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Sample records for reactive skin decontamination

  1. Skin decontamination of G, V, H L agents by Canadian reactive skin decontaminant lotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bide, R.W.; Sawyer, T.W.; DiNinno, V.L.; Armour, S.J.; Risk, D.J.

    1993-05-13

    The Canadian Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) is a reactive solution designed to be applied directly to skin for the decontamination and destruction of the classical chemical warfare agents. The solvent of the RSDL is very effective in dissolving liquid agents from the skin surface and the differential solubility of agents in the RSDL and the skin strongly favors retention of agents in the lotion. The active ingredient in the RSDL reacts rapidly and completely with G-agents, V-agents, mustard Lewisite producing relatively nontoxic products. The RSDL will dissolve and destroy agent thickened with acrylate polymers. The lotion is water soluble and readily removed from the skin. Since the RSDL is water soluble, it is active against water soluble agents even at high dilutions. For water insoluble agents, the activity is reduced as the water content rises above abrasive 50% due to insolubility of the agents. Skin and eye irritancy trials indicate that the RSDL is only a mild irritant to the eyes (equivalent to a chlorinated swimming pool) and to abraded skin. Acute toxicity trials showed that large oral and intraperitoneal doses were essentially non-toxic. The RSDL was fielded by the Canadian Forces for the Gulf Conflict. The RSDL may be used in open wounds for short periods. Wound decontamination and irrigation with RSDL diluted 1:1 with isotonic saline was recommended for the Gulf conflict.

  2. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  3. Comparison of Four Skin Decontamination Procedures Using Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) Following Cutaneous VX Exposure in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    decontaminated with RSDL. RSDL was applied with an applicator made by stapling one fourth of an RSDL sponge pad (25 mm x 50 mm) to a wooden tongue ...RSDL was applied by swiping the applicator across the exposure site ten times in a head-to-tail direction with steady pressure on the exposure site

  4. Comparison of skin decontamination efficacy of commercial decontamination products following exposure to VX on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, L; Koch, M; Wigenstam, E; Koch, B; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2017-08-01

    The decontamination efficacy of four commercially available skin decontamination products following exposure to the nerve agent VX was evaluated in vitro utilizing a diffusion cell and dermatomed human skin. The products included were Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), the Swedish decontamination powder 104 (PS104), the absorbent Fuller's Earth and the aqueous solution alldecontMED. In addition, various decontamination procedures were assessed to further investigate important mechanisms involved in the specific products, e.g. decontamination removal from skin, physical removal by sponge swabbing and activation of degradation mechanisms. The efficacy of each decontamination product was evaluated 5 or 30 min after dermal application of VX (neat or diluted to 20% in water). The RSDL-lotion was superior in reducing the penetration of VX through human skin, both when exposed as neat agent and when diluted to 20% in water. Swabbing with the RSDL-sponge during 2 min revealed decreased efficacy compared to applying the RSDL-lotion directly on the skin for 30 min. Decontamination with Fuller's Earth and alldecontMED significantly reduced the penetration of neat concentration of VX through human skin. PS104-powder was insufficient for decontamination of VX at both time-points, independently of the skin contact time of PS104. The PS104-slurry (a mixture of PS104-powder and water), slightly improved the decontamination efficacy. Comparing the time-points for initiated decontamination revealed less penetrated VX for RSDL and Fuller's Earth when decontamination was initiated after 5 min compared to 30 min post-exposure, while alldecontMED displayed similar efficacy at both time-points. Decontamination by washing with water only resulted in a significant reduction of penetrated VX when washing was performed 5 min after exposure, but not when decontamination was delayed to 30 min post-exposure of neat VX. In conclusion, early initiated decontamination with the

  5. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination.

  6. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE.

  7. Comparison of selected skin decontaminant products and regimens against VX in domestic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, S; Mikler, J; Hill, I; Tenn, C; Garrett, M; Caddy, N; Sawyer, T W

    2008-03-01

    An anesthetized domestic swine model was used to compare the efficacy and cross-contamination potential of selected skin decontaminant products and regimens against the chemical warfare agent, VX. Animals topically exposed to 2x, 3x or 5x LD(50) VX showed typical signs of organophosphate nerve agent poisoning, including miosis, salivation, mastication, dysrhythmias, and respiratory distress prior to death. Animals were exposed to 5x LD(50) VX and then decontaminated 45 min later with the reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL), Fuller's earth (FE), 0.5% hypochlorite, or soapy water. Survival was 100% when the reactive skin decontamination lotion or FE was utilized, although 50% of Fuller's earth-decontaminated animals exhibited serious signs of VX poisoning. Decontamination of VX-treated animals with 0.5% hypochlorite was less effective but also increased survival. Soapy water was ineffective in preventing lethality. Blood cholinesterase levels were not predictive of clinical outcome in decontaminated animals. The potential of "decontaminated" VX in open wounds to cause poisoning was assessed by vigorously mixing 5x LD(50) VX with the test decontaminants for 5 min and then placing the mixture onto a full-thickness skin wound. Soapy water was ineffective in preventing lethality. Although treatment with dry Fuller's earth prevented death and all signs of organophosphate poisoning, a significant proportion of treated animals decontaminated with Fuller's earth in aqueous suspension exhibited serious signs of organophosphate poisoning, suggesting that live agent may be desorbed from Fuller's earth when it is exposed to a liquid environment. Animals treated with reactive skin decontamination lotion or 0.5% hypochlorite-VX mixtures showed no signs of organophosphate poisoning during the 6- h test period.

  8. Hairy skin exposure to VX in vitro: effectiveness of delayed decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, P; Bolzinger, M-A; Cruz, C; Josse, D; Briançon, S

    2013-02-01

    The chemical warfare agents such as VX represent a threat for both military and civilians, which involves an immediate need of effective decontamination systems. Since human scalp is usually unprotected compared to other body regions covered with clothes, it could be a preferential site of exposure in case of terrorist acts. The purpose of this study was to determine if skin decontamination could be efficient when performed more than 1h after exposure. In addition, the impact of hairs in skin contamination was investigated. By using in vitro skin models, we demonstrated that about 75% of the applied quantity of VX was recovered on the skin surface 2h after skin exposition, which means that it is worth decontaminating even if contamination occurred 2h before. The stratum corneum reservoir for VX was quickly established and persistent. In addition, the presence of hairs modified the percutaneous penetration of the nerve agent by binding of VX to hairs. Hair shaft has thus to be taken into account in the decontamination process. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and Fuller's Earth (FE) were active in the skin decontamination 45min post-exposure, but RSDL was more efficient in reducing the amount of VX either in the skin or in the hair.

  9. RSDL decontamination of human skin contaminated with the nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thors, L; Lindberg, S; Johansson, S; Koch, B; Koch, M; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2017-03-05

    Dermal exposure to low volatile organophosphorus compounds (OPC) may lead to penetration through the skin and uptake in the blood circulation. Skin decontamination of toxic OPCs, such as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents, might therefore be crucial for mitigating the systemic toxicity following dermal exposure. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) has been shown to reduce toxic effects in animals dermally exposed to the nerve agent VX. In the present study, an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of RSDL for decontamination of VX exposed to human epidermis. In particular, the impact of timing in the initiation of decontamination and agent dilution in water was studied. The impact of the lipophilic properties of VX in the RSDL decontamination was additionally addressed by comparing chemical degradation in RSDL and decontamination efficacy between the VX and the hydrophilic OPC triethyl phosphonoacetate (TEPA). The epidermal membrane was exposed to 20, 75 or 90% OPC diluted in deionized water and the decontamination was initiated 5, 10, 30, 60 or 120min post-exposure. Early decontamination of VX with RSDL, initiated 5-10min after skin exposure, was very effective. Delayed decontamination initiated 30-60min post-exposure was less effective but still the amount of penetrated agent was significantly reduced, while further delayed start of decontamination to 120min resulted in very low efficacy. Comparing RSDL decontamination of VX with that of TEPA showed that the decontamination efficacy at high agent concentrations was higher for VX. The degradation mechanism of VX and TEPA during decontamination was dissected by (31)P NMR spectroscopy of the OPCs following reactions with RSDL and its three nucleophile components. The degradation rate was clearly associated with the high pH of the specific solution investigated; i.e. increased pH resulted in a more rapid degradation. In addition, the solubility of the OPC in RSDL

  10. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad W Stratilo

    Full Text Available Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin, compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes.

  11. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratilo, Chad W; Crichton, Melissa K F; Sawyer, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes.

  12. Personnel decontamination and preventive skin care; Personendekontamination und Hautprophylaxe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Klaus; Gojowczyk, Peter [AKA Kunz GmbH, Waldenbuch (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Skin contamination arises from contact with contaminated aqueous solutions and from transmission of radioactively contaminated dirt particles. As long as the surface of the skin is neither inflamed nor showing any lesions, normally only a limited part of the top layer (epidermis), i.e. the upper layers of the stratum corneum, is contaminated. The intact horny layer has a barrier function protecting against the penetration of chemicals and dirt particles. The horny layer can be damaged by water, solvents, alkaline substances, and acids. In general, it is safe to say that the horny layer acts as a natural barrier to the penetration of liquid and particulate impurities into lower layers of the skin. As long as the horny layer is intact and free from lesions, the risk of incorporation can be considered low. When decontaminating and cleansing the skin, also in daily skin cleansing, care must be taken to prevent the acid protective layer and the horny layer from being compromised. Daily cleansing and cleansing for decontamination must be carried out with a mild, weakly acidic detergent. In addition, prevention should be achieved daily by applying a non-greasy skin lotion to protect the skin. Following a systematic regular regimen in skin cleansing and preventive skin care as well as a specific approach in skin decontamination and cleansing will avoid damage to the skin and remove any contamination incurred. This approach comprises a three-pronged concept, namely skin protection, cleansing and care. (orig.)

  13. Skin decontamination of mustards and organophosphates: comparative efficiency of RSDL and Fuller's earth in domestic swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taysse, L; Daulon, S; Delamanche, S; Bellier, B; Breton, P

    2007-02-01

    Research in skin decontamination and therapy of chemical warfare agents has been a difficult problem due to the simultaneous requirement of rapid action and non-aggressive behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of two decontaminating systems: the Canadian Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) and the Fuller's Earth (FE). The experiment was conducted with domestic swine, as a good model for extrapolation to human skin. RSDL and FE were tested against sulphur mustard (SM), a powerful vesicant, and VX, a potent and persistent cholinesterase inhibitor. When used 5 min after contamination, the results clearly showed that both systems were active against SM (10.1 mg/cm(2)) and VX (0.06 mg/cm(2)). The potency of the RSDL/sponge was statistically better than FE against skin injury induced by SM, observed 3 days post-exposure. RSDL was rather more efficient than FE in reducing the formation of perinuclear vacuoles and inflammation processes in the epidermis and dermis. Against a severe inhibition (67%) of plasmatic cholinesterases induced by VX poisoning, the potencies of the RSDL/sponge and FE were similar. Both systems completely prevented cholinesterase inhibition, which indirectly indicates a prevention of toxic absorption through the skin.

  14. Decontamination of human and rabbit skin experimentally contaminated with 99mTc radionuclide using the active components of "Shudhika"-a skin decontamination kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Sudha; Dutta, Mita; Soni, Nakshe L; Chopra, Mahendra K; Kumar, Vinod; Goel, Rajeev; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Radioactive contamination can occur as a result of accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials (RM) into the environment. RM may deposit on clothing, skin, or hair. Decontamination of contaminated persons should be done as soon as possible to minimize the deleterious health effects of radiation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the decontamination efficiency (for residual contaminant) of the active components of "Shudhika," an indigenously developed skin decontamination kit. The study kit is for external radioactive decontamination of intact skin. Decontamination efficiency was evaluated on the skin surface of rabbit (n = 6) and human volunteers (n = 13). 99mTc sodium pertechnetate (200-250 μCi) was used as the radio-contaminant. Skin surface area (5 × 5 cm2) of thoracic abdominal region of the rabbit and the forearm and the palm of human volunteers were used for the study. Decontamination was performed by using cotton swabs soaked with chemical decontamination agents of the kit. Decontamination efficiency (% of the contaminant removed) was calculated for each component of the study. Overall effectiveness of the kit was calculated to be 85% ± 5% in animal and 92% ± 3% in human skin surfaces. Running water and liquid soap with water was able to decontaminate volunteers' hand and animal skin up to 70% ± 5%. Chemical decontamination agents were applied only for trace residues (30% ± 5%). Efficiency of all the kit components was found up to be 20% ± 3% (animal) and 28% ± 2 (human), respectively. Residual contamination after final decontamination attempt for both the models was observed to be 12% ± 3% and 5% ± 2%. After 24 and 48 hours of the decontamination procedure, skin was found to be normal (no redness, erythema and edema were observed). Decontaminants of the study kit were effective in removal of localized radioactive skin contamination when water is ineffective for further decontamination. By using the chemical decontaminants of

  15. Decontamination of rat and human skin experimentally contaminated with (99m)Tc, (201)Tl and (131)I radionuclides using "Dermadecon" - a skin decontamination kit: an efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishad, Dhruv Kumar; Bhalla, Supriya; Khanna, Kushagra; Sharma, Braj Gaurav; Rawat, Harish Singh; Mittal, Gaurav; Bhatnagar, Aseem

    2017-05-03

    Radioactive skin contamination is one of the most likely risks which occurs after accidental or occupational radiological accidents apart from internal contamination. In such cases where the radioactive contamination has occurred, the person who is contaminated should be decontaminated as early as possible to reduce the damaging health effects of radiation. In the present study, the decontamination efficiency of a developed skin decontamination kit "dermadecon" has been evaluated in animal models and human subjects using gamma scintigraphy. Decontamination efficiency (percentage of the radioactive contaminant removed) was calculated for each radioactive isotope of the study and compared with control where general washing procedure was followed using liquid and soap. The effectiveness of the kit was calculated in animal model with respect to (99m)Tc-sodium-pertechnetate ((99m)TcO(4-)), (201)TlCl and (131)I and was found 92.84 ± 4.9%, 91.18 ± 3.23% and 94.67 ± 2.92%, respectively. Whereas, in case of human skin, the decontamination efficiency for (99m)TcO(4-) was observed to be 95.00 ± 3.21%. On the basis of findings from the study, it can be concluded that the decontamination agents of the used skin decontamination kit are effective for removal of localized radioactive contaminants from skin, as compared with normal decontamination using soap and water.

  16. Immobilization of Russian VX skin depots by localized cooling: implications for decontamination and medical countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikler, J; Tenn, C; Worek, F; Reiter, G; Thiermann, H; Garrett, M; Bohnert, S; Sawyer, T W

    2011-09-25

    The chemical weapon nerve agent known as Russian VX (VR) is a potent organophosphorus (OP) compound that is much less studied than its VX analogue with respect to toxicity, as well as to the effectiveness of several known countermeasures against it. An anaesthetized domestic swine model was utilized to assess several approaches in mitigating its toxicity, including the utility of cooling VR treated skin to increase the therapeutic window for treatment. The 6h LD₅₀ for VR topically applied on the ear was 100 μg/kg. Treatment of VR exposed animals (5 × LD₅₀) with pralidoxime (2PAM) very poorly regenerated inhibited blood cholinesterase activity, but was partially effective in preventing signs of OP poisoning and increasing survival. In contrast, treatment with the Hagedorn oxime HI-6 reactivated cholinesterase, eliminated all signs of poisoning and prevented death. Decontamination with the Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) 15 min after VR exposure was completely effective in preventing death. Cooling of the VR exposure sites for 2 or 6h prevented signs of OP poisoning and death during the cooling period. However, these animals died very quickly after the cessation of cooling, unless they were treated with oxime or decontaminated with RSDL. Blood analyses showed that cooling of agent exposure sites delayed the entry of VR into the bloodstream. Medical treatment with HI-6 and to a lesser extent 2PAM, or decontamination with RSDL are effective in protecting against the toxic effects of cutaneous exposure to VR. Immobilizing this agent (and related compounds) within the dermal reservoir by cooling the exposure sites, dramatically increases the therapeutic window in which these medical countermeasures are effective.

  17. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...... to the applied irritant stimulus was evaluated by visual scoring and also quantified by measurements of transepidermal water loss, edema formation, and blood flow in the skin. The skin response to challenge with sodium lauryl sulfate was found to be significantly stronger at day 1 than at days 9 through 11...

  18. Water decontamination of chemical skin/eye splashes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alan H; Maibach, Howard I

    2006-01-01

    Skin/eye chemical splashes are a significant workplace problem. Initial water decontamination is usually recommended, but there are few well-conducted experimental animal and human studies of efficacy. An extensive review of the literature and other available information sources was performed to define the scope of the problem and critically review the evidence for water decontamination efficacy. Although water decontamination can decrease the severity of chemical skin/eye burns, it cannot completely prevent them. An ideal replacement decontamination solution would be sterile, nontoxic, chelating, polyvalent, amphoteric, and slightly hypertonic to retard skin or corneal penetration of the chemical.

  19. The impact of skin decontamination on the time window for effective treatment of percutaneous VX exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, M J A; van den Berg, R M; de Jong, A L; van der Schans, M J; Noort, D; Langenberg, J P

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of the present study was to obtain insight into depot formation and penetration following percutaneous VX poisoning, in order to identify an appropriate decontamination window that can enhance or support medical countermeasures. The study was executed in two phases, using the hairless guinea pig as an animal model. In the first phase the effect of various decontamination regimens on levels of free VX in skin and plasma were studied as well as on blood cholinesterase levels. Animals were exposed to 0.5 mg/kg VX and were not decontaminated (control), decontaminated with RSDL once at 15 or 90 min after exposure or three times at 15, 25 and 35 (10-min interval) or 15, 45 and 75 min after exposure (30-min interval). There was no significant effect of any of the decontamination regimens on the 6-h survival rate of the animals. However, all animals that had been decontaminated 15 min after exposure, showed a survival rate of more than 90%, compared to 50-60% in animals that were not decontaminated or decontaminated at 90 min after exposure. In the second phase of the study, hairless guinea pigs were exposed to 1 mg/kg VX on the shoulder, followed either by decontamination with RSDL (10 min interval), conventional treatment on indication of clinical signs or a combination thereof. It appeared that a thorough, repeated decontamination alone could not save the majority of the animals. A 100% survival rate was observed in the group that received a combination of decontamination and treatment. In conclusion, the effects of VX exposure could be influenced by various RSDL decontamination regimens. The results in freely moving animals showed that skin decontamination, although not fully effective in removing all VX from the skin and skin depot is crucial to support pharmacological intervention.

  20. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K.A.; Hagsgaard, S. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Swensson, A. [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1966-11-15

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the {beta} {gamma}-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other {beta} {gamma}-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier.

  1. Menstrual cycle and skin reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Damm, P; Skouby, S O

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that a cyclic variation exists in skin reactivity to irritant stimuli. Twenty-nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles were challenged with sodium lauryl sulfate as an irritant patch test at day 1 and at days 9 through 11 of the menstrual cycle. The skin response...... in the menstrual cycle as evaluated by visual scoring (p less than 0.05) as well as by measurement of transepidermal water loss (p less than 0.05) and edema formation (p less than 0.005)....

  2. In vitro skin decontamination of the organophosphorus pesticide Paraoxon with nanometric cerium oxide CeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Devers, Thierry; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2017-04-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OP), which mainly penetrate via the percutaneous pathway, represent a threat for both military and civilians. Body surface decontamination is vital to prevent victims poisoning. The development of a cost-effective formulation, which could be efficient and easy to handle in case of mass contamination, is therefore crucial. Metal oxides nanoparticles, due their large surface areas and the large amount of highly reactive sites, present high reactivity towards OP. First, this study aimed at evaluating the reaction of CeO2 nanoparticles, synthetized by microwave path and calcined at 500 or 600 °C, with Paraoxon (POX) in aqueous solution. Results showed that both nanoparticles degraded 60%-70% of POX. CeO2 calcined at 500 °C, owing to its larger specific area, was the most effective. Moreover, the degradation was significantly increased under Ultra-Violet irradiation (initial degradation rate doubled). Then, skin decontamination was studied in vitro using the Franz cell method with pig-ear skin samples. CeO2 powder and an aqueous suspension of CeO2 (CeO2-W) were applied 1 h after POX exposure. The efficiency of decontamination, including removal and/or degradation of POX, was compared to Fuller's earth (FE) and RSDL lotion which are, currently, the most efficient systems for skin decontamination. CeO2-W and RSDL were the most efficient to remove POX from the skin surface and decrease skin absorption by 6.4 compared to the control not decontaminated. FE reduced significantly (twice) the absorbed fraction of POX, contrarily to CeO2 powder. Considering only the degradation rate of POX, the products ranged in the order CeO2 > RSDL > CeO2-W > FE (no degradation). This study showed that CeO2 nanoparticles are a promising material for skin decontamination of OP if formulated as a dispersion able to remove POX like CeO2-W and to degrade it as CeO2 powder.

  3. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    decrease the logistical burden associated with transport and storage of decontaminants. The experiments in this study were focused on evaluating...propanediammonium dichloride, isopropanol, inert ingredients/water, hydrogen peroxide, diacetin Decontaminant formulated for chemical warfare agents F...potassium bisulfate, potassium sulfate, dipotassium peroxodisulfate, magnesium carbonate Acidic oxidative chemistry, used for VX laboratory waste

  4. In vitro skin decontamination model: comparison of salicylic acid and aminophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noury, Barbara; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-01-01

    This study compared three model decontaminant solutions (distilled water, 10% distilled water and soap and methanol) for their ability to remove salicylic acid and aminophylline from an in vitro skin model. Human abdominal skin was dosed with 20 µL of either [(14)C]-aminophylline or [(14)C]-salicylic acid on 1 cm(2) per skin. After each exposure time (5, 30 and 60 min post-dosing, respectively), surface skin was washed three times with each solution and tape stripped 10 times. Wash solutions, tape strips, receptor fluid and remaining skin were then analyzed with liquid scintillation counting to quantify the amount of salicylic acid and aminophylline. Total mass balance recovery for each chemical at three time exposure points was between 73.6 and 101.5%, except at 60 min where aminophylline was only 42.5%. Majority of salicylic acid and aminophylline were recovered from washing solution when compared to stratum corneum, epidermis, dermis, surrounding skin and receptor fluid. The three tested decontaminates possessed similar effectiveness in removing lipophilic and hydrophilic chemicals from the skin. Due to diminishing decontamination efficacy with time, it is suggested that skin should be washed as soon as possible following contamination to minimize percutaneous penetration and the deleterious effects associated with skin reservoir content.

  5. In vivo laser scanning microscopic investigation of the decontamination of hazardous substances from the human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Schanzer, S.; Richter, H.; Gross, I.; Menting, K. H.; Frazier, L.; Sterry, W.; Antoniou, C.

    2010-12-01

    The stimulation of the penetration of topically applied substances into the skin is a topic of intensive dermatological and pharmacological research. In this context, it was found that in addition to the intercellular penetration, the follicular penetration also represents an efficient penetration pathway. The hair follicles act as a long-term reservoir for topically applied substances. They are surrounded by all important target structures, such as blood capillaries, stem and dendritic cells. Therefore, the hair follicles, as well as the skin, need to be protected from hazardous substances. The traditional method of decontamination after respective accidental contacts consists of an intensive washing of the skin. However, during this mechanical procedure, the substances can be pushed even deeper into the hair follicles. In the present study, absorbent materials were applied to remove a fluorescent model substance from the skin without inducing mechanical stress. The results were compared to the decontamination effects obtained by intensive washing. Investigations were performed by means of in vivo laser scanning microscopy (LSM). The comparison revealed that decontamination with absorbent materials is more effective than decontamination with washing processes.

  6. Penetration and decontamination of americium-241 ex vivo using fresh and frozen pig skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazrart, A; Bolzinger, M A; Moureau, A; Molina, T; Coudert, S; Angulo, J F; Briancon, S; Griffiths, N M

    2017-04-01

    Skin contamination is one of the most probable risks following major nuclear or radiological incidents. However, accidents involving skin contamination with radionuclides may occur in the nuclear industry, in research laboratories and in nuclear medicine departments. This work aims to measure the penetration of the radiological contaminant Americium ((241)Am) in fresh and frozen skin and to evaluate the distribution of the contamination in the skin. Decontamination tests were performed using water, Fuller's earth and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), which is the recommended treatment in case of skin contamination with actinides such as plutonium or americium. To assess these parameters, we used the Franz cell diffusion system with full-thickness skin obtained from pigs' ears, representative of human skin. Solutions of (241)Am were deposited on the skin samples. The radioactivity content in each compartment and skin layers was measured after 24 h by liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrophotometry. The Am cutaneous penetration to the receiver compartment is almost negligible in fresh and frozen skin. Multiple washings with water and DTPA recovered about 90% of the initial activity. The rest remains fixed mainly in the stratum corneum. Traces of activity were detected within the epidermis and dermis which is fixed and not accessible to the decontamination.

