmitted key under the practically attainable conditions, and have developed a QKD system equipped with software for secure key distillation. The QKD system generates the final key at the rate of 2000 bps after 20 km fiber transmission. Eavesdropper's information on the final key is guaranteed to be less than 2-7 per bit. This is the first successful generation of the secure key with quantitative assurance of the upper bound of the leakage information. It will put forth the realization of highly secure metropolitan optical communication network against any types of eavesdropping.

  5. Hard and Soft Selection Revisited: How Evolution by Natural Selection Works in the Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, David

    2016-01-01

    The modern synthesis of evolutionary biology unified Darwin's natural selection with Mendelian genetics, but at the same time it created the dilemma of genetic load. Lewontin and Hubby's (1966) and Harris's (1966) characterization of genetic variation in natural populations increased the apparent burden of this load. Neutrality or near neutrality of genetic variation was one mechanism proposed for the revealed excessive genetic variation. Bruce Wallace coined the term "soft selection" to describe an alternative way for natural selection to operate that was consistent with observed variation. He envisioned nature as presenting ecological vacancies that could be filled by diverse genotypes. Survival and successful reproduction was a combined function of population density, genotype, and genotype frequencies, rather than a fixed value of the relative fitness of each genotype. My goal in this review is to explore the importance of soft selection in the real world. My motive and that of my colleagues as described here is not to explain what maintains genetic variation in natural populations, but rather to understand the factors that shape how organisms adapt to natural environments. We characterize how feedbacks between ecology and evolution shape both evolution and ecology. These feedbacks are mediated by density- and frequency-dependent selection, the mechanisms that underlie soft selection. Here, I report on our progress in characterizing these types of selection with a combination of a consideration of the published literature and the results from my collaborators' and my research on natural populations of guppies. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Real-World Treatment Patterns for Golimumab and Concomitant Medications in Japanese Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Masateru; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Ishii, Yutaka; Kanbori, Masayoshi; Yajima, Tsutomu

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate real-world treatment patterns for use of golimumab and concomitant medications in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This study was a post hoc retrospective analysis from post-marketing surveillance data on 2350 Japanese patients with moderate/severe rheumatoid arthritis who received golimumab for 24 weeks. The study population was divided based on initiation treatment or dose adjustment patterns with golimumab, methotrexate, or oral glucocorticoids. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the baseline factors associated with administration of golimumab (100 mg) were higher body weight, failure of prior biological therapy (bio-failure), no previous methotrexate use, and respiratory disease, while previous methotrexate use and absence of renal impairment or respiratory disease were associated with concomitant methotrexate therapy, and previous glucocorticoid use was associated with concomitant glucocorticoid therapy. The following associations were identified with regard to dose adjustment during treatment: bio-failure, no previous methotrexate use, previous csDMARDs use, presence of respiratory disease, allergy history, and higher CRP for golimumab dose escalation; shorter disease duration, previous GC, and no previous methotrexate use for methotrexate dose escalation; no prior biological therapy and renal impairment for methotrexate dose reduction; no previous GC use for glucocorticoid dose escalation; and absence of Steinbrocker's stage II/III/IV, absence of Steinbrocker's class II, no bio-failure, and no previous csDMARDs use for glucocorticoid dose reduction. This study revealed that various baseline factors were associated with initiation of treatment and dose adjustment of golimumab, methotrexate, or oral glucocorticoids, reflecting both the treatment strategies of physicians for improving RA symptoms and/or reducing adverse events. Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K. and Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.

  7. Real-world treatment patterns and outcomes among metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, P; Ascierto, P; Arance, A; McArthur, G; Hernaez, A; Kaskel, P; Shinde, R; Stevinson, K

    2018-06-01

    There is a scarcity of real-world data on treatment patterns and outcomes among advanced melanoma patients treated with immunotherapies including ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 antibody approved since 2011. To evaluate ipilimumab and postipilimumab treatment patterns and outcomes among patients with advanced melanoma in Australia, Germany, Italy and Spain, following regulatory approval. Retrospective multicentre, multinational, observational chart review study. Data were extracted from the start of ipilimumab therapy until the end of at least 40 weeks of follow-up, or death. Data from 371 patients (Australia, 103; Germany, 152; Italy, 76; Spain, 40) were analysed. Mean age was 65 years; 62% were male. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) was 0 or 1 for 94%. In 67%, ipilimumab was initially received as second-line or later therapy. Patients received on average 3.4 ipilimumab doses. The ipilimumab-refractory cohort comprised of 226 patients. Of these, 17% in Australia, 47% in Germany, 29% in Italy and 14% in Spain received another antimelanoma treatment after ipilimumab including chemotherapy in 26% and BRAF/other kinase inhibitors in 11%. Ipilimumab-refractory patients who received postipilimumab treatment showed a 40% reduced hazard of dying than those not receiving treatment after ipilimumab (HR 0.60; 95% CI 0.43-0.83), after adjustment for potential confounders. During the time observed, ipilimumab was mainly used as second-line or later therapy. A significant proportion of patients received postipilimumab therapy, most of which was chemotherapy. Nevertheless, overall survival following progression on ipilimumab treatment remained poor, highlighting the need for research to develop more effective end-of-life treatment options. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. What Is Real-World Data? A Review of Definitions Based on Literature and Stakeholder Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makady, Amr; de Boer, Anthonius; Hillege, Hans; Klungel, Olaf; Goettsch, Wim

    Despite increasing recognition of the value of real-world data (RWD), consensus on the definition of RWD is lacking. To review definitions publicly available for RWD to shed light on similarities and differences between them. A literature review and stakeholder interviews were used to compile data from eight groups of stakeholders. Data from documents and interviews were subjected to coding analysis. Definitions identified were classified into four categories: 1) data collected in a non-randomized controlled trial setting, 2) data collected in a non-interventional/non-controlled setting, 3) data collected in a non-experimental setting, and 4) others (i.e., data that do not fit into the other three categories). The frequency of definitions identified per category was recorded. Fifty-three documents and 20 interviews were assessed. Thirty-eight definitions were identified: 20 out of 38 definitions (53%) were category 1 definitions, 9 (24%) were category 2 definitions, 5 (13%) were category 3 definitions, and 4 (11%) were category 4 definitions. Differences were identified between, and within, definition categories. For example, opinions differed on the aspects of intervention with which non-interventional/non-controlled settings should abide. No definitions were provided in two interviews or identified in 33 documents. Most of the definitions defined RWD as data collected in a non-randomized controlled trial setting. A considerable number of definitions, however, diverged from this concept. Moreover, a significant number of authors and stakeholders did not have an official, institutional definition for RWD. Persisting variability in stakeholder definitions of RWD may lead to disparities among different stakeholders when discussing RWD use in decision making. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulmonary hypertension: Real-world data from a Portuguese expert referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, A; Cruz, C; Rocha, J; Ricardo, M; Vicente, M; Melo, A; Santos, M; Carvalho, L; Gonçalves, F; Reis, A

    2018-04-16

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a heterogeneous, debilitating condition with highly relevant impact on functional capacity, quality of life, and life-expectancy. This study aims to provide long-term data on the Portuguese PH population, by characterising the clinical presentation, evolution, and outcomes of PH patients in a specialised referral centre. Retrospective analysis of a cohort of 101 patients with pre-capillary PH (pcPH) referenced to an expert tertiary care referral centre in northern Portugal from 2002 to 2013. Diagnosis was confirmed by right heart catheterisation (RHC). PH classification followed consensus criteria from the 5th World Symposium in Nice, 2013. The most frequent causes of pcPH were Group 1 PH - pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (54.4%) and Group 4 PH - Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) (25.7%); importantly, 17.8% of patients presented PH associated with multiple aetiologies. Targeted therapy was used in 91.1% of patients (48.5% combination therapy). 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was estimated at 86.6%, 76.7%, and 64.1%, respectively. Survival was significantly better for those ≤40 years old (10.5 vs. 6.4 years; P=0.003) and for women with I/HPAH (9.3 vs. 4.5 years; P=0.039). This study provides long-term, real-world data for the management of PAH and CTEPH in Portugal and demonstrates the importance of dedicated electronic medical records and well defined clinical management protocols for better patient outcomes. Patients presented mostly with intermediate or high risk of mortality, which suggests delayed diagnosis and highlights the need to increase awareness among clinicians. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Recognition of "real-world" musical excerpts by cochlear implant recipients and normal-hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Olszewski, Carol; Rychener, Marly; Sena, Kimberly; Knutson, John F; Witt, Shelley; Macpherson, Beth

