WorldWideScience

Sample records for real world part

  1. Education for Real-World Data Science Roles (Part 2: A Translational Approach to Curriculum Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Lyon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the findings from Part 2 of a small-scale analysis of requirements for real-world data science positions and examines three further data science roles: data analyst, data engineer and data journalist. The study examines recent job descriptions and maps their requirements to the current curriculum within the graduate MLIS and Information Science and Technology Masters Programs in the School of Information Sciences (iSchool at the University of Pittsburgh. From this mapping exercise, model ‘course pathways’ and module ‘stepping stones’ have been identified, as well as course topic gaps and opportunities for collaboration with other Schools. Competency in four specific tools or technologies was required by all three roles (Microsoft Excel, R, Python and SQL, as well as collaborative skills (with both teams of colleagues and with clients. The ability to connect the educational curriculum with real-world positions is viewed as further validation of the translational approach being developed as a foundational principle of the current MLIS curriculum review process Â

  2. The Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, John Sears

    1981-01-01

    Relates personal experiences about what constitutes the "real world." Shows how experiences from philosophy, history, literature, art, and the movies add meaning to "reality." Stresses a compromise of imagination and sensation to make the real world palatable. (RL)

  3. [Real-world evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiore, Luca; Addis, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Real-world evidence is among the most frequently discussed issues at professional medical conferences and meetings. It refers to data and information derived from sources such as electronic health records, disease or product registries, and observational research. Looking for an accelerated approval of new pharmaceutical products and devices, real-world evidence is considered a useful tool to confirm data collected for regulatory purposes. Anyway, randomised controlled trials still remain the gold standard of clinical research, in order to minimize bias and to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical intervention. A pragmatic approach and quasi-randomised trials to shorten length and costs of the studies can be considered. The problem lies with the quality of data rather than with the context in which evidence is gathered.

  4. Diving into Real World Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Matt; Rodden, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how educators can engage students in real world learning using their academic knowledge and technical skills. They describe how school districts have discovered that the world of robotics can help students use technical skills to solve simulated problems found in the real world, while understanding the…

  5. Shopping in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Black, Darren; Clemmensen, Nils Jakob; Skov, Mikael B.

    2009-01-01

    Shopping in the real world is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate various technologies to support shoppers. Based on an empirical study of supermarket shoppers, we designed a mobile context-aware system called the Context- Aware Shopping Trolley (CAST). The aim...... of the system is to support shopping in supermarkets through context-awareness and acquiring user attention. Thus, the interactive trolley guides and directs shoppers in the handling and finding of groceries. An empirical evaluation showed that shoppers using CAST adapted in different shopping behavior than...... traditional trolley shoppers by exhibiting a more uniform behavior in terms of product sequence collection and ease of finding products and thus, CAST supported the shopping experience....

  6. Learning from Dealing with Real World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an example of using real world issues as tools for science teaching and learning. Using real world issues provides students with experiences in learning in problem-based environments and encourages them to apply their content knowledge to solving current and local problems.

  7. Reflections on "Real-World" Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom; Swift, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the history of real-world (applied) community psychologists trace their participation in the field's official guild, the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA), beginning with the Swampscott Conference in 1965 through the current date. Four benchmarks are examined. The issues these real-world psychologists bring to the…

  8. Science writing in the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Mentis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to consider guides to technical writing. Since the professional writes what he does and does what he writes, guides to how you execute the one relate to how you perform the other, so this article is about more than just writing. While there is need for idiosyncrasy and individualism, there are some rules. Documents must have an explicit purpose stated at the outset. By their nature, documents in the applied sciences and business address real-world problems, but elsewhere activity may be laissez faire for which the cost-effectiveness in yielding innovations is contestable. A hallmark of written science and technology is that every statement is capable of being tested and capable of being shown to be wrong, and that methods yield repeatable results. Caution should be observed in requiring authoritative referencing for every notion, partly because of the unsatisfying infinite regress in searching for ultimate sources, and partly to avoid squashing innovation. It is not only the content of messages that matters, but reliability too. Probability theory must be built into design to assure that strong inference can be drawn from outcomes. Research, business and infrastructure projects must substitute the frequent optimistic ‘everything goes according to plan’ (EGAP with a more realistic ‘most likely development’ (MLD and the risks of even that not happening. A cornerstone of science and technology is parsimony. No description, experiment, explanation, hypothesis, idea, instrument, machine, method, model, prediction, statement, technique, test or theory should be more elaborate than necessary to satisfy its purpose. Antifragility – the capacity to survive and benefit from shocks – must be designed into project and organizational structure and function by manipulating such factors as complexity and interdependency to evade failure in a turbulent and unpredictable world. The role of writing is to integrate

  9. Cellphones and Real-World Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his views on cellphones and real-world communication. He claims that the cellphone has changed society more than the home computer, which it has assimilated. Cellphones sound during worship, wakes, births, graduations, hearings, trials, and accreditation meetings--interrupting life-changing spiritual or secular…

  10. Managing Uncertainty in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Managing Uncertainty in the Real World - Fuzzy Systems. Satish Kumar. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Satish Kumar1. Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute Dayalbagh, Agra 282005, India.

  11. Real-World Literacy Activity in Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jim; Purcell-Gates, Victoria; Lenters, Kimberly; McTavish, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we share real-world literacy activities that we designed and implemented in two early literacy classes for preschoolers from two inner-city neighbourhoods that were part of an intergenerational family literacy program, Literacy for Life (LFL). The program was informed by research that shows that young children in high literate…

  12. Real-world validation of SHAC models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, L.

    1970-01-01

    A statistical approach is proposed to validation of SHAC models. It includes a definition of validation, an explanation of its purposes, and a description of the statistical aspects of experimental design. It proposes a study to validate design codes with statistical samples of real-world systems. Also included is a summary of present SHAC validation methodologies and studies as well as recommendations for future activity.

  13. Multilingual children between real and imaginary worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia; Kolstrup, Kirsten Lundgaard

    2017-01-01

    ) and the signifying self (Kramsch 2009), it demonstrates how the children as sign makers and symbolic subjects (re)signify their own learning space. The analysis reveals how, during a reading and joint text construction activity in Danish, they explore the symbolic possibilities of signs and subjectivities, while...... moving in and out of the text and back and forth between imagined and real worlds. These findings illustrate how the children’s interest both shapes their playful interaction and takes shape through it. It furthermore shows how language play contributes to paving the way for a resignification...

  14. A real-world way to manage real options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Tom; Tufano, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Each corporate growth project is an option, in the sense that managers face choices--push ahead or pull back--along the way. Yet many companies hesitate to apply options theory to initiatives such as R&D and geographic expansion, partly because these "real" options are highly complex. In this article, the authors make the case that the complexity of real options can be eased through the use of a binomial valuation model. Many of the problems with real-options analysis stem from the use of the Black-Scholes-Merton model, which isn't suited to real options. Binomial models, by contrast, are simpler mathematically, and you can tinker with a binomial model until it closely reflects the project you wish to value. Suppose your company is considering investing in a new plant. To use the binomial model, you must create an "event tree" to figure out the full range of possible values for the plant during the project's lifetime--next year, at the end of the design phase, upon completion. Then you work backward from the value at completion, factoring in the various investments, to determine the value of the project today. These calculations provide you with numbers for all the possible future values of the option at the various points where a decision needs to be made on whether to continue with the project. The authors also address another criticism of real options: that gaps often arise between theoretical and realized values of options of all types. Such gaps may be largely the result of managers exercising options at the wrong time. To improve the way it manages its real options, a company can look out for the decision trigger points that correspond to the nodes on a binomial decision tree. The trigger points should not only tell managers when they need to decide on exercise but also specify rules governing the exercise decisions.

  15. Effects of aging on eye movements in the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eDowiasch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aging on eye movements are well studied in the laboratory. Increased saccade latencies or decreased smooth-pursuit gain are well established findings. The question remains whether these findings are influenced by the rather untypical environment of a laboratory; that is, whether or not they transfer to the real world.We measured 34 healthy participants between the age of 25 and 85 during two everyday tasks in the real world: (I walking down a hallway with free gaze, (II visual tracking of an earth-fixed object while walking straight-ahead. Eye movements were recorded with a mobile light-weight eye tracker, the EyeSeeCam (ESC.We find that age significantly influences saccade parameters. With increasing age, saccade frequency, amplitude, peak velocity, and mean velocity are reduced and the velocity/amplitude distribution as well as the velocity profile become less skewed. In contrast to laboratory results on smooth pursuit, we did not find a significant effect of age on tracking eye-movements in the real world.Taken together, age-related eye-movement changes as measured in the laboratory only partly resemble those in the real world. It is well-conceivable that in the real world additional sensory cues, such as head-movement or vestibular signals, may partially compensate for age-related effects, which, according to this view, would be specific to early motion processing. In any case, our results highlight the importance of validity for natural situations when studying the impact of aging on real-life performance.

  16. Clique covering of large real-world networks

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Alessio; Grossi, Roberto; Marino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The edge clique covering (ecc) problem deals with discovering a set of (possibly overlapping) cliques in a given network, such that each edge is part of at least one of these cliques. We address the ecc problem from an alternative perspective reconsidering the quality of the cliques found, and proposing more structured criteria with respect to the traditional measures such as minimum number of cliques. In the case of real-world networks, having millions of nodes, such ...

  17. Data Modeling for Mobile Services in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Speicys, L.

    2003-01-01

    . In contrast, this paper describes holistic concepts and techniques for mobile data modeling that are readily applicable in practice. Focus is on services to be delivered to mobile users, such as route guidance, point-of-interest search, road pricing, parking payment, traffic monitoring, etc. While geo......Research contributions on data modeling, data structures, query processing, and indexing for mobile services may have an impact in the longer term, but each contribution typically offers an isolated solution to one small part of the practical problem of delivering mobile services in the real world...

  18. ATLAS experiment : From virtual world to real world

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN ATLAS

    2005-01-01

    The film is a combination of three dimensional cad-based animations together with the real film taken with webcams during the construction, lowering and installation of elements belonging to ATLAS Detector. Very nice movie that gives the view of the both planning and real construction of this huge detector complex located in underground cavern in POINT1. This movie is worth to see!

  19. Bringing real-world problems into the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.

    Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense

  20. Bringing real-world problems into the classroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enserink, B.; De Haan, A.R.C.; Hermans, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Real world problems are a challenge and a motivator for students to learn understanding and using the concepts of systems and actors. But using real world problems in the classroom is not without challenges and dilemmas. In the paper we explicitly address the issue of the need for quite intense

  1. Relations between Real and Fictional Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    1999-01-01

    I stedet for at tale om et referentielt forhold mellem fiktion og real verden, forslås det at forstå forhold som en kompleks relation. Al litteratur er skrevet ud af og ind i en samfundsmæssig kontakst. Forestillingerne om såvel autonomi som imitation afvises. Elementer fra realiteten transformeres...

  2. The Real Impact of Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that as technology continues to change, the generation of students will change also. The best preparation, then, is to train one's own mind to think digitally so that one can best create policies, programs, and interactions that enable a student to connect the two worlds in ways that are productive, satisfying, and meaningful.…

  3. The impact of virtual world economy in real world economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Constantin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Internet technology is transforming the way we define nation-states. It has created “virtualstates” in which parallel communities are formed and political agendas are executed. Due to the emergenceof Internet technology, visions of “techno-imperialism” and “electronic warfare” are causing nation-statesto enact regulatory measures to preserve political, economic and cultural integrity. While the informationinfrastructure is the heart of the economic stability for most nations, the possibility of “viruses” or “electronicbombs” bringing ruin to an economy is real indeed. This means that architects of the “nation-state”will have the gargantuan task of re-examining existing politico-economic paradigms and fully integratetechnological initiatives in its apparatus to prevent imminent marginalization

  4. Using Real-World Case Studies to Advance Hydrology Education in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Thorsten; Reed, Patrick; Zappe, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Hydrology originated as an engineering discipline mainly concerned with the estimation of floods and droughts. Since then, hydrology has evolved into one of the earth sciences and deals with water related issues in complex environmental systems at scales ranging from local to global. Current and future water issues, however, require new inter-disciplinary scientific approaches to provide solutions to engineering problems, often including significant social components. Climate and land use change introduce non-stationarities into the environment that many of the current engineering tools cannot consider, while a growing population continuously increase the stress on available water resources, particularly in less developed countries. Hydrology therefore remains an important part of the general civil and environmental engineering curriculum. However, the changes in the science of hydrology have not yet fully propagated into a changed approach to teaching this important subject in many engineering departments. We present the results of a three-semester long study in which we introduced real world case studies into a large (70-90 students) civil engineering undergraduate class to achieve this change. Over the past several semesters, students have expressed overwhelmingly positive thoughts on the course adjustments made, including the cases and other active learning elements utilized. We show and discuss evidence of the positive impact on student learning due to the closer link between the course material and real-world examples of a changing world.

  5. Reliability Studies in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, William J.

    This chapter is intended to give a nontraditional look at reliability of compound semiconductors. It is a review of the five main stages of reliability analysis. Although essential, the first three stages are separated as those traditional tests which are particularly applicable for process development and material selection phases. The remaining two reliability stages are the focus of real life. These later stages are the tools used for improving reliability of established processes and families of products where significant changes and switches to new materials are not feasible. While all five steps are necessary in reliability studies, the methods of establishing and improving reliability are different.

  6. Getting Real Results with Ohio State University Extension’s Real Money. Real World. Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Ferrari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth development organizations have a unique opportunity to offer programs that help young people develop financial skills they need to become successful adults. This article describes Ohio State University Extension’s Real Money. Real World. (RMRW and the systematic approach used to evaluate its effectiveness. The RMRW curriculum includes an active, hands-on experience that gives young people the opportunity to make lifestyle and budget choices similar to those they will make as adults. The realistic simulation creates a teachable moment. The outcomes of the statewide evaluation clearly indicate the curriculum accomplishes its goals of raising awareness, changing attitudes, and motivating students to plan for behavior changes concerning financial management, education, and career choices. The article concludes with a discussion of the organizational outcomes of conducting the evaluation.

  7. Managing Uncertainty in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    these to geometry. In Part 2, we extend the idea offuzzy sets to explain how we may develop systems that reason with fuzzy sets using fuzzy logic. The idea of extending fuzzy logic to fuzzy engineering and fuzzy function approximation is explored with a working example. It is hoped that readers will be provided with enough ...

  8. Controlling Inventory: Real-World Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas G.; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Chelst, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Amazon, Walmart, and other large-scale retailers owe their success partly to efficient inventory management. For such firms, holding too little inventory risks losing sales, whereas holding idle inventory wastes money. Therefore profits hinge on the inventory level chosen. In this activity, students investigate a simplified inventory-control…

  9. Mediation Analyses in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Theis; Starkopf, Liis

    2016-01-01

    -code in their publications, thereby shortening the road from reading their paper to employing the considered methods on one’s own data. In this commentary, we will try to follow up on these developments by providing a snapshot of how applied mediation analysis was actually conducted in 2015. While we do not expect to find...... it simultaneously ensures that the comparison is based on properties, which matter in actual applications, and makes the comparison accessible for a broader audience. In a wider context, the choice to stay close to real-life problems mirrors a general trend within the literature on mediation analysis namely to put...... applications using the inverse odds ration approach, as it simply has not had enough time to move from theoretical concept to published applied paper, we do expect to be able to judge the willingness of authors and journals to employ the causal inference-based approach to mediation analyses. Our hope...

  10. Flat world versus real world : where is weathering the most important ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godderis, Yves; Maffre, Pierre; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Donnadieu, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Mountain ranges are a key driver of the Earth climates. Acting on a large range of timescales, they modulate the atmospheric and oceanic circulations but also plays a crucial role in regulating the geological carbon cycle through their impacts on erosion and continental weathering. Since the 90's, there is an ongoing debate about the role of the mountain uplift on the long term global cooling of the Earth climate. Mountain ranges are thought to enhance silicate weathering and the associated CO2 consumption. But this has been repeatedly questioned in the recent years. Here we present a new method for modeling the spatial distribution of both physical erosion and coupled chemical weathering. The IPSL ocean-atmosphere model calculates the continental climate, which is used to force the erosion/weathering model. We first compare the global silicate weathering for two geographical configurations: the present-day world with mountain ranges, and a world where all mountains have been removed. Depending on the chosen formalism for silicate weathering and on the climate changes linked to the removal of mountains, it can be higher in the flat world than in the real world, or up to 5 times weaker. In the second part of the talk, we will explore the role of the Hercynian mountain range on the onset and demise of the late Paleozoic ice age, within the context of the Pangea assembly.

  11. LabVIEW A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Fairweather, Ian

    2011-01-01

    LabVIEW(t) has become one of the preeminent platforms for the development of data acquisition and data analysis programs. LabVIEW(t): A Developer's Guide to Real World Integration explains how to integrate LabVIEW into real-life applications. Written by experienced LabVIEW developers and engineers, the book describes how LabVIEW has been pivotal in solving real-world challenges. Each chapter is self-contained and demonstrates the power and simplicity of LabVIEW in various applications, from image processing to solar tracking systems. Many of the chapters explore how exciting new technologies c

  12. Semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Alex D; Wang, Hsueh-Cheng; Pomplun, Marc

    2011-05-25

    The perception of objects in our visual world is influenced by not only their low-level visual features such as shape and color, but also their high-level features such as meaning and semantic relations among them. While it has been shown that low-level features in real-world scenes guide eye movements during scene inspection and search, the influence of semantic similarity among scene objects on eye movements in such situations has not been investigated. Here we study guidance of eye movements by semantic similarity among objects during real-world scene inspection and search. By selecting scenes from the LabelMe object-annotated image database and applying latent semantic analysis (LSA) to the object labels, we generated semantic saliency maps of real-world scenes based on the semantic similarity of scene objects to the currently fixated object or the search target. An ROC analysis of these maps as predictors of subjects' gaze transitions between objects during scene inspection revealed a preference for transitions to objects that were semantically similar to the currently inspected one. Furthermore, during the course of a scene search, subjects' eye movements were progressively guided toward objects that were semantically similar to the search target. These findings demonstrate substantial semantic guidance of eye movements in real-world scenes and show its importance for understanding real-world attentional control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inventory of real world data sources in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, Audrey; Jönsson, Linus; Ishihara, Lianna

    2017-12-08

    Real world data have an important role to play in the evaluation of epidemiology and burden of disease; and in assisting health-care decision-makers, especially related to coverage and payment decisions. However, there is currently no overview of the existing longitudinal real world data sources in Parkinson's disease (PD) in the USA. Such an assessment can be very helpful, to support a future effort to harmonize real world data collection and use the available resources in an optimal way. The objective of this comprehensive literature review is to systematically identify and describe the longitudinal, real world data sources in PD in the USA, and to provide a summary of their measurements (categorized into 8 main dimensions: motor and neurological functions, cognition, psychiatry, activities of daily living, sleep, quality of life, autonomic symptoms and other). The literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and internet key word search. Of the 53 data sources identified between May and August 2016, 16 were still ongoing. Current medications (81%) and comorbidities (79%) were frequently collected, in comparison to medical imaging (36%), genetic information (30%), caregiver burden (11%) and healthcare costs (2%). Many different measurements (n = 108) were performed and an interesting variability among used measurements was revealed. Many longitudinal real world data sources on PD exist. Different types of measurements have been performed over time. To allow comparison and pooling of these multiple data sources, it will be essential to harmonize practices in terms of types of measurements.

  14. Development of database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors for China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianbao; Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Qiang; Wagner, David Vance; Huo, Hong; Zhang, Yingzhi; Zheng, Bo; He, Kebin

    2015-05-01

    A database of real-world diesel vehicle emission factors, based on type and technology, has been developed following tests on more than 300 diesel vehicles in China using a portable emission measurement system. The database provides better understanding of diesel vehicle emissions under actual driving conditions. We found that although new regulations have reduced real-world emission levels of diesel trucks and buses significantly for most pollutants in China, NOx emissions have been inadequately controlled by the current standards, especially for diesel buses, because of bad driving conditions in the real world. We also compared the emission factors in the database with those calculated by emission factor models and used in inventory studies. The emission factors derived from COPERT (Computer Programmer to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) and MOBILE may both underestimate real emission factors, whereas the updated COPERT and PART5 (Highway Vehicle Particulate Emission Modeling Software) models may overestimate emission factors in China. Real-world measurement results and emission factors used in recent emission inventory studies are inconsistent, which has led to inaccurate estimates of emissions from diesel trucks and buses over recent years. This suggests that emission factors derived from European or US-based models will not truly represent real-world emissions in China. Therefore, it is useful and necessary to conduct systematic real-world measurements of vehicle emissions in China in order to obtain the optimum inputs for emission inventory models. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weise, Thomas; Michalewicz, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are population-based, stochastic search algorithms that mimic natural evolution. Due to their ability to find excellent solutions for conventionally hard and dynamic problems within acceptable time, EAs have attracted interest from many researchers and practitioners in recent years. This book “Variants of Evolutionary Algorithms for Real-World Applications” aims to promote the practitioner’s view on EAs by providing a comprehensive discussion of how EAs can be adapted to the requirements of various applications in the real-world domains. It comprises 14 chapters, including an introductory chapter re-visiting the fundamental question of what an EA is and other chapters addressing a range of real-world problems such as production process planning, inventory system and supply chain network optimisation, task-based jobs assignment, planning for CNC-based work piece construction, mechanical/ship design tasks that involve runtime-intense simulations, data mining for the predictio...

  16. Analyzing Real-World Light Duty Vehicle Efficiency Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Chaney, Larry; Holden, Jacob; Jeffers, Matthew; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-06-08

    Off-cycle technologies represent an important pathway to achieve real-world fuel savings, through which OEMs can potentially receive credit toward CAFE compliance. DOE national labs such as NREL are well positioned to provide objective input on these technologies using large, national data sets in conjunction with OEM- and technology-specific testing. This project demonstrates an approach that combines vehicle testing (dynamometer and on-road) with powertrain modeling and simulation over large, representative datasets to quantify real-world fuel economy. The approach can be applied to specific off-cycle technologies (engine encapsulation, start/stop, connected vehicle, etc.) in A/B comparisons to support calculation of realistic real-world impacts. Future work will focus on testing-based A/B technology comparisons that demonstrate the significance of this approach.

  17. StoryTrek: Experiencing Stories in the Real World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla; Barr, Pippin James; Greenspan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce StoryTrek, a locative hypernarrative system developed to generate stories based on a reader’s location and specific movements in the real world. This creates, for readers, an interplay between navigation, narrative, and agency, as well as between the fictional and real...... world experience. In early tests we observed the emergence of a number of recurrent themes in participants’ experiences which are characteristic of the StoryTrek system, but which also help us to understand locative media storytelling affordances more generally. In this paper we present the system...

  18. Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano: the First Volcanological Observatory in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvisati, Gala; de Vita, Sandro; Di Vito, Mauro Antonio; Marotta, Enrica; Sangianantoni, Agata; Peluso, Rosario; Pasquale Ricciardi, Giovanni; Tulino, Sabrina; Uzzo, Tullia; Ghilardi, Massimo; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The Reale Osservatorio Vesuviano (ROV), historic home of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), is the oldest volcanological observatory in the world. It was founded in 1841 by the Bourbon king of Naples. The building is located on the western slope of Mount Vesuvius, one of the most famous and dangerous volcanoes in the world. Since its foundation, the ROV has always attracted researchers, visitors and students from many countries. The ROV site is an elegant neo-classical building which at present hosts permanent exhibitions of part of its inheritance of valuable mineral, scientific instrument and art collections. A radical change is now under way, starting with the structural reinforcement of the building, renewal and upgrading of services, and the redefinition of exhibition itineraries so as to make visits still more enjoyable and informative. This will include the integration of outdoor footpaths and theme-based routes designed for users of differing levels of expertise. This major transformation also involves a study and a number of operations aimed at the possibility of developing self-financed activities. To this end an analysis of tourist movements in Campania was conducted, in part so as to attract to the ROV a larger and more varied group of visitors. In an area that - despite its unique characteristics - is currently significantly degraded and underused, the creation of such a powerful tourist and cultural attraction would serve as a focus for the development of additional activities and services that would greatly enhance it and stimulate growth. These activities would, of course, be compatible with a territory that has a high risk of volcanic hazards - indeed, such growth would constitute an important component in mitigating this risk in the area. The example given illustrates how the restoration and enhancement of a piece of our historic, scientific and cultural heritage could be the driving force behind the economic revival of an

  19. Parsec: direct style monadic parser combinators for the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijen, D.; Meijer, E.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the long list of publications on parser combinators, there does not yet exist a monadic parser combinator library that is applicable in real world situations. In particular naive implementations of parser combinators are likely to suffer from space leaks and are often unable to

  20. Ethical Responsibilities: Preparing Students for the Real Art Therapy World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussak, David E.; Orr, Penelope

    2005-01-01

    This report addresses several educators' attempts to prepare their students for entering the "real" art therapy world. Two important components necessary to prepare students for entering the professional arenas are introduced: the need to translate theory into practice and the ability to communicate and negotiate with other helping professionals.…

  1. Real world NOx emissions of Euro V vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Vonk, W.A.; Verbeek, R.P.; Dekker, H. [TNO Science and Industry, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    In the past decade, vehicle emissions have been reduced substantially as a result of the European emission legislation. Air quality problems are still present, however, in particular in urban areas where local authorities have difficulty meeting European limits regarding air quality (mainly NO2). Therefore, the emission performance of vehicles under urban conditions is of increasing importance for air quality improvement in cities. In this context, TNO was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Environment (VROM) to investigate the real-world NOx emissions of Euro V trucks and buses during the past two years. The investigation has shown that, in general, there is a large variety in real-world emissions between different vehicles, in particular under urban conditions. Some vehicles demonstrate the possibility of achieving low emissions under urban conditions, but the results also clearly show that this is not the case for most of the trucks. This outcome is based on two lines of research. Firstly, the real world emissions of eleven trucks and one bus were measured on-road using a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS), under conditions typical of everyday use. Secondly, AdBlue consumption data for a number of Dutch vehicle fleets were analysed. AdBlue is the reagent that is used for NOx emission reduction in SCR systems (catalytic after treatment systems), and the amount of reagent used in daily practice is related to the real-world NOx emissions. Both lines of research support the general outcome.

  2. An Architectural Blueprint for a Real-World Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluhak, Alex; Hauswirth, Manfred; Krco, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    Numerous projects in the area of Real-World Internet (RWI), Internet of Things (IoT), and Internet Connected Objects have proposed architectures for the systems they develop. All of these systems are faced with very similar problems in their architecture and design and interoperability among thes...

  3. Identical Distinguishable Gas Particles in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 1. Identical Distinguishable Gas Particles in the Real World. Carl E Mungan. General Article Volume 20 Issue 1 January 2015 pp ... Author Affiliations. Carl E Mungan1. Physics Department US Naval Academy Annapolis, MD 21402-1363 USA ...

  4. Partnering for Real World Learning, Sustainability, Tourism Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Gayle; Cater, Carl I.; Hales, Rob; Kensbock, Sandra; Hornby, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study how real world learning was used to engender and enhance sustainability principles and practices with 11 micro-, small- and medium-tourism business enterprises and 101 university tourism students enrolled across three university courses. Design/methodology/approach: Action research processes were…

  5. Integrating a virtual agent into the real world

    OpenAIRE

    André, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Integrating a virtual agent into the real world : the virtual anatomy assistant ritchie / K. Dorfmüller-Ulhaas ... - In: Intelligent virtual agents : 7th international conference, IVA 2007, Paris, France, September 17-19, 2007 ; proceedings / Catherine Pelachaud ... (eds.). - Berlin [u.a.] : Springer, 2007. - S. 211-224. - (Lecture notes in computer science ; 4722 : Lecture notes in artificial intelligence)

  6. Modelling Real World Using Stochastic Processes and Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeger Peter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available First we give an implementation in Mizar [2] basic important definitions of stochastic finance, i.e. filtration ([9], pp. 183 and 185, adapted stochastic process ([9], p. 185 and predictable stochastic process ([6], p. 224. Second we give some concrete formalization and verification to real world examples.

  7. Community Action Projects: Applying Biotechnology in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong D.; Siegel, Marcelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Project-based learning and action research are powerful pedagogies in improving science education. We implemented a semester-long course using project-based action research to help students apply biotechnology knowledge learned in the classroom to the real world. Students had several choices to make in the project: working individually or as a…

  8. Real-world fuel consumption of passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Eijk, A.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 Travelcard Nederland BV and TNO collaborate to determine the real-world fuel consumption of modern vehicles. The difference between the official type-approval value and the actual fuel consumption has been reported over the years (Ligterink, 2010 and Ligterink, 2013 and Ligterink, 2014).

  9. Indexing real-world data using semi-structured documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Schmidt; M.A. Windhouwer; M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe address the problem of deriving meaningful semantic index information for a multi-media database using a semi-structured docu-ment model. We show how our framework, called {em feature grammars, can be used to (1)~exploit third-party interpretation modules for real-world unstructured

  10. Using real-worldness and cultural difference to enhance student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study suggest that the use of the real world, as a context for authentic learning, enables meaning making, where students gain first-hand experience that allows them to engage with the complexities of preparing to teach in the Foundation Phase. Keywords: difference; Foundation Phase; learning; life skills ...

  11. WIPP Waste Characterization: Implementing Regulatory Requirements in the Real World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper Wayman, J.D.; Goldstein, J.D.

    1999-02-22

    It is imperative to ensure compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) with applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. In particular, compliance with the waste characterization requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its implementing regulation found at 40 CFR Parts 262,264 and 265 for hazardous and mixed wastes, as well as those of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, as amended, and their implementing regulations found at 40 CFR Parts 191 and 194 for non-mixed radioactive wastes, are often difficult to ensure at the operational level. For example, where a regulation may limit a waste to a certain concentration, this concentration may be difficult to measure. For example, does the definition of transuranic waste (TRU) as 100 nCi/grain of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste mean that the radioassay of a waste must show a reading of 100 plus the sampling and measurement error for the waste to be a TRU waste? Although the use of acceptable knowledge to characterize waste is authorized by statute, regulation and DOE Orders, its implementation is similarly beset with difficulty. When is a document or documents sufficient to constitute acceptable knowledge? What standard can be used to determine if knowledge is acceptable for waste characterization purposes? The inherent conflict between waste characterization regulatory requirements and their implementation in the real world, and the resolution of this conflict, will be discussed.

  12. Series: Pragmatic trials and real world evidence : Paper 6. Outcome measures in the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welsing, Paco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288401921; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Collier, Sue; Eckert, Laurent; van Smeden, Maarten; Ciaglia, Antonio; Nachbaur, Gaelle; Trelle, Sven; Taylor, Aliki; Egger, Matthias; Goetz, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Results from pragmatic trials should reflect the comparative treatment effects encountered in patients in real-life clinical practice to guide treatment decisions. Therefore pragmatic trials should focus on outcomes that are relevant to patients, clinical practice, and treatment choices. This 6(th)

  13. Single-vehicle collisions in Europe: Analysis using real-world and crash-test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naing, C.L.; Hill, J.; Thomson, R.; Fagerlind, H.; Kelkka, M.; Klootwijk, C.; Dupre, G.; Bisson, O.

    2008-01-01

    Many European road casualties result from vehicles leaving the road, often impacting roadside obstacles. As part of the European Commission-funded project RISER (Roadside Infrastructure for Safer European Roads), several activities were undertaken to collate the type of real world crash data which

  14. Pattern theory the stochastic analysis of real-world signals

    CERN Document Server

    Mumford, David

    2010-01-01

    Pattern theory is a distinctive approach to the analysis of all forms of real-world signals. At its core is the design of a large variety of probabilistic models whose samples reproduce the look and feel of the real signals, their patterns, and their variability. Bayesian statistical inference then allows you to apply these models in the analysis of new signals. This book treats the mathematical tools, the models themselves, and the computational algorithms for applying statistics to analyze six representative classes of signals of increasing complexity. The book covers patterns in text, sound

  15. Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...

  16. Applications of Temporal Graph Metrics to Real-World Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, John; Scellato, Salvatore; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Latora, Vito

    2013-01-01

    Real world networks exhibit rich temporal information: friends are added and removed over time in online social networks; the seasons dictate the predator-prey relationship in food webs; and the propagation of a virus depends on the network of human contacts throughout the day. Recent studies have demonstrated that static network analysis is perhaps unsuitable in the study of real world network since static paths ignore time order, which, in turn, results in static shortest paths overestimating available links and underestimating their true corresponding lengths. Temporal extensions to centrality and efficiency metrics based on temporal shortest paths have also been proposed. Firstly, we analyse the roles of key individuals of a corporate network ranked according to temporal centrality within the context of a bankruptcy scandal; secondly, we present how such temporal metrics can be used to study the robustness of temporal networks in presence of random errors and intelligent attacks; thirdly, we study contain...

  17. Applications of Temporal Graph Metrics to Real-World Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, John; Leontiadis, Ilias; Scellato, Salvatore; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Mascolo, Cecilia; Musolesi, Mirco; Latora, Vito

    Real world networks exhibit rich temporal information: friends are added and removed over time in online social networks; the seasons dictate the predator-prey relationship in food webs; and the propagation of a virus depends on the network of human contacts throughout the day. Recent studies have demonstrated that static network analysis is perhaps unsuitable in the study of real world network since static paths ignore time order, which, in turn, results in static shortest paths overestimating available links and underestimating their true corresponding lengths. Temporal extensions to centrality and efficiency metrics based on temporal shortest paths have also been proposed. Firstly, we analyse the roles of key individuals of a corporate network ranked according to temporal centrality within the context of a bankruptcy scandal; secondly, we present how such temporal metrics can be used to study the robustness of temporal networks in presence of random errors and intelligent attacks; thirdly, we study containment schemes for mobile phone malware which can spread via short range radio, similar to biological viruses; finally, we study how the temporal network structure of human interactions can be exploited to effectively immunise human populations. Through these applications we demonstrate that temporal metrics provide a more accurate and effective analysis of real-world networks compared to their static counterparts.

  18. Multi-robot team design for real-world applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1996-10-01

    Many of these applications are in dynamic environments requiring capabilities distributed in functionality, space, or time, and therefore often require teams of robots to work together. While much research has been done in recent years, current robotics technology is still far from achieving many of the real world applications. Two primary reasons for this technology gap are that (1) previous work has not adequately addressed the issues of fault tolerance and adaptivity in multi-robot teams, and (2) existing robotics research is often geared at specific applications and is not easily generalized to different, but related, applications. This paper addresses these issues by first describing the design issues of key importance in these real-world cooperative robotics applications: fault tolerance, reliability, adaptivity, and coherence. We then present a general architecture addressing these design issues (called ALLIANCE) that facilities multi-robot cooperation of small- to medium-sized teams in dynamic environments, performing missions composed of loosely coupled subtasks. We illustrate an implementation of ALLIANCE in a real-world application, called Bounding Overwatch, and then discuss how this architecture addresses our key design issues.

  19. Real-World Evidence, Public Participation, and the FDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jason L

    2017-11-01

    For observers of pharmaceutical regulation and the Food and Drug Administration, these are uncertain times. Events in late 2016 raised concerns that the FDA's evidentiary standards were being weakened, compromising the agency's ability to adequately perform its regulatory and public health responsibilities. Two developments most directly contributed to these fears-the approval of eteplirsen, a treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, against the recommendations of both FDA staff and an advisory committee and the December 2016 signing of the 21st Century Cures Act, which encouraged greater use by the FDA of "real-world" evidence not obtained through randomized controlled trials. The arrival of the Trump administration-with its deregulatory, industry-friendly approach-has only amplified concerns over the future of the FDA. It is too early to know whether the recent developments are truly harbingers of an FDA less likely to prevent unsafe or ineffective products from reaching the market. But elements in the two events-the role of patient narratives in deliberations regarding eteplirsen and the enthusiasm for real-world evidence in the 21st Century Cures Act-raise critical issues for the future of evidence in the FDA's work. The rigorous, inclusive approach under way to consider issues related to real-world evidence provides a model for a similarly needed inquiry regarding public participation in FDA decision-making. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  20. Modelling and Scheduling Autonomous Mobile Robot for a Real-World Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Vinh Quang; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Bøgh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with a real-world implementation of autonomous industrial mobile robot performing an industrial application at a factory of a pump manufacturer. In the implementation, the multi-criteria optimization problem of scheduling tasks of a mobile robot is also taken into account. The paper...... proposes an approach composing of: a mobile robot system design (“Little Helper”), an appropriate and comprehensive industrial application (multiple-part feeding tasks), an implementation concept for industrial environments (the bartender concept), and a real-time heuristics integrated into Mission...... Planning and Control software to schedule the mobile robot in the industrial application. Results from the real-world implementation show that “Little Helper” is capable of successfully serving four part feeders in three production cells within a given planning horizon using the best schedule generated...

  1. Feeling the real world: limbic response to music depends on related content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldar, Eran; Ganor, Ori; Admon, Roee; Bleich, Avraham; Hendler, Talma

    2007-12-01

    Emotions are often object related--they are about someone or something in the world. It is yet an open question whether emotions and the associated perceptual contents that they refer to are processed by different parts of the brain or whether the brain regions that mediate emotions are also involved in the processing of the associated content they refer to. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we showed that simply combining music (rich in emotion but poor in information about the concrete world) with neutral films (poor in emotionality but rich in real-world details) yields increased activity in the amygdala, hippocampus, and lateral prefrontal regions. In contrast, emotional music on its own did not elicit a differential response in these regions. The finding that the amygdala, the heart of the emotional brain, responds increasingly to an emotional stimulus when it is associated with realistic scenes supports a fundamental role for concrete real-world content in emotional processing.

  2. Coping strategies and real-world functioning in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzburg, George C; Russo, Manuela; Cuesta-Diaz, Armando; Ospina, Luz; Shanahan, Megan; Perez-Rodriguez, Mercedes; McGrath, Meaghan; Burdick, Katherine E

    2016-07-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) patients encounter significant life adversity, which has contributed to bipolar disorder being a leading cause of disability worldwide. Studies suggest BD patients have more maladaptive coping strategies, some of which can impact their illness course. Yet research on which coping strategies most influence disability is lacking. Such research could inform cognitive-behavioral targets to improve functional outcomes. Thus, we sought to identify relations between coping strategies and real-world function in BD. In 92 affectively-stable BD outpatients, we measured coping strategies via the Brief COPE, real-world disability via the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, current symptoms, illness chronicity, and neurocognitive functioning via the MATRICS. Multiple regression analysis served to identify the neurocognitive domains predictive of disability for entry into subsequent analyses. Multiple regressions assessed how adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies influenced disability. Only one neurocognitive domain, verbal learning, significantly predicted disability and was included in subsequent analyses. Maladaptive coping significantly predicted disability while adaptive coping did not. Behavioral disengagement (giving up) and self-blame were the only remaining predictors of disability, after controlling for age, sex, illness chronicity, current symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning. The study was limited by the use of a self-report disability measure and a brief-form coping scale. Results suggest that giving up and self-blame are significant predictors of real-world functioning beyond sub-threshold depressive symptoms. Our results in BD expand upon recent schizophrenia studies suggesting that defeatist beliefs negatively influence functional outcomes across the range of major psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Object-based attention in real-world scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, George L; Shomstein, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    We are continually confronted with more visual information than we can process in a given moment. In order to interact effectively with our environment, attentional mechanisms are used to select subsets of environmental properties for enhanced processing. Previous research demonstrated that spatial regions can be selected based on either their low-level feature or high-level semantic properties. However, the efficiency with which we interact with the world suggests that there must be an additional, midlevel, factor constraining effective attentional space. The present study investigates whether object-based attentional selection is one such midlevel factor that constrains visual attention in complex, real-world scenes. Participants viewed scene images while their eye movements were recorded. During viewing, a cue appeared on an object which participants were instructed to fixate. A target then appeared either on the same object as the cue, on a different object, or floating. Participants initiated saccades faster and had shorter response times to targets presented on the same object as the fixated cue. The results strongly suggest that when attending to a location on an object, the entire object benefits perceptually. This object-based effect on the distribution of spatial attention forms a critical link between low- and high-level factors that direct attention efficiently in complex real-world scenes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  5. Understanding Use Situated in Real-world Mobile Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    where the activity is happening) by leveraging three keyenablers: (1) the high penetration of smart phones, (2) their easy programmability and (3) the large-scale distribution channels for mobile applications that come with the platforms. My approach suggests a triggered response solicitation, which......  Our understanding of users' everyday practices in their natural contexts is still very limited. Insights are often only available from studies conducted outside of the context itself. I propose a new approach to study use situated in real-world everyday mobile contexts (at the time and place...

  6. NASA World Wind Near Real Time Data for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, P.

    2013-12-01

    Innovation requires open standards for data exchange, not to mention ^access to data^ so that value-added, the information intelligence, can be continually created and advanced by the larger community. Likewise, innovation by academia and entrepreneurial enterprise alike, are greatly benefited by an open platform that provides the basic technology for access and visualization of that data. NASA World Wind Java, and now NASA World Wind iOS for the iPhone and iPad, provides that technology. Whether the interest is weather science or climate science, emergency response or supply chain, seeing spatial data in its native context of Earth accelerates understanding and improves decision-making. NASA World Wind open source technology provides the basic elements for 4D visualization, using Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) protocols, while allowing for customized access to any data, big or small, including support for NetCDF. NASA World Wind includes access to a suite of US Government WMS servers with near real time data. The larger community can readily capitalize on this technology, building their own value-added applications, either open or proprietary. Night lights heat map Glacier National Park

  7. The real-world safety potential of connected vehicle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Sam; Grant, Alex; Anderson, Robert W G

    2015-01-01

    This article estimates the safety potential of a current commercially available connected vehicle technology in real-world crashes. Data from the Centre for Automotive Safety Research's at-scene in-depth crash investigations in South Australia were used to simulate the circumstances of real-world crashes. A total of 89 crashes were selected for inclusion in the study. The crashes were selected as representative of the most prevalent crash types for injury or fatal crashes and had potential to be mitigated by connected vehicle technology. The trajectory, speeds, braking, and impact configuration of the selected in-depth cases were replicated in a software package and converted to a file format allowing "replay" of the scenario in real time as input to 2 Cohda Wireless MK2 onboard units. The Cohda Wireless onboard units are a mature connected vehicle technology that has been used in both the German simTD field trial and the U.S. Department of Transport's Safety Pilot project and have been tuned for low false alarm rates when used in the real world. The crash replay was achieved by replacing each of the onboard unit Global Positioning System (GPS) inputs with the simulated data of each of the involved vehicles. The time at which the Cohda Wireless threat detection software issued an elevated warning was used to calculate a new impact speed using 3 different reaction scenarios and 2 levels of braking. It was found that between 37 and 86% of the simulated crashes could be avoided, with highest percentage due a fully autonomous system braking at 0.7 g. The same system also reduced the impact speed relative to the actual crash in all cases. Even when a human reaction time of 1.2 s and moderate braking of 0.4 g was assumed, the impact speed was reduced in 78% of the crashes. Crash types that proved difficult for the threat detection engine were head-on crashes where the approach angle was low and right turn-opposite crashes. These results indicate that connected vehicle

  8. The applications of Bayesian models in real-world studies of traditional Chinese medicine: a primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jing-Bo Zhai; Jiang Li; Jing Chen

    2017-01-01

    Real-world study is valuable for traditional Chinese medicine. However, there are no gold standards of statistical approaches for analyzing data from real-world study of traditional Chinese medicine...

  9. Developing mobile LIBS solutions for real world applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qun; Li, Jing; Bakeev, Katherine; Wang, Sean

    2015-06-01

    We present a new type of handheld laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) spectrometer for developing mobile atomic spectroscopy solutions for real world applications. A micro diode-pumped passive Q-switched solid-state laser with high repetition rate of well above 1 kHz in comparison to 1-10 Hz as used in a traditional LIBS instrument is employed to produce a train of laser pulses. The laser beam is further fast scanned over a pre-defined area, hence generating several hundreds of micro-plasmas per second at different locations. Synchronized miniature CCD array spectrometer modules collect the LIBS signal and generate LIBS spectra. By adjusting the integration time of the spectrometer to cover a plurality of periods of the laser pulse train, the spectrometer integrates the LIBS signal produced by this plurality of laser pulses. Hence the intensity of the obtained LIBS spectrum can be greatly improved to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This unique feature of the high repetition rate laser based LIBS system allows it to measure elements at trace levels, hence reducing the limit of detection (LOD). The increased signal intensity also lessens the sensitivity requirement for the optical spectrometer. In addition, the energy of the individual laser pulse can be reduced in comparison to traditional LIBS system to obtain the same signal level, making the laser pulse less invasive to the sample. The typical measurement time is within 1 second. Several examples of real world applications will be presented.

  10. Comparing Expert Driving Behavior in Real World and Simulator Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone, and by combining psychophysiological measures with performance measures. For our study, we gathered data using questionnaires as well as by logging vehicle dynamics, environmental conditions, video data, and users' psychophysiological measurements. For the analysis, we used several novel approaches such as scatter plots to visualize driving tasks of different contexts and to obtain vigilance estimators from electroencephalographic (EEG data in order to obtain important results about the differences between the driving in the two contexts. Our belief is that both experimental procedures and findings of our experiment are very important to the field of serious games concerning how to evaluate the fitness of driving simulators and measure driving performance.

  11. Hyperbolicity Measures "Democracy" in Real-World Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Borassi, Michele; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. In our interpretation, a network with small hyperbolicity is "aristocratic", because it contains a small set of vertices involved in many shortest paths, so that few elements "connect" the systems, while a network with large hyperbolicity has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. We prove mathematically the soundness of this interpretation, and we derive its consequences by analyzing a large dataset of real-world networks. We confirm and improve previous results on hyperbolicity, and we analyze them in the light of our interpretation. Moreover, we study (for the first time in our knowledge) the hyperbolicity of the neighborhood of a given vertex. This allows to define an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks, like most social or peer-to-peer ne...

  12. Motif structure and cooperation in real-world complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mostafa; Rabiee, Hamid R.; Jalili, Mahdi

    2010-12-01

    Networks of dynamical nodes serve as generic models for real-world systems in many branches of science ranging from mathematics to physics, technology, sociology and biology. Collective behavior of agents interacting over complex networks is important in many applications. The cooperation between selfish individuals is one of the most interesting collective phenomena. In this paper we address the interplay between the motifs’ cooperation properties and their abundance in a number of real-world networks including yeast protein-protein interaction, human brain, protein structure, email communication, dolphins’ social interaction, Zachary karate club and Net-science coauthorship networks. First, the amount of cooperativity for all possible undirected subgraphs with three to six nodes is calculated. To this end, the evolutionary dynamics of the Prisoner’s Dilemma game is considered and the cooperativity of each subgraph is calculated as the percentage of cooperating agents at the end of the simulation time. Then, the three- to six-node motifs are extracted for each network. The significance of the abundance of a motif, represented by a Z-value, is obtained by comparing them with some properly randomized versions of the original network. We found that there is always a group of motifs showing a significant inverse correlation between their cooperativity amount and Z-value, i.e. the more the Z-value the less the amount of cooperativity. This suggests that networks composed of well-structured units do not have good cooperativity properties.

  13. Fitness networks for real world systems via modified preferential attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ke-ke; Small, Michael; Yan, Wei-sheng

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks are virtually ubiquitous, and the Barabási and Albert model (BA model) has became an acknowledged standard for the modelling of these systems. The so-called BA model is a kind of preferential attachment growth model based on the intuitive premise that popularity is attractive. However, preferential attachment alone is insufficient to describe the diversity of complex networks observed in the real world. In this paper we first use the accuracy of a link prediction method, as a metric for network fitness. The link prediction method predicts the occurrence of links consistent with preferential attachment, the performance of this link prediction scheme is then a natural measure of the ;preferential-attachment-likeness; of a given network. We then propose several modification methods and modified BA models to construct networks which more accurately describe the fitness properties of real networks. We find that all features assortativity, degree distribution and rich-club formation can play significant roles for the network construction and eventual structure. Moreover, link sparsity and the size of a network are key factors for network reconstruction. In addition, we find that the structure of the network which is limited by geographic location (nodes are embedded in a Euclidean space and connectivity is correlated with distances) differs from other typical networks. In social networks, we observe that the high school contact network has similar structure as the friends network and so we speculate that the contact behaviours can reflect real friendships.

  14. The First Real World War and the Emerging Nuclear Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Minkkinen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se discute la problemática de la Auténtica Primera Guerra Mundial (APGM a la luz del emergente holocausto nuclear. La discusión comienza con una sinopsis de la novela de ciencia-ficción de Warren W. Wagars A Short History of Future y relacionado con esto el período de transición de cincuenta años dentro del análisis de sistema-mundo concebido como una gran bifurcación por Immanuel Wallerstein. Sostenemos que puede ser posible reconstruir la dinámica de la historia, de la actualidad y el futuro y anticipar lo venidero, posiblemente sin un holocausto nuclear y terminando la APGM sin consecuencias negativas que pudieran dar lugar a una Auténtica Segunda Guerra Mundial. Nuestro mundo también se afirma está experimentando una transición de un amplio contexto histórico basado en la globalización eurocéntrica a otra no eurocéntrica, que puede ser no capitalista.______________________ABSTRACT:In this article the problematic of the First Real World War (FRWW is discussed in the light of Emerging Nuclear Holocaust. This discussion begins with an overview of Warren W. Wagars science-faction novel A Short History of Future and related some fifty years transition period conceived within world-systems analysis and as that of a major bifurcation by Immanuel Wallerstein. It may thus be possible to pass into the future sooner than anticipated and reconstruct the passage of history, actuality and future in actuality and nearer than anticipated future, possibly without a Nuclear Holocaust and it may be possible to end the FRWW without further negative regressions into the past and without a Second Real World War. Our common world is also experiencing a transition from a broad historical context of Eurocentric globalization into a non-Eurocentric one, which may also be non-capitalistic.  

  15. REAL-WORLD SORTING OF RHIC SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; GUPTA,R.; HARRISON,M.; JAIN,A.; PEGGS,S.; THOMPSON,P.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; WANDERER,P.

    1999-03-29

    During the seven-year construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), more than 1700 superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and multi-layer correctors have been constructed and installed. These magnets have been sorted at several production stages to optimize their performance and reliability. For arc magnets, priorities have been put first on quench performance and operational risk minimization, second on field transfer function and other first-order quantities, and finally on nonlinear field errors which were painstakingly optimized at design. For Interaction-Region (IR) magnets, sorting is applied to select the best possible combination of magnets for the low-{beta}* interaction points (IP). This paper summarizes the history of this real-world sorting process.

  16. Mobile Urban Drama: interactive storytelling in real world environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Frank Allan; Johanne Kortbek, Karen; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-03-01

    This article presents methods and tools for producing location-based Mobile Urban Dramas. In a Mobile Urban Drama, the user becomes the main character in a play that is presented as a multimedia production (through audio, images, animations and videos) on the user's mobile phone and in the physical surroundings. The media files are linked via tags (2D barcodes/RFID) or GPS to the real world set as the stage of the drama. The dramaturgical concept is described, and a narrative architecture is introduced. It supports a rich variety of plot graphs implemented in a software framework that supports producing Mobile Urban Dramas. Dramas produced with the framework may span from pure art pieces to structured learning experiences, for example, biology learning framed in a thriller. Experiences from six dramas produced with the framework by a Danish theatre group are discussed. The results are general findings on the concept, the narrative structure, scenographic effects and tools for technical production.

  17. Innovating With Rehabilitation Technology in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Karen Sui Geok; Kuah, Christopher Wee Keong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we discuss robotic-assisted therapy as an emerging and significant field of clinical rehabilitation and its value proposition for innovating rehabilitation clinical practice. Attempts to achieve integration among clinicians' practices and bioengineers' machines often generate new challenges and controversies. To date, the literature is indicative of a sizeable number and variety of robotic devices in the field of clinical rehabilitation, some are commercially available; however, large-scale clinical outcomes are less positive than expected. The following main themes related to integrating rehabilitation technology in real-world clinical practice will be discussed: the application of current evidence-based practice and knowledge in relation to treatment in the rehabilitation clinic, perspectives from rehabilitation professionals using robotic-aided therapy with regard to challenges, and strategies for problem solving. Lastly, we present innovation philosophies with regard to sustainability of clinical rehabilitation technologies. PMID:28708632

  18. Real-world experimentation of distributed DSA network algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonelli, Oscar; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    2013-01-01

    of the available spectrum by nodes in a network, without centralized coordination. While proof-of-concept and statistical validation of such algorithms is typically achieved by using system level simulations, experimental activities are valuable contributions for the investigation of particular aspects......The problem of spectrum scarcity in uncoordinated and/or heterogeneous wireless networks is the key aspect driving the research in the field of flexible management of frequency resources. In particular, distributed dynamic spectrum access (DSA) algorithms enable an efficient sharing...... such as a dynamic propagation environment, human presence impact and terminals mobility. This chapter focuses on the practical aspects related to the real world-experimentation with distributed DSA network algorithms over a testbed network. Challenges and solutions are extensively discussed, from the testbed design...

  19. Adapting Clinical Ontologies in Real-World Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzhorn, Holger; Schulz, Stefan; Boeker, Martin; Smith, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The desideratum of semantic interoperability has been intensively discussed in medical informatics circles in recent years. Originally, experts assumed that this issue could be sufficiently addressed by insisting simply on the application of shared clinical terminologies or clinical information models. However, the use of the term 'ontology' has been steadily increasing more recently. We discuss criteria for distinguishing clinical ontologies from clinical terminologies and information models. Then, we briefly present the role clinical ontologies play in two multicentric research projects. Finally, we discuss the interactions between these different kinds of knowledge representation artifacts and the stakeholders involved in developing interoperational real-world clinical applications. We provide ontology engineering examples from two EU-funded projects.