  7. Skin microvascular reactivity in patients with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihor, Ana; Gergar, Maša; Gaberšček, Simona; Lenasi, Helena

    2016-11-04

    Hypothyroidism is associated with impaired vascular function; however, little is known about its impact on microcirculation. We aimed to determine skin microvascular reactivity in hypothyroidism focusing on endothelial function and the sympathetic response. We measured skin laser Doppler (LD) flux (LDF) on the volar forearm and the finger pulp using LD flowmetry in hypothyroid patients (N = 13) and healthy controls (N = 15). Skin microvascular reactivity was assessed by a three-minute occlusion of the brachial artery, inducing postocclusive reactive hyperaemia (PRH), and by a four-minute local cooling of the hand. An electrocardiogram (ECG), digital artery blood pressure and skin temperature at the measuring sites were recorded. Baseline LDF, the digital artery blood pressure and the heart rate were comparable between patients and controls. On the other hand, patients exhibited significantly longer PRH duration, significantly higher blood pressure during cooling (unpaired t-test, p skin microcirculation and an apparent increase in sympathetic reactivity after local cooling in hypothyroid patients. Hypothyroidism induces subtle changes of some haemodynamic parameters in skin microcirculation implying altered endothelial function and altered sympathetic reactivity.

  8. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 11 chemical compounds to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin and meat samples dipped in chemical solutions. Treatment of skin samples for 1 min using tartaric acid (2%) and caprylic acid sodium salt (5%) caused reductions of C. jejuni NCTC11168...

  9. Self-Decontaminating Fibrous Materials Reactive toward Chemical Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Lev; Su, Xiao; Martis, Vladimir; Zhang, Yunfei; Hatton, T Alan

    2016-07-13

    Polymers that possess highly nucleophilic pyrrolidinopyridine (Pyr) and primary amino (vinylamine, VAm) groups were prepared by free-radical copolymerization of N,N-diallylpyridin-4-amine (DAAP) and N-vinylformamide (NVF) followed by acidic hydrolysis of NVF into VAm. The resulting poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) copolymers were water-soluble and reacted with water-dispersible polyurethane possessing a high content of unreacted isocyanate groups. Spray-coating of the nylon-cotton (NYCO), rayon, and poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (Kevlar 119) fibers pretreated with phosphoric acid resulted in covalent bonding of the polyurethane with the hydroxyl groups on the fiber surface. A second spray-coating of aqueous solutions of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) on the polyurethane-coated fiber enabled formation of urea linkages between unreacted isocyanate groups of the polyurethane layer and the amino groups of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF). Fibers with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) attached were compared with fibers modified by adsorption of water-insoluble poly(butadiene-co-pyrrolidinopyridine) (polyBPP) in terms of the stability against polymer leaching in aqueous washing applications. While the fibers modified by attachment of poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) exhibited negligible polymer leaching, over 65% of adsorbed polyBPP detached and leached from the fibers within 7 days. Rayon fibers modified by poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) were tested for sorption of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) in the presence of moisture using dynamic vapor sorption technique. Capability of the fibers modified with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) to facilitate hydrolysis of the sorbed DMMP in the presence of moisture was uncovered. The self-decontaminating property of the modified fibers against chemical threats was tested using a CWA simulant diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) in aqueous media at pH 8.7. Fibers modified with poly(DAAP-co-VAm-co-NVF) facilitated hydrolysis of DFP with the half-lives up to an order of magnitude

  10. Decontamination of skin exposed to nanocarriers using an absorbent textile material and PEG-12 dimethicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Baier, G.; Landfester, K.; Frazier, L.; Gefeller, H.; Wunderlich, U.; Gross, I.; Rühl, E.; Knorr, F.

    2014-11-01

    The removal of noxious particulate contaminants such as pollutants derived from particle-to-gas conversions from exposed skin is essential to avoid the permeation of potentially harmful substances into deeper skin layers via the stratum corneum or the skin appendages and their dispersion throughout the circulatory system. This study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of using the silicone glycol polymer PEG-12 dimethicone and an absorbent textile material to remove fluorescing hydroxyethyl starch nanocapsules implemented as model contaminants from exposed porcine ear skin. Using laser scanning microscopy, it could be shown that while the application and subsequent removal of the absorbent textile material alone did not result in sufficient decontamination, the combined application with PEG-12 dimethicone almost completely eliminated the nanocapsules from the surface of the skin. By acting as a wetting agent, PEG-12 dimethicone enabled the transfer of the nanocapsules into a liquid phase which was taken up by the absorbent textile material. Only traces of fluorescence remained detectable in several skin furrows and follicular orifices, suggesting that the repeated implementation of the procedure may be necessary to achieve total skin surface decontamination.

  11. Purification of radioactive decontamination liquids from NPP Paks with reactive adsorption and ion-exchange process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szaanya, T.; Hanaak, L.; Marton, Gy.; Salamon, T. [University of Veszprem, Veszprem (Hungary); Tilky, P. [Nuclear Power Plant, Paks (Hungary)

    1999-07-01

    In nuclear power plant Paks, Hungary, alkaline oxidative (NaOH, KMnO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O) and acidic reductive (citric- and oxalic acid, water) liquids are using for the decontamination of primary circuit equipment (main liquid circulating pumps, steam generators, pipelines etc). The above mentioned decontamination liquids are containing {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58} Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 51} Cr, {sup 124} Sb radioisotopes, summarized radioactivity is between 10{sup 3}-8x10{sup 4} kBq/dm{sup 3} liquid. The decontamination liquid can be cleaned with reactive adsorption (active carbon) and ion-exchange process at elevated temperature (333-368 K) in multilayered columns. After purification the summarized radioactivity for {sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 110m}Ag are in the outlet liquid below 1 kBq/dm{sup 3}. Decontamination factor DF{approx_equal}10{sup 3}-10{sup 4}, volumetric reduction factor VRF{approx_equal}50-500.

  12. Decontamination factor of the commercial detergents for the skin (part 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Takasaki, Koji [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Yasunaka, Hideo; Izumi, Yuichi [Japan Environment Research Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    The commercial detergents, which are cleansing cream, shampoo, neutral detergent, etc., were examined in order to select the body cleaners that are substitutes for the titanium dioxide paste. JNC entrusted Japan Environment Research Corporation Limited with these examinations since 1997. In 1997 and 1998, the commercial detergents were examined for Ce-144, Cs-137 and Ru-106. In 1999, 22 detergents were examined for Co-60 from the result of the past examinations. In this examination, the radioactive solution of Co-60 was dropped on the pig-skin samples. These samples were washed with each detergent after 5 minutes and 40 minutes. The decontamination factors of detergents were estimated by the radioactive ratio of the samples before and after washing. As a result of this examination, the decontamination factors for Co-60 was the same as the decontamination factors for Ce-144 and Cs-137, and 11 detergents were nominated as the cleaner that have the decontamination factor more than that of titanium dioxide paste. (author)

  13. In vitro skin permeation and decontamination of the organophosphorus pesticide paraoxon under various physical conditions--evidence for a wash-in effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Jan; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Josse, Denis; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2012-09-01

    Misuse of various chemicals, such as chemical warfare agents, industrial chemicals or pesticides during warfare or terrorists attacks requires adequate protection. Thus, development and evaluation of novel decontamination dispositives and techniques are needed. In this study, in vitro permeation and decontamination of a potentially hazardous compound paraoxon, an active metabolite of organophosphorus pesticide parathion, was investigated. Skin permeation and decontamination experiments were carried out in modified Franz diffusion cells. Pig skin was used as a human skin model. Commercially produced detergent-based washing solutions FloraFree(™) and ArgosTM were used as decontamination means. The experiments were done under "warm", "cold", "dry" and "wet" skin conditions in order to determine an effect of various physical conditions on skin permeation of paraoxon and on a subsequent decontamination process. There was no significant difference in skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions, whereas wet conditions provided significantly higher permeation rates. In the selected conditions, decontamination treatments performed 1 h after a skin exposure did not decrease the agent volume that permeated through the skin. An exception were wet skin conditions with non-significant decontamination efficacy 18 and 28% for the FloraFree(™) and Argos(™) treatment, respectively. In contrast, the skin permeation of paraoxon under warm, cold and dry conditions increased up to 60-290% following decontamination compared to non-decontaminated controls. This has previously been described as a skin wash-in effect.

  14. Skin tolerance and effectiveness of two hand decontamination procedures in everyday hospital use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnefeld, M; Richard, M A; Drancourt, M; Grob, J J

    2000-09-01

    Hand decontamination is crucial to control nosocomial infections. The utility of hand decontamination is related not only to its antimicrobial effectiveness, but also to its acceptability by hospital staff. We aimed to assess skin tolerance and antimicrobial effects of two widely accepted hand hygiene measures under in-use conditions. Fifty-two nurses were randomly assigned for an 8-day period to either an alcohol-based disinfectant or a hand wash with a non-antiseptic soap. At baseline and at the end of the test period, microbiological hand samples were obtained both before and after a hand hygiene procedure, and skin tolerance was assessed using clinical scores and measurement of transepidermal water loss. Self-assessment of skin condition and grade of skin damage worsened significantly more in the group using soap than in the group using alcoholic disinfectant (P = 0.004 and P = 0.01, respectively). The alcohol-based rinse was significantly more effective than liquid soap in removing transient contaminant micro-organisms (P = 0.016). Twenty of 50 hand washes with non-antiseptic soap apparently resulted in bacterial contamination of the hands. At the end of the study, the total bacterial count increased with the increasing number of hand washes in the soap group (P = 0.003), and with the degree of skin damage (P = 0.005) in the antiseptic group. In everyday hospital practice, alcohol-based disinfectant is more effective and better tolerated than non-antiseptic soap; soap is at risk of spreading contamination; and skin comfort strongly influences the number and the quality of hand hygiene procedures.

  15. Change in attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes to pork skin and muscle after hot water and lactic acid decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morild, Rikke K; Olsen, John E; Aabo, Søren

    2011-01-31

    The attachment of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes to pig skin and muscle tissue decontaminated with 80 °C water or 55 °C, 1% lactic acid for 5 and 15s was investigated. Attachment properties differed between skin and muscle surfaces. A significantly higher number of firmly attached bacteria was found on the decontaminated skin surface compared to the non-treated skin surface, both on hot water (Pwater treated surfaces and non-treated surfaces. In contrast, for lactic acid decontamination, significantly fewer bacteria attached to the treated muscle surfaces (Pdecontaminated and decontaminated skin and muscle surfaces. In the latter, bacteria tended to "hide" between the muscle fibres and may be entrapped at those sites. The finding of changed attachment properties at skin after decontamination may play a role in cross- and recontamination, during subsequent meat processing.

  16. Full Scale Development and Initial Production of the Personnel/Casualty Decontamination System Skin Decontamination Kit (PCDS SDK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    contact with the Ambergard XE-555 resin. The JSOR for the SDK requires that the decontaminant must not degrade the protective characteristics of the HOPP...Joint Services Operational Requirements ( JSOR ) and AR 70-71. (Compatibility was not determined during this effort). Decontaminability is the ability of...and biological contaminants, although covered by AR 70-71. were not tested since they are not addressed in the JSOR . b. Conclusions Using thickened

  17. Development of haemostatic decontaminants for treatment of wounds contaminated with chemical warfare agents. 3: Evaluation of in vitro topical decontamination efficacy using damaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydon, Helen L; Hall, Charlotte A; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J Kevin; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that haemostatic products with an absorptive mechanism of action retain their clotting efficiency in the presence of toxic materials and are effective in decontaminating chemical warfare (CW) agents when applied to normal, intact skin. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess three candidate haemostatic products for effectiveness in the decontamination of superficially damaged porcine skin exposed to the radiolabelled CW agents, soman (GD), VX and sulphur mustard (HD). Controlled physical damage (removal of the upper 100 μm skin layer) resulted in a significant enhancement of the dermal absorption of all three CW agents. Of the haemostatic products assessed, WoundStat™ was consistently the most effective, being equivalent in performance to a standard military decontaminant (fuller's earth). These data suggest that judicious application of haemostatic products to wounds contaminated with CW agents may be a viable option for the clinical management of casualties presenting with contaminated, haemorrhaging injuries. Further studies using a relevant animal model are required to confirm the potential clinical efficacy of WoundStat™ for treating wounds contaminated with CW agents. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Contamination of firefighter personal protective equipment and skin and the effectiveness of decontamination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, Kenneth W; Alexander, Barbara; Roberts, Jennifer; Robertson, Shirley; Toennis, Christine; Sammons, Deborah; Bertke, Stephen; Kerber, Steve; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin

    2017-06-21

    Firefighters' skin may be exposed to chemicals via permeation/penetration of combustion byproducts through or around personal protective equipment (PPE) or from the cross-transfer of contaminants on PPE to the skin. Additionally, volatile contaminants can evaporate from PPE following a response and be inhaled by firefighters. Using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as respective markers for non-volatile and volatile substances, we investigated the contamination of firefighters' turnout gear and skin following controlled residential fire responses. Participants were grouped into three crews of twelve firefighters. Each crew was deployed to a fire scenario (one per day, four total) and then paired up to complete six fireground job assignments. Wipe sampling of the exterior of the turnout gear was conducted pre- and post-fire. Wipe samples were also collected from a subset of the gear after field decontamination. VOCs off-gassing from gear were also measured pre-fire, post-fire, and post-decon. Wipe sampling of the firefighters' hands and neck was conducted pre- and post-fire. Additional wipes were collected after cleaning neck skin. PAH levels on turnout gear increased after each response and were greatest for gear worn by firefighters assigned to fire attack and to search and rescue activities. Field decontamination using dish soap, water, and scrubbing was able to reduce PAH contamination on turnout jackets by a median of 85%. Off-gassing VOC levels increased post-fire and then decreased 17-36 minutes later regardless of whether field decontamination was performed. Median post-fire PAH levels on the neck were near or below the limit of detection (< 24 micrograms per square meter [µg/m(2)]) for all positions. For firefighters assigned to attack, search, and outside ventilation, the 75(th) percentile values on the neck were 152, 71.7, and 39.3 µg/m(2), respectively. Firefighters assigned to attack and search had higher

  19. Showering effectiveness for human hair decontamination of the nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Denis; Wartelle, Julien; Cruz, Catherine

    2015-05-05

    In this work, our goals were to establish whether hair decontamination by showering one hour post-exposure to the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent VX was effective, whether it required the addition of a detergent to water and, if it could be improved by using the adsorbent Fuller's Earth (FE) or the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) 30 min prior to showering. Hair exposure to VX and decontamination was performed by using an in vitro model. Hair showering led to 72% reduction of contamination. Addition of detergent to water slightly increased the decontamination effectiveness. Hair treatment with FE or RSDL improved the decontamination rate. Combination of FE use and showering, which yielded a decontamination factor of 41, was demonstrated to be the most effective hair decontamination procedure. Hair wiping after showering was shown to contribute to hair decontamination. Altogether, our results highlighted the importance of considering hair decontamination as an important part of body surface decontamination protocols.

  20. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse (II): effects of some currently used skin decontaminants (RSDL and Fuller's earth) against liquid sulphur mustard and VX exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taysse, L; Dorandeu, F; Daulon, S; Foquin, A; Perrier, N; Lallement, G; Breton, P

    2011-06-01

    Using the hairless mouse screening model presented in the companion paper(1) the aim of this study was to assess two skin decontaminating systems: Fuller's earth (FE) and Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) against two extremely toxic chemical warfare agents that represent a special percutaneous hazard, sulphur mustard (SM) and O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX). Five minutes after being exposed on the back to either 2 µL of neat sulphur mustard or 50 µg.kg(-1) of diluted VX, mice were decontaminated. Both systems were able to reduce blisters 3 days after SM exposure. However, RSDL was found to be more efficient than FE in reducing the necrosis of the epidermis and erosion. In the case of VX exposure, RSDL, whatever the ratio of decontaminant to toxicant used (RSDL 10, 20, 50), was not able to sufficiently prevent the inhibition of plasma cholinesterases taken as a surrogate marker of exposure and toxicity. Only FE reduced significantly the ChE inhibition. Some of these observations are different from our previous results obtained in domestic swine and these changes are thus discussed in the perspective of using SKH-1 hairless mice for the initial in vivo screening of decontaminants.

  1. Sensitive skin and stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1996-02-01

    Products intended for individuals with sensitive skin are being increasingly developed by formulators of household cleaning products. However, there is currently no consensus about the definition and recognition of the biological basis of sensitive skin. We sought to determine the relation between the nature of environmental threat perceived as aggressive by panelists, and the stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products as measured by the corneosurfametry test. Results indicate substantial differences in irritancy potential between proprietary products. Corneosurfametry data show significant differences in stratum corneum reactivity between, on the one hand, individuals with either non-sensitive skin or skin sensitive to climate/fabrics, and, on the other hand, individuals with detergent-sensitive skin. It is concluded that sensitive skin is not one single condition. Sound information in rating detergent-sensitive skin may be gained by corneosurfametry.

  2. Change in attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes to pork skin and muscle after hot water and lactic acid decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morild, Rikke K.; Olsen, John E.; Aabo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The attachment of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes to pig skin and muscle tissue decontaminated with 80°C water or 55°C, 1% lactic acid for 5 and 15s was investigated. Attachment properties differed between skin and muscle...

  3. Seronegative reactive spondyloarthritis and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generali, Elena; Ceribelli, Angela; Massarotti, Marco; Cantarini, Luca; Selmi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Spondyloarthritidies represent a group of conditions affecting the axial and peripheral muscoloskeletal apparatus and are often associated with psoriasis, infections, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Other diseases included in this category are psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and enteropathic arthritis. Reactive arthritis is an elusive spondyloarthritis, commonly occurring 1 to 3 weeks after a digestive or a genitourinary tract infection, in which microorganisms do not infect the joint directly. Reactive arthritis is classically characterized by large-joint arthritis, urethritis in men and cervicitis in women, and eye inflammation (usually conjunctivitis or uveitis) but encompasses numerous other symptoms and signs, including manifestations of dermatologic interest such as keratoderma blenorrhagicum and circinate balanitis. The diagnosis of reactive arthritis is clinical, and the infectious agent cannot always be identified due to disease latency after the infection. Most cases are self-limiting, but reactive arthritis may become chronic in 30% of cases. Treatment options include anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, and sulfasalazine; biologic agents, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) blockers, have been recently used, but there are only a few randomized clinical trials on the treatment of reactive arthritis. The effectiveness of antimicrobials needs further evaluation.

  4. Design and characterisation of a novel in vitro skin diffusion cell system for assessing mass casualty decontamination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, H; Larner, J; Kansagra, S; Atkinson, K L; Skamarauskas, J T; Amlot, R; Chilcott, R P

    2014-06-01

    The efficient removal of contaminants from the outer surfaces of the body can provide an effective means of reducing adverse health effects associated with incidents involving the accidental or deliberate release of hazardous materials. Showering with water is frequently used by first responders as a rapid method of mass casualty decontamination (MCD). However, there is a paucity of data on the generic effectiveness and safety of aqueous decontamination systems. To address these issues, we have developed a new in vitro skin diffusion cell system to model the conditions of a common MCD procedure ("ladder pipe system"). The new diffusion cell design incorporates a showering nozzle, an air sampling port for measurement of vapour loss and/aerosolisation, adjustable (horizontal to vertical) skin orientation and a circulating manifold system (to maintain a specified flow rate, temperature and pressure of shower water). The dermal absorption characteristics of several simulants (Invisible Red S, curcumin and methyl salicylate) measured with the new in vitro model were in good agreement with previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, these initial studies have indicated that whilst flow rate and water temperature are important factors for MCD, the presence of clothing during showering may (under certain circumstances) cause transfer and spreading of contaminants to the skin surface.

  5. Reactivity of allergy skin test in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supakthanasiri, Phisit; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Chantaphakul, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Healthy individuals may be exposed and sensitised to allergens, and have a positive response to a skin prick test despite being asymptomatic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of atopic sensitisation and identify the reactivity of healthy volunteers to common aeroallergens. Healthy volunteers with no known allergic symptoms were recruited in this study. All volunteers were scheduled to undergo a skin prick test with 16 common aeroallergens that were previously identified among atopic patients. A total of 100 volunteers (mean age 28 years) were enrolled in this study. 42 volunteers had positive skin prick tests for at least one allergen. The median number of sensitised allergen was 2 (range 1-7). Volunteers with positive skin tests (n = 42) were younger than those with negative skin tests (n = 58) (mean age 25.5 vs. 29.2 years; p mite (n = 33), house dust (n = 23) and American cockroach (n = 20). In this study, up to 42% of healthy volunteers, particularly those with a family history of atopy, were sensitised to allergens. Reactivity of the skin test without allergic symptoms, however, does not indicate allergic disease. Therefore, the skin test should only be indicated in atopic symptomatic individuals.

  6. The impact of skin decontamination on the time window for effective treatment of percutaneous VX exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Berg, R.M. van den; Jong, A.L. de; Schans, M.J. van der; Noort, D.; Langenberg, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to obtain insight into depot formation and penetration following percutaneous VX poisoning, in order to identify an appropriate decontamination window that can enhance or support medical countermeasures. The study was executed in two phases, using the hairless

  7. In vivo skin decontamination of methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI): soap and water ineffective compared to polypropylene glycol, polyglycol-based cleanser, and corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, R C; Hui, X; Landry, T; Maibach, H I

    1999-03-01

    In the home and workplace, decontamination of a chemical from skin is traditionally done with a soap-and-water wash, although some workplaces may have emergency showers. It has been assumed that these procedures are effective, yet workplace illness and even death occur from chemical contamination. Water, or soap and water, may not be the most effective means of skin decontamination, particularly for fat-soluble materials. This study was undertaken to help determine whether there are more effective means of removing methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI), a potent contact sensitizer, from the skin. MDI is an industrial chemical for which skin decontamination, using traditional soap and water and nontraditional polypropylene glycol, a polyglycol-based cleanser (PG-C), and corn oil were all tried in vivo on the rhesus monkey, over 8 h. Water, alone and with soap (5% and 50% soap), were partially effective in the first h after exposure, removing 51-69% of the applied dose. However, decontamination fell to 40-52% at 4 h and 29-46% by 8 h. Thus, the majority of MDI was not removed by the traditional soap-and-water wash; skin tape stripping after washing confirmed that MDI was still on the skin. In contrast, polypropylene glycol, PG-C, and corn oil all removed 68-86% of the MDI in the first h, 74-79% at 4 h, and 72-86% at 8 h. Statistically, polypropylene glycol, PG-C, and corn oil were all better (p soap and water at 4 and 8 h after dose application. These results indicate that a traditional soap-and-water wash and the emergency water shower are relatively ineffective at removing MDI from the skin. More effective decontamination procedures, as shown here, are available. These procedures are consistent with the partial miscibility of MDI in corn oil and polyglycols.

  8. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    of Additives and Impurities from Polymeric Materials; EPA 560/5-85-015; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticides and Toxic...performance, a penetrating decontaminant may cause damage to the material, such as the swelling of polymers caused by solvents or any active...Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation Products. Environ . Health Perspect. 1999, 107 (12), 933–974. 5. Kim, K.; Tsay, O.G.; Atwood, D.A.; Churchill, D.G

  9. An evaluation of selected methods for the decontamination of cattle hides prior to skinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, A; Wells-Burr, B; Buncic, S

    2005-02-01

    The effectiveness of different decontamination treatments in reducing microbial loads on cattle hides was assessed. The 10-s hide treatments were conducted using a wet-and-dry vacuum cleaner filled with one of the liquids (heated to 50 °C) indicated below, followed or not by 10-min drying in the air. Also, the hide was clipped, followed or not by 10-s singeing using a hand-held blowtorch. Before and after each decontamination treatment, the hide was sampled (100 cm(2) areas) by a sponge-swabbing method to compare the total viable counts of bacteria (TVC). The largest bacterial reduction (Psanitizer solution (10% Betane Plus) resulted in significant reductions of 1.80 (Pefficacy of these treatments in the reduction of specific pathogens under commercial conditions.