    2005-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to compare recognition of "real-world" music excerpts by postlingually deafened adults using cochlear implants and normal-hearing adults; (b) to compare the performance of cochlear implant recipients using different devices and processing strategies; and (c) to examine the variability among implant recipients in recognition of musical selections in relation to performance on speech perception tests, performance on cognitive tests, and demographic variables. Seventy-nine cochlear implant users and 30 normal-hearing adults were tested on open-set recognition of systematically selected excerpts from musical recordings heard in real life. The recognition accuracy of the two groups was compared for three musical genre: classical, country, and pop. Recognition accuracy was correlated with speech recognition scores, cognitive measures, and demographic measures, including musical background. Cochlear implant recipients were significantly less accurate in recognition of previously familiar (known before hearing loss) musical excerpts than normal-hearing adults (p genre. Implant recipients were most accurate in the recognition of country items and least accurate in the recognition of classical items. There were no significant differences among implant recipients due to implant type (Nucleus, Clarion, or Ineraid), or programming strategy (SPEAK, CIS, or ACE). For cochlear implant recipients, correlations between melody recognition and other measures were moderate to weak in strength; those with statistically significant correlations included age at time of testing (negatively correlated), performance on selected speech perception tests, and the amount of focused music listening following implantation. Current-day cochlear implants are not effective in transmitting several key structural features (i.e., pitch, harmony, timbral blends) of music essential to open-set recognition of well-known musical selections. Consequently, implant

  11. Real-world comparison of two molecular methods for detection of respiratory viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller E Kathryn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR based assays are increasingly used to diagnose viral respiratory infections and conduct epidemiology studies. Molecular assays have generally been evaluated by comparing them to conventional direct fluorescent antibody (DFA or viral culture techniques, with few published direct comparisons between molecular methods or between institutions. We sought to perform a real-world comparison of two molecular respiratory viral diagnostic methods between two experienced respiratory virus research laboratories. Methods We tested nasal and throat swab specimens obtained from 225 infants with respiratory illness for 11 common respiratory viruses using both a multiplex assay (Respiratory MultiCode-PLx Assay [RMA] and individual real-time RT-PCR (RT-rtPCR. Results Both assays detected viruses in more than 70% of specimens, but there was discordance. The RMA assay detected significantly more human metapneumovirus (HMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, while RT-rtPCR detected significantly more influenza A. We speculated that primer differences accounted for these discrepancies and redesigned the primers and probes for influenza A in the RMA assay, and for HMPV and RSV in the RT-rtPCR assay. The tests were then repeated and again compared. The new primers led to improved detection of HMPV and RSV by RT-rtPCR assay, but the RMA assay remained similar in terms of influenza detection. Conclusions Given the absence of a gold standard, clinical and research laboratories should regularly correlate the results of molecular assays with other PCR based assays, other laboratories, and with standard virologic methods to ensure consistency and accuracy.

  12. HIIT in the Real World: Outcomes from a 12-Month Intervention in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Melyssa; Williams, Sheila M; Brown, Rachel C; Meredith-Jones, Kim A; Osborne, Hamish; Jospe, Michelle; Taylor, Rachael W

    2018-04-21

    Although high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise have comparable health outcomes in the laboratory setting, effectiveness studies in real-world environments are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an unsupervised HIIT programme in overweight/obese adults over 12 months. 250 overweight/obese adults could choose HIIT or current exercise guidelines of 30 minutes/day moderate-intensity exercise. HIIT participants received a single training session and were advised to independently perform HIIT 3x/week utilizing a variety of protocols. Mixed models, with a random effect for participant, compared differences in weight, body composition, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, physical activity and blood indices at 12 months, adjusting for relevant baseline variables. Forty-two percent (n=104) of eligible participants chose HIIT in preference to current guidelines. At 12 months, there were no differences between exercise groups in weight (adjusted difference HIIT vs conventional; 95% CI: -0.44kg; -2.5, 1.6) or visceral fat (-103cm; -256, 49), although HIIT participants reported greater enjoyment of physical activity (p=0.01). Evidence of adherence to ≥2 sessions/week of unsupervised HIIT (from heart rate monitoring) declined from 60.8% at baseline to 19.6% by 12 months. Participants remaining adherent to HIIT over 12 months (23%) were more likely to be male (67% vs 36%, p=0.03), with greater reductions in weight (-2.7kg; -5.2 -0.2) and visceral fat (-292cm; -483, -101) than non-adherent participants. HIIT was well-accepted by overweight adults and opting for HIIT as an alternative to standard exercise recommendations led to no difference in health outcomes after 12 months. While regular participation in unsupervised HIIT declined rapidly, those apparently adherent to regular HIIT demonstrated beneficial weight loss and visceral fat reduction. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN

  13. Evaluating climate field reconstruction techniques using improved emulations of real-world conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.; Smerdon, J. E.; Rajaratnam, B.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudoproxy experiments (PPEs) have become an important framework for evaluating paleoclimate reconstruction methods. Most existing PPE studies assume constant proxy availability through time and uniform proxy quality across the pseudoproxy network. Real multiproxy networks are, however, marked by pronounced disparities in proxy quality, and a steep decline in proxy availability back in time, either of which may have large effects on reconstruction skill. A suite of PPEs constructed from a millennium-length general circulation model (GCM) simulation is thus designed to mimic these various real-world characteristics. The new pseudoproxy network is used to evaluate four climate field reconstruction (CFR) techniques: truncated total least squares embedded within the regularized EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm (RegEM-TTLS), the Mann et al. (2009) implementation of RegEM-TTLS (M09), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and Gaussian graphical models embedded within RegEM (GraphEM). Each method's risk properties are also assessed via a 100-member noise ensemble. Contrary to expectation, it is found that reconstruction skill does not vary monotonically with proxy availability, but also is a function of the type and amplitude of climate variability (forced events vs. internal variability). The use of realistic spatiotemporal pseudoproxy characteristics also exposes large inter-method differences. Despite the comparable fidelity in reconstructing the global mean temperature, spatial skill varies considerably between CFR techniques. Both GraphEM and CCA efficiently exploit teleconnections, and produce consistent reconstructions across the ensemble. RegEM-TTLS and M09 appear advantageous for reconstructions on highly noisy data, but are subject to larger stochastic variations across different realizations of pseudoproxy noise. Results collectively highlight the importance of designing realistic pseudoproxy networks and implementing multiple noise realizations of PPEs

  14. Why do people donate to conservation? Insights from a 'real world' campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Diogo; Campbell, Hamish A; Tollington, Simon; MacMillan, Douglas C; Smith, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in biodiversity conservation. The majority of these organisations rely on public donations to fund their activities, and therefore fundraising success is a determinant of conservation outcomes. In spite of this integral relationship, the key principals for fundraising success in conservation are still guided by expert opinion and anecdotal evidence, with very few quantitative studies in the literature. Here we assessed the behaviour of monetary donors across twenty-five different species-focused conservation campaigns organised by an NGO conservation and environmental society. The Australian Geographic Society (AGS) carried out fundraising campaigns over a five and half year period using an identical methodology in thirty-four of its country-wide network of outlet shops. AGS owns and operates these shops that sell toys and games related to science and nature. We tested how the following factors influenced monetary donations from members of the public:1) campaign duration, 2) appeal and familiarity of species, 3) species geographic distribution relative to the fundraising location, 4) level of income and education of potential donors, 5) age and gender profile of potential donors. Contrary to past research, we found most of these factors did not significantly influence the amount of donations made to each campaign by members of the public. Larger animals did elicit a significantly higher amount donated per transaction than smaller animals, as did shops located in poorer neighbourhoods. Our study findings contrast with past research that has focused largely on hypothetical donations data collected via surveys, and demonstrates the complexity and case-specific nature of relationships between donor characteristics and spending patterns. The study highlights the value of assessing real-world fundraising campaigns, and illustrates how collaboration between academia and NGOs could be used to better tailor fundraising

  15. Physical Analytics: An emerging field with real-world applications and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    In the past most information on the internet has been originated by humans or computers. However with the emergence of cyber-physical systems, vast amount of data is now being created by sensors from devices, machines etc digitizing the physical world. While cyber-physical systems are subject to active research around the world, the vast amount of actual data generated from the physical world has attracted so far little attention from the engineering and physics community. In this presentation we use examples to highlight the opportunities in this new subject of ``Physical Analytics'' for highly inter-disciplinary research (including physics, engineering and computer science), which aims understanding real-world physical systems by leveraging cyber-physical technologies. More specifically, the convergence of the physical world with the digital domain allows applying physical principles to everyday problems in a much more effective and informed way than what was possible in the past. Very much like traditional applied physics and engineering has made enormous advances and changed our lives by making detailed measurements to understand the physics of an engineered device, we can now apply the same rigor and principles to understand large-scale physical systems. In the talk we first present a set of ``configurable'' enabling technologies for Physical Analytics including ultralow power sensing and communication technologies, physical big data management technologies, numerical modeling for physical systems, machine learning based physical model blending, and physical analytics based automation and control. Then we discuss in detail several concrete applications of Physical Analytics ranging from energy management in buildings and data centers, environmental sensing and controls, precision agriculture to renewable energy forecasting and management.