  20. Real-world Data for Clinical Evidence Generation in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozin, Sean; Blumenthal, Gideon M; Pazdur, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Conventional cancer clinical trials can be slow and costly, often produce results with limited external validity, and are difficult for patients to participate in. Recent technological advances and a dynamic policy landscape in the United States have created a fertile ground for the use of real-world data (RWD) to improve current methods of clinical evidence generation. Sources of RWD include electronic health records, insurance claims, patient registries, and digital health solutions outside of conventional clinical trials. A definition focused on the original intent of data collected at the point of care can distinguish RWD from conventional clinical trial data. When the intent of data collection at the point of care is research, RWD can be generated using experimental designs similar to those employed in conventional clinical trials, but with several advantages that include gains in efficient execution of studies with an appropriate balance between internal and external validity. RWD can support active pharmacovigilance, insights into the natural history of disease, and the development of external control arms. Prospective collection of RWD can enable evidence generation based on pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) that support randomized study designs and expand clinical research to the point of care. PCTs may help address the growing demands for access to experimental therapies while increasing patient participation in cancer clinical trials. Conducting valid real-world studies requires data quality assurance through auditable data abstraction methods and new incentives to drive electronic capture of clinically relevant data at the point of care. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. On real-world patients and real-world outcomes : the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study in patients with mood, anxiety and somatoform disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorden, Martijn Sander van

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on real-world patients and real-world outcomes by using Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) in patients with Mood, Anxiety, and Somatoform (MAS) disorders. The primary aims of the series of studies were to investigate correlates of disease characteristics in a large cohort of

  2. Multiplicative Attribute Graph Model of Real-World Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myunghwan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Leskovec, Jure [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2010-10-20

    Large scale real-world network data, such as social networks, Internet andWeb graphs, is ubiquitous in a variety of scientific domains. The study of such social and information networks commonly finds patterns and explain their emergence through tractable models. In most networks, especially in social networks, nodes also have a rich set of attributes (e.g., age, gender) associatedwith them. However, most of the existing network models focus only on modeling the network structure while ignoring the features of nodes in the network. Here we present a class of network models that we refer to as the Multiplicative Attribute Graphs (MAG), which naturally captures the interactions between the network structure and node attributes. We consider a model where each node has a vector of categorical features associated with it. The probability of an edge between a pair of nodes then depends on the product of individual attributeattribute similarities. The model yields itself to mathematical analysis as well as fit to real data. We derive thresholds for the connectivity, the emergence of the giant connected component, and show that the model gives rise to graphs with a constant diameter. Moreover, we analyze the degree distribution to show that the model can produce networks with either lognormal or power-law degree distribution depending on certain conditions.

  3. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making).

  4. Drawing the Ideal World and Real World: A Study of Lesbian, Labour and Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Luiz Caproni Neto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the experience of lesbian women in Juiz de Fora on the scope of work, society and the individual, from drawings made by them. Discussed the experience of sexuality and lesbophobia as aspects present in their lives and at work, considering that fall into a heteronormative context. So, we conducted a qualitative study with the preparation of drawings and interviews that allowed the construction of categories: being lesbian, inclusion and social integration, personal and professional development, and real world and the ideal world. These drawings are shown as a rich and interesting technique to provide access to their subjective and symbolic dimensions as to their social and work experiences. Finally, we advocate a reflective and humanistic stance both in society and in organizations about the socially constructed and valued patterns that can marginalize or stigmatize those fleeing them.

  5. [Exploration and demonstration study on drug combination from clinical real world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-ming; Wang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yong-yan

    2014-09-01

    Drug combination is extensive in the clinical real world,which is an important part and the inherent requirements of the post-marketing evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The key issues and technology include multi-domain and multi-disciplinary such as the rationality, efficacy and safety evaluation of combination drug starting from clinical real world, study on component in vivo and mechanism of combination drug, the risk/benefit assessment and cost-benefit evaluation of combination drug and so on. The topic has been studied as clinical demonstration on combination therapy of variety of diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, insomnia, depression, hepatitis, herpes zoster, psoriasis and ectopic pregnancy. Meanwhile, multi-disciplinary dynamic innovation alliance of clinical drug combination has been presented, which can promote the academic development and improving service ability and level of TCM.

  6. Assessing acupuncture effect in the real world study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Wen Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture, with its unique set of theories and its evident results in clinical practice is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, and gaining recognition worldwide for the past few years. Although acupuncture treatment is generally accepted by the public, a few western researchers believe that sufficient evidence of its efficiency is still currently lacking, therefore creating a challenge of its acceptance on a wider scale. This article suggests the concepts of acupuncture behind clinical researches by reviewing the clinical researches done, analyzing the existing problems, and integrating real life acupuncture into the research process. By increasing the credibility of acupuncture, its reach can be extended globally and to more countries and regions.

  7. Establishing Real-World Connections for a Better Understanding of Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, David

    2009-01-01

    Many physics teachers would agree that students making real-world connections is a critical aspect of learning physics, but what does this really mean? Merely seeing a real-world application of a physical concept does not necessarily allow students to incorporate the concept into the way they perceive their world. It is not just seeing the…

  8. Evaluation of accelerometer-based fall detection algorithms on real-world falls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bagalà

    Full Text Available Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE and high specificity (SP, they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean ± std 83.0% ± 30.3% (maximum value = 98%. The SE was considerably lower (SE = 57.0% ± 27.3%, maximum value = 82.8%, much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed

  9. Evaluation of accelerometer-based fall detection algorithms on real-world falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagalà, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elderly. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing some of the negative consequences of falls. Many different approaches have been explored to automatically detect a fall using inertial sensors. Although previously published algorithms report high sensitivity (SE) and high specificity (SP), they have usually been tested on simulated falls performed by healthy volunteers. We recently collected acceleration data during a number of real-world falls among a patient population with a high-fall-risk as part of the SensAction-AAL European project. The aim of the present study is to benchmark the performance of thirteen published fall-detection algorithms when they are applied to the database of 29 real-world falls. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic comparison of fall detection algorithms tested on real-world falls. We found that the SP average of the thirteen algorithms, was (mean ± std) 83.0% ± 30.3% (maximum value = 98%). The SE was considerably lower (SE = 57.0% ± 27.3%, maximum value = 82.8%), much lower than the values obtained on simulated falls. The number of false alarms generated by the algorithms during 1-day monitoring of three representative fallers ranged from 3 to 85. The factors that affect the performance of the published algorithms, when they are applied to the real-world falls, are also discussed. These findings indicate the importance of testing fall-detection algorithms in real-life conditions in order to produce more effective automated alarm systems with higher acceptance. Further, the present results support the idea that a large, shared real-world fall database could, potentially, provide an enhanced understanding of the fall process and the information needed to design and

  10. Neurocognitive systems related to real-world prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Eriksson, Johan; Sjölie, Daniel; Molin, Jonas; Nyberg, Lars

    2010-10-08

    Prospective memory (PM) denotes the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. It has been argued that standard laboratory paradigms fail to capture core aspects of PM. We combined functional MRI, virtual reality, eye-tracking and verbal reports to explore the dynamic allocation of neurocognitive processes during a naturalistic PM task where individuals performed errands in a realistic model of their residential town. Based on eye movement data and verbal reports, we modeled PM as an iterative loop of five sustained and transient phases: intention maintenance before target detection (TD), TD, intention maintenance after TD, action, and switching, the latter representing the activation of a new intention in mind. The fMRI analyses revealed continuous engagement of a top-down fronto-parietal network throughout the entire task, likely subserving goal maintenance in mind. In addition, a shift was observed from a perceptual (occipital) system while searching for places to go, to a mnemonic (temporo-parietal, fronto-hippocampal) system for remembering what actions to perform after TD. Updating of the top-down fronto-parietal network occurred at both TD and switching, the latter likely also being characterized by frontopolar activity. Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY) model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks.

  11. Age differences in virtual environment and real world path integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E Adamo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate path integration requires the integration of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular self-motion cues and age effects associated with alterations in processing information from these systems may contribute to declines in path integration abilities. The present study investigated age-related differences in path integration in conditions that varied as a function of available sources of sensory information. Twenty-two healthy, young (23.8 ± 3.0 yrs. and 16 older (70.1 ± 6.4 yrs. adults participated in distance reproduction and triangle completion tasks performed in a virtual environment and two real world conditions: guided walking and wheelchair propulsion. For walking and wheelchair propulsion conditions, participants wore a blindfold and wore noise-blocking headphones and were guided through the workspace by the experimenter. For the virtual environment (VE condition, participants viewed self-motion information on a computer monitor and used a joystick to navigate through the environment. For triangle completion tasks, older compared to younger individuals showed greater errors in rotation estimations performed in the wheelchair condition; and for rotation and distance estimations in the VE condition. Distance reproduction tasks, in contrast, did not show any age effects. These findings demonstrate that age differences in path integration vary as a function of the available sources of information and by the complexity of outbound pathway.

  12. Privacy-preserving record linkage on large real world datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sean M; Ferrante, Anna M; Boyd, James H; Bauer, Jacqueline K; Semmens, James B

    2014-08-01

    Record linkage typically involves the use of dedicated linkage units who are supplied with personally identifying information to determine individuals from within and across datasets. The personally identifying information supplied to linkage units is separated from clinical information prior to release by data custodians. While this substantially reduces the risk of disclosure of sensitive information, some residual risks still exist and remain a concern for some custodians. In this paper we trial a method of record linkage which reduces privacy risk still further on large real world administrative data. The method uses encrypted personal identifying information (bloom filters) in a probability-based linkage framework. The privacy preserving linkage method was tested on ten years of New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australian (WA) hospital admissions data, comprising in total over 26 million records. No difference in linkage quality was found when the results were compared to traditional probabilistic methods using full unencrypted personal identifiers. This presents as a possible means of reducing privacy risks related to record linkage in population level research studies. It is hoped that through adaptations of this method or similar privacy preserving methods, risks related to information disclosure can be reduced so that the benefits of linked research taking place can be fully realised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  14. The classification of vigilance tasks in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Fiona M

    2008-11-01

    The ability to generalise vigilance research to operational environments has been questioned, largely due to differences between laboratory research and real-world settings. The taxonomy of vigilance tasks proposed by Parasuraman and Davies (1977) represents an attempt to classify vigilance tasks so that tasks with similar information-processing demands can be compared and the ability to generalise results enhanced. Although the taxonomy originally included complexity, the term specifically referred to multiple sources of information. Complexity has been overlooked in much of the traditional vigilance literature, although it is included in more recent studies of jobs such as air traffic control. In this paper, the taxonomy is evaluated in relation to two vigilance intensive jobs - closed circuit television surveillance operators and air traffic controllers. In its present form, the existing taxonomy of experimental settings has limited applicability to these operational settings. Therefore, recommendations for expanding the taxonomy to include more aspects of complexity are made. It is argued that the revised taxonomy be used in conjunction with situation awareness, which makes provision for the cognitive processes involved in these jobs.

  15. Reinforcement Learning in Robotics: Applications and Real-World Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kormushev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In robotics, the ultimate goal of reinforcement learning is to endow robots with the ability to learn, improve, adapt and reproduce tasks with dynamically changing constraints based on exploration and autonomous learning. We give a summary of the state-of-the-art of reinforcement learning in the context of robotics, in terms of both algorithms and policy representations. Numerous challenges faced by the policy representation in robotics are identified. Three recent examples for the application of reinforcement learning to real-world robots are described: a pancake flipping task, a bipedal walking energy minimization task and an archery-based aiming task. In all examples, a state-of-the-art expectation-maximization-based reinforcement learning is used, and different policy representations are proposed and evaluated for each task. The proposed policy representations offer viable solutions to six rarely-addressed challenges in policy representations: correlations, adaptability, multi-resolution, globality, multi-dimensionality and convergence. Both the successes and the practical difficulties encountered in these examples are discussed. Based on insights from these particular cases, conclusions are drawn about the state-of-the-art and the future perspective directions for reinforcement learning in robotics.

  16. Real World SharePoint 2010 Indispensable Experiences from 22 MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Hillier, Scot; Bishop, Darrin; Bleeker, Todd; Bogue, Robert; Bosch, Karine; Brotto, Claudio; Buenz, Adam; Connell, Andrew; Drisgill, Randy; Lapointe, Gary; Medero, Jason; Molnar, Agnes; O'Brien, Chris; Klindt, Todd; Poelmans, Joris; Rehmani, Asif; Ross, John; Swan, Nick; Walsh, Mike; Williams, Randy; Young, Shane; Macori, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Proven real-world best practices from leading Microsoft SharePoint MVPsSharePoint enables Web sites to host shared workspaces and is a leading solution for Enterprise Content Management. The newest version boasts significant changes, impressive enhancements, and new features, requiring developers and administrators of all levels of experience to quickly get up to speed on the latest changes. This book is a must-have anthology of current best practices for SharePoint 2010 from 20 of the top SharePoint MVPs. They offer insider advice on everything from installation, workflow, and Web parts to bu

  17. Neurocognitive systems related to real-world prospective memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria Kalpouzos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective memory (PM denotes the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. It has been argued that standard laboratory paradigms fail to capture core aspects of PM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined functional MRI, virtual reality, eye-tracking and verbal reports to explore the dynamic allocation of neurocognitive processes during a naturalistic PM task where individuals performed errands in a realistic model of their residential town. Based on eye movement data and verbal reports, we modeled PM as an iterative loop of five sustained and transient phases: intention maintenance before target detection (TD, TD, intention maintenance after TD, action, and switching, the latter representing the activation of a new intention in mind. The fMRI analyses revealed continuous engagement of a top-down fronto-parietal network throughout the entire task, likely subserving goal maintenance in mind. In addition, a shift was observed from a perceptual (occipital system while searching for places to go, to a mnemonic (temporo-parietal, fronto-hippocampal system for remembering what actions to perform after TD. Updating of the top-down fronto-parietal network occurred at both TD and switching, the latter likely also being characterized by frontopolar activity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks.

  18. Probing real sensory worlds of receivers with unsupervised clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available The task of an organism to extract information about the external environment from sensory signals is based entirely on the analysis of ongoing afferent spike activity provided by the sense organs. We investigate the processing of auditory stimuli by an acoustic interneuron of insects. In contrast to most previous work we do this by using stimuli and neurophysiological recordings directly in the nocturnal tropical rainforest, where the insect communicates. Different from typical recordings in sound proof laboratories, strong environmental noise from multiple sound sources interferes with the perception of acoustic signals in these realistic scenarios. We apply a recently developed unsupervised machine learning algorithm based on probabilistic inference to find frequently occurring firing patterns in the response of the acoustic interneuron. We can thus ask how much information the central nervous system of the receiver can extract from bursts without ever being told which type and which variants of bursts are characteristic for particular stimuli. Our results show that the reliability of burst coding in the time domain is so high that identical stimuli lead to extremely similar spike pattern responses, even for different preparations on different dates, and even if one of the preparations is recorded outdoors and the other one in the sound proof lab. Simultaneous recordings in two preparations exposed to the same acoustic environment reveal that characteristics of burst patterns are largely preserved among individuals of the same species. Our study shows that burst coding can provide a reliable mechanism for acoustic insects to classify and discriminate signals under very noisy real-world conditions. This gives new insights into the neural mechanisms potentially used by bushcrickets to discriminate conspecific songs from sounds of predators in similar carrier frequency bands.

  19. Key Real-World Applications of Classifier Ensembles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Broad classes of statistical classification algorithms have beendeveloped and applied successfully to a wide range of real worlddomains. In general, ensuring that...

  20. Learning and Technology: Distributed Collaborative Learning Using Real-World Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard; Schlais, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Describes the application of Internet technologies for collaboration of globally distributed college student teams working on real-world case problems. Discusses project goals, including giving students a real-world collaborative experience; being active participants; providing a global learning experience; and using several different types of…

  1. Exploring Non-Traditional Learning Methods in Virtual and Real-World Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, Rebeka; Krajnc, Majda

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies the commonalities and differences within non-traditional learning methods regarding virtual and real-world environments. The non-traditional learning methods in real-world have been introduced within the following courses: Process Balances, Process Calculation, and Process Synthesis, and within the virtual environment through…

  2. Application Exercises Improve Transfer of Statistical Knowledge in Real-World Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Frances; Braasch, Jason L. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present research investigated whether real-world application exercises promoted students' abilities to spontaneously transfer statistical knowledge and to recognize the use of statistics in real-world contexts. Over the course of a semester of psychological statistics, two classes completed multiple application exercises designed to mimic…

  3. Improvement of real pine (Pinus montezumae Lamb). Part I; Mejoramiento del pino real. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, J.; Jimenez C, M.; Garcia T, M.A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Genetica Vegetal, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The real pine is an endemic specie of Mexico which is actually in danger of extinction. So the gamma radiation can accelerate the development of some vegetal species, then it is proceeded to find the radiation dose which allows to break the disease condition to diminish the lethargy time of those seeds with a dose range of 1 to 300 Krad of gamma radiation. It is required to realize more tests and observing in a greater period the hipocotile emission to determine the dose which allow to break the condition permanently. (Author)

  4. Mathematical Selfies: Students' Real-World Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaqua, Kathy M. C.

    2017-01-01

    The activity of snapping photographs to document all parts of daily life and sharing them with friends is the norm for many students. What if we could make mathematics as natural a part of daily life through "mathematical selfies"? The author's goal is to use students' love of selfies to help them see that mathematics is already part of…

  5. Real-world data from the health decision maker perspective. What are we talking about?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Romio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare decision-makers are increasingly developing policies that seek information on “real-world” data providing “evidence” to support and monitor changes in clinical practice or policy decisions. Many strategies may be evaluated in experimental circumstances, but this does rarely reflect clinical practice. Due to the current focus on information and computer technology to provide safer and more efficient healthcare delivery, the amount of electronic medical records and other electronic healthcare data is increasing exponentially, and these real-world data can be used for evidence generation. This review describes why and how healthcare/policy decision making could benefit from real-world data, it introduces methods to investigate real-world clinical practice, lists potentialities of routinely collected real-world data, reviews their availability in the word, and outlines future challenges in this field. 

  6. Investing in a real world with mean-reverting inflation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPeople are concerned about maintaining purchasing power in times of rising inflation. We formulate investment objectives in terms of real wealth, assuming investors derive utility from the number of goods they can buy with their monetary wealth. We derive closed-form solutions for the

  7. Using real-worldness and cultural difference to enhance student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education; 2013; 33(3). 2 student teachers to an actual teaching and learning environment, in which they can contextualise their theoretical knowledge gained during training. Students need to spend time in real-life contexts that offer opportunities to develop and assess practical skills, and expose ...

  8. Teriflunomide for multiple sclerosis in real-world setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Louise; Molnar, T; Illes, Z

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Teriflunomide 14 mg is a once-daily oral disease-modifying treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We examined adverse event (AE) profile and efficacy in real life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we retrospectively examined 1521 blood samples...

  9. Virtual plagues and real-world pandemics: reflecting on the potential for online computer role-playing games to inform real world epidemic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oultram, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    In the wake of the Corrupted Blood incident, which afflicted the massively multiplayer online computer role-playing game World of Warcraft in 2005, it has been suggested that both, the incident itself and massively multiplayer online computer role-playing games in general, can be utilised to inform and assist real-world epidemic and public health research. In this paper, I engage critically with these claims.

  10. Harnessing real world data from wearables and self-monitoring devices: feasibility, confounders and ethical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Barick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing usage of smart phones has compelled mobile technology to become a universal part of everyday life. From wearable gadgets to sophisticated implantable medical devices, the advent of mobile technology has completely transformed the healthcare delivery scenario. Self-report measures enabled by mobile technology are increasingly becoming a more time and cost efficient method of assessing real world health outcomes. But, amidst all the optimism, there are concerns also on adopting this technology as regulations and ethical considerations on privacy legislations of end users are unclear. In general, the healthcare industry functions on some stringent regulations and compliances to ensure the safety and protection of patient information. A couple of the most common regulations are Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act (HIPPA and Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH. To harness the true potential of mobile technology to empower stakeholders and provide them a common platform which seamlessly integrates healthcare delivery and research, it is imperative that challenges and drawbacks in the sphere are identified and addressed. In this age of information and technology, no stones should be left unturned to ensure that the human race has access to the best healthcare services without an intrusion into his/her confidentiality. This article is an overview of the role of tracking and self-monitoring devices in data collection for real world evidence/observational studies in context to feasibility, confounders and ethical considerations.

  11. Virtual Worlds: Relationship Between Real Life and Experience in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Anstadt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unique applications of virtual reality in many modern contexts, Second Life (SL offers inimitable opportunities for research and exploration and experiential learning as part of a distance learning curriculum assignment. A review of current research regarding SL examined real world social influences in online interactions and what the effects on users may be. This aids students in understanding the social constructionist perceptions and worldview of those persons they may serve in social services. This suggests the importance of developing an understanding of the relationship between users’ real life (RL and their SL. Some research has begun to reveal the effectiveness of telecommunication and computer simulation with certain clients in the fields of mental health and social work, yet there is a lack of sufficient research done within the context of virtual worlds. The current study surveyed users of several educationally and health focused SIMS (simulations as to what motivates their SL and RL interactions. The data explores associations between users’ RL and their SL in several areas,potentially addressing the future role of educating social work students regarding research methodology in online virtual reality interactions. Implications for social work are discussed including engaging clients using incentives for social participation built into the SL milieu.

  12. Can attentional bias modification inoculate people to withstand exposure to real-world food cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Stewart-Davis, Ebony

    2018-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether attentional bias modification can inoculate people to withstand exposure to real-world appetitive food cues, namely television advertisements for chocolate products. Using a modified dot probe task, undergraduate women were trained to direct their attention toward (attend) or away from (avoid) chocolate pictures. Experiment 1 (N = 178) consisted of one training session; Experiment 2 (N = 161) included 5 weekly sessions. Following training, participants viewed television advertisements of chocolate or control products. They then took part in a so-called taste test as a measure of chocolate consumption. Attentional bias for chocolate was measured before training and after viewing the advertisements, and in Experiment 2 also at 24-h and 1-week follow-up. In Experiment 2, but not Experiment 1, participants in the avoid condition showed a significant reduction in attentional bias for chocolate, regardless of whether they had been exposed to advertisements for chocolate or control products. However, this inoculation effect on attentional bias did not generalise to chocolate intake. Future research involving more extensive attentional re-training may be needed to ascertain whether the inoculation effect on attentional bias can extend to consumption, and thus help people withstand exposure to real-world palatable food cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Research Presentation Day: Experience Mathematics and Science in the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the summaries of the MCTP Summer Research Internship Program. Technological areas discussed include: Mathematical curriculum development for real world problems; Rain effects on air-water gas exchange; multi-ring impact basins on mars; developing an interactive multimedia educational cd-rom on remote sensing; a pilot of an activity for for the globe program; fossils in maryland; developing children's programming for the american horticultural society at river farm; children's learning, educational programs of the national park service; a study of climate and student satisfaction in two summer programs for disadvantaged students interested in careers in mathematics and science; the maryland governor's academy, integrating technology into the classroom; stream sampling with the maryland biological stream survey (MBSS); the imaging system inspection software technology, the preparation and detection of nominal and faulted steel ingots; event-based science, the development of real-world science units; correlation between anxiety and past experiences; environmental education through summer nature camp; enhancing learning opportunities at the Salisbury zoo; plant growth experiment, a module for the middle school classroom; the effects of proxisome proliferators in Japanese medaka embryos; development of a chapter on birth control and contraceptive methodologies as part of an interactive computer-based education module on hiv and aids; excretion of gentamicin in toadfish and goldfish; the renaissance summer program; and Are field trips important to the regional math science center?

  14. Correlation of Eigenvector Centrality to Other Centrality Measures : Random, Small-World and Real-World Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojia He; Natarajan Meghanathan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we thoroughly investigate correlations of eigenvector centrality to five centrality measures, including degree centrality, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient centrality, closeness centrality, and farness centrality, of various types of network (random network, small world network, and real-world network). For each network, we compute those six centrality measures, from which the correlation coefficient is determined. Our analysis suggests that the degree centrali...

  15. On-Road Validation of a Simplified Model for Estimating Real-World Fuel Economy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric; Gonder, Jeff; Jehlik, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    On-road fuel economy is known to vary significantly between individual trips in real-world driving conditions. This work introduces a methodology for rapidly simulating a specific vehicle's fuel economy over the wide range of real-world conditions experienced across the country. On-road test data collected using a highly instrumented vehicle is used to refine and validate this modeling approach. Model accuracy relative to on-road data collection is relevant to the estimation of 'off-cycle credits' that compensate for real-world fuel economy benefits that are not observed during certification testing on a chassis dynamometer.

  16. Comparison of Real World Energy Consumption to Models and Department of Energy Test Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kar, Rahul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the real-world energy performance of appliances and equipment as it compared with models and test procedures. The study looked to determine whether the U.S. Department of Energy and industry test procedures actually replicate real world conditions, whether performance degrades over time, and whether installation patterns and procedures differ from the ideal procedures. The study first identified and prioritized appliances to be evaluated. Then, the study determined whether real world energy consumption differed substantially from predictions and also assessed whether performance degrades over time. Finally, the study recommended test procedure modifications and areas for future research.

  17. Towards a conceptual framework for identifying student difficulties with solving Real-World Problems in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...... solver has to go through the steps and do the tasks of such a process. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of what it takes to solve three real-world problems, demonstrating how the framework presented captures the essential aspects of solving them. Moreover, it is argued that three steps critical...... solving in Physics is placed within the framework....

  18. Evolving Four Part Harmony Using a Multiple Worlds Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; Brown, Joseph Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This application of the Multiple Worlds Model examines a collaborative fitness model for generating four part harmonies. In this model we have multiple populations and the fitness of the individuals is based on the ability of a member from each population to work with the members of other...... populations. We present the result of two experiments: the generation of compositions, given a static voice line, both in a constrained and unconstrained harmonic framework. The remaining three voices are evolved using this collaborative fitness function, which looks for a number of classical composition...

  19. IMI Workshop on Optimization in the Real World

    CERN Document Server

    Shinano, Yuji; Waki, Hayato

    2016-01-01

    This book clearly shows the importance, usefulness, and powerfulness of current optimization technologies, in particular, mixed-integer programming and its remarkable applications. It is intended to be the definitive study of state-of-the-art optimization technologies for students, academic researchers, and non-professionals in industry. The chapters of this book are based on a collection of selected and extended papers from the  “IMI Workshop on Optimization in the Real World” held in October 2014 in Japan.

  20. Spinoff - Transferring Energy between Real and Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenegress, Christoph; Slater, Mel; Tamke, Martin

    2007-01-01

    There is a widening gap between interaction devices for Virtual Environments and other factors such as graphical realism, accessibility and complexity. To address this problem, we developed a Mixed Reality environment that allows participants to interact with virtual entities using an existing toy...... a Hula Hoop. In a subsequent user study we attempted to correlate the use of real artefacts as input devices towards increased interactivity....

  1. Tangible display systems: bringing virtual surfaces into the real world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferwerda, James A.

    2012-03-01

    We are developing tangible display systems that enable natural interaction with virtual surfaces. Tangible display systems are based on modern mobile devices that incorporate electronic image displays, graphics hardware, tracking systems, and digital cameras. Custom software allows the orientation of a device and the position of the observer to be tracked in real-time. Using this information, realistic images of surfaces with complex textures and material properties illuminated by environment-mapped lighting, can be rendered to the screen at interactive rates. Tilting or moving in front of the device produces realistic changes in surface lighting and material appearance. In this way, tangible displays allow virtual surfaces to be observed and manipulated as naturally as real ones, with the added benefit that surface geometry and material properties can be modified in real-time. We demonstrate the utility of tangible display systems in four application areas: material appearance research; computer-aided appearance design; enhanced access to digital library and museum collections; and new tools for digital artists.

  2. From market games to real-world markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, P.; Hart, M. L.; Hui, P. M.; Johnson, N. F.

    2001-04-01

    This paper uses the development of multi-agent market models to present a unified approach to the joint questions of how financial market movements may be simulated, predicted, and hedged against. We first present the results of agent-based market simulations in which traders equipped with simple buy/sell strategies and limited information compete in speculatory trading. We examine the effect of different market clearing mechanisms and show that implementation of a simple Walrasian auction leads to unstable market dynamics. We then show that a more realistic out-of-equilibrium clearing process leads to dynamics that closely resemble real financial movements, with fat-tailed price increments, clustered volatility and high volume autocorrelation. We then show that replacing the `synthetic' price history used by these simulations with data taken from real financial time-series leads to the remarkable result that the agents can collectively learn to identify moments in the market where profit is attainable. Hence on real financial data, the system as a whole can perform better than random. We then employ the formalism of Bouchaud in conjunction with agent based models to show that in general risk cannot be eliminated from trading with these models. We also show that, in the presence of transaction costs, the risk of option writing is greatly increased. This risk, and the costs, can however be reduced through the use of a delta-hedging strategy with modified, time-dependent volatility structure.

  3. Discovering The Real World:: the Study and Work Experience Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Rooijen, M.

    1998-01-01

    Historically universities tended to be like monasteries. In fact some started their early history as such. And explicitly or implicitly many Higher Education (HE) institutions still maintain some of the features of these old monasteries. Ideology is an important feature. It might no longer be a belief in God, but certainly the belief in Truth and the duty to seek true knowledge and strive toward a better world have remained, in some form or another, the mission of most universities. The idea ...

  4. Food for Thought: Cross-Classification and Category Organization in a Complex Real-World Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian H.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    1999-01-01

    Seven studies involving 256 undergraduates examined how people represent, access, and make inferences about the real-world category domain, foods. Results give a detailed picture of the use of cross-classification in a complex domain. (SLD)

  5. RealWorld evaluation: working under budget, time, data, and political constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bamberger, Michael; Rugh, Jim; Mabry, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the challenges of conducting program evaluations in real-world contexts where evaluators and their clients face budget and time constraints and where critical data may be missing...

  6. Real-World Use of Apixaban for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Marco; Romanazzi, Imma; Romiti, Giulio Francesco

    2017-01-01

    in atrial fibrillation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all observational real-world studies comparing apixaban with other available oral anticoagulant drugs. RESULTS: From the original 9680 results retrieved, 16 studies have been included in the final meta-analysis. Compared......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The use of oral anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has been transformed by the availability of the nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. Real-world studies on the use of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants would help elucidate...... their effectiveness and safety in daily clinical practice. Apixaban was the third nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants introduced to clinical practice, and increasing real-world studies have been published. Our aim was to summarize current evidence about real-world studies on apixaban for stroke prevention...

  7. Experiences in Automation and Control in Engineering Education with Real-world Based Educational Kits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Filomena Soares; Celina Pinto Leão; José Machado; Vítor Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    ..., Electronics and Biomedical Engineering. The goal of this paper is to present the work developed regarding the real-world workbenches to be used in automation and control practical classes as an integrated virtual and remote laboratory...

  8. Spatial augmented reality merging real and virtual worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Bimber, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Like virtual reality, augmented reality is becoming an emerging platform in new application areas for museums, edutainment, home entertainment, research, industry, and the art communities using novel approaches which have taken augmented reality beyond traditional eye-worn or hand-held displays. In this book, the authors discuss spatial augmented reality approaches that exploit optical elements, video projectors, holograms, radio frequency tags, and tracking technology, as well as interactive rendering algorithms and calibration techniques in order to embed synthetic supplements into the real

  9. Ontologies to capture adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) from real world health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Harshana; de Lusignan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Immunisation is an important part of health care and adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) are relatively rare. AEFI can be detected through long term follow up of a cohort or from looking for signals from real world, routine data; from different health systems using a variety of clinical coding systems. Mapping these is a challenging aspect of integrating data across borders. Ontological representations of clinical concepts provide a method to map similar concepts, in this case AEFI across different coding systems. We describe a method using ontologies to be flag definite, probable or possible cases. We use Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) as an AEFI to illustrate this method, and the Brighton collaboration's case definition of GBS as the gold standard. Our method can be used to flag definite, probable or possible cases of GBS. Whilst there has been much research into the use of ontologies in immunisation these have focussed on database interrogation; where ours looks to identify varying signal strength.

  10. Synthetic graph generation for data-intensive HPC benchmarking: Scalability, analysis and real-world application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Sarah S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lothian, Joshua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allows the emulation of a broad spectrum of application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report described the in-depth analysis of the generated synthetic graphs' properties at a variety of scales using different generator implementations and examines their applicability to replicating real world datasets.

  11. Replication protocol analysis: a method for the study of real-world design thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per; Kovacs, L. B.

    1996-01-01

    ’ is refined into a method called ‘replication protocol analysis’ (RPA), and discussed from a methodological perspective of design research. It is argued that for the study of real-world design thinking this method offers distinct advantages over traditional ‘design protocol analysis’, which seeks to capture......Given the brief of an architectural competition on site planning, and the design awarded the first prize, the first author (trained as an architect but not a participant in the competition) produced a line of reasoning that might have led from brief to design. In the paper, such ‘design replication...... the designer’s authentic line of reasoning. To illustrate how RPA can be used, the site planning case is briefly presented, and part of the replicated line of reasoning analysed. One result of the analysis is a glimpse of a ‘logic of design’; another is an insight which sheds new light on Darke’s classical...

  12. OCA Oracle Database 11g database administration I : a real-world certification guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ries, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Developed as a practical book, ""Oracle Database 11g Administration I Certification Guide"" will show you all you need to know to effectively excel at being an Oracle DBA, for both examinations and the real world. This book is for anyone who needs the essential skills to become an Oracle DBA, pass the Oracle Database Administration I exam, and use those skills in the real world to manage secure, high performance, and highly available Oracle databases.

  13. A Context Menu for the Real World: Controlling Physical Appliances through Head-Worn Infrared Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    recreated a living room environment that had three controllable appliances : a fan, a lamp, and one laptop functioning as a video player (see Figure 13). The...A Context Menu for the Real World: Controlling Physical Appliances Through Head-Worn Infrared Targeting Yu-Hsiang Chen Ben Zhang Claire Tuna Yang Li...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Context Menu for the Real World: Controlling Physical Appliances Through Head-Worn Infrared Targeting 5a. CONTRACT

  14. Validation Of The Airspace Concept Evaluation System Using Real World Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinski, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of performing a validation of the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) using real world historical flight operational data. ACES inputs are generated from select real world data and processed to create a realistic reproduction of a single day of operations within the National Airspace System (NAS). ACES outputs are then compared to real world operational metrics and delay statistics for the reproduced day. Preliminary results indicate that ACES produces delays and airport operational metrics similar to the real world with minor variations of delay by phase of flight. ACES is a nation-wide fast-time simulation tool developed at NASA Ames Research Center. ACES models and simulates the NAS using interacting agents representing center control, terminal flow management, airports, individual flights, and other NAS elements. These agents pass messages between one another similar to real world communications. This distributed agent based system is designed to emulate the highly unpredictable nature of the NAS, making it a suitable tool to evaluate current and envisioned airspace concepts. To ensure that ACES produces the most realistic results, the system must be validated. There is no way to validate future concepts scenarios using real world historical data, but current day scenario validations increase confidence in the validity of future scenario results. Each operational day has unique weather and traffic demand schedules. The more a simulation utilizes the unique characteristic of a specific day, the more realistic the results should be. ACES is able to simulate the full scale demand traffic necessary to perform a validation using real world data. Through direct comparison with the real world, models may continuee to be improved and unusual trends and biases may be filtered out of the system or used to normalize the results of future concept simulations.

  15. Real-world emissions of in-use off-road vehicles in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Huertas, Jose Ignacio; Prato, Daniel; Jazcilevich, Aron; Aguilar, Andrés; Balam, Marco; Misra, Chandan; Molina, Luisa T

    2017-09-01

    Off-road vehicles used in construction and agricultural activities can contribute substantially to emissions of gaseous pollutants and can be a major source of submicrometer carbonaceous particles in many parts of the world. However, there have been relatively few efforts in quantifying the emission factors (EFs) and for estimating the potential emission reduction benefits using emission control technologies for these vehicles. This study characterized the black carbon (BC) component of particulate matter and NOx, CO, and CO2 EFs of selected diesel-powered off-road mobile sources in Mexico under real-world operating conditions using on-board portable emissions measurements systems (PEMS). The vehicles sampled included two backhoes, one tractor, a crane, an excavator, two front loaders, two bulldozers, an air compressor, and a power generator used in the construction and agricultural activities. For a selected number of these vehicles the emissions were further characterized with wall-flow diesel particle filters (DPFs) and partial-flow DPFs (p-DPFs) installed. Fuel-based EFs presented less variability than time-based emission rates, particularly for the BC. Average baseline EFs in working conditions for BC, NOx, and CO ranged from 0.04 to 5.7, from 12.6 to 81.8, and from 7.9 to 285.7 g/kg-fuel, respectively, and a high dependency by operation mode and by vehicle type was observed. Measurement-base frequency distributions of EFs by operation mode are proposed as an alternative method for characterizing the variability of off-road vehicles emissions under real-world conditions. Mass-based reductions for black carbon EFs were substantially large (above 99%) when DPFs were installed and the vehicles were idling, and the reductions were moderate (in the 20-60% range) for p-DPFs in working operating conditions. The observed high variability in measured EFs also indicates the need for detailed vehicle operation data for accurately estimating emissions from off

  16. Sunitinib in mRCC: A systematic review of UK Real World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Andrew Montgomery

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundReal world data are increasingly used to inform drug reimbursement decisions, but it is unclear how well outcomes from real world studies compare to those of clinical trials. This systematic review seeks to compare outcomes for sunitinib in routine UK clinical practice with the sunitinib registrational and expanded access program clinical trials. MethodSystematic review of the real world published literature was undertaken. UK observational studies recording first or second line sunitinib efficacy were included. A qualitative summary of the results and comparison to the controlled clinical trials was conducted. 15 real world studies were included, 14 of which were only available as posters/presentations. ResultsReal world study reporting quality was generally low, making comparisons with the clinical trials difficult. Practice relating to starting dose, dose modification, timing of therapy initiation and other factors varied between centres. Median progression free survival and adverse events were generally comparable to the clinical trial outcomes, but overall survival was not. ConclusionsThere are few published data on sunitinib use in UK clinical practice. Studies are characterised by lack of peer reviewed publication and heterogeneity in design, reporting and analysis. For use of real world data in the reimbursement setting, data collection and reporting will need to improve.

  17. MPEG-V bridging the virtual and real world

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Kyoungro; Han, Jae Joon; Han, Seungju; Preda, Marius

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to cover the recently developed MPEG-V standard, explaining the fundamentals of each part of the technology and exploring potential applications. Written by experts in the field who were instrumental in the development of the standard, this book goes beyond the scope of the official standard documentation, describing how to use the technology in a practical context and how to combine it with other information such as audio, video, images, and text. Each chapter follows an easy-to-understand format, first examining how each part of the standard is composed, then covers i

  18. Real analysis a comprehensive course in analysis, part 1

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Barry

    2015-01-01

    A Comprehensive Course in Analysis by Poincaré Prize winner Barry Simon is a five-volume set that can serve as a graduate-level analysis textbook with a lot of additional bonus information, including hundreds of problems and numerous notes that extend the text and provide important historical background. Depth and breadth of exposition make this set a valuable reference source for almost all areas of classical analysis. Part 1 is devoted to real analysis. From one point of view, it presents the infinitesimal calculus of the twentieth century with the ultimate integral calculus (measure theory)

  19. EFFECT OF THE WORLD FINANCIAL CRISIS ON REAL ESTATE MARKET IN TERMS OF POLAND AND UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    JANUSZ RYBAK; VALENTINA SHAPOVAL

    2010-01-01

    The article studies the world financial crisis effect on real estate markets in Poland and Ukraine. It will help to deepen learning laws and peculiarities of real estate markets performance in the countries and to develop events which foster both stabilizing and their future progress.

  20. Teriflunomide for multiple sclerosis in real-world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjaer, M L; Molnar, T; Illes, Z

    2017-11-01

    Teriflunomide 14 mg is a once-daily oral disease-modifying treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We examined adverse event (AE) profile and efficacy in real life. In this observational cohort study, we retrospectively examined 1521 blood samples and data of 102 patients followed for up to 28 months. The number of female patients starting teriflunomide peaked in the fifth decade, 10 years later compared to male patients (Pteriflunomide from treatment with interferon-beta. Expanded disability status scale improved in 11% of patients (18.2±3.6 months follow-up) and remained constant in 67.5% (15±5.3 months follow-up). Of ten relapses, three occurred within 6 months after starting treatment. Seventeen patients (16.5%) discontinued teriflunomide: 53% because of AEs and 29% because of relapse. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) remained normal in 95.3% of the blood samples and remained below 1.5 times the upper limit of normal in 91% of the 4.7% abnormal samples. One-third of the patients had abnormal ALT values at least once. Haematological abnormalities were found in teriflunomide in real-life setting support data obtained by the pivotal trials. Laboratory abnormalities are rare among the large number of samples, but patients may commonly have a single mild, abnormal value if frequently tested. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Real-world damping of a physical pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, M. E.; Nguyen, Do Dai

    2005-07-01

    Damped periodic motion is ubiquitous in the physical world and is a subject of study at all levels of undergraduate education. In this paper we investigate the damping of a metre stick acting as a physical pendulum subject to air drag. We do not limit our investigation to small angles and find that the air drag is well described by a retarding torque equal to a term proportional to the angular velocity together with a term proportional to the square on the angular velocity. The study is made possible by the use of a video camera, video capture and analysis software and an easy-to-use intuitive, icon-based, simulation program to numerically solve the equation of motion. Suggestions are made for further study.

  2. Caffeine Enhances Real-World Language Processing: Evidence from a Proofreading Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Rapp, David N.; Ditman, Tali; Taylor, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine has become the most prevalently consumed psychostimulant in the world, but its influences on daily real-world functioning are relatively unknown. The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a commonplace language task that required readers to identify and correct 4 error types in extended…

  3. Real-world innovation in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulder, I

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available has built on has been donated by the Chief. The Chief, local community and a representative from the centre take part in the decision making of new development projects2. As the land for the primary school, pre-school, football grounds and bakery... such as wikipedia. Teachers will be able to share lesson plans and collaborate on curricula development. School administration systems can be implemented resulting in greater effectiveness and efficiency in the running of educational facilities. Entrepreneurship...

  4. Argus developer in practice real estate development modeling in the real world

    CERN Document Server

    Havard, Tim M

    2014-01-01

    First ""missing manual"" for Argus Developer--case studies show readers how to analyze a development, something Argus manuals don't do. Argus Developer is by far the leading program for real estate developers worldwide The book is an education in real estate finance as well as the program Author teaches seminars and consults with people using the program--back of room sales likely Author has three other books on real estate development Possibility that Argus gets behind the project The book will contain dozens of screenshots

  5. A turbidity current model for real world applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Jorge; Castro, Manuel J.; Morales, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    Traditional turbidity current models suffer from several drawbacks. Among them not preserving freshwater mass, a missing pressure term, or not including terms related to deposition, erosion and entrainment in the momentum equation. In Morales et al.(2009) a new turbidity current model was proposed trying to overcome all these drawbacks. This model takes into account the interaction between the turbidity current and the bottom, considering deposition and erosion effects as well as solid bedload transport of particles at the bed due to the current. Moreover, this model includes the effects of the deposition, erosion and water entrainment into the momentum equation,commonly neglected in this type of models and, finally, in the absence of water entrainment, freshwater mass in the turbidity current is preserved. Despite these improvements, the numerical results obtained by this model when applied to real river systems were not satisfactory due to the simple form of the friction term that was considered. In the present work we propose a different parameterization of this term, where bottom and interface fluid frictions are separately parameterized with more complex expressions. Moreover, the discretization of the deposition/erosion terms is now performed semi-implicitly which guarantees the positivity of the volumetric concentration of sediments in suspension and in the erodible sediment layer at the bed. The numerical simulations obtained with this new turbidity current model (component of HySEA numerical computing platform) greatly improve previous numerical results for simplified geometries as well as for real river systems. Acknowledgements: This research has been partially supported by the Junta de Andalucía research project TESELA (P11-RNM7069) and the Spanish Government Research project DAIFLUID (MTM2012-38383-C02-01) and Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Excelencia Andalucía TECH. References: T. Morales, M. Castro, C. Parés, and E. Fernández-Nieto (2009). On

  6. ENDEAVOUR: A Scalable SDN Architecture for Real-World IXPs

    KAUST Repository

    Antichi, Gianni

    2017-10-25

    Innovation in interdomain routing has remained stagnant for over a decade. Recently, IXPs have emerged as economically-advantageous interconnection points for reducing path latencies and exchanging ever increasing traffic volumes among, possibly, hundreds of networks. Given their far-reaching implications on interdomain routing, IXPs are the ideal place to foster network innovation and extend the benefits of SDN to the interdomain level. In this paper, we present, evaluate, and demonstrate ENDEAVOUR, an SDN platform for IXPs. ENDEAVOUR can be deployed on a multi-hop IXP fabric, supports a large number of use cases, and is highly-scalable while avoiding broadcast storms. Our evaluation with real data from one of the largest IXPs, demonstrates the benefits and scalability of our solution: ENDEAVOUR requires around 70% fewer rules than alternative SDN solutions thanks to our rule partitioning mechanism. In addition, by providing an open source solution, we invite everyone from the community to experiment (and improve) our implementation as well as adapt it to new use cases.

  7. Map Matching and Real World Integrated Sensor Data Warehousing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, E.

    2014-02-01

    The inclusion of interlinked temporal and spatial elements within integrated sensor data enables a tremendous degree of flexibility when analyzing multi-component datasets. The presentation illustrates how to warehouse, process, and analyze high-resolution integrated sensor datasets to support complex system analysis at the entity and system levels. The example cases presented utilizes in-vehicle sensor system data to assess vehicle performance, while integrating a map matching algorithm to link vehicle data to roads to demonstrate the enhanced analysis possible via interlinking data elements. Furthermore, in addition to the flexibility provided, the examples presented illustrate concepts of maintaining proprietary operational information (Fleet DNA) and privacy of study participants (Transportation Secure Data Center) while producing widely distributed data products. Should real-time operational data be logged at high resolution across multiple infrastructure types, map matched to their associated infrastructure, and distributed employing a similar approach; dependencies between urban environment infrastructures components could be better understood. This understanding is especially crucial for the cities of the future where transportation will rely more on grid infrastructure to support its energy demands.

  8. Abstract spatial concept priming dynamically influences real-world actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Tower-Richardi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Experienced regularities in our perceptions and actions play important roles in grounding abstract concepts such as social status, time, and emotion. Might we similarly ground abstract spatial concepts in more experienced-based domains? The present experiment explores this possibility by implicitly priming abstract spatial terms (north, south, east, west and then measuring participants’ hand movement trajectories while they respond to a body-referenced spatial target (up, down, left, right in a verbal (Exp. 1 or spatial (Exp. 2 format. Results from two experiments demonstrate temporally-dynamic and prime-biased movement trajectories when the primes are incongruent with the targets (e.g., north – left, west – up. That is, priming abstract coordinate directions influences subsequent actions in response to concrete target directions. These findings provide the first evidence that abstract concepts of world-centered coordinate axes are implicitly understood in the context of concrete body-referenced axes; critically, this abstract-concrete relationship manifests in motor movements, and may have implications for spatial memory organization.

  9. Getting Real: A General Chemistry Laboratory Program Focusing on "Real World" Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Robert C.; Akhtar, Mohammad J.

    1996-11-01

    In order to confront the abstractness of the freshman chemistry syllabus and the consequent failure of students to relate what they learn to their everyday lives, we have designed a new freshman laboratory program. It is intended as an interface between the substances that surround the students in their ordinary lives and the abstract principles presented in chemistry classrooms (1). A laboratory should provide the organized experiences and observations that underlie the intellectual constructs of chemistry, and tying these experiences and observations to the real world can help to provide motivation for study of the principles. The freshman laboratory program constitutes the foundation for subsequent laboratory courses. However, the good habits we strive to develop there (careful observation, thorough record keeping, proper use of equipment, objective data analysis) are essential to all scientific work, and are intended to provide lasting educational value for all students, especially those who do not take later laboratory work. What We Do A list of the laboratory exercises carried out during 1994-1995 is presented in Table 1. The course incorporates the following features. 1. The exercises deal with recognizable, everyday substances, not just with "chemicals". That "baking soda" and "sodium bicarbonate" are the same is a chemical truism of which the students may be aware, but the visible presence of the Arm and Hammer box nevertheless helps them to make connections to the world outside the laboratory. Perceiving the connections, students may be inspired by curiosity to understand chemical phenomena better, not just to tolerate what they are being taught, as an irrelevant hurdle in the pursuit of a career. 2. Since many significant substances around students in the everyday world are organic, we work in the lab with organic as well as the usual inorganic materials. These include analgesics, vitamins, antifreeze, foodstuffs, dyestuffs, plastics, and fibers. In

  10. The Neurodynamics of Affect in the Laboratory Predicts Persistence of Real-World Emotional Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Aaron S; Fox, Andrew S; Wing, Erik K; McQuisition, Kaitlyn M; Vack, Nathan J; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-07-22

    Failure to sustain positive affect over time is a hallmark of depression and other psychopathologies, but the mechanisms supporting the ability to sustain positive emotional responses are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the neural correlates associated with the persistence of positive affect in the real world by conducting two experiments in humans: an fMRI task of reward responses and an experience-sampling task measuring emotional responses to a reward obtained in the field. The magnitude of DLPFC engagement to rewards administered in the laboratory predicted reactivity of real-world positive emotion following a reward administered in the field. Sustained ventral striatum engagement in the laboratory positively predicted the duration of real-world positive emotional responses. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. Significance statement: How real-world emotion, experienced over seconds, minutes, and hours, is instantiated in the brain over the course of milliseconds and seconds is unknown. We combined a novel, real-world experience-sampling task with fMRI to examine how individual differences in real-world emotion, experienced over minutes and hours, is subserved by affective neurodynamics of brain activity over the course of seconds. When winning money in the real world, individuals sustaining positive emotion the longest were those with the most prolonged ventral striatal activity. These results suggest that common pathways are associated with the unfolding of neural processes over seconds and with the dynamics of emotions experienced over minutes. Examining such dynamics may facilitate a better understanding of the brain-behavior associations underlying emotion. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510503-07$15.00/0.

  11. Assessing the Value of Real-life Brands in Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Barnes, Stuart; Hartley, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    is that current brand offerings in Virtual Worlds do not offer consumers adequate experiential value. The results demonstrate both the validity of an axiological approach to examining brand value, and highlight significant problems in consumer perceptions of the experiential value of brands within the Virtual......Virtual Worlds are a significant new market environment for brand-building through experiential customer service interactions. Using value theory, this paper aims to assess the experiential brand value of real-life brands that have moved to the Virtual World of Second Life. A key premise...... World. A key finding is the difficulty in creating emotional brand value in Second Life which has serious implications for the sustainability of current real-life brands in Virtual Worlds. The paper rounds off with conclusions and implications for future research and practice in this very new area....

  12. 3D Interactions between Virtual Worlds and Real Life in an E-Learning Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lucke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual worlds became an appealing and fascinating component of today's internet. In particular, the number of educational providers that see a potential for E-Learning in such new platforms increases. Unfortunately, most of the environments and processes implemented up to now do not exceed a virtual modelling of real-world scenarios. In particular, this paper shows that Second Life can be more than just another learning platform. A flexible and bidirectional link between the reality and the virtual world enables synchronous and seamless interaction between users and devices across both worlds. The primary advantages of this interconnection are a spatial extension of face-to-face and online learning scenarios and a closer relationship between virtual learners and the real world.

  13. [Capgras syndrome and possible worlds or places where the real person and its imposter coexist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiyama, Yoshitsugu

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper, the author has argued that what actually changes in the person whom the Capgras patient has chosen as his/her target of delusion is non-attribute such as having only "haecceity." At the same time, the author has pointed out that such ever-identical is also the target of the indication for the rigid designator as proposed by S. Kripke. Such problems with indication and identity, however, are closely associated with ontology presented by possible worlds semantics, an analytic philosophy that was much debated during the latter half of the 20th century. The purpose of this paper is to try to define the essence of Capgras syndrome from the viewpoint of possible worlds semantics. If Capgras syndrome is taken as suggested by the patient's statement that "a real person has been replaced by an imposter," it is though that this statement refers to metaphysics with regard to the number of individuals who exist in the world. This is because the appearance of the imposter means the generation of a new individual who had not been in existence until that time. The creation of the new individual not only demands the existence of plural worlds as addressed by possible worlds semantics, but also provides a clue to solving problems with places where the real person and its imposter exist. If the number of individuals existing in the world is taken into account, it is difficult to spatio-temporally comprehend the places in which the real person and its imposter exist. Inevitably, the real person and its imposter have to be in mutually different possible worlds as defined by possible worlds semantics. This leads into the conclusion that after the onset of Capgras syndrome, the patient and the imposter are in a possible world that is different from the possible world to which the real person belongs. In the case presented herein, the patient repeatedly talked about how difficult it was to get access to the real person. If the patient was separated by space and time

  14. Using electronic medical records analysis to investigate the effectiveness of lifestyle programs in real-world primary care is challenging: a case study in diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Spigt; Tjarco Koppenaal; Joris Linmans; Wolfgang Viechtbauer; J.A. Knottnerus

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The increasing prevalence of diabetes suggests a gap between real world and controlled trial effectiveness of lifestyle interventions, but real-world investigations are rare. Electronic medical registration facilitates research on real-world effectiveness, although such investigations may

  15. Real-world asthma management with inhaler devices in Switzerland-results of the asthma survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarenbach, Christian F; Nicod, Laurent P; Kohler, Malcolm

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the Asthma Survey was to generate insights about the daily practice of physicians with regard to inhaler devices used for treating asthma under real-world conditions in Switzerland. A questionnaire was administered to 605 participating hospital- and practice-based Swiss physicians. Areas of interest were practical aspects of patient education, typical difficulties encountered when prescribing pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI) and dry-powder inhalers (DPI), and reasons for physician preferences. Differences between the German-speaking part of Switzerland (D-CH) and French- and Italian-speaking parts of Switzerland (W-CH) linguistic regions were explored. Datasets from 529 physicians (291 D-CH and 238 W-CH) were suitable for analysis, 342 internists/general practitioners, 177 pulmonologists/allergologists, and 10 other. Approximately 90% of all participants declared being personally involved in providing inhaler device education to their patients. Practice assistants (33.0% vs. 9.2%, Pskills with regard to inhalation technique were generally not monitored on a regular basis with only 34.0% of participants ensuring such checks at the scheduled visits. DPIs were overwhelmingly preferred over pMDI. Although the prevalence of typical handling errors was similar with both inhalers in the two regions, pMDIs were used more frequently in W-CH (Pskills monitoring remains suboptimal. The reasons for higher pMDI preference in W-CH compared to D-CH deserve further research.