  10. Efficacy of scalp hair decontamination following exposure to vapours of sulphur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide and methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Prevost, Philippe; Maloni, Pascal; Torre, Franck; Asia, Laurence; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Chemical warfare agents are an actual threat and victims' decontamination is a main concern when mass exposure occurs. Skin decontamination with current protocols has been widely documented, as well as surface decontamination. However, considering hair ability to trap chemicals in vapour phase, we investigated hair decontamination after exposure to sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. Four decontamination protocols were tested on hair, combining showering and emergency decontamination (use of Fuller's earth or Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion RSDL(®)). Both simulants were recovered from hair after treatment, but contents were significantly reduced (42-85% content allowance). Showering alone was the least efficient protocol. Concerning 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide, protocols did not display significant differences in decontamination efficacy. For MeS, use of emergency decontaminants significantly increased showering efficacy (10-20% rise), underlining their usefulness before thorough decontamination. Our results highlighted the need to extensively decontaminate hair after chemical exposure. Residual amounts after decontamination are challenging, as their release from hair could lead to health issues. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of secular trends in the prevalence of allergy among children stems in large part from questionnaire surveys, whereas repeated cross-sectional studies using objective markers of atopic sensitization are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the prevalence of skin prick...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...

  12. The percutaneous toxicokinetics of Sulphur mustard in a damaged skin porcine model and the evaluation of WoundStat™ as a topical decontaminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Charlotte A; Lydon, Helen L; Dalton, Christopher H; Chipman, J Kevin; Graham, John S; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-09-01

    This study used a damaged skin, porcine model to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of WoundStat™ for decontamination of superficial (non-haemorrhaging), sulphur mustard-contaminated wounds. The dorsal skin of 12 female pigs was subjected to controlled physical damage and exposed to 10 μL (14) C-radiolabelled sulphur mustard ((14) C-SM). Animals were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group. In the latter, WoundStat™ was applied 30 s post exposure and left in situ for 1 h. Skin lesion progression and decontaminant efficacy were quantified over 6 h using a range of biophysical measurements. Skin, blood and organ samples were taken post mortem for histopathological assessment, (14) C-SM distribution and toxicokinetic analyses. Application of SM to damaged skin without decontamination was rapidly followed by advanced signs of toxicity, including ulceration and decreased blood flow at the exposure site in all animals. WoundStat™ prevented ulceration and improved blood flow at the exposure site in all decontaminated animals (n = 6). Furthermore, significantly smaller quantities of (14) C-SM were detected in the blood (45% reduction), and recovered from skin (70% reduction) and skin surface swabs (99% reduction) at 6 h post-challenge. Overall, the distribution of (14) C-SM in the internal organs was similar for both groups, with the greatest concentration in the kidneys, followed by the liver and small intestine. WoundStat™ significantly reduced the amount of (14) C-SM recovered from the liver, a key organ for SM metabolism and detoxification. This study demonstrates that WoundStat™ is a suitable product for reducing the ingress and toxicity of a chemical warfare agent. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The impact of skin decontamination on the time for effective treatment of low volatile nerve agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Schans, M.J. van der; Noort, D.

    2013-01-01

    Low volatile organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents such as VX, will most likely enter the body via the skin. In previous investigations conducted in hairless guinea pigs, it was shown that skin exposure to VX resulted in a slow and variable onset of observable signs of toxicity. Repeated treatments

  14. The impact of skin decontamination on the time for effective treatment of low volatile nerve agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, M.J.A.; Schans, M.J. van der; Noort, D.

    2013-01-01

    Low volatile organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents such as VX, will most likely enter the body via the skin. In previous investigations conducted in hairless guinea pigs, it was shown that skin exposure to VX resulted in a slow and variable onset of observable signs of toxicity. Repeated treatments ad

  15. Experimental study on the decontamination of partial contaminated skin%局部染毒皮肤洗消的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟文立

    2012-01-01

    The procedure and method of chemical accident decontamination were introduced . The decontamination agent typeand the principle for choice were reviewed. The experiments were carried out by using benzene and toluene contaminated skin directly, which are decontaminated by spraying water, oil sorbent granule, liquid sorbent granule and active carbon. At the same time the concentration of the residual of contaminated material on the skin was detected by using AreaRAE Rapid Deployment Kit during the decontamination course. Then the decontamination effects of decontamination agents for various kinds of chemicals were measured, on this basis, the decontamination agent was optimized, as well as the amount of decontamination agents and decontamination time. The experimentalresult indicated that the contaminated of benzene and toluene on the skin can be cleared up only if the decontamination time is long enough. Moreover, the contaminated material on skin can be removed by solid adsorbent such as oil sorbent granule, liquid sorbent granule and active carbon. As far as the decontamination effect, active carbon is the best for benzene, followed by liquid sorbent granule and oil sorbent granule; however, oil sorbent granule is best for toluene, followed by liquid sorbent granule and active carbon.%介绍化学事故洗消的程序和方法,综述了洗消剂种类及选择原则.用苯和甲苯两种化学毒物直接沾染皮肤,分别以水、吸附颗粒、吸液颗粒、活性炭作为洗消剂进行洗消,同时用AreaRAE RDK快速部署系统进行实时检测,分析洗消前后皮肤表面毒物浓度变化情况,测定各类洗消剂对化学毒物的洗消效果,在此基础上确定最适合的洗消剂以及洗消剂的用量和洗消时间.实验结果表明,只要水对苯和甲苯的洗消时间足够长,就能够将皮肤表面的染毒物质彻底消除.吸附颗粒、吸液颗粒、活性炭三种固体洗消剂都能够有效地消除皮肤表面的沾染

  16. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge of secular trends in the prevalence of allergy among children stems in large part from questionnaire surveys, whereas repeated cross-sectional studies using objective markers of atopic sensitization are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the prevalence of skin prick...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...... to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  17. Ex-vivo complexation, skin permeation, interaction and cytodermal toxicity studies of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion for radiation decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Navneet; Ojha, Himanshu; Pathak, Dharam Pal; Goel, Rajeev; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene loaded nanoemulsion has been designed, characterized and evaluated for skin decontamination of radionuclides of interest in nuclear and radiological emergencies. Further, nanoemulsion was evaluated for Ex-vivo complexation, skin permeation, interaction and cytodermal toxicity. Ex-vivo skin complexation studies were conducted using High-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICPMS). Skin studies at dermal and cyto-dermal level have been carried out using techniques such as florescence microscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Flow cytometry, Confocal microscopy, Prestoblue and Comet assay. HR-SF-ICPMS study confirmed >95% complexation of surrogate nuclides of thallium and Iodine applied on excised rat skin mounted over Franz diffusion cell. Temporal analysis of aliquots obtained from Franz diffusion cell using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy indicated that only 3.37% of formulation permeates through the skin. Skin penetration study of rhodamine 123 nanoemulsion carried out using florescence microscopy confirmed that formulation remains localised in epidermis of rat skin. DSC data confirmed skin compatibility of nanoemulsion, as no lipid extraction was observed from skin. In-vitro cell viability and cellular uptake assays performed on human skin fibroblasts prove no cellular uptake and cytotoxic effects. Comet assay, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis-inducing mechanistic studies prove that prepared nanoemulsion is safe at cellular level. Taken together, data indicate that p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion is both effective and safe formulation to use on skin for radio-decontamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  19. Reactive molecule species and antioxidative mechanisms in normal skin and skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfle, Ute; Seelinger, Günter; Bauer, Georg; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen; Schempp, Christoph M

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) which may exist as radicals or nonradicals, as well as reactive sulfur species and reactive carbon species, play a major role in aging processes and in carcinogenesis. These reactive molecule species (RMS), often referred to as 'free radicals' or oxidants, are partly by-products of the physiological metabolism. When RMS concentrations exceed a certain threshold, cell compartments and cells are injured and destroyed. Endogenous physiological mechanisms are able to neutralize RMS to some extent, thereby limiting damage. In the skin, however, pollutants and particularly UV irradiation are able to produce additional oxidants which overload the endogenous protection system and cause early aging, debilitation of immune functions, and skin cancer. The application of antioxidants from various sources in skin care products and food supplements is therefore widespread, with increasingly effective formulations being introduced. The harmful effects of RMS (aside from impaired structure and function of DNA, proteins, and lipids) are: interference with specific regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways in cell metabolism, resulting in chronic inflammation, weakening of immune functions, and degradation of tissue. Important control mechanisms are: MAP-kinases, the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the antagonistic transcription factors nuclear factor-κB and Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), and, especially important, the induction of matrix metalloproteinases which degrade dermal connective tissue. Recent research, however, has revealed that RMS and in particular ROS/RNS are apparently also produced by specific enzyme reactions in an evolutionarily adapted manner. They may fulfill important physiologic functions such as the activation of specific signaling chains in the cell metabolism, defense against infectious pathogens, and regulation of the immune system. Normal physiological conditions are characterized by

  20. Mg-aminoclay as stabilizer for synthesizing highly stable and reactive nZVI for decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Lee, Young-Chul; Mines, Paul D.

    Despite the large surface area and superior reactivity of nZVI, its limited stability is a major obstacle for in situ subsurface remediation. In this study, Mg-aminoclay (MgAC) was applied for the first time as a stabilizer in nZVI synthesis. With increased doses of Mg-aminoclay, nZVI particle gr...

  1. 皮肤接触敌敌畏中毒后的应急洗消研究%Emergent decontaminations rearch of dichlorvos poisoning with skin contact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永旭; 王春燕; 何跃忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of different, decontamination methods of dichlorvos poisoning with skin contact. Methods On the establishment of skin exposure to dichlorvos model, the levels of blood acetylcholinesterase (AchE) were tested in different time point, and the effect of different decontaminate liquid (water, soap water, sodium bicarbonate solution) were analyzed combined with the start time of the decontamination. Results With skin exposed to dichlorvos after 1 h, the blood AchE had decreased to 30% or less, which was severe poisoning, the decontamination effect was not significant: the sooner was the decontamination, the smaller was the AchE inhibition, and lower level of Intoxication; there were no statistically significant difference between different experiment groups in decontamination effect after 30 minutes. Conclusion In the case of dichlorvos poisoning, it is significant to begin decontaminating as soon as possible to reduce absorption, decrease the severity, and save time for post-hospital treatment, It Is the best of less than 10 minutes; alkaline decontamination solution have lost the advantages when the poisoning time has lasted for more than 30 minutes, then decontamination should immediately begin with no consideration of decontamination solution.%目的 比较皮肤接触有机磷杀虫剂敌敌畏中毒后不同洗消方法的疗效.方法 大耳白兔皮肤染毒建立模型,染毒前后重复测血中乙酰胆碱酯酶(AchE)的变化,结合洗消开始时间评价不同洗消液(清水、皂水、碳酸氢钠溶液)的洗消效果.结果 敌敌畏染毒动物皮肤1 h后血清AchE已降至正常30%以下,达重度中毒,此时洗消效果不显著;开始洗消时间越早,AchE抑制程度越小,中毒程度越低;中毒30 min后,各实验组洗消效果比较,差异无统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在职业性接触中毒事件中,第一时间开始洗消是关键,对减少毒物吸收、降低中毒严重程度、争取后期院内

  2. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C;

    2006-01-01

    test (SPT) positivity in Danish children has changed from 1986 to 2001. METHODS: Serial cross-sectional studies of two different random population samples of children aged 7 to 17 years of age, living in urban Copenhagen, Denmark, were performed 15 years apart. The first cohort was investigated in 1986...... (n = 527) and the second in 2001 (n = 480). Skin test reactivity to nine common aeroallergens was measured at both occasions. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive SPT to at least one allergen decreased from 24.1% in 1986 to 18.9% in 2001, (p = 0.05). We found a declining prevalence of sensitization...... to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  3. Decontamination of groundwater by permeable reactive barriers; Descontaminacion de aguas subterraneas mediante barreras reactivas permeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Flores, A.; Chimenos, J. M.

    2002-07-01

    Passive in-situ remediation techniques have seen increased application at contaminated aquifers in recent years as a means of contaminant control and as means of passively treating contaminants in groundwater, because of their low economic cost and minor ground occupation. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are based on the creation of a subsurface barrier, where groundwater contaminants are intercepted in the saturated zone, establishing a passive system of control and contamination treatment, in particular in the heavy metals removal. This paper discusses, related to PRBs experimentation, the results obtained from laboratory experiences by means of Mg oxides and sandy soils as barrier materials, showing a high removal of Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn. (Author) 21 refs.

  4. Timing of decontamination and treatment in case of percutaneous VX poisoning: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Marloes J A; van der Schans, Marcel J; Kuijpers, Willem C; van Helden, Herman P M; Noort, Daan

    2013-03-25

    Low volatile organophosphorous nerve agents such as VX, will most likely enter the body via the skin. The pharmacokinetics of drugs such as oximes, atropine and diazepam, are not aligned with the variable and persistent toxicokinetics of the agent. Repeated administration of these drugs showed to improve treatment efficacy compared to a single injection treatment. Because of the effectiveness of continuous treatment, it was investigated to what extent a subchronic pretreatment with carbamate (pyridostigmine or physostigmine combined with either procyclidine or scopolamine) would protect against percutaneous VX exposure. Inclusion of scopolamine in the pretreatment prevented seizures in all animals, but none of the pretreatments affected survival time or the onset time of cholinergic signs. These results indicate that percutaneous poisoning with VX requires additional conventional treatment in addition to the current pretreatment regimen. Decontamination of VX-exposed skin is one of the most important countermeasures to mitigate the effects of the exposure. To evaluate the window of opportunity for decontamination, the fielded skin decontaminant Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion (RSDL) was tested at different times in hairless guinea pigs percutaneously challenged with 4× LD50 VX in IPA. The results showed that RSDL decontamination at 15 min after exposure could not prevent progressive blood cholinesterase inhibition and therefore would still require additional treatment. A similar decontamination regimen with RSDL at 90 min showed that it still might effectively increase the time window of opportunity for treatment. In conclusion, the delay in absorption presents a window of opportunity for decontamination and treatment. The continuous release of VX from the skin presents a significant challenge for efficacious therapy, which should ideally consist of thorough decontamination and continuous treatment.

  5. Skin test reactivity to female sex hormones in women with primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaithy, Mohamed I; Fathi, Hesham M; Farres, Mohamed N; Taha, Marwa S

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to examine the hypothesis that primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss might be associated with an inappropriate immunologically mediated response to progesterone and/or estrogen. This prospective study included 47 women with two or more documented consecutive early pregnancy losses of unknown etiology, and no previous history of deliveries. Intradermal skin testing was performed in the luteal phase of the cycle (days 16-20) using estradiol benzoate, progesterone, and a placebo of refined sesame oil. Immediate (20 min) and late (24h and 1 week) skin test readings for all cases were compared with those of 12 parous women of comparable age with no history of spontaneous miscarriages, premenstrual disorders, pregnancy, or sex hormone-related allergic or autoimmune diseases. Main outcome measure was skin test reactivity to estradiol and/or progesterone. Immediate skin test reactivity to both hormones was observed among half of the cases at 20 min. A papule after 24h, which persisted for up to 1 week, was observed among 32 (68.1%) and 34 (72.3%) cases at the sites of estrogen and progesterone injection, respectively. 55.3% of cases had combined skin test reactivity to both estradiol and progesterone at 1 week. All women in the control group showed absence of skin test reactivity for both estradiol and progesterone at 20 min, 24h, and 1 week. None of the subjects in either group showed skin test reactivity to placebo. There is an association between primary unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss and skin test reactivity to female sex hormones.

  6. Contribution to the study of external contamination by radioactive products: skin contamination by radioactive cobalt in soluble form and decontamination; Contribution a l'etude de la contamination externe par des produits radioactifs: contamination cutanee par les cobalts radioactifs sous forme soluble et decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tymen, H.

    2002-12-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize the behavior of the radioactive cobalt isotopes, which are present in reactor coolant systems of a pressurized water reactor (PWR), in the case of occupational skin exposure, and to study different therapies. Our experimental approach stems from standardized methods in skin pharmacology. In a first step, a physico-chemical study of a primary coolant water was carried out to characterize the soluble fraction of radio-cobalt and its skin affinity. The second step consisted in quantifying the diffusion through the skin, in vivo and in vitro in rats, and in vitro in human. Parallel experiments were carried out to study biokinetics of cobalt in rats, after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. Whatever the route of administration, cobalt diffuses easily in the organism. On the contrary, its skin absorption is very limited. In a fourth step, the influence of the skin injuries on absorption was estimated in vivo on rat skin. Several skin models were developed to standardize different injuries: excoriation, heat burns (convection, conduction) and chemical burns (acid or alkaline). Biokinetics study over 24 hours and histological study have shown a relation between skin absorption and stratum corneum alteration. In the latest step of this work, we compared the efficacy of various decontaminating agents administered under different galenic forms. Per (3, 6- anhydro, 2-O-carboxy-methyl)-{alpha}-cyclo-dextrin exhibited a significant efficacy for cobalt decontamination of skin. This macromolecule was tested in aqueous solution, in agarose gel and loaded on 'functionalized' fibers intended for development of new decontaminating tissues. (author)

  7. Controlling reactive oxygen species in skin at their source to reduce skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Dale G; Draelos, Zoe D; Meadows, Christiaan; James Morré, D; Morré, Dorothy M

    2010-01-01

    Activity of an age-related, superoxide-forming, cell-surface oxidase (arNOX) comparing dermis, epidermis, serum, and saliva from female and male subjects ages 28-72 years measured spectrophotometrically using reduction of ferricytochrome c correlated with oxidative skin damage as estimated from autofluoresence of skin using an Advanced Glycation End products Reader (AGE-Reader; DiagnOptics B.V., Netherlands). By reducing arNOX activity in skin with arNOX-inhibitory ingredients (NuSkin's ageLOC technology), skin appearance was improved through decreased protein cross-linking and an accelerated increase in collagen.

  8. Skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens by filaggrin mutation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, M G; Johansen, J D; Linneberg, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations are positively associated with sensitization to aero allergens. We hypothesized that FLG mutations would also have an effect on the mean size of positive skin prick test (SPT) reactions as well as the number of positive reactions...... mutations alone are insufficient to cause secondary sensitization to allergens. The positive association seen in patients must be explained by a combination of further barrier abnormality caused by dermatitis as well as increased allergen exposure....

  9. Skin appendageal immune reactivity in a case of cutaneous lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discoid lupus erythematosus is a cutaneous disease with a worldwide distribution, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Case Report: A 41 year old male was evaluated for hair loss, in patches on the scalp. We studied selected adaptor proteins expressed in T, natural killer, neutrophil and mast cells; these proteins are important mediators for antigen receptor signaling in situ. Methods: Skin biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin examination, as well as for direct immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed. Results: Hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated classic features of lupus with focal dermal scarring; epidermal atrophy was noted, with lymphohistiocytic infiltrates around the skin appendages. Direct immunofluoresence revealed classic, lupus band positive staining along the dermal/epidermal junction. In addition, immune reactants were identified in neurovascular areas, and around pilosebaceous units. Immunohistochemistry staining showed positive staining for the T-cell antigen receptor zeta chain, the linker for activation of T cells, myeloperoxidase, cyclo-oxygenase 2, melanoma-associated antigen 1, B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 associated X protein, and BCL-2 markers. The positive staining was observed within the dermal inflammatory infiltrate, around pilosebaceous units, upper dermal blood vessels, and focally within eccrine sweat glands. Conclusions: The pathobiology of cutaneous lupus involves not only the epidermis, but also dermal pilosebaceous units, eccrine sweat glands and blood vessels. Further studies are recommended, especially in the light of presented data regarding T cell activation and proapototic molecules.

  10. Respiratory allergies and skin test reactivity in high school students in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos Alonso, E; Fernández-Caldas, E; Seleznick, M J; Lockey, R F

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of skin test reactivity to 22 aeroallergens and of allergic respiratory diseases was determined in 501 high school students on the island of Tenerife, Spain. Two hundred seventy-seven students (55.2%) had at least one positive prick skin test (wheal > or = 2 mm). Two hundred sixteen students (43.1%) had symptoms of upper or lower respiratory tract allergies [24 (4.7%) had asthma with or without rhinitis and 192 (38.3%) seasonal or perennial rhinitis alone]. Two hundred eighty-five students (56.8%) were asymptomatic. One hundred per cent of the students with asthma, 87.5% of the students with rhinitis and 27.7% of the asymptomatic students had at least one positive skin test. The prevalence of positive skin tests was significantly higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic students (p = 0.0001). One hundred seventy students (33.9%) had a family history of respiratory allergic diseases. The prevalence of positive skin tests among these students was significantly higher than in students without such history (p = 0.0001). Thus, there is a high prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases and skin test reactivity to aeroallergens among high school students in Tenerife. Significant correlations were found between family history, positive skin tests and respiratory allergic symptoms.

  11. What happens after the activation of ascaridole? Reactive compounds and their implications for skin sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    To replace animal testing and to improve the prediction of skin sensitization, significant attention has been directed to the use of alternative methods. Along with induction of Nrf2 target gene and upregulation of CD86 and C54 markers, the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the regulatory agen...

  12. Harsh Parenting and Child Externalizing Behavior: Skin Conductance Level Reactivity as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior. Participants were 251 boys and girls (8-9 years). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting.…

  13. Measurements of UV-generated free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrling, Th.; Jung, K.; Fuchs, J.

    2006-03-01

    Free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in skin by UV irradiation were measured by electron spin resonance (ESR). To increase the sensitivity of measurement the short life free radicals/ROS were scavenged and accumulated by using the nitroxyl probe 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetrametylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (PCA). The spatial distribution of free radicals/ROS measured in pig skin biopsies with ESR imaging after UV irradiation corresponds to the intensity decay of irradiance in the depth of the skin. The main part of free radicals/ROS were generated by UVA (320-400 nm) so that the spatial distribution of free radicals reaches up to the lower side of the dermis. In vivo measurements on human skin were performed with a L-band ESR spectrometer and a surface coil integrating the signal intensities from all skin layers to get a sufficient signal amplitude. Using this experimental arrangement the protection of UVB and UVA/B filter against the generation of free radicals/ROS in skin were measured. The protection against ROS and the repair of damages caused by them can be realized with active antioxidants characterized by a high antioxidative power (AP). The effect of UV filter and antioxidants corresponding to their protection against free radicals/ROS in skin generated by UVAB irradiation can be quantified by the new radical sun protection factor (RSF). The RSF indicates the increase of time for staying in the sun to generate the same number of free radicals/ROS in the skin like for the unprotected skin. Regarding the amount of generated free radicals/ROS in skin as an biophysical endpoint the RSF characterizes both the protection against UVB and UVA radiation.

  14. Development of LC/MS Methods to be used in Decontamination Research with CW Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    NH4Ac ammonium acetate QQQ triple quadrupole (or tandem quadruple) MS %RSD percent relative standard deviation RSDL reactive skin decontaminant... techniques for the components of interest; measurement and compensation techniques for any ion suppression/enhancement; selection of an appropriate...specific and sensitive technique , allowing samples to be analysed with minimal sample preparation. As such, the technique is a good fit for the timely

  15. Decontamination Efficacy Testing of COTS SteriFx Prodcuts for Mass Personnel and Casualty Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Water‐based decontamination technologies (e.g. soap and water) facilitate removal of the biological agent from skin, but have little effect on the...runoff from personnel decontamination is still biologically hazardous. Spores and bacterial cells will be prepared for the decontamination...of the stimulants will be compared to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of the technology on bacterial cells and spores. The minimum time to reach

  16. Skin reactivity to allergens in Rabigh Area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamad Salah M; Tayeb, Moufag; Amir, Elamir Mahmoud; Wali, Akram Mohammad; Mohamed, Fawaz Sidig

    2013-08-01

    This study determined the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to allergens in patients with airway allergy residing in Rabigh Area, based on data analysis of skin prick test results. Skin prick tests of 160 Saudi attended Al Nakheel Polyclinic between July, 2012 and April, 2013. Allergen extracts set was used to test them. Out 160 patients, 114 (71%) reacted to one or more allergens, who were 73 (64%) adults and 41(36 %) children. The majority of adults (17.8%) reacted to six allergens and children (19.5%) reacted to five ones. The most frequently reacting allergen was house dust mites followed by Candida albicans then Cladosporium spp. The maximum number of positive tests per patients was 13 in adults, compared to 10 in children. A significantly higher proportion of adults were reacting to house dust mites, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Sensitivity to allergens was common in patients with airway allergy residing in Rabigh area

  17. Time-dependent reactive species formation and oxidative stress damage in the skin after UVB irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, V A; Souza-Neto, F P; Pereira, R C; Silva, T N X; Costa, A C C; Luiz, R C; Cecchini, R; Cecchini, A L

    2012-04-02

    This study provides evidence that skin oxidative stress injury caused by UVB irradiation is mediated predominantly by reactive oxygen species immediately after irradiation and by reactive nitrogen species at later time points. Animals were pre-treated with free radical scavengers (deferrioxamine, histidine), α-tocopherol, or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) (L-NAME or aminoguanidine) or left untreated and subjected to UVB irradiation. α-Tocopherol inhibited the increase in lipid peroxidation, as evaluated by chemiluminescence at 0 h and 24 h after UVB irradiation. Immediately after UVB irradiation, lipid peroxidation increased moderately and was abolished by free radical scavengers but not by NOS inhibitors. Likewise, the reduction of antioxidant capacity was not reversed by NOS inhibitors. Nitric oxide augmentation was not observed at this time point. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, increased lipid peroxidation levels and nitric oxide elevation were observed and were prevented by NOS inhibitors. Low concentrations of GSH and reduced catalase activity were also observed. Altogether, these data indicate that reactive oxygen species (singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals) are the principal mediators of immediate damage and that reactive nitrogen species (*NO and possibly ONOO(-)) seem to be involved later in skin oxidative injury induced by UVB radiation. The reduced catalase activity and low level of GSH suggest that *NO and H(2)O(2) may react to generate ONOO(-), a very strong lipid peroxidant species.