  16. Pain and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Care: Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Sirois, Fuschia M; Molnar, Danielle; Chang, Edward C

    2016-07-01

    Pain and its disruptive impact on daily life are common reasons that patients seek primary medical care. Pain contributes strongly to psychopathology, and pain and depressive symptoms are often comorbid in primary care patients. Not all those who experience pain develop depression, suggesting that the presence of individual-level characteristics, such as positive and negative affect, that may ameliorate or exacerbate this association. We assessed the potential moderating role of positive and negative affect on the pain-depression linkage. In a sample of 101 rural, primary care patients, we administered the Brief Pain Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised positive and negative affect subclusters, and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression. In moderation models, covarying age, sex, and ethnicity, we found that positive affect, but not negative affect, was a significant moderator of the relation between pain intensity and severity and depressive symptoms. The association between pain and depressive symptoms is attenuated when greater levels of positive affects are present. Therapeutic bolstering of positive affect in primary care patients experiencing pain may reduce the risk for depressive symptoms.

  17. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  18. Situational motivation and perceived intensity: their interaction in predicting changes in positive affect from physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  19. [An attempt to construct a Japanese version of the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Shunsuke; Okubo, Nobutoshi; Kobayashi, Mai; Sato, Shigetaka; Kitamura, Hideya

    2014-08-01

    The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) is an instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect. A Japanese version of the IPANAT was developed and its reliability and validity were examined. In Study 1, factor analysis identified two independent factors that could be interpreted as implicit positive and negative affect, which corresponded to the original version. The Japanese IPANAT also had sufficient internal consistency and acceptable test-retest reliability. In Study 2, we demonstrated that the Japanese IPANAT was associated with explicit state affect (e.g., PANAS), extraversion, and neuroticism, which indicated its adequate construct validity. In Study 3, we examined the extent to which the Japanese IPANAT was sensitive to changes in affect by assessing a set of IPANAT items after the presentation of positive, negative, or neutral photographs. The results indicated that the Japanese IPANAT was sufficiently sensitive to changes in affect resulting from affective stimuli. Taken together, these studies suggest that the Japanese version of the IPANAT is a useful instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect.

  20. Allostatic load in parents of children with developmental disorders: Moderating influence of positive affect

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R.; Ryff, Carol D.; Coe, Christopher L.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether parents of children with developmental disorders (DD) are at risk for elevated allostatic load (AL) relative to control parents, and whether positive affect moderates difference in risk. Thirty-eight parents of children with DD and 38 matched comparison parents were analyzed. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between parent status and AL level: parents of children with DD had lower AL when they had higher positive affect, whereas no such associ...

  1. Amygdala responses to unpleasant pictures are influenced by task demands and positive affect trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Arruda Sanchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of attention in emotional processing is still the subject of debate. Recent studies have found that high positive affect in approach motivation narrows attention. Furthermore, the positive affect trait has been suggested as an important component for determining human variability in threat reactivity. We employed fMRI to investigate whether different states of attention control would modulate amygdala responses to highly unpleasant pictures relative to neutral and whether this modulation would be influenced by the positive affect trait. Participants (n=22, 12 male were scanned while viewing neutral (people or unpleasant pictures (mutilated bodies flanked by two peripheral bars. They were instructed to (a judge the picture content as unpleasant or neutral or (b to judge the difference in orientation between the bars in an easy condition (0º or 90º orientation difference or (c in a hard condition (0º or 6º orientation difference. Whole brain analysis revealed a task main effect of brain areas related to the experimental manipulation of attentional control, including the amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. ROI analysis showed an inverse correlation (r = -0.51, p < 0.01 between left amygdala activation and positive affect level when participants viewed unpleasant stimuli and judged bar orientation in the easy condition. This result suggests that subjects with high positive affect exhibit lower amygdala reactivity to distracting unpleasant pictures. In conclusion, the current study suggests that positive affect modulates attention effect on unpleasant pictures, therefore attenuating emotional responses.

  2. The Moderating Influence of Situational Motivation on the Relationship Between Preferred Exercise and Positive Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite convincing evidence supporting the association between exercise and positive affect, this complex relationship requires further theoretical and person-centered explanation. The nature of one’s motivation for exercise, as postulated by Self-Determination Theory (SDT, may supply a missing and understudied link. The primary aim of this experimental study was to examine the moderating influence of situational motivation from SDT on the relationship between an acute bout of preferred exercise, namely running (vs. control, and changes in positive affect. Forty-one active women attended two sessions to engage in (a a 30-min moderate-intensity self-paced treadmill run and (b a 30-min quiet activity (i.e., newspaper reading. Participants with high introjection versus those with low introjection reported a greater increase in positive affect from pre- to postrunning and a greater decrease in positive affect from pre- to postcontrol. A “relief from guilt” effect was postulated to explain these results. Motivational variables accounted for 7% of variance in postrun positive affect. Consistent with SDT, running because one values this behavior and its benefits (i.e., identified regulation was significantly associated with postrun positive affect.

  3. Positive Affect: Phenotypic and Etiologic Associations with Prosocial Behaviors and Internalizing Problems in Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjie eWang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996, the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg, Rutter, & Richman, 1997, and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5-5 (Achenbach, 1991, respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and nonshared. In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children.

  4. Positive affect: phenotypic and etiologic associations with prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems in toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence for the associations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems, relatively little is known about the underlying etiology. The sample comprised over 300 twin pairs at age 3. Positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems were assessed using the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire (Goldsmith, 1996), the Revised Rutter Parent Scale for Preschool Children (Hogg et al., 1997), and the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1.5–5 (Achenbach, 1991), respectively. Positive affect correlated positively with prosocial behaviors, and negatively with internalizing problems. Prosocial behaviors were negatively associated with internalizing problems. The relations of positive affect to prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems were due to environmental effects (shared and non-shared). In contrast, the link between prosocial behaviors and internalizing problems was entirely explained by genetic effects. The current study has moved beyond prior emphasis on negative affect and elucidated the less understood etiology underlying the associations between positive affect, prosocial behaviors, and internalizing problems. This study could guide the development of programs for promoting prosocial behaviors and alleviating internalizing problems in children. PMID:25914668

  5. Combined effects of positive and negative affectivity and job satisfaction on job performance and turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Raja, Usman; Butt, Arif Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Capturing data from employee-supervisor dyads (N = 321) from eight organizations in Pakistan, including human service organizations, an electronics assembly plant, a packaging material manufacturing company, and a small food processing plant, we used moderated regression analysis to examine whether the relationships between trait affect (positive affectivity [PA] and negative affectivity [NA]) and two key work outcome variables (job performance and turnover) are contingent upon the level of job satisfaction. We applied the Trait Activation Theory to explain the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between affect and performance and between affect and turnover. Overall, the data supported our hypotheses. Positive and negative affectivity influenced performance and the intention to quit, and job satisfaction moderated these relationships. We discuss in detail the results of these findings and their implications for research and practice.

  6. Group Representations and Intergroup Bias: Positive Affect, Similarity, and Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovidio, John F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined how social appearance and affective factors can influence social categorization and intergroup bias. Positive affect increased the extent to which subjects formed inclusive group representations, anticipating that the members of two groups would feel like one. Subjects in dissimilarly dressed groups expected the members to feel less like…

  7. Daily Stress, Coping, and Negative and Positive Affect in Depression: Complex Trigger and Maintenance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Lewkowski, Maxim; Lee, Ihno A; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zuroff, David C; Berg, Jody-Lynn; Foley, J Elizabeth; Myhr, Gail; Westreich, Ruta

    2017-05-01

    Major depressive disorder is characterized by emotional dysfunction, but mood states in daily life are not well understood. This study examined complex explanatory models of daily stress and coping mechanisms that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (lower) positive affect in depression. Sixty-three depressed patients completed perfectionism measures, and then completed daily questionnaires of stress appraisals, coping, and affect for 7 consecutive days. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) demonstrated that, across many stressors, when the typical individual with depression perceives more criticism than usual, he/she uses more avoidant coping and experiences higher event stress than usual, and this is connected to daily increases in negative affect as well as decreases in positive affect. In parallel, results showed that perceived control, less avoidant coping, and problem-focused coping commonly operate together when daily positive affect increases. MSEM also showed that avoidant coping tendencies and ongoing stress, in combination, explain why people with depression and higher self-critical perfectionism maintain daily negative affect and lower positive affect. These findings advance a richer and more detailed understanding of specific stress and coping patterns to target in order to more effectively accomplish the two predominant therapy goals of decreasing patients' distress and strengthening resilience. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Distinct trajectories of positive and negative affect after colorectal cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, Yvette; Janse, Moniek; Almansa, Josué; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A.G.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Fleer, Joke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Insight into trajectories of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across the cancer continuum may improve understanding of the nature of adjustment problems. The primary aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of PA and NA following

  9. Distinct Trajectories of Positive and Negative Affect After Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, Yvette; Janse, Moniek; Almansa, Josué; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke

    OBJECTIVE: Insight into trajectories of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across the cancer continuum may improve understanding of the nature of adjustment problems. The primary aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of PA and NA following

  10. The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

  11. Parental History of Diabetes, Positive Affect, and Diabetes Risk in Adults: Findings from MIDUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsenkova, Vera K; Karlamangla, Arun S; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-12-01

    Family history of diabetes is one of the major risk factors for diabetes, but significant variability in this association remains unexplained, suggesting the presence of important effect modifiers. To our knowledge, no previous work has examined whether psychological factors moderate the degree to which family history of diabetes increases diabetes risk. We investigated the relationships among parental history of diabetes, affective states (positive affect, negative affect, and depressed affect), and diabetes in 978 adults from the MIDUS 2 national sample. As expected, parental history of diabetes was associated with an almost threefold increase in diabetes risk. We found a significant interaction between positive affect and parental history of diabetes on diabetes (p = .009): higher positive affect was associated with a statistically significant lower relative risk for diabetes in participants who reported having a parental history of diabetes (RR = .66 per unit increase in positive affect; 95 % CI = .47; .93), but it did not influence diabetes risk for participants who reported no parental history of diabetes (p = .34). This pattern persisted after adjusting for an extensive set of health and sociodemographic covariates and was independent of negative and depressed affect. These results suggest that psychological well-being may protect individuals at increased risk from developing diabetes. Understanding such interactions between non-modifiable risk factors and modifiable psychological resources is important for delineating biopsychosocial pathways to diabetes and informing theory-based, patient-centered interventions to prevent the development of diabetes.

  12. The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect and Issue Framing on Issue Interpretation and Risk Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal; Ross

    1998-12-01

    Two studies examined the influence of transient affective states and issue framing on issue interpretation and risk taking within the context of strategic decision making. In Study 1, participants in whom transient positive or negative affective states were induced by reading a short story showed systematic differences in issue interpretation and risk taking in a strategic decision making context. Compared to negative mood participants, those in a positive mood were more likely to interpret the strategic issue as an opportunity and displayed lower levels of risk taking. Study 2 replicated and extended these results by crossing affective states with threat and opportunity frames. Results showed that framing an issue (as a threat or an opportunity) had a stronger impact on issue interpretation among negative affect participants than among positive affect participants. Affective states also moderated the impact of issue framing on risk taking: the effect of framing on risk-taking was stronger under negative rather than positive affect. These results are interpreted via information-processing and motivational effects of affect on a decision maker. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  13. Teaching water sustainability and STEM concepts using in-class, online, and real-world multiplayer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysey, S. M.; Hannah, A. C.; Miller, S.; Mobley, C.

    2013-12-01

    the students in a sophomore level course demonstrated that the use of the game positively enhanced student engagement and interest in the course. We adapted the same base concepts to a real-world setting where players must physically collect water from a contaminated surface water source, represented by a swimming pool where many players can access the resource simultaneously, and a clean groundwater source, represented by a barrel where only one player at a time can obtain water from a pump. Additionally, water is recharged to groundwater (i.e., the barrel) at a fixed rate, thus over pumping can cause the water table to drop and cause the well to go dry. Players must therefore grapple between health risks associated with contaminants and the mass balance problems caused by groundwater mining. This version of the game received positive reviews from girls in grades 6-9 participating in a STEM summer camp.

  14. Linking and Psychological Functioning in a Chinese Sample: The Multiple Mediation of Response to Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfei; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between linking, response to positive affect, and psychological functioning in Chinese college students. The results of conducting multiple mediation analyses indicated that emotion- and self-focused positive rumination mediated the relationship between linking and psychological functioning, whereas…

  15. Personality Traits and Positive/Negative Affects: An Analysis of Meaning in Life among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Serife; Üzbe, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of positive and negative affects and personality traits on meaning in life in an adult population. The sample consisted of 335 subjects: 190 females and 145 males, and a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), positive and negative schedule (PANAS), and adjective-based personality scale (ABPT) were used in the research.…

  16. Deconstructing Positive Affect in Later Life: A Differential Functionalist Analysis of Joy and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S.; Magai, Carol; King, Arlene R.

    2004-01-01

    Positive affect, an index of psychological well-being, is a known predictor of functionality and health in later life. Measures typically studied include joy, happiness, and subjective well-being, but less often interest--a positive emotion with functional properties that differ from joy or happiness. Following differential emotions theory, the…

  17. The reciprocity of prosocial behavior and positive affect in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippe, Evelien; Jeronimus, Bertus F; Aan Het Rot, Marije; Bos, Elisabeth H; de Jonge, Peter; Wichers, Marieke

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether prosocial behaviors help sustain a positive mood, we tested the dynamic reciprocal associations between prosocial behavior and positive affect (PA) in daily life. A second aim was to examine whether the personality traits neuroticism and extraversion moderate these

  18. Preparing laboratory and real-world EEG data for large-scale analysis: A containerized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eBigdely-Shamlo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain-computer interface (BCI models.. However, the absence of standard-ized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the diffi-culty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a containerized approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of an-notating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS comprises three data Levels, each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1 data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2 suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are in-creasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at eegstudy.org, and a central cata-log of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at study-catalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to ena-ble data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org.

  19. Incidental memory of younger and older adults for objects encountered in a real world context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Qin

    Full Text Available Effects of context on the perception of, and incidental memory for, real-world objects have predominantly been investigated in younger individuals, under conditions involving a single static viewpoint. We examined the effects of prior object context and object familiarity on both older and younger adults' incidental memory for real objects encountered while they traversed a conference room. Recognition memory for context-typical and context-atypical objects was compared with a third group of unfamiliar objects that were not readily named and that had no strongly associated context. Both older and younger adults demonstrated a typicality effect, showing significantly lower 2-alternative-forced-choice recognition of context-typical than context-atypical objects; for these objects, the recognition of older adults either significantly exceeded, or numerically surpassed, that of younger adults. Testing-awareness elevated recognition but did not interact with age or with object type. Older adults showed significantly higher recognition for context-atypical objects than for unfamiliar objects that had no prior strongly associated context. The observation of a typicality effect in both age groups is consistent with preserved semantic schemata processing in aging. The incidental recognition advantage of older over younger adults for the context-typical and context-atypical objects may reflect aging-related differences in goal-related processing, with older adults under comparatively more novel circumstances being more likely to direct their attention to the external environment, or age-related differences in top-down effortful distraction regulation, with older individuals' attention more readily captured by salient objects in the environment. Older adults' reduced recognition of unfamiliar objects compared to context-atypical objects may reflect possible age differences in contextually driven expectancy violations. The latter finding underscores the

  20. Comparison of carotid endarterectomy and stenting in real world practice using a regional quality improvement registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Brian W.; De Martino, Randall R.; Goodney, Philip P.; Schanzer, Andres; Stone, David H.; Butzel, David; Kwolek, Christopher J.; Cronenwett, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Carotid artery stenting (CAS) vs endarterectomy (CEA) remains controversial and has been the topic of recent randomized controlled trials. The purpose of this study was to compare the practice and outcomes of CAS and CEA in a real world setting. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of 7649 CEA and 430 CAS performed at 17 centers from 2003 to 2010 within the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE). The primary outcome measures were (1) any in-hospital stroke or death and (2) any stroke, death, or myocardial infarction (MI). Patients undergoing CEA in conjunction with cardiac surgery were excluded. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of stroke or death in patients undergoing CAS. Results CEA was performed in 17 centers by 111 surgeons, while CAS was performed in 6 centers by 30 surgeons and 8 interventionalists. Patient characteristics varied by procedure. Patients undergoing CAS had a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, and prior ipsilateral CEA. Embolic protection was used in 97% of CAS. Shunts were used in 48% and patches in 86% of CEA. The overall in-hospital stroke or death rate was higher among patients undergoing CAS (2.3% vs 1.1%; P = .03). Overall stroke, death, or MI (2.8% CAS vs 2.1% CEA; P = .32) were not different. Asymptomatic patients had similar rates of stroke or death (CAS 0.73% vs CEA 0.89%; P = .78) and stroke, death, or MI (CAS 1.1% vs CEA 1.8%; P = .40). Symptomatic patients undergoing CAS had higher rates of stroke or death (5.1% vs 1.6%; P = .001), and stroke, death, or MI (5.8% vs 2.7%; P = .02). By multivariate analysis, major stroke (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9–10.8), minor stroke (2.7; CI, 1.5–4.8), prior ipsilateral CEA (3.2, CI, 1.7–6.1), age >80 (2.1; CI, 1.3–3.4), hypertension (2.6; CI, 1.0–6.3), and a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.6; CI, 1.0–2.4) were predictors of stroke or death

  1. Real-world comparison of health care utilization between duloxetine and pregabalin initiators with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng X