  16. Unified underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Zeng, An; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both cases. The model is validated using relatively big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the unified underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  17. Accuracy of mean-field theory for dynamics on real-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, James P; Melnik, Sergey; Ward, Jonathan A; Porter, Mason A; Mucha, Peter J

    2012-02-01

    Mean-field analysis is an important tool for understanding dynamics on complex networks. However, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the question of whether mean-field predictions are accurate, and this is particularly true for real-world networks with clustering and modular structure. In this paper, we compare mean-field predictions to numerical simulation results for dynamical processes running on 21 real-world networks and demonstrate that the accuracy of such theory depends not only on the mean degree of the networks but also on the mean first-neighbor degree. We show that mean-field theory can give (unexpectedly) accurate results for certain dynamics on disassortative real-world networks even when the mean degree is as low as 4.

  18. 5th International Workshop on Real-World Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wen; Ferrari, Federico; Zimmerling, Marco; Mottola, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This edited book presents the results of the 5th Workshop on Real-world Wireless Sensor Networks (REALWSN). The purpose of this workshop  was to bring together researchers and practitioners working in the area of sensor networks, with focus on real-world experiments or deployments of wireless sensor networks. Included were, nonetheless, emerging forms of sensing such as those that leverage smart phones, Internet of Things, RFIDs, and robots. Indeed, when working with real-world experiments or deployments, many new or unforeseen issues may arise: the network environment may be composed of a variety of different technologies, leading to very heterogeneous network structures; software development for large scale networks poses new types of problems; the performance of prototype networks may differ significantly from the deployed system; whereas actual sensor network deployments may need a complex combination of autonomous and manual configuration. Furthermore, results obtained through simulation are typically n...

  19. Universal underpinning of human mobility in the real world and cyberspace

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Human movements in the real world and in cyberspace affect not only dynamical processes such as epidemic spreading and information diffusion but also social and economical activities such as urban planning and personalized recommendation in online shopping. Despite recent efforts in characterizing and modeling human behaviors in both the real and cyber worlds, the fundamental dynamics underlying human mobility have not been well understood. We develop a minimal, memory-based random walk model in limited space for reproducing, with a single parameter, the key statistical behaviors characterizing human movements in both spaces. The model is validated using big data from mobile phone and online commerce, suggesting memory-based random walk dynamics as the universal underpinning for human mobility, regardless of whether it occurs in the real world or in cyberspace.

  20. Multiple sclerosis in the real world: A systematic review of fingolimod as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Medin, Jennie; Couto, C Anne-Marie; Mitchell, Catherine R

    2017-04-01

    The aim of our study was to systematically review the growing body of published literature reporting on one specific multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment, fingolimod, in the real world to assess its effectiveness in patients with MS, evaluate methodologies used to investigate MS in clinical practice, and describe the evidence gaps for MS as exemplified by fingolimod. We conducted a PRISMA-compliant systematic review of the literature (cut-off date: 4 March 2016). Published papers reporting real-world data for fingolimod with regard to clinical outcomes, persistence, adherence, healthcare costs, healthcare resource use, treatment patterns, and patient-reported outcomes that met all the eligibility criteria were included for data extraction and quality assessment. Based on 34 included studies, this analysis found that fingolimod treatment improved outcomes compared to the period before treatment initiation and was more effective than interferons or glatiramer acetate. However, among studies comparing fingolimod with natalizumab, overall trends were inconsistent: some reported natalizumab to be more effective than fingolimod and others reported similar effectiveness for natalizumab and fingolimod. These studies illustrate the challenges of investigating MS in the real world, including the subjectivity in evaluating some clinical outcomes and the heterogeneity of methodologies used and patient populations investigated, which limit comparisons across studies. Gaps in available real-world evidence for MS are also highlighted, including those relating to patient-reported outcomes, combined clinical outcomes (to measure overall treatment effectiveness), and healthcare costs/resource use. The included studies provide good evidence of the real-world effectiveness of fingolimod and highlight the diversity of methodologies used to assess treatment benefit in clinical practice. Future studies could address the evidence gaps found in the literature and the challenges associated

  1. Comparison between Euro NCAP test results and real-world crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Anders; Lie, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to compare Euro NCAP safety ratings of cars with those published by the Folksam real-world injury ratings; and second, to compare injury risk measures between Euro NCAP 2 and 5 Star cars with real-world injury and disability outcomes using police and insurance injury data. Car models were grouped according to the Euro NCAP star rating scores. Folksam risk of injury ratings come from statistical analysis of real-world crashes using police and insurance databases. The paired comparison method using 2-car crashes was used to control for crash speed and the mass differences between cars of different weights were normalized. For all comparisons, 5-star rated Euro NCAP cars were found to have a lower risk of injury compared to 2-star rated cars (5-star cars were 10% ± 2.5% lower risk than 2-star cars). For fatal and serious injuries, the difference was 23 ± 8 percent, and for fatal injuries alone the difference was 68 ± 32 percent. By comparison, the Folksam 5-star rated cars had a relative risk of 0.020 ± 0.0024, whereas 2-star rated car risk was 0.028 ± 0.0016, corresponding to a 27 percent difference in risk between 5- and 2-star cars. Good correlation was found between Euro NCAP test results and real-world injury outcomes. The largest difference in injury risk between 2- and 5-star rated cars in Euro NCAP was found for risk of fatality, confirming that car manufacturers have focused their safety performance on serious crash outcomes. In addition, Euro NCAP crash tests were shown to be highly correlated with serious crash performance, confirming their relevance for evaluating real-world crash performance. Good concordance was found between Euro NCAP and Folksam real-world crash and injury ratings.

  2. Text World Theory and real world readers: From literature to life in a Belfast prison

    OpenAIRE

    Canning, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive stylistics offers a range of frameworks for understanding (amongst other things) what producers of literary texts ‘do’ with language and how they ‘do’ it. Less prevalent, however, is an understanding of the ways in which these same frameworks offer insights into what readers ‘do’ (and how they ‘do’ it). Text World Theory (Werth, 1999; Gavins, 2007; Whiteley, 2011) has proved useful for understanding how and why readers construct mental representations engendered by the act of readin...

  3. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL

    2012-11-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At present, nearly 80% of US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle research and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership and the SuperTruck development effort. Both of these efforts have the common goal of decreasing the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles. In the case of SuperTruck, a goal of improving the overall freight efficiency of a combination tractor-trailer has been established. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency; it is unique in that there is no other existing national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks based on collecting data from Class 6 and 7 vehicles. It involves the collection of real-world data on medium trucks for various situational characteristics (e.g., rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips). This research provides a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for FE and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involved a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles each from two vocations (urban transit and

  4. Auditory cortical processing in real-world listening: the auditory system going real.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelken, Israel; Bizley, Jennifer; Shamma, Shihab A; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-11-12

    The auditory sense of humans transforms intrinsically senseless pressure waveforms into spectacularly rich perceptual phenomena: the music of Bach or the Beatles, the poetry of Li Bai or Omar Khayyam, or more prosaically the sense of the world filled with objects emitting sounds that is so important for those of us lucky enough to have hearing. Whereas the early representations of sounds in the auditory system are based on their physical structure, higher auditory centers are thought to represent sounds in terms of their perceptual attributes. In this symposium, we will illustrate the current research into this process, using four case studies. We will illustrate how the spectral and temporal properties of sounds are used to bind together, segregate, categorize, and interpret sound patterns on their way to acquire meaning, with important lessons to other sensory systems as well. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415135-04$15.00/0.

  5. Combining Real World Experiences with WorldWide Telescope Visualization to Build a Better Parallax Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, E. F.; Gingrich, E. C.; Nottis, K. E. K.; Udomprasert, P.; Goodman, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    We present a lab activity designed to help students understand the concept of parallax in both astronomical and non-astronomical contexts. In an outdoor setting, students learn the methodology of distance determination via parallax. They identify a distant landmark to establish a reference of direction, and then measure the change in apparent direction for more nearby objects as they change position in a 2 meter radius “orbit” around the “Sun.” This hands-on activity involves large, visually-discernable angles so that students can internalize the concept of parallax from everyday experience. However, students often have difficulty transferring this experience to the astronomical realm, so we pair this hands-on activity with a more explicitly astronomically-based activity using the WorldWide Telescope visualization environment. Students apply the same methodology in this environment and learn how the apparent motion of stars is related to their distance from Earth. The combination of hands-on activity and computer-aided visualization is designed to produce a deeper understanding of parallax in the astronomical environment, and an improved understanding of the inherently three-dimensional distribution of objects in our universe. More formal assessment is underway.

  6. Designing design exercises – from theory to creativity and real-world use

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotze, P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a framework for design exercises for interaction design and HCI based on two theoretical frameworks and a set of knowledge transformers. The model scope design exercises on a continuum ranging from creativity to real-world use...

  7. A real-world Case Study in Information Technology for Undergraduate Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkel, Nicolaas; Spil, Antonius A.M.; van de Weg, R.L.W.

    1999-01-01

    Real-world case studies are important to complement the academic skills and knowledge acquired by computer science students. In this paper we relate our experiences with a course specifically designed to address this issue. The problem to be addressed is the replacement of a Hospital Information

  8. Replacing a Hospital Information System: an example of a real-world case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkel, Nicolaas; Spil, Antonius A.M.; van de Weg, R.L.W.

    Real-world case studies are important to complement the academic skills and knowledge acquired by computer science students. In this paper we relate our experiences with a course specifically designed to address this issue. The objectives of the course are threefold: to train management and

  9. Developing Management Student Cultural Fluency for the Real World: A Situated Cultural Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunxia; Okimoto, Tyler G.; Roan, Amanda; Xu, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To connect students with the real world of management practice, the purpose of this paper is to extend and operationalize the situated cultural learning approach (SiCuLA) through five learning processes occurring within communities of practice. These include integration of cultural contexts, authentic activities, reflections,…

  10. Building Real World Domain-Specific Social Network Websites as a Capstone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kwok-Bun; De Silva, Dilhar; Kim, Dan; Aktepe, Mirac; Nagle, Stewart; Boerger, Chris; Jain, Anubha; Verma, Sunny

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes our experience of using Content Management Software (CMS), specifically Joomla, to build a real world domain-specific social network site (SNS) as a capstone project for graduate information systems and computer science students. As Web 2.0 technologies become increasingly important in driving business application development,…

  11. Adapting to Change in a Master Level Real-World-Projects Capstone Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappert, Charles C.; Stix, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Our mission of capstone computing courses for the past ten years has been to offer students experience with the development of real-world information technology projects. This experience has included both the hard and soft skills required for the work they could expect as industrial practitioners. Hard skills entail extending one's knowledge…

  12. GREENIFY: A Real-World Action Game for Climate Change Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joey J.; Ceyhan, Pinar; Jordan-Cooley, William; Sung, Woonhee

    2013-01-01

    The literature on climate change education recommends social, accessible action-oriented learning that is specifically designed to resonate with a target audience's values and worldview. This article discusses GREENIFY, a real-world action game designed to teach adult learners about climate change and motivate informed action. A pilot study…

  13. Subband analysis and synthesis of real-world textures for objective and subjective determination of roughness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Egmond, R.; Pappas, T.N.; De Ridder, H.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study we investigated the roughness of real world textures taken from the CUReT database. We showed that people could systematically judge the subjective roughness of these textures. However, we did not determine which objective factors relate to these perceptual judgments of

  14. Comparing presence, workload and situational awareness in a collaborative real world and augmented reality scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datcu, D.; Lukosch, S.G.; Lukosch, H.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares presence, workload and situational awareness in a real world and augmented reality scenario when collaboratively solving a complex problem. A game of jointly building a tower of colored blocks is used as an approximation of a shared task. Individual expertise is modeled as the

  15. Real-World Experimentation Comparing Time-Sharing and Batch Processing in Teaching Computer Science,

    Science.gov (United States)

    effectiveness of time-sharing and batch processing in teaching computer science . The experimental design was centered on direct, ’real world’ comparison...ALGOL). The experimental sample involved all introductory computer science courses with a total population of 415 cadets. The results generally

  16. The "Real-World" Experience: Students' Perspectives on Service-Learning Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Erin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify how students gain "real-world" experience via service-learning projects. This article describes the results of a pilot study conducted with over 75 business graduate students to investigate the effects of service-learning curriculum at the collegiate level. The following qualitative data was…

  17. Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmenta...

  18. Detailed investigations and real-world emission performance of Euro 6 diesel passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadijk, G.; Mensch, P. van; Spreen, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    A study conducted on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment reveals that NOx emissions of a number of tested Euro 6 diesel passenger vehicles are significantly higher under real-world conditions than would be expected on the basis of the Euro 6 standard. The Euro 6

  19. Waking up from the dream of reason; Rationality in the real world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hezewijk, René

    2007-01-01

    Review Essay of: Gerd Gigerenzer, Adaptive Thinking: Rationality in the Real World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. 344 pp. ISBN 0–19–513622–5 (hbk). Gerd Gigerenzer, Reckoning with Risk: Learning to Live with Uncertainty. London: Allen Lane/Penguin, 2002. 310 pp. ISBN 0–713–99512–2

  20. Real-world costs of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in the Nordics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Daniel; Karlsson, Linda; Eklund, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited real-world data on the economic burden of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The objective of this study was to estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of patients with ADPKD by severity of the disease: chronic kidney disease (CKD...

  1. Cars and Kinetic Energy--Some Simple Physics with Real-World Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-01-01

    Understanding energy usage is crucial to understanding modern civilization, as well as many of the challenges it faces. Energy-related issues also offer real-world examples of important physical concepts, and as such have been the focus of several articles in "The Physics Teacher" in the past few decades (e.g., Refs. 1-5, noted further below).…

  2. Mathematical Modelling: Transitions between the Real World and the Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Rosalind; Haines, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Applications in engineering, science and technology within undergraduate programmes can be difficult for students to understand. In this paper, new results are presented which go some way to demonstrate and explain the problems faced by students in linking mathematical models to real-world applications. The study is based on student responses to…

  3. Understanding the GOLD 2011 Strategy as applied to a real-world COPD population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.; Vogelmeier, C.; Small, M.

    2014-01-01

    Study objectives: The aim of this analysis was to understand the implications of the GOLD 2011 multidimensional system for the assessment and management of COPD, using data from a real-world observational study. Methods: Data were drawn from the Adelphi Respiratory Disease Specific Programme...

  4. Bringing the Real World in: Reflection on Building a Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundkur, Anuradha; Ellickson, Cara

    2012-01-01

    We reflect on translating participatory and experiential learning methodologies into an online teaching environment through a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) that simulates the "real-world" contexts of international development in order to develop an applied critical understanding of gender analysis and gender mainstreaming. Rather than being…

  5. Interventions to improve real-world walking after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Caroline M; Mudge, Suzie; Kayes, Nicola M; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of current interventions to improve real-world walking for people with stroke and specifically whether benefits are sustained. EBSCO Megafile, AMED, Cochrane, Scopus, PEDRO, OTSeeker and Psychbite databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Proximity searching with keywords such as ambulat*, walk*, gait, mobility*, activit* was used. Randomized controlled trials that used measures of real-world walking were included. Two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and extracted the data. Nine studies fitting the inclusion criteria were identified, most of high quality. A positive effect overall was found indicating a small effect of interventions on real-world walking (SMD 0.29 (0.17, 0.41)). Five studies provided follow-up data at >3-6 months, which demonstrated sustained benefits (SMD 0.32 (0.16, 0.48)). Subgroup analysis revealed studies using exercise alone were not effective (SMD 0.19 (-0.11, 0.49)), but those incorporating behavioural change techniques (SMD 0.27 (0.12, 0.41)) were. A small but significant effect was found for current interventions and benefits can be sustained. Interventions that include behaviour change techniques appear more effective at improving real-world walking habits than exercise alone.

  6. Mining and Modeling Real-World Networks: Patterns, Anomalies, and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, Leman

    2012-01-01

    Large real-world graph (a.k.a network, relational) data are omnipresent, in online media, businesses, science, and the government. Analysis of these massive graphs is crucial, in order to extract descriptive and predictive knowledge with many commercial, medical, and environmental applications. In addition to its general structure, knowing what…

  7. Stochastic Real-World Drive Cycle Generation Based on a Two Stage Markov Chain Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balau, A.E.; Kooijman, D.; Vazquez Rodarte, I.; Ligterink, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology and tool that stochastically generates drive cycles based on measured data, with the purpose of testing and benchmarking light duty vehicles in a simulation environment or on a test-bench. The WLTP database, containing real world driving measurements, was used as

  8. Tackling Real World Complexity in a Software Engineering Student Project : An Experience Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Leo Pruijt; Christian Köppe

    2015-01-01

    Author-supplied abstract: Developing large-scale complex systems in student projects is not common, due to various constraints like available time, student team sizes, or maximal complexity. However, we succeeded to design a project that was of high complexity and comparable to real world projects.

  9. Real-world spatial regularities affect visual working memory for objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Daniel; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-12-01

    Traditional memory research has focused on measuring and modeling the capacity of visual working memory for simple stimuli such as geometric shapes or colored disks. Although these studies have provided important insights, it is unclear how their findings apply to memory for more naturalistic stimuli. An important aspect of real-world scenes is that they contain a high degree of regularity: For instance, lamps appear above tables, not below them. In the present study, we tested whether such real-world spatial regularities affect working memory capacity for individual objects. Using a delayed change-detection task with concurrent verbal suppression, we found enhanced visual working memory performance for objects positioned according to real-world regularities, as compared to irregularly positioned objects. This effect was specific to upright stimuli, indicating that it did not reflect low-level grouping, because low-level grouping would be expected to equally affect memory for upright and inverted displays. These results suggest that objects can be held in visual working memory more efficiently when they are positioned according to frequently experienced real-world regularities. We interpret this effect as the grouping of single objects into larger representational units.

  10. Teaching for Statistical Literacy: Utilising Affordances in Real-World Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Helen L.; Pierce, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that context is important in teaching mathematics and statistics. Consideration of context is central to statistical thinking, and any teaching of statistics must incorporate this aspect. Indeed, it has been advocated that real-world data sets can motivate the learning of statistical principles. It is not, however, a…

  11. Interattribute distances do not represent the identity of real-world faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Taschereau-Dumouchel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available According to an influential view, based on studies of development and of the face inversion effect, human face recognition relies mainly on the treatment of the distances among internal facial features. However, there is surprisingly little evidence supporting this claim. Here, we first use a sample of 515 face photographs to estimate the face recognition information available in interattribute distances. We demonstrate that previous studies of interattribute distances generated faces that exaggerated by 376% this information compared to real-world faces. When human observers are required to recognize faces solely on the basis of real-world interattribute distances, they perform poorly across a broad range of viewing distances (equivalent to 2 to more than 16 m in the real-world. In contrast, recognition is almost perfect when observers recognize faces on the basis of real-world information other than interattribute distances such as attribute shapes and skin properties. We conclude that facial cues other than interattribute distances such as attribute shapes and skin properties are the dominant information of face recognition mechanisms.

  12. MIMU-Wear: ontology-based sensor selection for real-world wearable activity recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalonga, Claudia; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio; Banos Legran, Oresti

    2017-01-01

    An enormous effort has been made during the recent years towards the recognition of human activity based on wearable sensors. Despite the wide variety of proposed systems, most existing solutions have in common to solely operate on predefined settings and constrained sensor setups. Real-world

  13. Teaching Real-World Applications of Business Statistics Using Communication to Scaffold Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Gareth P.; Jones, Stacey; Bean, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Our assessment research suggests that quantitative business courses that rely primarily on algorithmic problem solving may not produce the deep learning required for addressing real-world business problems. This article illustrates a strategy, supported by recent learning theory, for promoting deep learning by moving students gradually from…

  14. Real-world problem-based learning: a case study evaluated | de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes and evaluates a case study of a postgraduate practical learning event in the Department of Tourism Management at the University of Pretoria. It involved a real-world situation and departed significantly from traditional learning, as it bridged the gap between theoretical class-learning and professional ...

  15. Differences in Energy Consumption in Electric Vehicles: An Exploratory Real-World Study in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezhen Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs are widely regarded as a promising solution to reduce air pollution in cities and key to a low carbon mobility future. However, their environmental benefits depend on the temporal and spatial context of actual usage (journey energy efficiency and the rolling out of EVs is complicated by issues such as limited range. This paper explores how the energy efficiency of EVs is affected and shaped by driving behavior, personal driving styles, traffic conditions, and infrastructure design in the real world. Tests have been conducted with a Nissan LEAF under a typical driving cycle on the Beijing road network in order to improve understanding of variations in energy efficiency among drivers under different urban traffic conditions. Energy consumption and operation parameters were recorded in both peak and off-peak hours for a total of 13 drivers. The analysis reported in this paper shows that there are clear patterns in energy consumption along a route that are in part related to differences in infrastructure design, traffic conditions, and personal driving styles. The proposed method for analyzing time series data about energy consumption along routes can be used for research with larger fleets of EVs in the future.

  16. Comparison of real-world and certification emission rates for light duty gasoline vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tanzila; Frey, H Christopher

    2017-12-07

    U.S. light duty vehicles are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. Emission compliance is determined by certification testing of selected emissions from representative vehicles on standard driving cycles using chassis dynamometers. Test results are also used in many emission inventories. The dynamometer based emission rates are adjusted to provide the certification levels (CL), which must be lower than the standards for compliance. Although standard driving cycles are based on specific observations of real-world driving, they are not necessarily real-world representative. A systematic comparison of the real-world emission rates of U.S. light duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) versus CL, and emission standards has not been previously reported. The purpose of this work is to compare regulatory limits (both CLs and emission standards) and the real-world emissions of LDGVs. The sensitivity of the comparisons to cold start emission was assessed. Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) were used to measure hot stabilized exhaust emissions of 122 LDGVs on a specified 110 mile test route. Cold start emissions were measured with PEMS for a selected vehicle sample of 32 vehicles. Emissions were measured for carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). For each vehicle, a Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) modal emission rate model was developed. The VSP modal rates were weighted by the standard driving cycles and real-world driving cycles to estimate the respective cycle average emission rates (CAERs). Measured vehicles were matched with certification test vehicles for comparison. For systematic trends in comparison, vehicles were classified into four groups based on the Tier 1 and Tier 2 emission regulation, and the vehicle type such as passenger car and passenger truck. Depending on the cycle-pollutant and the vehicle groups, hot stabilized CAERs are on average either statistically significantly

  17. Managing in the Virtual World: How Second Life is Rewriting the Rules of "Real Life" Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyld, David C.

    In this paper, we will explore the growth of virtual worlds - one of the most exciting and fast-growing concepts in the Web 2.0 era. We will see that while there has been significant growth across all demographic groups, online gaming in MMOGs (Massively Multiplayer Online Games) are finding particular appeal in today's youth - the so-called "digital native" generation. We then overview the today's virtual world marketplace, both in the youth and adult-oriented markets. Second Life is emerging as the most important virtual world today, due to the intense interest amongst both large organizations and individual entrepreneurs to conduct real business in the virtual environment. Due to its prominence today and its forecasted growth over the next decade, we take a look at the unscripted world of Second Life, examining the corporate presence in-world, as well as the economic, technical, legal, ethical and security issues involved for companies doing business in the virtual world. In conclusion, we present an analysis of where we stand in terms of virtual world development today and a projection of where we will be heading in the near future. Finally, we present advice to management practitioners and academicians on how to learn about virtual worlds and explore the world of opportunities in them.

  18. Smartphone-Based Psychotherapeutic Micro-Interventions to Improve Mood in a Real-World Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Stalujanis, Esther; Belardi, Angelo; Oh, Minkyung; Jung, Eun Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Alfano, Janine; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Tegethoff, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes. As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects-after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition-underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good-bad, GB; awake-tired, AT; and calm-nervous, CN). Twenty-seven men participated on at least 11 days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13%) and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30%) being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood [GB: b = 0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI) [0.068, 0.860], t (613.3) = 2.298, p = 0.022] and became more awake [AT: b = 0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t (612.4) = 2.456, p = 0.014] and calmer [CN: b = 0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t (612.3) = 4.137, p findings provide evidence for the applicability of smartphone-based micro-interventions eliciting short-term mood changes, based on techniques used in psychotherapeutic approaches, such as mindfulness-based psychotherapy, transcendental meditation, and other contemplative therapies. The results encourage exploring these techniques' capability to improve mood in

  19. Smartphone-Based Psychotherapeutic Micro-Interventions to Improve Mood in a Real-World Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Stalujanis, Esther; Belardi, Angelo; Oh, Minkyung; Jung, Eun Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Alfano, Janine; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Tegethoff, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes. Method: As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects—after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition—underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good–bad, GB; awake–tired, AT; and calm–nervous, CN). Results: Twenty-seven men participated on at least 11 days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13%) and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30%) being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood [GB: b = 0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI) [0.068, 0.860], t(613.3) = 2.298, p = 0.022] and became more awake [AT: b = 0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t(612.4) = 2.456, p = 0.014] and calmer [CN: b = 0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t(612.3) = 4.137, p smartphone-based micro-interventions eliciting short-term mood changes, based on techniques used in psychotherapeutic approaches, such as mindfulness-based psychotherapy, transcendental meditation, and other contemplative therapies. The results encourage exploring these techniques' capability to improve mood in randomized

  20. Hostility in the real world and online: the effect of internet addiction, depression, and online activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Hsiu-Yi; Huang, Chun-Jen; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2011-11-01

    Hostility online has not been evaluated by an empirical investigation. This study aims to evaluate (a) the difference between hostility in the real world and that online and (b) whether the difference is associated with Internet addiction, depression, or online activities. A total of 2,348 college students (1,124 males and 1,224 females) were recruited and completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale, and the questionnaire for online activity. Further, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Chinese version-short form was utilized to evaluate hostility in both real and virtual worlds. The results demonstrated that the levels of all four dimensions of hostility were lower when getting online than those in the real world. Subjects with Internet addiction had higher hostility both in the real world and online as do subjects with depression. Further, college students with Internet addiction had increased expressive hostility behavior and those with depression had decreased hostility cognition, hostility affection, and suppressive hostility behavior when getting online. Lastly, the buffering effect of the Internet on hostility was attenuated among subjects paying the most online time in chatting, and those using the Internet mainly for online gaming had higher expressive hostility behavior not only in the real world but also online. These results suggest that attention should be paid to interventions concerning aggressive behavior among subjects with Internet addiction or online gaming and chatting. On the other hand, depressed college students would be less hostile after entering the Internet. It is suggested that the Internet would be one possible interactive media to provide intervention for depression.

  1. Are fixations in static natural scenes a useful predictor of attention in the real world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-06-01

    Research investigating scene perception normally involves laboratory experiments using static images. Much has been learned about how observers look at pictures of the real world and the attentional mechanisms underlying this behaviour. However, the use of static, isolated pictures as a proxy for studying everyday attention in real environments has led to the criticism that such experiments are artificial. We report a new study that tests the extent to which the real world can be reduced to simpler laboratory stimuli. We recorded the gaze of participants walking on a university campus with a mobile eye tracker, and then showed static frames from this walk to new participants, in either a random or sequential order. The aim was to compare the gaze of participants walking in the real environment with fixations on pictures of the same scene. The data show that picture order affects interobserver fixation consistency and changes looking patterns. Critically, while fixations on the static images overlapped significantly with the actual real-world eye movements, they did so no more than a model that assumed a general bias to the centre. Remarkably, a model that simply takes into account where the eyes are normally positioned in the head-independent of what is actually in the scene-does far better than any other model. These data reveal that viewing patterns to static scenes are a relatively poor proxy for predicting real world eye movement behaviour, while raising intriguing possibilities for how to best measure attention in everyday life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Real world evidence: a form of big data, transforming healthcare data into actionable real time insights and informed business decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Kumar Barick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data has always played an important role in assisting business decisions and overall improvement of a company’s strategies. The introduction of what has come to be named ‘BIG data’ has changed the industry paradigm altogether for a few domains like media, mobility, retail and social. Data from the real world is also considered as BIG data based on its magnitude, sources and the industry’s capacity to handle the same. Although, the healthcare industry has been using real world data for decades, digitization of health records has demonstrated its value to all the stakeholders with a reaffirmation of interest in it. Over time, companies are looking to adopt new technologies in linking these fragmented data for meaningful and actionable insights to demonstrate their value over competition. It has also been noticed that the consequences of not demonstrating the value of data are sometimes leads regulators and payers to be severe. The real challenge though is not in identifying data sets but transforming these data sets into actionable real time insights and business decisions. Evidence and value development frameworks need to work side by side, harnessing meaningful insights in parallel to product development from early phase to life-cycle management. This should in-turn create evidence and value-based insights for multiple stakeholders across the industry; ultimately supporting the patient as the end user to take informed decisions that impact access to care. This article attempts to review the current state of affairs in the area of BIG data in pharma OR BIG DIP as it is increasingly being referred to.

  3. Medium Truck Duty Cycle Data from Real-World Driving Environments: Project Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Since the early part of the 20th century, the US trucking industry has provided a safe and economical means of moving commodities across the country. At the present time, nearly 80% of the US domestic freight movement involves the use of trucks. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is spearheading a number of research efforts to improve heavy vehicle fuel efficiencies. This includes research in engine technologies (including hybrid and fuel cell technologies), lightweight materials, advanced fuels, and parasitic loss reductions. In addition, DOE is developing advanced tools and models to support heavy vehicle truck research, and is leading the 21st Century Truck Partnership whose stretch goals involve a reduction by 50% of the fuel consumption of heavy vehicles on a ton-mile basis. This Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC) Project is a critical element in DOE s vision for improved heavy vehicle energy efficiency and is unique in that there is no other national database of characteristic duty cycles for medium trucks. It involves the collection of real-world data for various situational characteristics (rural/urban, freeway/arterial, congested/free-flowing, good/bad weather, etc.) and looks at the unique nature of medium trucks drive cycles (stop-and-go delivery, power takeoff, idle time, short-radius trips), to provide a rich source of data that can contribute to the development of new tools for fuel efficiency and modeling, provide DOE a sound basis upon which to make technology investment decisions, and provide a national archive of real-world-based medium-truck operational data to support heavy vehicle energy efficiency research. The MTDC project involves a two-part field operational test (FOT). For the Part-1 FOT, three vehicles, each from two vocations (urban transit and dry-box delivery) were instrumented for one year of data collection. The Part-2 FOT will involve the towing/recovery and utility vocations. The vehicles participating in the MTDC project are doing so

  4. Implementing a Grant Proposal Writing Exercise in Undergraduate Science Courses to Incorporate Real-World Applications and Critical Analysis of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kathryn E.; Inada, Maki; Smith, Andrew M.; Haaf, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Writing is an essential part of a successful career in science. As such, many undergraduate science courses have begun to implement writing assignments that reflect "real-world" applications and focus on a critical analysis of current literature; these assignments are often in the form of a review or a research proposal. The…

  5. Performance Evaluation of Super-Resolution Reconstruction Methods on Real-World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. van Vliet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a super-resolution (SR reconstruction method on real-world data is not easy to measure, especially as a ground-truth (GT is often not available. In this paper, a quantitative performance measure is used, based on triangle orientation discrimination (TOD. The TOD measure, simulating a real-observer task, is capable of determining the performance of a specific SR reconstruction method under varying conditions of the input data. It is shown that the performance of an SR reconstruction method on real-world data can be predicted accurately by measuring its performance on simulated data. This prediction of the performance on real-world data enables the optimization of the complete chain of a vision system; from camera setup and SR reconstruction up to image detection/recognition/identification. Furthermore, different SR reconstruction methods are compared to show that the TOD method is a useful tool to select a specific SR reconstruction method according to the imaging conditions (camera's fill-factor, optical point-spread-function (PSF, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR.

  6. GetReal in mathematical modelling: a review of studies predicting drug effectiveness in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayidou, Klea; Gsteiger, Sandro; Egger, Matthias; Kilcher, Gablu; Carreras, Máximo; Efthimiou, Orestis; Debray, Thomas P A; Trelle, Sven; Hummel, Noemi

    2016-09-01

    The performance of a drug in a clinical trial setting often does not reflect its effect in daily clinical practice. In this third of three reviews, we examine the applications that have been used in the literature to predict real-world effectiveness from randomized controlled trial efficacy data. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE from inception to March 2014, the Cochrane Methodology Register, and websites of key journals and organisations and reference lists. We extracted data on the type of model and predictions, data sources, validation and sensitivity analyses, disease area and software. We identified 12 articles in which four approaches were used: multi-state models, discrete event simulation models, physiology-based models and survival and generalized linear models. Studies predicted outcomes over longer time periods in different patient populations, including patients with lower levels of adherence or persistence to treatment or examined doses not tested in trials. Eight studies included individual patient data. Seven examined cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and three neurological conditions. Most studies included sensitivity analyses, but external validation was performed in only three studies. We conclude that mathematical modelling to predict real-world effectiveness of drug interventions is not widely used at present and not well validated. © 2016 The Authors Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Improving Realism in Clinical Trial Simulations via Real-World Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimko, Holly; Lee, Kwan

    2017-11-01

    Simulation validity depends on how well sampling distributions used reflect real-patient characteristics, such as drug adherence, disease progression, and pharmacologic handling in the body. We challenge the current use of growth charts from nondisease-specific pediatrics in simulations for drug development. Complementary use of data from clinical trials and the real-world is expected to achieve a more realistic representation of clinical outcomes for decisions in drug development, regulatory approval, and health technology assessment. © 2017 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  8. Real World NET, C#, and Silverlight Indispensible Experiences from 15 MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Evjen, Bill; Balassy, Gyorgy; Gleeren, Gill; Giard, David; Golesh, Alex; Grossnicklaus, Kevin; Jenkins, Caleb; Juday, Jeffrey; Lele, Vishwas; Likness, Jeremy; Millett, Scott; Nagel, Christian; Yöndem , Daron; Weyer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A team of MVP authors guides you through the .NET 4 Framework Written by a group of experienced MVPs, this unparalleled book delves into the intricate-and often daunting-world of .NET 4. Each author draws from a particular area of expertise to provide invaluable information on using the various .NET 4, C# 4, Silverlight 4, and Visual Studio tools in the real world. The authors break down the vast .NET 4 Framework into easily digestible portions to offer you a strong foundation on what makes .NET such a popular and successful framework for building a wide range of solutions.Breaks down the .NET

  9. Digital representations of the real world how to capture, model, and render visual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Theobalt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Create Genuine Visual Realism in Computer Graphics Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality explains how to portray visual worlds with a high degree of realism using the latest video acquisition technology, computer graphics methods, and computer vision algorithms. It explores the integration of new capture modalities, reconstruction approaches, and visual perception into the computer graphics pipeline.Understand the Entire Pipeline from Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Modeling to Realistic Rendering and ApplicationsThe book covers sensors fo

  10. Real-World Solutions for Developing High-Quality PHP Frameworks and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Learn to develop high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP Packed with in-depth information and step-by-step guidance, this book escorts you through the process of creating, maintaining and extending sustainable software of high quality with PHP. World-renowned PHP experts present real-world case studies for developing high-quality applications and frameworks in PHP that can easily be adapted to changing business requirements. . They offer different approaches to solving  typical development and quality assurance problems that every developer needs to know and master.Details the process

  11. Effects of an Online Rational Emotive Curriculum on Primary School Students' Tendencies for Online and Real-World Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Ho, H. C.; Song, Y. J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between online and real-world aggressive behavior among primary school students as well as the effects of an online rational emotive curriculum on reducing the tendency of students to display aggression online and in the real-world. We developed an online information literacy course integrated with rational…

  12. Designing and Using Projects with Real World Application in a MBA Managerial Accounting Class: The Case of The Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houke, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the purpose of designing and using projects with real world application in a M.B.A. managerial accounting class. Included is a discussion of how and why the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Project has been used in classes to link theory with practice by providing real world application of the BSC framework. M.B.A. students represent a…

  13. Two-World Background of Special Relativity. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new sheet of spacetime is isolated and added to the existing sheet, thereby yielding a pair of co-existing sheets of spacetimes, which are four-dimensional inversions of each other. The separation of the spacetimes by the special-relativistic event horizon com- pels an interpretation of the existence of a pair of symmetrical worlds (or universes in nature. Further more, a flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime that underlies the flat four-dimensional spacetime in each universe is introduced. The four-dimensional spacetime is outward manifestation of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime, just as the Special Theory of Relativity (SR on four-dimensional spacetime is mere outward manifestation of the intrinsic Special Theory of Relativity ( SR on two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime. A new set of diagrams in the two-world picture that involves rela- tive rotation of the coordinates of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime is drawn and intrinsic Lorentz transformation derived from it. The Lorentz transformation in SR is then written directly from intrinsic Lorentz transformation in SR without any need to draw diagrams involving relative rotation of the coordinates of four-dimensional space- time, as usually done until now. Indeed every result of SR can be written directly from the corresponding result of SR. The non-existence of the light cone concept in the two-world picture is shown and good prospect for making the Lorentz group SO(3,1 compact in the two-world picture is highlighted.

  14. Two-World Background of Special Relativity. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new sheet of spacetime is isolated and added to the existing sheet, thereby yielding a pair of co-existing sheets ofspacetimes, which are four-dimensional inversions of each other. The separation of the spacetimes by the special-relativistic event horizon compels an interpretation of the existence of a pair of symmetrical worlds (or universes in nature. Further more, a flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime that underlies the flat four-dimensional spacetime in each universe is introduced. The four-dimensional spacetime is outward manifestation of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime, just as the Special Theory of Relativity (SR on four-dimensional spacetime is mere outward manifestation of the intrinsic Special Theory of Relativity ($phi$SR on two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime. A new set of diagrams in the two-world picture that involves relative rotation of the coordinates of the two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime is drawn and intrinsic Lorentz transformation derived from it. The Lorentz transformation in SR is then written directly from intrinsic Lorentz transformation in $phi$SR without any need to draw diagrams involving relative rotation of the coordinates of four-dimensional spacetime, as usually done until now. Indeed every result of SR can be written directly from the corresponding result of $phi$SR. The non-existence of the light cone concept in the two-world picture is shown and good prospect for making the Lorentz group SO(3,1 compact in the two-world picture is highlighted.

  15. The Map in Our Head Is Not Oriented North: Evidence from a Real-World Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad T Brunyé

    Full Text Available Like most physical maps, recent research has suggested that cognitive maps of familiar environments may have a north-up orientation. We demonstrate that north orientation is not a necessary feature of cognitive maps and instead may arise due to coincidental alignment between cardinal directions and the built and natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedestrians have difficulty pointing north while navigating a familiar real-world environment with roads, buildings, and green spaces oriented oblique to cardinal axes. Instead, north estimates tended to be parallel or perpendicular to roads. In Experiment 2, participants did not demonstrate privileged memory access when oriented toward north while making relative direction judgments. Instead, retrieval was fastest and most accurate when orientations were aligned with roads. In sum, cognitive maps are not always oriented north. Rather, in some real-world environments they can be oriented with respect to environment-specific features, serving as convenient reference systems for organizing and using spatial memory.

  16. The positive impacts of Real-World Data on the challenges facing the evolution of biopharma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John; Möller, Angeli; Christie, David; Kalra, Dipak; Brodsky, Elia; Georgieva, Evelina; Jones, Greg; Smith, Ian; Greiffenberg, Lars; McCarthy, Marie; Arend, Michael; Luttringer, Olivier; Kloss, Sebastian; Arlington, Steve

    2018-01-11

    Demand for healthcare services is unprecedented. Society is struggling to afford the cost. Pricing of biopharmaceutical products is under scrutiny, especially by payers and Health Technology Assessment agencies. As we discuss here, rapidly advancing technologies, such Real-World Data (RWD), are being utilized to increase understanding of disease. RWD, when captured and analyzed, produces the Real-World Evidence (RWE) that underpins the economic case for innovative medicines. Furthermore, RWD can inform the understanding of disease, help identify new therapeutic intervention points, and improve the efficiency of research and development (R&D), especially clinical trials. Pursuing precompetitive collaborations to define shared requirements for the use of RWD would equip service-providers with the specifications needed to implement cloud-based solutions for RWD acquisition, management and analysis. Only this approach would deliver cost-effective solutions to an industry-wide problem. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Acoustic Classification and Optimization for Multi-Modal Rendering of Real-World Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schissler, Carl; Loftin, Christian; Manocha, Dinesh

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel algorithm to generate virtual acoustic effects in captured 3D models of real-world scenes for multimodal augmented reality. We leverage recent advances in 3D scene reconstruction in order to automatically compute acoustic material properties. Our technique consists of a two-step procedure that first applies a convolutional neural network (CNN) to estimate the acoustic material properties, including frequency-dependent absorption coefficients, that are used for interactive sound propagation. In the second step, an iterative optimization algorithm is used to adjust the materials determined by the CNN until a virtual acoustic simulation converges to measured acoustic impulse responses. We have applied our algorithm to many reconstructed real-world indoor scenes and evaluated its fidelity for augmented reality applications.

  18. Scientific computation of big data in real-world clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guozheng; Zuo, Xuewen; Liu, Baoyan

    2014-09-01

    The advent of the big data era creates both opportunities and challenges for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This study describes the origin, concept, connotation, and value of studies regarding the scientific computation of TCM. It also discusses the integration of science, technology, and medicine under the guidance of the paradigm of real-world, clinical scientific research. TCM clinical diagnosis, treatment, and knowledge were traditionally limited to literature and sensation levels; however, primary methods are used to convert them into statistics, such as the methods of feature subset optimizing, multi-label learning, and complex networks based on complexity, intelligence, data, and computing sciences. Furthermore, these methods are applied in the modeling and analysis of the various complex relationships in individualized clinical diagnosis and treatment, as well as in decision-making related to such diagnosis and treatment. Thus, these methods strongly support the real-world clinical research paradigm of TCM.

  19. A real world dissemination and implementation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F; Szafranski, Derek D; Shead, Sarah D

    2017-03-01

    Dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychotherapies is challenging in real world clinical settings. Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for affective disorders was developed with dissemination and implementation in clinical settings in mind. The present study investigated a voluntary local dissemination and implementation effort, involving 28 providers participating in a four-hour training on TBT. Providers completed immediate (n=22) and six-month follow-up (n=12) training assessments and were encouraged to collect data on their TBT patients (delivery fidelity was not investigated). Findings demonstrated that providers endorsed learning of and interest in using TBT after the training. At six-months, 50% of providers reported using TBT with their patients and their perceived effectiveness of TBT to be very good to excellent. Submitted patient outcome data evidenced medium to large effect sizes. Together, these findings provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of a real world dissemination and implementation of TBT. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The Map in Our Head Is Not Oriented North: Evidence from a Real-World Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunyé, Tad T.; Burte, Heather; Houck, Lindsay A.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    Like most physical maps, recent research has suggested that cognitive maps of familiar environments may have a north-up orientation. We demonstrate that north orientation is not a necessary feature of cognitive maps and instead may arise due to coincidental alignment between cardinal directions and the built and natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that pedestrians have difficulty pointing north while navigating a familiar real-world environment with roads, buildings, and green spaces oriented oblique to cardinal axes. Instead, north estimates tended to be parallel or perpendicular to roads. In Experiment 2, participants did not demonstrate privileged memory access when oriented toward north while making relative direction judgments. Instead, retrieval was fastest and most accurate when orientations were aligned with roads. In sum, cognitive maps are not always oriented north. Rather, in some real-world environments they can be oriented with respect to environment-specific features, serving as convenient reference systems for organizing and using spatial memory. PMID:26353119

  1. Using mathematics to solve real world problems: the role of enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Vincent; Stillman, Gloria; Brown, Jill; Galbriath, Peter; Niss, Mogens

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on a newly funded research project in which we will investigate how secondary students apply mathematical modelling to effectively address real world situations. Through this study, we will identify factors, mathematical, cognitive, social and environmental that "enable" year 10/11 students to successfully begin the modelling process, that is, formulate and mathematise a real world problem. The 3-year study will take a design research approach in working intensively with six schools across two educational jurisdictions. It is anticipated that this research will generate new theoretical and practical insights into the role of "enablers" within the process of mathematisation, leading to the development of principles for the design and implementation for tasks that support students' development as modellers.

  2. Brain integrative function driven by musical training during real-world music listening

    OpenAIRE

    Burunat Pérez, Iballa

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigated differences in the brain dynamics of continuous, real-world music listening between listeners with and without professional musical training, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A replication study was aimed at validating the reliability of the naturalistic approach to studying brain responses to music, wherein the brain signal and the acoustic information extracted from the musical stimulus were correlated. After a...

  3. Performance analysis of Xen virtual machines in real-world scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Heissler, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of the performance benchmarks of the Open Source hypervisor Xen. The study focuses on the network related performance as well as on the application related performance of multiple virtual machines that were running on the same Xen hypervisor. The comparison was carried out using a self-developed benchmark suite that consists of easily available Open Source tools. The goal is to measure the performance of the hypervisor in typical real-world application scenarios wh...

  4. Preparing Laboratory and Real-World EEG Data for Large-Scale Analysis: A Containerized Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Makeig, Scott; Robbins, Kay A

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain-computer interface models. However, the absence of standardized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the difficulty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a "containerized" approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of annotating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-)analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS) comprises three data "Levels," each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP) pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1) data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2) suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are increasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at www.eegstudy.org and a central catalog of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at studycatalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to enable data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org).

  5. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Real-World Evidence (RWE is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1 includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2 defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3 applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. 

  6. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon; Crawford, Laura; Munro, Neil

    2015-11-04

    New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Real-World Evidence (RWE) is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined. This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1) includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2) defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3) applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies. However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy.

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 365 - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY REAL ESTATE LENDING STANDARDS Pt. 365, App. A Appendix A to Part 365—Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies The agencies' regulations require that each insured depository...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 208 - Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending... H) Pt. 208, App. C Appendix C to Part 208—Interagency Guidelines for Real Estate Lending Policies... secured by liens on or interests in real estate or made for the purpose of financing the construction of a...

  9. Vint Cerf on the World Wide Web. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educom Review, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents the second part of an interview with Vinton Cerf on issues of information technology. Discusses reading with laptop computers; the "extinction" of books; technological experiments by publishers; copyrights, intellectual property, and ownership; cable companies; the impact of the Internet on education; and the future of the…

  10. EEG-based decoding of error-related brain activity in a real-world driving task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Chavarriaga, R.; Khaliliardali, Z.; Gheorghe, L.; Iturrate, I.; Millán, J. d. R.

    2015-12-01

    Objectives. Recent studies have started to explore the implementation of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) as part of driving assistant systems. The current study presents an EEG-based BCI that decodes error-related brain activity. Such information can be used, e.g., to predict driver’s intended turning direction before reaching road intersections. Approach. We executed experiments in a car simulator (N = 22) and a real car (N = 8). While subject was driving, a directional cue was shown before reaching an intersection, and we classified the presence or not of an error-related potentials from EEG to infer whether the cued direction coincided with the subject’s intention. In this protocol, the directional cue can correspond to an estimation of the driving direction provided by a driving assistance system. We analyzed ERPs elicited during normal driving and evaluated the classification performance in both offline and online tests. Results. An average classification accuracy of 0.698 ± 0.065 was obtained in offline experiments in the car simulator, while tests in the real car yielded a performance of 0.682 ± 0.059. The results were significantly higher than chance level for all cases. Online experiments led to equivalent performances in both simulated and real car driving experiments. These results support the feasibility of decoding these signals to help estimating whether the driver’s intention coincides with the advice provided by the driving assistant in a real car. Significance. The study demonstrates a BCI system in real-world driving, extending the work from previous simulated studies. As far as we know, this is the first online study in real car decoding driver’s error-related brain activity. Given the encouraging results, the paradigm could be further improved by using more sophisticated machine learning approaches and possibly be combined with applications in intelligent vehicles.

  11. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT: REAL-WORLD EVIDENCE FOR PUBLIC HEALTHCARE SUSTAINABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Júnior, Augusto Afonso; Pires de Lemos, Lívia Lovato; Godman, Brian; Bennie, Marion; Osorio-de-Castro, Cláudia Garcia Serpa; Alvares, Juliana; Heaney, Aine; Vassallo, Carlos Alberto; Wettermark, Björn; Benguria-Arrate, Gaizka; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Santos, Vania Cristina Canuto; Petramale, Clarice Alegre; Acurcio, Fransciso de Assis

    2017-01-01

    Health technology financing is often based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are often the same ones used for licensing. Because they are designed to show the best possible results, typically Phase III studies are conducted under ideal and highly controlled conditions. Consequently, it is not surprising that technologies do not always perform in real life in the same way as controlled conditions. Because financing (and price paid) decisions can be made with overestimated results, health authorities need to ask whether health systems achieve the results they expect when they choose to pay for a technology. The optimal way to answer this question is to assess the performance of financed technologies in real-world settings. Health technology performance assessment (HTpA) refers to the systematic evaluation of the properties, effects, and/or impact of a health intervention or health technology in the real world to provide information for investment/disinvestment decisions and clinical guideline updates. The objective is to describe the development and principal aspects of the Guideline for HTpA commissioned by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Our methods used include extensive literature review, refinement with experts across countries, and public consultation. A comprehensive guideline was developed, which has been adopted by the Brazilian government. We believe the guideline, with its particular focus on disinvestment, along with the creation of a specific program for HTpA, will allow the institutionalization and continuous improvement of the scientific methods to use real-world evidence to optimize available resources not only in Brazil but across countries.

  12. Is Real-World Evidence Used in P&T Monographs and Therapeutic Class Reviews?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Jason T; Brown, Mary; Graff, Jennifer S; Peters, Loretta; Malone, Daniel C

    2017-06-01

    the United States (6), and funded by the pharmaceutical industry (5). GRACE Checklist ratings suggested the data and methods of these comparative RWE studies were of high quality. RWE was infrequently cited in P&T materials, even among therapeutic class reviews where RWE is more readily available. Although few P&T materials cited RWE, the comparative RWE studies were generally high quality. More research is needed to understand when and what types of real-world studies can more routinely inform coverage and reimbursement decisions. This project was funded by the National Pharmaceutical Council. Hurwitz, Brown, Peters, and Malone have nothing to disclose. Graff is employed by the National Pharmaceutical Council Part of this study was presented as a poster presentation at the AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy 2016 Annual Meeting; April 19-22, 2016; San Francisco, CA. Study concept and design were primarily contributed by Malone and Graff, along with Hurwitz and Brown. All authors participated in data collection, and data interpretation was performed by Malone, Hurwitz, and Graff, with assistance from Brown and Peters. The manuscript was written primarily by Hurwitz and Malone, along with Graff, Brown, and Peters, and revised by Malone, Brown, Peters, Hurwitz, and Graff.

  13. Smartphone-based psychotherapeutic micro-interventions to improve mood in a real-world setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Meinlschmidt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using mobile communication technology as new personalized approach to treat mental disorders or to more generally improve quality of life is highly promising. Knowledge about intervention components that target key psychopathological processes in terms of transdiagnostic psychotherapy approaches is urgently needed. We explored the use of smartphone-based micro-interventions based on psychotherapeutic techniques, guided by short video-clips, to elicit mood changes.Method: As part of a larger neurofeedback study, all subjects – after being randomly assigned to an experimental or control neurofeedback condition – underwent daily smartphone-based micro-interventions for 13 consecutive days. They were free to choose out of provided techniques, including viscerosensory attention, emotional imagery, facial expression, and contemplative repetition. Changes in mood were assessed in real world using the Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire (scales: good–bad, GB; awake–tired, AT; and calm–nervous, CN. Results: Twenty-seven men participated on at least eleven days and were thus included in the analyses. Altogether, they underwent 335, generally well-tolerated, micro-intervention sessions, with viscerosensory attention (178 sessions, 53.13% and contemplative repetition (68 sessions, 20.30% being the most frequently applied techniques. Mixed models indicated that subjects showed better mood (GB: b=0.464, 95%confidence interval (CI [0.068, 0.860], t(613.3=2.298, p=0.022 and became more awake (AT: b=0.514, 95%CI [0.103, 0.925], t(612.4=2.456, p=0.014 and calmer (CN: b=0.685, 95%CI [0.360, 1.010], t(612.3=4.137, p<0.001 from pre- to post-micro-intervention. These mood improvements from pre- to post-micro-intervention were associated with changes in mood from the first day until the last day with regard to GB mood (r=0.614, 95%CI [0.297, 0.809], p<0.001, but not AT mood (r=0.279, 95%CI [-0.122, 0.602], p=0.167 and CN mood (r=0.277, 95

  14. Using Bounding-Surrounding Boxes Method for Fish Tracking in Real World Underwater Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Haur Shiau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a rapid and efficient fish tracking method suitable for real world automatic underwater fish observation. Based on fish tracking, biologists are able to observe fish and their ecological environment. A distributed real-time underwater video stream system has been developed in Taiwan for large-scale, long-term ecological observation. In addition, not only does the system archive video data, but also incorporates data analysis. However, it is difficult to discriminate moving fish from drift water plants due to the severe drift of water plants caused by the water flow in real world underwater environments. Thus, fish tracking is complicated in unconstrained water. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a bounding-surrounding boxes method, which enables integration with state-of-the-art tracking methods for fish tracking in this paper. According to the method, fixing cameras must be used so that the moving fish are classified as foreground objects and are tracked, whereas the drifting water plants are classified as the background objects and are removed from the tracked objects. It enables the efficient, rapid removal of irrelevant information (non-fish objects from large-scale fish video data. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to achieve high accuracy.