  18. High reactive oxygen species in fibrotic and nonfibrotic skin of patients with diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourji, Khalil; Meyer, Alain; Chatelus, Emmanuel; Pincemail, Joël; Pigatto, Erika; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Singh, François; Charlier, Corinne; Geny, Bernard; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Punzi, Leonardo; Cozzi, Franco; Sibilia, Jean

    2015-10-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multisystemic connective tissue disease characterized by progressive fibrosis affecting skin and internal organs. Despite serious efforts to unveil the pathogenic mechanisms of SSc, they are still unclear. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in affected patients have been shown, and ROS are suggested to play a role in fibrosis pathogenesis. In this study we evaluate ROS levels in nonfibrotic and fibrotic skin of patients with SSc and we compare them with those obtained from healthy controls. We enrolled nine SSc patients fulfilling the EULAR/ACR classification criteria and seven healthy controls. Patients included four men and five women with mean age of 46 ± 10 years. Controls were matched by sex and age. All patients were affected by the diffuse cutaneous form of SSc and the ANA pattern anti-Scl70. Mean disease duration was 7.5 ± 5 years. Skin involvement was evaluated by modified Rodnan skin score. Skin samples (4-mm punch biopsy) were taken from fibrotic skin and nonfibrotic skin of patients and from healthy controls as well. To detect ROS, specimens were analyzed immediately after sampling by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Blood samples were drawn from all patients and controls to assess oxidative stress biomarkers. ROS levels (expressed as median and range, in nmol/L/min/mg of dry weight) were 24.7 (10.9-47.0) in fibrotic skin, 18.7 (7.3-34.0) in nonfibrotic skin, and 7.7 (3.5-13.6) in healthy control skin. ROS levels in fibrotic and nonfibrotic skin of SSc patients were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p = 0.002 and p = 0.009, respectively). ROS levels in fibrotic skin were raised in comparison to nonfibrotic skin, when samples related to each patient were compared (p = 0.01). ROS levels in fibrotic skin were correlated with forced vital capacity (r = -0.75, p = 0.02) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.70, p = 0.04). All other clinical and lab parameters showed no

  19. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  20. Relational victimization and proactive versus reactive relational aggression: The moderating effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and skin conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Caitlin R; Abaied, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the moderating effect of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) on the associations between relational victimization and reactive and proactive relational aggression. Both branches of the ANS, the parasympathetic nervous system (indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity; RSA-Reactivity) and the sympathetic nervous system (indexed by skin conductance level reactivity; SCL-Reactivity), were examined. Emerging adults (N = 168) self-reported on relational victimization and proactive and reactive relational aggression; RSA-Reactivity and SCL-Reactivity were assessed in response to a laboratory stressor. Relational victimization predicted heightened reactive relational aggression given RSA augmentation/high SCL-Reactivity (i.e., coactivation) and RSA withdrawal/low SCL-Reactivity (i.e., coinhibition). In addition, relational victimization predicted heightened reactive relational aggression given RSA augmentation/low SCL-Reactivity (i.e., reciprocal parasympathetic activation). This study extends previous research on relational victimization and provides novel evidence that (a) exposure to relational victimization is associated with reactive relational aggression, but not proactive relational aggression, and (b) parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity jointly moderate the link between relational victimization and reactive relational aggression.

  1. Tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test reactivity in pediatric patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urganci, Nafiye; Kalyoncu, Derya

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine tuberculin skin test reactivity and associated factors in pediatric patients with celiac disease (CD). Tuberculin skin test (TST) was performed on 28 patients with CD aged from 1 year to 15 years (mean, 6.64±4.8) and 28 healthy age and sex-matched children. The association between TST reactivity and parameters such as age, gender, malnutrition, clinical presentation, compliance to gluten free diet and response to hepatitis A and B vaccinations were determined. No difference was observed in TST reactivity (induration size) between the patients with CD and healthy controls. Thirty-two percent (9/28) of the patients were anergic, and one-third of these nine patients had malnutrition. No significant difference was observed between TST-positive and TST-negative patients in terms of age, gender, malnutrition, compliance to gluten-free diet and response to hepatitis A and B vaccinations (P>0.05). One of 11 patients with positive TST had tuberculosis disease and 10 had latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), whereas none of the controls had LTBI or tuberculosis disease (P=0.0007). Although based on a small number of cases, it seems that children with CD are more susceptible to tuberculosis than healthy children. TST can be used to identify BCG-vaccinated children with CD who are probably infected with M. tuberculosis, similarly to healthy children.

  2. Skin decontamination efficacy of RSDL in rabbits exposed to sulfur mustard%化学毒剂皮肤洗消剂对兔皮肤芥子气染毒的消毒效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志宏; 赵宝全; 左国民; 钟玉绪; 孙景海; 郑伟; 韩松; 刘红岩; 应莺; 孙培培; 张城; 王好山

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the decontamination efficacy of RSDL against sulfur mustard(SM)in rabbits and prelimi-narily elucidate its decontamination mechanism. Methods:After potassium ketoxime mixing with SM, SM residues were tested at different time intervals by T-135 colorimetry. Rabbit skin was topically exposed to SM, and treated with potassium ketoxime and ob-served after 6,12, and 24 hrs. Gas chromatographymass spectroscopy was employed to screen and identify the main products of po-tassium ketoxime decontamination of SM. Results:Potassium ketoxime decontaminant had the rapid decontamination efficacy against SM. The neutralizing rate of the mixture of potassium ketoxime decontaminant and SM with the ratio of 50:1 can reach 87.50%、95.90%、99.00%compared to that of control 9.88%,12.40%,13.30% at reaction time 30 s,1 min,5 min , respectively. The efficiency of potassium ketoxime decontaminant was statistically significant versus contaminated control at any time of observation (4, 12 and 24 hours). Erythema was appeared at time 15 min post exposure in control group while no erythema in potassium ketox-ime decontaminant group until 6 hours post exposure after SM (2 mg/cm2) poisoned in rabbits 1 min later . The surfaces of erythema lesions induced by SM were slightly enhanced for the group decontaminated by potassium ketoxime , compared with control group at times 12,24hrs post exposure(P<0.001). The histopathology analysis revealed that a significant difference between potassium ke-toxime decontaminant group and control for acute inflammation , no significant changes were observed for inflammation parameters following SM with the decontaminant. Conclusion:The results of this study indicate that potassium ketoxime reacted rapidly and completely with SM, and was found to be a suitable and effective skin decontaminant against SM. Rapid use of potassium ketoxime may greatly reduced the skin damage after SM poison. The decontamination reaction mechanism was mainly

  3. Radio-decontamination efficacy and safety studies on optimized decontamination lotion formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S; Bhatt, S; Dutta, M; Khan, A W; Ali, J; Sultana, S; Kotta, S; Ansari, S H; Sharma, R K

    2012-09-15

    Objective of the present study was to optimize decontamination lotion and to evaluate its relative decontamination efficacy using three radio-isotopes (Technetium-99m, Iodine-131 and Thallium-201) as contaminants with varying length of contaminant exposure (0-1h). Experiments were performed on Sprague Dawley rat's intact skin and human tissue equivalent models. Rat's hair was removed by using depilator after trimming with scissors. Relative decontamination efficacy of the optimized lotion was investigated and compared with water as control. Static counts were recorded before and after decontamination using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Measured decontamination efficacy (DE) values were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student's t-test (p valueDecontamination efficacy of the lotion was observed to be 90 ± 5%, 80 ± 2% and 85 ± 2%, for the (131)I, (201)Tl and (99m)Tc radio-contaminants respectively on skin. Reduced contaminant removal was recorded for the skin which was cleaned by depilator (50-60%). Skin decontamination was found more efficacious for rat skin decontamination than the human tissue equivalent model. Decontamination efficacy of the lotion against (99m)Tc was recorded 70 ± 15% at 0-1h on the tissue equivalent model. In vitro chelation efficacy of the lotion was also established by using the instant thin layer chromatography-slica gel (ITLC-SG) and >95% of (99m)Tc was recorded. Neither erythema nor edema was scored in the primary skin irritancy test visually observed for two weeks.

  4. Changes in skin test reactivity among adults with atopic disease: a 3-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslund, N.; Thomsen, S.F.; Molgaard, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Our knowledge about longtudinal predictors of atopy is limited. Objectives: To describe changes in skin test reactivity during a 3-year period in a sample of adolescents and adults with atopic disease and to identify factors of importance for these changes. Methods: From a sample of 1......, 186 candidates, ranging in age from 14 to 44 years, who in a screening questionnaire reported symptoms suggestive of respiratory allergic disease, 344 individuals with a positive skin prick test (SPT) result concomitantly with asthma and/or rhinitis were clinically studied on 2 occasions, 3 years...... apart. Results: In total, 134 (39% of the Study population) had a different SPT result at follow-up compared with baseline, based on a diagnostic criterion of 3 min for a positive test result 77 (22%) developed de novo sensitizations to I or more allergens, 45 (13%) had remission of 1 or more...

  5. Skin Test Reactivity to Indoor Allergens Correlates with Asthma Severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshak Emad A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increased emphasis on the role of indoor allergens in asthma. Objective To examine the spectrum of skin test reactivity (sensitization to indoor allergens and its correlation with asthma severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Asthmatic patients referred to the allergy clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH in Jeddah were studied. Measures of clinical severity were adopted from national and international asthma guidelines. The degree of sensitization was assessed by the wheal size (positive ≥ 3 mm from standard skin-prick tests for the following common indoor inhalant allergens: house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Dp] and Dermatophagoides farinae [Df], cat, and cockroach. Results Skin test results from 113 of 151 (74.8% asthmatic patients were positive for one or more allergens. The patients' ages ranged between 9 and 63 years (mean, 30 ± 13 years, and females constituted 65.5%. The predominant asthma severity level was moderate persistent (55.8%, followed by mild persistent (33.6%. The prevalences of sensitization to indoor allergens were as follows: Dp, 87% (3-25 mm [mean, 7 mm]; Df, 84% (3-20 mm [mean, 7 mm]; cat, 44% (3-15 mm [mean, 6 mm]; and cockroach, 33% (3-12 mm [mean, 4 mm]. Higher asthma severity levels were significantly correlated with the number of allergens with positive sensitization (R = 0.3, p Dp [degrees of freedom {df} = 16, p Df [df = 17, p df = 10, p df = 8, p Conclusions Immunoglobulin E-mediated skin test reactivity to indoor allergens, particularly to house dust mites, was common in asthmatic patients from Jeddah at KAUH. Increased sensitization was associated with higher levels of asthma severity, which is compatible with the literature. This emphasizes the importance of identifying sensitization to relevant indoor allergens in the clinical evaluation of asthmatic persons.

  6. Effects of polymorphisms of NOS3 and GNB3 genes on skin microvascular reactivity in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkov, O V; Volf, Ju V

    2013-05-01

    We studied the relationship between endothelial NO-synthase gene (NOS3) and G protein β3 subunit gene (GNB3) polymorphisms and reactivity of skin microvessels during physiological gestation. T-786C NOS3 polymorphism influenced the maximum blood flow rate in skin microvessels and the severity of postocclusive reactive hyperemia during the third trimester of pregnancy. The relationship between G894T NOS3 polymorphism and the duration of postocclusive reactive hyperemia was revealed. C825T GNB3 polymorphism affects the duration and severity of postocclusive reactive hyperemia during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy. Thus, NOS3 and GNB3 polymorphisms affect blood flow in the skin microvessels during physiological gestation.

  7. What Happens after Activation of Ascaridole? Reactive Compounds and Their Implications for Skin Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-09-19

    To replace animal testing and improve the prediction of skin sensitization, significant attention has been directed to the use of alternative methods. The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the regulatory agencies' approved alternative in chemico method, has been applied for understanding the sensitization capacity of activated ascaridole. Ascaridole, the oxidative metabolite of α-terpinene, is considered to be one of the components responsible for the contact allergy associated with essential oils derived from Chenopodium and Melaleuca species. The recently developed high-throughput screening based on the dansyl cysteamine (HTS-DCYA) method was applied to understand the reported enhanced reactivity of activated ascaridole and possibly to identify the resulting elusive radical or other reactive species. For the first time, a substituted cyclohexenone was identified as a potential electrophilic intermediate resulting in higher depletion of nucleophilic DCYA, along with several nonreactive byproducts of ascaridole via a radical degradation mechanism. Formation of electrophilic species via radical degradation is one of the possible pathways should be considered for the peptide reactivity of in aged tea tree oil or oils rich in terpinenes along with commonly believed reactants, allylic-epoxides and allylic-peroxides.

  8. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effect of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 on skin reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueniche, A; Philippe, D; Bastien, P; Reuteler, G; Blum, S; Castiel-Higounenc, I; Breton, L; Benyacoub, J

    2014-06-01

    In recent decades, the prevalence of subjects with reactive skin has considerably increased in industrialised countries. 50% of women and 30% of men report cutaneous discomfort classified under reactive/sensitive skin. Several topical approaches have been proposed, in particular through improvement of galenic forms or protection of epidermal surface. We propose to act differently, deeply from inside the body via an innovative nutritional approach. To this purpose, Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 (ST11) was selected because of its specific beneficial skin properties discovered in in vitro studies, i.e. diminution of neurogenic inflammation and promotion of the recovery of skin barrier function. We designed a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study with a two-month supplementation in two female treatment groups (n=32 per group). A capsaicin test was performed to monitor the time course of skin sensitivity. Moreover, transepidermal water loss was assessed to analyse the rate of skin barrier function recovery; dryness of the leg and roughness of the cheeks was investigated by a dermatologist as well as by self-assessment. The results of the present clinical trial show that oral supplementation with the probiotic decreases skin sensitivity and increases the rate of barrier function recovery. Thus, the data provide evidence that daily intake of ST11 could improve reactive skin condition.

  9. Reactive fluxes delivered by dielectric barrier discharge filaments to slightly wounded skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The application of atmospheric-pressure plasmas to human tissue has been shown to have therapeutic effects for wound healing and in treatment of skin diseases. In this paper, we report on a computational study of the intersection of plasma filaments in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with a small wound in human skin in the context of plasma medicine. The wound is represented as a small cut in the epidermal layer of cells. Intracellular structures and their electrical properties were incorporated into the two-dimensional computational mesh in order to self-consistently couple gas phase plasma transport with the charging of the surface of the wound. We quantify the fluxes of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ions and photons produced in or diffusing into the wound as might occur during the first few discharge pulses of treatment. Comparison is made to fluxes predicted by global modelling. We show that the relative location of the plasma filament with respect to the wound is important on plasma time scales (ns) for ions and photons, and for radicals directly produced by electron impact processes. On the longer-term diffusion time scales (ms) the position of the plasma filament relative to the wound is not so critical. For typical DBD conditions, the magnitude of these fluxes to the cellular surfaces corresponds to fluences of radicals nearly equal to the surface site density. These results imply that the biological reactivity is limited by reaction probabilities and not the availability of radical fluxes.

  10. Accumulation of C-reactive protein in basal keratinocytes of normal skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Koji; Fujimoto, Norihiro; Akiyama, Minoru; Satoh, Takahiro; Tajima, Shingo

    2016-07-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a prototypic acute phase protein which increases dramatically in the blood during the first 48h of tissue inflammation and has been recognized as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. CRP interacts with a variety of proteins. To know the role of accumulated CRP in the skin. Interaction of CRP with basal keratinocytes was studied using immunohistochemical method and keratinocyte culture system. We found an immunohistochemical deposition of CRP on the basal keratinocyte membrane in some normal human skins (23 out of 46 skins). When added to cultured keratinocytes, heat-denatured but not native CRP was found to adhere to keratinocyte cell membrane after 1h, then internalized into cytoplasm after 24h. The heat-denatured CRP recognized at least four keratinocyte polypeptides with the molecular weights of 56, 42, 32 and 24kDa. Ligand binding assays suggested that multiple populations of receptor-ligand interactions were involved in the binding between CRP and keratinocyte. Cultured dermal microvascular endothelial cells were found to express CRP of which expression was greatly induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) treatment, suggesting that the deposited CRP in the basal keratinocytes can be derived from local dermal microvasculatures as well as from systemic circulation (serum). Treatment of cultured keratinocytes with heat-denatured CRP induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression, a potent leukocyte chemotactic cytokine. CRP in the medium (liquid phase) and CRP-coated dishes (solid phase) both inhibited the adhesion of keratinocytes in culture. Accumulation of CRP may regulate the skin inflammation and keratinocyte proliferation by modulating keratinocyte cytokine expression and adhesion to substrate. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental Reactivation and Pleasantness Judgment of Experience Related to Vision, Hearing, Skin Sensations, Taste and Olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Language acquisition is based on our knowledge about the world and forms through multiple sensory-motor interactions with the environment. We link the properties of individual experience formed at different stages of ontogeny with the phased development of sensory modalities and with the acquisition of words describing the appropriate forms of sensitivity. To test whether early-formed experience related to skin sensations, olfaction and taste differs from later-formed experience related to vision and hearing, we asked Russian-speaking participants to categorize or to assess the pleasantness of experience mentally reactivated by sense-related adjectives found in common dictionaries. It was found that categorizing adjectives in relation to vision, hearing and skin sensations took longer than categorizing adjectives in relation to olfaction and taste. In addition, experience described by adjectives predominantly related to vision, hearing and skin sensations took more time for the pleasantness judgment and generated less intense emotions than that described by adjectives predominantly related to olfaction and taste. Interestingly the dynamics of skin resistance corresponded to the intensity and pleasantness of reported emotions. We also found that sense-related experience described by early-acquired adjectives took less time for the pleasantness judgment and generated more intense and more positive emotions than that described by later-acquired adjectives. Correlations were found between the time of the pleasantness judgment of experience, intensity and pleasantness of reported emotions, age of acquisition, frequency, imageability and length of sense-related adjectives. All in all these findings support the hypothesis that early-formed experience is less differentiated than later-formed experience. PMID:27400090

  12. Chemical reactivity and skin sensitization potential for benzaldehydes: can Schiff base formation explain everything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Gfeller, Hans; Haupt, Tina; Brunner, Gerhard

    2012-10-15

    Skin sensitizers chemically modify skin proteins rendering them immunogenic. Sensitizing chemicals have been divided into applicability domains according to their suspected reaction mechanism. The widely accepted Schiff base applicability domain covers aldehydes and ketones, and detailed structure-activity-modeling for this chemical group was presented. While Schiff base formation is the obvious reaction pathway for these chemicals, the in silico work was followed up by limited experimental work. It remains unclear whether hydrolytically labile Schiff bases can form sufficiently stable epitopes to trigger an immune response in the living organism with an excess of water being present. Here, we performed experimental studies on benzaldehydes of highly differing skin sensitization potential. Schiff base formation toward butylamine was evaluated in acetonitrile, and a detailed SAR study is presented. o-Hydroxybenzaldehydes such as salicylaldehyde and the oakmoss allergens atranol and chloratranol have a high propensity to form Schiff bases. The reactivity is highly reduced in p-hydroxy benzaldehydes such as the nonsensitizing vanillin with an intermediate reactivity for p-alkyl and p-methoxy-benzaldehydes. The work was followed up under more physiological conditions in the peptide reactivity assay with a lysine-containing heptapeptide. Under these conditions, Schiff base formation was only observable for the strong sensitizers atranol and chloratranol and for salicylaldehyde. Trapping experiments with NaBH₃CN showed that Schiff base formation occurred under these conditions also for some less sensitizing aldehydes, but the reaction is not favored in the absence of in situ reduction. Surprisingly, the Schiff bases of some weaker sensitizers apparently may react further to form stable peptide adducts. These were identified as the amides between the lysine residues and the corresponding acids. Adduct formation was paralleled by oxidative deamination of the parent

  13. Chemical stability and in chemico reactivity of 24 fragrance ingredients of concern for skin sensitization risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Wang, Mei; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-09-16

    Twenty-four pure fragrance ingredients have been identified as potential concern for skin sensitization. Several of these compounds are chemically unstable and convert into reactive species upon exposure to air or light. In the present work, a systematic investigation of the correlation between chemical stability and reactivity has been undertaken. The compounds were subjected to forced photodegradation for three months and the chemical changes were studied with GC-MS. At the end of the stability study, two-thirds of the samples were found to be unstable. The generation of chemically reactive species was investigated using the in chemico HTS-DCYA assay. Eleven and fourteen compounds were chemically reactive before and after three months, respectively. A significant increase in reactivity upon degradation was found for isoeugenol, linalool, limonene, lyral, citronellol and geraniol; in the same conditions, the reactivity of hydroxycitronellal decreased. The non-reactive compounds α-isomethyl ionone, benzyl alcohol, amyl cinnamal and farnesol became reactive after photo-oxidative degradation. Overall, forced degradation resulted in four of non-reactive fragrance compounds to display in chemico thiol reactivity, while ten out of 24 compounds remained inactive. Chemical degradation thus not necessarily occurs with generation of reactive species. Non-chemical activation may be involved for the 10 stable unreactive compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Skin Test Reactivity to Fungal Aeroallergens in Asthmatic Children in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Amin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of asthma appears to involve interplay between host factors and environmental exposures. The most important environmental factors are viral respiratory infections and airborne allergens in consist of sensitization to fungal aeroallergens [1]. Exposure to fungal aeroallergens was reported to be a cause of asthma in many parts of the world.There are few data on the prevalence of allergy to molds in Iran. This study was performed to determine the positive skin prick test to molds and their related risk factors in asthmatic children in Shiraz, southern Iran (Table 1.Skin prick test was done in two hundred and thirty asthmatic children with five types of common fungal aeroallergens (Aspergillus fumigatus, Caldosporium herbarum, Penicillium, Alternaria and Rhizopus.Out of 230 asthmatic children (175 boys, 55 girls with mean age 6.34±3 years, 25 (10.9% had positive skin test to molds. In other studies this rate was reported to be different between 2% to 80%[2]. Of 25 children with positive skin test to molds, the common fungal aeroallergen was Aspergillus followed by Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Amin R et al studied airborne fungal spores in Shiraz. The most important fungi, in order of numbers, had been Altenaria, Aspergilus, Rhizopus and Penicillium[3]. With regard to results of skin prick test in our study, it seems that Alternia is the most common outdoor fungus, but Aspergillus could be the most important indoor fungus.Another study showed in asthmatic patients that main skin test reactivity to fungi was for Aspergillus but most frequent cultured fungus was Cladosporium[4].Of 25 subjects with positive skin test to molds, 5 (20% were females, 20 (80% were residents of urban areas and 4 (56% lived in homes older than ten years. There was no significant correlation between the prevalence of mold skin test positivity in males and females, rural and urban habitats and age of homes.There was no difference in the

  15. Lack of Correlation between Severity of Clinical Symptoms, Skin Test Reactivity, and Radioallergosorbent Test Results in Venom-Allergic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington RJ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To retrospectively examine the relation between skin test reactivity, venom-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibody levels, and severity of clinical reaction in patients with insect venom allergy. Method Thirty-six patients (including 15 females who presented with a history of allergic reactions to insect stings were assessed. The mean age at the time of the reactions was 33.4 ± 15.1 years (range, 4-76 years, and patients were evaluated 43.6 ± 90 months (range, 1-300 months after the reactions. Clinical reactions were scored according to severity, from 1 (cutaneous manifestations only to 3 (anaphylaxis with shock. These scores were compared to scores for skin test reactivity (0 to 5, indicating the log increase in sensitivity from 1 μg/mL to 0.0001 μg/mL and radioallergosorbent test (RAST levels (0 to 4, indicating venom-specific IgE levels, from undetectable to >17.5 kilounits of antigen per litre [kUA/L]. Results No correlation was found between skin test reactivity (Spearman's coefficient = 0.15, p = .377 or RAST level (Spearman's coefficient = 0.32, p = .061 and the severity of reaction. Skin test and RAST scores both differed significantly from clinical severity (p p = .042. There was no correlation between skin test reactivity and time since reaction (Spearman's coefficient = 0.18, p = .294 nor between RAST and time since reaction (r = 0.1353, p = .438. Elimination of patients tested more than 12 months after their reaction still produced no correlation between skin test reactivity (p = .681 or RAST score (p = .183 and the severity of the clinical reaction. Conclusion In venom-allergic patients (in contrast to reported findings in cases of inhalant IgE-mediated allergy, there appears to be no significant correlation between the degree of skin test reactivity or levels of venom-specific IgE (determined by RAST and the severity of the clinical reaction.