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X Peng,1 P Sun,2 D Novick,1 J Andrews,1 S Sun2 1Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Kailo Research Group, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objectives: To compare health care utilization of duloxetine initiators and pregabalin initiators among fibromyalgia patients in a real-world setting. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a US national commercial health claims database (2006–2009. Fibromyalgia patients who initiated duloxetine or pregabalin in 2008, aged 18–64 years, and who maintained continuous health insurance coverage 1 year before and 1 year after initiation were assigned to duloxetine or pregabalin cohorts on the basis of their initiated agent. Patients who had pill coverage of the agents over the course of 90 days preceding the initiation were excluded. The two comparative cohorts were constructed using propensity score greedy match methods. Descriptive analysis and paired t-test were performed to compare health care utilization rates in the postinitiation year and the changes of these rates from the preinitiation year to the postinitiation year. Results: Both matched cohorts (n=1,265 pairs had a similar mean initiation age (49–50 years, percentage of women (87%–88%, and prevalence of baseline comorbid conditions (neuropathic pain other than diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headache or migraine, and osteoarthritis. In the preinitiation year, both cohorts had similar inpatient, outpatient, and medication utilization rates (inpatient, 15.7%–16.1%; outpatient, 100.0%; medication, 97.9%–98.7%. The utilization rates diverged in the postinitiation year, with the pregabalin cohort using more fibromyalgia-related inpatient care (3.2% versus 2.2%; P<0.05, any inpatient care (19.3% versus 16.8%; P<0.05, and fibromyalgia-related outpatient care (62.1% versus 51.8%; P<0.05. From the preinitiation period to the postinitiation period, the duloxetine cohort

  2. Positive affect and physical activity: Testing effects on goal setting, activation, prioritisation, and attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David S; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-02-01

    The present research tested whether incidental positive affect promotes pursuit of physical activity goals. Four key features of goal pursuit were examined - setting physical activity goals (Study 1), goal activation (Study 2), and goal prioritization and goal attainment (Study 3). Participants (N s = 80, 81, and 59, in Studies 1-3, respectively) were randomized to positive affect (joy, hope) or neutral affect (control) conditions in each study. Questionnaire measures of goal level, goal commitment, and means selection (Study 1); a lexical decision task indexed goal activation (Study 2), a choice task captured goal prioritization and MET minutes quantified goal attainment (Study 3). Study 1 showed that positive affect led to a greater number of intended physical activities, and that joy engendered greater willingness to try activities. In Study 2, a positive affect induction led to heightened activation of the physical activity goal compared to the control condition. The joy induction in Study 3 led to greater physical activity, and a trend towards greater goal prioritization. These findings suggest that positive affect enhances the pursuit of physical activity goals. Implications for health behavior theories and interventions are outlined.

  3. The effect of positive affect on conflict resolution: Modulated by approach-motivational intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Wang, Zhenhong; Quan, Sixiang; Li, Mingjun

    2017-01-01

    The motivational dimensional model of affect proposes that the influence of positive affect on cognitive processing is modulated by approach-motivational intensity. The present research extended this model by examining the influence of positive affect varying in approach-motivational intensity on conflict resolution-the ability to resolve interference from task-irrelevant distractors in order to focus on the target. The global-local task (Experiment 1) and letter-Flanker task (Experiment 2) were used to measure conflict resolution. Additionally, the 4:2 mapping design that assigns two kinds of task-relevant stimuli to one response key and two more to another response key was used in these two tasks to dissociate stimulus and response conflict. Results showed that positive affect varying in approach motivation had opposite influences on conflict resolution. The opposite influences are primarily reflected in low approach-motivated positive affect impairing, while high approach-motivated positive affect facilitating the resolution of response conflict. Conversely, the stimulus conflict was slightly influenced. These findings highlight the utility of distinguishing stimulus and response conflict in future research.

  4. Depressed mood, positive affect, and heart rate variability in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi R; Whitehead, Daisy L; Rakhit, Roby; Steptoe, Andrew

    2008-11-01

    To test associations between heart rate variability (HRV), depressed mood, and positive affect in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Depression is associated with impaired HRV post acute cardiac events, but evidence in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is inconsistent. Seventy-six patients (52 men, 24 women; mean age = 61.1 years) being investigated for suspected CAD on the basis of symptomatology and positive noninvasive tests, completed 24-hour electrocardiograms. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered, and positive and depressed affect was measured over the study period with the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). A total of 46 (60.5%) patients were later found to have definite CAD. HRV was analyzed, using spectral analysis. Typical diurnal profiles of HRV were observed, with greater normalized high frequency (HF) and lower normalized low frequency (LF) power in the night compared with the day. BDI depression scores were not consistently associated with HRV. But positive affect was associated with greater normalized HF power (p = .039) and reduced normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of age, gender, medication with beta blockers, CAD status, body mass index, smoking, and habitual physical activity level. In patients with definite CAD, depressed affect assessed using the DRM was associated with reduced normalized HF power and heightened normalized LF power (p = .007) independently of covariates. Relationships between depression and HRV in patients with CAD may depend on affective experience over the monitoring period. Enhanced parasympathetic cardiac control may be a process through which positive affect protects against cardiovascular disease.

  5. Trait anxiety reduces affective fading for both positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W Richard; Yancu, Cecile N; Skowronski, John J

    2014-01-01

    The affect associated with negative events fades faster than the affect associated with positive events (the Fading Affect Bias; the FAB). The research that we report examined the relation between trait anxiety and the FAB. Study 1 assessed anxiety using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; Studies 2 and 3 used the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Studies 1 and 2 used retrospective procedures to probe positive event memories and negative event memories while Study 3 used a diary procedure. The results of all 3 studies showed that increased anxiety was associated with both a lowered FAB and lower overall affect fading for both positive events and negative events. These results suggest that for people free of trait anxiety, the FAB reflects the operation of a healthy coping mechanism in autobiographical memory that is disrupted by trait anxiety.

  6. Harm avoidance in adolescents modulates late positive potentials during affective picture processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhai; Lu, Jiamei; Ni, Ziyin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Dahua; Shen, Jiliang

    2013-08-01

    Research in adults has shown that individual differences in harm avoidance (HA) modulate electrophysiological responses to affective stimuli. To determine whether HA in adolescents modulates affective information processing, we collected event-related potentials from 70 adolescents while they viewed 90 pictures from the Chinese affective picture system. Multiple regressions revealed that HA negatively predicted late positive potential (LPP) for positive pictures and positively predicted for negative pictures; however, HA did not correlate with LPP for neutral pictures. The results suggest that at the late evaluative stage, high-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures while low-HA adolescents display attentional bias to negative pictures. Moreover, these dissociable attentional patterns imply that individual differences in adolescents' HA modulate the late selective attention mechanism of affective information. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Experience inheritance from famous specialists based on real-world clinical research paradigm of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guanli; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Runshun; Liu, Baoyan; Zhou, Xuezhong; Zhou, Xiaji; Zhang, Hong; Guo, Yufeng; Xue, Yanxing; Xu, Lili

    2014-09-01

    The current modes of experience inheritance from famous specialists in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) include master and disciple, literature review, clinical-epidemiology-based clinical research observation, and analysis and data mining via computer and database technologies. Each mode has its advantages and disadvantages. However, a scientific and instructive experience inheritance mode has not been developed. The advent of the big data era as well as the formation and practice accumulation of the TCM clinical research paradigm in the real world have provided new perspectives, techniques, and methods for inheriting experience from famous TCM specialists. Through continuous exploration and practice, the research group proposes the innovation research mode based on the real-world TCM clinical research paradigm, which involves the inheritance and innovation of the existing modes. This mode is formulated in line with its own development regularity of TCM and is expected to become the main mode of experience inheritance in the clinical field.

  8. Collaborative adaptations in social work intervention research in real-world settings: lessons learned from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank Wilson, Amy; Farkas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Social work research has identified the crucial role that service practitioners play in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This has led some researchers to suggest that intervention research needs to incorporate collaborative adaptation strategies in the design and implementation of studies focused on adapting evidence-based practices to real-world practice settings. This article describes a collaborative approach to service adaptations that was used in an intervention study that integrated evidence-based mental health and correctional services in a jail reentry program for people with serious mental illness. This description includes a discussion of the nature of the collaboration engaged in this study, the implementation strategies that were used to support this collaboration, and the lessons that the research team has learned about engaging a collaborative approach to implementing interventions in research projects being conducted in real-world social service delivery settings.

  9. A longitudinal examination of the moderating effects of symptoms on the relationship between functional competence and real world functional performance in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Best

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Residual negative and depressive symptoms are distinct constructs that impede the use of functional skills in the real world. Depressive symptoms are often overlooked in schizophrenia but appear to be an important factor that limits the use of functional ability in real world environments.