  15. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Gina; Clark, James; Aurand, Don

    2013-06-01

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. One in the Dance: Musical Correlates of Group Synchrony in a Real-World Club Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellamil, Melissa; Berson, Joshua; Wong, Jen; Buckley, Louis; Margulies, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on interpersonal synchrony has mainly investigated small groups in isolated laboratory settings, which may not fully reflect the complex and dynamic interactions of real-life social situations. The present study expands on this by examining group synchrony across a large number of individuals in a naturalistic environment. Smartphone acceleration measures were recorded from participants during a music set in a dance club and assessed to identify how group movement synchrony covaried with various features of the music. In an evaluation of different preprocessing and analysis methods, giving more weight to front-back movement provided the most sensitive and reliable measure of group synchrony. During the club music set, group synchrony of torso movement was most strongly associated with pulsations that approximate walking rhythm (100-150 beats per minute). Songs with higher real-world play counts were also correlated with greater group synchrony. Group synchrony thus appears to be constrained by familiarity of the movement (walking action and rhythm) and of the music (song popularity). These findings from a real-world, large-scale social and musical setting can guide the development of methods for capturing and examining collective experiences in the laboratory and for effectively linking them to synchrony across people in daily life.

  17. Deformed lattice detection in real-world images using mean-shift belief propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minwoo; Brocklehurst, Kyle; Collins, Robert T; Liu, Yanxi

    2009-10-01

    We propose a novel and robust computational framework for automatic detection of deformed 2D wallpaper patterns in real-world images. The theory of 2D crystallographic groups provides a sound and natural correspondence between the underlying lattice of a deformed wallpaper pattern and a degree-4 graphical model. We start the discovery process with unsupervised clustering of interest points and voting for consistent lattice unit proposals. The proposed lattice basis vectors and pattern element contribute to the pairwise compatibility and joint compatibility (observation model) functions in a Markov Random Field (MRF). Thus, we formulate the 2D lattice detection as a spatial, multitarget tracking problem, solved within an MRF framework using a novel and efficient Mean-Shift Belief Propagation (MSBP) method. Iterative detection and growth of the deformed lattice are interleaved with regularized thin-plate spline (TPS) warping, which rectifies the current deformed lattice into a regular one to ensure stability of the MRF model in the next round of lattice recovery. We provide quantitative comparisons of our proposed method with existing algorithms on a diverse set of 261 real-world photos to demonstrate significant advances in accuracy and speed over the state of the art in automatic discovery of regularity in real images.

  18. Network resilience to real-world disasters: Eyjafjallajökull and 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Olivia; Thiemann, Christian; Grady, Daniel; Brockmann, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the resilience of the the world-wide air transportation network (WAN) to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the recent eruption of the volcano Eyjafjallajökull. Although both disasters caused wide-spread disruption, the number of airports that were closed and the volume of interrupted traffic were well below the percolation threshold predicted by the classical theory. In order to quantify and visualize network deformation before breakdown, we introduce a framework based on the increase in shortest-path distance and homogenization of shortest-path structure. These real-world disasters are a new type of disruption because the removal of all vertices (airports) is geographically compact. Our framework incorporates the dual perspective of individual airports and geopolitical regions to capture how the impact interacts with the sub-network structure.We find that real-world events have an impact signature which is qualitatively different from that of random or high-centrality attacks. Furthermore, we find that the network is more resilient to the 9/11 disaster, although it removed more airports and traffic than the volcanic ash-cloud. This is due to the network roles of Europe and North America. We discuss how regional roles influence resilience to a region's removal.

  19. Real-world research and the role of observational data in the field of gynaecology - a practical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, Oskari; Bitzer, Johannes; García Rodríguez, Luis

    2017-08-01

    In the context of women's health, we examine (1) the role that observational ('real-world') studies have in overcoming limitations of randomised clinical trials, (2) the relative advantages and disadvantages of different study designs, (3) the importance of outcome data from observational studies when making health-economic or clinical decisions, and (4) provide insights into changing perceptions of observational clinical data. PubMed and internet searches were used to identify (i) guidance and expert commentary on designing, conducting, analysing, and reporting clinical trials or observational studies, (ii) supporting evidence of the rapid growth of observational ('real world') studies and publications since the turn of millennium in the fields of contraception, reproductive health, obstetrics or gynaecology. The rapidly growing use and validation of large, computerised medical records and related databases (e.g., health insurance or national registries) have played a major part in changing perceptions of observational data among researchers and clinicians. In the past 10 years, a distinct increase in the number of observational studies published tends to confirm their growing acceptance, appreciation and use. Observational studies can provide information that is impossible or infeasible to obtain otherwise (e.g., impractical, very expensive, or ethically unacceptable). Greater understanding, dissemination, uptake and use of observational data might be expected to drive ongoing evolution of research, data collection, analysis, and validation, in turn improving quality and therefore credibility, utility, and further application by clinicians.

  20. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons): Undergraduate Education Through Interdisciplinary, Team-Based, Real-World Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Attitude, Skills, Knowledge (ASK) - In this order, these are fundamental characteristics of scientific innovators. Through first-hand practice in using science to unpack and solve complex real-world problems, students can become self-motivated scientific leaders. This presentation describes the pedagogy of a recently developed interdisciplinary undergraduate science education program at the University of Massachusetts Amherst focused on addressing global challenges with scientific solutions. Integrated Concentration in Science (iCons) is an overarching concentration program that supplements the curricula provided within each student's chosen major. iCons is a platform for students to perform student-led research in interdisciplinary collaborative teams. With a schedule of one course per year over four years, the cohort of students move through case studies, analysis of real-world problems, development of potential solutions, integrative communication, laboratory practice, and capstone research projects. In this presentation, a track emphasizing renewable energy science is used to illustrate the iCons pedagogical methods. This includes discussion of a third-year laboratory course in renewable energy that is educationally scaffolded: beginning with a boot camp in laboratory techniques and culminating with student-designed research projects. Among other objectives, this course emphasizes the practice of using reflection and redesign, as a means of generating better solutions and embedding learning for the long term. This work is supported in part by NSF grant DUE-1140805.

  1. Prediction and Characterization of High-Activity Events in Social Media Triggered by Real-World News

    OpenAIRE

    Janani Kalyanam; Mauricio Quezada; Barbara Poblete; Gert Lanckriet

    2015-01-01

    On-line social networks publish information on a high volume of real-world events almost instantly, becoming a primary source for breaking news. Some of these real-world events can end up having a very strong impact on on-line social networks. The effect of such events can be analyzed from several perspectives, one of them being the intensity and characteristics of the collective activity that it produces in the social platform. We research 5,234 real-world news events encompassing 43 million...

  2. Validating the measurement of real-world functional outcomes: phase I results of the VALERO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D; Raykov, Tenko; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Vella, Lea; Heaton, Robert K; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-11-01

    Treatment of cognitive impairment has been proposed as an intervention to reduce disability in people with schizophrenia. The Validation of Everyday Real-World Outcomes (VALERO) study was conducted to evaluate functional rating scales and to identify the rating scale or scales most robustly related to performance-based measures of cognition and everyday living skills. Adults with schizophrenia (N=198) were tested with the neurocognitive measures from the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery, the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief Version, and the advanced finances subscale of the Everyday Functioning Battery. They and an informant (a friend, relative, clinician, or case manager) also reported their everyday functioning on six rating scales. Best judgment ratings were generated by an interviewer who administered the rating scales to patients and informants. Statistical analyses developed an ability latent trait that reflected scores on the three performance-based (i.e., ability) measures, and canonical correlation analysis related interviewer ratings to the latent trait. The overall fit of the model with all six rating scales was good. Individual rating scales that did not improve the fit of the model were systematically deleted, and a final model with two rating scales was fitted to the data. A regression analysis found that the Specific Levels of Functioning Assessment was a superior predictor of the three performance-based ability measures. Systematic assessments of real-world functioning were related to performance on neurocognitive and functional capacity measures. Of the six rating scales evaluated in this study, the Specific Levels of Functioning Assessment was the best. Use of a single rating scale provides an efficient assessment of real-world functioning that accounts for considerable variance in performance-based scores.

  3. Can singular examples change implicit attitudes in the real-world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Lebrecht, Sophie; Tanaka, James W; Tarr, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or "IAT" revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes toward African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or "ALPS" and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words-similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

  4. Can singular examples change implicit racial attitudes in the real-world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie E. Roos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Implicit attitudes about social groups persist independently of explicit beliefs and can influence not only social behavior, but also medical and legal practices. Although examples presented in the laboratory can alter such implicit attitudes, it is unclear whether the same influence is exerted by real-world exemplars. Following the 2008 US election, Plant et al. reported that the Implicit Association Test or IAT revealed a decrease in negative implicit attitudes towards African-Americans. However, a large-scale study also employing the IAT found little evidence for a change in implicit attitudes pre- and post-election. Here we present evidence that the 2008 US election may have facilitated at least a temporary change in implicit racial attitudes in the US. Our results rely on the Affective Lexical Priming Score or ALPS and pre- and post-election measurements for both US and non-US participants. US students who, pre-election, exhibited negative associations with black faces, post-election showed positive associations with black faces. Canadian students pre- and post-election did not show a similar shift. To account for these findings, we posit that the socio-cognitive processes underlying ALPS are different from those underlying the IAT. Acknowledging that we cannot form a causal link between an intervening real-world event and laboratory-measured implicit attitudes, we speculate that our findings may be driven by the fact that the 2008 election campaign included extremely positive media coverage of President Obama and prominently featured his face in association with positive words – similar to the structure of ALPS. Even so, our real-world finding adds to the literature demonstrating the malleability of implicit attitudes and has implications for how we understand the socio-cognitive mechanisms underlying stereotypes.

  5. Evaluation of Teaching Signals for Motor Control in the Cerebellum during Real-World Robot Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Dario Pinzon Morales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor learning in the cerebellum is believed to entail plastic changes at synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells, induced by the teaching signal conveyed in the climbing fiber (CF input. Despite the abundant research on the cerebellum, the nature of this signal is still a matter of debate. Two types of movement error information have been proposed to be plausible teaching signals: sensory error (SE and motor command error (ME; however, their plausibility has not been tested in the real world. Here, we conducted a comparison of different types of CF teaching signals in real-world engineering applications by using a realistic neuronal network model of the cerebellum. We employed a direct current motor (simple task and a two-wheeled balancing robot (difficult task. We demonstrate that SE, ME or a linear combination of the two is sufficient to yield comparable performance in a simple task. When the task is more difficult, although SE slightly outperformed ME, these types of error information are all able to adequately control the robot. We categorize granular cells according to their inputs and the error signal revealing that different granule cells are preferably engaged for SE, ME or their combination. Thus, unlike previous theoretical and simulation studies that support either SE or ME, it is demonstrated for the first time in a real-world engineering application that both SE and ME are adequate as the CF teaching signal in a realistic computational cerebellar model, even when the control task is as difficult as stabilizing a two-wheeled balancing robot.

  6. Effects of age on a real-world What-Where-When memory task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele eMazurek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cognitive abilities decline with aging, making it difficult to detect pathological changes against a background of natural changes in cognition. Most of the tests to assess cognitive decline are artificial tasks that have little resemblance to the problems faced by people in everyday life. This means both that people may have little practice doing such tasks (potentially contributing to the decline in performance and that the tasks may not be good predictors of real-world cognitive problems.In this study, we test the performance of young people (18-25 years and older people (60+-year-olds on a novel, more ecologically valid test of episodic memory: the real-world What-Where-When (WWW memory test. We also compare them on a battery of other cognitive tests, including working memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Older people show the expected age-related declines on the test battery. In the WWW memory task, older people were more likely to fail to remember any What-Where-When combination than younger people were, although they did not significantly differ in their overall WWW score due to some older people performing as well as or better than most younger people. WWW memory performance was significantly predicted by other measures of episodic memory, such as the single-trial learning and long-term retention in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning task and Combined Object Location Memory in the Object Relocation task. Self-reported memory complaints also predicted performance on the WWW task.These findings confirm that our real-world WWW memory task is a valid measure of episodic memory, with high ecological validity, which may be useful as a predictor of everyday memory abilities. The task will require a bit more development to improve its sensitivity to cognitive declines in aging and to potentially distinguish between mentally healthy older adults and those with early signs of cognitive pathologies.

  7. Tolerability of Capecitabine Monotherapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Real-World Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicher, Laura W; de Graaf, Jacques C; Coers, Wilko; Tascilar, Metin; de Groot, Jan Willem B

    2017-03-01

    Capecitabine monotherapy is a treatment option for selected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and is administered to up to 17% of patients. Data are limited with regard to adverse events and dosing practices associated with capecitabine monotherapy in real-world situations. The aim of this study was to provide real-world data on adverse event rates and dose adjustments/discontinuations associated with capecitabine monotherapy in patients with mCRC. This retrospective study analyzed data from CRC patients scheduled to receive up to eight planned cycles of capecitabine monotherapy between 2009 and 2013 at a single large community hospital in The Netherlands. Data on adverse events (hand-foot syndrome [HFS], gastrointestinal (GI) events, hematological adverse events, and cardiotoxicity), as well as relative dose intensities (RDIs), dose reductions, and discontinuations, were evaluated. Data from 86 patients (45 females; mean age at the start of treatment, 69 years) were included. A total of 46.5% of patients experienced HFS and 44.2% experienced a GI event at some time during treatment. Hematological events and cardiotoxicity were rare. Most patients (77%) started at below the recommended dose, and patients at the lowest dose also had the lowest median RDIs. Dose reductions and discontinuations occurred in 15-25% of patients who experienced HFS or GI event over the course of eight cycles. HFS and GI events were very common in patients treated with capecitabine monotherapy in a real-world clinical setting. Most patients started treatment at below the recommended dose, and 15-25% of patients who had HFS or a GI event had a dose reduction or discontinuation.

  8. An accelerometry-based methodology for assessment of real-world bilateral upper extremity activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Bailey

    Full Text Available The use of both upper extremities (UE is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry.Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated.The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (ρ = 0.74, p<0.02, and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (ρ = 0.93, p<0.01 across tasks.These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments.

  9. Global Origins of World War One. Part One: The World Crisis over Concessions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D'Agostino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se ahonda en el debate sobre los prolegómenos, orígenes y responsabilidades de la I Guerra Mundial. Alejándose de un enfoque eurocéntrico, se pretende exponer la importancia que para el desencadenamiento de los hechos de 1914 tuvo el desencadenamiento de tensiones y crisis diplomáticas situadas en la periferia del sistema internacional. Se prestará especial a las ocurridas en Extremo Oriente, describiéndose las causas de las mismas, las posiciones adoptadas por cada una de las grandes potencias ante ellas y las consecuencias que tuvieron para el equilibrio geoestratégico tanto de la región como del planeta, vinculándolo al estallido del primer conflicto mundial.______________________ABSTRACT:In the present article the author deepens in the debate on the origins and responsibilities of the World War One. Moving away from an eurocentric approach, the author tries to expose the importance that for the facts of 1914 had the triggering of tensions and diplomatic crises placed in the periphery of the international system. The author will give specially attention to happened in Far East. It will be described the reasons of the same ones, the positions adopted as each of the great powers before them and the consequences that had for the geostrategic balance both of the region and of the planet, linking it to the snap of the World War One.

  10. [Evidence-based medicine and real world study in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ronglin; Hu, Ling; Wu, Zijian

    2015-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been widely applied in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion, and the real-world study (RWS) has gradually become an important way of clinical research in the world in recent years. It is worthy of our in-depth study and discussion that how to evaluate the advantages and limitations of EBM and RWS as well as their reasonable application in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion. The characteristics and difference between RWS and EBM, and the situation of acupuncture clinical research methods are discussed in this paper. It is proposed that we should understand the advantages of RWS in acupuncture clinical research, fully realize the limitations of EBM and RWS, recognize the complexity and particularity of RWS, and apply EBM and RWS into acupuncture clinical research. Meanwhile acupuncture clinical manipulation standardization should be further promoted, which is benefit to develop clinical study, improve clinical efficacy and promote the popularization of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  11. Android arcade game app a real world project : case study approach

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarzio, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Apress, the leading Android books publisher, continues to provide you with very hands-on, practical books for teaching and showing app developers how to build and design apps, including game apps, that can be built and deployed in the various Android app stores out there. Android Arcade Game App:  A Real World Project - Case Study Approach is no different in that it walks you through creating an arcade style Prison Break game app-top to bottom-for an Android smartphone or tablet.  This book teaches you the unique characteristics and challenges of creating an Arcade style game And it provides y

  12. Real-world effectiveness of 8 weeks treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggisch, Peter; Vermehren, Johannes; Mauss, Stefan; Günther, Rainer; Schott, Eckart; Pathil, Anita; Boeker, Klaus; Zimmermann, Tim; Teuber, Gerlinde; Vornkahl, Heike-Pfeiffer; Simon, Karl-Georg; Niederau, Claus; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2017-11-10

    Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for 8 to 24 weeks is approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV). In the ION-3 study 8 weeks of LDV/SOF was non-inferior to 12 weeks in previously untreated genotype 1 (GT1) patients without cirrhosis. According to the summary of product characteristics (SmPC), 8 weeks treatment may be considered in naïve non-cirrhotic GT1-patients. However, there are only limited data on the effectiveness of 8 week regimen of LDV/SOF under real-world conditions available. Aim of the present study was to characterise patients receiving 8 weeks LDV/SOF compared with 12 weeks treatment duration and to describe outcome of therapy in routine clinical practice. The German Hepatitis C-Registry is a large national real-world cohort that analyses effectiveness and safety of antiviral therapies in chronic HCV. This data set is based on 2,404 patients. Overall, 84.6% (2,034/2,404) of the Intention-to-Treat (ITT) population and 98.2% (2,029/2,066) of the Per Protocol (PP) population achieved SVR12. In the 8 week group, 85.1% (824/968) of ITT and 98.3% (821/835) of PP patients achieved SVR12, while in the 12 week group, 85.5% (1210/1415) of ITT, and 98.1% (1,208/1,231) of PP patients achieved SVR12. When treated according to the SmPC, 98.7% (739/749) of the patients achieved SVR12 (PP). Relapse was observed in 9.5% (2/21) of cirrhotic patients treated for 8 weeks (PP). Under real world conditions a high proportion of eligible patients received 8 week LDV/SOF treatment. Relapse occurred in particular in patients who did not meet the selection criteria according to the SmPC. In a large real-world cohort of patients mainly treated by physicians in private practice in Germany, shorter HCV treatment (8 week) resulted in equivalent cure rates to 12 weeks treatment in genotype 1 HCV-infected patients. Thus, shorter treatment can be recommended in these patients which would substantially reduce costs of therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published

  13. Secondary collisions revisited: real-world crash data and relationship to crash test criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowat, Randall C; Gabauer, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    Previous research conducted in the late 1980s suggested that vehicle impacts following an initial barrier collision increase severe occupant injury risk. Now over 25 years old, the data are no longer representative of the currently installed barriers or the present US vehicle fleet. The purpose of this study is to provide a present-day assessment of secondary collisions and to determine if current full-scale barrier crash testing criteria provide an indication of secondary collision risk for real-world barrier crashes. To characterize secondary collisions, 1,363 (596,331 weighted) real-world barrier midsection impacts selected from 13 years (1997-2009) of in-depth crash data available through the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) / Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) were analyzed. Scene diagram and available scene photographs were used to determine roadside and barrier specific variables unavailable in NASS/CDS. Binary logistic regression models were developed for second event occurrence and resulting driver injury. To investigate current secondary collision crash test criteria, 24 full-scale crash test reports were obtained for common non-proprietary US barriers, and the risk of secondary collisions was determined using recommended evaluation criteria from National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 350. Secondary collisions were found to occur in approximately two thirds of crashes where a barrier is the first object struck. Barrier lateral stiffness, post-impact vehicle trajectory, vehicle type, and pre-impact tracking conditions were found to be statistically significant contributors to secondary event occurrence. The presence of a second event was found to increase the likelihood of a serious driver injury by a factor of 7 compared to cases with no second event present. The NCHRP Report 350 exit angle criterion was found to underestimate the risk of secondary collisions in real-world barrier crashes. Consistent with previous research

  14. Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cherinka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" environments and provide an assessment of applicability, benefits and challenges for implementation in large organizations.

  15. Real-world reasoning toward scalable, uncertain spatiotemporal, contextual and causal inference

    CERN Document Server

    Goertzel, Ben; Coelho, Lucio

    2011-01-01

    The general problem addressed in this book is a large and important one: how to usefully deal with huge storehouses of complex information about real-world situations. Every one of the major modes of interacting with such storehouses - querying, data mining, data analysis - is addressed by current technologies only in very limited and unsatisfactory ways. The impact of a solution to this problem would be huge and pervasive, as the domains of human pursuit to which such storehouses are acutely relevant is numerous and rapidly growing. Finally, we give a more detailed treatment of one potential

  16. Real-time PCR using FRET technology for Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis species differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath-Chowdhury, Milli; Sangaralingam, Mugundhine; Bastien, Patrick; Ravel, Christophe; Pratlong, Francine; Mendez, Juan; Libman, Michael; Ndao, Momar

    2016-05-03

    Recently, there has been a re-emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic countries and an increase in imported cases in non-endemic countries by travelers, workers, expatriates, immigrants, and military force personnel. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused primarily by Leishmania major, L. tropica and L. aethiopica. Despite their low sensitivity, diagnosis traditionally includes microscopic and histopathological examinations, and in vitro cultivation. Several conventional PCR techniques have been developed for species identification, which are time-consuming and labour-intensive. Real-time PCR using SYBR green dye, although provides rapid detection, may generate false positive signals. Therefore, a rapid and easy method such as a FRET-based real-time PCR would improve not only the turn-around time of diagnosing Old World cutaneous Leishmania species but will also increase its specificity and sensitivity. A FRET-based real-time PCR assay which amplifies the cathepsin L-like cysteine protease B gene encoding a major Leishmania antigen was developed to differentiate L. major, L. tropica, and L. aethiopica in one single step using one set of primers and probes. Assay performance was tested on cutaneous and visceral strains of Leishmania parasite cultures and isolates of other protozoan parasites as well as human biopsy specimen. The assay readily differentiates between the three Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis species based on their melting curve characteristics. A single Tm at 55.2 ± 0.5 °C for L. aethiopica strains was distinguished from a single Tm at 57.4 ± 0.2 °C for L. major strains. A double curve with melting peaks at 66.6 ± 0.1 °C and 48.1 ± 0.5 °C or 55.8 ± 0.6 °C was observed for all L. tropica strains. The assay was further tested on biopsy specimens, which showed 100% agreement with results obtained from isoenzyme electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing. Currently, there are no published data on real-time PCR using FRET

  17. Mobile computing deployment and management real world skills for Comptia Mobility+ certification and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Mobile computing skills are becoming standard in the IT industry Mobile Computing Deployment and Management: Real World Skills for CompTIA Mobility+ Certification and Beyond is the ultimate reference for mobile computing. Certified Wireless Network Expert Robert J. Bartz guides IT and networking professionals through the fundamental and advanced concepts of mobile computing, providing the information and instruction necessary to get up to speed on current technology and best practices. The book maps to the CompTIA Mobility+ (MB0-001) exam, making it an ideal resource for those s

  18. Project Manager Street Smarts A Real World Guide to PMP Skills

    CERN Document Server

    Zaval, Linda Kretz

    2011-01-01

    The perfect workbook for project managers and PMP exam candidates seeking practical experience New project managers and students pursuing the Project Management Professional certification are looking for practical experience to solidify their skills. The step-by-step tasks presented in this book offer them an opportunity to practice the common tasks project managers face in the real world. The authors, both expert project management trainers and consultants, explore each phase of project management: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and control, and closing the project, with in-depth

  19. Real-world existence and origins of the spiral organization of shrimp-shaped domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ruedi; Benner, Philipp; Uwate, Yoko

    2010-08-13

    In two-dimensional parameter spaces, nonlinear systems producing solutions of a fixed periodicity form islands of a characteristic shape, called "shrimp"-shaped domains (SSDs). In simulations of electronic circuits, SSDs of different periodicities were recently found to be connected along spirals. By means of a hardware realization of the simulations, we provide a first direct proof of the real-world existence of this phenomenon. An improved description establishes a close experiment-simulation correspondence, and a simplified circuit family demonstrates the homoclinic saddle-focus origin of the phenomenon.

  20. ESSD: Real World Issues and Challenges of High-Quality Data Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffenberger, Hans; Carlson, David

    2013-04-01

    The Copernicus data publication journal Earth System Science Data (ESSD) represents an important and unique (and by no means final!) step forward in the larger world of data publication. Working with authors, reviewers, editors and data centres, ESSD has successfully produced many high-quality data publications across a wide variety of scientific disciplines, for individual data sets, multiple data sets as the product of scientific consortia and in special issues coordinated with other science journals. The ESSD success also exposes issues and challenges for present and future data publication, particularly around the topic and implementation of persistent identifiers. • As ESSD encourages redundant data sets across multiple data centres for access and archive purposes, how will DOIs be employed to accurately point to those distributed or replicated data? How can authenticity and integrity be verified? • How can or should object identifiers be employed in pointing from raw to quality-controlled and finally derived data processing levels; how can we designate or distinguish among these, particularly as those terms vary substantially among, for example, geophysical and ecological communities? Likewise, how to distinguish an auto-generated data product (e.g a species identification from GBIF) from a high-effort expertly reviewed data product (e.g. an ESSD publication)? • For a growing number of ESSD data publications with expected annual or periodic revisions and updates, how should data journals' and the repositories' use of persistent identifiers best record the subsequent versions, extensions or corrections? • As published data sets become a valued part of high profile science, with attendant deadlines, announcements and publicity, do the various DOI policies and minting practices among cooperating publishers, data centres and journals represent a help or a hindrance? These questions evolve directly from increasing interest in and activity by ESSD and, as

  1. Preparing laboratory and real-world EEG data for large-scale analysis: A containerized approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eBigdely-Shamlo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale analysis of EEG and other physiological measures promises new insights into brain processes and more accurate and robust brain-computer interface (BCI models.. However, the absence of standard-ized vocabularies for annotating events in a machine understandable manner, the welter of collection-specific data organizations, the diffi-culty in moving data across processing platforms, and the unavailability of agreed-upon standards for preprocessing have prevented large-scale analyses of EEG. Here we describe a containerized approach and freely available tools we have developed to facilitate the process of an-notating, packaging, and preprocessing EEG data collections to enable data sharing, archiving, large-scale machine learning/data mining and (meta-analysis. The EEG Study Schema (ESS comprises three data Levels, each with its own XML-document schema and file/folder convention, plus a standardized (PREP pipeline to move raw (Data Level 1 data to a basic preprocessed state (Data Level 2 suitable for application of a large class of EEG analysis methods. Researchers can ship a study as a single unit and operate on its data using a standardized interface. ESS does not require a central database and provides all the metadata data necessary to execute a wide variety of EEG processing pipelines. The primary focus of ESS is automated in-depth analysis and meta-analysis EEG studies. However, ESS can also encapsulate meta-information for the other modalities such as eye tracking, that are in-creasingly used in both laboratory and real-world neuroimaging. ESS schema and tools are freely available at eegstudy.org, and a central cata-log of over 850 GB of existing data in ESS format is available at study-catalog.org. These tools and resources are part of a larger effort to ena-ble data sharing at sufficient scale for researchers to engage in truly large-scale EEG analysis and data mining (BigEEG.org.

  2. Comparison and Extension of Existing 3D Propagation Models with Real-World Effects Based on Ray-tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kifle, Dereje W.; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Wegmann, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    , such kind of automated and flexible network operation require a Self Organizing Network algorithm based on network performance parameters being partly derived from the radio measurements. Appropriate radio propagation models are not only needed for network planning tools but also for simulative lab tests...... of the developed Self Organizing Network algorithm controlling the flexible deployment changes enabled by Active Antenna Systems. In this paper, an extension of the existing 3D propagation model is proposed in order to incorporate the the propagation condition variation effects, not considered so far, by changing...... antenna beam orientation like antenna tilting or when users are distributed in the third dimension (height) in multi-floor scenarios. Ray tracing based generated propagation maps that show the realistic propagation effect are used as 3D real world reference for investigation and model approval....

  3. Clinical Effectiveness of Liraglutide in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment in the Real-World Setting: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ostawal, Amrita; Mocevic, Emina; Kragh,Nana; Xu, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In clinical trials, liraglutide has proven to be an effective drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The real-world effectiveness of liraglutide has been investigated in numerous studies. The aim of this systematic literature review is to collate evidence on the real-world clinical effectiveness of liraglutide. Methods A review of publications from Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and conference proceedings was conducted to identify observational studies...

  4. Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing Areas with lowest rates are in Africa, research ... that they do without, a new study finds. Hand-washing with soap can help prevent the spread of ...

  5. Can We Model Driver Perceptions? An In-Situ Experiment in Real-World Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. Tawfik, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that perceptions play a significant role in traveler decisions. Consequently, traveler perceptions are a corner stone in the feasibility of traveler information systems; for traveler information systems are only valuable if the drivers are incapable of accurately acquiring the provided information on their own, and if the provided information is relevant for the drivers' decision criteria. Accuracy of traveler perceptions has been repeatedly researched in public transportation, and has been found to vary according to different reasons. However, in spite of the clear significance of traveler perceptions, minimal effort has been put into modeling it. Almost all travel behavior models are based on traveler experiences, which are assumed to reflect traveler perceptions via the addition of some random error component. This works introduces an alternative approach: instead of adding an error component to represent driver perceptions, it proposes to model driver perceptions. This work is based on a real-world route choice experiment of a sample of 20 drivers who made more than 2,000 real-world route choices. Each of the drivers' experiences, perceptions, and choices were recorded, analyzed and cross examined. The paper demonstrates that: i driver experiences are different from driver perceptions, ii driver perceptions explain driver choices better than driver experiences, iii it is possible to model and predict driver perceptions of travel distance, time and speed.

  6. Daclatasvir plus Asunaprevir Treatment for Real-World HCV Genotype 1-Infected Patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Arai, Makoto; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background. All-oral combination of direct-acting antivirals could lead to higher sustained virologic response (SVR) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and safety of the dual oral treatment with HCV nonstructural protein (NS) 5A inhibitor daclatasvir (DCV) plus HCV NS3/4A inhibitor asunaprevir (ASV) for 24 weeks in real-world HCV genotype 1-infected Japanese individuals. Methods. After screening for HCV NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) by PCR invader assay, a total of 54 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1 treated with DCV plus ASV were retrospectively analyzed. SVR12 was used for evaluation of the virologic response. Results. Of the total 54 patients, 46 patients (85.2%) were treated with DCV plus ASV for 24 weeks and achieved SVR12. The other 8 patients (14.8%) discontinued this treatment before 24 weeks due to adverse events. Of these 8 patients, 5 and 3 patients did and did not achieve SVR12, respectively. Finally, 51 of 54 (94.4%) patients achieved SVR12. Conclusion. Treatment with DCV and ASV after screening for HCV NS5A RAVs by PCR invader assay is effective and safe in the treatment of real-world HCV genotype 1-infected patients in Japan.

  7. Real World Experiences: Pirfenidone and Nintedanib are Effective and Well Tolerated Treatments for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF now has two licensed treatments available. Pirfenidone was the first drug to be licensed and approved for use, followed by nintedanib. We set out our real world experience with these agents in terms of their adverse events profile outside the restrictions of a clinical trial. We have demonstrated in the real world setting, that side effects are common and predominantly gastrointestinal with both therapies. Our study shows that the side effects can be effectively managed in the majority of patients with an acceptable discontinuation rate similar to that seen in the clinical trials. These findings are compelling despite the fact that the patients in our study are older, have severer disease as depicted by baseline lung function and more co-morbidities. Our data provides ongoing evidence of the safety and tolerability of both pirfenidone and nintedanib in patients who would not have met the rigorous criteria to be included in a clinical trial. Both these agents are effective in the management of IPF and slow the progression of this debilitating life limiting condition.

  8. Agile science: creating useful products for behavior change in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Klasnja, Predrag; Riley, William T; Buman, Matthew P; Huberty, Jennifer; Rivera, Daniel E; Martin, Cesar A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence-based practice is important for behavioral interventions but there is debate on how best to support real-world behavior change. The purpose of this paper is to define products and a preliminary process for efficiently and adaptively creating and curating a knowledge base for behavior change for real-world implementation. We look to evidence-based practice suggestions and draw parallels to software development. We argue to target three products: (1) the smallest, meaningful, self-contained, and repurposable behavior change modules of an intervention; (2) "computational models" that define the interaction between modules, individuals, and context; and (3) "personalization" algorithms, which are decision rules for intervention adaptation. The "agile science" process includes a generation phase whereby contender operational definitions and constructs of the three products are created and assessed for feasibility and an evaluation phase, whereby effect size estimates/casual inferences are created. The process emphasizes early-and-often sharing. If correct, agile science could enable a more robust knowledge base for behavior change.

  9. Real-World Verbal Communication Performance of Children Provided With Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Hartmut; Keilmann, Annerose; Leonhard, Katharina; Streicher, Barbara; Müller, Linda; Lang-Roth, Ruth

    2015-07-01

    To compare the real-world verbal communication performance of children provided with cochlear implants (CIs) with their peers with hearing aids (HAs). Cross-sectional study in university tertiary referral centers and at hearing aid dispensers. Verbal communication performance was assessed by the Functioning after Pediatric Cochlear Implantation (FAPCI) instrument. The FAPCI was administered to 38 parents of children using CIs and 62 parents of children with HAs. According to the WHO classification, children with HAs were categorized into three groups (mild-moderate-severe hearing loss). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the FAPCI scores, with study group, hearing age (i.e., device experience), and age at hearing intervention as sources of variation. ANOVA showed that hearing age and study group significantly contribute to the FAPCI outcome. In all study groups except the children with mild hearing loss, FAPCI scores increased alongside growing experience with the devices. Children with mild hearing loss using HAs showed higher scores than those with severe hearing loss or implanted children. There were no significant differences between the children with CIs and the children with moderate or severe hearing loss using HAs. Real-world verbal communication abilities of children with CIs are similar to those of children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss using amplification. Because hearing age significantly influences performance, children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss using HAs and implanted children catch up with children with mild hearing loss at a hearing age of approximately 3 years.

  10. Towards measuring brain function on groups of people in the real world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Gevins

    Full Text Available In three studies, EEGs from three groups of participants were recorded during progressively more real world situations after drinking alcoholic beverages that brought breath alcohol contents near the limit for driving in California 30 minutes after drinking. A simple equation that measured neurophysiological effects of alcohol in the first group of 15 participants performing repetitive cognitive tasks was applied to a second group of 15 operating an automobile driving simulator, and to a third group of 10 ambulatory people recorded simultaneously during a cocktail party. The equation derived from the first group quantified alcohol's effect by combining measures of higher frequency (beta and lower frequency (theta power into a single score. It produced an Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve of .73 (p<.05; 67% sensitivity in recognizing alcohol and 87% specificity in recognizing placebo. Applying the same equation to the second group operating the driving simulator, AUC was .95, (p<.0001; 93% sensitivity and 73% specificity, while for the cocktail party group AUC was .87 (p<.01; 80% sensitivity and 80% specificity. EEG scores were significantly related to breath alcohol content in all studies. Some individuals differed markedly from the overall response evident in their respective groups. The feasibility of measuring the neurophysiological effect of a psychoactive substance from an entire group of ambulatory people at a cocktail party suggests that future studies may be able to fruitfully apply brain function measures derived under rigorously controlled laboratory conditions to assess drug effects on groups of people interacting in real world situations.

  11. Towards measuring brain function on groups of people in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevins, Alan; Chan, Cynthia S; Sam-Vargas, Lita

    2012-01-01

    In three studies, EEGs from three groups of participants were recorded during progressively more real world situations after drinking alcoholic beverages that brought breath alcohol contents near the limit for driving in California 30 minutes after drinking. A simple equation that measured neurophysiological effects of alcohol in the first group of 15 participants performing repetitive cognitive tasks was applied to a second group of 15 operating an automobile driving simulator, and to a third group of 10 ambulatory people recorded simultaneously during a cocktail party. The equation derived from the first group quantified alcohol's effect by combining measures of higher frequency (beta) and lower frequency (theta) power into a single score. It produced an Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve of .73 (pcocktail party group AUC was .87 (peffect of a psychoactive substance from an entire group of ambulatory people at a cocktail party suggests that future studies may be able to fruitfully apply brain function measures derived under rigorously controlled laboratory conditions to assess drug effects on groups of people interacting in real world situations.

  12. Using Fiberless, Wearable fNIRS to Monitor Brain Activity in Real-world Cognitive Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Paola; Aichelburg, Clarisse; Lind, Frida; Power, Sarah; Swingler, Elizabeth; Merla, Arcangelo; Hamilton, Antonia; Gilbert, Sam; Burgess, Paul; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2015-12-02

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light to monitor brain activity. Based on neurovascular coupling, fNIRS is able to measure the haemoglobin concentration changes secondary to neuronal activity. Compared to other neuroimaging techniques, fNIRS represents a good compromise in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. Moreover, it is portable, lightweight, less sensitive to motion artifacts and does not impose significant physical restraints. It is therefore appropriate to monitor a wide range of cognitive tasks (e.g., auditory, gait analysis, social interaction) and different age populations (e.g., new-borns, adults, elderly people). The recent development of fiberless fNIRS devices has opened the way to new applications in neuroscience research. This represents a unique opportunity to study functional activity during real-world tests, which can be more sensitive and accurate in assessing cognitive function and dysfunction than lab-based tests. This study explored the use of fiberless fNIRS to monitor brain activity during a real-world prospective memory task. This protocol is performed outside the lab and brain haemoglobin concentration changes are continuously measured over the prefrontal cortex while the subject walks around in order to accomplish several different tasks.

  13. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars' Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo's statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts.

  14. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars’ Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo’s statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts. PMID:21050597

  15. Evidence of Absolute Decoupling from Real World Policy Mixes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Fedrigo-Fazio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In resource economics, decoupling from environmental impacts is assumed to be beneficial. However, the success of efforts to increase resource productivity should be placed within the context of the earth’s resources and ecosystems as theoretically finite and contingent on a number of threshold values. Thus far relatively few analyses exist of policies which have successfully implemented strategies for decoupling within these limits. Through ex-post evaluation of a number of real world policy mixes from European Union member states, this paper further develops definitions of the concept of decoupling. Beyond absolute (and relative decoupling, “absolute decoupling within limits” is proposed as an appropriate term for defining resource-productivity at any scale which respects the existing real world limits on resources and ecosystems and as such, contributes to meeting sustainability objectives. Policy mixes presented here cover a range of resources such as fish stocks, fertilizers, aggregates and fossil based materials (plastics. Policy mixes demonstrating absolute decoupling and at least one where absolute decoupling within limits has occurred, provide insights on developing resource efficiency policies in Europe and beyond.

  16. Experimental test of social norms theory in a real-world drinking environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark B

    2012-09-01

    Social norms theory articulates that behavior is influenced by perceptions of behavioral norms. Social norms interventions attempt to modify perceptions of what behavior is normative as a means of influencing actual behavior. Social norms interventions have been widely used on college campuses to reduce the level of student drinking. The effectiveness of these interventions has been mixed. A social norms program might fail because the intervention operations failed to sufficiently implement social norms theory in the real world or because of the theory's limitations. Our research involves an experimental examination of the impact of social norms information on actual drinking behavior within a real-world drinking environment. Nearly 3,000 participants were interviewed and randomly assigned to one of nine social norms feedback conditions before heading to bars and nightclubs in Tijuana, Mexico. These same participants were resampled, interviewed again, and subjected to breath alcohol analysis when they returned to the United States. We found that persons whose perceptions of normative drinking changed (became more accurate) during their visit to Tijuana consumed relatively less alcohol. We also found that providing participants with social norms feedback produced more accurate perceived norms. However, the effect sizes were too small to produce statistically significant results showing that social norms feedback could effectively reduce drinking via changing normative perceptions. Our research demonstrated that providing social norms feedback changed perceived drinking norms and that changes in perceived norms were correlated with reduced drinking. Effect sizes, however, were quite small.

  17. Real-world program evaluation of integrated behavioral health care: Improving scientific rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, Jennifer S; Shepardson, Robyn L

    2017-06-01

    Designing systematic, scientifically rigorous program evaluations (PE) is 1 way to contribute to the significant need to build best practices and a stronger evidence base for integrated behavioral health care. However, there are many potential pitfalls when conducting PE in real-world settings, and many clinicians and administrators may be hesitant to engage in PE due to lack of training or resources. Rigorous PE can be achieved feasibly and efficiently. This article discusses common challenges that arise when conducting PE in integrated behavioral health care settings and illustrates ways to increase the methodological quality of PE efforts using lessons learned from 2 real-world case examples. The first example included a PE of a training program for brief alcohol interventions, and the second example included a PE of a depression medication monitoring service. The case examples demonstrate the need for strategic planning beforehand, including the use of a conceptual framework as well as appropriate study designs/methodology, measurement, and the need for consistency to achieve a well-designed PE. Using the recommendations within this article, it is hoped that the quality of PEs can be improved resulting in more generalizable data that can be used to inform organizations and policymakers to improve health care delivery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Face recognition across makeup and plastic surgery from real-world images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Ali; Faez, Karim; Moeini, Hossein

    2015-09-01

    A study for feature extraction is proposed to handle the problem of facial appearance changes including facial makeup and plastic surgery in face recognition. To extend a face recognition method robust to facial appearance changes, features are individually extracted from facial depth on which facial makeup and plastic surgery have no effect. Then facial depth features are added to facial texture features to perform feature extraction. Accordingly, a three-dimensional (3-D) face is reconstructed from only a single two-dimensional (2-D) frontal image in real-world scenarios. Then the facial depth is extracted from the reconstructed model. Afterward, the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is applied to both texture and reconstructed depth images to extract the feature vectors. Finally, the final feature vectors are generated by combining 2-D and 3-D feature vectors, and are then classified by adopting the support vector machine. Promising results have been achieved for makeup-invariant face recognition on two available image databases including YouTube makeup and virtual makeup, and plastic surgery-invariant face recognition on a plastic surgery face database is compared to several state-of-the-art feature extraction methods. Several real-world scenarios are also planned to evaluate the performance of the proposed method on a combination of these three databases with 1102 subjects.

  19. Physical Analytics: An emerging field with real-world applications and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    In the past most information on the internet has been originated by humans or computers. However with the emergence of cyber-physical systems, vast amount of data is now being created by sensors from devices, machines etc digitizing the physical world. While cyber-physical systems are subject to active research around the world, the vast amount of actual data generated from the physical world has attracted so far little attention from the engineering and physics community. In this presentation we use examples to highlight the opportunities in this new subject of ``Physical Analytics'' for highly inter-disciplinary research (including physics, engineering and computer science), which aims understanding real-world physical systems by leveraging cyber-physical technologies. More specifically, the convergence of the physical world with the digital domain allows applying physical principles to everyday problems in a much more effective and informed way than what was possible in the past. Very much like traditional applied physics and engineering has made enormous advances and changed our lives by making detailed measurements to understand the physics of an engineered device, we can now apply the same rigor and principles to understand large-scale physical systems. In the talk we first present a set of ``configurable'' enabling technologies for Physical Analytics including ultralow power sensing and communication technologies, physical big data management technologies, numerical modeling for physical systems, machine learning based physical model blending, and physical analytics based automation and control. Then we discuss in detail several concrete applications of Physical Analytics ranging from energy management in buildings and data centers, environmental sensing and controls, precision agriculture to renewable energy forecasting and management.

  20. Fairer machine learning in the real world: Mitigating discrimination without collecting sensitive data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Veale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Decisions based on algorithmic, machine learning models can be unfair, reproducing biases in historical data used to train them. While computational techniques are emerging to address aspects of these concerns through communities such as discrimination-aware data mining (DADM and fairness, accountability and transparency machine learning (FATML, their practical implementation faces real-world challenges. For legal, institutional or commercial reasons, organisations might not hold the data on sensitive attributes such as gender, ethnicity, sexuality or disability needed to diagnose and mitigate emergent indirect discrimination-by-proxy, such as redlining. Such organisations might also lack the knowledge and capacity to identify and manage fairness issues that are emergent properties of complex sociotechnical systems. This paper presents and discusses three potential approaches to deal with such knowledge and information deficits in the context of fairer machine learning. Trusted third parties could selectively store data necessary for performing discrimination discovery and incorporating fairness constraints into model-building in a privacy-preserving manner. Collaborative online platforms would allow diverse organisations to record, share and access contextual and experiential knowledge to promote fairness in machine learning systems. Finally, unsupervised learning and pedagogically interpretable algorithms might allow fairness hypotheses to be built for further selective testing and exploration. Real-world fairness challenges in machine learning are not abstract, constrained optimisation problems, but are institutionally and contextually grounded. Computational fairness tools are useful, but must be researched and developed in and with the messy contexts that will shape their deployment, rather than just for imagined situations. Not doing so risks real, near-term algorithmic harm.

  1. Adaptive internal state space construction method for reinforcement learning of a real-world agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, K; Omori, T

    1999-10-01

    One of the difficulties encountered in the application of the reinforcement learning to real-world problems is the construction of a discrete state space from a continuous sensory input signal. In the absence of a priori knowledge about the task, a straightforward approach to this problem is to discretize the input space into a grid, and to use a lookup table. However, this method suffers from the curse of dimensionality. Some studies use continuous function approximators such as neural networks instead of lookup tables. However, when global basis functions such as sigmoid functions are used, convergence cannot be guaranteed. To overcome this problem, we propose a method in which local basis functions are incrementally assigned depending on the task requirement. Initially, only one basis function is allocated over the entire space. The basis function is divided according to the statistical property of locally weighted temporal difference error (TD error) of the value function. We applied this method to an autonomous robot collision avoidance problem, and evaluated the validity of the algorithm in simulation. The proposed algorithm, which we call adaptive basis division (ABD) algorithm, achieved the task using a smaller number of basis functions than the conventional methods. Moreover, we applied the method to a goal-directed navigation problem of a real mobile robot. The action strategy was learned using a database of sensor data, and it was then used for navigation of a real machine. The robot reached the goal using a smaller number of internal states than with the conventional methods.

  2. Integrating Real-time, Real-world Geoscience Experiences into Classroom Instruction with EarthLabs and the JOIDES Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, A. S.; Lockwood, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Cooper, S. K.; Ledley, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Inspiring the next generation of geoscientists and preparing students for the 21st century workforce requires lifting science outside of the classroom and giving learners the opportunity to think critically about real-world geoscience problems. The EarthLabs suite of climate science modules challenges students with a variety of learning experiences including current scientific data analysis, computer visualizations, satellite imagery, and engaging videos. Each module includes a series of hands-on activities to allow students to explore Earth's complex and dynamic climate history, leading to a deeper understanding of present and future changes to our planet. A new EarthLabs module in development 'Climate Detectives: An Expedition on board the JOIDES Resolution," focuses on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341 to Southern Alaska. The module is structured to allow students to work collaboratively, mimicking scientific research groups on the JOIDES Resolution. As students assume the role of a scientist, learn about data collection methods, and analyze authentic data, they learn about the climate history and tectonic processes of the Southern Alaska continental margin, as well as explore the relationship between climate, sedimentation, and tectonics. The Project Based Learning (PBL) approach used in the module teaches students how to analyze data and solve problems like scientists, strengthening the development of higher order thinking skills and preparing them for college coursework. The 'Climate Detectives' Module also provides students with opportunities to interact with scientists through live video conferencing and pre-recorded video presentations by scientists. In this presentation, Expedition 341 Education Officer, Alison Mote, describes the new module, which takes students on an educational journey as they learn about the scientific objectives, methods, and data collection tools scientists use to conduct research on sediment cores retrieved

  3. Re-Identification of the Many-World Background of Special Relativity as Four-World Background. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The re-identification of the many-world background of the special theory of relativity (SR as four-world background in the first part of this paper (instead of two-wold background isolated in the initial papers, is concluded in this second part. The flat two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime, which underlies the flat four-dimensional spacetime in each universe, introduced as ansatz in the initial paper, is derived formally within the four-world picture. The identical magnitudes of masses, identical sizes and identical shapes of the four members of every quartet of symmetry-partner particles or objects in the four universes are shown. The immutability of Lorentz invariance on flat spacetime of SR in each of the four universes is shown to arise as a consequence of the perfect symmetry of relative motion at all times among the four members of every quartet of symmetry-partner particles and objects in the four universes. The perfect symmetry of relative motions at all times, coupled with the identical magnitudes of masses, identical sizes and identical shapes, of the members of every quartet of symmetry-partner particles and objects in the four universes, guarantee perfect symmetry of state among the universes.

  4. Effect on real-world depth perception from exposure to heads-down stereoscopic flight displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Anthony M.; Williams, Steven P.; Parrish, Russell V.

    1990-01-01

    A stereoacuity test was used as part of the experimental protocol of a study in which eight transport pilots flew repeated simulated landing approaches using both stereo and nonstereo three-dimensional heads-down 'pathway in the sky' displays. At the decisionmaking crux of each approach, the pilots transitioned to a stereoacuity test employing real objects rather than a two-dimensional target apparatus. A statistical analysis of stereoacuity measures which compared a controlled condition of no exposure to any electronic flight display with the transition data from nonstereo and stereopsis displays indicated no significant differences for any of the conditions.

  5. Accuracy and speed of material categorization in real-world images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Lavanya; Rosenholtz, Ruth; Adelson, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    It is easy to visually distinguish a ceramic knife from one made of steel, a leather jacket from one made of denim, and a plush toy from one made of plastic. Most studies of material appearance have focused on the estimation of specific material properties such as albedo or surface gloss, and as a consequence, almost nothing is known about how we recognize material categories like leather or plastic. We have studied judgments of high-level material categories with a diverse set of real-world photographs, and we have shown (Sharan, 2009) that observers can categorize materials reliably and quickly. Performance on our tasks cannot be explained by simple differences in color, surface shape, or texture. Nor can the results be explained by observers merely performing shape-based object recognition. Rather, we argue that fast and accurate material categorization is a distinct, basic ability of the visual system. PMID:25122216

  6. Real-World Outcomes and Critical Thinking: Differential Analysis by Academic Major and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Franco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Real-World Outcomes is an inventory that measures everyday problematic behaviors that represent decisions where critical thinking is presumably absent; assessing the negative outcomes of poor daily decisions helps to infer the degree of critical thinking that mediates everyday reasoning. In the present paper, we describe the process of translation and cultural adaptation of this inventory to Portuguese. We present evidence of its administration to 259 college students concerning reliability, and differences based on academic major and gender. No statistically significant differences were found, either due to academic major or gender. Results suggest the value of this instrument to assessing daily decision making and life outcomes, and also, to estimate the quality of critical thinking in everyday life.

  7. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  8. Experimenting with ecosystem interaction networks in search of threshold potentials in real-world marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E; Parkes, Samantha; Lohrer, Andrew M; Pilditch, Conrad; Woodin, Sarah A; Wethey, David S; Chiantore, Mariachiara; Asnaghi, Valentina; De Juan, Silvia; Kraan, Casper; Rodil, Ivan; Savage, Candida; Van Colen, Carl

    2014-06-01

    Thresholds profoundly affect our understanding and management of ecosystem dynamics, but we have yet to develop practical techniques to assess the risk that thresholds will be crossed. Combining ecological knowledge of critical system interdependencies with a large-scale experiment, we tested for breaks in the ecosystem interaction network to identify threshold potential in real-world ecosystem dynamics. Our experiment with the bivalves Macomona liliana and Austrovenus stutchburyi on marine sandflats in New Zealand demonstrated that reductions in incident sunlight changed the interaction network between sediment biogeochemical fluxes, productivity, and macrofauna. By demonstrating loss of positive feedbacks and changes in the architecture of the network, we provide mechanistic evidence that stressors lead to break points in dynamics, which theory predicts predispose a system to a critical transition.

  9. From the ideal to the real world: a phenomenological inquiry into student sojourners' reentry adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Feilin

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examines the thematic structure of reentry transition for international music therapy graduates who have returned home after studying in the United States. Emphasis is placed upon career development. Standardized open-ended interviews were used to obtain rich and in-depth descriptions of the participants' experiences. Ten music therapists from six countries participated in the study. The themes that emerged from the data include moving from the ideal to the real world, shifting from the role of student to professional, confronting reality and working through challenges, and achieving personal growth and self-transformation. The dynamics of cross-cultural comparison, confronting the home culture, and redefining music therapy and professional identities within the local cultural context are illustrated via quotations from the participants. Implications and recommendations for music therapy education and career preparation for international graduates are discussed.