  16. Structural modification of the skin barrier by OH radicals: a reactive molecular dynamics study for plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Paal, J.; Verlackt, C. C.; Yusupov, M.; Neyts, E. C.; Bogaerts, A.

    2015-04-01

    While plasma treatment of skin diseases and wound healing has been proven highly effective, the underlying mechanisms, and more generally the effect of plasma radicals on skin tissue, are not yet completely understood. In this paper, we perform ReaxFF-based reactive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interaction of plasma generated OH radicals with a model system composed of free fatty acids, ceramides, and cholesterol molecules. This model system is an approximation of the upper layer of the skin (stratum corneum). All interaction mechanisms observed in our simulations are initiated by H-abstraction from one of the ceramides. This reaction, in turn, often starts a cascade of other reactions, which eventually lead to the formation of aldehydes, the dissociation of ceramides or the elimination of formaldehyde, and thus eventually to the degradation of the skin barrier function.

  17. Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Harsh Parenting and Growth in Child Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children’s externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Latent growth modeling revealed that boys with higher harsh parenting in conjunction with lower SCLR exhibited relatively high and stable levels of externalizing behavior during late childhood. Boys with higher harsh parenting and higher SCLR exhibited relatively low to moderate levels of externalizing behavior at age 8, but some results suggested that their externalizing behavior increased over time, approaching the same levels as boys with higher harsh parenting and lower SCLR by age 10. For the most part, girls and boys with lower harsh parenting were given relatively low and stable ratings of externalizing behavior throughout late childhood. Results are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective with reference to models of antisocial behavior in childhood. PMID:21142369

  18. Sweating under pressure: skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the association between peer victimization and externalizing behavior may be illuminated by individual differences in skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) in the context of peer stress. Participants included 123 fifth and sixth graders (Mean age = 12.03 years, 50% females; 42% ethnic minorities). SCLR was assessed in the context of an ecologically relevant, lab-based peer-evaluative stress experience in preadolescence. As hypothesized, self-reported peer victimization was linked with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior, and SCLR consistently moderated these associations. Peer victimization was associated with parent- and teacher-reported externalizing behavior among preadolescents who exhibited lower SCLR, but not among preadolescents who exhibited higher SCLR. Results suggest that promoting engagement with peer stress experiences and enhancing inhibitory control are potential intervention targets that may reduce externalizing behavior in the context of peer victimization (or reduce peer victimization among preadolescents who exhibit externalizing behavior). © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Peptide reactivity assay using spectrophotometric method for high-throughput screening of skin sensitization potential of chemical haptens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yun Hyeok; An, Susun; Shin, Kyeho; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2013-02-01

    Haptens must react with cellular proteins to be recognized by antigen presenting cells. Therefore, monitoring reactivity of chemicals with peptide/protein has been considered an in vitro skin sensitization testing method. The reactivity of peptides with chemicals (peptide reactivity) has usually been monitored by chromatographic methods like HPLC or LC/MS, which are robust tools for monitoring common chemical reactions but are rather expensive and time consuming. Here, we examined the possibility of using spectrophotometric methods to monitor peptide reactivity. Two synthetic peptides, Ac-RWAACAA and Ac-RWAAKAA, were reacted with 48 chemicals (34 sensitizers and 14 non-sensitizers). Peptide reactivity was measured by monitoring unreacted peptides with UV-Vis spectrophotometer using 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid as a detection reagent for the free thiol group of cysteine-containing peptide or fluorometer using fluorescamine™ as a detection reagent for the free amine group of lysine-containing peptide. Chemicals were categorized as sensitizers when they induced more than 10% depletion of cysteine-containing peptide or 20% depletion of lysine-containing peptide. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of this method were 82.4%, 85.7%, and 83.3%, respectively. These results demonstrate that spectrophotometric methods can be easy, fast, and high-throughput screening tools for the prediction of the skin sensitization potential of chemical haptens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Parental Psychological Control and Relational Aggression in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Caitlin R; Abaied, Jamie L

    2016-04-01

    When studying factors that may heighten risk for relational aggression in youth, it is important to consider characteristics of both the individual and their environment. This research examined the associations between parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression in emerging adults in college. Given that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation may underlie differences between reactive and proactive aggression and has been shown to moderate the effects of parenting on youth development, the moderating role of SNS reactivity [indexed by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR)] was also examined. Emerging adults (N = 180; 77.2 % female) self-reported on perceptions of parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression. SCLR was assessed in response to an interpersonal laboratory challenge task. Parental psychological control was positively associated with reactive relational aggression only for emerging adults who exhibited high SCLR. Parental psychological control was positively associated with proactive relational aggression only among emerging adults who showed low SCLR. This study extends previous research on parenting and aggression and suggests that parental psychological control is differentially associated with reactive versus proactive relational aggression, depending on emerging adults' SCLR to interpersonal stress.

  1. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  2. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. Tissue histiocyte reactivity with CD31 is comparable to CD68 and CD163 in common skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, W James; Googe, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    CD31 is a standard immunostain for evaluating vascular lesions of the skin, but CD31 reactivity for histiocytes is reported in only a small variety of pathological conditions. CD68 and CD163 are well recognized stains for cutaneous histiocytic lesions. We compared immunostaining of CD31 within that of CD68 and CD163 in five cases each of cutaneous lesions containing histiocytes: healing biopsy site, granuloma annulare, xanthogranuloma, ruptured follicular cyst and sarcoidosis. Reactivity was graded on a scale of 0-3 for brightness of immunostaining. Immunoreactivity was seen in histiocytes in all specimens for CD31, CD68 and CD163. The average intensity of staining was 1.7-2.5 for CD31, 2.6-3 for CD68 and 2.9-3 for CD163. The staining was somewhat less for CD31 because the reactivity is localized on the cell surfaces, whereas CD68 and CD163 react with cell surfaces and cytoplasm. We conclude that histiocytes in cutaneous lesions stain for CD31 and the staining is comparable to, but less intense, than that seen with CD68 and CD163. Caution is suggested in interpretation of CD31 staining in skin specimens, as CD31 shows reactivity with histiocytes as well as endothelial cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Possibilities of plasma decontamination at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Windarto, Hendri; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Akatsuka, Hiroshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sakagishi, Kohji [ATOX Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The highly effective decontamination process by using atmospheric pressure plasma is proposed. The microwave plasma generator, which we designed, is suitable for discharge of molecular gas and it has a special feature as a source of high concentration reactive atoms in the discharge o molecular gases rather than a plasma source. To demonstrate this idea and discuss about its possibility, some cold experiments were carried out. Our experimental results shows the high effectiveness and it can be concluded consequently that the proposed process has the possibility of the practical processing with having the advantage of plasma decontamination technique which have been investigated under the low pressure conditions. (author)

  5. Dissociation between skin test reactivity and anti-aeroallergen IgE: Determinants among urban Brazilian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Rafael V.; Ponte, João C. M.; da Cunha, Sérgio S.; Simões, Silvia M.; Cruz, Álvaro A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Matos, Sheila M.; Silva, Thiago Magalhães; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L.; Cooper, Philip J.; Barreto, Maurício L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The dissociation between specific IgE and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens, a common finding in populations living in low and middle-income countries, has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Few studies have investigated the determinants of this dissociation. In the present study, we explored potential factors explaining this dissociation in children living in an urban area of Northeast Brazil, focusing in particular on factors associated with poor hygiene. Methods Of 1445 children from low income communities, investigated for risk factors of allergies, we studied 481 with specific IgE antibodies to any of Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica allergens. Data on demographic, environmental and social exposures were collected by questionnaire; serum IgG and stool examinations were done to detect current or past infections with viral, bacterial, protozoan and intestinal helminth pathogens. We measured atopy by skin prick testing (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to aerollergens in serum (by ImmunoCAP). SIgE reactivity to B. tropicalis extract depleted of carbohydrates was measured by an in-house ELISA. Total IgE was measured by in house capture ELISA. SNPs were typed using Illumina Omni 2.5. Results Negative skin prick tests in the presence of specific IgE antibodies were frequent. Factors independently associated with a reduced frequency of positive skin prick tests were large number of siblings, the presence of IgG to herpes simplex virus, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections, living in neighborhoods with infrequent garbage collection, presence of rodents and cats in the household and sIgE reactivity to glycosylated B. tropicalis allergens. Also, SNP on IGHE (rs61737468) was negatively associated with SPT reactivity. Conclusions A variety of factors were found to be associated with decreased frequency of SPT such as unhygienic

  6. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  7. Gaseous decontamination for major cp, fp and tru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatenuma, K.; Hishinuma, T.; Isoyama, N.; Noguchi, T. [Kaken Co. Mito-Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    As an effective decontamination based on dry-base treatment, we have developed two types practical gaseous decontamination technologies, one is based on carbonylation and fluorination reactions using several types of chemically reactive plasmas which have the performances and high efficiencies to decontaminate simultaneously the contaminants of major CP, FP and TRU, and another is based on fluorination reaction using fluoric reagent (i e., ClF{sub 3}, BrF{sub 5}, IF{sub 7}, etc.) to decontaminate the contaminants of major F P and TRU. In this study, it was verified that all of the chemically reactive plasmas of five types, which are electron cyclotron resonance, direct current, radio frequency, down stream micro wave and corona discharge, have high decontamination efficiencies of {sup 60}Co and uranium, and on the other hand the result of highly reactive gas decontamination using ClF{sub 3} as fluoric reagent showed that the contaminants of UF{sub 6} centrifugal concentrator were mostly cleaned up to non-radioactive materials under the treatment conditions of ambient temperature, short time and reduced pressure. The developed gas-phase decontamination technology based on volumes of waste created each year or non-incinerable radioactive waste. (author)

  8. MRSA decontamination using octenidine-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilevicius, Mindaugas; Juzéniené, Audra; Juzénaité-Karneckiené, Indré; Veršinina, Anželika

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are an increasing problem worldwide with a high risk of severe illness and mortality in hospitalised patients. Patients with chronic wounds are at particular risk of developing MRSA infections. As octenidine-based products have shown promising success in decontamination in the past, the aim of the present study was to determine its efficacy, safety, and tolerability in decontaminating hospitalised MRSA-positive patients. From 1 April 2011 until 9 November 2012, 36 patients were screened MRSA-positive at the Republican Vilnius University Hospital, Vilnius, Lithuania. At least three swab tests were performed for each patient to screen for MRSA, one from each nostril and one from the perineum. In patients with wounds, an additional swab was taken from the wound surface. In the affected patients octenidine-based products were used in one or two cycles of 7 days each. In addition, adverse events were recorded and the tolerability was assessed using a 4-point scale ranging from 'very good' to 'poor'. Complete decontamination was achieved in 24 patients (67%) following treatment with the octenidine-based products. None of the patients experienced side-effects or secondary symptoms such as skin irritation or allergic reactions during the course of the study. In addition, octenidine was very well tolerated in the majority of patients (n=31; 86%). The results demonstrate that octenidine-based products are highly efficient in the multifaceted decontamination of hospitalised MRSA-positive patients. Having a range of products that can be used for full body decontamination (including the scalp and nasal passages) is of particular significance when developing an MRSA decontamination protocol, as multiple parts of the body can be affected. Combined with a favourable safety and tolerability profile, octenidine-based products thus represent a good choice in multifaceted MRSA decontamination regimes, which are necessary to

  9. Association of skin test reactivity, specific IgE, total IgE, and eosinophils with nasal symptoms in a community-based population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, JHJ; Kerkhof, M; deMonchy, JGR; Schouten, JP; Rijcken, B

    1996-01-01

    Background: Skin prick tests and measurement of specific IgE are important markers possible allergic causes of disorders of the upper respiratory tract. Objective: In this study we investigated the association of skin test reactivity and specific IgE positivity to five common aeroallergens separatel

  10. A fluorescence high throughput screening method for the detection of reactive electrophiles as potential skin sensitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin sensitization is an important toxicological end-point in the risk assessment of chemical allergens. Because of the complexity of the biological mechanisms associated with skin sensitization integrated approaches combining different chemical, biological and in silico methods are recommended to r...

  11. PWR decontamination feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silliman, P.L.

    1978-12-18

    The decontamination work which has been accomplished is reviewed and it is concluded that it is worthwhile to investigate further four methods for decontamination for future demonstration. These are: dilute chemical; single stage strong chemical; redox processes; and redox/chemical in combination. Laboratory work is recommended to define the agents and processes for demonstration and to determine the effect of the solvents on PWR materials. The feasibility of Indian Point 1 for decontamination demonstrations is discussed, and it is shown that the system components of Indian Point 1 are well suited for use in demonstrations.

  12. Long lasting decontamination foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  13. 567 Prevalence of Skin Reactivity to Blomia Tropicalis Antigen in Patients with Respiratory Allergy at Hospital Universitario De Puebla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Villegas, Erica Marisol

    2012-01-01

    Background Published studies shows that the sensitization to Blomia tropicalis mite plays an important roll on the development of allergic diseases. The aim of our study is to determinate the prevalence to skin reactivity to Blomia tropicalis' antigen in patients with respiratory allergy. Methods We conducted a descriptive, observational, prospective and transversal study being the criteria for inclusion: male and female patients aged 2 to 58 who came for first time at our service with diagnosis of asthma, rhinitis or asthma more rhinitis. We evaluated the skin reactivity by skin prick test to Blomia tropicalis' antigen. Descriptive statistics was implemented by estimating summary measures and dispersion. Results From a total of 110 patients, their mean age was 16.25 (2–58), 50% were males, 92% were from urban areas and 7.3% from rural areas. Of the patients studied 2.7% had asthma, 73.6% had rhinitis and 23.6% both diagnoses. The prevalence of positive skin reactivity to Blomia tropicalis was 24.5%. The prevalence of positive skin reactivity for the rhinitis subgroup was 59.3% and for the asthma/rhinitis subgroup was 40.7%, while in the asthma subgroup the prevalence was 0%. Conclusions The high prevalence of skin reactivity to Blomia tropicalis indicated the importance of including Blomia tropicalis in routine diagnostic testing and immunotherapy treatment.

  14. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  15. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16{sup INK4a} and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  16. Facility decontamination technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Purpose of the meeting was to provide a record of experience at nuclear facilities, other than TMI-2, of events and incidents which have required decontamination and dose reduction activities, and to furnish GPU and others involved in the TMI-2 cleanup with the results of that decontamination and dose reduction technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for 24 of the 25 papers; the remaining paper had been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  17. Chemical Decontaminant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-20

    any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display...Some test methods for efficacy require the use of CWAs and decontaminants. 15. SUBJECT TERMS decontamination; chemical warfare agent; CWA...contaminant in samples from contact samplers , coupons, rinsate, or other samples. MS, GC or LC, FID, FPD, or equivalents. ±15 percent of the mass of

  18. Lessons Learned from Decontamination Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, JH

    2000-11-16

    This interim report describes a DOE project currently underway to establish what is known about decontamination of buildings and people and the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  19. Increased emotional reactivity to affective pictures in patients with skin-picking disorder: Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabnegger, Albert; Übel, Sonja; Suchar, Gerald; Schienle, Anne

    2017-09-01

    The predominant symptom of skin-picking disorder (SPD) is the recurrent picking of one's own skin, leading to tissue damage and discomfort. Psychological disorder models suggest an enhanced emotional reactivity in patients with SPD, which contributes to the maintenance of symptoms. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment analyzed both subjective and neuronal responses to affective pictures (categories: fear, disgust, happiness, neutral) in 19 women with SPD and 16 healthy controls. Also, affective traits (disgust, anxiety, depression) were assessed. Those with SPD scored higher on trait anxiety/depression, and reported higher intensities of negative emotions experienced during the picture viewing. On the neuronal level, the clinical group showed enhanced localized brain activation to fear, disgust and happiness in the amygdala, the insula and the orbitofrontal cortex. These regions are part of a brain circuit mediating affective responses and affective awareness. The current fMRI study provides first data on the neuronal basis of elevated emotional reactivity to affective pictures in SPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of skin microvascular reactivity with hemostatic markers of endothelial dysfunction and damage in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Beer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Beer1,2, François Feihl1, Juan Ruiz2, Irène Juhan-Vague3, Marie-Françoise Aillaud3, Sandrine Golay Wetzel1, Lucas Liaudet4, Rolf C Gaillard2, Bernard Waeber1Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Division de Physiopathologie Clinique, Lausanne, Suisse1Division de Physiopathologie Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Suisse; 2Service d’Endocrinologie, de Diabétologie et de Métabolisme, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Suisse; 3Laboratoire d’hématologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Marseille; Inserm UMR 626, Marseille, France; 4Service de Médecine Intensive de l’Adulte, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, SuisseAim: Patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM are at increased cardiovascular risk due to an accelerated atherosclerotic process. The present study aimed to compare skin microvascular function, pulse wave velocity (PWV, and a variety of hemostatic markers of endothelium injury [von Willebrand factor (vWF, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI, and the soluble form of thrombomodulin (s-TM] patients with NIDDM.Methods: 54 patients with NIDDM and 38 sex- and age-matched controls were studied. 27 diabetics had no overt micro- and/or macrovascular complications, while the remainder had either or both. The forearm skin blood flow was assessed by laser-Doppler imaging, which allowed the measurement of the response to iontophoretically applied acetylcholine (endotheliumdependent vasodilation and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent vasodilation, as well as the reactive hyperemia triggered by the transient occlusion of the circulation.Results: Both endothelial and non-endothelial reactivity were significantly blunted in diabetics, regardless of the presence or the absence of

  1. Mast cell reactivity at the margin of human skin wounds: an early cell marker of wound survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M; Gronki, T; Meissner, C; Anlauf, M; Schwark, T

    2009-10-30

    Detecting the vitality of mechanical skin wounds (antemortem versus postmortem injury) in human cadavers remains a specifically forensic problem. To determine whether skin mast cells (MCs) are activated during the very early phase of human wound healing we performed a histomorphometric evaluation of the extent of MC enzyme loss as an indication of MC degranulation at the wound margins of skin wounds in 64 human cadavers. We compared the number of tryptase-reactive MCs, which are said not to loose all of their enzyme activity during degranulation process, with the number of naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase (NAS-DClAE)-positive MCs, which loose their complete enzyme activity in the form of enzyme-positive granula after activation. The enzyme activity was evaluated on sequential histological sections after autopsy as an indirect quantification of the number of degranulated MCs. Most of the victims had died within 10-60 min after injury (n=50), 12 survived between 60 min and 24h, and only 2 victims survived more than 24h (12 days each). The number of enzyme-positive MCs were counted in six successive visual fields (0.785 mm(2)) on the one hand located parallel to and--on the other hand--at increasing distances outward from the wound margins. In victims surviving the injury less than 60 min the average number of NAS-DClAE-reactive MCs next to the wound margin was significantly lower than the number of tryptase-reactive MCs. The extent of the reduction in NAS-DClAE-reactive MC counts correlated inversely with the distance from the wound edges. Our findings show that MCs undergo very early loss of NAS-DClAE activity at wound margins, and thus appear to be an early cell marker of wound survival. However, definitive evidence that the enzyme loss (degranulation) represents a vital process can only be obtained by comparing MC enzyme loss induced by injury during intact circulation with the MC reaction to injury inflicted very shortly after cardiac arrest, a question that

  2. Evaluation of a High-Throughput Peptide Reactivity Format Assay for Assessment of the Skin Sensitization Potential of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin Lin; Lam, Ai-Leen; Smith, Maree T.; Ghassabian, Sussan

    2016-01-01

    The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate, and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium, and high concentrations) and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme, and non-sensitizers) with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF), cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA), and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA) containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7%) and glass (47.3%) vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further highlight

  3. Comparative analysis of showering protocols for mass-casualty decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlot, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Jones, David R; Carter, Holly; Turner, Elizabeth A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    A well-established provision for mass-casualty decontamination that incorporates the use of mobile showering units has been developed in the UK. The effectiveness of such decontamination procedures will be critical in minimizing or preventing the contamination of emergency responders and hospital infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three empirical strategies designed to optimize existing decontamination procedures: (1) instructions in the form of a pictorial aid prior to decontamination; (2) provision of a washcloth within the showering facility; and (3) an extended showering period. The study was a three-factor, between-participants (or "independent") design with 90 volunteers. The three factors each had two levels: use of washcloths (washcloth/no washcloth), washing instructions (instructions/no instructions), and shower cycle duration (three minutes/six minutes). The effectiveness of these strategies was quantified by whole-body fluorescence imaging following application of a red fluorophore to multiple, discrete areas of the skin. All five showering procedures were relatively effective in removing the fluorophore "contaminant", but the use of a cloth (in the absence of instructions) led to a significant ( appox. 20%) improvement in the effectiveness of decontamination over the standard protocol (p mass-casualty decontamination effectiveness, especially in children, can be optimized by the provision of a washcloth. This simple but effective approach indicates the value of performing controlled volunteer trials for optimizing existing decontamination procedures.

  4. Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontamination Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    DECONTAMINATION SOLUTION ELETI M.V. Holey •I• E LF- , C.W. Kurnas J •i W.T. Muse B RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE May 1994 Approved for public release...FUNDING NUMBERS Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontaminating S.O.-2FK4 Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution 6. AUTHOR(S) Haley, M.V.; Kurnas

  5. Advance in radioactive decontamination; Avances en descontaminacion radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Diagnostico por Laboratorio y Gabinete, Av. Cupules No. 232, Col. Garcia Gineres, 97070 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Farrera V, R., E-mail: basteris@prodigy.net.m [Hospital de Especialidades de la UMAE, Centro Medico Nacional Ignacio Garcia Tellez, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Calle 34 x 41, Exterrenos el Fenix s/n, Col. Industrial, 91750 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The objective of the present work was to determine if the application of the Na hypochlorite has some utility in the radioactive decontamination, in comparison with the water, detergent and alcohol. Several methods were compared for decontaminate the iodine 131 and technetium 99, the work table and the skin it was carried out an initial count with the Geiger Muller. Later on, in a single occasion, the areas were washed with abundant water, alcohol, clothes detergent and sodium hypochlorite (used commercially as domestic bleacher) without diluting. Observing that the percentage in the decrease of the counted radioactivity by the Geiger Muller, decreased in the following way: It was demonstrated that the Na hypochlorite presents the highest index of radioactive decontamination with 100% of effectiveness. The Na hypochlorite is an excellent substance that can be used with effectiveness and efficiency like decontamination element in the accident cases of radioactive contamination in the clinical laboratories of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  6. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomasney, H. [ISOTRON Corp., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  7. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  8. Biological decontamination of surfaces using guided ionization waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, Julien; Zaepffel, Clement

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets have received an increasing attention these last ten years in various domains, including biomedical applications and decontamination. Among these technologies, guided ionization waves (also called ``plasma bullets'') are very promising because of their ability to produce a highly non-equilibrium plasma. Reactive species can be generated in the open air over a long distance during the propagation of the wave (typically: several cm), while the background gas remains at ambient temperature. A non-thermal plasma system has been developed and tested for the biological decontamination of surfaces. It consists of a dielectric barrier discharge in a helium flow driven by high voltage pulses. The propagation of the ionization wave and the spatial distribution of the species have been characterized by high speed imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. The influence of the discharge parameters on the plasma properties is investigated. Results of decontamination on several bacteria are shown, and the decontamination efficiency is compared with the plasma properties.