  10. Real-World Executive Functions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Profiles of Impairment and Associations with Adaptive Functioning and Co-Morbid Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Pugliese, Cara E.; Popal, Haroon S.; White, Emily I.; Brodsky, Emily; Martin, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Although executive functioning (EF) difficulties are well documented among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about real-world measures of EF among adults with ASD. Therefore, this study examined parent-reported real-world EF problems among 35 adults with ASD without intellectual disability and their…

  11. Real world programs, real world strategies, real world successes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, K. [EPA, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a very brief overview of market opportunities for using energy efficient technology. A brief summary of greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change concludes that the threat of global warming must be taken seriously. It is stated that there are numerous technologies available which can reduce energy use by up to 50%, while offering attractive rates of return. Market analysis has identified a trillion dollar market for high efficiency products and services over the next decade. Three main areas of business opportunity for capitalizing on the growing market for energy efficiency are identified: (1) using efficient energy technology in-house, (2) marketing energy efficient products, and (3) international markets.

  12. On the relationship between positive and negative affect: Their correlation and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeff T; Hershfield, Hal E; Stastny, Bradley J; Hester, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Positive and negative affect dimensions in chronic knee osteoarthritis: effects on clinical and laboratory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Patrick H; Quartana, Phillip J; Smith, Michael T

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated whether daily and laboratory assessed pain differs as a function of the temporal stability and valence of affect in individuals with chronic knee osteoarthritis (KOA). One hundred fifty-one men and women with KOA completed 14 days of electronic diaries assessing positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and clinical pain. A subset of participants (n =79) engaged in quantitative sensory testing (QST). State PA and NA were assessed prior to administration of stimuli that induced suprathreshold pain and temporal summation. Multilevel modeling and multiple regression evaluated associations of affect and pain as a function of valence (i.e., positive versus negative) and stability (i.e., stable versus state). In the diary, stable NA (B = -.63, standard error [SE] = .13, p affect-pain processes in the field may reflect individual differences in central pain facilitation.

  14. Pitfalls in surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma: How successful is it in the real world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Wong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with ultrasound in high-risk populations is generally believed to improve opportunities for treatment. However, tumors are still missed due to various factors. This study explores success versus failure of HCC surveillance. Methods This is a retrospective study of 1,125 HCC cases. Categories considered for successful detection were largest tumor ≤3.0 cm, single tumors ≤3.0 cm and ≤2.0 cm, and adherence to Milan criteria. Examined factors were age <60 years, gender, rural residence, body-mass index (BMI, hepatitis infection, smoking, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cirrhosis, ascites, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease <10. Results HCC was found on surveillance in 257 patients with a mean tumor size of 3.17 cm; multiple tumors were seen in 28% of cases, bilateral tumors in 7.4%, and vascular invasion in 3.7%. Surveillance was successful in 61.5% of cases involving a largest tumor ≤3.0 cm, with BMI ≥35 negatively affecting detection (odds ratio [OR] 0.28, P=0.014 and cirrhosis positively affecting detection (OR 2.31, P=0.036. Ultrasound detected 19.1% of single tumors ≤2.0 cm with ascites improving the detection rate (OR 3.89, P=0.001. Finally, adherence to Milan criteria occurred in 75.1% of cases, revealing negative associations with diabetes (OR 0.48, P=0.044 and male gender (OR 0.49, P=0.08. Conclusions Although surveillance is recommended for HCC, not all surveillance ultrasound are ideal. Tumor detection can depend on gender, BMI, diabetes, cirrhosis, and ascites and is achieved in 19.1–75% of cases depending on the definition of success. Closer follow-up or additional imaging might be necessary for some patient subgroups.

  15. Informing Architecture and Urban Modeling with Real-world Data on 3D Tangible Interfaces and Augmented Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Tore; Salim, Flora; Jaworski, Przemyslaw

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of online and digital data in our world yields unprecedented opportunities for connecting physical and digital parametric models with live data input and feedback. Tangible interfaces and augmented displays provide theatrical settings for designers to visualize real-world data a...... detection, and multi-touch techniques, multidimensional tangible interfaces and augmented displays presented in this paper demonstrate a powerful new approach for designing and interacting with physical models, materials, and environmental data....

  16. Disruption in neural phase synchrony is related to identification of inattentional deafness in real-world setting

    OpenAIRE

    Callan , Daniel E.; Gateau , Thibault; Durantin , Gautier; Gonthier , Nicolas; Dehais , Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Individuals often have reduced ability to hear alarms in real world situations (e.g., anesthesia monitoring, flying airplanes) when attention is focused on another task, sometimes with devastating consequences. This phenomenon is called inattentional deafness and usually occurs under critical high workload conditions. It is difficult to simulate the critical nature of these tasks in the laboratory. In this study, dry electroencephalography is used to investigate inatte...

  17. An Empirical Overview of the No Free Lunch Theorem and Its Effect on Real-World Machine Learning Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, David; Rojas, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    A sizable amount of research has been done to improve the mechanisms for knowledge extraction such as machine learning classification or regression. Quite unintuitively, the no free lunch (NFL) theorem states that all optimization problem strategies perform equally well when averaged over all possible problems. This fact seems to clash with the effort put forth toward better algorithms. This letter explores empirically the effect of the NFL theorem on some popular machine learning classification techniques over real-world data sets.

  18. The Salford Lung Study protocol: a pragmatic, randomised phase III real-world effectiveness trial in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, Ashley; Bakerly, Nawar Diar; New, John P.; Gibson, J. Martin; Wu, Wei; Vestbo, J?rgen; Leather, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Novel therapies need to be evaluated in normal clinical practice to allow a true representation of the treatment effectiveness in real-world settings. Methods/design The Salford Lung Study is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial in adult asthma, evaluating the clinical effectiveness and safety of once-daily fluticasone furoate (100??g or 200??g)/vilanterol 25??g in a novel dry-powder inhaler, versus existing asthma maintenance therapy. The study was initiated before this investi...

  19. Understanding Is Key: An Analysis of Factors Pertaining to Trust in a Real-World Automation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Sharples, Sarah; Wilson, John R.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This paper aims to explore the role of factors pertaining to trust in real-world automation systems through the application of observational methods in a case study from the railway sector. Background: Trust in automation is widely acknowledged as an important mediator of automation use, but the majority of the research on automation trust is based on laboratory work. In contrast, this work explored trust in a real-world setting. Method: Experienced rail operators in four signaling centers were observed for 90 min, and their activities were coded into five mutually exclusive categories. Their observed activities were analyzed in relation to their reported trust levels, collected via a questionnaire. Results: The results showed clear differences in activity, even when circumstances on the workstations were very similar, and significant differences in some trust dimensions were found between groups exhibiting different levels of intervention and time not involved with signaling. Conclusion: Although the empirical, lab-based studies in the literature have consistently found that reliability and competence of the automation are the most important aspects of trust development, understanding of the automation emerged as the strongest dimension in this study. The implications are that development and maintenance of trust in real-world, safety-critical automation systems may be distinct from artificial laboratory automation. Application: The findings have important implications for emerging automation concepts in diverse industries including highly automated vehicles and Internet of things. PMID:29613815

  20. Real-world exhaust temperature profiles of on-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with selective catalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriboonsomsin, Kanok; Durbin, Thomas; Scora, George; Johnson, Kent; Sandez, Daniel; Vu, Alexander; Jiang, Yu; Burnette, Andrew; Yoon, Seungju; Collins, John; Dai, Zhen; Fulper, Carl; Kishan, Sandeep; Sabisch, Michael; Jackson, Doug

    2018-09-01

    On-road heavy-duty diesel vehicles are a major contributor of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) emissions. In the US, many heavy-duty diesel vehicles employ selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology to meet the 2010 emission standard for NO x . Typically, SCR needs to be at least 200°C before a significant level of NO x reduction is achieved. However, this SCR temperature requirement may not be met under some real-world operating conditions, such as during cold starts, long idling, or low speed/low engine load driving activities. The frequency of vehicle operation with low SCR temperature varies partly by the vehicle's vocational use. In this study, detailed vehicle and engine activity data were collected from 90 heavy-duty vehicles involved in a range of vocations, including line haul, drayage, construction, agricultural, food distribution, beverage distribution, refuse, public work, and utility repair. The data were used to create real-world SCR temperature and engine load profiles and identify the fraction of vehicle operating time that SCR may not be as effective for NO x control. It is found that the vehicles participated in this study operate with SCR temperature lower than 200°C for 11-70% of the time depending on their vocation type. This implies that real-world NO x control efficiency could deviate from the control efficiency observed during engine certification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Is Key: An Analysis of Factors Pertaining to Trust in a Real-World Automation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Sharples, Sarah; Wilson, John R

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to explore the role of factors pertaining to trust in real-world automation systems through the application of observational methods in a case study from the railway sector. Trust in automation is widely acknowledged as an important mediator of automation use, but the majority of the research on automation trust is based on laboratory work. In contrast, this work explored trust in a real-world setting. Experienced rail operators in four signaling centers were observed for 90 min, and their activities were coded into five mutually exclusive categories. Their observed activities were analyzed in relation to their reported trust levels, collected via a questionnaire. The results showed clear differences in activity, even when circumstances on the workstations were very similar, and significant differences in some trust dimensions were found between groups exhibiting different levels of intervention and time not involved with signaling. Although the empirical, lab-based studies in the literature have consistently found that reliability and competence of the automation are the most important aspects of trust development, understanding of the automation emerged as the strongest dimension in this study. The implications are that development and maintenance of trust in real-world, safety-critical automation systems may be distinct from artificial laboratory automation. The findings have important implications for emerging automation concepts in diverse industries including highly automated vehicles and Internet of things.