  10. A Practical Framework for Sharing and Rendering Real-World Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Greg [Anywhere Software, Albany, CA (United States); Kurt, Murat [International Computer Institute, Ege University (Turkey); Bonneel, Nicolas [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    The utilization of real-world materials has been hindered by a lack of standards for sharing and interpreting measured data. This paper presents an XML representation and an Open Source C library to support bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) in data-driven lighting simulation and rendering applications.The library provides for the efficient representation, query, and Monte Carlo sampling of arbitrary BSDFs in amodel-free framework. Currently, we support two BSDF data representations: one using a fixed subdivision of thehemisphere, and one with adaptive density. The fixed type has advantages for certain matrix operations, while theadaptive type can more accurately represent highly peaked data. We discuss advanced methods for data-drivenBSDF rendering for both types, including the proxy of detailed geometry to enhance appearance and accuracy.We also present an advanced interpolation method to reduce measured data into these standard representations.We end with our plan for future extensions and sharing of BSDF data.

  11. The Robobo Project: Bringing Educational Robotics Closer to Real-World Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellas, Francisco; Naya, Martin; Varela, Gervasio

    2017-01-01

    The Robobo Project is a STEM-based project that aims to bring educational robotics, in primary and high school, closer to real-world applications. It is based on the use of a smartphone-based robotic platform called Robobo, a very flexible programming environment, and a set of lessons to integrate...... them. The smartphone provides high-level hardware capabilities in terms of sensors, communications and processing capabilities that allow to create more practical and realistic lessons that exploit human-robot interaction, with a small investment. In this paper, we present the main elements...... of The Robobo Project in terms of hardware and software, and two illustrative educational projects that can be developed within it....

  12. The transition in the ventral stream from feature to real-world entity representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Guy A; Zhu, Qi; Vanduffel, Wim

    2014-01-01

    We propose that the ventral visual pathway of human and non-human primates is organized into three levels: (1) ventral retinotopic cortex including what is known as TEO in the monkey but corresponds to V4A and PITd/v, and the phPIT cluster in humans, (2) area TE in the monkey and its homolog LOC and neighboring fusiform regions, and more speculatively, (3) TGv in the monkey and its possible human equivalent, the temporal pole. We attribute to these levels the visual representations of features, partial real-world entities (RWEs), and known, complete RWEs, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that the middle level, TE and its homolog, is organized into three parallel substreams, lower bank STS, dorsal convexity of TE, and ventral convexity of TE, as are their corresponding human regions. These presumably process shape in depth, 2D shape and material properties, respectively, to construct RWE representations.

  13. The transition in the ventral stream from features to real world entities representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy A Orban

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose that the ventral visual pathway of human and non-human primates is organized into three levels: 1 ventral retinotopic cortex including what is known as TEO in the monkey but corresponds to V4A and PITd/v, and the phPIT cluster in humans, 2 area TE in the monkey and its homologue LOC and neighboring fusiform regions, and more speculatively, 3 TGv in the monkey and its possible human equivalent, the temporal pole. We attribute to these levels the visual representations of features, partial real-world entities (RWEs, and known, complete RWEs, respectively. Furthermore, we propose that the middle level, TE and its homologue, is organized into three parallel substreams, lower bank STS, dorsal convexity of TE and ventral convexity of TE, as are their corresponding human regions. These presumably process shape in depth, 2D shape and material properties, respectively, to construct RWE representations.

  14. An ensemble symbiosis organisms search algorithm and its application to real world problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Nama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an ensemble algorithm has been proposed, called Quasi-Oppositional Symbiosis Organisms Search (QOSOS algorithms, by incorporating the quasi-oppositional based learning (QOBL strategy into the newly proposed Symbiosis Organisms Search (SOS algorithm for solving unconstrained global optimization problems. The QOBL is incorporated into the basic SOS algorithm due to the balance of the exploration capability of QOBL and the exploitation potential of SOS algorithm. To validate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed Quasi-Oppositional Symbiosis Organisms Search (QOSOS algorithms, it is applied to solve unconstrained global optimization problems. Also, the proposed QOSOS algorithm is applied to solve two real world global optimization problems. One is gas transmission compressor design optimization problem and another is optimal capacity of the gas production facilities optimization problem. The performance of the QOSOS algorithm is extensively evaluated and compares favorably with many progressive algorithms.

  15. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  16. Common nano-materials and their use in real world applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Robin A

    2012-01-01

    Today engineered nano-materials have attracted a great deal of attention due to their important properties which have given birth to vast technological and economic growth in a number of industrial sectors. Nano-materials are indeed expected to become the cornerstone of a number of sectors such as microelectronics, materials, textiles, energy, healthcare and cosmetic goods. Nanotechnology applications will give rise to cleaner energy production, lighter and more durable materials, inexpensive clean water production and will benefit medical applications such as smart drugs and diagnostics. However, one has to be mindful of the risks involved concerning potential toxicity and exposure route and the verdict is still out on a number of nano-materials as to the relative dangers to humans and the environment. This brief review hopes to describe some of the main contenders and their real world applications but it should only be considered a snapshot of the industry and its relative potential.

  17. Cascade Probability Control to Mitigate Bufferbloat under Multiple Real-World TCP Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Linh To

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistently full buffer problem, commonly known as bufferbloat, causes unnecessary additional latency and throughput degradation whenever congestion happens in Internet. Several proposed queue management schemes, with the debloat mission, are almost based on the modification of one-loop feedback control where the instability and bad transient behavior are still big challenges. In this paper, we present a cascade probability control scheme using margin optimal method to address such challenges under different kinds of real-world TCP stacks. Simulation results guarantee the measured round trip time tracking to a low value of delay (e.g., ≈180 ms under TCP Reno, and ≈130 ms under TCP Cubic and ≈50% delay reduction in comparison to current deployed queue management schemes in network devices.

  18. Are numbers real the uncanny relationship of mathematics and the physical world

    CERN Document Server

    Clegg, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Have you ever wondered what humans did before numbers existed? How they organized their lives, traded goods, or kept track of their treasures? What would your life be like without them? Numbers began as simple representations of everyday things, but mathematics rapidly took on a life of its own, occupying a parallel virtual world. In Are Numbers Real?, Brian Clegg explores the way that math has become more and more detached from reality, and yet despite this is driving the development of modern physics. From devising a new counting system based on goats, through the weird and wonderful mathematics of imaginary numbers and infinity, to the debate over whether mathematics has too much influence on the direction of science, this fascinating and accessible book opens the reader’s eyes to the hidden reality of the strange yet familiar entities that are numbers.

  19. Real-World Data on: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H; Wigal, Sharon B

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we provide information on patient-reported side effects from a cross-section of real-world patients. Specifically, data on side effects were tabulated for patients taking one of the following attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine; atomoxetine; dexmethylphenidate; isdexamfetamine; and methylphenidate. Forty-eight percent of the approximately 325 patients surveyed reported having experienced a side effect as a result of taking an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication. Most common side effects mentioned included loss of appetite, sleep problems, and mood disturbances. Only 21 percent of side effects were considered very bothersome or extremely bothersome. Regardless of how bothersome the side effects were, only 20 percent of patients mentioned the side effects to their prescribing physicians.

  20. Management of gout in the real world: current practice versus guideline recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doghramji, Paul P; Fermer, Steve; Wood, Robert; Morlock, Robert; Baumgartner, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Gout is a chronic, extremely painful disease that is potentially curable when treated effectively. Unfortunately approximately one-half of patients with gout are inadequately controlled. We surveyed 315 primary care physicians in the United States and Europe to investigate current practice in the real world, as distinct from recommendations in guidelines. Our survey on 1657 patients found that regular testing of serum uric acid, in conformity with the guidelines, was conducted by approximately 50% of physicians. Advice to patients on diet and lifestyle was less well implemented, and identification of overweight/obese patients was inconsistent. Improvements in practice by physicians would include comprehensive assessment of the patient, adoption of regular monitoring during treatment, and the provision of patient education on adherence and lifestyle.

  1. Experiences from Real-World Deployment of Context-Aware Technologies in a Hospital Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Mogensen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    and discuss our experiences from an ongoing deployment of a suite of context-aware technologies and applications in a hospital environment, including a context-awareness infrastructure, a location tracking system, and two context-aware applications running on interactive wall displays and mobile phones. Based......Context-aware computing is a central concept in ubiquitous computing and many suggestions for context-aware technologies and applications have been proposed. There is, however, little evidence on how these concepts and technologies play out in a real-world setting. In this paper we describe...... on an analysis of the use of these systems, we observe that many of the ideas behind context-aware computing are valid, and that the context-aware applications are useful for clinicians in their work. By reflecting on the nature of the designed context-aware technologies, we present a model which states...

  2. On the Impact of using Mixed Integer Programming Techniques on Real-world Offshore Wind Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischetti, Martina; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    Wind power is a leading technology in the transition to sustainable energy. Being a new and still more competitive field, it is of major interest to investigate new techniques to solve the design challenges involved. In this paper, we consider optimization of the inter-array cable routing...... for offshore wind farms, taking power losses into account. Since energy losses in a cable depend on the load (i.e. wind), cable losses are estimated by considering a possibly large number wind scenarios. In order to deal with different wind scenarios efficiently we used a precomputing strategy. The resulting...... with a leading energy company, we have been able to report results on a set of real-world instances, based on six existing wind parks, studying the economical impact of considering power losses in the cable routing design phase....

  3. The interdisciplinary team in type 2 diabetes management: Challenges and best practice solutions from real-world scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret McGill

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Global Partnership for Effective Diabetes Management has previously recommended the implementation of an interdisciplinary team (IDT approach to type 2 diabetes (T2DM management as one of 10 practical steps for health care professionals to help more people achieve their glycaemic goal. This article discusses some of the key contributors to success and also the challenges faced when applying IDT care, by examining case studies and examples from around the world. The real-world practices discussed show that implementing successful interdisciplinary care in diabetes is possible despite significant barriers such as established hierarchal structures and financial resource constraints. Instituting collaborative, integrated working relationships among multiple disciplines under strong leadership, together with enhanced and active communication and improved patient access to appropriate specialties is essential. Patients have a crucial role in the management of their own disease and including them as part of the treatment team is also critical. IDTs in diabetes care improve patient outcomes in terms of control of glycaemia and cardiometabolic risk factors, and decreased risk of diabetes complications. Ensuring access to an appropriate IDT, in whatever form, is paramount to enable the best care to be delivered.

  4. The interdisciplinary team in type 2 diabetes management: Challenges and best practice solutions from real-world scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Margaret; Blonde, Lawrence; Chan, Juliana C N; Khunti, Kamlesh; Lavalle, Fernando J; Bailey, Clifford J

    2017-03-01

    The Global Partnership for Effective Diabetes Management has previously recommended the implementation of an interdisciplinary team (IDT) approach to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) management as one of 10 practical steps for health care professionals to help more people achieve their glycaemic goal. This article discusses some of the key contributors to success and also the challenges faced when applying IDT care, by examining case studies and examples from around the world. The real-world practices discussed show that implementing successful interdisciplinary care in diabetes is possible despite significant barriers such as established hierarchal structures and financial resource constraints. Instituting collaborative, integrated working relationships among multiple disciplines under strong leadership, together with enhanced and active communication and improved patient access to appropriate specialties is essential. Patients have a crucial role in the management of their own disease and including them as part of the treatment team is also critical. IDTs in diabetes care improve patient outcomes in terms of control of glycaemia and cardiometabolic risk factors, and decreased risk of diabetes complications. Ensuring access to an appropriate IDT, in whatever form, is paramount to enable the best care to be delivered.

  5. Bringing Real World Underwater Science, Engineering and Technology in Tomorrow's Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, C.

    2012-04-01

    What do Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), Ocean Science, Engineering and Technology have in common with science education in today's classroom? They all meet the growing demand for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professionals in tomorrow's U.S. workforce. Engaging students in real world science experiences will help them develop skills such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, innovation, and creativity. These skills are crucial to building a strong, competitive workforce in an integrated global economy. Fifth grade students from St. Andrew's School of Math and Science in Charleston, SC, USA science classes were introduced to engineering and robotics by using a combination of two underwater ROVs programs from the Office of Naval Research (SeaPerch) and Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE). Students were grouped in teams as "real scientists" to design and construct a ROV. Students selected their role from a list of engineering positions, and researched how to construct the best ROV. Students created blueprints and models of their ROV design. Scientists/engineers from various local agencies were scheduled to come and share their expertise with the students. On World Ocean Day, a presentation was planned for fifth grade students to work closely with kindergarten through fourth grade students. The purpose of the day was two-fold; it provided students the opportunity to peer teach and the opportunity to present their experiences to a wide audience. All students presented their designs and demonstrated their ROV's movement capabilities in child size pools. They also modeled how submersible pilots communicate with scientists and other researchers while operating their newly designed ROV. As a culminating event, students visited a local marine science high school class with similar ROVs and evaluated their engineering designs in a fresh water pond.

  6. WHIPS (Volvo cars' Whiplash Protection System)-the development and real-world performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Isaksson-Hellman, Irene; Lindman, Magdalena

    2008-12-01

    Present the performance of WHIPS and identify possible next steps of soft tissue neck injury reduction potentials, based on rear-end real-world crash data. Front-seat occupants (above 14 years of age) have been analyzed regarding influencing factors on reported incidences of soft tissue neck injuries. The outcome of 1858 occupants in cars equipped with WHIPS and 663 occupants in Volvo cars of model year 1999 without WHIPS are studied with respect to WHIPS injury-reducing effect for different impact severities and injury durations. The occupants in WHIPS are further studied with respect to seating position and sitting posture, such as turned head and head-to-head restraint distance. Soft tissue neck injury risk reductions are seen for occupants in WHIPS as compared to prior Volvo cars; mean values ranging from 21 to 47% depending on impact severity and symptom duration. Sitting posture (turned head and increased backset) increases soft tissue neck injury risks. Based on the self-reported injury data, a significantly lower risk was found for occupants facing straight forward with the head in close proximity to the head restraint as compared to the risk for occupants with rotated head and a larger backset. Even though the highest risk of soft tissue neck injuries is found in higher impact severity, the large amount of soft tissue neck injuries sustained at low impact severity emphasizes the need of focusing measures for crash avoidance. This study presents the development and real-world performance of WHIPS as well as identifies situations for further focus and challenges for the next generation of soft tissue neck injury protection and prevention, including areas such as occupant posture and crash avoidance.

  7. Implementing Peer Learning in Clinical Education: A Framework to Address Challenges In the "Real World".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joanna Hong Meng; Canny, Benedict J; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Peer learning has many benefits and can assist students in gaining the educational skills required in future years when they become teachers themselves. Peer learning may be particularly useful in clinical learning environments, where students report feeling marginalized, overwhelmed, and unsupported. Educational interventions often fail in the workplace environment, as they are often conceived in the "ideal" rather than the complex, messy real world. This work sought to explore barriers and facilitators to implementing peer learning activities in a clinical curriculum. Previous peer learning research results and a matrix of empirically derived peer learning activities were presented to local clinical education experts to generate discussion around the realities of implementing such activities. Potential barriers and limitations of and strategies for implementing peer learning in clinical education were the focus of the individual interviews. Thematic analysis of the data identified three key considerations for real-world implementation of peer learning: culture, epistemic authority, and the primacy of patient-centered care. Strategies for peer learning implementation were also developed from themes within the data, focusing on developing a culture of safety in which peer learning could be undertaken, engaging both educators and students, and establishing expectations for the use of peer learning. Insights: This study identified considerations and strategies for the implementation of peer learning activities, which took into account both educator and student roles. Reported challenges were reflective of those identified within the literature. The resultant framework may aid others in anticipating implementation challenges. Further work is required to test the framework's application in other contexts and its effect on learner outcomes.

  8. A Dynamic Speech Comprehension Test for Assessing Real-World Listening Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Virginia; Keidser, Gitte; Freeston, Katrina; Buchholz, Jörg M

    2016-07-01

    Many listeners with hearing loss report particular difficulties with multitalker communication situations, but these difficulties are not well predicted using current clinical and laboratory assessment tools. The overall aim of this work is to create new speech tests that capture key aspects of multitalker communication situations and ultimately provide better predictions of real-world communication abilities and the effect of hearing aids. A test of ongoing speech comprehension introduced previously was extended to include naturalistic conversations between multiple talkers as targets, and a reverberant background environment containing competing conversations. In this article, we describe the development of this test and present a validation study. Thirty listeners with normal hearing participated in this study. Speech comprehension was measured for one-, two-, and three-talker passages at three different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and working memory ability was measured using the reading span test. Analyses were conducted to examine passage equivalence, learning effects, and test-retest reliability, and to characterize the effects of number of talkers and SNR. Although we observed differences in difficulty across passages, it was possible to group the passages into four equivalent sets. Using this grouping, we achieved good test-retest reliability and observed no significant learning effects. Comprehension performance was sensitive to the SNR but did not decrease as the number of talkers increased. Individual performance showed associations with age and reading span score. This new dynamic speech comprehension test appears to be valid and suitable for experimental purposes. Further work will explore its utility as a tool for predicting real-world communication ability and hearing aid benefit. American Academy of Audiology.

  9. From the pens to the field: real-world wildlife contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John W; Rutberg, Allen T

    2013-12-01

    There are only two nonlethal approaches with which to manage wildlife populations: remove excess individuals or decrease reproductive rates. In the case of wild horse management, the latter has already been shown to be a more humane and less costly approach. Contraception has been known for many years to be effective in wild horses with regard to both fertility and population alteration. Field testing under real-world management situations is a critical aspect of wildlife contraception assessment. Field testing also requires documentation to justify eventual large-scale use of fertility control in population management. Furthermore, it is likely that full support by the managing agencies and acceptance of fertility control by the public will not occur until success has been demonstrated at the population level in the field. Because the transition from laboratory and captive animal trials to the real world of field research and testing of management potential in free-ranging wildlife is both essential and difficult, we identify considerations for optimizing success in the field, especially for controlling wild horse and white-tailed deer populations. This study identified the following categories for assessment: 1) field-specific logistics and tactics (including access to and identification of horses, censuses, pregnancy testing, and behavior monitoring), 2) training of field personnel and managers (including vaccine biology, preparation and delivery, and basic field methodology), 3) essential field considerations for enabling management (including population variables, environmental variables, and modeling), and 4) pitfalls of field contraception. In this assessment, we will highlight the capability for coincident pursuit of research and management and will explore field considerations applicable to many species where fertility control has potential as a management tool.

  10. Real-world emissions from model year 1993, 2000, and 2010 passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M.; Goodwin, R.; Watkins, R. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Air pollution by cars and light trucks is a major problem in metropolitan areas in the United States and around the world. Much of the discussion of this issue is based on the emissions per vehicle mile as determined under somewhat artificial testing conditions. The pollutants actually emitted vary considerably with the particular vehicle and the way it is driven, but the average emissions per mile are much higher than the test values. This report concerns the sources and levels of excess emissions, and the potential for reducing them. The history of automotive emissions regulation reveals remarkable success in reducing the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from new automobiles - as measured in certification tests. The grams-per-mile (g/mile) standards for these tests are stringent, with 96% reductions mandated in comparison to the estimated pre-control (mid-1960s) levels for CO and HC; and 75% reductions mandated for NO{sub x}. Powerful new technologies have been developed and incorporated into every new vehicle in order to accomplish these reductions. Most noteworthy are the catalytic converter and closed-loop engine controls; the latter includes sensors before and after the engine proper, and computer analysis of the information leading to real-time control of fuel injection, with the principal objective of maintaining just the right chemical balance of fuel and air. The average lifetime real-world g/mile emissions associated with conventional gasoline fueled cars for model years 1993, 2000, and 2010 have been projected. Results are discussed.

  11. Two-Year Therapeutic Effectiveness of Varenicline for Smoking Cessation in a Real World Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Francisco Pastor; Fontoba Ferrándiz, Julio; Gil Sanchez, María Carmen; Ponce Lorenzo, Francisco; Botella Estrella, Carlos

    2016-01-28

    Varenicline is an effective smoking cessation therapy in clinical trials. However, its effectiveness might vary in a real world setting and its long term effectiveness (2-year) has not been reported yet. The objective was ascertaining the effectiveness of varenicline in the treatment of tobacco consumption in Primary Care settings. Observational, multicenter, retrospective study using medical records of smokers followed for 24 months. Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity, type of treatment (varenicline with or without group therapy), and smoking characteristics (Fageström and Richmond tests, starting age, number of cigarettes, cessation attempts, and initial CO-oximeter measurements) were evaluated. 773 smokers treated with varenicline (72.4%) or varenicline combined with group therapy (27.6%) were included. Mean age was 43.6 years [51.7% male (n = 400)]. Continuous abstinence rate at 24 months was 44.4%, with no significant gender or age differences. Median cessation time was 398 days (95%CI: 376-421). A clear association was detected between the probability of remaining abstinent at 24 months and participation in group therapy (OR: 1.877, 95%CI: 1.362-2.589), as well as treatment adherence (compliance >80%) (OR: 6.556, 95%CI: 5.870-7.242), but not with co-financing of treatment (observed in 77% of patients). For every day that varenicline was taken, abstinence increased by an average of 6.6 days. This retrospective cohort study suggests that 2-year effectiveness of varenicline might be substantial in a real world setting. The abstinence rate was higher for those who also receive group therapy.

  12. Development of a Mandarin-English Bilingual Speech Recognition System for Real World Music Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Pan, Jielin; Lin, Yang; Shao, Jian; Yan, Yonghong

    In recent decades, there has been a great deal of research into the problem of bilingual speech recognition-to develop a recognizer that can handle inter- and intra-sentential language switching between two languages. This paper presents our recent work on the development of a grammar-constrained, Mandarin-English bilingual Speech Recognition System (MESRS) for real world music retrieval. Two of the main difficult issues in handling the bilingual speech recognition systems for real world applications are tackled in this paper. One is to balance the performance and the complexity of the bilingual speech recognition system; the other is to effectively deal with the matrix language accents in embedded language**. In order to process the intra-sentential language switching and reduce the amount of data required to robustly estimate statistical models, a compact single set of bilingual acoustic models derived by phone set merging and clustering is developed instead of using two separate monolingual models for each language. In our study, a novel Two-pass phone clustering method based on Confusion Matrix (TCM) is presented and compared with the log-likelihood measure method. Experiments testify that TCM can achieve better performance. Since potential system users' native language is Mandarin which is regarded as a matrix language in our application, their pronunciations of English as the embedded language usually contain Mandarin accents. In order to deal with the matrix language accents in embedded language, different non-native adaptation approaches are investigated. Experiments show that model retraining method outperforms the other common adaptation methods such as Maximum A Posteriori (MAP). With the effective incorporation of approaches on phone clustering and non-native adaptation, the Phrase Error Rate (PER) of MESRS for English utterances was reduced by 24.47% relatively compared to the baseline monolingual English system while the PER on Mandarin utterances was

  13. Series: Pragmatic trials and real world evidence: Paper 4. Informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkman, Shona; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W; Zuidgeest, Mira G P; Goetz, Iris; Pfeiffer, Boris M; Grobbee, Diederick E; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2017-09-01

    The GetReal consortium of the Innovative Medicines Initiative aims to develop strategies to incorporate real-world evidence earlier into the drug life cycle to better inform health care decision makers on the comparative risks and benefits of new drugs. Pragmatic trials are currently explored as a means to generate such evidence in routine care settings. The traditional informed consent model for randomized clinical trials has been argued to pose substantial hurdles to the practicability of pragmatic trials: it would lead to recruitment difficulties, reduced generalizability of the results, and selection bias. The present article analyzes these challenges and discusses four proposed alternative informed consent models: integrated consent, targeted consent, broadcast consent, and a waiver of consent. These alternative consent models each aim at overcoming operational and methodological challenges, while still providing patients all the relevant information they need to make informed decisions. Each consent model, however, relies on different attitudes toward the principle of respect for persons and the related duty to inform patients as well as represents different views on whether the common good demands moral duties from patients. Such normative consequences of modifying consent requirements should be at least acknowledged and ought to be assessed in light of the validity of empirical claims. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Solving large-scale real-world telecommunication problems using a grid-based genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Francisco; Nebro, Antonio; Alba, Enrique; Durillo, Juan

    2008-11-01

    This article analyses the use of a grid-based genetic algorithm (GrEA) to solve a real-world instance of a problem from the telecommunication domain. The problem, known as automatic frequency planning (AFP), is used in a global system for mobile communications (GSM) networks to assign a number of fixed frequencies to a set of GSM transceivers located in the antennae of a cellular phone network. Real data instances of the AFP are very difficult to solve owing to the NP-hard nature of the problem, so combining grid computing and metaheuristics turns out to be a way to provide satisfactory solutions in a reasonable amount of time. GrEA has been deployed on a grid with up to 300 processors to solve an AFP instance of 2612 transceivers. The results not only show that significant running time reductions are achieved, but that the search capability of GrEA clearly outperforms that of the equivalent non-grid algorithm.

  15. Can virtual science foster real skills? A study of inquiry skills in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Heather E.

    Online education has grown into a part of the educational market answering the demand for learning at the learner's choice of time and place. Inquiry skills such as observing, questioning, collecting data, and devising fair experiments are an essential element of 21st-century online science coursework. Virtual immersive worlds such as Second Life are being used as new frontiers in science education. There have been few studies looking specifically at science education in virtual worlds that foster inquiry skills. This quantitative quasi-experimental nonrandomized control group pretest and posttest study explored what affect a virtual world experience had on inquiry skills as measured by the TIPS (Test of Integrated Process Skills) and TIPS II (Integrated Process Skills Test II) instruments. Participants between the ages of 18 and 65 were recruited from educator mailing lists and Second Life discussion boards and then sorted into the experimental group, which received instructions to utilize several displays in Mendelian genetics at the Genome Island location within Second Life, or the control group, which received text-based PDF documents of the same genetics course content. All participants, in the form of avatars, were experienced Second Life residents to reduce any novelty effect. This study found a greater increase in inquiry skills in the experimental group interacting using a virtual world to learn science content (0.90 points) than a control group that is presented only with online text-based content (0.87 points). Using a mixed between-within ANOVA (analysis of variance), with an alpha level of 0.05, there was no significant interaction between the control or experimental groups and inquiry skills, F (1, 58) = .783, p = .380, partial eta squared = .013, at the specified .05 alpha level suggesting no significant difference as a result of the virtual world exercise. However, there is not enough evidence to state that there was no effect because there was a

  16. Scaling up multi-camera tracking for real-world deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Yogesh; Gong, Shaogang

    2012-10-01

    A user-assisted multi-camera tracking system employing several key novel methodologies has previously been shown to be highly effective in assisting human users in tracking targets of interest through industry-standard-LIDS multi-camera benchmark data.1 A prototype system was developed in order to test and evaluate the effectiveness of this approach. In this paper, we develop this system further in order to improve tracking accuracy and further facilitate scalability to arbitrary numbers of camera views across much larger spatial areas and different locations. Specifically, we describe the following three areas of improvement: (1) dynamic learning mechanisms apply user feedback in adapting internal models to improve performance over time; (2) modular design and hardware acceleration techniques are explored with a view to real-time performance, extensive configurability to leverage available hardware and scalability to larger datasets; and (3) re-design of the user interface for deployment as a secure asynchronous remote web-based service. We conduct an extensive evaluation of the system in terms of: (1) tracking performance; and (2) the speed of the system in computation and in usage over a network. We use a newly collected real-world dataset significantly more challenging than i-LIDS, which comprises six cameras covering two London Underground stations. We show that: (1) dynamic learning is effective; (2) the user-assisted paradigm retains its effectiveness with this significantly more challenging dataset; (3) large-scale deployment and real-time computation is feasible due to linear scalability; (4) context-aware user search strategies and external non-visual information can aid search convergence; and (5) storage and querying of meta-data is a bottleneck to be overcome.

  17. Study of emissions and fuel economy for parallel hybrid versus conventional vehicles on real world and standard driving cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Samari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs increasing rapidly in the automobile markets. However, the benefits out of using this kind of vehicles are still concerned a lot of costumers. This work investigated the expected benefits (such as decreasing emissions and increasing fuel economy from using the parallel HEV in comparison to the conventional vehicle model of the real-world and standard driving cycles. The software Autonomie used in this study to simulate the parallel HEV and conventional models on these driving cycles.The results show that the fuel economy (FE can be improved significantly up to 68% on real-world driving cycle, which is represented mostly city activities. However, the FE improvement was limited (10% on the highway driving cycle, and this is expected since the using of brake system was infrequent. Moreover, the emissions from parallel HEV decreased about 40% on the real-world driving cycle, and decreased 11% on the highway driving cycle. Finally, the engine efficiency, improved about 12% on the real-world driving cycle, and about 7% on highway driving cycle. Keywords: Emissions, Hybrid electric vehicles, Fuel economy, Real-world driving cycle

  18. Effectiveness of inhaler types for real-world asthma management: retrospective observational study using the GPRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available David Price1,2 John Haughney1, Erika Sims2, Muzammil Ali2, Julie von Ziegenweidt2, Elizabeth V Hillyer2, Amanda J Lee3, Alison Chisholm2, Neil Barnes41Centre of Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 2Research in Real Life Ltd, Cawston, Norwich, UK; 3Section of Population Health, University of Aberdeen, UK; 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, London Chest Hospital, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London, UKPurpose: Results of randomized controlled trials may not predict effectiveness of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS in real-world clinical practice, where inhaler technique and device characteristics can influence effectiveness. We compared asthma outcomes for ICS delivered via three different inhaler devices: pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI, breath-actuated MDI (BAI, and dry powder inhaler (DPI.Patients and methods: This retrospective database study evaluated 1-year outcomes for primary care patients with asthma aged 5–60 years prescribed their first ICS (initiation population by pMDI (n = 39,746, BAI (n = 9809, or DPI (n = 6792, or their first ICS dose increase (step-up population by pMDI (n = 6245, BAI (n = 1388, or DPI (n = 1536. Co-primary outcome measures were composite proxy measures of asthma control (no hospital attendance for asthma, oral corticosteroids, or antibiotics for lower respiratory infection and severe exacerbations (unscheduled hospital admission, emergency room attendance, or oral corticosteroids. Outcomes were adjusted for potential confounding factors identified during a baseline year.Results: In the initiation population, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals [CI] for asthma control, as compared with pMDIs, were significantly better for BAIs (1.08 [1.02–1.14] and DPIs (1.13 [1.06–1.21], while adjusted exacerbation rate ratios (95% CI were 1.00 (0.93–1.08 and 0.88 (0.81–0.95, respectively. In the step-up population, adjusted odds of asthma control were 1.21 (1.05–1.39 for

  19. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2015-02-01

    It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures increase vehicle fuel consumption due to heat transfer losses, increased friction (increased viscosity lubricants), and enrichment strategies (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large set of real world drive cycle data and ambient conditions. This work leverages experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under various drive cycles and ambient conditions to develop a simplified modeling framework for quantifying thermal effects on vehicle energy consumption. These models are applied over a wide array of real-world usage profiles and typical meteorological data to develop estimates of in-use fuel economy. The paper concludes with a discussion of how this integrated testing/modeling approach may be applied to quantify real-world, off-cycle fuel economy benefits of various technologies.

  20. Project InitiativE-BW - Real-world driving, energy demand, user experiences and emissions of electrified vehicle fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Dittus, Holger; Kugler, Ulrike; Schmitt, Michael; Özdemir, Enver Doruk

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers see electrified vehicles (EV) as one instrument to reduce local air pollution and also towards a mitigation of climate change. It is known that the “real driving” energy demand of conventional vehicles is significantly higher than the norm consumption. However, there is limited knowledge for the real-world energy demand and charging patterns of EV fleets. Furthermore, first user experiences are important for the uptake of the electrified vehicles. There are not many studies...

  1. Performance on a computerized shopping task significantly predicts real world functioning in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloyaux, Julien; Pellegrini, Nadia; Mourad, Haitham; Bertrand, Hervé; Domken, Marc-André; Van der Linden, Martial; Larøi, Frank

    2013-12-15

    Persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder often suffer from cognitive impairments. However, little is known concerning how these cognitive deficits impact their real world functioning. We developed a computerized real-life activity task, where participants are required to shop for a list of grocery store items. Twenty one individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 21 matched healthy controls were administered the computerized shopping task. Moreover, the patient group was assessed with a battery of cognitive tests and clinical scales. Performance on the shopping task significantly differentiated patients and healthy controls for two variables: Total time to complete the shopping task and Mean time spent to consult the shopping list. Moreover, in the patient group, performance on these variables from the shopping task correlated significantly with cognitive functioning (i.e. processing speed, verbal episodic memory, planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition) and with clinical variables including duration of illness and real world functioning. Finally, variables from the shopping task were found to significantly explain 41% of real world functioning of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. These findings suggest that the shopping task provides a good indication of real world functioning and cognitive functioning of persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. How can real-world evidence be used in practice to demonstrate drug value and improve patient care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormer, Laura

    2017-05-09

    Evidence Europe 2017, Victoria Park Plaza, London, UK, 22-23 February 2017 The Evidence Europe 2017 meeting took place in February 2017 in London (UK). This year's event focused on the use of real-world evidence in practice, both before and after a product has been approved. Speakers and attendees represented a broad spread of stakeholders, including national bodies, industry and academia. The event involved expert presentations, lively panel discussions and networking opportunities, allowing everyone involved to improve their knowledge of how real-world evidence is being used and potential opportunities for the future.

  3. Hierarchical Event Descriptors (HED: Semi-structured tagging for real-world events in large-scale EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Bigdely-Shamlo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Real-world brain imaging by EEG requires accurate annotation of complex subject-environment interactions in event-rich tasks and paradigms. This paper describes the evolution of the HED (Hierarchical Event Descriptor system for systematically describing both laboratory and real-world events. HED version 2, first described here, provides the semantic capability of describing a variety of subject and environmental states. HED descriptions can include stimulus presentation events on screen or in virtual worlds, experimental or spontaneous events occurring in the real world environment, and events experienced via one or multiple sensory modalities. Furthermore, HED 2 can distinguish between the mere presence of an object and its actual (or putative perception by a subject. Although the HED framework has implicit ontological and linked data representations, the user-interface for HED annotation is more intuitive than traditional ontological annotation. We believe that hiding the formal representations allows for a more user-friendly interface, making consistent, detailed tagging of experimental and real-world events possible for research users. HED is extensible while retaining the advantages of having an enforced common core vocabulary. We have developed a collection of tools to support HED tag assignment and validation; these are available at hedtags.org. A plug-in for EEGLAB (sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab, CTAGGER, is also available to speed the process of tagging existing studies.

  4. Recognition of "real-world" musical excerpts by cochlear implant recipients and normal-hearing adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Olszewski, Carol; Rychener, Marly; Sena, Kimberly; Knutson, John F; Witt, Shelley; Macpherson, Beth

    2005-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to compare recognition of "real-world" music excerpts by postlingually deafened adults using cochlear implants and normal-hearing adults; (b) to compare the performance of cochlear implant recipients using different devices and processing strategies; and (c) to examine the variability among implant recipients in recognition of musical selections in relation to performance on speech perception tests, performance on cognitive tests, and demographic variables. Seventy-nine cochlear implant users and 30 normal-hearing adults were tested on open-set recognition of systematically selected excerpts from musical recordings heard in real life. The recognition accuracy of the two groups was compared for three musical genre: classical, country, and pop. Recognition accuracy was correlated with speech recognition scores, cognitive measures, and demographic measures, including musical background. Cochlear implant recipients were significantly less accurate in recognition of previously familiar (known before hearing loss) musical excerpts than normal-hearing adults (p classical items. There were no significant differences among implant recipients due to implant type (Nucleus, Clarion, or Ineraid), or programming strategy (SPEAK, CIS, or ACE). For cochlear implant recipients, correlations between melody recognition and other measures were moderate to weak in strength; those with statistically significant correlations included age at time of testing (negatively correlated), performance on selected speech perception tests, and the amount of focused music listening following implantation. Current-day cochlear implants are not effective in transmitting several key structural features (i.e., pitch, harmony, timbral blends) of music essential to open-set recognition of well-known musical selections. Consequently, implant recipients must rely on extracting those musical features most accessible through the implant, such as song lyrics or a

  5. Electrochemistry Experiments to Develop Novel Sensors for Real-World Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available These novel STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics Electrochemistry experiments have been designed to increase the integrated science content, pedagogical, and technological knowledge for real-world applications. This study has focused on (1 the fundamental understanding on the relationship of metal oxide films and polymers to electrochemical sensors, and (2 the development of new materials which have great application of electrode materials. Following the inquiry based learning strategy the research students learn to develop and study the electrode surfaces to meet the needs of stability and low detection limits. Recently, new advances in environmental health are revealing the anthropogenic or naturally occurring harmful organic chemicals in sources of water supply expose a great health threat to human and aquatic life. Due to their well-known carcinogenic and lethal properties, the presence of human produced toxic chemicals such as phenol and its derivatives poses a critical threat to human health and aquatic life in such water resources. In order to achieve effective assessment and monitoring of these toxic chemicals there is a need to develop in-situ (electrochemical sensors methods to detect rapidly. Electrochemical sensors have attracted more attention to analytical chemist and electrochemistry engineers due to its simplicity, rapidness and high sensitivity. However, there will be real challenges of achieving successful analysis of chemicals (phenol in the presence of common interferences in water resources, which will be discussed regarding the students challenging learning experiences in developing an electrochemical sensor. The electrochemical sensor developed (TiO2 , ZrO2 or sol-gel mixture TiO2/ZrO2 will be illustrated and the successes will be shown by cyclic voltammetry data in detection of 1,2-dihydroxybenzenes (catechol, dopamine and phenol.

  6. [Analysis of drug combination characteristics of Qingkailing injection for treating abnormal inflammatory factors in real world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Qian; Xie, Yan-Ming; Wang, Lian-Xin; Wang, Qun; Jia, Ping-Ping; Feng, Bo

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the drug combination characteristics of Qingkailing injection for treating abnormal inflammatory factors such as elevated white blood cells and C reactive protein in real world. The patients with Qingkailing injection for abnormal C reactive proteins and abnormal white blood cells were extracted from hospital information system (HIS) of 16 Class 3A hospitals. Then the basic information, traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine diagnostic information, doctor's advice information, and laboratory information were analyzed; Apriori algorithm was used to construct the models, and Clementine 12.0 was used for correlation analysis to analyze the clinical medication rules and drug combination characteristics in the patients with Qingkailing injection for treatment of elevated C reactive protein and white blood cells in the real world. The results of the study showed that when Qingkailing injection was combined with one kind of western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of patients with abnormal C reactive protein, vitamin C (159 cases, 74.30%) and Tanreqing injection (71 cases, 33.18%) were most frequently used; when it was combined with 2 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines, Xueshuantong injection plus Tanreqing injection (support degree 10.75%) were most frequently used. When Qingkailing injection was combined with one kind of western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of patients with abnormal white blood cells, vitamin C (596 cases, 56.02%) and Ganmao Qingre granules (247 cases, 23.21%) were most frequently used; when it was combined with 2 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines, Shuanghuanglian+Ganmao Qingre granules (support degree 5.26%) were most frequently used. In the patients with abnormal C-reactive protein and white blood cells, its combinations with antibiotics and nutritional support agents were most common from the pharmacological perspective, indicating that in the treatment of abnormal C

  7. Real-world vehicle emissions as measured by in situ analysis of exhaust plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzmeier, Christian; Loschke, Carmen; Wiedenhaus, Hanna; Klemm, Otto

    2017-10-01

    We conducted a 60-day roadside measurement campaign on a busy street in Münster, Germany, during summer 2016. We used gas and particle concentration measurements with high temporal resolution (10 Hz) to quantify both the emission ratios of nitrogen oxides per carbon dioxide (NO x /CO2) for over 70,000 individual exhaust plumes as well as the emission ratios for size-resolved particle numbers per carbon dioxide (d(PN CO2-1)/dlogD) for about 10,000 plumes. The real-world fleet passing by the measurement station consisted of passenger cars (85%), buses (5.9%), light duty commercial vehicles (5.7%), trucks (1.7%), and motorcycles (1.6%). The median measured NO x /CO2 ratio was 3.33 g kg-1. The median measured PN/CO2 emission ratio for particles with diameters between 0.03 and 10 μm was 5.6 × 1014 kg-1. We compared our results with the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) and the Euro 5 and Euro 6 emission standards by employing traffic counts, assuming the diesel-to-gasoline ratios of vehicles according to registration statistics, and estimating that stop-and-go traffic occurred 65% of the time. Using a conservative estimate, our median ratios exceeded the HBEFA data by more than 65% for NO x /CO and by a factor of about 100 for PN/CO2. Furthermore, our median NO x emission per kilometer travelled (NO x  km-1) exceeded the Euro 5 emission limit for diesel cars by a factor of 3 and exceeded the Euro 6 limit by almost a factor of 7. Additionally, our median particle number emission (PN km-1) exceeded the Euro 5 and Euro 6 limits of diesel cars by a factor of almost 150. These results confirm the presumption that the emissions of a real-world traffic fleet comprehensively exceed the legal limits. Very likely, the widespread presence of defeat devices in vehicle emission control systems plays a major role in this discrepancy. This has a strong impact on the apparent inability of authorities to comply with the legal limits of the NO2

  8. Eye Movement Patterns during Locomotion in Real-World and Simulated Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eye movements in a search-and-count walking task were compared between a simulated (SE and real-world environment (RE. Eye movements were recorded using the mobile WearCam in either RE or the StroMoHab locomotion simulator, a treadmill-based system for gait mobility rehabilitation. For Experiment 1, a RE was prepared with objects (coloured balls and occluding barriers placed along a 38 m long corridor. A video was captured from a walker's viewpoint at 1.3 km/hr. Fifteen subjects per environment reported the total object count after completing a walk while viewing the video in the SE (at 0, 1.3, or 2.5 km/h and RE (at 1.3 km/h. Examining the number of eye transitions (TotET between objects in relation to walking speed in SE, revealed significant increases between 0 and 2.5 km/h (F3, 56 =20.62, p = .02 and 1.3 and 2.5 km/h (F3, 56 =20.62, p = .039, despite no change in video speed; no significant difference was found between 0 and 1.3 km/h. In Experiment 2, 15 subjects viewed a static checkered screen and were instructed to ‘view the screen’ while walking. TotET decreased significantly, between 1.3 km/h and 5.2 km/h (F2, 27 =3.437, p = .014; no significant differences were observed between 2.6 km/h and either 1.3 km/h or 5.2 km/h. In real-world conditions, walking faster increases the difficulty of search tasks, with a likely correlated increase in eye movements. Apparently, the expectation of increased difficulty carries over to SE, even if the visual task is not more difficult. The findings point to physiological and perceptual correlations between locomotion and eye movements.

  9. Differences between the real and the desired worlds in the results of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina El Dib

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We refer to the effectiveness (known as pragmatic or real world and efficacy (known as explanatory or desired or ideal world of interventions. However, these terms seem to be randomly chosen by investigators who design clinical trials and do not always reflect the true purpose of the study. A pragmatic-explanatory continuum indicator summary tool was thus developed with the aim of identifying the characteristics of clinical trials that distinguish between effectiveness and efficacy issues. We verified whether clinical trials used the criteria proposed by the indicator summary tool, and we categorized these clinical trials according to a new classification. METHOD: A systematic survey of randomized clinical trials was performed. We added a score ranging from 0 (more efficacious to 10 (more effective to each domain of the indicator summary tool and proposed the following classifications: high efficacy (<25, moderate efficacy (25-50, moderate effectiveness (51-75, and high effectiveness (<75. RESULTS: A total of 844 randomized trials were analyzed. No analyzed trials used the criteria proposed by the indicator summary tool. Approximately 44% of the trials were classified as having moderate effectiveness, and 43.82% were classified as having moderate efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Most clinical trials used the term “efficacy” to illustrate the application of results in clinical practice, but the majority of those were classified as having moderate effectiveness according to our proposed score. The classification based on the 0-100 score is still highly subjective and can be easily misunderstood in all domains based on each investigator’s own experiences and knowledge.

  10. Differences between the real and the desired worlds in the results of clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Regina El; Jorge, Eliane Chaves; Kamegasawa, Amélia; Daher, Solange Ramires; Spagnuolo, Regina Stella; da Silva, Marise Pereira; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; Volpato, Enilze; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; Betini, Marluci; do Valle, Adriana; Corrêa, Ione; Bazan, Rodrigo; Almeida, Ricardo Augusto MB; Weber, Silke Anna Theresa; Molina, Silvana; Yoo, Hugo; Boas, Paulo Villas; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mathew, Joseph; Kapoor, Anil; Carvalho, Raíssa Pierri; Vital, Roberto Bezerra; Braz, Leandro Gobbo; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We refer to the effectiveness (known as pragmatic or real world) and efficacy (known as explanatory or desired or ideal world) of interventions. However, these terms seem to be randomly chosen by investigators who design clinical trials and do not always reflect the true purpose of the study. A pragmatic-explanatory continuum indicator summary tool was thus developed with the aim of identifying the characteristics of clinical trials that distinguish between effectiveness and efficacy issues. We verified whether clinical trials used the criteria proposed by the indicator summary tool, and we categorized these clinical trials according to a new classification. METHOD: A systematic survey of randomized clinical trials was performed. We added a score ranging from 0 (more efficacious) to 10 (more effective) to each domain of the indicator summary tool and proposed the following classifications: high efficacy (<25), moderate efficacy (25-50), moderate effectiveness (51-75), and high effectiveness (<75). RESULTS: A total of 844 randomized trials were analyzed. No analyzed trials used the criteria proposed by the indicator summary tool. Approximately 44% of the trials were classified as having moderate effectiveness, and 43.82% were classified as having moderate efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Most clinical trials used the term “efficacy” to illustrate the application of results in clinical practice, but the majority of those were classified as having moderate effectiveness according to our proposed score. The classification based on the 0-100 score is still highly subjective and can be easily misunderstood in all domains based on each investigator's own experiences and knowledge. PMID:26375563

  11. The first part-time economy in the world. Does it work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.

    2008-01-01

    _*This paper is republished from the first edition in 2000.*_ h2. Introduction In his Adam Smith lecture of the European Association of Labour Economists, Harvard economist Richard Freeman has defined the Netherlands as ‘the only part-time economy of the world, with a finger in the dike of

  12. The first part-time economy in the world. Does it work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.

    2000-01-01

    In his Adam Smith lecture of the European Association of Labour Economists, Harvard economist Richard Freeman has defined the Netherlands as ‘the only part-time economy of the world, with a finger in the dike of unemployment’ (Freeman 1998: 2). How did it happen? What kind of jobs are these and

  13. Key U.S.-built part fails during testing for world's largest particle collider

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists are scrambling to redesign a key U.S.-built part that broke "with a loud bang and a cloud of dust" during a high-pressure test for the world's largest particle physics collider that is supposed to start up in November, officials sais Tuesday." (1,5 page)

  14. 7 squadron in World War II (Part 2: 1943-1945) | Robinson | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 3 (1975) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. 7 squadron in World War II (Part ...

  15. Assessment of Undergraduates' Real-World Outcomes of Critical Thinking in Everyday Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Amanda R; Costa, Patrício S; Butler, Heather A; Almeida, Leandro S

    2017-01-01

    Critical thinking is a kind of "good" thinking that integrates a set of cognitive skills and dispositions to use those skills with knowledge to increase the chances of success in academic settings, job market, and daily life. The impact of critical thinking on life events, in face of everyday decisions and challenges, is still unclear, and further research is needed. In this exploratory study, a sample of 230 first-year students of a Bachelor's Degree or a Master's Degree in Portugal completed an experimental Portuguese version of the Real-World Outcomes, a self-report inventory measuring everyday negative life events that are mediated by a lack of critical thinking. Based on exploratory factor analysis results and theoretical premises, changes were made to the Portuguese version of the inventory that was administered, and items were aggregated into six dimensions, creating a new version that is more familiar to Portuguese young adults in college. This original proposal of the inventory presents six types of negative life events resulting from a lack of critical thinking: health neglect, mismanagement, slackness, poor impulse control, academic negligence, and rashness. Both limitations and future potentialities of this version are presented.

  16. A randomized trial of group parent training: reducing child conduct problems in real-world settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøbli, John; Hukkelberg, Silje; Ogden, Terje

    2013-03-01

    Group-based Parent Management Training, the Oregon model (PMTO, 12 sessions) was delivered by the regular staff of municipal child and family services. PMTO is based on social interaction learning theory and promotes positive parenting skills in parents of children with conduct problems. This study examined the effectiveness of the group-based training intervention in real world settings both immediately following and six months after termination of the intervention. One hundred thirty-seven children (3-12 years) and their parents participated in this study. The families were randomly assigned to group-based training or a comparison group. Data were collected from parents and teachers. The caregiver assessments of parenting practices and child conduct problems and caregiver and teacher reported social competence revealed immediate and significant intervention effects. Short- and long-term beneficial effects were reported from parents, although no follow-up effects were evident on teacher reports. These effectiveness findings and the potential for increasing the number of families served to support the further dissemination and implementation of group-based parent training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Real world study of Dengzhan xixin injection in treatment of cerebral infarction with medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Cheng, Hao; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2014-09-01

    To analysis of Dengzhan Xixin injection (DZI) in treatment of cerebral infarction (EBHM) in the real world population characteristics and concomitant medication. By selecting the 20 hospital information system (HIS) used in the database of DZI and primary diagnosis of 2 484 cases of cerebral infarction patients information, use the Apriori algorithm to construct the model, using Clementine 12.0 analysis, cerebral infarction complicating diseases, commonly used drug combination analysis of DZI. The results showed that patients with more males than females (1.63: 1); age > 46 in older persons, treatment 7-14 days accounted for the majority of patients with hypertension, cerebral infarction, diabetes, coronary heart disease and other diseases; common drug combination can be divided into seven categories: medicine of antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, clopidogrel hydrogen), hypolipidemic drugs (atorvastatin, probucol), calcium channel blockers (cinepazide), cerebral protection drugs (laci staw), to improve cerebral circulation drugs (alprostadil), other traditional Chinese medicine injection (Shuxuetong injection, Xueshuantong), treatment with underlying disease: nifedipine, metoprolol, isosorbide dinitrate etc. The clinical cure rate and improvement rate of 97.60%. The next step needs to be combined with clinical practice, carry out analysis of effectiveness and safety of the combination scheme, and provide reference for clinical rational drug use.

  18. Neurocognitive mechanisms of real-world autobiographical memory retrieval: insights from studies using wearable camera technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Tiffany E; Rissman, Jesse

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, investigation into the cognitive and neural mechanisms of autobiographical memory has been aided by the use of experimental paradigms incorporating wearable camera technology. By effortlessly capturing first-person images of one's life events, these cameras provide a rich set of naturalistic stimuli that can later be used to trigger the recall of specific episodes. Here, we chronicle the development and progression of such studies in behavioral and neuroimaging examinations of both clinical and nonclinical adult populations. Experiments examining the effects of periodic review of first-person images of life events have documented enhancements of autobiographical memory retrieval. Such benefits are most pronounced in patients with memory impairments, but there is mounting evidence that cognitively healthy individuals may benefit as well. Findings from functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments using wearable camera stimuli as retrieval probes have produced results that, although largely consistent with the broader episodic memory literature, have significantly extended prior findings concerning the underlying mnemonic processes and the neural representation of autobiographical information. Taken together, wearable camera technology provides a unique opportunity for studies of autobiographical memory to more closely approximate real-world conditions, thus offering enhanced ecological validity and opening up new avenues for experimental work. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON REAL-WORLD DRIVING IN DISEASED AND CONTROL PARTICIPANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey; Tippin, Jon; Lee, John D; Rizzo, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated real world driver errors and sleepiness in 66 drivers with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and 34 matched controls (24 younger and 22 older). Driving errors and driver state were derived from analyses of video data from "black-box" event recorders. Sleep fragmentation data in OSA was derived from actigraphy for 15 days prior to beginning standard treatment (positive airway pressure, PAP) and 15 days after beginning PAP treatment. Prior to starting PAP, OSAs appeared sleepier than controls in general and particularly at intersections, while making safety errors following nights with high levels of fragmented sleep compared to matched controls. Adverse effects of sleep fragmentation during the pre-PAP phase were reduced post-PAP. Greater hours of PAP-use were associated with lower sleepiness and errors on the road. PAP-use was associated with a decrease in high sleep fragmented nights. Findings suggest reduction in acute sleepiness is unlikely to be the only mediating factor that explains the driving safety benefits of PAP in OSA.

  20. College versus the real world: student perceptions and implications for understanding heavy drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Suzanne M; Colby, John J; Raymond, George A

    2009-01-01

    College student heavy drinking is a persistent problem despite widespread initiatives. Using focus group methodology, this study examined student perceptions of factors that promote and limit drinking during and after college. The goal was to better understand factors that reduce drinking post-college to develop strategies to moderate college drinking. Twelve groups (N=75) were conducted with undergraduates at a northeastern Catholic college. Most participants drank; the majority exceeded a clinical indicator of problematic drinking. Transcript analysis identified themes that were coded with high reliability. Drinking in college was perceived to enhance socialization, bonding, and disinhibition. College, characterized by a high level of freedom and low level of responsibility, was seen as time-out from the "real world". In that context, heavy drinking was permissible. Students expected their future lifestyle to be burdensome and tedious; nostalgia for the good times associated with heavy drinking was anticipated. They imagined post-college drinking to be a threat to career and family and therefore irresponsible. Implications for intervention development and future research are described.