  9. Resveratrol Prevents High Fluence Red Light-Emitting Diode Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoinhibition of Human Skin Fibroblast Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mamalis

    Full Text Available Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem that leads to a functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial impact on quality-of-life. Light-emitting diode-generated 633-nm red light (LED-RL is part of the visible light spectrum that is not known to cause DNA damage and is considered a safe, non-invasive, inexpensive, and portable potential alternative to ultraviolet phototherapy that may change the treatment paradigm of fibrotic skin disease.The goal of our study was to investigate the how reactive oxygen species (ROS free radicals generated by high fluence LED-RL inhibit the migration of skin fibroblasts, the main cell type involved in skin fibrosis. Fibroblast migration speed is increased in skin fibrosis, and we studied cellular migration speed of cultured human skin fibroblasts as a surrogate measure of high fluence LED-RL effect on fibroblast function. To ascertain the inhibitory role of LED-RL generated ROS on migration speed, we hypothesized that resveratrol, a potent antioxidant, could prevent the photoinhibitory effects of high fluence LED-RL on fibroblast migration speed.High fluence LED-RL generated ROS were measured by flow cytometry analysis using dihydrorhodamine (DHR. For purposes of comparison, we assessed the effects of ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on fibroblast migration speed and the ability of resveratrol, a well known antioxidant, to prevent LED-RL and H2O2 generated ROS-associated changes in fibroblast migration speed. To determine whether resveratrol could prevent the high fluence LED-RL ROS-mediated photoinhibition of human skin fibroblast migration, treated cells were incubated with resveratrol at concentrations of 0.0001% and 0.001% for 24 hours, irradiated with high fluences LED-RL of 480, 640, and 800 J/cm2.High fluence LED-RL increases intracellular fibroblast ROS and decreases fibroblast migration speed. LED-RL at 480, 640 and 800 J/cm2 increased ROS levels to 132.8%, 151.0%, and 158.4% relative to matched

  10. Resveratrol Prevents High Fluence Red Light-Emitting Diode Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Photoinhibition of Human Skin Fibroblast Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalis, Andrew; Koo, Eugene; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Murphy, William; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Skin fibrosis is a significant medical problem that leads to a functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial impact on quality-of-life. Light-emitting diode-generated 633-nm red light (LED-RL) is part of the visible light spectrum that is not known to cause DNA damage and is considered a safe, non-invasive, inexpensive, and portable potential alternative to ultraviolet phototherapy that may change the treatment paradigm of fibrotic skin disease. The goal of our study was to investigate the how reactive oxygen species (ROS) free radicals generated by high fluence LED-RL inhibit the migration of skin fibroblasts, the main cell type involved in skin fibrosis. Fibroblast migration speed is increased in skin fibrosis, and we studied cellular migration speed of cultured human skin fibroblasts as a surrogate measure of high fluence LED-RL effect on fibroblast function. To ascertain the inhibitory role of LED-RL generated ROS on migration speed, we hypothesized that resveratrol, a potent antioxidant, could prevent the photoinhibitory effects of high fluence LED-RL on fibroblast migration speed. High fluence LED-RL generated ROS were measured by flow cytometry analysis using dihydrorhodamine (DHR). For purposes of comparison, we assessed the effects of ROS generated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on fibroblast migration speed and the ability of resveratrol, a well known antioxidant, to prevent LED-RL and H2O2 generated ROS-associated changes in fibroblast migration speed. To determine whether resveratrol could prevent the high fluence LED-RL ROS-mediated photoinhibition of human skin fibroblast migration, treated cells were incubated with resveratrol at concentrations of 0.0001% and 0.001% for 24 hours, irradiated with high fluences LED-RL of 480, 640, and 800 J/cm2. High fluence LED-RL increases intracellular fibroblast ROS and decreases fibroblast migration speed. LED-RL at 480, 640 and 800 J/cm2 increased ROS levels to 132.8%, 151.0%, and 158.4% relative to matched controls

  11. Protective effect against oxygen reactive species and skin fibroblast stimulation of Couroupita guianensis leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana; Conde, Enma; Moure, Andrés; Domínguez, Herminia; Estévez, Ramón J

    2012-01-01

    In this study, hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Couroupita guianensis were examined for antioxidant activity, phytochemical and total phenolic composition, stimulation of human skin fibroblast (HSF) proliferation and UV-absorption. The radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and protection against joint oxidation of linoleic acid and β-carotene bleaching oxidation in emulsion were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. The results of this study strongly indicate in vitro antioxidant activity, which may be due to the presence of a high total phenolic content. In order to identify active principles, the extracts were submitted to fractionation and the compounds isolated were the flavonoids 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone (1), 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavanone (2) and the phenolic acid 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3). In addition, a high level of stimulation of HSF proliferation and significant absorption of UV radiation were also observed. The results suggest that the hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of C. guianensis have promising skin care properties.

  12. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2012-08-15

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16(INK4a) and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of skin conductance level reactivity in the impact of children's exposure to interparental conflict on their attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Martina; Bodenmann, Guy; Mark Cummings, E

    2014-02-01

    Previous research suggests that undermining of attention performance might be one decisive underlying mechanism in the link between marital conflict and children's academic maladjustment, but little is known about specific risk patterns in this regard. This study examines, in an experimental approach, the role of children's history of interparental discord and skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) as moderators in the link between analogue marital conflict exposure and children's attention. The attention performance of 57 children, aged 11 to 13 years, was assessed prior to and immediately after a 1-min video exposure to either (a) a couple conflict or (b) a neutral condition. SCLR was measured continuously throughout the stimulus presentation. Results indicated that children's family background of interparental conflict and their physiological reactivity moderated the influence of the experimental stimulus on children's short-term attention performance. Lower SCLR served as a protective factor in children from high-conflict homes exposed to the couple conflict. The current study advances the body of knowledge in this field by identifying risk patterns for the development of attention problems in children in relation to marital conflict exposure.

  14. Evaluation of a high-throughput peptide reactivity format assay for assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium and high concentrations and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme and non-sensitizers with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF, cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7% and glass (47.3% vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further

  15. RELATIONSHIP OF SKIN-TEST REACTIVITY AND EOSINOPHILIA TO LEVEL OF PULMONARY-FUNCTION IN A COMMUNITY-BASED POPULATION STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MENSINGA, TT; SCHOUTEN, JP; WEISS, ST; VANDERLENDE, R

    We studied the relationship of skin test reactivity (sumscore greater-than-or-equal-to 3) and eosinophilia(greater-than-or-equal-to 275 cells/mm3 blood), separately and combined, to the level of FEV1 in a community cohort. We used the regression analysis technique, adjusting for age and area of

  16. [Advances in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hai-ling; Zhao, San-ping; Zhou, Wen

    2013-05-01

    With the boosting demand for eco-friendly decontaminants, great achievements in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies have been made in recent years. These technologies have been applied in countering chemical/biological terrorist attacks, dealing with chemical/biological disasters and destructing environmental pollutants. Recent research advances in alpha-nucleophilic/oxidative reaction mechanisms of peroxide-based decontamination against chemical warfare agents were reviewed, and some classical peroxide-based decontaminants such as aqueous decontaminating solution, decontaminating foam, decontaminating emulsions, decontaminating gels, decontaminating vapors, and some newly developed decontaminating media (e.g., peroxide-based self-decontaminating materials and heterogeneous nano-catalytic decontamination systems) were introduced. However, currently available peroxide-based decontaminants still have some deficiencies. For example, their decontamination efficiencies are not as high as those of chlorine-containing decontaminants, and some peroxide-based decontaminants show relatively poor effect against certain agents. More study on the mechanisms of peroxide-based decontaminants and the interfacial interactions in heterogeneous decontamination media is suggested. New catalysts, multifunctional surfactants, self-decontaminating materials and corrosion preventing technologies should be developed before peroxide-based decontaminants really become true "green" decontaminants.

  17. Reactivity enhancement of oxide skins in reversible Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmelle, Renaud; Borgschulte, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.borgschulte@empa.ch [Laboratory for Hydrogen and Energy, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Gehrig, Jeffrey C. [Laboratory for Nanoscale Materials Science, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Züttel, Andreas [Laboratory for Hydrogen and Energy, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institut des Sciences et Ingénierie Chimiques, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The reversibility of hydrogen sorption in complex hydrides has only been shown unambiguously for NaAlH{sub 4} doped with transition metal compounds. Despite a multitude of investigations of the effect of the added catalyst on the hydrogen sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, the mechanism of catalysis remains elusive so far. Following the decomposition of TiCl{sub 3}-doped NaAlH{sub 4} by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we link the chemical state of the dopant with those of the hydride and decomposition products. Titanium and aluminium change their oxidation states during cycling. The change of the formal oxidation state of Al from III to zero is partly due to the chemical reaction from NaAlH{sub 4} to Al. Furthermore, aluminium oxide is formed (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which coexists with titanium oxide (Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The interplay of metallic and oxidized Ti with the oxide skin might explain the effectiveness of Ti and similar dopants (Ce, Zr…)

  18. Reactivity enhancement of oxide skins in reversible Ti-doped NaAlH4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaud Delmelle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The reversibility of hydrogen sorption in complex hydrides has only been shown unambiguously for NaAlH4 doped with transition metal compounds. Despite a multitude of investigations of the effect of the added catalyst on the hydrogen sorption kinetics of NaAlH4, the mechanism of catalysis remains elusive so far. Following the decomposition of TiCl3-doped NaAlH4 by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, we link the chemical state of the dopant with those of the hydride and decomposition products. Titanium and aluminium change their oxidation states during cycling. The change of the formal oxidation state of Al from III to zero is partly due to the chemical reaction from NaAlH4 to Al. Furthermore, aluminium oxide is formed (Al2O3, which coexists with titanium oxide (Ti2O3. The interplay of metallic and oxidized Ti with the oxide skin might explain the effectiveness of Ti and similar dopants (Ce, Zr….

  19. Decontamination and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J.C.; Dhein, E.H.; Morgenthau, M.

    1954-01-01

    Test panels, four ft square, of 14 building materials were mounted on the weather surfaces of two remotely controlled liberty ships and on a stationary barge. One of the ships was protected by a washdown system. All surfaces were contaminated significantly with tenacious fallout. Vertical surfaces facing upwind became equally or more highly contaminated than horizontal or pitched surfaces, probably due to wind currents impacting the tenacious contaminant onto surfaces normal to it. A sequence of hosing and vigorous scrubbing operations resulted in contamination reductions of 40 to 70%, but with reductions on most surfaces being less than 50%. The most effective decontamination method was scrubbing. Under the conditions of this test, painting and joint sealing had little effect while the washdown countermeasure reduced the initial contamination over 90%. It is concluded that contamination from fallout encountered in these tests presents a serious decontamination problem on buildings and paved areas and further development of effective countermeasures is necessary.

  20. Development of laser decontamination technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Fukui, Yasutaka; Tanimoto, Kenichi [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2002-06-01

    For decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities, a laser decontamination technique has been developed. The technique was expected to decontaminate high-level radioactive waste to back ground levels, keep the amount of secondary waste low, and be operated by remote control. In the development, a decontamination experiment was executed. Type and operation mode of the laser oscillator, Type and flow rate of the assist gas, repetition rate of the laser pulse, moving velocity of the laser nozzle and irradiation energy were parameters in the experiment. Hot radioactive waste could be decontaminated to background levels uniformly with optimized parameters, which were determined by comparative evaluation. (author)

  1. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma and decontamination. Can it contribute to preventing hospital-acquired infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, N; Cahill, O; Daniels, S; Galvin, S; Humphreys, H

    2014-10-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) affect ∼4.5 million patients in Europe alone annually. With the ever-increasing number of 'multi-resistant' micro-organisms, alternative and more effective methods of environmental decontamination are being sought as an important component of infection prevention and control. One of these is the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) systems with clinical applications in healthcare facilities. CAPPs have been shown to demonstrate antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral properties and have been adopted for other uses in clinical medicine over the past decade. CAPPs vary in their physical and chemical nature depending on the plasma-generating mechanism (e.g. plasma jet, dielectric barrier discharge, etc.). CAPP systems produce a 'cocktail' of species including positive and negative ions, reactive atoms and molecules (e.g. atomic oxygen, ozone, superoxide and oxides of nitrogen), intense electric fields, and ultraviolet radiation (UV). The effects of these ions have been studied on micro-organisms, skin, blood, and DNA; thus, a range of possible applications of CAPPs has been identified, including surface decontamination, wound healing, biofilm removal, and even cancer therapy. Here we evaluate plasma devices, their applications, mode of action and their potential role specifically in combating HCAIs on clinical surfaces.

  2. The role of skin conductance level reactivity in the impact of children’s exposure to interparental conflict on their attention performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zemp, Martina; Bodenmann, Guy; Cummings, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that undermining of attention performance might be one decisive underlying mechanism in the link between marital conflict and children's academic maladjustment, but little is known about specific risk patterns in this regard. This study examines, in an experimental approach, the role of children's history of interparental discord and skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) as moderators in the link between analogue marital conflict exposure and children's attention...

  3. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Oranuch Nakchat; Nonthaneth Nalinratana; Duangdeun Meksuriyen; Sunanta Pongsamart

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods: Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glut...

  4. Autologous serum skin test reactivity and basophil histamine release test in patients with nasal polyposis: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambetti, G; Ciofalo, A; Soldo, P; Fusconi, M; Romeo, R; Greco, A; Altissimi, G; Macri, G F; Marinelli, C; Pagliuca, G; De Vincentiis, M

    2010-01-01

    An eosinophilic inflammatory process is generally observed in patients suffering from nasal polyposis (NP), however its onset has not yet been defined. It has been suggested that immune activation of inflammatory cells may be the cause. The aim of this study is to verify whether autoantibodies and/or histamine-releasing factors are present in the serum of patients suffering from NP. In fact, we assume that autoantibodies and/or histamine-releasing factors, as already demonstrated in chronic idiopathic urticaria and asthma, may be involved in the pathogenesis of NP. In this case-control analytical study 40 patients with NP and 27 control subjects underwent the in vivo autologous serum skin test (ASST). The sera from 6 patients suffering from NP and 9 control group subjects, who had all been previously studied and randomly selected, underwent basophil histamine release assay from normal donor as a pilot study. The ASST showed positive results in 55% of patients suffering from NP versus 8% of the control group (p= .00006), the basophil histamine release test (BHRT) turned out positive in all patients tested and in 11% of the control group. We found a weak positive correlation between the percentage of histamine release and the wheal diameter. ASST reactivity is very frequent in patients suffering from NP, thus suggesting the presence of histamine-releasing factors in the blood stream. The BHRT was positive in the serum of all patients, thus suggesting the presence of anti-FcepsilonRI, anti-IgE autoantibodies and/or other histamine-releasing factors, the presence of which can play a role in triggering and maintaining the eosinophilic inflammatory process in NP.

  5. Inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein and radiotherapy-induced early adverse skin reactions in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Takita, Cristiane; Wright, Jean; Reis, Isildinha M; Zhao, Wei; Lally, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J

    2014-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women. Postsurgery adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) significantly reduced the local recurrence rate. However, many patients develop early adverse skin reactions (EASR) that impact quality of life and treatment outcomes. We evaluated an inflammatory biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), in predicting RT-induced EASRs in 159 patients with breast cancer undergoing RT. In each patient, we measured pre- and post-RT plasma CRP levels using a highly sensitive ELISA CRP assay. RT-induced EASRs were assessed at weeks 3 and 6 using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (v3.0). Associations between EASRs and CRP levels were assessed using logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. RT-induced grade 2+ EASRs were observed in 8 (5%) and 80 (50%) patients at weeks 3 and 6 (end of RT), respectively. At the end of RT, a significantly higher proportion of African Americans developed grade 3 EASRs (13.8% vs. 2.3% in others); grade 2+ EASRs were significantly associated with: change of CRP > 1 mg/L [odds ratio (OR), 2.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-5.95; P = 0.04], obesity (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.03-4.21; P = 0.04), or combined both factors (OR, 5.21; 95% CI, 1.77-15.38; P = 0.003). This is the first study to demonstrate that an inflammatory biomarker CRP is associated with RT-induced EASRs, particularly combined with obesity. Future larger studies are warranted to validate our findings and facilitate the discovery and development of anti-inflammatory agents to protect normal tissue from RT-induced adverse effects and improve quality of life in patients with breast cancer undergoing RT. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet for Chem/Bio Warfare Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Henins, Ivars; Park, Jaeyoung; Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) technology may provide a much needed method of CBW decontamination which, unlike traditional decon methods, is dry and nondestructive to sensitive equipment and materials. The APPJ discharge uses a high-flow feedgas consisting primarily of an inert carrier gas, such as He, and a small amount of a reactive additive, such as O2, which flows between capacitively-coupled electrodes powered at 13.56 MHz. The plasma generates highly reactive metastable and atomic species of oxygen which are then directed onto a contaminated surface. The reactive effluent of the APPJ has been shown to effectively neutralize VX nerve agent as well as simulants for anthrax and mustard blister agent. Research efforts are now being directed towards reducing He consumption and increasing the allowable stand-off distance. Recent results demonstrate that by replacing the O2 reactive additive with CO2, ozone formation is greatly reduced. This has the result of extending the lifetime of atomic oxygen by an order of magnitude or more. A recirculating APP Decon Chamber which combines heat, vacuum, forced convection and reactivity is currently being developed for enhanced decontamination of sensitive equipment. Several techniques are also being evaluated for use in an APP Decon Jet for decontamination of items which cannot be placed inside a chamber.

  7. Decontamination of VX, GD, and HD on a surface using modified vaporized hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W; Sorrick, David C; Procell, Lawrence R; Brickhouse, Mark D; Mcvey, Iain F; Schwartz, Lewis I

    2007-01-30

    Vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) has proven efficacy for biological decontamination and is a common gaseous sterilant widely used by industry. Regarding chemical warfare agent decontamination, VHP is also effective against HD and VX, but not GD. Simple addition of ammonia gas to VHP affords reactivity toward GD, while maintaining efficacy for HD (and bioagents) and further enhancing efficacy for VX. Thus, modified VHP is a broad-spectrum CB decontaminant suitable for fumigant-type decontamination scenarios, i.e., building, aircraft, and vehicle interiors and sensitive equipment. Finally, as an interesting aside to the current study, commercial ammonia-containing cleaners are also shown to be effective surface decontaminants for GD, but not for VX or HD.

  8. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  9. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  10. Relative contributions of interface pressure, shear stress, and temperature on ischemic-induced, skin-reactive hyperemia in healthy volunteers: a repeated measures laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenbruch, Charlie; Tzen, Yi-Ting; Brienza, David; Karg, Patricia E; Lachenbruch, Peter A

    2015-02-01

    Although the primary risk factors for pressure ulcer development - pressure, shear, skin temperature, moisture, and friction - have been identified for decades, the relative contribution of each to this risk remains unclear. To confirm the results of and expand upon earlier research into the relative contributions of interface pressures, shear stress, and skin temperature among 4 healthy volunteers, a study involving 6 additional healthy 40- to 75-year-old volunteers was conducted and results of the 2 studies were pooled. All 3 variables (interface pressures, shear stress, and skin temperature) were systematically and randomly varied. In the prone position, volunteers each underwent 18 test conditions representing different combinations of temperature (28˚ C, 32˚ C, 36˚ C), pressure (8.0 and 13.3 kPa), and shear (0, 6.7, and 14.0 kPa) using a computer-controlled indenter applied to the sacrum for 20 minutes exerting weights of 100 g and 200 g to induce 0.98 N and 1.96 N of shear force, respectively. Each condition was tested twice, resulting in a total of 360 trials. Magnitude of postload reactive hyperemia as an index of ischemia was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Fixed effects regression models were used to predict 3 different indices of reactive hyperemic magnitude. Friedman tests were performed to compare the reactive hyperemia among 3 different skin temperatures or shear stresses under the same amount of localized pressure. In all regression models, pressure and temperature were highly significant predictors of the extent of reactive hyperemia (P pressure and shear stress, and the difference was more profound between 32˚ C and 36˚ C than between 28˚ C and 32˚ C. These results confirm that, in laboratory settings, temperature is an important factor in tissue ischemia. Additional studies examining the relative importance of pressure, shear, and temperature and potential effects of lowering temperature on tissue ischemia in healthy volunteers and

  11. Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST and skin prick testing (SPT to house dust mite (HDM in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive ASST was 46.3%, and patients aged 30-39 years had the highest positive rate (52.1%. Positive SPT to HDM was seen in 153 patients (17.7% with the highest positive rate (34.2% in patients aged 20 or less. Patients with positive ASST had higher urticaria activity scores (UAS (4.18±0.65 vs. 3.67±0.53 but lower positive rates of HDM (24.6% vs. 37.6%, as compared with those with negative ASST (odds ratio (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.47. Patients could be categorized into four groups based on the results of ASST and SPT to HDM and patients with positive ASST and positive SPT to HDM had the highest disease activity scores, experienced higher frequencies of angioedema, diseases duration, and required higher dosage of loratadine every month, compared with other subgroups (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CSU showed varied responses of positive ASST and varied sensitivity to HDM, Patients with positive ASST and/or positive SPT had more disease activity compared with patients with negative ASST and/or negative SPT. Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST.

  12. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed.

  13. Decontamination of viable Streptococcus mutans from orthodontic tungsten carbide debonding burs. An in vitro microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriteh, Zahra; Hassan, Tasnim; Sherriff, Martyn; Cobourne, Martyn; Cobourne, Martin; Riley, Peter

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of currently recommended decontamination procedures on tungsten carbide debonding burs (TCDBs). In vitro microbiological study. St George's Hospital NHS Trust, UK. A total of 240 extracted tooth surfaces were bonded with orthodontic brackets, debonded to leave residual composite and artificially contaminated with Streptococcus mutans. Sterilized TCDBs in a slow handpiece were used to remove this composite before random allocation into one of six different decontamination groups of 40 burs each. These included a control group that was not decontaminated and a further five that underwent different methods of presterilization cleaning within the decontamination process (none, manual, ultrasonic, washer disinfector and enzyme soak) followed by sterilization in a vacuum phase autoclave at 134 degrees C for 3 min. The burs were placed in brain heart infusion (BHI) broths, incubated for 48 h. Following this the broths were inspected for turbidity and microbiological analysis was carried out to detect viable bacterial growth. Data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for single ordered data. S. mutans was recovered from 39 out of 40 burs in the control group and no burs from the decontamination groups, which was statistically significant (P = 0.001). No differences were found between decontamination groups (P = 0.271). However, skin flora contamination was noted in 17 broths. The five methods of decontaminating TCDBs investigated in this study were effective in removing viable S. mutans. Other investigations are required to determine if TCDBs can be successfully cleaned of blood and protein residue prior reuse.

  14. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-02-27

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials.

  15. Selective decontamination and antibiotic resistance in ICUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Nienke L.; Bonten, Marc J. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123144337

    2015-01-01

    Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) have been associated with reduced mortality and lower ICU-acquired bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in areas with low levels of antibiotic resistance. However, the effect of selective

  16. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, Nick; Syed, Sara; Larner, Joanne; Amlôt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The UK’s Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method (“rinse-wipe-rinse”) for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants. PMID:28152053

  17. Evaluation of absorbent materials for use as ad hoc dry decontaminants during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, Nick; Syed, Sara; Larner, Joanne; Amlôt, Richard; Chilcott, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    The UK's Initial Operational Response (IOR) is a revised process for the medical management of mass casualties potentially contaminated with hazardous materials. A critical element of the IOR is the introduction of immediate, on-scene disrobing and decontamination of casualties to limit the adverse health effects of exposure. Ad hoc cleansing of the skin with dry absorbent materials has previously been identified as a potential means of facilitating emergency decontamination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro oil and water absorbency of a range of materials commonly found in the domestic and clinical environments and to determine the effectiveness of a small, but representative selection of such materials in skin decontamination, using an established ex vivo model. Five contaminants were used in the study: methyl salicylate, parathion, diethyl malonate, phorate and potassium cyanide. In vitro measurements of water and oil absorbency did not correlate with ex vivo measurements of skin decontamination. When measured ex vivo, dry decontamination was consistently more effective than a standard wet decontamination method ("rinse-wipe-rinse") for removing liquid contaminants. However, dry decontamination was ineffective against particulate contamination. Collectively, these data confirm that absorbent materials such as wound dressings and tissue paper provide an effective, generic capability for emergency removal of liquid contaminants from the skin surface, but that wet decontamination should be used for non-liquid contaminants.

  18. Evaluation of the Frequency of Food and Aeroallergens in Patients with Eczema and Urticaria in Province of Bushehr: Based on Skin Prick Test Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years frequency of skin allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (eczema and urticaria is reported to be high in the region. Identification of reactive allergens in different areas are very important in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of common allergens in patients with skin allergies in province of Bushehr with regards to eczema and urticaria. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 234 patients with urticarial and eczema were enrolled. The participants reacted to at least one allergen with SPT. Skin prick test with standard inhaled and food was performed on patients according to the herbal geography of the area. Results: Among 837 patients referred to allergy clinic, 91 patients had eczema and 143 had urticaria. The frequency of both eczema and urticaria was significantly higher in females than in males. The most common food allergens in patients with eczema were almond (56.6%, walnut (47.7% and soybean (46.1%. And in patients with urticaria were almond (58%, walnut (53.1% and tomato (48.2%. Also, aeroallergens in the subjects were house dust mite (HDM (63.7%, Russian thistle (57.7% and Alternaria alternara (51.6%. Meanwhile, the common aeroallergens in the patients were HDM (66.4%, Russian thistle (52.4% and date palm (51%. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that almond and walnut are important food allergens in participants with eczema and urticaria. Moreover, SPT reactivity was positive with aeroallergens such as HDM and weeds.