  2. Further support for the role of dysfunctional attitudes in models of real-world functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Rassovsky, Yuri; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Wynn, Jonathan K; Green, Michael F

    2010-06-01

    According to A.T. Beck and colleagues' cognitive formulation of poor functioning in schizophrenia, maladaptive cognitive appraisals play a key role in the expression and persistence of negative symptoms and associated real-world functioning deficits. They provided initial support for this model by showing that dysfunctional attitudes are elevated in schizophrenia and account for significant variance in negative symptoms and subjective quality of life. The current study used structural equation modeling to further evaluate the contribution of dysfunctional attitudes to outcome in schizophrenia. One hundred eleven outpatients and 67 healthy controls completed a Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, and patients completed a competence measure of functional capacity, clinical ratings of negative symptoms, and interview-based ratings of real-world functioning. Patients reported higher defeatist performance beliefs than controls and these were significantly related to lower functional capacity, higher negative symptoms, and worse community functioning. Consistent with Beck and colleagues' formulation, modeling analyses indicated a significant indirect pathway from functional capacity-->dysfunctional attitudes-->negative symptoms-->real-world functioning. These findings support the value of dysfunctional attitudes for understanding the determinants of outcome in schizophrenia and suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting these attitudes may facilitate functional recovery. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Real-world persistence with fingolimod for the treatment of multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Daniel; Johnson, Kristen; Vieira, Maria Cecilia; Signorovitch, James; Li, Nanxin; Gao, Wei; Koo, Valerie; Duchesneau, Emilie; Herrera, Vivian

    2018-05-15

    To systematically review reports of fingolimod persistence in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) across data sources and practice settings, and to develop a consensus estimate of the 1-year real-world persistence rate. A systematic literature review was conducted (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and abstracts from selected conferences [2013-2015]) to identify observational studies reporting 1-year fingolimod persistence among adult patients with RRMS (sample size ≥50). A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to estimate a synthesized 1-year persistence rate and to assess heterogeneity across studies. Of 527 publications identified, 25 real-world studies reporting 1-year fingolimod persistence rates were included. The studies included patients from different data sources (e.g., administrative claims, electronic medical records, or registries), used different definitions of persistence (e.g., based on prescriptions refills, patient report, or prescription orders), and spanned multiple geographic regions. Reported 1-year persistence rates ranged from 72%-100%, and exhibited statistical evidence of heterogeneity (I 2  = 93% of the variability due to heterogeneity across studies). The consensus estimate of the 1-year persistence rate was 82% (95% confidence interval: 79%-85%). Across heterogeneous study designs and patient populations found in real-world studies, the consensus 1-year fingolimod persistence rate exceeded 80%, consistent with persistence rates identified in the recently-completed trial, PREFERMS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Development of a Trip Energy Estimation Model Using Real-World Global Positioning System Driving Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Ye [Metropia, Inc.

    2017-09-15

    A data-driven technique for estimation of energy requirements for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed. Based on over 700,000 miles of driving data, the technique has been applied to generate a model that estimates trip energy requirements. The model uses a novel binning approach to categorize driving by road type, traffic conditions, and driving profile. The trip-level energy estimations can easily be aggregated to any higher-level transportation system network desired. The model has been tested and validated on the Austin, Texas, data set used to build this model. Ground-truth energy consumption for the data set was obtained from Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) vehicle simulation results. The energy estimation model has demonstrated 12.1 percent normalized total absolute error. The energy estimation from the model can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations, to reduce energy consumption. The model can also be used to determine more accurate energy consumption of regional or national transportation networks if trip origin and destinations are known. Additionally, this method allows the estimation tool to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

  5. The Relationship Between Brain-Behavioral Systems and Negative and Positive Affect in Patients With Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovharifard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a chronic headache disorder that affects approximately 12% of the general population. Migraine is known as recurrent headache, pulsating, moderate with severe power, which lasts for 4 to 72 hours, aggravated by daily physical activity along with nausea, vomiting, photophobia or photophobia. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain-behavioral systems and negative and positive affects in patients with migraine. Patients and Methods The research population included patients, who had referred to neurology clinics. One hundred and twenty cases were selected by accessible sampling based on the neurologist’s diagnosis of migraine headaches. They completed the Gray-Wilson (1989 Personality Questionnaire as well as Watson, Clark and Telligent (1988 positive and negative affect scale. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software, correlation and stepwise regression. Results The results showed that positive affect had a significant positive correlation with active avoidance parameters and negative significant correlation with passive avoidance and extinction parameters. The findings also indicated that negative affect had a positive and significant relationship with passive avoidance and extinction. Conclusions It can be concluded that brain-behavioral systems may be the foundation of behavioral and emotional tendencies in patients with migraine headaches.

  6. The effect of motivation and positive affect on ego depletion: Replenishment versus release mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ze; Li, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Li, Ye; Zhang, Houcan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate whether motivation and positive affect can alleviate ego depletion and to elucidate their possible mechanisms. In Experiment 1, a crossing-out-letter task was adapted to reach an ego depletion state for Chinese participants. Participants were then randomly assigned to the extrinsic motivation group, the positive affect group or the depletion control group. After the experimental treatment, a dumbbell task was used to measure participants' remaining self-regulatory resources. The results showed that participants in the motivation and positive affect groups performed better on the dumbbell task than participants in the depletion control group. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants were asked to perform an additional unexpected dumbbell task after a neutral video following the above procedure. The results of Experiment 1 were replicated; however, participants' performance on the additional dumbbell task differed. The positive affect group performed better than the depletion control group, indicating an increase in self-regulatory resources and thus supporting the replenishment effect of positive affect. No significant difference was found between the motivation group and the depletion control group. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  8. Early-life Socio-economic Status and Adult Health: The Role of Positive Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a further understanding of the relationship between early-life socio-economic status (SES) and adult health disparities. This was accomplished through evaluation of state indicators of positive and negative affect as mechanisms through which early-life SES was associated with susceptibility to a rhinovirus (i.e. the common cold). Analyses were conducted among 286 adults in a viral challenge study in which participants were exposed to a rhinovirus via nasal drops and cold symptoms were evaluated over a period of 5 days. Participant age, body mass index, sex, education, ethnicity, pre-challenge virus-specific antibody titres and subjective adult SES, along with virus type and season of participation, were included as covariates. Early-life SES was associated with cold incidence through state positive affect, but not state negative affect. In addition, contrast analysis indicated that the indirect effect through state positive affect was stronger than the indirect effect through state negative affect. Findings provide further support for early-life SES being an important variable associated with adult health, and that state self-reported positive affect may be an underlying mechanism associated with susceptibility to rhinoviruses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Measuring positive and negative affect in the voiced sounds of African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Joseph; Blowers, Tracy E; Savage, Anne

    2011-02-01

    As in other mammals, there is evidence that the African elephant voice reflects affect intensity, but it is less clear if positive and negative affective states are differentially reflected in the voice. An acoustic comparison was made between African elephant "rumble" vocalizations produced in negative social contexts (dominance interactions), neutral social contexts (minimal social activity), and positive social contexts (affiliative interactions) by four adult females housed at Disney's Animal Kingdom®. Rumbles produced in the negative social context exhibited higher and more variable fundamental frequencies (F(0)) and amplitudes, longer durations, increased voice roughness, and higher first formant locations (F1), compared to the neutral social context. Rumbles produced in the positive social context exhibited similar shifts in most variables (F(0 )variation, amplitude, amplitude variation, duration, and F1), but the magnitude of response was generally less than that observed in the negative context. Voice roughness and F(0) observed in the positive social context remained similar to that observed in the neutral context. These results are most consistent with the vocal expression of affect intensity, in which the negative social context elicited higher intensity levels than the positive context, but differential vocal expression of positive and negative affect cannot be ruled out.

  10. From the Lab to the real world : sources of error in UF6 gas enrichment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Marcie L.