  1. Microinverter Thermal Performance in the Real-World: Measurements and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Akram; Xu, Yifan; Peshek, Timothy J; Ji, Liang; Abramson, Alexis R; French, Roger H

    2015-01-01

    Real-world performance, durability and reliability of microinverters are critical concerns for microinverter-equipped photovoltaic systems. We conducted a data-driven study of the thermal performance of 24 new microinverters (Enphase M215) connected to 8 different brands of PV modules on dual-axis trackers at the Solar Durability and Lifetime Extension (SDLE) SunFarm at Case Western Reserve University, based on minute by minute power and thermal data from the microinverters and PV modules along with insolation and environmental data from July through October 2013. The analysis shows the strengths of the associations of microinverter temperature with ambient temperature, PV module temperature, irradiance and AC power of the PV systems. The importance of the covariates are rank ordered. A multiple regression model was developed and tested based on stable solar noon-time data, which gives both an overall function that predicts the temperature of microinverters under typical local conditions, and coefficients adjustments reecting refined prediction of the microinverter temperature connected to the 8 brands of PV modules in the study. The model allows for prediction of internal temperature for the Enphase M215 given similar climatic condition and can be expanded to predict microinverter temperature in fixed-rack and roof-top PV systems. This study is foundational in that similar models built on later stage data in the life of a device could reveal potential influencing factors in performance degradation.

  2. Microinverter Thermal Performance in the Real-World: Measurements and Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akram Hossain

    Full Text Available Real-world performance, durability and reliability of microinverters are critical concerns for microinverter-equipped photovoltaic systems. We conducted a data-driven study of the thermal performance of 24 new microinverters (Enphase M215 connected to 8 different brands of PV modules on dual-axis trackers at the Solar Durability and Lifetime Extension (SDLE SunFarm at Case Western Reserve University, based on minute by minute power and thermal data from the microinverters and PV modules along with insolation and environmental data from July through October 2013. The analysis shows the strengths of the associations of microinverter temperature with ambient temperature, PV module temperature, irradiance and AC power of the PV systems. The importance of the covariates are rank ordered. A multiple regression model was developed and tested based on stable solar noon-time data, which gives both an overall function that predicts the temperature of microinverters under typical local conditions, and coefficients adjustments reecting refined prediction of the microinverter temperature connected to the 8 brands of PV modules in the study. The model allows for prediction of internal temperature for the Enphase M215 given similar climatic condition and can be expanded to predict microinverter temperature in fixed-rack and roof-top PV systems. This study is foundational in that similar models built on later stage data in the life of a device could reveal potential influencing factors in performance degradation.

  3. The Orbitofrontal Cortex, Real-World Decision Making, and Normal Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denburg, Natalie L.; Cole, Catherine A.; Hernandez, Michael; Yamada, Torricia H.; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine; Wallace, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    The present series of three studies aims at investigating the hypothesis that some seemingly normal older persons have deficits in reasoning and decision making due to dysfunction in a neural system which includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortices. This hypothesis is relevant to the comprehensive study of aging, and also addresses the question of why so many older adults fall prey to fraud. To our knowledge, this work represents the first of its kind to begin to identify, from an individual-differences perspective, the behavioral, psychophysiological, and consumer correlates of defective decision making among healthy older adults. Our findings, in a cross-sectional sample of community-dwelling participants, demonstrate that a sizeable subset of older adults (approximately 35–40%) perform disadvantageously on a laboratory measure of decision making that closely mimics everyday life, by the manner in which it factors in reward, punishment, risk, and ambiguity. These same poor decision makers display defective autonomic responses (or somatic markers), reminiscent of that previously established in patients with acquired prefrontal lesions. Finally, we present data demonstrating that poor decision makers are more likely to fall prey to deceptive advertising, suggesting compromise of real-world judgment and decision-making abilities. PMID:17872394

  4. The pearls of using real-world evidence to discover social groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Raymond A.; Salerno, John J.

    2005-03-01

    In previous work, we introduced a new paradigm called Uni-Party Data Community Generation (UDCG) and a new methodology to discover social groups (a.k.a., community models) called Link Discovery based on Correlation Analysis (LDCA). We further advanced this work by experimenting with a corpus of evidence obtained from a Ponzi scheme investigation. That work identified several UDCG algorithms, developed what we called "Importance Measures" to compare the accuracy of the algorithms based on ground truth, and presented a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that criminal investigators could use to discover social groups. However, that work used a rather small random sample of manually edited documents because the evidence contained far too many OCR and other extraction errors. Deferring the evidence extraction errors allowed us to continue experimenting with UDCG algorithms, but only used a small fraction of the available evidence. In attempt to discover techniques that are more practical in the near-term, our most recent work focuses on being able to use an entire corpus of real-world evidence to discover social groups. This paper discusses the complications of extracting evidence, suggests a method of performing name resolution, presents a new UDCG algorithm, and discusses our future direction in this area.

  5. Semantics-Based Composition of Integrated Cardiomyocyte Models Motivated by Real-World Use Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Maxwell L; Carlson, Brian E; Thompson, Christopher T; James, Ryan C; Kim, Karam G; Tran, Kenneth; Crampin, Edmund J; Cook, Daniel L; Gennari, John H

    2015-01-01

    Semantics-based model composition is an approach for generating complex biosimulation models from existing components that relies on capturing the biological meaning of model elements in a machine-readable fashion. This approach allows the user to work at the biological rather than computational level of abstraction and helps minimize the amount of manual effort required for model composition. To support this compositional approach, we have developed the SemGen software, and here report on SemGen's semantics-based merging capabilities using real-world modeling use cases. We successfully reproduced a large, manually-encoded, multi-model merge: the "Pandit-Hinch-Niederer" (PHN) cardiomyocyte excitation-contraction model, previously developed using CellML. We describe our approach for annotating the three component models used in the PHN composition and for merging them at the biological level of abstraction within SemGen. We demonstrate that we were able to reproduce the original PHN model results in a semi-automated, semantics-based fashion and also rapidly generate a second, novel cardiomyocyte model composed using an alternative, independently-developed tension generation component. We discuss the time-saving features of our compositional approach in the context of these merging exercises, the limitations we encountered, and potential solutions for enhancing the approach.

  6. Incidence and Causes for Early Ticagrelor Discontinuation: A "Real-World" Dutch Registry Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeijer, Thomas O; Janssen, Paul W A; van Oevelen, Mathijs; van Rooijen, Dymphie; Godschalk, Thea C; Kelder, Johannes C; Deneer, Vera H M; Serebruany, Victor L; Ten Berg, Jurriën M

    2017-01-01

    The PLATO trial revealed superiority of ticagrelor over clopidogrel for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndrome. However, adverse events such as bleeding, dyspnea, and bradycardia were frequently reported, potentially leading to excess early ticagrelor discontinuation (ETD), later confirmed in the PEGASUS trial. We here evaluated the incidence and causes for ETD in a real-world patient cohort in a high-volume nonacademic percutaneous coronary intervention center in the Netherlands. In a retrospective single-center registry, all patients discharged from the hospital with a new ticagrelor prescription were screened for ETD. Follow-up data were obtained using the hospital electronic patient file records and confirmed by telephone contact with the patient and/or general practitioner, if necessary, to complement the data. Ticagrelor was prescribed in 354 patients between December 2011 and December 2012. The follow-up data were available in 301 patients with a mean follow-up duration of 330 days. ETD or switching to another antiplatelet agent occurred in 73 patients (24.3%), mostly due to dyspnea (11.6%), bleeding (3.7%), or planned major surgery (2.7%). Almost one quarter of ticagrelor patients were discontinued prematurely or switched to another antiplatelet agent within 1 year, mostly due to dyspnea or bleeding. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Integrating behavioral and physical health care in the real world: early lessons from advancing care together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Waller, Elaine; Miller, Benjamin F; Green, Larry A; Cohen, Deborah J

    2013-01-01

    More than 20 years ago the Institute of Medicine advocated for integration of physical and behavioral health care. Today, practices are integrating care in response to recent policy initiatives. However, few studies describe how integration is accomplished in real-world practices without the financial or research support available for most randomized controlled trials. To study how practices integrate care, we are conducting a cross-case comparative, mixed-methods study of 11 practices participating in Advancing Care Together (ACT). Using a grounded theory approach, we analyzed multiple sources of data (eg, documents, practice surveys, field notes from observation visits, semistructured interviews, online diaries) collected from each ACT innovator. Integration requires making changes in organization and interpersonal relationships. During early integration efforts, challenges related to workflow and access, leadership and culture change, and tracking and using data to evaluate patient- and practice-level improvement emerged for ACT innovators. We describe the strategies innovators are developing to address these challenges. Integrating care is a fundamental and difficult change for practices and health care professionals. Research identifying common challenges that manifest in early efforts can help others attempting integration and inform state, local, and federal policies aimed at achieving wide-spread implementation.

  8. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Hooker, Christine I; Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal-striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ) participants show hypoactivation within these frontal-striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

  9. Real-World Dosing Patterns of Atomoxetine in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabul, Samaneh; Alatorre, Carlos; Montejano, Leslie B; Farr, Amanda M; Clemow, David B

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the dosing patterns of atomoxetine monotherapy in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a retrospective analysis. Adult (≥ 18 years) patients with ADHD newly initiated on atomoxetine with ≥ 1 outpatient pharmacy claim for atomoxetine between January 2006 and December 2011 were selected from the Truven Health MarketScan(®) Commercial database. After a 30-day titration period, dosing patterns of atomoxetine monotherapy were analyzed in the 12 months following initiation. In addition, patient demographic and clinical characteristics were compared to identify characteristics associated with suboptimal versus recommended dosing. Of the 12,412 adult patients with ADHD newly initiated on atomoxetine, 4548 (36.6%) were suboptimally dosed, whereas 3323 (26.7%) were treated at recommended dose. Overall, study patients were treated at a mean (standard deviation [SD]) dose of 68.5 (44.9) mg/day. The suboptimal dosing cohort included significantly more females (54% vs. 44%, P < 0.001) and had fewer patients with pre-index use of other ADHD medications (17% vs. 20%, P < 0.001) compared with the recommended dosing cohort. Adult patients with ADHD receiving atomoxetine therapy in a real-world setting are often dosed suboptimally. Increasing the awareness on optimal dosing strategy among clinicians and patients is warranted to maximize the therapeutic benefits of atomoxetine among adult patients with ADHD. © 2015 Eli Lilly and Company. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Innovations in preventing and managing chronic conditions: what's working in the real world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassil, Alwyn

    2010-06-01

    Wellness and prevention strategies are fast becoming a standard feature of employer-based health benefits in hopes of countering rapidly rising health care costs that drive higher insurance premiums. At the same time, payers and health care providers are experimenting with how to improve care coordination for high-cost patients with multiple chronic conditions, an ongoing challenge in the fragmented U.S. health care system. Promoting health and wellness and improving the care of people with chronic conditions offer promise in helping to improve the value of health care and control costs, according to experts at a Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) conference titled, Innovations in Preventing and Managing Chronic Conditions: What's Working in the Real World? Panelists explored how effective employer-sponsored wellness and prevention initiatives focus on health improvement as a business strategy and foster work and community environments that help people lower risk factors--smoking, diet, lack of exercise--that lead to disease. Panelists also discussed various models--centered on strong primary care-to improve care for people with chronic conditions.

  11. Reconstruction of a Real World Social Network using the Potts Model and Loopy Belief Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Cristian; Corallo, Angelo; Fortunato, Laura; Gentile, Antonio A; Massafra, Andrea; Pellè, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, for the reconstruction of the structure of a social network. The inverse Potts model, traditionally applied to recursive observations of quantum states in an ensemble of particles, is here addressed to observations of the members' states in an organization and their (anti)correlations, thus inferring interactions as links among the members. Adopting proper (Bethe) approximations, such an inverse problem is showed to be tractable. Within an operational framework, this network-reconstruction method is tested for a small real-world social network, the Italian parliament. In this study case, it is easy to track statuses of the parliament members, using (co)sponsorships of law proposals as the initial dataset. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with such standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages.

  12. Reconstruction of a real world social network using the Potts model and Loopy Belief Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eBisconti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to test the adoption of a statistical model derived from Condensed Matter Physics, aiming at the reconstruction of a networked structure from observations of the states of the nodes in the network.The inverse Potts model, normally applied to observations of quantum states, is here addressed to observations of the node states in a network and their (anticorrelations, thus inferring interactions as links connecting the nodes. Adopting the Bethe approximation, such an inverse problem is known to be tractable.Within this operational framework, we discuss and apply this network-reconstruction method to a small real-world social network, where it is easy to track statuses of its members: the Italian parliament, adopted as a case study. The dataset is made of (cosponsorships of law proposals by parliament members. In previous studies of similar activity-based networks, the graph structure was inferred directly from activity co-occurrences: here we compare our statistical reconstruction with standard methods, outlining discrepancies and advantages.

  13. Acceptable noise level (ANL) and real-world hearing-aid success in Taiwanese listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Zhang, Xuyang

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to investigate the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL), which was measured using Taiwanese and the international speech test signal (ISTS), and real-world hearing-aid success for listeners who were representative of the population commonly seen in clinics. Unaided ANLs were measured pre-hearing-aid fitting. Hearing-aid success was assessed three months post-fitting using the international outcome inventory for hearing aids (IOI-HA) and a hearing-aid use questionnaire. Eighty adults with hearing impairment completed the study. Both Taiwanese and ISTS ANLs were significantly associated with hearing-aid success, with higher ANLs suggesting poorer outcomes. However, the ANL's prediction accuracy for the probability of hearing-aid success was either much lower than that suggested by some literature, or was not much different from that of simply predicting all listeners as successful users. The current study suggested the possibility of using ANL to predict hearing-aid success. However, the usefulness of ANL as a clinical tool is unlikely to be as great as indicated by the literature.

  14. Scan patterns during real-world scene viewing predict individual differences in cognitive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Taylor R; Henderson, John M

    2017-05-01

    From the earliest recordings of eye movements during active scene viewing to the present day, researchers have commonly reported individual differences in eye movement scan patterns under constant stimulus and task demands. These findings suggest viewer individual differences may be important for understanding gaze control during scene viewing. However, the relationship between scan patterns and viewer individual differences during scene viewing remains poorly understood because scan patterns are difficult to analyze. The present study uses a powerful technique called Successor Representation Scanpath Analysis (Hayes, Petrov, & Sederberg, 2011, 2015) to quantify the strength of the association between individual differences in scan patterns during real-world scene viewing and individual differences in viewer intelligence, working memory capacity, and speed of processing. The results of this analysis revealed individual differences in scan patterns that explained more than 40% of the variance in viewer intelligence and working memory capacity measures, and more than a third of the variance in speed of processing measures. The theoretical implications of our findings for models of gaze control and avenues for future individual differences research are discussed.

  15. Google unveils a glimpse of allergic rhinitis in the real world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M-G; Song, W-J; Choi, S; Kim, H; Ha, H; Kim, S-H; Cho, S-H; Min, K-U; Yoon, S; Chang, Y-S

    2015-01-01

    Google Trends (GT) is a Web-based surveillance tool used to explore the searching trends of specific queries on Google. Recent studies have suggested the utility of GT in predicting outbreaks of influenza and other diseases. However, this utility has not been thoroughly evaluated for allergic diseases. Therefore, we investigated the utility of GT for predicting the epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. In the USA, GT for allergic rhinitis showed repetitive seasonality that peaked in late April and early May and then rapidly decreased, and a second small peak occurred in September. These trends are highly correlated with the searching trends for other queries such as 'pollen count', antihistamines such as loratadine and cetirizine (all r > 0.88 and all P Google Trends for allergic rhinitis was similar to the monthly changes in rhinitis symptoms according to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, sales for Claritin(®) and all over-the-counter antihistamines, and the number of monthly page views of 'claritin.com'. In conclusion, GT closely reflects the real-world epidemiology of allergic rhinitis in the USA and could potentially be used as a monitoring tool for allergic rhinitis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Web Browser History Detection as a Real-World Privacy Threat

    CERN Document Server

    Janc, A

    2010-01-01

    Web browser history detection using CSS $visited$ styles has long been dismissed as an issue of marginal impact. However, due to recent changes in Web usage patterns, coupled with browser performance improvements, the long-standing issue has now become a significant threat to the privacy of Internet users. In this paper we analyze the impact of CSS-based history detection and demonstrate the feasibility of conducting practical attacks with minimal resources. We analyze Web browser behavior and detectability of content loaded via standard protocols and with various HTTP response codes. We develop an algorithm for efficient examination of large link sets and evaluate its performance in modern browsers. Compared to existing methods our approach is up to 6 times faster, and is able to detect up to 30,000 visited links per second. We present a novel Web application capable of effectively detecting clients’ browsing histories and discuss real-world results obtained from 271,576 Internet users. Our results indicat...

  17. Energy Consumption Prediction for Electric Vehicles Based on Real-World Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric De Cauwer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle (EV energy consumption is variable and dependent on a number of external factors such as road topology, traffic, driving style, ambient temperature, etc. The goal of this paper is to detect and quantify correlations between the kinematic parameters of the vehicle and its energy consumption. Real-world data of EV energy consumption are used to construct the energy consumption calculation models. Based on the vehicle dynamics equation as underlying physical model, multiple linear regression is used to construct three models. Each model uses a different level of aggregation of the input parameters, allowing predictions using different types of available input parameters. One model uses aggregated values of the kinematic parameters of trips. This model allows prediction with basic, easily available input parameters such as travel distance, travel time, and temperature. The second model extends this by including detailed acceleration data. The third model uses the raw data of the kinematic parameters as input parameters to predict the energy consumption. Using detailed values of kinematic parameters for the prediction in theory increases the link between the statistical model and its underlying physical principles, but requires these parameters to be available as input in order to make predictions. The first two models show similar results. The third model shows a worse fit than the first two, but has a similar accuracy. This model has great potential for future improvement.

  18. Situations in 140 Characters: Assessing Real-World Situations on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Serfass

    Full Text Available Over 20 million Tweets were used to study the psychological characteristics of real-world situations over the course of two weeks. Models for automatically and accurately scoring individual Tweets on the DIAMONDS dimensions of situations were developed. Stable daily and weekly fluctuations in the situations that people experience were identified. Predicted temporal trends were found, providing validation for this new method of situation assessment. On weekdays, Duty peaks in the midmorning and declines steadily thereafter while Sociality peeks in the evening. Negativity is highest during the workweek and lowest on the weekends. pOsitivity shows the opposite pattern. Additionally, gender and locational differences in the situations shared on Twitter are explored. Females share both more emotionally charged (pOsitive and Negative situations, while no differences were found in the amount of Duty experienced by males and females. Differences in the situations shared from Rural and Urban areas were not found. Future applications of assessing situations using social media are discussed.

  19. Real world data of a veterinary teaching hospital in Japan: a pilot survey of prescribed medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriko; Takizawa, Tsuyoshi; Miyamoto, Nao; Funayama, Shinji; Tanaka, Ryo; Okano, Syozo; Iwasaki, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    The prescription data from a digital accounting system of a veterinary teaching hospital collected between 2008 and 2011 in Japan were downloaded, stored in a database and analysed using a statistical analysis software, SAS. Seventy-six per cent of all prescriptions were drugs approved for human beings. The most frequently prescribed category was 'Agents against pathogenic organisms', such as antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents, followed by 'Cardiovascular agents'. Seventy-five per cent of prescribed oral formulations in the category 'Agents against pathogenic organisms' were drugs approved for human beings, while 78 per cent of the injectable prescriptions were those for veterinary. A total of 36 oral antipathogenic products were prescribed, and among them amoxicillin was prescribed the most, followed by cephalexin for human beings and enrofloxacin for veterinary. The pattern of cyclosporin prescription, which is the most prescribed product other than 'Agents against pathogenic organisms', was surveyed. The capsule formulation was primarily used for dogs, while oral solutions were preferably used for cats. This pilot study is the first analytical data of real prescription in hospitals in Japan and one of the longest surveys in veterinary world.

  20. Playing Tetris decreases drug and other cravings in real world settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorka-Brown, Jessica; Andrade, Jackie; Whalley, Ben; May, Jon

    2015-12-01

    Most research on cognitive processes in craving has been carried out in the laboratory and focuses on food craving. This study extends laboratory findings to real world settings and cravings for drugs or activities as well as food. Previous laboratory research has found that playing Tetris reduces craving strength. The present study used an ecological momentary assessment protocol in which 31 undergraduate participants carried iPods for a week and were prompted 7 times each day, by SMS message, to use their iPod to report craving. Participants reported craving target and strength (0-100), whether they indulged their previous craving (yes/no), and whether they were under the influence of alcohol (yes/no). Those randomly assigned to the intervention condition (n=15) then played Tetris for 3min and reported their craving again. Those in the monitoring-only control condition (n=16) provided baseline craving data to test if Tetris reduced the incidence and strength of spontaneous cravings across the week. Playing Tetris decreased craving strength for drugs (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine), food and drink, and activities (sex, exercise, gaming), with a mean reduction of 13.9 percentage points, effect size f(2)=0.11. This effect was consistent across the week. This is the first demonstration that visual cognitive interference can be used in the field to reduce cravings for substances and activities other than eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna Subramaniam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal–striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ participants show hypoactivation within these frontal–striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

  2. Effectiveness of Palivizumab in Preventing RSV Hospitalization in High Risk Children: A Real-World Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Homaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is one of the major causes globally of childhood respiratory morbidity and hospitalization. Palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, has been recommended for high risk infants to prevent severe RSV-associated respiratory illness. This recommendation is based on evidence of efficacy when used under clinical trial conditions. However the real-world effectiveness of palivizumab outside of clinical trials among different patient populations is not well established. We performed a systematic review focusing on postlicensure observational studies of the protective effect of palivizumab prophylaxis for reducing RSV-associated hospitalizations in infants and children at high risk of severe infection. We searched studies published in English between 1 January 1999 and August 2013 and identified 420 articles, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. This review supports the recommended use of palivizumab for reducing RSV-associated hospitalization rates in premature infants born at gestational age < 33 weeks and in children with chronic lung and heart diseases. Data are limited to allow commenting on the protective effect of palivizumab among other high risk children, including those with Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and haematological malignancy, indicating further research is warranted in these groups.

  3. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Hooker, Christine I.; Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal–striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ) participants show hypoactivation within these frontal–striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life. PMID:26413478

  4. Re-Identification of the Many-World Background of Special Relativity as Four-World Background. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of co-existing symmetrical universes, referred to as our (or positive universe and negative universe, isolated and shown to constitute a two-world background for the special theory of relativity (SR in previous papers, encompasses another pair of symmetrical universes, referred to as positive time-universe and negative time-universe. The Euclidean 3-spaces (in the context of SR of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe constitute the time dimensions of our (or positive universe and the negative universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of our universe and the negative universe and the Euclidean 3-spaces of our universe and the negative universe constitute the time dimensions of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe. Thus time is a secondary concept derived from the concept of space according to this paper. The one-dimensional particle or object in time dimension to every three-dimensional particle or object in 3- space in our universe is a three-dimensional particle or object in 3-space in the positive time-universe. Perfect symmetry of natural laws is established among the resulting four universes and two outstanding issues about the new spacetime / intrinsic spacetime geometrical representation of Lorentz transformation / intrinsic Lorentz transformation in the two-world picture, developed in the previous papers, are resolved within the larger four-world picture in this first part of this paper.

  5. Re-Identification of the Many-World Background of Special Relativity as Four-World Background. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of co-existing symmetrical universes, referred to as our (or positive universe and negative universe, isolated and shown to constitute a two-world background for the special theory of relativity (SR in previous papers, encompasses another pair of symmetrical universes, referred to as positive time-universe and negative time-universe. The Euclidean 3-spaces (in the context of SR of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe constitute the time dimensions of our (or positive universe and the negative universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of our universe and the negative universe and the Euclidean 3-spaces of our universe and the negative universe constitute the time dimensions of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe. Thus time is a secondary concept derived from the concept of space according to this paper. The one-dimensional particle or object in time dimension to every three-dimensional particle or object in 3-space in our universe is a three-dimensional particle or object in 3-space in the positive time-universe. Perfect symmetry of natural laws is established among the resulting four universes and two outstanding issues about the new spacetime/intrinsic spacetime geometrical representation of Lorentz transformation/intrinsic Lorentz transformation in the two-world picture, developed in the previous papers, are resolved within the larger four-world picture in this first part of this paper.

  6. Driver trust in five driver assistance technologies following real-world use in four production vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; Cicchino, Jessica B; Reagan, Ian J; Kerfoot, Laura B

    2017-05-29

    Information about drivers' experiences with driver assistance technologies in real driving conditions is sparse. This study characterized driver interactions with forward collision warning, adaptive cruise control, active lane keeping, side-view assist, and lane departure warning systems following real-world use. Fifty-four Insurance Institute for Highway Safety employees participated and drove a 2016 Toyota Prius, 2016 Honda Civic, 2017 Audi Q7, or 2016 Infiniti QX60 for up to several weeks. Participants reported mileage and warnings from the technologies in an online daily-use survey. Participants reported their level of agreement with five statements regarding trust in an online post-use survey. Responses were averaged to create a composite measure of trust ranging from -2 (strongly disagree) to +2 (strongly agree) for each technology. Mixed-effect regression models were constructed to compare trust among technologies and separately among the study vehicles. Participants' free-response answers about what they liked least about each system were coded and examined. Participants reported driving 33,584 miles during 4 months of data collection. At least one forward collision warning was reported in 26% of the 354 daily reports. The proportion of daily reports indicating a forward collision warning was much larger for the Honda (70%) than for the Audi (18%), Infiniti (15%), and Toyota (10%). Trust was highest for side-view assist (0.98) and lowest for active lane keeping (0.20). Trust in side-view assist was significantly higher than trust in active lane keeping and lane departure warning (0.53). Trust in active lane keeping was significantly lower than trust in adaptive cruise control (0.67) and forward collision warning (0.71). Trust in adaptive cruise control was higher for the Audi (0.72) and Toyota (0.75) compared with the Honda (0.30), and significantly higher for the Infiniti (0.93). Trust in Infiniti's side-view assist (0.58) was significantly lower than

  7. Bisecting real and fake body parts: effects of prism adaptation after right brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Casanova, Debora; Maravita, Angelo; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The representation of body parts holds a special status in the brain, due to their prototypical shape and the contribution of multisensory (visual and somatosensory-proprioceptive) information. In a previous study (Sposito et al., 2010), we showed that patients with left unilateral spatial neglect exhibit a rightward bias in setting the midpoint of their left forearm, which becomes larger when bisecting a cylindrical object comparable in size. This body part advantage, found also in control participants, suggests partly different processes for computing the extent of body parts and objects. In this study we tested 16 right-brain-damaged patients, and 10 unimpaired participants, on a manual bisection task of their own (real) left forearm, or a size-matched fake forearm. We then explored the effects of adaptation to rightward displacing prism exposure, which brings about leftward aftereffects. We found that all participants showed prism adaptation (PA) and aftereffects, with right-brain-damaged patients exhibiting a reduction of the rightward bias for both real and fake forearm, with no overall differences between them. Second, correlation analyses highlighted the role of visual and proprioceptive information for the metrics of body parts. Third, single-patient analyses showed dissociations between real and fake forearm bisections, and the effects of PA, as well as a more frequent impairment with fake body parts. In sum, the rightward bias shown by right-brain-damaged patients in bisecting body parts is reduced by prism exposure, as other components of the neglect syndrome; discrete spatial representations for real and fake body parts, for which visual and proprioceptive codes play different roles, are likely to exist. Multisensory information seems to render self bodily segments more resistant to the disruption brought about by right-hemisphere injury.

  8. Assessing the real-world cost-effectiveness of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER-2/neu positive breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hedden, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Among women with surgically removed, high-risk HER-2\\/neu-positive breast cancer, trastuzumab has demonstrated significant improvements in disease-free and overall survival. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the currently recommended 12-month adjuvant protocol of trastuzumab using a Markov modeling approach and real-world cost data.

  9. Evaluation of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a Predictor of Adolescent Real-World Risk-Taking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejuez, C. W.; Aklin, Will M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Pedulla, Christina M.

    2003-01-01

    A sample of 26 adolescents tested the utility of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) as a behavioral measure of risk-taking propensity. Data indicate that riskyness on the BART was related to self-reported engagement in real-world risk-taking behaviors. These data suggest that the BART may be a useful addition to self-report batteries for the…

  10. Effects of an Augmented Reality-Based Educational Game on Students' Learning Achievements and Attitudes in Real-World Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Wu, Po-Han; Chen, Chi-Chang; Tu, Nien-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) has been recognized as a potential technology to help students link what they are observing in the real world to their prior knowledge. One of the most challenging issues of AR-based learning is the provision of effective strategy to help students focus on what they need to observe in the field. In this study, a competitive…

  11. Virtual Games and Real-World Communities: Environments That Constrain and Enable Physical Activity in Games for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mary K.; Hagood, Danielle; Ching, Cynthia Carter

    2017-01-01

    This article examines two communities of youth who play an online game that integrates physical activity into virtual game play. Participating youth from two research sites--an urban middle school and a suburban junior high school--wore FitBits that tracked their physical activity and then integrated their real-world energy into game-world…

  12. Ultra-thin strut cobalt chromium bare metal stent usage in a complex real-world setting. (SOLSTICE Registry)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, M. J.; Stella, P. R.; Dens, J.; McKenzie, J. M.; Park, K. S.; Frambach, P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To report clinical follow-up at 6 months after implantation of the ultra-thin strut cobalt chromiumSolarFlex stent in a real-world setting. Methods and results Patients (n=240) with single or multiple vessel coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at four

  13. Solving Real World Problems with Alternate Reality Gaming: Student Experiences in the Global Village Playground Capstone Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondlinger, Mary Jo; McLeod, Julie K.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Village Playground (GVP) was a capstone learning experience designed to address institutional assessment needs while providing an integrated and authentic learning experience for students aimed at fostering complex problem solving, as well as critical and creative thinking. In the GVP, students work on simulated and real-world problems…

  14. Challenges in Seeing Data as Useful Evidence in Making Predictions of the Probability of a Real-World Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between deterministic and probabilistic reasoning when students experiment on a real-world situation involving uncertainty. Twelve students, aged eight to nine years, participated in an outdoor teaching activity that called for reflection on the growth of sunflowers within the frame of a sunflower lottery,…

  15. On the early detection of threats in the real world based on open-source information on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Rajadell Rojas, O.; Worm, D.T.H.; Versloot, C.A.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activities of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to detect threats in an early stage and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time

  16. How Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Spontaneously Attend to Real-World Scenes: Use of a Change Blindness Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhauser, Michal; Aran, Adi; Grynszpan, Ouriel

    2018-01-01

    Visual attention of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was assessed using a change blindness paradigm. Twenty-five adolescents with ASD aged 12-18 years and 25 matched typically developing (TD) adolescents viewed 36 pairs of digitized real-world images. Each pair of images was displayed in a "flicker paradigm" whereby a…

  17. Brief report: relationship between self-awareness of real-world behavior and treatment outcome in autism spectrum disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E.W.M.; Marijnissen, N.; Berger, H.J.C.; Oudshoorn, J.; Sijde, A. van der; Teunisse, J.P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of self-awareness of real-world behavior on treatment outcome in adolescents with ASD. For this purpose we followed 28 adolescents with ASD during their first year of specialized treatment. Results showed that better self-awareness at

  18. Using Real-Worldness and Cultural Difference to Enhance Student Learning in a Foundation Phase Life Skills Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, Mariette; Ebrahim, Hasina Banu

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to explore how real-world experience, inclusive of engagement with cultural differences, influences the quality of students' learning in a Life Skills module in pre-service Foundation Phase teacher education. The study was conducted with 147 students in their final year of the Bachelor of Education (Foundation Phase specialisation), at…

  19. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of risk minimisation measures: the application of a conceptual framework to Danish real-world dabigatran data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeland, Martin Erik; Laursen, Mona Vestergaard; Callréus, Torbjörn

    2017-06-01

    For both marketing authorization holders and regulatory authorities, evaluating the effectiveness of risk minimization measures is now an integral part of pharmacovigilance in the European Union. The overall aim of activities in this area is to assess the performance of risk minimization measures implemented in order to ensure a positive benefit-risk balance in patients treated with a medicinal product. Following a review of the relevant literature, we developed a conceptual framework consisting of four domains (data, knowledge, behaviour and outcomes) intended for the evaluation of risk minimization measures put into practice in the Danish health-care system. For the implementation of the framework, four classes of monitoring variables can be named and defined: patient descriptors, performance-related indicators of knowledge, behaviour and outcomes. We reviewed the features of the framework when applied to historical, real-world data following the introduction of dabigatran in Denmark for the prophylactic treatment of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The application of the framework provided useful graphical displays and an opportunity for a statistical evaluation (interrupted time series analysis) of a regulatory intervention. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 Commonwealth of Australia. Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Incidental memory of younger and older adults for objects encountered in a real world context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Qin

    Full Text Available Effects of context on the perception of, and incidental memory for, real-world objects have predominantly been investigated in younger individuals, under conditions involving a single static viewpoint. We examined the effects of prior object context and object familiarity on both older and younger adults' incidental memory for real objects encountered while they traversed a conference room. Recognition memory for context-typical and context-atypical objects was compared with a third group of unfamiliar objects that were not readily named and that had no strongly associated context. Both older and younger adults demonstrated a typicality effect, showing significantly lower 2-alternative-forced-choice recognition of context-typical than context-atypical objects; for these objects, the recognition of older adults either significantly exceeded, or numerically surpassed, that of younger adults. Testing-awareness elevated recognition but did not interact with age or with object type. Older adults showed significantly higher recognition for context-atypical objects than for unfamiliar objects that had no prior strongly associated context. The observation of a typicality effect in both age groups is consistent with preserved semantic schemata processing in aging. The incidental recognition advantage of older over younger adults for the context-typical and context-atypical objects may reflect aging-related differences in goal-related processing, with older adults under comparatively more novel circumstances being more likely to direct their attention to the external environment, or age-related differences in top-down effortful distraction regulation, with older individuals' attention more readily captured by salient objects in the environment. Older adults' reduced recognition of unfamiliar objects compared to context-atypical objects may reflect possible age differences in contextually driven expectancy violations. The latter finding underscores the

  2. The real world mental health needs of heart failure patients are not reflected by the depression randomized controlled trial evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip J Tully

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: International depression screening guidelines in heart failure (HF are partly based on depression treatment efficacy from randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Our aim was to test the external validity of depression RCT criteria in a sample of real-world HF patients. METHODS: HF patients admitted to 3 hospitals in South Australia were referred to a HF psychologist if not already receiving current psychiatric management by psychologist or psychiatrist elsewhere. Screening and referral protocol consisted of the following; (a. Patient Health Questionnaire ≥ 10; (b. Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire ≥ 7; (c. positive response to 1 item panic attack screener; (d. evidence of suicidality. Patients were evaluated against the most common RCT exclusion criteria personality disorder, high suicide risk, cognitive impairment, psychosis, alcohol or substance abuse or dependency, bi-polar depression. RESULTS: Total 81 HF patients were referred from 404 HF admissions, and 73 were assessed (age 60.6 ± 13.4, 47.9% female. Nearly half (47% met at least 1 RCT exclusion criterion, most commonly personality disorder (28.5%, alcohol/substance abuse (17.8% and high suicide risk (11.0%. RCT ineligibility criteria was more frequent among patients with major depression (76.5% vs. 46.2%, p<.01 and dysthymia (26.5% vs. 7.7%, p = .03 but not significantly associated with anxiety disorders. RCT ineligible patients reported greater severity of depression (M = 16.6 ± 5.0 vs. M = 12.9 ± 7.2, p = .02 and were higher consumers of HF psychotherapy services (M = 11.5 ± 4.7 vs. M = 8.5 ± 4.8, p = .01. CONCLUSION: In this real-world sample comparable in size to recent RCT intervention arms, patients with depression disorders presented with complex psychiatric needs including comorbid personality disorders, alcohol/substance use and suicide risk. These findings suggest external validity of depression screening and RCTs could serve as a basis for

  3. Hospitalizations During Systemic Therapy for Metastatic Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review of Real World vs Clinical Trial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Rebecca M; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Krzyzanowska, Monika K

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the risk of hospitalization due to treatment-related toxic effects is essential for patients, their clinicians, and health systems. Unplanned hospitalizations represent potential gaps in patient care; definition of these gaps allows characterization and identification of areas for quality improvement. To compare the rates of hospitalization in patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (mNSCLC) receiving chemotherapy in the "real world" vs clinical trial settings and to identify factors associated with hospitalization. A systematic review of Medline and EMBASE was conducted for records dating from database inception (1946 and 1974, respectively) through December 2014 to identify articles reporting rates of hospitalization during chemotherapy in patients with cancer. Both observational studies and clinical trials were eligible. This report focuses on patients with mNSCLC receiving chemotherapy because data were available for this clinical scenario in both the clinical trial and observational setting, allowing comparison. Summary statistics were used to describe results, and the χ2 test was used to compare hospitalization rates. Of the 74 articles reporting hospitalization rates during chemotherapy, 10 studies, all published after 2004, examined chemotherapy in mNSCLC, 5 randomized clinical trials (3962 patients) and 5 observational studies (8624 patients). Chemotherapy regimens included doublet therapy, single-agent therapy, or chemotherapy type unspecified. The real world cohort was older (71 vs 63 years). All real world studies reported on comorbidities, while clinical trials reported performance status. The aggregate hospitalization rate among real world patients was significantly higher than among trial patients (51% vs 16%) (odds ratio, 7.7; 95% CI, 7.0-8.4; P chemotherapy were associated with hospitalization during chemotherapy in clinical trials, while type of chemotherapy was a risk factor in observational studies. Clinical trials in

  4. Climate-Change Problem Solving: Structured Approaches Based on Real-World Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, R. B.; Briley, L. J.; Brown, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nearly two decades of experience using both seasonal and long-term climate model projections has led to the identification of a set of characteristics of the successful use of climate knowledge in planning and adaptation applications. These characteristics include end-to-end knowledge systems, co-generation or co-production of solution approaches by scientists and practitioners, and tailoring climate model information to the decision-making processes of the specific application. Glisaclimate.org strives to apply the growing body of research into the successful use of climate knowledge using a set of prototype, real-world applications. We describe an online problem-solving environment whose design is based on the characteristics of the successful use of climate predictions and projections by practitioners such as resource managers, urban planners, public health professionals, and policy makers. Design features of Glisaclimate.org include: Based on principles extracted from social science studies of the use of climate information. Anchored on structured templates of problem solving with the identification of common steps in problem solving that are repeated in one application to the next. Informed by interviews with real-world users who desire to incorporate climate-science knowledge into their decision making. Built with open-source tools to allow participation of a community of developers and to facilitate the sustainability of the effort. A structured approach to problem solving is described by four functions of information management. At the foundation of problem solving is the collection of existing information, an inventory stage. Following the collection of the information there are analysis and evaluation stages. In the analysis stage interfaces are described and knowledge gaps are identified. The evaluation stage assesses the quality of the information and the relevance of the information to the specific attributes of the problem. The development of plans

  5. Real-world data on eslicarbazepine acetate as add-on to antiepileptic monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, M; McMurray, R; Bagul, M; Sousa, R; Kockelmann, E

    2016-07-01

    To assess retention, tolerability, and safety, efficacy and effects on quality of life (QoL) of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) add-on treatment over 6 months in a real-world adult population with partial-onset seizures. This non-interventional, multicenter, prospective study was performed in eight European countries. Adult patients (n = 247) for whom the physician had decided to initiate ESL as add-on to an existing antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy were invited to participate. The study comprised three visits: baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Data on ESL retention, efficacy, tolerability, safety, and QoL were collected. After 6 months, the retention rate of ESL was 82.2%, and 81.8% of patients reported a reduction of seizure frequency of at least 50%; 39.2% of patients reported seizure freedom at this time. The mean QOLIE-10 score improved from 2.9 (SD ± 0.8) at baseline to 2.1 (SD ± 0.8) after 6 months. 109 adverse events (AEs) were reported in 57 patients (26.0%); the majority were rated as related to ESL by the investigator and led to a discontinuation of ESL in 25 patients (11.4%). Eight patients (3.7%) suffered at least one serious AE. The most frequently reported AEs were dizziness, headache, convulsion, and fatigue. This study shows that ESL was well tolerated and efficacious as add-on therapy to one baseline AED. The use of ESL in patients less refractory than those included in previous clinical trials led to higher responder and seizure freedom rates. No new safety issues were observed. © 2016 Esai Europe Ltd. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hard and Soft Selection Revisited: How Evolution by Natural Selection Works in the Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznick, David

    2016-01-01

    The modern synthesis of evolutionary biology unified Darwin's natural selection with Mendelian genetics, but at the same time it created the dilemma of genetic load. Lewontin and Hubby's (1966) and Harris's (1966) characterization of genetic variation in natural populations increased the apparent burden of this load. Neutrality or near neutrality of genetic variation was one mechanism proposed for the revealed excessive genetic variation. Bruce Wallace coined the term "soft selection" to describe an alternative way for natural selection to operate that was consistent with observed variation. He envisioned nature as presenting ecological vacancies that could be filled by diverse genotypes. Survival and successful reproduction was a combined function of population density, genotype, and genotype frequencies, rather than a fixed value of the relative fitness of each genotype. My goal in this review is to explore the importance of soft selection in the real world. My motive and that of my colleagues as described here is not to explain what maintains genetic variation in natural populations, but rather to understand the factors that shape how organisms adapt to natural environments. We characterize how feedbacks between ecology and evolution shape both evolution and ecology. These feedbacks are mediated by density- and frequency-dependent selection, the mechanisms that underlie soft selection. Here, I report on our progress in characterizing these types of selection with a combination of a consideration of the published literature and the results from my collaborators' and my research on natural populations of guppies. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Quality of diabetes mellitus therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease in the real world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Giampietro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is very often among diabetic patients. Some oral antidiabetic agents are not recommended in the presence of CKD. Aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of diabetes mellitus (DM treatment in nephrophatic patients in the real world. A total of 265 subjects with type 2 DM, consecutively admitted to the internal medicine departments of two hospitals in Rome, were recruited. Patients hospitalized for hypoglycemia, decompensated DM, acute kidney failure or worsening nephropathy were excluded. For each patient, the following data were collected: age, gender, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the MDRD (modification of diet in renal disease study equation, type of antidiabetic drug treatment. A total of 265 subjects were studied, 127 male (47.9% and 138 female (52.1%. The mean age was 77.5 years. The mean of glycemia glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c value was 57.5 mmol/mol (7.4%. 137 patients (51.7% were treated with oral antidiabetic agents, 29 (10% with both oral antidiabetic agents and insulin, 90 (34% with insulin alone, 8 (3% with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, 1 (0.4% with incretin agents plus oral antidiabetic drugs. According to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI classification of CKD, the sample was divided into 5 groups using eGFR criteria. For each group, mean HbA1c values, type of antidiabetic treatment, appropriateness of therapy according to guidelines and how it may affect the HbA1c levels were considered. Our data show that 30.5% of patients with CKD stage 3-5 is treated with drugs not recommended by current guidelines.

  8. Treatment of chronic hepatitis D patients with pegylated interferon: a real-world experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Zaigham; Memon, Mohammad S; Mithani, Hammad; Jafri, Wasim; Hamid, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Published experience of treating chronic hepatitis D patients with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)-α is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 48 weeks of treatment with PEG-IFN in naive patients outside the clinical trial setting, in the real world. Patients with chronic hepatitis D were treated with PEG-IFN. The primary end points were sustained clearance of HDV RNA and normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at 24 weeks post-treatment. The total number of patients treated with PEG-IFN was 104; 91 males, mean age ±SD 30.1 ±10.0 years (range 15-55). Cirrhosis was present in 41 patients. With an intention-to-treat analysis, end of treatment virological response (ETR) was achieved in 44 (42.3%), normalization of ALT in 38 (35%) and a combined response in 23 (22.1%) patients. Sustained virological response (SVR) at 24 weeks post-treatment was seen in 24 (23.1%) patients each for the virological and biochemical responses and in 13 (12.5%) as combined response. Both ETR and SVR were associated with a negative HDV RNA at 24 weeks of treatment (P=0.001 and P=0.000, respectively). Detectable HDV RNA at this point had a positive predictive value of 0.95 (range 0.85-0.99) for detectable RNA at 6 months post-treatment. End of treatment biological response, that is, normal ALT at the end of treatment was also a predictor of ETR and SVR (P=0.004 and P=0.041, respectively). Treatment with PEG-IFN for hepatitis D is of limited efficacy. Detectable HDV RNA at 24 weeks of treatment is a predictor for a failed SVR.

  9. [Drug combination characteristics of Shenxiong glucose injection in treating ischemic cerebrovascular disease in real world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Qian; Xie, Yan-Ming; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Yin; Jia, Ping-Ping; Zhuang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the clinical drug use characteristics of Shenxiong glucose injection in the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. From hospital information system (HIS) of 19 hospitals over China, the basic information of patients with Shenxiong glucose injection for ischemic cerebrovascular disease, traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine diagnosis information, order information, and laboratory examination information were extracted. Then Apriori algorithm was used to construct the model, and the association analysis was performed by using Clementine 12 to analyze the clinical drug use characteristics of Shenxiong glucose injection in the real world. A total of 411 kinds of Western medicines and 110 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines were included in 784 cases of drug combination. In the drug combination, aspirin had the highest frequency in Western medicine, which was used in 515 cases (65.69%); Ginkgo biloba extract had the highest frequency in Chinese medicine, which was used in 121 cases (15.43%). Atorvastatin+aspirin (association rules of 10.15%) was the most common Western medicine pairs; atorvastatin+clopidogrel+aspirin (association support 5.56%) was the most common triple Western medicine therapy, often combined with antibiotics and blood stasis drugs in use. Results showed that Shenxiong glucose injection was often combined with antiplatelet drugs and blood stasis drugs in the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease clinically, contributing to the enhancement of platelet aggregation and blood stasis. The incompatibility of combined application of drugs shall be noted to ensure the clinical medication safety and efficacy of the combined drug use. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. External validation of the SEDAN score: The real world practice of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sombat Muengtaweepongsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH is the most serious adverse event in stroke patients who received i.v. rt-PA and is usually associated with poor outcomes. The SEDAN score is built up to predict sICH. We aim to externally validate the SEDAN score in Thai patients from single center in the real world practice. Methods: The SEDAN score of stroke patients treated with intravenous rt-PA at Thammasat University Hospital from January 2010 to June 2012 was calculated. Patients were divided into three groups including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH, asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (AsICH and no intracerebral hemorrhage (NoICH. The primary outcome of analyses was sICH. Each parameter of the SEDAN score and correlation between score and sICH were analyzed with univariate and multivariate model. Results: 295 patients (18.6% of stroke admission were treated with i.v. rt-PA. 13 patients (4.4% had sICH and 31 patients (10.4% had AsICH. Baseline blood sugar >12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10(SEDAN were associated with sICH by univariate analysis (P value = 0.018, 12 mmol/l, early infarction, hyperdense cerebral artery, age >75 years-old and NIHSS ≥10 were 1.248, 2.503, 1.107, 1.532 and 1.263 respectively. Conclusions: The SEDAN score was practical to use and predictive in Thai population. Each parameter of the SEDAN score was an independent risk factor for sICH after treatment with i.v. rt-PA.

  11. Optimizing the energy efficiency of capacitive deionization reactors working under real-world conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Quismondo, Enrique; Santos, Cleis; Lado, Julio; Palma, Jesús; Anderson, Marc A

    2013-10-15

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a rapidly emerging desalination technology that promises to deliver clean water while storing energy in the electrical double layer (EDL) near a charged surface in a capacitive format. Whereas most research in this subject area has been devoted to using CDI for removing salts, little attention has been paid to the energy storage aspect of the technology. However, it is energy storage that would allow this technology to compete with other desalination processes if this energy could be stored and reused efficiently. This requires that the operational aspects of CDI be optimized with respect to energy used both during the removal of ions as well as during the regeneration cycle. This translates into the fact that currents applied during deionization (charging the EDL) will be different from those used in regeneration (discharge). This paper provides a mechanistic analysis of CDI in terms of energy consumption and energy efficiencies during the charging and discharging of the system under several scenarios. In a previous study, we proposed an operational buffer mode in which an effective separation of deionization and regeneration steps would allow one to better define the energy balance of this CDI process. This paper reports on using this concept, for optimizing energy efficiency, as well as to improve upon the electro-adsorption of ions and system lifetime. Results obtained indicate that real-world operational modes of running CDI systems promote the development of new and unexpected behavior not previously found, mainly associated with the inhomogeneous distribution of ions across the structure of the electrodes.

  12. Remote FLS testing in the real world: ready for "prime time".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrainec, Allan; Vassiliou, Melina; Jimenez, M Carolina; Henao, Oscar; Kaneva, Pepa; Matt Ritter, E

    2016-07-01

    Maintaining the existing FLS test centers requires considerable investment in human and financial resources. It can also be particularly challenging for those outside of North America to become certified due to the limited number of international test centers. Preliminary work suggests that it is possible to reliably score the FLS manual skills component remotely using low-cost videoconferencing technology. Significant work remains to ensure that testing procedures adhere to standards defined by SAGES for this approach to be considered equivalent to standard on-site testing. To validate the integrity and validity of the FLS manual skills examination administered remotely in a real-world environment according to FLS testing protocols and to evaluate participants' experience with the setting. Individuals with various levels of training from the University of Toronto completed a pre- and a post-test questionnaire. Participants presented to one of the two FLS testing rooms available for the study, each connected via Skype to a separate room with a FLS proctor who administered and scored the test remotely (RP). An on-site proctor (OP) was present in the room as a control. An invigilator was also present in the testing room to follow directions from the RP and ensure the integrity of test materials. Twenty-one participants were recruited, and 20 completed the test. There was no significant difference between scores by RP and OP. Interrater reliability between the RP and OP was excellent. One critical error was missed by the RP, but this would not have affected the test outcome. Participants reported being highly satisfied. We demonstrate that proctors located remotely can administer the FLS skills test in a secure and reliable fashion, with excellent interrater reliability compared to an on-site proctor. Remote proctoring of the FLS examination could become a strategy to increase certification rates while containing costs.

  13. Carbon reduction in the real world: how the UK will surpass its Kyoto obligations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyre, Nick [Energy Saving Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from UK energy use have fallen by more than 20% over the last 30 years, and carbon intensity --- carbon emissions per unit of GDP --- has halved. These reductions have been achieved by a combination of decarbonisation of the energy system and substantial improvements in energy efficiency. Use of natural gas in power generation has been a big factor in recent years, but energy efficiency improvements in households and particularly industry have been more important over a longer period. Government policies designed primarily to address climate change have not been important contributors, until recently. Future reductions in emissions will require more proactive policies. However, they are possible without any economic difficulties, notably by adopting cost-effective energy efficiency measures, using new renewable energy sources and reducing dependence on private cars. These policies will improve economic efficiency. The new UK Climate Change Programme includes policies that combine regulation, investment, fiscal measures and other economic instruments. By working with the grain of other social, environmental and economic policies, they can achieve far more than a carbon tax alone, set at any politically acceptable level. Modelling the costs of emission reductions using a carbon tax as the only instrument would not only massively over-estimate costs, it would bear little resemblance to real world politics. The paper demonstrates that a more diverse set of policy instruments is likely to be an effective and politically acceptable approach in a mature industrial economy. It is concluded that the UK's Kyoto target of a 12.5% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is not challenging. The UK Government's target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 20% between 1990 and 2010 is also achievable. By 2010 per capita emissions from the UK will be well below 2.5tC per year. Claims that some countries, notably the USA, could not reduce per

  14. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL EDITORS' VIEWS ON REAL-WORLD EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehrlein, Elisabeth M; Graff, Jennifer S; Perfetto, Eleanor M; Mullins, C Daniel; Dubois, Robert W; Anyanwu, Chinenye; Onukwugha, Eberechukwu

    2018-02-08

    Peer-review publication is a critical step to the translation and dissemination of research results into clinical practice guidelines, health technology assessment (HTA) and payment policies, and clinical care. The objective of this study was to examine current views of journal editors regarding: (i) The value of real-world evidence (RWE) and how it compares with other types of studies; (ii) Education and/or resources journal editors provide to their peer reviewers or perceive as needed for authors, reviewers, and editors related to RWE. Journal editors' views on the value of RWE and editorial procedures for RWE manuscripts were obtained through telephone interviews, a survey, and in-person, roundtable discussion. In total, seventy-nine journals were approached, resulting in fifteen telephone interviews, seventeen survey responses and eight roundtable participants. RWE was considered valuable by all interviewed editors (n = 15). Characteristics of high-quality RWE manuscripts included: novelty/relevance, rigorous methodology, and alignment of data to research question. Editors experience challenges finding peer reviewers; however, these challenges persist across all study designs. Journals generally do not provide guidance, assistance, or training for reviewers, including for RWE studies. Health policy/health services research (HSR) editors were more likely than specialty or general medicine editors to participate in this study, potentially indicating that HSR researchers are more comfortable/interested in RWE. Editors report favorable views of RWE studies provided studies examine important questions and are methodologically rigorous. Improving peer-review processes across all study designs, has the potential to improve the evidence base for decision making, including HTA.

  15. Crash test ratings and real-world frontal crash outcomes: a CIREN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Burch, Cynthia; Kerns, Timothy; Dischinger, Patricia C; Ho, Shiu

    2010-05-01

    To establish whether the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) offset crash test ratings are linked to different mortality rates in real world frontal crashes. The study used Crash Injury Research Engineering Network drivers of age older than 15 years who were involved in frontal crashes. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network is a convenience sample of persons injured in crashes with at least one Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 3+ injury or two Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 2+ injuries who were either treated at a Level I trauma center or died. Cases were grouped by IIHS crash test ratings (i.e., good, acceptable, marginal, poor, and not rated). Those rated marginal were excluded because of their small numbers. Mortality rates experienced by these ratings-based groups were compared using the Mantel-Haenszel chi test. Multiple logistic regression models were built to adjust for confounders (i.e., occupant, vehicular, and crash factors). A total of 1,226 cases were distributed within not rated (59%), poor (12%), average (16%), and good (14%) categories. Those rated good and average experienced a lower unadjusted mortality rate. After adjustment by confounders, those in vehicles rated good experienced a lower risk of death (adjusted OR 0.38 [0.16-0.90]) than those in vehicles rated poor. There was no significant effect for "acceptable" rating. Other factors influencing the occurrence of death were age, DeltaV >or=70 km/h, high body mass index, and lack of restraint use. After adjusting for occupant, vehicular, and crash factors, drivers of vehicles rated good by the IIHS experienced a lower risk of death in frontal crashes.