  19. [Correlation between the magnitude of skin prick test reactivity and pollen-specific serum IgE levels in patients with respiratory allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlachi-Corona, Laura; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; López-García, Aída Inés; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; Carcaño-Pérez, María Socorro Yolanda; Marín-Marín, Araceli; Garrido-Priego, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    For the etiological diagnosis of allergic respiratory diseases skin tests or specific serum IgE determination are used. To determine the correlation between the extent of reactivity to cutaneous prick tests and the levels of pollen specific serum IgE in patients with respiratory allergy. A prolective, descriptive and transversal study was done with patients of both genders, aged 2 to 60 years, who attended for the first time at the service of Allergy and Clinical Immunology of University Hospital of Puebla, Mexico, with presumptive diagnosis of respiratory allergy. All patients underwent clinical history, skin prick tests with standardized allergenic extracts and quantification of pollen specific serum IgE by chemiluminescence method. We estimated the correlation index r using the statistical method Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient; a value r equal to or higher than 0.70 was considered a significant relationship or a high correlation. Nine-one patients were included, of whom 58.2% were female. The diagnoses were: allergic rhinitis (79.1%), asthma and allergic rhinitis (16.5%) and only asthma (4.4%). Only significant correlation was found in patients with allergic rhinitis for Rumex crispus (r = 0.702) and in patients with asthma and rhinitis for Ambrosia trifida (r = 1). Only for Rumex crispus and Ambrosia trifida, the skin prick tests or the determination of specific serum IgE levels are comparable diagnostic methods of allergic respiratory diseases.

  20. In Chemico Evaluation of Tea Tree Essential Oils as Skin Sensitizers: Impact of the Chemical Composition on Aging and Generation of Reactive Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-07-18

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia, or M. dissitiflora. Because of the commercial importance of TTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka, or kanuka oils) is common and may pose significant risks along with perceived health benefits. The distinctive nature, qualitative and quantitative compositional variation of these oils, is responsible for the various pharmacological as well as adverse effects. Authentic TTOs (especially aged ones) have been identified as potential skin sensitizers, while reports of adverse allergic reactions to the other tea trees essential oils are less frequent. Chemical sensitizers are usually electrophilic compounds, and in chemico methods have been developed to identify skin allergens in terms of their ability to bind to biological nucleophiles. However, little information is available on the assessment of sensitization potential of mixtures, such as essential oils, due to their complexity. In the present study, 10 "tea tree" oils and six major TTO constituents have been investigated for their sensitization potential using a fluorescence in chemico method. The reactivity of authentic TTOs was found to correlate with the age of the oils, while the majority of nonauthentic TTOs were less reactive, even after aging. Further thio-trapping experiments with DCYA and characterization by UHPLC-DAD-MS led to the identification of several possible DCYA-adducts which can be used to deduce the structure of the candidate reactive species. The major TTO components, terpinolene, α-terpinene, and terpinene-4-ol, were unstable under accelerated aging conditions, which led to the formation of several DCYA-adducts.

  1. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah

  2. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah

  3. Public experiences of mass casualty decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we analyze feedback from simulated casualties who took part in field exercises involving mass decontamination, to gain an understanding of how responder communication can affect people's experiences of and compliance with decontamination. We analyzed questionnaire data gathered from 402 volunteers using the framework approach, to provide an insight into the public's experiences of decontamination and how these experiences are shaped by the actions of emergency responders. Factors that affected casualties' experiences of the decontamination process included the need for greater practical information and better communication from responders, and the need for privacy. Results support previous findings from small-scale incidents that involved decontamination in showing that participants wanted better communication from responders during the process of decontamination, including more practical information, and that the failure of responders to communicate effectively with members of the public led to anxiety about the decontamination process. The similarity between the findings from the exercises described in this article and previous research into real incidents involving decontamination suggests that field exercises provide a useful way to examine the effect of responder communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. Future exercises should examine in more detail the effect of various communication strategies on the public's experiences of decontamination. This will facilitate the development of evidence-based communication strategies intended to reduce anxiety about decontamination and increase compliance among members of the public during real-life incidents that involve mass decontamination.

  4. Reactivating the extracellular matrix synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans to improve the human skin aspect and its mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajra H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hanane Chajra,1 Daniel Auriol,1 Francine Joly,2 Aurélie Pagnon,3 Magda Rodrigues,4 Sophie Allart,4 Gérard Redziniak,5 Fabrice Lefevre1 1Libragen, Induchem (Givaudan Active Beauty, Toulouse, 2Sephra Pharma, Puteaux, 3Novotec, Bron, 4Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse-Purpan, Toulouse, 5Cosmetic Inventions, Antony, France Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that a defined cosmetic composition is able to induce an increase in the production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs and/or proteoglycans and finally to demonstrate that the composition, through its combined action of enzyme production and synthesis of macromolecules, modulates organization and skin surface aspect with a benefit in antiaging applications. Materials and methods: Gene expression was studied by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using normal human dermal fibroblasts isolated from a 45-year-old donor skin dermis. De novo synthesis of sGAGs and proteoglycans was determined using Blyscan™ assay and/or immunohistochemical techniques. These studies were performed on normal human dermal fibroblasts (41- and 62-year-old donors and on human skin explants. Dermis organization was studied either ex vivo on skin explants using bi-photon microscopy and transmission electron microscopy or directly in vivo on human volunteers by ultrasound technique. Skin surface modification was investigated in vivo using silicone replicas coupled with macrophotography, and the mechanical properties of the skin were studied using Cutometer. Results: It was first shown that mRNA expression of several genes involved in the synthesis pathway of sGAG was stimulated. An increase in the de novo synthesis of sGAGs was shown at the cellular level despite the age of cells, and this phenomenon was clearly related to the previously observed stimulation of mRNA expression of genes. An increase in the expression of the corresponding core protein of decorin, perlecan

  5. Decontamination in a Russian settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, C.L.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Barkovsky, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    Decontamination was carried out in an area with three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Bryansk region, Russia, in the autumn of 1995. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.34) and outdoor (DRF = 0.20) can be achieved when a controlled cleaning is undertaken...

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis epitope-specific interferon-g production in healthy Brazilians reactive and non-reactive to tuberculin skin test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco Christiano Maciel da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN-γ response to peptides can be a useful diagnostic marker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB latent infection. We identified promiscuous and potentially protective CD4+ T-cell epitopes from the most conserved regions of MTB antigenic proteins by scanning the MTB antigenic proteins GroEL2, phosphate-binding protein 1 precursor and 19 kDa antigen with the TEPITOPE algorithm. Seven peptide sequences predicted to bind to multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR molecules were synthesised and tested with IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from 16 Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST-positive and 16 TST-negative healthy donors. Eighty-eight percent of TST-positive donors responded to at least one of the peptides, compared to 25% of TST-negative donors. Each individual peptide induced IFN-γ production by PBMCs from at least 31% of the TST-positive donors. The magnitude of the response against all peptides was 182 ± 230 x 106 IFN-γ spot forming cells (SFC among TST-positive donors and 36 ± 62 x 106 SFC among TST-negative donors (p = 0.007. The response to GroEL2 (463-477 was only observed in the TST-positive group. This combination of novel MTB CD4 T-cell epitopes should be tested in a larger cohort of individuals with latent tuberculosis (TB to evaluate its potential to diagnose latent TB and it may be included in ELISPOT-based IFN-γ assays to identify individuals with this condition.

  7. A Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma Brush for Surface Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, Johanna; Malik, Muhammad; Song, Shutong; Jiang, Chunqi

    2015-11-01

    This work optimizes a non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasma brush for surface decontamination. The generated plasma plumes with a maximum length of 2 cm are arranged in a 5 cm long, brush-like array. The plasma was generated in ambient air with plasma chamber at a rate varying between 1 to 7 SLPM. Optimization of the cold plasma brush for surface decontamination was tested in a study of the plasma inactivation of two common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Laminate surfaces inoculated with over-night cultured bacteria were subject to the plasma treatment for varying water concentrations in He, flow rates and discharge voltages. It was found that increasing the water content of the feed gas greatly enhanced the bactericidal effect. Emission spectroscopy was performed to identify the reactive plasma species that contribute to this variation. Additional affiliation: Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics

  8. The Effect of Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccination at Birth on Tuberculin Skin Test Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sedighi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The World Health Organization estimates that 1.3 million Tubercu-losis cases occur in children each year. Due to the lack of sputum examination in children, the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis is based on three criteria; close contact history, chest x ray finding and positive tuberculin skin test..On the other hand, BCG vaccine that in our na-tional immunization schedule, routinely administered is able to make a positive skin test. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tuberculin skin test reactions in children who have re-ceived BCG vaccine. Materials & Methods: This analytic cross sectional study was performed on 564 cases of 1-6 year old children previously vaccinated with BCG at birth and chosen by cluster sampling. Data of each child obtained for age, sex and retained BCG scar. In the second step informed parental consent was obtained then TST was administered by injecting 0.1 ml of 5 units puri-fied protein derivated (PPD into the volar surface of the forearm.The TST induration was measured 48-72 hours after injection of PPD .TST administration and measurement of indu-ration were done by trained healthcare workers. Data were analyzed with One-Way ANOVA and t-test by SPSS version14. Results: In our study, out of 564 children, 288 were male and 278 were female. 319(56.4% cases didn’t show any reaction . Out of all, 228 cases (40.6% had TST reaction 1-10mm 9 cases (1.6% had TST 10-15 mm and only 8 cases (1.4% had TST induration>15 mm . Mean indurations diameter was 2.9±1.8 mm and according to the definition of positive TST only 12 cases (2.1% had positive TST. There was no statistically sexual preference in TST reaction but with increasing of age induration diameter of TST decreased meaning that there is an inverse relationship between age and TST reaction. Conclusion: According to our results, BCG vaccination at birth did not have any major effect in tuberculin skin test and each child with positive TST

  9. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oranuch Nakchat; Nonthaneth Nalinratana; Duangdeun Meksuriyen; Sunanta Pongsamart

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods:Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activity including antioxidant protein expression was investigated. Results: TSCE significantly attenuated intracellular ROS in the absence and presence of H2O2 by increasing GSH level. In the absence of H2O2, TSCE significantly enhanced SOD and catalase activity but did not affected on GPx. Meanwhile, TSCE significantly increased the protein expression of SOD and GPx in H2O2-treated cells. Conclusions: TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat.

  10. Decontamination effects of detergents on the market for radioactive surface contamination. Their comparative test (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyabe, Kenjiro; Takasaki, Koji; Horiuchi, N. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Yasunaka, Hideo; Izumi, Yuichi [Japan Environment Research Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    There happens frequently radioactive surface contamination on human body and skin under radiation works in controlled area. The surface contamination should be removed from the body and the skin as soon as possible for radiation control and exposure management. Titanium oxide paste, which is reserved as detergent for radioactive surface contamination, has satisfactory results and reliability for decontamination effects. The titanium oxide paste, however, has a short preservation period, and must be exchanged and supplied every several months. Decontamination tests for 22 kinds of detergents on the market were carried out with swine skin and radiation materials, Cs-137 and Ru-106. Radiation solution of Cs-137 or Ru-106 was dropped on the swine skin sample, which was left for 5 min or 40 min as it is. Radioactivity of the sample was measured before and after washing of the detergents. Decontamination effects of the detergents for Cs-137 were similar to those for Ge-144 which were tested in the previous year. The decontamination effects for Ru-106, however, were remarkably lower than those for both cases of Cs-137 and Ge-144. (M. Suetake)

  11. Evaluation of Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Autoantibodies and C-Reactive Protein in Common Autoimmune Skin Diseases with and without Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Bandana; Kumar, Pawan; Chaudhary, Radha Krishna Prasad

    2017-07-01

    Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptides (CCPs) are a well known diagnostic and prognostic noble marker for rheumatoid arthritis. C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein whose level rises in response to inflammation. This study was undertaken to show the role of the two markers (anti-CCPs and CRP) in autoimmune skin disorder and their association with associated arthritis in these disorder. Serum anti-CCP antibodies and CRP was measured in 50 patients of autoimmune skin disease of which 28 were of psoriasis, 12 of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and 10 of Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV). These patients were categorised in two groups, with associated arthritis and without arthritis. The serum level of anti-CCP and CRP was correlated with the presence or absence of arthritis in these patients. Control group consists of 20 healthy subjects in which these two parameters were measured. Out of total of 50 patients, anti-CCP was raised in 36.37% of patients with associated arthritis and 12.82% of patients without arthritis whereas CRP was raised in 63.63% of patients with arthritis and 35.89% of patients without arthritis. Mean serum anti-CCP in patient with arthritis was 15.78±13.94 U/ml and without arthritis was 7.56±7.68 U/ml with p=0.01 which was statistically significant. Mean serum CRP in arthritis was 21.11±15.51 mg/l and CRP without arthritis was 13.14±12.27 mg/l with p=0.07 which was statistically not significant. Although both anti-CCP and CRP are valuable markers for autoimmune skin disorder, anti-CCP seems to show significant association with arthritis.

  12. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) inhibits reactive oxygen Species mediated photodamage by blocking ER stress and MAPK pathway in UV-B irradiated human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, Mufti Rana; Nissar, Ul-Ashraf; Kaiser, Peerzada J; Afnan, Quadri; Sharma, Praduman R; Bhushan, Shashi; Tasduq, Sheikh A

    2015-07-01

    Previously we have reported that generation of reactive oxygen species is the prime event responsible for calcium mediated activation of PERK-eIF2α-CHOP pathway and apoptosis in UV-B irradiated human skin fibroblasts (Hs68). We have also reported that glycyrrhizic acid (GA) mediates potent photoprotective activity against UV-B - irradiation-induced photodamage in human skin fibroblast. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of GA in preventing oxidative stress mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway. Human skin fibroblast (Hs68) cells were exposed to UV-B radiations in lab conditions. Different parameters of UVB induced cellular and molecular changes were analysed using western-blotting, microscopy and flow cytometry. Our results show that GA has strong photoprotective action against UV-B induced cellular damage. It was observed that: (a) Oxidative disturbances and intracellular Ca(2+) imbalance induced by UV-B irradiation was significantly restored by GA treatment; (b) activation of PERK-eIF2α-CHOP and MAPK pathway induced by UV-B was significantly blocked by GA; (c) Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis induced by UV-B were reduced by GA treatment. Based on the above findings we conclude GA has a highly significant ROS quenching activity, thereby blocking the cascade of events including release of calcium from ER and subsequent ER stress, MAPK pathway and cellular demise. GA offers highly potent anti photodamage effect and can be exploited for cosmetic or therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of the MDF-LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Review of the MDF -LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System Rodi Sferopoulos Human Protection and Performance Division...and performance of the Modec Decontamination Foam ( MDF )-LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System as well as information regarding the decontamination...RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Review of the MDF -LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System Executive Summary DSTO were

  14. Food-specific serum IgE and IgG reactivity in dogs with and without skin disease: lack of correlation between laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Jonathan I; Hendricks, Anke; Loeffler, Anette; Chang, Yu-Mei; Verheyen, Kristien L; Garden, Oliver A; Bond, Ross

    2014-10-01

    Despite conflicting data on their utility and no reports on interlaboratory reproducibility, serum food-specific antibodies are commonly assayed in first-opinion canine practice. To determine both the variability of test results between two laboratories and the frequencies and magnitudes of food reactivity in dogs of different disease status. Sera were obtained from eight dogs with cutaneous adverse food reaction (Group A), 22 with nonfood-induced atopic dermatitis (Group B), 30 with an allergic/inflammatory phenotype (Group C), 12 with miscellaneous skin diseases (Group D) and nine healthy dogs (Group E). Paired sera were submitted to two laboratories (A and B) for assays of food-specific IgE and IgG antibodies. Numbers of positive IgE and IgG tests determined by each laboratory in Groups A, B, D and E were comparable (Group C not included). Significant differences in the magnitude of IgE reactivity between groups for each allergen were seen only for lamb (Laboratory A, P = 0.003); lamb reactivity in Group D exceeded Group E (P = 0.004) but was comparable between all other groups. Agreement (kappa statistic) between the two laboratories' tests was 'moderate' for one antigen (potato IgE), 'fair' for four (corn IgE, rice IgE and IgG and soya bean IgG), 'slight' for eight (six IgE and two IgG) and 'less than chance' for the remaining six antigens (three IgE and three IgG). These laboratories' tests appear to have dubious predictive clinical utility because they neither correlate nor distinguish between dogs of different disease status. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Preparation of reactive oxygen scavenging peptides from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin gelatin: optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping

    2011-04-01

    Gelatin extracted from tilapia skin was hydrolyzed with Properase E. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the hydrolysis condition (temperature [T], enzyme-to-substrate ratio [E/S], pH and reaction time [t]), to obtain the hydrolysate with the highest hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging activity. The optimum conditions obtained were T of 44.2 °C, E/S of 2.2%, pH of 9.2, and t of 3.4 h. The predicted •OH scavenging activity of the hydrolysate under the optimum conditions was 60.7%, and the actually experimental scavenging activity was 60.8%. The hydrolysate was fractionated by ultrafiltration, and 4 fractions were collected. The fraction TSGH4 (MWindustries.

  16. Decontamination in a Russian settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Lange, C.; Andersson, K.G. [and others

    1996-03-01

    Decontamination was carried out in and around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the autumn of 1995. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.34) and outdoor (DRF = 0.20) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roofs of the houses were swept and cleaned by special roof cleaning equipment. The soil around the houses was removed by hand while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a triple digging method that reduces the dose rate without generating waste. In the appendices of the report the measurement data are available for further analysis. (au) 16 tabs., 15 ills.

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis and erythema multiforme: a possible pathogenetic link for T-cell-mediated autoimmune and reactive skin diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Mario; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Barbuzza, Olga; Cannavo, Serafinella P

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a woman with a 14-year history of rheumatoid arthritis, who showed simultaneously and gradually appearing, annular, erythematous, itchy patches and exacerbation of the joint symptoms, of one month duration, after pregnancy. Clinical and histologic features led us to the diagnosis of erythema multiforme. While it is not possible to exclude that the co-occurrence of the two conditions is coincidental, our case suggests the possibility that erythema multiforme is a sign of an ample alteration of the immune system that may occur in patients with systemic immune diseases as a consequence of the action of various triggering factors, such as molecular mimicry between endogenous and exogenous antigens or pregnancy, which is notoriously a period of complex and still largely unexplored alterations in the immune system reactivity.

  18. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Technology for Decontamination of Space Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Thoma, Markus; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Müller, Meike; Semenov, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is very fast and effective in inactivation of all kinds of pathogens. It is used in hygiene and especially in medicine, since the plasma treatment can be applied to sensitive surfaces, like skin, too. In a first study to use CAP for the decontamination of space equipment we could show its potential as a quite promising alternative to the standard "dry heat" and H2O2 methods [Shimizu et al. Planetary and Space Science, 90, 60-71. (2014)]. In a follow-on study we continue the investigations to reach high application level of the technology. First, we redesign the actual setup to a plasma-gas circulation system, increasing the effectivity of inactivation and the sustainability. Additionally, we want to learn more about the plasma chemistry processes involved in the inactivation. Therefore, we perform detailed plasma and gas measurements and compare them to numerical simulations. The latter will finally be used to scale the decontamination system to sizes useful also for larger space equipment. Typical materials relevant for space equipment will be tested and investigated on surface material changes due to the plasma treatment. Additionally, it is planned to use electronic boards and compare their functionality before and after the CAP expose. We will give an overview on the status of the plasma decontamination project funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economics.

  19. Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Brief This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons that have been contaminated with spores of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii (B. globigii), which is often used as a surrogate for pathogenic B. anthracis (anthrax) in disinfection studies. Bacillus spores are persistent on common drinking water material surfaces like corroded iron, requiring physical or chemical methods to decontaminate the infrastructure. In the United States, free chlorine and monochloramine are the primary chemical disinfectants used by the drinking water industry to inactivate microorganisms. Flushing is also a common, easily implemented practice in drinking water distribution systems, although large volumes of contaminated water needing treatment could be generated. Identifying readily available alternative disinfectant formulations for infrastructure decontamination could give water utilities options for responding to specific types of contamination events. In addition to presenting data on flushing alone, which demonstrated the persistence of spores on water infrastructure in the absence of high levels of disinfectants, data on acidified nitrite, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone, peracetic acid, and followed by flushing are provided.

  20. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waysbort, Daniel [Israel Institute for Biological Research, PO Box 19, Ness-Ziona 74100 (Israel); McGarvey, David J. [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)], E-mail: david.mcgarvey@us.army.mil; Creasy, William R.; Morrissey, Kevin M.; Hendrickson, David M. [SAIC, P.O. Box 68, Gunpowder Branch, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Durst, H. Dupont [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green{sup TM}, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup -2}) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t{sub 1/2} {<=} 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min with molybdate), and 1:10 for GD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  1. Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, M.W.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.

    1980-10-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work.

  2. Studies on Hypersensitivity—I. Delayed and Arthus-type Skin Reactivity to Protein Conjugates in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacerraf, B.; Gell, P. G. H.

    1959-01-01

    A study has been made of the immunization of guinea pigs with proteins conjugated with picryl, acetyl and ethoxymethylene-phenyloxazolone groups. Immunization by means of complexes of these substances with anti-protein and anti-hapten antisera have also been studied. Antibody production, anaphylactic and Arthus-type sensitivity and delayed skin sensitivity to the conjugates, to the carrier proteins and to unrelated proteins carrying the same haptenic group have been investigated. Immunization with conjugates is found to be followed by the appearance of delayed hypersensitivity to the protein `carrier' in the absence of detectable antibodies against it, although antibodies are produced at that time against the haptenic group itself. Delayed hypersensitivity to the haptenic group has not been detected at any time: blocking it with specific antibody does not lead to the appearance of delayed sensitivity, but merely suppresses antibody formation against that group. Pure delayed sensitivity has been produced against gelatin, both alone and as a conjugate with picryl. Conjugates with homologous serum proteins are shown to provoke only Arthus-type sensitivity and antibody against the haptenic group. These findings are discussed in view of the light they may throw upon the relation of delayed hypersensitivity to antibody production and upon the process of immunization. PMID:13640680

  3. Homeopathic mother tincture of Phytolacca decandra induces apoptosis in skin melanoma cells by activating caspase-mediated signaling via reactive oxygen species elevation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samrat Ghosh; Kausik Bishayee; Avijit Paul; Avinaba Mukherjee; Sourav Sikdar; Debrup Chakraborty; Naoual Boujedaini

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Preventive measures against skin melanoma like chemotherapy are useful but suffer from chronic side effects and drug resistance.Ethanolic extract of Phytolacca decandra (PD),used in homeopathy for the treatment of various ailments like chronic rheumatism,regular conjunctivitis,psoriasis,and in some skin diseases was tested for its possible anticancer potential.METHODS:Cytotoxicity of the drug was tested by conducting 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on both normal (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) and A375 cells.Fluorescence microscopic study of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride-stained cells was conducted for DNA fragmentation assay,and changes in cellular morphology,if any,were also recorded.Lactate dehydrogenase activity assay was done to evaluate the percentages of apoptosis and necrosis.Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation,if any,and expression study of apoptotic genes also were evaluated to pin-point the actual events of apoptosis.RESULTS:Results showed that PD administration caused a remarkable reduction in proliferation of A375 cells,without showing much cytotoxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.Generation of ROS and DNA damage,which made the cancer cells prone to apoptosis,were found to be enhanced in PD-treated cells.These results were duly supported by the analytical data on expression of different cellular and nuclear proteins,as for example,by downregulation of Akt and Bcl-2,up-regulation of p53,Bax and caspase 3,and an increase in number of cell deaths by apoptosis in A375 cells.CONCLUSION:Overall results demonstrate anticancer potentials of PD on A375 cells through activation of caspase-mediated signaling and ROS generation.