    2012-01-01

    monitors have required empty pipe measurements to accurately determine the pipe attenuation (the pipe attenuation is typically much larger than the attenuation in the gas). This dissertation reports on a method for determining the thickness of a pipe in a GCEP when obtaining an empty pipe measurement may not be feasible. This dissertation studies each of the components that may add to the final error in the enrichment measurement, and the factors that were taken into account to mitigate these issues are also detailed and tested. The use of an x-ray generator as a transmission source and the attending stability issues are addressed. Both analytical calculations and experimental measurements have been used. For completeness, some real-world analysis results from the URENCO Capenhurst enrichment plant have been included, where the final enrichment error has remained well below 1% for approximately two months

  11. Using Digital Technologies in Clinical HIV Research: Real-World Applications and Considerations for Future Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriesen, Jessica; Bull, Sheana; Dietrich, Janan; Haberer, Jessica E; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Voronin, Yegor; Wall, Kristin M; Whalen, Christopher; Priddy, Frances

    2017-07-31

    Digital technologies, especially if used in novel ways, provide a number of potential advantages to clinical research in trials related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and may greatly facilitate operations as well as data collection and analysis. These technologies may even allow answering questions that are not answerable with older technologies. However, they come with a variety of potential concerns for both the participants and the trial sponsors. The exact challenges and means for alleviation depend on the technology and on the population in which it is deployed, and the rapidly changing landscape of digital technologies presents a challenge for creating future-proof guidelines for technology application. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize some common themes that are frequently encountered by researchers in this context and highlight those that should be carefully considered before making a decision to include these technologies in their research. In April 2016, the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise surveyed the field for research groups with recent experience in novel applications of digital technologies in HIV clinical research and convened these groups for a 1-day meeting. Real-world uses of various technologies were presented and discussed by 46 attendees, most of whom were researchers involved in the design and conduct of clinical trials of biomedical HIV prevention and treatment approaches. After the meeting, a small group of organizers reviewed the presentations and feedback obtained during the meeting and categorized various lessons-learned to identify common themes. A group of 9 experts developed a draft summary of the findings that was circulated via email to all 46 attendees for review. Taking into account the feedback received, the group finalized the considerations that are presented here. Meeting presenters and attendees discussed the many successful applications of digital

  12. Mimewrighting: Preparing Students for the Real World of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    READING, WRITING, & ENACTING SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL LITERATURE: Mimewrighting applies the art of mime as an interpretive springboard to integrate conceptual understanding across all content areas. Mimewrighting guides students to read and express complex ideas in carefully crafted movement integrations, mediating experience, so that students obtain an intuitive grasp of difficult and abstract ideas. THE PROBLEM: Reading science writing presents obstacles for middle and high school students, to the point that many students are turned OFF to science altogether. A typical science abstract, written for colleagues, is as densely packed with concept-laden words as a black hole is densely packed with matter- and just as mysterious. What reads to a science colleague as a richly crafted paragraph, from which a myriad of elegantly interrelated concepts can unfold to point to the significance and context of the study at hand, reads as jabberwocky nonsense to the uninitiated student. So, how do we turn such kids (and teachers) back ON to the inquiry-driven desire to seek out challenging and educative experiences? How do we step up to the national challenge to prepare ALL students adequately for the REAL-WORLD demands of science, technology, engineering, math, (STEM) and communications? How do we help kids read, write, and understand scientific and technical literature? AN UNCONVENTIONAL ANSWER: Mimewrighting applies the classic art of mime to unpack the meaning of science writing. We help students view the text as sequences of action, scenarios that can be enacted theatrically for understanding. HOW DOES IT WORK? READ ALOUD, MIME ALONG: It's as simple as read aloud and mime along. And as complex, in that it requires taking the time to acknowledge each concept packed into the passage. Three opening sentences might involve twenty minutes of mimewrighting activity to ensure that students apprehend the patterns, perceive the relationships, and comprehend the dynamics of such a

  13. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Evaluating the Degradation Mechanism and State of Health of LiFePO4 Lithium-Ion Batteries in Real-World Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Application for Different Ageing Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate determination of the performance and precise prediction of the state of health (SOH of lithium-ion batteries are necessary to ensure reliability and efficiency in real-world application. However, most SOH offline studies were based on dynamic stress tests, which only reflect the universal rule of degradation, but are not necessarily applicable for real-world applications. This paper presents an experimental evaluation of two different operations of real-world plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with LiFePO4 batteries as energy-storage systems. First, the LiFePO4 batteries were subjected to a set of comparative experimental tests that consider the effects of charge depleting (CD and charge sustaining (CS operations. Then, different voltage analysis along with the close-to-equilibrium open circle voltage was utilized to evaluate the performance of the batteries in life cycles. Finally, a qualitative relationship between the external factors (the percentage of time of CD/CS operations during the entire driving range and the degradation mechanism was built with the help of the proposed methods. Results indicated that the external factors affect the degree of the batteries degradation, but not up to the point when the capacity fading stage occurs. This relationship contributes to the foundation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles’ (PHEVs’ energy management strategy or battery management system control strategy.

  15. The effect of low versus high approach-motivated positive affect on memory for peripherally versus centrally presented information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2010-08-01

    Emotions influence attention and processes involved in memory. Although some research has suggested that positive affect categorically influences these processes differently than neutral affect, recent research suggests that motivational intensity of positive affective states influences these processes. The present experiments examined memory for centrally or peripherally presented information after the evocation of approach-motivated positive affect. Experiment 1 found that, relative to neutral conditions, pregoal, approach-motivated positive affect (caused by a monetary incentives task) enhanced memory for centrally presented information, whereas postgoal, low approach-motivated positive affect enhanced memory for peripherally presented information. Experiment 2 found that, relative to a neutral condition, high approach-motivated positive affect (caused by appetitive pictures) enhanced memory for centrally presented information but hindered memory for peripheral information. These results suggest a more complex relationship between positive affect and memory processes and highlight the importance of considering the motivational intensity of positive affects in cognitive processes. Copyright 2010 APA

  16. Unequally distributed psychological assets: are there social disparities in optimism, life satisfaction, and positive affect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K; Chen, Ying; Williams, David R; Ryff, Carol; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is associated with health disparities, but underlying psychosocial mechanisms have not been fully identified. Dispositional optimism may be a psychosocial process linking socioeconomic status with health. We hypothesized that lower optimism would be associated with greater social disadvantage and poorer social mobility. We also investigated whether life satisfaction and positive affect showed similar patterns. Participants from the Midlife in the United States study self-reported their optimism, satisfaction, positive affect, and socioeconomic status (gender, race/ethnicity, education, occupational class and prestige, income). Social disparities in optimism were evident. Optimistic individuals tended to be white and highly educated, had an educated parent, belonged to higher occupational classes with more prestige, and had higher incomes. Findings were generally similar for satisfaction, but not positive affect. Greater optimism and satisfaction were also associated with educational achievement across generations. Optimism and life satisfaction are consistently linked with socioeconomic advantage and may be one conduit by which social disparities influence health.

  17. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  18. Visual search in the real world: Color vision deficiency affects peripheral guidance, but leaves foveal verification largely unaffected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter eKugler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People with color vision deficiencies report numerous limitations in daily life. However, they use basic color terms systematically and in a similar manner as people with people with normal color vision. We hypothesize that a possible explanation for this discrepancy between color perception and behavioral consequences might be found in the gaze behavior of people with color vision deficiency.Methods: A group of participants with color vision deficiencies and a control group performed several search tasks in a naturalistic setting on a lawn.Results: Search performance was similar in both groups in a color-unrelated search task as well as in a search for yellow targets. While searching for red targets, color vision deficient participants exhibited a strongly degraded performance. This was closely matched by the number of fixations on red objects shown by the two groups. Importantly, once they fixated a target, participants with color vision deficiencies exhibited only few identification errors. Conclusions: Participants with color vision deficiencies are not able to enhance their search for red targets on a (green lawn by an efficient guiding mechanism. The data indicate that the impaired guiding is the main influence on search performance, while foveal identification (verification largely unaffected.

  19. It's a Wonderful Life: Using Public Domain Cinema Clips To Teach Affective Objectives and Illustrate Real-World Algebra Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Loretta

    A basic algebra unit was developed at Utah Valley State College to emphasize applications of mathematical concepts in the work world, using video and computer-generated graphics to integrate textual material. The course was implemented in three introductory algebra sections involving 80 students and taught algebraic concepts using such areas as…

  20. Positive and Negative Affect in Clinic-Referred Youth With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Izumi; Mueller, Charles W; Nakamura, Brad J

    2016-01-01

    To examine self-reported positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) among youth with ADHD (only and comorbid) and other non-ADHD-referred youth in an ethnically diverse clinical sample. Semi-structured interviews identified 80 pure ADHD, 284 ADHD plus one or more comorbidities, and 730 non-ADHD youth (e.g., other diagnoses or no diagnosis). The Positive and Negative Affect Scale-Children (PANAS-C) was used to assess affective states. Even after controlling for the influence of potential confounds, youth with only ADHD reported higher PA and lower NA than other clinic-referred youth. The ADHD-comorbid group reported higher PA than the "non-ADHD" group, but these groups did not differ on level of NA. ADHD subtype did not influence results. Among clinic-referred youth, ADHD is associated with higher levels of PA and when there are no comorbid disorders, lower levels of NA. © The Author(s) 2013.