  16. Real-world evidence of safety profile of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in an Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prashant; Sheth, Jay; Anantharaman, Giridhar; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety profile of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) as an off-label pharmacotherapeutic agent for various ocular conditions. Retrospective analysis was carried out on 3806 injections of 1761 patients that were administered with intravitreal bevacizumab injection at a tertiary eye care center in India. The injections were administered on a pro re nata basis for various indications such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME), and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). The mean age of the patients was 61.8 ± 11.59 years. A total of 59.2% of the patients were men and 40.8% women. The most common indications for which the injection was administered were DME (27.5%), AMD (26%), and branch RVO (12.3%). Among the ocular side effects, endophthalmitis was seen in three eyes (0.08%), retinal breaks in none of the eyes whereas 35 eyes had a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) >21 mmHg (0.9%). Preexisting glaucoma was present in four eyes while remaining 31 eyes did not have any history of glaucoma. IOP rise was significantly more in eyes with preexisting glaucoma as compared to nonglaucomatous eyes (P = 0.04). No systemic adverse events were noted in our study population. Our study provides real-world evidence regarding the safety profile of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin). These data suggest that bevacizumab is a safe and economical pharmacotherapeutic agent that can be administered for a variety of ocular disorders. Analyzing the safety of bevacizumab is necessary for a developing country like India as the majority of the population cannot afford the costly ranibizumab as compared to bevacizumab for ocular healthcare.

  17. [Risk factors for Abacavir-induced hypersensibility syndrome in the "real world"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirouze, C; Hustache-Mathieu, L; Rougeot, C; Drobacheff, C; Gil, H; Faller, J P; Lebrun, C; Estavoyer, J M; Hénon, T; Hoen, B

    2004-11-01

    Abacavir (ABC) is a generally well-tolerated NRTI. However, up to 5% of patients may develop hypersensitivity syndrome (HSS) within the first weeks of treatment. The objectives of this study were to describe the side effects of ABC, to evaluate the incidence of the ABC-HSS, and to identify the risk factors of HSS after first exposure to ABC in a cohort of patients followed up in a university HIV clinic. The charts of all HIV-infected patients who started ABC between February 1998 and May 2002 were reviewed. HSS was defined as the onset, within 8 weeks of ABC initiation, of either a skin rash associated with at least one of the following symptoms (fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, respiratory symptoms, myalgia, malaise) or at least three of the above symptoms in the absence of rash. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors of HSS. Of the 191 patients studied (134 M, 57 F, mean age 39 years), 53 (27.8%) presented with manifestations that were regarded as potential side-effects of ABC. Ten (5.2%) developed HSS, none of whom died. Two factors were independently associated with an increased risk of HSS: history of allergy to nevirapine (OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.6-40.5, p = 0.02), and being naïve to ART (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.2-28.5, p = 0.04). This study "in the real world" confirms that the incidence of ABC-induced HSS is of about 5%. It also confirms that HSS occurs more frequently in patients with a history of allergy to nevirapine and in ART-naïve patients.

  18. Memory self-efficacy beliefs modulate brain activity when encoding real-world future intentions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoria Kalpouzos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While the use of different cognitive strategies when encoding episodic memory information has been extensively investigated, modulation of brain activity by memory self-efficacy beliefs has not been studied yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen young adults completed the prospective and retrospective metamemory questionnaire, providing individual subjective judgments of everyday memory function. The day after, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the participants had to memorize real-world intentions (e.g., return a book to the library, which were performed later on in a virtual environment. Participants also performed offline cognitive tasks evaluating executive functions, working memory, and attention. During encoding, activity was found in medial temporal lobe, left prefrontal cortex, medial parietal regions, occipital areas, and regions involved in (premotor processes. Based on results from the questionnaire, the group was split into low and high memory self-efficacy believers. Comparison of encoding-related brain activity between the 2 groups revealed that the low memory self-efficacy believers activated more the hippocampus bilaterally, right posterior parahippocampal cortex, precuneus, and left lateral temporal cortex. By contrast, more activity was found in dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus for the high-memory believers. In addition, the low-memory believers performed more poorly at feature binding and (at trend manipulating visuospatial information in working memory. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, these findings indicate that memory self-efficacy beliefs modulate brain activity during intentional encoding. Low memory self-efficacy believers activated more brain areas involved in visuospatial operations such as the hippocampus. Possibly, this increase reflects attempts to compensate for poor performance of certain neurocognitive processes, such as feature binding. By contrast, high-memory believers seemed to

  19. Real-world activity, fuel use, and emissions of diesel side-loader refuse trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gurdas S.; Frey, H. Christopher; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Jones, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Diesel refuse trucks have the worst fuel economy of onroad highway vehicles. The real-world effectiveness of recently introduced emission controls during low speed and low engine load driving has not been verified for these vehicles. A portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was used to measure rates of fuel use and emissions on six side-loader refuse trucks. The objectives were to: (1) characterize activity, fuel use, and emissions; (2) evaluate variability between cycles and trucks; and (3) compare results with the MOVES emission factor model. Quality assured data cover 210,000 s and 550 miles of operation during which the trucks collected 4200 cans and 50 tons of waste material. The average fuel economy was 2.6 mpg. Trash collection contributed 70%-80% of total fuel use and emissions. The daily activity Operating Mode (OpMode) distribution and cycle average fuel use and emissions is different from previously used cycles such as Central Business District (CBD), New York Garbage Truck (NYGT), and William H. Martin (WHM). NOx emission rates for trucks with selective catalytic reduction were over 90% lower than those for trucks without. Similarly, trucks with diesel particulate filters had over 90% lower particulate matter (PM) emissions than trucks without. Compared to unloaded trucks, loaded truck averaged 18% lower fuel economy while NOx and PM emissions were higher by 65% and 16%, respectively. MOVES predicted values are highly correlated to empirical data; however, MOVES estimates are 37% lower for NOx and 300% higher for PM emission rates. The data presented here can be used to develop more representative cycles and improve emission factors for side-loader refuse trucks, which in turn can improve the accuracy of refuse truck emission inventories.

  20. Survival of melanoma patients treated with novel drugs: retrospective analysis of real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowska, Marta; Ekk-Cierniakowski, Paweł; Czepielewska, Edyta; Wysoczański, Wojciech; Matusewicz, Wojciech; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Recently, several new drugs have been licensed for advanced melanoma therapy, significantly changing the therapeutic landscape. Ipilimumab and vemurafenib were the first drugs that demonstrated a survival benefit over the long-standing standard therapy with dacarbazine. However, the comparative efficacy of these novel drugs has not been properly assessed yet. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the Polish population treated between January 2012 and October 2016 with one of the following agents: ipilimumab (IPI), vemurafenib (VEM), dabrafenib (DAB), and classic chemotherapy (CTH). The main objective was to assess the overall survival of melanoma patients treated in real-world conditions, taking into account sequences of treatment. We identified 3397 patients with malignant melanoma treated for the first line and the second line. Patients receiving CTH were significantly older than those treated with the novel drugs. At the same time, the population treated with immunotherapy and targeted therapy was well balanced. Overall survival was significantly better for the novel drugs compared to classic chemotherapy in both lines (for the first line, VEM vs CTH HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.65-0.81; p melanoma provide a significant advantage in survival over classic chemotherapy. Comparative assessment of IPI and VEM indicated no difference, but only immunotherapy-treated patients achieved long-lasting results. Our data on sequential treatment indicate that immunotherapy might be a better option for the first line rather than targeted therapy, but that conclusion requires further studies of the best way to manage the treatment of melanoma patients.

  1. Treatment patterns with etanercept and adalimumab for psoriatic diseases in a real-world setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara H.; Fox, Kathleen M.; Watson, Crystal; Gandra, Shravanthi R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined real-world etanercept and adalimumab treatment patterns in patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, or both. Methods: This retrospective analysis utilized data from patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, or both from a large, US claims database. Outcome measures included persistence on index therapy; pauses (7–59 days) and gaps (≥60 days) in therapy; and rates of discontinuing, switching and restarting index therapy in nonpersistent patients. Results: Of 4,453 patients, 2,534 initiated etanercept and 1,919 initiated adalimumab. In psoriasis patients (n = 2,775), 46.4% and 56.8% on etanercept and adalimumab, respectively, were persistent for ≥12 months, 49.0% and 56.3% discontinued, 23.8% and 22.4% restarted and 14.9% and 11.3% switched index therapy within 12 months. In psoriatic arthritis patients (n = 1,197), 60.7% and 63.3% on etanercept and adalimumab, respectively, were persistent for ≥12 months, 48.3% and 51.6% discontinued, 25.8% and 20.0% restarted and 16.5% and 17.9% switched index therapy. In patients with both (n = 481), 58.1% and 59.6% on etanercept and adalimumab, respectively, were persistent for ≥12 months, 42.7% and 63.2% discontinued, 24.3% and 12.6% restarted and 21.4% and 15.8% switched index therapy. Conclusions: Treatment modifications were common in patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, or both within 12 months of initiating etanercept or adalimumab. PMID:23441722

  2. Visualizing Cross-sectional Data in a Real-World Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.

    2016-12-01

    If you could fly around your research results in three dimensions, wouldn't you like to do it? Visualizing research results properly during scientific presentations already does half the job of informing the public on the geographic framework of your research. Many scientists use the Google Earth™ mapping service (V7.1.2.2041) because it's a great interactive mapping tool for assigning geographic coordinates to individual data points, localizing a research area, and draping maps of results over Earth's surface for 3D visualization. However, visualizations of research results in vertical cross-sections are often not shown simultaneously with the maps in Google Earth. A few tutorials and programs to display cross-sectional data in Google Earth do exist, and the workflow is rather simple. By importing a cross-sectional figure into in the open software SketchUp Make [Trimble Navigation Limited, 2016], any spatial model can be exported to a vertical figure in Google Earth. In this presentation a clear workflow/tutorial is presented how to image cross-sections manually in Google Earth. No software skills, nor any programming codes are required. It is very easy to use, offers great possibilities for teaching and allows fast figure manipulation in Google Earth. The full workflow can be found in "Van Noten, K. 2016. Visualizing Cross-Sectional Data in a Real-World Context. EOS, Transactions AGU, 97, 16-19".The video tutorial can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tr8LwFJ4RYU&Figure: Cross-sectional Research Examples Illustrated in Google Earth

  3. Why do people donate to conservation? Insights from a 'real world' campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Diogo; Campbell, Hamish A; Tollington, Simon; MacMillan, Douglas C; Smith, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in biodiversity conservation. The majority of these organisations rely on public donations to fund their activities, and therefore fundraising success is a determinant of conservation outcomes. In spite of this integral relationship, the key principals for fundraising success in conservation are still guided by expert opinion and anecdotal evidence, with very few quantitative studies in the literature. Here we assessed the behaviour of monetary donors across twenty-five different species-focused conservation campaigns organised by an NGO conservation and environmental society. The Australian Geographic Society (AGS) carried out fundraising campaigns over a five and half year period using an identical methodology in thirty-four of its country-wide network of outlet shops. AGS owns and operates these shops that sell toys and games related to science and nature. We tested how the following factors influenced monetary donations from members of the public:1) campaign duration, 2) appeal and familiarity of species, 3) species geographic distribution relative to the fundraising location, 4) level of income and education of potential donors, 5) age and gender profile of potential donors. Contrary to past research, we found most of these factors did not significantly influence the amount of donations made to each campaign by members of the public. Larger animals did elicit a significantly higher amount donated per transaction than smaller animals, as did shops located in poorer neighbourhoods. Our study findings contrast with past research that has focused largely on hypothetical donations data collected via surveys, and demonstrates the complexity and case-specific nature of relationships between donor characteristics and spending patterns. The study highlights the value of assessing real-world fundraising campaigns, and illustrates how collaboration between academia and NGOs could be used to better tailor fundraising

  4. Real-World Use of Prophylactic Antibiotics in Insertable Cardiac Monitor Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinart, Sean C; Natale, Andrea; Verma, Atul; Amin, Alpesh; Kasner, Scott; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Pouliot, Erika; Franco, Noreli; Mittal, Suneet

    2016-08-01

    The use of prophylactic antibiotics during insertable cardiac monitor (ICM) procedures is a carryover of the common practice used with therapeutic cardiac implantable electronic devices. We sought to characterize the current practice of ICM insertion procedures to evaluate the influence of prophylactic antibiotic administration on the occurrence of infections. We characterized insertion procedures and procedure-related infections from an ongoing multicenter registry (Reveal LINQ(TM) Registry). In order to accurately capture infections, only patients enrolled before or the day of insertion who also had a record of whether or not preoperative antibiotics were used were included in this analysis. Infections were defined based on the physician's assessment and reported upon occurrence. Patients were categorized into two analysis cohorts based on prophylactic antibiotic use. We analyzed 375 patients from 14 U.S. centers (age 63.1 ± 15.6 years; male 54.1%). Approximately two-thirds of patients (66.4%) did not receive any preprocedural antibiotics. The overall infection rate was 1.1% (0.3-2.7% confidence interval [CI]) and corresponded to four events. In the group that did not receive preprocedural antibiotics, there were two minor infections (0.8%, [0.1-2.9% CI]), whereas in the group receiving preprocedural antibiotics a serious and a minor infection occurred (1.6%, [0.2-5.6% CI]); this serious infection resulted in an explant. Current real-world practice shows that ICM insertions are increasingly performed without the use of prophylactic antibiotics, which is associated with a very low infection rate. © 2016 The Authors. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of US rear underride guard regulation for large trucks using real-world crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbelow, Matthew L; Blanar, Laura

    2010-11-01

    Current requirements for rear underride guards on large trucks are set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) 223 and 224. The standards have been in place since 1998, but their adequacy has not been evaluated apart from two series of controlled crash tests. The current study used detailed reviews of real-world crashes from the Large Truck Crash Causation Study to assess the ability of guards that comply with certain aspects of the regulation to mitigate passenger vehicle underride. It also evaluated the dangers posed by underride of large trucks that are exempt from guard requirements. For the 115 cases meeting the inclusion criteria, coded data, case narratives, photographs, and measurements were used to examine the interaction between study vehicles. The presence and type of underride guard was determined, and its performance in mitigating underride was categorized. Overall, almost one-half of the passenger vehicles had underride damage classified as severe or catastrophic. These vehicles accounted for 23 of the 28 in which occupants were killed. For the cases involving trailers with underride guards compliant with one or both FMVSS, guard deformation or complete failure was frequent and most commonly due to weak attachments, buckling of the trailer chassis, or bending of the lateral end of the guard under narrow overlap loading. Most of the truck units studied qualified for at least one of the FMVSS exemptions. The two largest groups were trailers with small wheel setbacks and single-unit straight trucks. Dump trucks represented a particularly hazardous category of straight truck. The current study suggests several weaknesses in the rear underride guard regulation. The standard allows too much ground clearance, the quasi-static test conditions allow guard designs that fail in narrow overlap crashes, and certifying guards independent of trailers leads to systems with inadequate attachment and

  6. Memory self-efficacy beliefs modulate brain activity when encoding real-world future intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Eriksson, Johan

    2013-01-01

    While the use of different cognitive strategies when encoding episodic memory information has been extensively investigated, modulation of brain activity by memory self-efficacy beliefs has not been studied yet. Sixteen young adults completed the prospective and retrospective metamemory questionnaire, providing individual subjective judgments of everyday memory function. The day after, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the participants had to memorize real-world intentions (e.g., return a book to the library), which were performed later on in a virtual environment. Participants also performed offline cognitive tasks evaluating executive functions, working memory, and attention. During encoding, activity was found in medial temporal lobe, left prefrontal cortex, medial parietal regions, occipital areas, and regions involved in (pre)motor processes. Based on results from the questionnaire, the group was split into low and high memory self-efficacy believers. Comparison of encoding-related brain activity between the 2 groups revealed that the low memory self-efficacy believers activated more the hippocampus bilaterally, right posterior parahippocampal cortex, precuneus, and left lateral temporal cortex. By contrast, more activity was found in dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus for the high-memory believers. In addition, the low-memory believers performed more poorly at feature binding and (at trend) manipulating visuospatial information in working memory. Overall, these findings indicate that memory self-efficacy beliefs modulate brain activity during intentional encoding. Low memory self-efficacy believers activated more brain areas involved in visuospatial operations such as the hippocampus. Possibly, this increase reflects attempts to compensate for poor performance of certain neurocognitive processes, such as feature binding. By contrast, high-memory believers seemed to rely more on executive-like processes involved in cognitive control.

  7. Semantic network mapping of religious material: testing multi-agent computer models of social theories against real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin E

    2015-11-01

    Agent-based modeling allows researchers to investigate theories of complex social phenomena and subsequently use the model to generate new hypotheses that can then be compared to real-world data. However, computer modeling has been underutilized in regard to the understanding of religious systems, which often require very complex theories with multiple interacting variables (Braxton et al. in Method Theory Study Relig 24(3):267-290, 2012. doi: 10.1163/157006812X635709 ; Lane in J Cogn Sci Relig 1(2):161-180, 2013). This paper presents an example of how computer modeling can be used to explore, test, and further understand religious systems, specifically looking at one prominent theory of religious ritual. The process is continuous: theory building, hypothesis generation, testing against real-world data, and improving the model. In this example, the output of an agent-based model of religious behavior is compared against real-world religious sermons and texts using semantic network analysis. It finds that most religious materials exhibit unique scale-free small-world properties and that a concept's centrality in a religious schema best predicts its frequency of presentation. These results reveal that there adjustments need to be made to existing models of religious ritual systems and provide parameters for future models. The paper ends with a discussion of implications for a new multi-agent model of doctrinal ritual behaviors as well as propositions for further interdisciplinary research concerning the multi-agent modeling of religious ritual behaviors.

  8. Real-world navigation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: The relation to visuospatial memory and volume of hippocampal subregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jessica; Sandkamp, Richard; Minkova, Lora; Schumacher, Lena V; Kaller, Christoph P; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Klöppel, Stefan

    2017-12-10

    Spatial disorientation is a frequent symptom in Alzheimer's disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In the clinical routine, spatial orientation is less often tested with real-world navigation but rather with 2D visuoconstructive tasks. However, reports about the association between the two types of tasks are sparse. Additionally, spatial disorientation has been linked to volume of the right hippocampus but it remains unclear whether right hippocampal subregions have differential involvement in real-world navigation. Yet, this would help uncover different functional roles of the subregions, which would have important implications for understanding the neuronal underpinnings of navigation skills. We compared patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI; n = 25) and healthy elderly controls (HC; n = 25) in a real-world navigation task that engaged different spatial processes. The association between real-world navigation and different visuoconstructive tasks was tested (i.e., figures from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease; CERAD, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure task; and clock drawing). Furthermore, the relation between spatial navigation and volume of right hippocampal subregions was examined. Linear regression and relative weight analysis were applied for statistical analyses. Patients with aMCI were significantly less able to correctly navigate through a route compared to HC but had comparable map drawing and landmark recognition skills. The association between visuoconstructive tasks and real-world navigation was only significant when using the visuospatial memory component of the Rey figure. In aMCI, more volume of the right hippocampal tail was significantly associated with better navigation skills, while volume of the right CA2/3 region was a significant predictor in HC. Standard visuoconstructive tasks (e.g., the CERAD figures or clock drawing) are not sufficient to detect real-world spatial disabilities in aMCI. Consequently, more

  9. Mean-Adaptive Real-Coding Genetic Algorithm and its Applications to Electromagnetic Optimization (Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a novel instance of the real-coding steady-state genetic algorithm, called the Mean-adaptive real-coding genetic algorithm, is put forward. In this instance, three novel implementations of evolution operators are incorporated. Those are a recombination and two mutation operators. All of the evolution operators are designed with the aim of possessing a big explorative power. Moreover, one of the mutation operators exhibits self-adaptive behavior and the other exhibits adaptive behavior, thereby allowing the algorithm to self-control its own mutability as the search advances. This algorithm also takes advantage of population-elitist selection, acting as a replacement policy, being adopted from evolution strategies. The purpose of this paper (i.e., the first part is to provide theoretical foundations of a robust and advanced instance of the real-coding genetic algorithm having the big potential of being successfully applied to electromagnetic optimization.

  10. [Clinical features analysis of Qingkailing injection for adolescent patients based on real world HIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Zhen; Xie, Yan-Ming; Wang, Lian-Xin; Zhang, Yin; Wang, Qun; Jia, Ping-Ping; Feng, Bo

    2017-08-01

    drug use, and Chinese medicines were also available. Combined drug use was more reasonable. Based on the results of the real world HIS, Qingkailing injection could provide the idea and reference for regulating the medication in adolescent patients. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Cost of breast cancer based on real-world data: a cancer registry study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capri, Stefano; Russo, Antonio

    2017-01-26

    In European countries, it is difficult for local health organizations to determine the resources allocated to different hospitals for breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to examine the costs of breast cancer during the different phases of the diagnostictherapeutic sequence based on real world data. To identify breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2007 and 2011, we used the cancer registry of the Agency for Health Protection of the Province of Milan (3.2 million inhabitants). A generalized linear model controlling for patient age, cancer stage and Charlson co-morbidity index was used to calculate the adjusted mean costs for each hospital and for each study phase. Regression analyses were based on dependent variables of individual costs (diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and total cost were logtransformed. The following independent variables were included as covariates: age at diagnosis, hospital volume, stage, job category, educational level, marital status, comorbidities, deprivation index. Total and mean costs were computed for several variables and for each phase. On average for each subject, the costs were collected over 2.5 years. A total of 12,580 breast cancer cases were studied. The mean cost of diagnosis was €414, the mean cost of treatment was €8,780, the mean overall cost of follow-up was approximately €2,351, and the mean total direct medical cost was €10,970. The age of the patients, stage of tumor and employment level of the patient were significantly correlated with the variability of the costs. The highest variability in costs was observed for the follow-up costs, in which 38% of hospitals fell outside the 95% confidence interval. In the overspending-hospitals, patients received an intensive follow-up regimen with scintigraphy and thoracic CAT (computerized axial tomography). In this study, which represents the first population-level study of its kind in Italy, we estimated all direct medical costs for the 6-month period before

  12. Estimation of gaseous real-world traffic emissions downstream a motorway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, M.; Corsmeier, U.; Vogt, U.; Vogel, B.

    The consequences of air pollution scenarios caused by road traffic or the impact of exhaust gas reduction techniques are estimated by emission models. To ensure the quality of model results, it is necessary to evaluate the used emission factors under real-world conditions. Therefore, the Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe initiated the field campaign BAB II (BundesAutoBahn, Federal motorway). The campaign was conducted in May 2001 with the objective of measuring the traffic emissions at a motorway section and to compare them to modelled emissions. Based on experiences during a precursor campaign (BAB I, 1997), a symmetric experimental set-up was installed which allowed measurements up- and downwind of a motorway nearby Heidelberg, Germany. This paper focuses on the determination of source intensities and emission factors for CO and NO x, whereas other papers in this issue handle VOC and particulate matter. First the basic approach of BAB II measurements up- and downwind of a motorway was approved, showing that it is possible to detect the plume originating from traffic emissions. A case study during a traffic jam illustrates that driving patterns have a strong impact on the emissions and therefore a detailed traffic census is required to obtain reliable emission calculations. Two different strategies were used: (i) long-time measurements during the whole campaign to obtain vertical profiles each 30 min and (ii) measurements during eight special operation periods (SOP) in a higher temporal resolution of 5 min, using instrumentation in elevators. It could be shown that even at a distance of 60-80 m from the motorway the structure of the plume is still inhomogeneous, and concentration changes within short times. The inhomogeneity of the plume not only affects the temporal scale, the spatial scale is also influenced and frequently concentration maxima in higher altitudes are observed. Mean source intensities of 9.5 kg

  13. An Unobtrusive System to Measure, Assess, and Predict Cognitive Workload in Real-World Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bethany K.; Palmon, Noa; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Irvin, Scott; Jenkins, Michael; Farry, Mike

    2017-01-01

    , designed to operate in real-world environments to be worn comfortably (e.g., positioned into a baseball cap or a surgeons cap) to measure changes in brain blood oxygenation without adding burden to the individual being assessed.

  14. Using Digital Technologies in Clinical HIV Research: Real-World Applications and Considerations for Future Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriesen, Jessica; Bull, Sheana; Dietrich, Janan; Haberer, Jessica E; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Voronin, Yegor; Wall, Kristin M; Whalen, Christopher; Priddy, Frances

    2017-07-31

    Digital technologies, especially if used in novel ways, provide a number of potential advantages to clinical research in trials related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and may greatly facilitate operations as well as data collection and analysis. These technologies may even allow answering questions that are not answerable with older technologies. However, they come with a variety of potential concerns for both the participants and the trial sponsors. The exact challenges and means for alleviation depend on the technology and on the population in which it is deployed, and the rapidly changing landscape of digital technologies presents a challenge for creating future-proof guidelines for technology application. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize some common themes that are frequently encountered by researchers in this context and highlight those that should be carefully considered before making a decision to include these technologies in their research. In April 2016, the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise surveyed the field for research groups with recent experience in novel applications of digital technologies in HIV clinical research and convened these groups for a 1-day meeting. Real-world uses of various technologies were presented and discussed by 46 attendees, most of whom were researchers involved in the design and conduct of clinical trials of biomedical HIV prevention and treatment approaches. After the meeting, a small group of organizers reviewed the presentations and feedback obtained during the meeting and categorized various lessons-learned to identify common themes. A group of 9 experts developed a draft summary of the findings that was circulated via email to all 46 attendees for review. Taking into account the feedback received, the group finalized the considerations that are presented here. Meeting presenters and attendees discussed the many successful applications of digital

  15. IIHS side crash test ratings and occupant death risk in real-world crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Lund, Adrian K

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate how well the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side crash test ratings predict real-world occupant death risk in side-impact crashes. The IIHS has been evaluating passenger vehicle side crashworthiness since 2003. In the IIHS side crash test, a vehicle is impacted perpendicularly on the driver's side by a moving deformable barrier simulating a typical sport utility vehicle (SUV) or pickup. Injury ratings are computed for the head/neck, torso, and pelvis/leg, and vehicles are rated based on their ability to protect occupants' heads and resist occupant compartment intrusion. Component ratings are combined into an overall rating of good, acceptable, marginal, or poor. A driver-only rating was recalculated by omitting rear passenger dummy data. Data were extracted from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and National Automotive Sampling System/General Estimates System (NASS/GES) for the years 2000-2009. Analyses were restricted to vehicles with driver side air bags with head and torso protection as standard features. The risk of driver death was computed as the number of drivers killed (FARS) divided by the number involved (NASS/GES) in left-side impacts and was modeled using logistic regression to control for the effects of driver age and gender and vehicle type and curb weight. Death rates per million registered vehicle years were computed for all outboard occupants and compared by overall rating. Based on the driver-only rating, drivers of vehicles rated good were 70 percent less likely to die when involved in left-side crashes than drivers of vehicles rated poor, after controlling for driver and vehicle factors. Compared with vehicles rated poor, driver death risk was 64 percent lower for vehicles rated acceptable and 49 percent lower for vehicles rated marginal. All 3 results were statistically significant. Among components, vehicle structure rating exhibited the strongest relationship with driver death risk. The vehicle

  16. Real-World Economic Burden Associated with Transplantation-Related Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Miguel-Angel; Bonafede, Machaon; Cai, Qian; Garfin, Phillip M; McMorrow, Donna; Josephson, Neil C; Richhariya, Akshara

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 20,000 hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) procedures are performed annually in the United States. Real-world data on the costs associated with post-transplantation complications are limited. Patients with hematologic malignancies aged ≥18 years undergoing autologous HCT (auto-HCT) or allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) between January 1, 2011, and June 30, 2014, were identified in the Truven Health MarketScan Research Databases. Patients were required to have 12 months of continuous medical and pharmacy enrollment before and after HCT; patients who experience inpatient death within 12 months post-HCT were also included. Patients with previous HCT were excluded. Potential HCT-related complications were identified if they had a medical claim with a diagnosis code for relapse; infection; cardiovascular, renal, neurologic, pulmonary, hepatic, or gastrointestinal disease; secondary malignancy; thrombotic microangiopathy; or posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome within 1 year post-HCT. Healthcare costs attributable to these complications were evaluated by comparing total costs in HCT recipients with complications and those without complications. The MarketScan Research Databases were further linked to the Social Security Administration's Master Death File to obtain patient death events in a subset of patients. A total of 2672 HCT recipients were included in the analysis. The mean ± SD age of recipients was 54.5 ± 11.6 years, and the majority of recipients (63.6%) underwent auto-HCT. Complications were identified in 81% of auto-HCT recipients and in 95.5% of allo-HCT recipients. Most complications occurred within 180 days post-HCT. Compared with Auto-HCT recipients without complications, those with complications incurred $51,475 higher adjusted total costs (P < .01). Compared with allo-HCT recipients without complications, those with complications incurred $181,473 higher adjusted total costs (P < .01). Among the patients with mortality data

  17. Using Digital Technologies in Clinical HIV Research: Real-World Applications and Considerations for Future Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sheana; Dietrich, Janan; Haberer, Jessica E; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Voronin, Yegor; Wall, Kristin M; Whalen, Christopher; Priddy, Frances

    2017-01-01

    Background Digital technologies, especially if used in novel ways, provide a number of potential advantages to clinical research in trials related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and may greatly facilitate operations as well as data collection and analysis. These technologies may even allow answering questions that are not answerable with older technologies. However, they come with a variety of potential concerns for both the participants and the trial sponsors. The exact challenges and means for alleviation depend on the technology and on the population in which it is deployed, and the rapidly changing landscape of digital technologies presents a challenge for creating future-proof guidelines for technology application. Objective The aim of this study was to identify and summarize some common themes that are frequently encountered by researchers in this context and highlight those that should be carefully considered before making a decision to include these technologies in their research. Methods In April 2016, the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise surveyed the field for research groups with recent experience in novel applications of digital technologies in HIV clinical research and convened these groups for a 1-day meeting. Real-world uses of various technologies were presented and discussed by 46 attendees, most of whom were researchers involved in the design and conduct of clinical trials of biomedical HIV prevention and treatment approaches. After the meeting, a small group of organizers reviewed the presentations and feedback obtained during the meeting and categorized various lessons-learned to identify common themes. A group of 9 experts developed a draft summary of the findings that was circulated via email to all 46 attendees for review. Taking into account the feedback received, the group finalized the considerations that are presented here. Results Meeting presenters and attendees discussed the many

  18. Hearing aids in the real world: typical automatic behavior of expansion, directionality, and noise management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    Automatic DSP (digital signal processing) features, widely available in hearing aids today, are useful because they alleviate the need for the hearing aid wearer to manually adjust the hearing aid as listening conditions change. Although the theoretical basis for the design of these features may be sound, little is known about their behavior in the real world. Data logging offers a glimpse into the life of the individual hearing aid wearer, but there are no published data to date that provide a frame of reference for the interpretation of this information. Further, data logging in hearing aids provides only aggregate summaries for individual features, ignoring complex interactions including the differences between the left and right sides of a bilateral pair. The purpose of this study was to determine the typical behavior of three automatic DSP hearing aid features-expansion, directionality, and noise management-in daily life. Ten individuals with hearing impairment were fitted bilaterally with BTE (behind the ear) hearing aids. The hearing aids were programmed for the individual's hearing loss with expansion, directionality, and noise management set to activate automatically. A PDA (personal digital assistant) logged the input level and status of expansion, directionality, and noise management from both devices at 5 sec intervals. Data were gathered in this manner over a period of 4-5 wk. A total of 741 hr of hearing aid use were logged, 50% of which were spent in environments no louder than 50 dB SPL. Expansion, directionality, and noise management were active 45, 10, and 21% of the time, respectively; the median amount of gain reduction for noise management was ∼1 dB. Although expansion and noise management were always active at the low and high input levels, respectively, activation of directionality never exceeded 50%. Expansion and noise management were sometimes active simultaneously, as were directionality and noise management. Bilateral agreement in

  19. Real-world comparison of health care utilization between duloxetine and pregabalin initiators with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng X

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X Peng,1 P Sun,2 D Novick,1 J Andrews,1 S Sun2 1Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Kailo Research Group, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objectives: To compare health care utilization of duloxetine initiators and pregabalin initiators among fibromyalgia patients in a real-world setting. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a US national commercial health claims database (2006–2009. Fibromyalgia patients who initiated duloxetine or pregabalin in 2008, aged 18–64 years, and who maintained continuous health insurance coverage 1 year before and 1 year after initiation were assigned to duloxetine or pregabalin cohorts on the basis of their initiated agent. Patients who had pill coverage of the agents over the course of 90 days preceding the initiation were excluded. The two comparative cohorts were constructed using propensity score greedy match methods. Descriptive analysis and paired t-test were performed to compare health care utilization rates in the postinitiation year and the changes of these rates from the preinitiation year to the postinitiation year. Results: Both matched cohorts (n=1,265 pairs had a similar mean initiation age (49–50 years, percentage of women (87%–88%, and prevalence of baseline comorbid conditions (neuropathic pain other than diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headache or migraine, and osteoarthritis. In the preinitiation year, both cohorts had similar inpatient, outpatient, and medication utilization rates (inpatient, 15.7%–16.1%; outpatient, 100.0%; medication, 97.9%–98.7%. The utilization rates diverged in the postinitiation year, with the pregabalin cohort using more fibromyalgia-related inpatient care (3.2% versus 2.2%; P<0.05, any inpatient care (19.3% versus 16.8%; P<0.05, and fibromyalgia-related outpatient care (62.1% versus 51.8%; P<0.05. From the preinitiation period to the postinitiation period, the duloxetine cohort

  20. 3-year real-world outcomes with the Swedish adjustable gastric band™ in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaric, G; Buchwald, J N; d'Orsay, G; Daoud, F

    2013-02-01

    The study objective was to ascertain outcomes with the Swedish adjustable gastric band (SAGB) on an intention-to-treat basis in multiple centers across the French social health insurance system. SAGB results at 3-year follow-up are reported. The noncomparative, observational, prospective, consecutive cohort study design sought a 500-patient minimum recruitment geographically representative of continental France. Safety (adverse events [AEs], device-related morbidity, and mortality) and effectiveness (change in body mass index [BMI, kilograms per square meter], percentage excess weight loss, comorbidities, quality of life [QoL]) were assessed. Adjustable gastric band survival was calculated. Thirty-one surgeons in 28 multidisciplinary teams/sites enrolled patients between September 2, 2007 and April 30, 2008. SAGB was successfully implanted in 517 patients: 88.0 % female; mean age, 37.5 years; obesity duration, 15.3 years (baseline: mean BMI, 41.0; comorbidities, 773 in 74.3 % of patients; Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS), 1.4; EuroQoL 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D), 0.61; EuroQoL-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS), 52.3). At 3 years: BMI, 32.2 (mean change, -9.0; p < 0.0001); excess weight loss, 47.4 %; comorbidities, 161 in 27.2 %; BAROS, 3.6 (+2.2, p < 0.0001); EQ-5D, 0.84 (+0.22, p < 0.0001); EQ-VAS, 73.4 (+21.4, p < 0.0001). SAGB-induced weight loss was associated with substantially improved QoL. One death occurred and was unrelated to the treatment. No AE was reported in 68.3 % of patients, and no confirmed device-related AE in 77.0 %. Overall AE rate was 0.19 per patient year. Device retention was 87.0 %. Analysis of patients lost to follow-up showed a nonsignificant effect on overall study results. In a prospective, consecutive cohort, "real-world", nationwide study, the Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band was found safe and effective at 3-year follow-up.

  1. Spatial Thinking and Visualisation of Real-World Concepts using GeoMapApp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Commonly, geoscience data is presented to students in the lab and classroom in the form of data tables, maps and graphs. Successful data interpretation requires learners to become proficient with spatial thinking skills, allowing them to gain insight and understanding of the underlying real-world 3-D processes and concepts. Yet, educators at both the school and university level often witness students having difficulty in performing that translation. As a result, tools and resources that help to bridge that spatial capability gap can have useful application in the educational realm. A free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory caters to students and teachers alike by providing a variety of data display and manipulation techniques that enhance geospatial awareness. Called GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), the tool provides access to hundreds of built-in authentic geoscience data sets. Examples include earthquake and volcano data, geological maps, lithospheric plate boundary information, geochemical, oceanographic, and environmental data. Barriers to entry are lowered through easy installation, seamless integration of research-grade data sets, intuitive menus, and project-saving continuity. The default base map is a cutting-edge elevation model covering the oceans and land. Dynamic contouring, artificial illumination, 3-D visualisations, data point manipulations, cross-sectional profiles, and other display techniques help students grasp the content and geospatial context of data. Data sets can also be layered for easier comparison. Students may import their own data sets in Excel, ASCII, shapefile, and gridded format, and they can gain a sense of ownership by being able to tailor their data explorations and save their own projects. GeoMapApp is adaptable to a range of learning environments from lab sessions, group projects, and homework assignments to in-class pop-ups. A new Save Session

  2. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 504 - Procedures for the Computation of the Real Cost of Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for the Computation of the Real Cost of Capital... POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. I Appendix I to Part 504—Procedures for the Computation of the Real Cost of Capital (a) The firm's real after-tax weighted average marginal cost of capital (K) is computed with equation...

  3. ESTIMATING REAL PRODUCTION AND EXPENDITURES ACROSS NATIONS : A PROPOSAL FOR IMPROVING THE PENN WORLD TABLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Robert C.; Heston, Alan; Timmer, Marcel P.; Deng, Haiyan

    We propose a new approach to the international comparison of real GDP, as measured from the output-side. The traditional Gary-Khamis system, which measures real GDP from the expenditure-side, is modified to include differences in the terms of trade between countries. It is shown that this system has

  4. A longitudinal examination of the moderating effects of symptoms on the relationship between functional competence and real world functional performance in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Best

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Residual negative and depressive symptoms are distinct constructs that impede the use of functional skills in the real world. Depressive symptoms are often overlooked in schizophrenia but appear to be an important factor that limits the use of functional ability in real world environments.

  5. Real-World Executive Functions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Profiles of Impairment and Associations with Adaptive Functioning and Co-Morbid Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Pugliese, Cara E.; Popal, Haroon S.; White, Emily I.; Brodsky, Emily; Martin, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Although executive functioning (EF) difficulties are well documented among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about real-world measures of EF among adults with ASD. Therefore, this study examined parent-reported real-world EF problems among 35 adults with ASD without intellectual disability and their…

  6. Collaborative adaptations in social work intervention research in real-world settings: lessons learned from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank Wilson, Amy; Farkas, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Social work research has identified the crucial role that service practitioners play in the implementation of evidence-based practices. This has led some researchers to suggest that intervention research needs to incorporate collaborative adaptation strategies in the design and implementation of studies focused on adapting evidence-based practices to real-world practice settings. This article describes a collaborative approach to service adaptations that was used in an intervention study that integrated evidence-based mental health and correctional services in a jail reentry program for people with serious mental illness. This description includes a discussion of the nature of the collaboration engaged in this study, the implementation strategies that were used to support this collaboration, and the lessons that the research team has learned about engaging a collaborative approach to implementing interventions in research projects being conducted in real-world social service delivery settings.

  7. Connecting classroom English to real-world English: Taiwanese teachers and students’ perspectives on ELF-aware pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hui Yen

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable research on the global spread of English and its impact on English language use. In particular, there is extensive interest in how the fluid nature of the lingua franca use of English is impacting on real world communication and the consequent pedagogical implications for English language teaching (ELT) and acquisition. However, to date there has been limited research on the ways in which ELT teachers can adapt their teaching strategies to ensure that learners are ...

  8. Real-world effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation: a cross-sectional population study

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jamie; Beard, Emma; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; West, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly increasing in popularity. Two randomized controlled trials have suggested that e-cigarettes can aid smoking cessation, but there are many factors that could influence their real-world effectiveness. This study aimed to assess, using an established methodology, the effectiveness of e-cigarettes when used to aid smoking cessation compared with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) bought over-the-counter and with unaided quitting...

  9. Promoting high school boys' reading engagement and motivation: The role of the school psychologist in real world research

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    It can be difficult for school psychologists to become involved in research within their day-to-day role. This article details real world research undertaken in a single high school to identify and address mechanisms which were contributing to boys' literacy underachievement. In an attempt to promote reading engagement and motivation amongst high school boys, an affective reading intervention was delivered to Year 8 pupils in a single sex comprehensive school. The lack of desired outcomes pro...

  10. The incidence and predictors of overall adverse effects caused by low dose amiodarone in real-world clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Seo, Jae-Bin; Chung, Woo-Young; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-A; Zo, Joo-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Most current knowledge regarding amiodarone toxicity derives from clinical trials. This study was performed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of overall adverse effects of amiodarone in real-world practice using a large sample size. Methods Between January 1, 2000 and March 10, 2012, a total of 930 consecutive patients who had been treated with amiodarone for arrhythmia were reviewed retrospectively. An amiodarone-associated adverse event was considered in cases of...

  11. Real-World Use of Apixaban for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Marco; Romanazzi, Imma; Romiti, Giulio Francesco; Farcomeni, Alessio; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2018-01-01

    The use of oral anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has been transformed by the availability of the nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. Real-world studies on the use of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants would help elucidate their effectiveness and safety in daily clinical practice. Apixaban was the third nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants introduced to clinical practice, and increasing real-world studies have been published. Our aim was to summarize current evidence about real-world studies on apixaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all observational real-world studies comparing apixaban with other available oral anticoagulant drugs. From the original 9680 results retrieved, 16 studies have been included in the final meta-analysis. Compared with warfarin, apixaban regular dose was more effective in reducing any thromboembolic event (odds ratio: 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.93), but no significant difference was found for stroke risk. Apixaban was as effective as dabigatran and rivaroxaban in reducing thromboembolic events and stroke. The risk of major bleeding was significantly lower for apixaban compared with warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban (relative risk reduction, 38%, 35%, and 46%, respectively). Similarly, the risk for intracranial hemorrhage was significantly lower for apixaban than warfarin and rivaroxaban (46% and 54%, respectively) but not dabigatran. The risk of gastrointestinal bleeding was lower with apixaban when compared with all oral anticoagulant agents (Preal-life is associated with an overall similar effectiveness in reducing stroke and any thromboembolic events when compared with warfarin. A better safety profile was found with apixaban compared with warfarin, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Real world programs, real world strategies, real world successes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, K. [EPA, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a very brief overview of market opportunities for using energy efficient technology. A brief summary of greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change concludes that the threat of global warming must be taken seriously. It is stated that there are numerous technologies available which can reduce energy use by up to 50%, while offering attractive rates of return. Market analysis has identified a trillion dollar market for high efficiency products and services over the next decade. Three main areas of business opportunity for capitalizing on the growing market for energy efficiency are identified: (1) using efficient energy technology in-house, (2) marketing energy efficient products, and (3) international markets.

  13. Virtual World, Real Education: A Descriptive Study of Instructional Design in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual worlds like Second Life are emerging technologies that have gained popularity among educators. As these worlds emerged, greater focus has been placed on the design of the environments themselves rather than the design of instruction within them. Educators have begun using these environments for teaching and instructional designers are now…

  14. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Sáez, Aida; Viana, Mar; Barrios, Carmen C; Rubio, Jose R; Amato, Fulvio; Pujadas, Manuel; Querol, Xavier

    2012-10-16

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source apportionment by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was carried out to interpret the real-world driving conditions. Three emission patterns were identified: (F1) cruise conditions, with medium-high speeds, contributing in this circuit with 60% of total particle number and a particle size distribution dominated by particles >52 nm and around 60 nm; (F2) transient conditions, stop-and-go conditions at medium-high speed, contributing with 25% of the particle number and mainly emitting particles in the nucleation mode; and (F3) creep-idle conditions, representing traffic congestion and frequent idling periods, contributing with 14% to the total particle number and with particles in the nucleation mode (world emission patterns and regulatory cycles (NEDC) are also presented, which evidence that detecting particle number emissions world driving conditions.

  15. Real time information from bedside monitors as part of a web-based patient record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachinardi, U; de Sà Rebelo, M; de Magalhães Oliveira, P P; Pilon, P E

    2001-01-01

    Traditional paper-based Medical Records, and even most of their digital counterparts, represent historical patient information. On the other hand new generations of Point-of-Care devices can be connected to standard networks and deliver streams of real time data through an Intranet, or even the Internet. Vital signs provided by IP-based devices can then be viewed at remote stations. Merging both worlds, real time and historical, in the pursuit of a comprehensive EPR is the main challenge of the present project. The basic infra-structure is composed of three main components: an existing Web-based EPR viewing station1 (Web-EPR); a fully integrated HIS/PACS system1; and a monitoring network (Siemens Infinity Network 2). Communication between the components was obtained by developing interfaces based on both HL7 and Siemens protocols the later only for waveforms. For the graphical display a web-browser-based application of the streamed signals was developed and integrated into the existing Web-EPR. This addition expanded the Web-EPR capabilities providing means to include real time signals and calculated parameters on the set of information already available. Some extra features of this project include: one-way SMS messaging of the parameters, interactive WAP access and a DICOM compliant storage of signal waveforms.

  16. A real-time standard parts inspection based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan; Li, XuDong; Jiang, Hongzhi; Zhao, Huijie

    2017-10-01

    Since standard parts are necessary components in mechanical structure like bogie and connector. These mechanical structures will be shattered or loosen if standard parts are lost. So real-time standard parts inspection systems are essential to guarantee their safety. Researchers would like to take inspection systems based on deep learning because it works well in image with complex backgrounds which is common in standard parts inspection situation. A typical inspection detection system contains two basic components: feature extractors and object classifiers. For the object classifier, Region Proposal Network (RPN) is one of the most essential architectures in most state-of-art object detection systems. However, in the basic RPN architecture, the proposals of Region of Interest (ROI) have fixed sizes (9 anchors for each pixel), they are effective but they waste much computing resources and time. In standard parts detection situations, standard parts have given size, thus we can manually choose sizes of anchors based on the ground-truths through machine learning. The experiments prove that we could use 2 anchors to achieve almost the same accuracy and recall rate. Basically, our standard parts detection system could reach 15fps on NVIDIA GTX1080 (GPU), while achieving detection accuracy 90.01% mAP.

  17. Mimewrighting: Preparing Students for the Real World of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    READING, WRITING, & ENACTING SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL LITERATURE: Mimewrighting applies the art of mime as an interpretive springboard to integrate conceptual understanding across all content areas. Mimewrighting guides students to read and express complex ideas in carefully crafted movement integrations, mediating experience, so that students obtain an intuitive grasp of difficult and abstract ideas. THE PROBLEM: Reading science writing presents obstacles for middle and high school students, to the point that many students are turned OFF to science altogether. A typical science abstract, written for colleagues, is as densely packed with concept-laden words as a black hole is densely packed with matter- and just as mysterious. What reads to a science colleague as a richly crafted paragraph, from which a myriad of elegantly interrelated concepts can unfold to point to the significance and context of the study at hand, reads as jabberwocky nonsense to the uninitiated student. So, how do we turn such kids (and teachers) back ON to the inquiry-driven desire to seek out challenging and educative experiences? How do we step up to the national challenge to prepare ALL students adequately for the REAL-WORLD demands of science, technology, engineering, math, (STEM) and communications? How do we help kids read, write, and understand scientific and technical literature? AN UNCONVENTIONAL ANSWER: Mimewrighting applies the classic art of mime to unpack the meaning of science writing. We help students view the text as sequences of action, scenarios that can be enacted theatrically for understanding. HOW DOES IT WORK? READ ALOUD, MIME ALONG: It's as simple as read aloud and mime along. And as complex, in that it requires taking the time to acknowledge each concept packed into the passage. Three opening sentences might involve twenty minutes of mimewrighting activity to ensure that students apprehend the patterns, perceive the relationships, and comprehend the dynamics of such a

  18. Premixed vs basal-bolus insulin regimen in Type 2 diabetes: comparison of clinical outcomes from randomized controlled trials and real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwagu, U; Mamza, J; Gordon, J; Donnelly, R; Idris, I

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the concordance between data derived from randomized controlled trial (RCT) and real-world estimates of HbA1c and weight change after 24 weeks of initiation of a basal-bolus compared with a premixed insulin regimen in people with Type 2 diabetes. Data eight RCTs were pooled after a systematic review of studies examining basal-bolus (n = 1893) or premixed (n = 1517) regimens. Real-world data were extracted from the UK primary care dataset for people on basal-bolus (n = 7483) or premixed insulin regimens (n=10 744). The mean differences between HbA1c and weight from baseline were calculated using t-tests, while analysis of variance was used to compare the two treatment regimens. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of this change. Both insulin regimens were associated with HbA1c reductions (real-world data -0.28%; RCT data, -1.4%) and weight gain (real-world data, +0.27 kg; RCT data, +2.96 kg) but there were no significant differences between basal-bolus and premixed insulin. Discordances in the pattern of treatment response were observed, however, between real-world and RCT data for both insulin regimens. For any given baseline HbA1c concentration, the change in HbA1c in the RCTs was greater than in real-world conditions and for those with baseline weight above ~60 kg, RCT data showed overall weight gain in contrast to slight weight loss in the real-world population. Lastly, for both randomized controlled trial and real-world populations, while greater baseline weight was associated with reduced response to treatment, the association was much steeper in the RCT than in the real-world population. In addition, greater baseline weight was associated with greater weight reductions in both premixed insulin and basal-bolus insulin regimens, although to a lesser extent with the latter. These results highlight specific discrepancies in the HbA1c reduction and weight change in insulin regimen between real world versus RCT populations

  19. A FRET-Based Real-Time PCR Assay to Identify the Main Causal Agents of New World Tegumentary Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Santos, Maxy; Soberón, Valeria; Lucas, Carmen M.; Matlashewski, Greg; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Ore, Marianela; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Lescano, Andres G.; Graf, Paul C. F.; Bacon, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In South America, various species of Leishmania are endemic and cause New World tegumentary leishmaniasis (NWTL). The correct identification of these species is critical for adequate clinical management and surveillance activities. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and evaluated its diagnostic performance using 64 archived parasite isolates and 192 prospectively identified samples collected from individuals with suspected leishmaniasis enrolled at two reference clinics in Lima, Peru. The real-time PCR assay was able to detect a single parasite and provided unambiguous melting peaks for five Leishmania species of the Viannia subgenus that are highly prevalent in South America: L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) peruviana and L. (V.) lainsoni. Using kinetoplastid DNA-based PCR as a gold standard, the real-time PCR had sensitivity and specificity values of 92% and 77%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of conventional tests such as microscopy, culture and the leishmanin skin test (LST). In addition, the real-time PCR identified 147 different clinical samples at the species level, providing an overall agreement of 100% when compared to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data performed on a subset of these samples. Furthermore, the real-time PCR was three times faster and five times less expensive when compared to PCR - MLST for species identification from clinical specimens. In summary, this new assay represents a cost-effective and reliable alternative for the identification of the main species causing NWTL in South America. PMID:23301111

  20. A FRET-based real-time PCR assay to identify the main causal agents of New World tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukayama, Pablo; Núñez, Jorge H; De Los Santos, Maxy; Soberón, Valeria; Lucas, Carmen M; Matlashewski, Greg; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Ore, Marianela; Baldeviano, G Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A; Lescano, Andres G; Graf, Paul C F; Bacon, David J

    2013-01-01

    In South America, various species of Leishmania are endemic and cause New World tegumentary leishmaniasis (NWTL). The correct identification of these species is critical for adequate clinical management and surveillance activities. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and evaluated its diagnostic performance using 64 archived parasite isolates and 192 prospectively identified samples collected from individuals with suspected leishmaniasis enrolled at two reference clinics in Lima, Peru. The real-time PCR assay was able to detect a single parasite and provided unambiguous melting peaks for five Leishmania species of the Viannia subgenus that are highly prevalent in South America: L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) panamensis, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) peruviana and L. (V.) lainsoni. Using kinetoplastid DNA-based PCR as a gold standard, the real-time PCR had sensitivity and specificity values of 92% and 77%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of conventional tests such as microscopy, culture and the leishmanin skin test (LST). In addition, the real-time PCR identified 147 different clinical samples at the species level, providing an overall agreement of 100% when compared to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data performed on a subset of these samples. Furthermore, the real-time PCR was three times faster and five times less expensive when compared to PCR - MLST for species identification from clinical specimens. In summary, this new assay represents a cost-effective and reliable alternative for the identification of the main species causing NWTL in South America.

  1. Applying a toolkit for dissemination and analysis of near real-time data through the World Wide Web: integration of the Antelope Real Time System, ROADNet, and PHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. L.; Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Vernon, F. L.; Eakins, J.; Foley, S.; Orcutt, J.

    2005-12-01

    The ROADNet project has enabled the acquisition and storage of diverse data streams through seamless integration of the Antelope Real Time System (ARTS) with (for example) ecological, seismological and geodetic instrumentation. The robust system architecture allows researchers to simply network data loggers with relational databases; however, the ability to disseminate these data to policy makers, scientists and the general public has (until recently) been provided on an 'as needed' basis. The recent development of a Datascope interface to the popular open source scripting language PHP has provided an avenue for presenting near real time data (such as integers, images and movies) from within the ARTS framework easily on the World Wide Web. The interface also indirectly provided the means to transform data types into various formats using the extensive function libraries that accompany a PHP installation (such as image creation and manipulation, data encryption for sensitive information, and XML creation for structured document interchange through the World Wide Web). Using a combination of Datascope and PHP library functions, an extensible tool-kit is being developed to allow data managers to easily present their products on the World Wide Web. The tool-kit has been modeled after the pre-existing ARTS architecture to simplify the installation, development and ease-of-use for both the seasoned researcher and the casual user. The methodology and results of building the applications that comprise the tool-kit are the focus of this presentation, including procedural vs. object oriented design, incorporation of the tool-kit into the existing contributed software libraries, and case-studies of researchers who are employing the tools to present their data. http://anf.ucsd.edu

  2. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: The Higgs Boson, String Theory, and the Real World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Gordon

    2012-03-01

    In this talk I'll describe how string theory is exciting because it can address most, perhaps all, of the questions we hope to understand about our world: why quarks and leptons make up our world, what forces form our world, cosmology, parity violation, and much more. I'll explain why string theory is testable in basically the same ways as the rest of physics, and why much of what is written about that is misleading. String theory is already or soon being tested in several ways, including correctly predicting the recently observed Higgs boson properties and mass, and predictions for dark matter, LHC physics, cosmological history, and more, from work in the increasingly active subfield ``string phenomenology.''

  3. Producing near-real-time intelligence: predicting the world of tomorrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, A.I.; Broek, A.C. van den; Dalen, J.A. van; Vecht, B. van der; Wevers, J.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity and dynamics of current military operations demand reliable and up-to-date intelligence and in particular near-real-time threat assessment. This paper explores the potential of operational analysis techniques in supporting military personnel in processing information from different

  4. Evaluation of Accelerometer-Based Fall Detection Algorithms on Real-World Falls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagala, Fabio; Becker, Clemens; Cappello, Angelo; Chiari, Lorenzo; Aminian, Kamiar; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Klenk, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive preventive efforts, falls continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality among elders. Real-time detection of falls and their urgent communication to a telecare center may enable rapid medical assistance, thus increasing the sense of security of the elderly and reducing

  5. Transition from Realistic to Real World Problems with the Use of Technology in Elementary Mathematical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinski, Natalija; Milinkovic, Dragica

    2017-01-01

    The availability of technology has a big impact on education, and that is the main reason for discussing the use of technologies in mathematical education in our paper. The availability of technology influences how mathematical contents could be presented to students. We present the benefits of learning mathematical concepts through real life…

  6. Designing technical action research and generalizing from real-world cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Ralyté, Jolita; Franch, Xavier; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Wrycza, Stanislaw

    This tutorial presents a sound methodology for technical action research, which consist of testing a new artifact by using it to solve a real problem. Such a test would be useless if we could not generalize from it, and the tutorial introduces architectural inference as a way of supporting

  7. Real World Projects with Companies Supporting Competence Development in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaken, Thomas; Kiel, Bert; Kliewe, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    The department of business administration of Münster University of Applied Sciences (MUAS) in Germany has a long tradition in realising practice-oriented research projects in cooperation with industry. The objective of these cooperative projects is to offer students real-life experiences and to make the theoretical know-how of university lectures…

  8. Trial efficacy vs real world effectiveness in first line treatment of multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwing, J.; Heeg, B.M.; Karstorp, S.; Postma, M.; Silvennoinen, R.; Putkonen, M.; Anttila, P.; Remes, K.; Abildgaard, N.; Waage, A.; Nahi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large randomized clinical trials (RCT) are the foundation of the registration of newly developed drugs. A potential problem with RCTs is that the inclusion/exclusion criteria will make the population different from the actual population treated in real life. Hence, it is important to

  9. Prevalence and predictors of cardiac and liver iron overload in patients with thalassemia: A multicenter study based on real-world data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Viprakasit, Vip; Saiviroonporn, Pairash; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Siripornpitak, Suvipaporn; Meekaewkunchorn, Arunotai; Kirawittaya, Thawatchai; Sripornsawan, Pornpun; Jetsrisuparb, Arunee; Srinakarin, Jiraporn; Wong, Peerapon; Phalakornkul, Nuttaporntira; Sinlapamongkolkul, Phakatip; Wood, John

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of cardiac and liver iron overload in patients with thalassemia in real-world practice may vary among different regions especially in the era of widely-used iron chelation therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiac and liver iron overload in and the management patterns of patients with thalassemia in real-world practice in Thailand. We established a multicenter registry for patients with thalassemia who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as part of their clinical evaluation. All enrolled patients underwent cardiac and liver MRI for assessment of iron overload. There were a total of 405 patients enrolled in this study. The mean age of patients was 18.8±12.5years and 46.7% were male. Two hundred ninety-six (73.1%) of patients received regular blood transfusion. Prevalence of cardiac iron overload (CIO) and liver iron overload (LIO) was 5.2% and 56.8%, respectively. Independent predictors for iron overload from laboratory information were serum ferritin and transaminase for both CIO and LIO. Serum ferritin can be used as a screening tool to rule-out CIO and to diagnose LIO. Iron chelation therapy was given in 74.6%; 15.3% as a combination therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The World Bank's Shift Away from Neoliberal Ideology: Real or Rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Rino Wiseman

    2012-01-01

    Some literature on World Bank education policies after 1999 tries to project a shift away of the Bank from its 1980s neoliberal mandate. This article argues that the shift is only in the form of rhetoric, which facilitates a hidden agenda of creating a worldwide higher education market, leaving the poor with primary education only. At the…

  11. Academy and the Real World: Developing Realistic Notions of Career in the Performing Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Performing arts courses within the university sector retain a necessarily strong practical focus as they prepare graduates for work within a highly competitive environment. However, the reality for graduates is a world in which performance is only one component of the myriad activities required to build a sustainable career. This article reports…

  12. Elaborating the Relationship between TV Viewing and Beliefs about the Real World: Possible Contingent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James

    Two studies investigated the validity of the Cultivation Hypothesis, which holds that the more people view television the more they will see the world as mean and violent. Specifically, the study examined whether three psychological variables affected the relationship. The variables are (1) Magic Window, the degree to which a person believes…

  13. Prediction and Characterization of High-Activity Events in Social Media Triggered by Real-World News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanam, Janani; Quezada, Mauricio; Poblete, Barbara; Lanckriet, Gert

    2016-01-01

    On-line social networks publish information on a high volume of real-world events almost instantly, becoming a primary source for breaking news. Some of these real-world events can end up having a very strong impact on on-line social networks. The effect of such events can be analyzed from several perspectives, one of them being the intensity and characteristics of the collective activity that it produces in the social platform. We research 5,234 real-world news events encompassing 43 million messages discussed on the Twitter microblogging service for approximately 1 year. We show empirically that exogenous news events naturally create collective patterns of bursty behavior in combination with long periods of inactivity in the network. This type of behavior agrees with other patterns previously observed in other types of natural collective phenomena, as well as in individual human communications. In addition, we propose a methodology to classify news events according to the different levels of intensity in activity that they produce. In particular, we analyze the most highly active events and observe a consistent and strikingly different collective reaction from users when they are exposed to such events. This reaction is independent of an event's reach and scope. We further observe that extremely high-activity events have characteristics that are quite distinguishable at the beginning stages of their outbreak. This allows us to predict with high precision, the top 8% of events that will have the most impact in the social network by just using the first 5% of the information of an event's lifetime evolution. This strongly implies that high-activity events are naturally prioritized collectively by the social network, engaging users early on, way before they are brought to the mainstream audience.

  14. Assessment of real-world daily-living skills in early-onset schizophrenia trough the Life Skills Profile scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, O; Penadés, R; Baeza, I; De la Serna, E; Sánchez-Gistau, V; Lázaro, L; Bernardo, M; Castro-Fornieles, J

    2013-04-01

    Adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) have marked deficits in their functional outcome. However, few short and reliable instruments for assessing real-world functioning have been specifically validated in EOS. The Life Skills Profile (LSP) is a brief scale widely used in schizophrenia and considered one of the optimal instruments for assessing real-world daily living skills. The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness and the feasibility of the LSP to assess daily living skills in EOS. The sample included 53 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized adolescent patients with EOS and 53 healthy adolescents. Content review of the scale and internal consistency analysis were conducted in the EOS group. A subgroup of 30 patients was re-assessed over a 10-day interval to establish the test-retest reliability. Measures of functional outcome were used to assess convergent validity, and measures of intelligence and symptoms were used to assess divergent validity. Discriminant validity was analyzed through logistic analysis and the receiver-operating characteristic curve. The LSP and its subscales showed high reliability, adequate internal consistency and adequate convergent and divergent validity. The LSP was also found to be a sensitive instrument for detecting differences between patients and healthy adolescents, correctly classifying 84% of the sample. The estimated area under the curve was 0.925 (95% CI 0.875-0.976). The LSP showed adequate psychometric characteristics in adolescents with EOS and appeared to be a valid, reliable and time-efficient instrument for use in clinical practice and research settings to assess real-world daily-living skills in EOS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-world fuel economy and CO{sub 2} emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energiepolitik und Energiesysteme

    2015-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO{sub 2} emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO{sub 2}/km and the annual CO{sub 2} savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  16. Connecting Educators with Inter-Disciplinary Inquiry-Based Science and Students with STEM Careers with Real-World Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Our professional development workshops have provided participating teachers (inservice and pre-service with interdisciplinary experiences in earth and environmental science that have built their content into real-world problem based research initiatives (STEM, Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. One of our real-world issues has been the detection of phenol since it has been a concern in the real-world coal mining industry. Coal tars are a complex of variable mixtures of phenols. Phenol and phenol derivative compounds are widely used in the production of polymers, drugs, dyes, explosives, pesticides, stabilizers and antioxidants. These phenolic compounds are discharged into the environment and can represent a serious hazard, mainly by the contamination of superficial and underground waters. The toxic effect of phenol can cause comas, convulsions, cyanosis, liver damage, kidney damage, lung damage and death. The mining industry for coal is an alternative source of energy and used in thermoelectric power plants. However, the pollutant phenol that can be found in coal has high need to be detected and is an important aspect to keep an eye on due to these harmful chemicals such as phenol discharging into the environment. Our inquiry-based labs have engaged our inservice and pre-service students by visiting a mine and learning the positive and negative aspects of mining and the importance of water quality. Thus, this inquiry-based module will illustrate the use of an electrochemistry modified carbon nanotube poly-3-hexylthiophene electrode to detect such harmful chemicals as phenol by unique electrochemistry techniques such as Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV.

  17. Prediction and Characterization of High-Activity Events in Social Media Triggered by Real-World News.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Kalyanam

    Full Text Available On-line social networks publish information on a high volume of real-world events almost instantly, becoming a primary source for breaking news. Some of these real-world events can end up having a very strong impact on on-line social networks. The effect of such events can be analyzed from several perspectives, one of them being the intensity and characteristics of the collective activity that it produces in the social platform. We research 5,234 real-world news events encompassing 43 million messages discussed on the Twitter microblogging service for approximately 1 year. We show empirically that exogenous news events naturally create collective patterns of bursty behavior in combination with long periods of inactivity in the network. This type of behavior agrees with other patterns previously observed in other types of natural collective phenomena, as well as in individual human communications. In addition, we propose a methodology to classify news events according to the different levels of intensity in activity that they produce. In particular, we analyze the most highly active events and observe a consistent and strikingly different collective reaction from users when they are exposed to such events. This reaction is independent of an event's reach and scope. We further observe that extremely high-activity events have characteristics that are quite distinguishable at the beginning stages of their outbreak. This allows us to predict with high precision, the top 8% of events that will have the most impact in the social network by just using the first 5% of the information of an event's lifetime evolution. This strongly implies that high-activity events are naturally prioritized collectively by the social network, engaging users early on, way before they are brought to the mainstream audience.

  18. Dabigatran in real-world atrial fibrillation. Meta-analysis of observational comparison studies with vitamin K antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, João; Moscoso Costa, Francisco; Ferreira, Jorge; Mendes, Miguel

    2016-09-27

    In the RE-LY clinical trial, dabigatran presented a better effectiveness/safety profile when compared to warfarin. However, clinical trials are not very representative of the real-world setting. We aimed to assess the performance of dabigatran in real-world patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational comparison studies with vitamin K antagonists (VKA). We searched PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases until November 2015 and selected studies according to the following criteria: observational study performed with nonvalvular AF patients; reporting adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of clinical events in a follow-up period; for dabigatran 75 mg, 110 mg or 150 mg versus VKA. Twenty studies were selected which included 711,298 patients, 210,279 of which were treated with dabigatran and the remaining 501,019 with VKA. Ischaemic stroke incidence was of 1.65 /100 patient-years for dabigatran and 2.85/100 patient-years for VKA (HR 0.86, 95 % confidence interval of 0.74-0.99). Major bleeding rate was 3.93/100 patient-years for dabigatran and 5.61/100 patient-years for VKA (0.79, 0.69-0.89). Risk of mortality (0.73, 0.61-0.87) and intracranial bleeding (0.45, 0.38-0.52) were significantly lower in patients treated with dabigatran when compared to patients on VKA. Risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was significantly higher in patients treated with dabigatran (1.13, 1.00-1.28). No significant difference was observed in risk of myocardial infarction (0.99, 0.89-1.11). In this combined analysis of real-world observational comparison studies with VKA, dabigatran was associated with a lower risk of ischaemic stroke, major bleeding, intracranial bleeding and mortality, higher risk of GI bleeding and a similar risk of myocardial infarction.

  19. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (pdiesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure, composition and toxicity are not straightforward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of the introduction of a standardised ICD programming protocol: real-world data from a single centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Nicholas; Kaura, Amit; Li, Anthony; Kamdar, Ravi; Petzer, Ed; Dhillon, Para; Murgatroyd, Francis; Scott, Paul A

    2016-09-01

    Randomised trials have shown that empiric ICD programming, using long detection times and high detection zones, reduces device therapy in ICD recipients. However, there is less data on its effectiveness in a "real-world" setting, especially secondary prevention patients. Our aim was to evaluate the introduction of a standardised programming protocol in a real-world setting of unselected ICD recipients. We analysed 270 consecutive ICD recipients implanted in a single centre-135 implanted prior to protocol implementation (physician-led group) and 135 after (standardised group). The protocol included long arrhythmia detection times (30/40 or equivalent) and high rate detection zones (primary prevention lower treatment zone 200 bpm). Programming in the physician-led group was at the discretion of the implanter. The primary endpoint was time-to-any therapy (ATP or shocks). Secondary endpoints were time-to-inappropriate therapy and time-to-appropriate therapy. The safety endpoints were syncopal episodes, hospital admissions and death. At 12 months follow-up, 47 patients had received any ICD therapy (physician-led group, n = 31 vs. standardised group, n = 16). There was a 47 % risk reduction in any device therapy (p = 0.04) and an 86 % risk reduction in inappropriate therapy (p = 0.009) in the standardised compared to the physician-led group. There was a non-significant 30 % risk reduction in appropriate therapy (p = 0.32). Results were consistent across primary and secondary prevention patients. There were no significant differences in the rates of syncope, hospitalisation, and death. In unselected patients in a real-world setting, introduction of a standardised programming protocol, using long detection times and high detection zones, significantly reduces the burden of ICD therapy without an increase in adverse outcomes.

  1. Searching for superspreaders of information in real-world social media

    CERN Document Server

    Pei, Sen; Andrade, Jose S; Zheng, Zhiming; Makse, Hernan A

    2014-01-01

    A number of predictors have been suggested to detect the most influential spreaders of information in online social media across various domains such as Twitter or Facebook. In particular, degree, PageRank, k-core and other centralities have been adopted to rank the spreading capability of users in information dissemination media. So far, validation of the proposed predictors has been done by simulating the spreading dynamics rather than following real information flow in social networks. Consequently, only model-dependent contradictory results have been achieved so far for the best predictor. Here, we address this issue directly. We search for influential spreaders by following the real spreading dynamics in a wide range of networks. We find that the widely-used degree and PageRank fail in ranking users' influence. We find that the best spreaders are consistently located in the k-core across dissimilar social platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Livejournal and scientific publishing in the American Physical ...

  2. Multi-fuel surrogate chemical kinetic mechanisms for real world applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Charles K; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J; Kukkadapu, Goutham; Wagnon, Scott; Zhang, Kuiwen

    2018-02-02

    The most important driving force for development of detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms in combustion is the desire by researchers to simulate practical systems. This paper reviews the parallel evolution of kinetic reaction mechanisms and applications of those models to practical, real engines. Early, quite simple, kinetic models for small fuel molecules were extremely valuable in analyzing long-standing, poorly understood applied ignition and flame quenching problems, and later kinetic models have been applied to much more complex flame propagation, problems including autoignition in spark-ignition engines and issues related to octane numbers and knock in modern, high compression ratio and other engines. The recent emergence of very large, multi-fuel surrogate kinetic mechanisms that can address many different fuel types and real engine applications is discussed as a modern analytical tool that can be used for a wide variety of practical applications.

  3. Informing Architecture and Urban Modeling with Real-world Data on 3D Tangible Interfaces and Augmented Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Tore; Salim, Flora; Jaworski, Przemyslaw

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of online and digital data in our world yields unprecedented opportunities for connecting physical and digital parametric models with live data input and feedback. Tangible interfaces and augmented displays provide theatrical settings for designers to visualize real-world data...... and experience realtime feedback while manipulating physical and digital models on the table. This paper proposes a new approach to design workflow, where physical model and virtual model can be interconnected and informed in realtime by multiple analytical datasets and live data streams. Using 3D scanning, blob...... detection, and multi-touch techniques, multidimensional tangible interfaces and augmented displays presented in this paper demonstrate a powerful new approach for designing and interacting with physical models, materials, and environmental data....

  4. Construction of database on real world uses of electric vehicles - a French case

    OpenAIRE

    Kreczanik, Paul; JEANNERET, Bruno; Pelissier, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) does not offer the same advantages and disadvantages than ICE car. User behavior of EV is certainly influenced by the specificity of their vehicle as: autonomy, significant recharge time, as well as the recovery of braking energy. As a result, profiles uses of EV may be different from those already known for ICE equivalent cars. This paper proposes a characterization method and an analysis of real uses observed with electric vehicles.

  5. Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  6. Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administration Real World Skills for MCITP Certification and Beyond (Exam 70-668)

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Delivers the information that SharePoint 2010 administrators in the field need most This book shows you how to design, deploy, and implement a SharePoint 2010 environment, providing practical skills and real-world techniques and scenarios you'll be able to apply on the job. You'll not only thoroughly learn SharePoint 2010, but you'll also get up to speed on business continuity and solutions. In addition, those preparing for the MCITP: SharePoint 2010 Administration certification exam 70-668 will find thorough coverage of all exam objectives.Shows you how to design, deploy, administer, and main

  7. SQL Server 2008 Administration Real World Skills for MCITP Certification and Beyond (Exams 70-432 and 40-450)

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for SQL Server 2008 database administrators. If you manage and administer SQL Server 2008 in the real world, you need this detailed guide at your desk. From planning to disaster recovery, this practical book explores tasks and scenarios that a working SQL Server DBA faces regularly and shows you step by step how to handle them. Topics include installation and configuration, creating databases and tables, optimizing the database server, planning for high availability, and more. And, if you're preparing for MCTS or MCITP certification in SQL Server 2008 admin

  8. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  9. Clinical Effectiveness of Liraglutide in Type 2 Diabetes Treatment in the Real-World Setting: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostawal, Amrita; Mocevic, Emina; Kragh, Nana; Xu, Weiwei

    2016-09-01

    In clinical trials, liraglutide has proven to be an effective drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The real-world effectiveness of liraglutide has been investigated in numerous studies. The aim of this systematic literature review is to collate evidence on the real-world clinical effectiveness of liraglutide. A review of publications from Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and conference proceedings was conducted to identify observational studies that assessed the clinical effectiveness of liraglutide in real-world clinical practice. This review was conducted according to the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance. No language or time limits were applied, except to the conference proceedings (2013-2015). Endpoints for data extraction were decided a priori. Study quality appraisal was done for full-text journal articles. Of 124 publications included in the review, 43 were full-text articles. Liraglutide significantly reduces glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) within 6 months of initiating treatment (mean change in HbA1c from baseline: -0.9% to -2.2%; HbA1c <7.0%: 29.5-65.0%). The NICE composite endpoint (HbA1c reduction ≥1% and weight reduction ≥3%) was met in 16.9-47.0% of patients with liraglutide treatment. Liraglutide therapy led to a mean change in absolute weight from baseline of -1.3 to -8.65 kg. Liraglutide treatment was well tolerated in patients with T2DM. The rate of occurrence of hypoglycemia with liraglutide monotherapy was ≤0.8%. Hypoglycemia was more common in patients taking antidiabetic medications (0.0-15.2%) together with liraglutide. The beneficial glycemic and weight effect of liraglutide therapy in patients with T2DM was maintained for at least 12 months. Evidence from observational studies reflecting real-world clinical practice demonstrates that liraglutide therapy improves glycemic control with a low risk of hypoglycemia, and is associated with significant weight loss in patients with

  10. Real-world uptake of a tailored, text message pregnancy smoking cessation programme (MiQuit) when offered online

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Joanne; Coleman, Tim; Sutton, Stephen; Cooper, Sue; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Naughton, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking is a major public health concern and uptake of NHS cessation support is low in this group. Text message-based self-help is a promising intervention for this population but little is known about its likely real-world uptake, an essential parameter for estimating public health impact. Aims were to explore uptake (including cost) of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers (‘MiQuit’) when offered online. Methods: Links to a website pr...

  11. Simulated Real-World Energy Impacts of a Thermally Sensitive Powertrain Considering Viscous Losses and Enrichment (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Jehlik, F.

    2014-09-01

    It is widely understood that cold-temperature engine operation negatively impacts vehicle fuel use due to a combination of increased friction (high-viscosity engine oil) and temporary enrichment (accelerated catalyst heating). However, relatively little effort has been dedicated to thoroughly quantifying these impacts across a large number of driving cycles and ambient conditions. This work leverages high-quality dynamometer data collected at various ambient conditions to develop a modeling framework for quantifying engine cold-start fuel penalties over a wide array of real-world usage profiles. Additionally, mitigation strategies including energy retention and exhaust heat recovery are explored with benefits quantified for each approach.

  12. Unix Philosophy and the Real World: Control Software for Humanoid Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Thomas Dantam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Robot software combines the challenges of general purpose and real-time software, requiring complex logic and bounded resource use. Physical safety, particularly for dynamic systems such as humanoid robots, depends on correct software. General purpose computation has converged on unix-like operating systems -- standardized as POSIX, the Portable Operating System Interface -- for devices from cellular phones to supercomputers. The modular, multi-process design typical of POSIX applications is effective for building complex and reliable software. Absent from POSIX, however, is an interproccess communication mechanism that prioritizes newer data as typically desired for control of physical systems. We address this need in the Ach communication library which provides suitable semantics and performance for real-time robot control. Although initially designed for humanoid robots, Ach has broader applicability to complex mechatronic devices -- humanoid and otherwise -- that require real-time coupling of sensors, control, planning, and actuation. The initial user space implementation of Ach was limited in the ability to receive data from multiple sources. We remove this limitation by implementing Ach as a Linux kernel module, enabling Ach's high-performance and latest-message-favored semantics within conventional POSIX communication pipelines. We discuss how these POSIX interfaces and design principles apply to robot software, and we present a case study using the Ach kernel module for communication on the Baxter robot.

  13. Heart failure remote monitoring: evidence from the retrospective evaluation of a real-world remote monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, Stephen; Jethwani, Kamal; Khateeb, Kholoud; Moore, Stephanie; Kvedar, Joseph

    2015-04-22

    Given the magnitude of increasing heart failure mortality, multidisciplinary approaches, in the form of disease management programs and other integrative models of care, are recommended to optimize treatment outcomes. Remote monitoring, either as structured telephone support or telemonitoring or a combination of both, is fast becoming an integral part of many disease management programs. However, studies reporting on the evaluation of real-world heart failure remote monitoring programs are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a heart failure telemonitoring program, Connected Cardiac Care Program (CCCP), on hospitalization and mortality in a retrospective database review of medical records of patients with heart failure receiving care at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Patients enrolled in the CCCP heart failure monitoring program at the Massachusetts General Hospital were matched 1:1 with usual care patients. Control patients received care from similar clinical settings as CCCP patients and were identified from a large clinical data registry. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality and hospitalizations assessed during the 4-month program duration. Secondary outcomes included hospitalization and mortality rates (obtained by following up on patients over an additional 8 months after program completion for a total duration of 1 year), risk for multiple hospitalizations and length of stay. The Cox proportional hazard model, stratified on the matched pairs, was used to assess primary outcomes. A total of 348 patients were included in the time-to-event analyses. The baseline rates of hospitalizations prior to program enrollment did not differ significantly by group. Compared with controls, hospitalization rates decreased within the first 30 days of program enrollment: hazard ratio (HR)=0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.86, P=.01). The differential effect on hospitalization rates remained consistent until the end of the 4-month program (HR=0.74, 95% CI 0

  14. On the agreement between small-world-like OFC model and real earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Douglas S.R., E-mail: douglas.ferreira@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro, Paracambi, RJ (Brazil); Geophysics Department, Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Papa, Andrés R.R., E-mail: papa@on.br [Geophysics Department, Observatório Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Menezes, Ronaldo, E-mail: rmenezes@cs.fit.edu [BioComplex Laboratory, Computer Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne (United States)

    2015-03-20

    In this article we implemented simulations of the OFC model for earthquakes for two different topologies: regular and small-world, where in the latter the links are randomly rewired with probability p. In both topologies, we have studied the distribution of time intervals between consecutive earthquakes and the border effects present in each one. In addition, we also have characterized the influence that the probability p produces in certain characteristics of the lattice and in the intensity of border effects. From the two topologies, networks of consecutive epicenters were constructed, that allowed us to analyze the distribution of connectivities of each one. In our results distributions arise belonging to a family of non-traditional distributions functions, which agrees with previous studies using data from actual earthquakes. Our results reinforce the idea that the Earth is in a critical self-organized state and furthermore point towards temporal and spatial correlations between earthquakes in different places. - Highlights: • OFC model simulations for regular and small-world topologies. • For small-world topology distributions agree remarkably well with actual earthquakes. • Reinforce the idea of a critical self-organized state for the Earth's crust. • Point towards temporal and spatial correlations between far earthquakes in far places.

  15. Terra Australis to Oceania: racial geography in the "fifth part of the world".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Bronwen

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a synoptic history of racial geography in the 'fifth part of the world' or Oceania - an extended region embracing what are now Australia, Island Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, Aotearoa/New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. The period in question stretches from classical antiquity to the Enlightenment, to focus on the consolidation of European racial thinking with the marriage of geography and raciology in the early 19th century. The paper investigates the naming of places by Europeans and its ultimate entanglement with their racial classifications of people. The formulation of geographical and anthropological knowledge is located at the interface of metropolitan discourses and local experience. This necessitates unpacking the relationships between, on the one hand, the deductive reasoning of metropolitan savants, and, on the other hand, the empirical logic of voyagers and settlers who had visited or lived in particular places, encountered their inhabitants, and been exposed, often unwittingly, to indigenous agency and knowledge.

  16. Global energy crunch: How different parts of the world would react to a peak oil scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.friedrichs@qeh.ox.ac.u [University of Oxford, Department of International Development, Queen Elizabeth House, 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB (United Kingdom); St Cross College, 61 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Peak oil theory predicts that oil production will soon start a terminal decline. Most authors imply that no adequate alternate resource and technology will be available to replace oil as the backbone resource of industrial society. This article uses historical cases from countries that have gone through a similar experience as the best available analytical strategy to understand what will happen if the predictions of peak oil theorists are right. The author is not committed to a particular version of peak oil theory, but deems the issue important enough to explore how various parts of the world should be expected to react. From the historical record he is able to identify predatory militarism, totalitarian retrenchment, and socioeconomic adaptation as three possible trajectories.

  17. Global energy crunch. How different parts of the world would react to a peak oil scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, Joerg [University of Oxford, Department of International Development, Queen Elizabeth House, 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB (United Kingdom); St Cross College, 61 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Peak oil theory predicts that oil production will soon start a terminal decline. Most authors imply that no adequate alternate resource and technology will be available to replace oil as the backbone resource of industrial society. This article uses historical cases from countries that have gone through a similar experience as the best available analytical strategy to understand what will happen if the predictions of peak oil theorists are right. The author is not committed to a particular version of peak oil theory, but deems the issue important enough to explore how various parts of the world should be expected to react. From the historical record he is able to identify predatory militarism, totalitarian retrenchment, and socioeconomic adaptation as three possible trajectories. (author)

  18. Epidemiology of burns throughout the World. Part II: intentional burns in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    A significant number of burns and deaths from fire are intentionally wrought. Rates of intentional burns are unevenly distributed throughout the world; India has a particularly high rate in young women whereas in Europe rates are higher in men in mid-life. Data from hospitalized burn patients worldwide reveal incidence rates for assault by fire and scalds ranging from 3% to 10%. The average proportion of the body surface area burned in an assault by fire or scalds is approximately 20%. In different parts of the world, attempted burning of others or oneself can be attributed to different motives. Circumstances under which assaults occur fall largely into the categories of interpersonal conflict, including spousal abuse, elder abuse, or interactions over contentious business transactions. Contributing social factors to assaults by burning include drug and alcohol abuse, non-constructive use of leisure time, non-participation in religious and community activities, unstable relationships, and extramarital affairs. Although the incidence of self-mutilation and suicide attempts by burning are relatively low, deliberate self-harm carries a significant risk of death, with an overall mortality rate of 65% worldwide. In those who resort to self-immolation, circumstantial themes reflect domestic discord, family dysfunction, and the social ramifications of unemployment. Preventing injurious burn-related violence requires a multifaceted approach, including legislation and enforcement, education, and advocacy. Better standardized assessment tools are needed to screen for risks of abuse and for psychiatric disorders in perpetrators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Social Learning in the Real-World: 'Over-Imitation' Occurs in Both Children and Adults Unaware of Participation in an Experiment and Independently of Social Interaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whiten, Andrew; Allan, Gillian; Devlin, Siobahn; Kseib, Natalie; Raw, Nicola; McGuigan, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The current study avoided the typical laboratory context to determine instead whether over-imitation-the disposition to copy even visibly, causally unnecessary actions-occurs in a real-world context...

  20. Associations between daily living skills, cognition, and real-world functioning across stages of schizophrenia; a study with the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale Japanese version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Higuchi

    2017-03-01

    These results indicate the utility of SCoRS as a measure of functional capacity that is associated both with cognitive function and real-world functional outcome in subjects with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  1. Judging a Book by Its Cover: Children's Facial Trustworthiness as Judged by Strangers Predicts Their Real-World Trustworthiness and Peer Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinggong; Heyman, Gail D; Mei, Jing; Lee, Kang

    2017-08-03

    This longitudinal research examined whether children's facial trustworthiness as judged by strangers can predict their real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. Adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) judged the facial trustworthiness of 8- to 12-year-old children (N = 100) solely based on their photographs. The children's classmates were asked to report their real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. Children's facial trustworthiness reliably predicted these outcomes both initially when the photographs were taken, as well as 1 year later, and this effect was mediated by the initial ratings of real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. These results provide evidence for a long-lasting linkage between children's facial and real-world trustworthiness. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Intercomparison of real-time tailpipe ammonia measurements from vehicles tested over the new world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle (WLTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, Ricardo; Zardini, Alessandro A; Lilova, Velizara; Meyer, Daniel; Nakatani, Shigeru; Hibel, Frank; Ewers, Jens; Clairotte, Michael; Hill, Leslie; Astorga, Covadonga

    2015-05-01

    Four light-duty vehicles (two diesel, one flex-fuel, and one gasoline vehicle) were tested as part of an intercomparison exercise of the world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test procedure (WLTP) aiming at measuring real-time ammonia emissions from the vehicles' raw exhaust at the tailpipe. The tests were conducted in the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) at the European Commission Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC), Ispra, Italy. HORIBA, CGS, and the Sustainable Transport Unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) took part in the measurement and analysis of the four vehicles' exhaust emissions over the world-harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle class 3, version 5.3 using a HORIBA MEXA 1400 QL-NX, a CGS BLAQ-Sys, and the JRC Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, respectively. The measured ammonia concentrations and the emission profiles revealed that these three instruments are suitable to measure ammonia from the vehicles' raw exhaust, presenting no significant differences. Furthermore, results showed that measurement of ammonia from the vehicle exhaust using online systems can be performed guaranteeing the reproducibility and repeatability of the results. While no ammonia was detected for any of the two diesel vehicles (even though, one was equipped with a selective catalytic reduction system), we report average ammonia emission factors 8-10 mg/km (average concentrations 20-23 ppm) and 10-12 mg/km (average concentrations 22-24 ppm) for the flex-fuel and gasoline vehicles, respectively.

  3. Speedometer app videos to provide real-world velocity–time graph data 1: rail travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Julien

    2018-03-01

    The use of modern rail travel as a source of real-life velocity–time data to aid in the teaching of velocity and acceleration is discussed. A technique for using GPS speedometer apps to produce videos of velocity and time figures during a rail journey is described. The technique is applied to a UK rail journey, demonstrating how students can use its results to produce a velocity–time graph from which acceleration and deceleration figures can be calculated. These are compared with theoretical maximum figures, calculated from the train’s technical specification.

  4. Quality of service in WiMAX: real world aspects of social & environmental influences on mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Peart, Amanda; Adda, Mo

    2013-01-01

    In today’s technological world, users of mobile wireless devices are predominantly on the move while still enjoying connectivity of the Internet. How people use their mobile devices differ in many ways, not only from a technological point of view e.g. browsing the web, sending emails, SMS, downloading music/apps, or keeping up with friends on facebook, etc. But also from a geographical point of view, the user’s physical location, whether this is seated stationary in a park or shopping centre,...

  5. Adding Another Dimension to Learning: Application of Real World Globes to Undergraduate Geoscience Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, C. L.; Kugler, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Geological Globe of the World (www.realworldglobes.com) promotes hands-on, in-class activities and allows students to engage with a physical 3-D model of Earth's characteristic, planet-forming geological features. The effectiveness of this concept in student learning has been demonstrated by two pilot studies presented as posters by Weeraratne et al. (2011) and Stoddard and Rogers (2013) at previous AGU meetings. The impact of the Geological Globe of the World on undergraduate teaching at Miami University, OH during Fall semester 2016 will be presented. It is anticipated that this teaching tool will have the biggest impact on the teaching of our 100-level lab course, GLG 155L, which engages 900 students per academic year. A Learning Assessment based on the learning objectives of GLG 115L has been written in order to demonstrate and evaluate the role of the Geological Globe in student learning. This Learning Assessment will be issued through www.salgsite.org (SALG: Student Assessment of Learning Gains) and will ask students to assess their own knowledge and understanding of key concepts before and after specific lab exercises which implement the globe. From research discussed in Bamford (2013), it has been demonstrated that "students learning with 3D teaching aids had better ordering of concepts and had enhanced skills in describing their learning, including writing more, saying more and being more likely to use models to demonstrate their (own) learning". It is anticipated that through use of the Geological Globe of the World students will be able to interpret Earth's geological features on a 3-D projection including topography, active volcanism, crustal movements and the location of seismic events. The incorporation of the Geological Globe of the World in undergraduate geoscience teaching in GLG 115L, and other departmental courses, aims to encourage students to make observations and collect data in order to interpret and evaluate relevant geological

  6. Intrinsic interactive reinforcement learning - Using error-related potentials for real world human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Kyoung; Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Stefes, Arne; Kirchner, Frank

    2017-12-14

    Reinforcement learning (RL) enables robots to learn its optimal behavioral strategy in dynamic environments based on feedback. Explicit human feedback during robot RL is advantageous, since an explicit reward function can be easily adapted. However, it is very demanding and tiresome for a human to continuously and explicitly generate feedback. Therefore, the development of implicit approaches is of high relevance. In this paper, we used an error-related potential (ErrP), an event-related activity in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), as an intrinsically generated implicit feedback (rewards) for RL. Initially we validated our approach with seven subjects in a simulated robot learning scenario. ErrPs were detected online in single trial with a balanced accuracy (bACC) of 91%, which was sufficient to learn to recognize gestures and the correct mapping between human gestures and robot actions in parallel. Finally, we validated our approach in a real robot scenario, in which seven subjects freely chose gestures and the real robot correctly learned the mapping between gestures and actions (ErrP detection (90% bACC)). In this paper, we demonstrated that intrinsically generated EEG-based human feedback in RL can successfully be used to implicitly improve gesture-based robot control during human-robot interaction. We call our approach intrinsic interactive RL.

  7. Searching for superspreaders of information in real-world social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Sen; Muchnik, Lev; Andrade, José S., Jr.; Zheng, Zhiming; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-07-01

    A number of predictors have been suggested to detect the most influential spreaders of information in online social media across various domains such as Twitter or Facebook. In particular, degree, PageRank, k-core and other centralities have been adopted to rank the spreading capability of users in information dissemination media. So far, validation of the proposed predictors has been done by simulating the spreading dynamics rather than following real information flow in social networks. Consequently, only model-dependent contradictory results have been achieved so far for the best predictor. Here, we address this issue directly. We search for influential spreaders by following the real spreading dynamics in a wide range of networks. We find that the widely-used degree and PageRank fail in ranking users' influence. We find that the best spreaders are consistently located in the k-core across dissimilar social platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Livejournal and scientific publishing in the American Physical Society. Furthermore, when the complete global network structure is unavailable, we find that the sum of the nearest neighbors' degree is a reliable local proxy for user's influence. Our analysis provides practical instructions for optimal design of strategies for ``viral'' information dissemination in relevant applications.

  8. Searching for superspreaders of information in real-world social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Sen; Muchnik, Lev; Andrade, José S; Zheng, Zhiming; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-07-03

    A number of predictors have been suggested to detect the most influential spreaders of information in online social media across various domains such as Twitter or Facebook. In particular, degree, PageRank, k-core and other centralities have been adopted to rank the spreading capability of users in information dissemination media. So far, validation of the proposed predictors has been done by simulating the spreading dynamics rather than following real information flow in social networks. Consequently, only model-dependent contradictory results have been achieved so far for the best predictor. Here, we address this issue directly. We search for influential spreaders by following the real spreading dynamics in a wide range of networks. We find that the widely-used degree and PageRank fail in ranking users' influence. We find that the best spreaders are consistently located in the k-core across dissimilar social platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Livejournal and scientific publishing in the American Physical Society. Furthermore, when the complete global network structure is unavailable, we find that the sum of the nearest neighbors' degree is a reliable local proxy for user's influence. Our analysis provides practical instructions for optimal design of strategies for "viral" information dissemination in relevant applications.

  9. Characterization of real-world vibration sources with a view toward optimal energy harvesting architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantz, Robert; Roundy, Shad

    2016-04-01

    A tremendous amount of research has been performed on the design and analysis of vibration energy harvester architectures with the goal of optimizing power output; most studies assume idealized input vibrations without paying much attention to whether such idealizations are broadly representative of real sources. These "idealized input signals" are typically derived from the expected nature of the vibrations produced from a given source. Little work has been done on corroborating these expectations by virtue of compiling a comprehensive list of vibration signals organized by detailed classifications. Vibration data representing 333 signals were collected from the NiPS Laboratory "Real Vibration" database, processed, and categorized according to the source of the signal (e.g. animal, machine, etc.), the number of dominant frequencies, the nature of the dominant frequencies (e.g. stationary, band-limited noise, etc.), and other metrics. By categorizing signals in this way, the set of idealized vibration inputs commonly assumed for harvester input can be corroborated and refined, and heretofore overlooked vibration input types have motivation for investigation. An initial qualitative analysis of vibration signals has been undertaken with the goal of determining how often a standard linear oscillator based harvester is likely the optimal architecture, and how often a nonlinear harvester with a cubic stiffness function might provide improvement. Although preliminary, the analysis indicates that in at least 23% of cases, a linear harvester is likely optimal and in no more than 53% of cases would a nonlinear cubic stiffness based harvester provide improvement.

  10. Searching for superspreaders of information in real-world social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Sen; Muchnik, Lev; Andrade, Jr., José S.; Zheng, Zhiming; Makse, Hernán A.

    2014-01-01

    A number of predictors have been suggested to detect the most influential spreaders of information in online social media across various domains such as Twitter or Facebook. In particular, degree, PageRank, k-core and other centralities have been adopted to rank the spreading capability of users in information dissemination media. So far, validation of the proposed predictors has been done by simulating the spreading dynamics rather than following real information flow in social networks. Consequently, only model-dependent contradictory results have been achieved so far for the best predictor. Here, we address this issue directly. We search for influential spreaders by following the real spreading dynamics in a wide range of networks. We find that the widely-used degree and PageRank fail in ranking users' influence. We find that the best spreaders are consistently located in the k-core across dissimilar social platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, Livejournal and scientific publishing in the American Physical Society. Furthermore, when the complete global network structure is unavailable, we find that the sum of the nearest neighbors' degree is a reliable local proxy for user's influence. Our analysis provides practical instructions for optimal design of strategies for “viral” information dissemination in relevant applications. PMID:24989148

  11. Real-world volatile organic compound emission rates from seated adults and children for use in indoor air studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stönner, C; Edtbauer, A; Williams, J

    2018-01-01

    Human beings emit many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both endogenous (internally produced) and exogenous (external source) origin. Here we present real-world emission rates of volatile organic compounds from cinema audiences (50-230 people) as a function of time in multiple screenings of three films. The cinema location and film selection allowed high-frequency measurement of human-emitted VOCs within a room flushed at a known rate so that emissions rates could be calculated for both adults and children. Gas-phase emission rates are analyzed as a function of time of day, variability during the film, and age of viewer. The average emission rates of CO2 , acetone, and isoprene were lower (by a factor of ~1.2-1.4) for children under twelve compared to adults while for acetaldehyde emission rates were equivalent. Molecules influenced by exogenous sources such as decamethylcyclopentasiloxanes and methanol tended to decrease over the course of day and then rise for late evening screenings. These results represent average emission rates of people under real-world conditions and can be used in indoor air quality assessments and building design. Averaging over a large number of people generates emission rates that are less susceptible to individual behaviors. © 2017 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Which Lynch syndrome screening programs could be implemented in the "real world"? A systematic review of economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Marco; D'Andrea, Elvira; Panic, Nikola; Baccolini, Valentina; Migliara, Giuseppe; Marzuillo, Carolina; De Vito, Corrado; Pastorino, Roberta; Boccia, Stefania; Villari, Paolo

    2018-01-04

    PurposeLynch syndrome (LS) screening can significantly reduce cancer morbidity and mortality in mutation carriers. Our aim was to identify cost-effective LS screening programs that can be implemented in the "real world."MethodsWe performed a systematic review of full economic evaluations of genetic screening for LS in different target populations; health outcomes were estimated in life-years gained or quality-adjusted life-years.ResultsOverall, 20 studies were included in the systematic review. Based on the study populations, we identified six categories of LS screening program: colorectal cancer (CRC)-based, endometrial cancer-based, general population-based, LS family registry-based, cascade testing-based, and genetics clinic-based screening programs. We performed an in-depth analysis of CRC-based LS programs, classifying them into three additional subcategories: universal, age-targeted, and selective. In five studies, universal programs based on immunohistochemistry, either alone or in combination with the BRAF test, were cost-effective compared with no screening, while in two studies age-targeted programs with a cutoff of 70 years were cost-effective when compared with age-targeted programs with lower age thresholds.ConclusionUniversal or <70 years-age-targeted CRC-based LS screening programs are cost-effective and should be implemented in the "real world."GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 4 January 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.244.

  13. A path model investigation of neurocognition, theory of mind, social competence, negative symptoms and real-world functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Shannon M; Granholm, Eric L; Fish, Scott C

    2011-02-01

    Problems in real-world functioning are pervasive in schizophrenia and much recent effort has been devoted to uncovering factors which contribute to poor functioning. The goal of this study was to examine the role of four such factors: social cognition (theory of mind), neurocognition, negative symptoms, and functional capacity (social competence). 178 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of theory of mind, neurocognition, negative symptoms, social competence, and self-reported functioning. Path models sought to determine the relationships among these variables. Theory of mind as indexed by the Hinting Task partially mediated the relationship between neurocognition and social competence, and negative symptoms and social competence demonstrated significant direct paths with self-reported functioning. Study results suggest theory of mind serves as an important mediator in addition to previously investigated social cognitive domains of emotional and social perception. The current study also highlights the need to determine variables which mediate the relationship between functional capacity and real-world functioning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia: comparisons from real-world clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Garzotto A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analia Rodriguez Garzotto,1 Oliver Heine,2 Matthew Turner,3 Francisco Rebollo Laserna,4 Andreas Lorenz5 1Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Ctra Andalucía, Madrid, Spain; 2Zentralklinikum Suhl, Suhl, 3Sandoz International GmbH, Holzkirchen, Germany; 4Sandoz Farmaceutica SA, Madrid, Spain; 5Frauenarztpraxis, Hildburghausen, GermanyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to report real-world data on the relative effectiveness of a biosimilar erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA; Binocrit®, and other available ESAs for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia.Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from single centers in Spain (n=284 and Germany (n=145. Hemoglobin outcomes, transfusion requirements, and serious drug-related adverse events were assessed for each ESA.Results: Hemoglobin outcomes and transfusion requirements were generally similar in the different ESA treatment groups assessed. No serious drug-related adverse events were recorded in any of the treatment groups.Conclusion: These data confirm the real-world effectiveness and safety of a biosimilar ESA (Binocrit® for the treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia.Keywords: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, chemotherapy-induced anemia, biosimilar

  15. The incidence and predictors of overall adverse effects caused by low dose amiodarone in real-world clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Seo, Jae-Bin; Chung, Woo-Young; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-A; Zo, Joo-Hee

    2014-09-01

    Most current knowledge regarding amiodarone toxicity derives from clinical trials. This study was performed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of overall adverse effects of amiodarone in real-world practice using a large sample size. Between January 1, 2000 and March 10, 2012, a total of 930 consecutive patients who had been treated with amiodarone for arrhythmia were reviewed retrospectively. An amiodarone-associated adverse event was considered in cases of discontinuation or drug dose reduction due to an unexpected clinical response. The mean daily dose of amiodarone was 227 ± 126 mg, and the mean duration was 490 ± 812 days. During the mean follow-up duration of 982 ± 1,137 days, a total of 154 patients (16.6%) experienced adverse effects related to amiodarone, the most common being bradycardia or conduction disturbance (9.5%). Major organ toxicities in the thyroid (2.5%), liver (2.2%), eyes (0.6%), and lungs (0.3%) were rare. All patients recovered fully without complications after amiodarone discontinuation or dose reduction. The only independent predictor of adverse effects was the duration of amiodarone treatment (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.41; p = 0.016, per year). Low-dose amiodarone is well tolerated in a real-world clinical population. Further studies with a prospective design are needed to confirm this finding.

  16. Angina and associated healthcare costs following percutaneous coronary intervention: A real-world analysis from a multi-payer database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yehuda, Ori; Kazi, Dhruv S; Bonafede, Machaon; Wade, Sally W; Machacz, Susanne F; Stephens, Leslie A; Hlatky, Mark A; Hernandez, John B

    2016-12-01

    To study the contemporary, real-world clinical and economic burden associated with angina after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Angina adversely affects quality of life and medical costs, yet data on real-world prevalence of angina following PCI and its associated economic consequences are limited. In a multi-payer administrative claims database, we identified adults with incident inpatient PCI admissions between 2008 and 2011 who had at least 12 months of continuous medical and pharmacy benefits before and after the procedure. Patients were followed for up to 36 months. Using claims, we ascertained post-PCI outcomes: angina or chest pain, acute myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, repeat PCI, healthcare service utilization, and costs. Among 51,710 study patients (mean age 61.8, 72% male), post-PCI angina or chest pain was present in 28% by 12 months and 40% by 36 months. Compared with patients who did not experience chest pain, angina or ACS, total healthcare costs in the first year after the index PCI were 1.8 times greater for patients with angina or chest pain ($32,437 vs. $17,913, P < 0.001). These cost differentials continued to 36 months. Angina after PCI is a frequent and expensive outcome. Further research is needed to identify risk factors and potentially improve outcomes for post-PCI angina. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Randomized controlled trials and real-world observational studies in evaluating cardiovascular safety of inhaled bronchodilator therapy in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, Peter; Worsley, Sally; Singh, Dave; Román-Rodríguez, Miguel; Newby, David E; Müllerová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) or long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) bronchodilators and their combination are recommended for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the efficacy of LAMAs and LABAs has been well established through randomized controlled trials (RCTs), questions remain regarding their cardiovascular (CV) safety. Furthermore, while the safety of LAMA and LABA monotherapy has been extensively studied, data are lacking for LAMA/LABA combination therapy, and the majority of the studies that have reported on the CV safety of LAMA/LABA combination therapy were not specifically designed to assess this. Evaluation of CV safety for COPD treatments is important because many patients with COPD have underlying CV comorbidities. However, severe CV and other comorbidities are often exclusion criteria for RCTs, contributing to a lack in external validity and generalizability. Real-world observational studies are another important tool to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of COPD therapies in a broader population of patients and can improve upon the external validity limitations of RCTs. We examine what is already known regarding the CV and cerebrovascular safety of LAMA/LABA combination therapy from RCTs and real-world observational studies, and explore the advantages and limitations of data derived from each study type. We also describe an ongoing prospective, observational, comparative post-authorization safety study of a LAMA/LABA combination therapy (umeclidinium/vilanterol) and LAMA monotherapy (umeclidinium) versus tiotropium, with a focus on the relative merits of the study design.

  18. Comparison of the regulated air pollutant emission characteristics of real-world driving cycle and ECE cycle for motorcycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Lai, Yen-Ming; Lee, Ting-Yi

    2014-04-01

    Motorcycles are an important means of transportation, and their numbers have increased significantly in recent years. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics and driving patterns of motorcycles are necessary baseline information for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. The selected motorcycles were equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) to obtain speed-time data for determination of the characteristics of real-world driving parameters, and an on-board exhaust gas analyser with data logger was employed to determine the instantaneous concentration of regulated air pollutants from motorcycle exhaust. Results indicated that the time proportions of acceleration, cruising, and deceleration are different from those of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycle, and the time percentages of acceleration and deceleration of the ECE cycle are much less than those in Taichung city. In general, the emission factors of the Taichung motorcycle driving cycle (TMDC) were higher HC and lower NOx emission than those of the ECE cycle. The average fuel consumption of tested motorcycles on three roads during workdays was 5% higher than that on weekends. The fuel consumption in the real-world motorcycle driving cycle was also about 7% higher than that of the ECE cycle, which again indicates that the ECE cycle is unsuitable for measuring fuel consumption in the Taichung metropolitan area. Therefore, understanding the local driving cycle is necessary for developing accurate emission data for air pollution control measures for urban areas.

  19. Big data to smart data in Alzheimer's disease: Real-world examples of advanced modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Magali; Stephenson, Diane; Romero, Klaus; Gordon, Mark Forrest; Zach, Neta; Geerts, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Many disease-modifying clinical development programs in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed to date, and development of new and advanced preclinical models that generate actionable knowledge is desperately needed. This review reports on computer-based modeling and simulation approach as a powerful tool in AD research. Statistical data-analysis techniques can identify associations between certain data and phenotypes, such as diagnosis or disease progression. Other approaches integrate domain expertise in a formalized mathematical way to understand how specific components of pathology integrate into complex brain networks. Private-public partnerships focused on data sharing, causal inference and pathway-based analysis, crowdsourcing, and mechanism-based quantitative systems modeling represent successful real-world modeling examples with substantial impact on CNS diseases. Similar to other disease indications, successful real-world examples of advanced simulation can generate actionable support of drug discovery and development in AD, illustrating the value that can be generated for different stakeholders. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leveraging Real-World Evidence in Disease-Management Decision-Making with a Total Cost of Care Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Nghia; Trocio, Jeffrey; Kowal, Stacey; Ferrufino, Cheryl P; Munakata, Julie; South, Dell

    2016-12-01

    Health management is becoming increasingly complex, given a range of care options and the need to balance costs and quality. The ability to measure and understand drivers of costs is critical for healthcare organizations to effectively manage their patient populations. Healthcare decision makers can leverage real-world evidence to explore the value of disease-management interventions in shifting total cost trends. To develop a real-world, evidence-based estimator that examines the impact of disease-management interventions on the total cost of care (TCoC) for a patient population with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Data were collected from a patient-level real-world evidence data set that uses the IMS PharMetrics Health Plan Claims Database. Pharmacy and medical claims for patients meeting the inclusion or exclusion criteria were combined in longitudinal cohorts with a 180-day preindex and 360-day follow-up period. Descriptive statistics, such as mean and median patient costs and event rates, were derived from a real-world evidence analysis and were used to populate the base-case estimates within the TCoC estimator, an exploratory economic model that was designed to estimate the potential impact of several disease-management activities on the TCoC for a patient population with NVAF. Using Microsoft Excel, the estimator is designed to compare current direct costs of medical care to projected costs by varying assumptions on the impact of disease-management activities and applying the associated changes in cost trends to the affected populations. Disease-management levers are derived from literature-based concepts affecting costs along the NVAF disease continuum. The use of the estimator supports analyses across 4 US geographic regions, age, cost types, and care settings during 1 year. All patients included in the study were continuously enrolled in their health plan (within the IMS PharMetrics Health Plan Claims Database) between July 1, 2010, and June 30