  4. Common aeroallergens in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis living in southwestern part of iran: based on skin prick test reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrollah Farrokhi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aeroallergens continue to have a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic diseases and have recently received increased attention in medical research throughout the world. The prevalence of aeroallergens vary in different regions, depending on the type of climate. The aim of the present study was to determine prevalence of the sensitivity to aeroallergens among patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR, based on skin prick test (SPT reactivity in the province of Bushehr, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 743 patients were enrolled. The participants had asthma and AR and reacted to at least one allergen with SPT. Skin prick test with standard extracts including house dust mites (HDMs, animal dander, molds and pollens were performed on patients according to the herbal geography of the area. The male to female ratio and mean age of the patients were 1.03 and 27.6± 15.4 year, respectively. Out of 567 patients with AR, the common aeroallergens were HDMs (88.5%, molds (82.9%, animal dander (79.5%, weeds (77.6%, trees (75.5% and grass pollen (71.5%. Moreover, among 176 patients with asthma, the prevalence of aeroallergens were HDMs (90.5 %, molds (80.7%, animal dander (77.5%, weeds (73.3%, trees (73.3% and grass pollen (67.9%. The sensitivity to animal dander, Chenopodium album and Russian thistle pollens were significantly associated with the severity of AR. Moreover, sensitivity to animal dander such as cat and feather of birds, cockroach, Bermuda grass and Chenopodium album pollens were significantly associated with the severity of asthma. The results of this study revealed that HDM was the most common sensitizing aeroallergen in patients with asthma and AR. Molds and animal dander as indoor allergens were also common aeroallergens. We suggest that the hot weather and ambient humidity in the region may be the main cause of the change in the pattern of SPT reactivity.

  5. Association of asthma with serum IgE and skin test reactivity to allergens among children living at high altitude. Tickling the dragon's breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporik, R; Ingram, J M; Price, W; Sussman, J H; Honsinger, R W; Platts-Mills, T A

    1995-05-01

    Asthma in children and young adults is strongly associated with immediate hypersensitivity to indoor allergens, notably those derived from the house dust mite. In addition, outdoor air pollution is considered to aggravate existing asthma. We investigated the prevalence of asthma and the pattern of allergen sensitization in a mite-free environment with low levels of outdoor air pollution. A total of 567 children aged between 12 and 14 attending Los Alamos Middle School, NM (altitude 7,200 feet) were screened using a respiratory questionnaire; 120 children (53 control children) underwent allergen skin testing and serum IgE measurement, and their bronchial reactivity to histamine was measured. Dust was collected from 111 homes and the level of indoor mite and cat allergen measured. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high (13%), and from the detailed testing it was estimated that 6.3% of the children had asthma (defined as symptomatic bronchial reactivity). Children with asthma had elevated IgE, 367 (179 to 755) versus 38 (23 to 61), and predominant sensitization to cat, 68 versus 20% (p < 0.001). A high number of households (77%) had a pet cat or dog. The concentration of mite allergen was very low (mean 0.18 micrograms Der p milligrams sieved house dust), whereas that of cat allergen was high in homes with a cat (80.8 micrograms Fel d milligrams) but also in homes with no cat (3.2 micrograms Fel d milligrams). The results show that in a mite-free environment with low levels of outdoor air pollution, asthma was still a major cause of morbidity among schoolchildren.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Delisting toxicity evaluation of HTH and oxone(trade name) decontaminated VX. Final report, July 1989-March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthei, J.H.; Heitkamp, D.H.; Buettner, L.C.; Lawrence-Beckett, E.M.; Samuel, J.B.

    1992-07-01

    The acute percutaneous (bare skin) LD50 was determined for EA 2192 in the rabbit. Also established were the effective doses (ED50s) for the major toxic signs observed. Dermal, Department of Transportation (DOT), tests with rabbits indicated that VX/HTH decontaminated waste is a Class B poison after being aged only 24 hr following initiation of the decontamination procedure. The same reaction, when allowed to age through about 2 half-lives (28-30 days), was no longer a Class B poison and was nonhazardous by Code of Maryland Regulations (COMAR) toxicity criteria. The DOT tests with OXONE decontaminated/neutralized VX showed this solution to be less than a Class B poison by all three routes of administration (rat oral, rat inhalation, and rabbit dermal) after only 24-hr aging and a nonhazardous material by COMAR toxicity criteria.... vx, Rat, Half-life, ED50, EA 2192, Rabbit, COMAR, Decontaminated/Neutralized, HTH, OXONE, LD50.

  7. Decontamination of Chemical/Biological Warfare (CBW) Agents Using an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans W.

    1998-11-01

    The atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is a non-thermal, high pressure, uniform glow discharge that produces a high velocity effluent stream of highly reactive chemical species. The discharge operates on a feedstock gas (e.g. He/O_2/H_2O) which flows between an outer, grounded, cylindrical electrode and an inner, coaxial electrode powered at 13.56 MHz RF. While passing through the plasma, the feedgas becomes excited, dissociated or ionized by electron impact. Once the gas exits the discharge volume, ions and electrons are rapidly lost by recombination, but the fast-flowing effluent still contains metastables (e.g. O2*, He*) and radicals (e.g. O, OH). These reactive species have been shown to be effective neutralizers of surrogates for anthrax spores, mustard blister agent and VX nerve gas. Unlike conventional, wet decontamination methods, the plasma effluent does not cause corrosion of most surfaces and does not damage wiring, electronics, nor most plastics. This makes it highly suitable for decontamination of high value sensitive equipment such as is found in vehicle interiors (i.e. tanks, planes...) for which there is currently no good decontamination technique. Furthermore, the reactive species rapidly degrade into harmless products leaving no lingering residue or harmful byproducts. Physics of the APPJ will be discussed and results of surface decontamination experiments using simulant and actual CBW agents will be presented.

  8. Selective decontamination and antibiotic resistance in ICUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, Nienke L.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) have been associated with reduced mortality and lower ICU-acquired bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia rates in areas with low levels of antibiotic resistance. However, the effect of selective deco

  9. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  10. Electrochemical decontamination system for actinide processing gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedman, D.E.; Lugo, J.L.; Ford, D.K.; Nelson, T.O.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1998-03-01

    An electrolytic decontamination technology has been developed and successfully demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes. The technique decontaminates the interior surfaces of stainless steel gloveboxes utilizing a process similar to electropolishing. The decontamination device is compact and transportable allowing it to be placed entirely within the glovebox line. In this way, decontamination does not require the operator to wear any additional personal protective equipment and there is no need for additional air handling or containment systems. Decontamination prior to glovebox decommissioning reduces the potential for worker exposure and environmental releases during the decommissioning, transport, and size reduction procedures which follow. The goal of this effort is to reduce contamination levels of alpha emitting nuclides for a resultant reduction in waste level category from High Level Transuranic (TRU) to low Specific Activity (LSA, less than or equal 100 nCi/g). This reduction in category results in a 95% reduction in disposal and disposition costs for the decontaminated gloveboxes. The resulting contamination levels following decontamination by this method are generally five orders of magnitude below the LSA specification. Additionally, the sodium sulfate based electrolyte utilized in the process is fully recyclable which results in the minimum of secondary waste. The process bas been implemented on seven gloveboxes within LANL`s Plutonium Facility at Technical Area 55. Of these gloveboxes, two have been discarded as low level waste items and the remaining five have been reused.

  11. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

  12. Managing mass casualties and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcott, Robert P

    2014-11-01

    Careful planning and regular exercising of capabilities is the key to implementing an effective response following the release of hazardous materials, although ad hoc changes may be inevitable. Critical actions which require immediate implementation at an incident are evacuation, followed by disrobing (removal of clothes) and decontamination. The latter can be achieved through bespoke response facilities or various interim methods which may utilise water or readily available (dry, absorbent) materials. Following transfer to a safe holding area, each casualty's personal details should be recorded to facilitate a health surveillance programme, should it become apparent that the original contaminant has chronic health effects.

  13. Low-dose radiation activates Nrf1/2 through reactive species and the Ca(2+)/ERK1/2 signaling pathway in human skin fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Jin-Ah; Park, Seong Joon; Kim, Jeung Ki; Heo, Kyu; Yang, Kwang Mo; Son, Tae Gen

    2013-05-01

    In the current study, we explored the effect of LDR on the activation of Nrfs transcription factor involved in cellular redox events. Experiments were carried out utilizing 0.05 and 0.5 Gy X-ray irradiated normal human skin fibroblast HS27 cells. The results showed LDR induced Nrf1 and Nrf2 activation and expression of antioxidant genes HO-1, Mn-SOD, and NQO1. In particular, 0.05 Gy-irradiation increased only Nrf1 activation, but 0.5 Gy induced both Nrf1 and Nrf2 activation. LDR-mediated Nrf1/2 activation was accompanied by reactive species (RS) generation and Ca(2+) flux. This effect was abolished in the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine and BAPTA- AM. Furthermore, Nrf1/2 activation by LDR was suppressed by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2. In conclusion, LDR induces Nrf1 and Nrf2 activation and expression of Nrf-regulated antioxidant defense genes through RS and Ca(2+)/ERK1/2 pathways, suggesting new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial role of LDR in HS27 cells.

  14. Skin absorption of inorganic lead (PbO) and the effect of skin cleansers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filon, Francesca Larese; Boeniger, Mark; Maina, Giovanni; Adami, Gianpiero; Spinelli, Paolo; Damian, Adriano

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the percutaneous penetration of lead oxide (PbO) powder and the effect of rapid skin decontamination with two different detergents. Franz cells were used to study in vitro PbO skin penetration through human skin during a 24-hour period. The tests were performed without or with decontamination using either Ivory Liquid soap or a new experimental cleanser 30 minutes after the start of exposure. We confirm that PbO can pass through the skin with a median penetration of 2.9 ng/cm (25-75th percentiles 0.35-6). The cleaning procedure using Ivory Liquid soap significantly increased skin penetration with a median value of 23.6 ng/cm (25-75th percentiles 12-47.1; Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.0002), whereas the new experimental cleanser only marginally increased penetration (7.1 ng/cm). Our results indicate that it is necessary to prevent skin contamination from occurring because a short contact can increase skin content and penetration even if quickly followed by washing. This study demonstrated that PbO powder can pass through the skin and that skin decontamination done after 30 minutes of exposure did not decrease skin absorption occurring over 24 hours and stresses the need to prevent skin contamination when using toxic substances.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. N. Doyle

    2002-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The site is located within the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) compound and consists of Building 3126, two outdoor decontamination pads, and surrounding areas within an existing fenced area measuring approximately 50 x 37 meters (160 x 120 feet). The site was used from the early 1960s to the early 1970s as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station program to decontaminate test-car hardware and tooling. The site was reactivated in the early 1980s to decontaminate a radiologically contaminated military tank. This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed to allow un-restricted release of the R-MAD Decontamination Facility.

  16. Decontamination of Surfaces Exposed to Carbon-Based Nanotubes and Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of surfaces by nanomaterials can happen due to accidental spillage and release or gradual accumulation during processing or handling. Considering the increasingly wide use of nanomaterials in industry and research labs and also taking into account the diversity of physical and chemical properties of different nanomaterials (such as solubility, aggregation/agglomeration, and surface reactivity, there is a pressing need to define reliable nanomaterial-specific decontamination guidelines. In this paper, we propose and investigate a potential method for surface decontamination of carbon-based nanomaterials using solvent cleaning and wipes. The results show that the removal efficiency for single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes from silicon wafers sprayed with water-surfactant solutions prior to mechanical wiping is greater than 90% and 95%, respectively. The need for further studies to understand the mechanisms of nanomaterial removal from surfaces and development of standard techniques for surface decontamination of nanomaterials is highlighted.

  17. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  18. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  19. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  20. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamdar, S.N. [Food Technology Division, FIPLY, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: snjam2@yahoo.com; Harikumar, P. [Food Technology Division, FIPLY, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-04-15

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log{sub 10} cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 deg. C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 {sup o}C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  1. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamdar, S. N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-04-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 °C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 °C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  2. Seventy per cent hydrofluoric acid burns: delayed decontamination with hexafluorine® and treatment with calcium gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Carlos Alberto; Mathieu, Laurence; Hall, Alan H; Monteiro, Mário G Kool; de Almeida, Décio Moreira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of decontamination and treatment of a 70% hydrofluoric acid (HF) dermal splash injury. A worker was splashed with 70% HF, sustaining approximately 10% TBSA first- to third-degree chemical skin burns of the face, trunk, and left thigh and leg. Initial decontamination involved water rinsing, removal of contaminated clothing, more water rinsing, topical application of magnesium oxide, and administration of intravenous narcotics for management of severe pain. After a delay of approximately 3 hours, active skin washing with Hexafluorine®, 5 L, was performed, followed by intravenous, intradermal perilesional, and topical inunction administration of calcium gluconate. Pain relief and a cooling sensation were quite prompt after Hexafluorine® decontamination. Surgical debridement and skin grafting of the more severe burns were required. No significant systemic toxicity developed, although this has occurred in previously reported similar concentrated HF dermal splash exposure cases, some of which resulted in fatality. While burns did develop, the patient was released from the intensive care service after 2 days and, after skin grafting, had a good outcome at 90-day follow-up. Even after a long delay, decontamination with Hexafluorine® appeared to be beneficial in this case.

  3. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma technology that operates...

  4. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma technology. Compared to...

  5. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskevych, Sergiy [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine); Voropay, Dmitry [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Russian State Center of Inventory and Registration and Real Estate - Federal Bureau of Technical Inventory' , 37-2 Bernadsky Prospekt, Moscow Russia 119415 (Russian Federation); Schmieman, Eric [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  7. Dismantling decontamination of research reactor equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronik, N. I.; Davydov, Yu. P.; Shatilo, N. N. [Institute of Radioecological Problems Belarus Ac. Sci., Minsk-Sosny (Belarus)

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of the work was to check applicability of the existing and new compositions for decontamination and their adjustment to the specific conditions dealing with operation of the research reactor. (author)

  8. Decontamination effectiveness of bentonite after repeated alimentary contamination of rats with radiocesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, S.; Dziura, A. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The decontamination effectiveness of bentonite given as a 10% supplement to feed during 28-day contamination with Cs-137 (1.37 kBq/day) and for 21 after its cessation was studied in rats. The concentration of Cs-137 was determined in the gastrointestinal tract, internal organs, muscles and skin. The administration of bentonite decreased the organ radioactivity by 81% during radiocesium contamination and by 93.3% after its cessation. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs.

  9. In vivo decontamination of the nerve agent VX using the domestic swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Jan; Pavlik, Michal; Novotny, Ladislav; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Chilcott, Robert P; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this in vivo study was to assess a new, putatively optimised method for mass casualty decontamination ("ORCHIDS protocol") for effectiveness in removing the chemical warfare agent VX from the skin of anaesthetised, domestic white pigs. ORCHIDS protocol consists of a 1.5-minute shower with a mild detergent (Argos™) supplemented by physical removal. A standard method of wet decontamination was used for comparison. Experimental animals were divided into four groups (A-D). Two groups were exposed to a supra-lethal percutaneous dose (5 × LD(50); 300 μg kg(-1)) of VX for 1 h prior to decontamination with either the ORCHIDS (C) or standard protocol (D). A third (B, positive control) group was exposed but not subject to decontamination. Blank controls (A) received anaesthesia and the corresponding dose of normal saline instead of VX. Observations of the clinical signs of intoxication were supplemented by measurements of whole blood cholinesterase (ChE) performed on samples of arterial blood acquired at 30-minute intervals for the duration of the study (up to 6 h). Untreated (B) animals displayed typical cholinergic signs consistent with VX intoxication (local fasciculation, mastication, salivation, pilo-erection and motor convulsions) and died 165-240 min post exposure. All animals in both decontamination treatment groups (C, D) survived the duration of the study and exhibited less severe signs of cholinergic poisoning. Thus, both the standard and ORCHIDS protocol were demonstrably effective against exposure to the potent nerve agent VX, even after a delay of 1 h. A critical advantage of the ORCHIDS protocol is the relatively short shower duration (1½ min compared to 3 min). In practice, this could substantially improve the rate at which individuals could be decontaminated by emergency responders following exposure to toxic materials such as chemical warfare agents.

  10. Chemical Decontamination of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Skin and Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedel, Charlotte Tandrup; Brøndsted, Lone; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    .6%), and chlorhexidine diacetate salt hydrate (1%). The most effective compounds were cetylpyridinium chloride (0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride (1%) (>4.2 log). However, when these treated samples were stored for 24 h at 5°C, cetylpyridinium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, and grapefruit seed extract were less...

  11. Decontamination tests on cotton materials; Essais de decontamination sur tissus de coton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P.; Pelletier, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    It is shown that versene gives the best decontamination results on cotton materials soiled by a mixture of fission products. (author) [French] On a montre que le versene donne les meilleurs resultats de decontamination sur des tissus de coton souilles par un melange de produits de fission. (auteur)

  12. A solar powered handheld plasma source for microbial decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y.; Lynch, M. J.; Modic, M.; Whalley, R. D.; Walsh, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    A fully portable atmospheric pressure air plasma system is reported to be suitable for the microbial decontamination of both surfaces and liquids. The device operates in quiescent air, and includes an integrated battery which is charged from a solar cell and weighs less than 750 g, making it highly amenable for a wide variety of applications beyond the laboratory. Using particle imaging velocimetry to visualise air flows around the device, the geometric configuration of the plasma generating electrodes was enhanced to induce a gas flow on the order of 0.5 m s-1 directed towards a sample placed downstream, thus improving the transport of plasma generated reactive species to the sample. The microbial decontamination efficiency of the system was assessed using potable water samples inoculated with common waterborne organisms Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The reduction in the number of microorganisms was found to be in the range of 2-8 log and was strongly dependent on the plasma generation conditions.

  13. Decontamination of Surfaces Exposed to Carbon-Based Nanotubes and Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Su; Babak Haghpanah; William W. Doerr; Zahra Karimi; Syed Hassan; Louis Gritzo; Ahmed A. Busnaina; Ashkan Vaziri

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of surfaces by nanomaterials can happen due to accidental spillage and release or gradual accumulation during processing or handling. Considering the increasingly wide use of nanomaterials in industry and research labs and also taking into account the diversity of physical and chemical properties of different nanomaterials (such as solubility, aggregation/agglomeration, and surface reactivity), there is a pressing need to define reliable nanomaterial-specific decontamination gui...

  14. Remotely operated decontamination systems for use in DFDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Jang Jin; Yang, Myung Seung [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the development of the remotely operated decontamination systems for use in a highly radioactive zone of the DUPIC Fuel Development Facility of the Irradiated Material Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The remotely operated decontamination systems were designed to completely eliminate human interaction with hazardous radioactive contaminants. These decontamination systems are mainly classified into three systems depending on the task environment- a fabrication equipment decontamination system, a hot-cell floor decontamination system, and an isolation room floor decontamination system. A decontamination system for contaminated fabrication equipment utilizes dry ice pellet blasting method to decontaminate contaminated surface of the equipment. The decontamination systems for the hot-cell floor and isolation room floor employ a vacuum cleaning method to decontaminate the contaminated floor and collect loose dry spent nuclear fuel debris and other radioactive waste placed on the floor. The human operator from the out-of-cell performs a series of decontamination tasks remotely by manipulating decontamination systems located in-cell via a hand controller with the aid of vision feedback information. The environmental, functional and mechanical design considerations, control system and capabilities of the remotely operated decontamination systems at a high radioactive environment are also described.

  15. Health care worker protection in mass casualty respiratory failure: infection control, decontamination, and personal protective equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Elizabeth L

    2008-02-01

    Maintenance of a safe and stable health care infrastructure is critical to an effective mass casualty disaster response. Both secondary contamination during chemical disasters and hospital-associated infections during epidemic illness can pose substantial threats to achieving this goal. Understanding basic principles of decontamination and infection control during responses to chemical and biologic disasters can help minimize the risks to patients and health care workers. Effective decontamination following toxic chemical exposure should include both removal of contaminated clothing and decontamination of the victim's skin. Wet decontamination is the most feasible strategy in a mass casualty situation and should be performed promptly by trained personnel. In the event of an epidemic, infection prevention and control measures are based on essential principles of hand hygiene and standard precautions. Expanded precautions should be instituted as needed to target contact, droplet, and airborne routes of infectious disease transmission. Specific equipment and measures for critical care delivery may serve to decrease risk to health care workers in the event of an epidemic. Their use should be considered in developing comprehensive disaster response plans.

  16. Skin Inqjuries Reduce Survival and Modulate Corticosterone, C-Reactive Protein, Complement Component 3, IgM, and Prostaglandin E2 after Whole-Body Reactor-Produced Mixed Field (n + γ-Photons Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliann G. Kiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin injuries such as wounds or burns following whole-body γ-irradiation (radiation combined injury (RCI increase mortality more than whole-body γ-irradiation alone. Wound-induced decreases in survival after irradiation are triggered by sustained activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways, persistent alteration of cytokine homeostasis, and increased susceptibility to systemic bacterial infection. Among these factors, radiation-induced increases in interleukin-6 (IL-6 concentrations in serum were amplified by skin wound trauma. Herein, the IL-6-induced stress proteins including C-reactive protein (CRP, complement 3 (C3, immunoglobulin M (IgM, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were evaluated after skin injuries given following a mixed radiation environment that might be found after a nuclear incident. In this report, mice received 3 Gy of reactor-produced mixed field (n+γ-photons radiations at 0.38 Gy/min followed by nonlethal skin wounding or burning. Both wounds and burns reduced survival and increased CRP, C3, and PGE2 in serum after radiation. Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. Agents inhibiting these responses may prove to be therapeutic for RCI and improve related survival.

  17. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Munro, Nancy B [ORNL; King, J. [U.S. Army Environmental Center

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  18. Civilian First Responder Decontamination Equipment Characteristics Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of Standards and Technology (DHS/NIST) Standards Development Team to develop a survey to determine important characteristics of first responder decontamination...a draft American Society for Testing Materials standard for civilian first responder decontamination systems.

  19. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jungdong; Park, Kwangheon [College of Mechnical and Industrial System Engineering, Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bumsik; Kim Yangeun [Wolsung Nuclear Power Plants, KEPCO (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    An adjustable nozzle for controlling the size of dry ice snow was developed. The converging/diverging nozzle can control the size of snows from sub-microns to 10 micron size. Using the nozzle, a surface decontamination device was made. The removal mechanisms of surface contaminants are mechanical impact, partial dissolving and evaporation process, and viscous flow. A heat supply system is added for the prevention of surface ice layer formation. The cleaning power is slightly dependent on the size of snow. Small snows are the better in viscous flow cleaning, while large snows are slightly better in dissolving and sublimation process. Human oils like fingerprints on glass were easy to remove. Decontamination ability was tested using a contaminated pump-housing surface. About 40 to 80% of radioactivity was removed. This device is effective in surface-decontamination of any electrical devices like detector, controllers which cannot be cleaned in aqueous solution. (author)

  20. DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

    2000-12-03

    Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

  1. Physicians' and nurses' opinions on selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination : a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Irene P.; de Smet, Anne Marie G.; Kluytmans, Jan A.; Velde, Leo F. Te; Dennesen, Paul J.; Wesselink, Ronald M.; Bouw, Martijn P.; Spanjersberg, Rob; Bogaers-Hofman, Diana; van der Meer, Nardo J.; de Vries, Jaap W.; Kaasjager, Karin; van Iterson, Mat; Kluge, Georg H.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Harinck, Hubertus I.; Bindels, Alexander J.; Pickkers, Peter; Bonten, Marc J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Use of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) in intensive care patients has been controversial for years. Through regular questionnaires we determined expectations concerning SDD (effectiveness) and experience with SDD

  2. Physicians' and nurses' opinions on selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination: a survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, I.P.; Smet, A.M. de; Kluytmans, J.A.; Velde, L.F. te; Dennesen, P.J.; Wesselink, R.M.; Bouw, M.P.W.J.M.; Spanjersberg, R.; Bogaers-Hofman, D.; Meer, N.J. van der; Vries, J.W. de; Kaasjager, K.; Iterson, M. van; Kluge, G.H.; Werf, T.S. van der; Harinck, H.I.; Bindels, A.J.; Pickkers, P.; Bonten, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Use of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) in intensive care patients has been controversial for years. Through regular questionnaires we determined expectations concerning SDD (effectiveness) and experience with SDD

  3. Reaction-diffusion models of decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    A contaminant, which also contains a polymer is in the form of droplets on a solid surface. It is to be removed by the action of a decontaminant, which is applied in aqueous solution. The contaminant is only sparingly soluble in water, so the reaction mechanism is that it slowly dissolves...... in the aqueous solution and then is oxidized by the decontaminant. The polymer is insoluble in water, and so builds up near the interface, where its presence can impede the transport of contaminant. In these circumstances, Dstl wish to have mathematical models that give an understanding of the process, and can...

  4. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemtanu, Monica R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: monica@infim.ro; Brasoveanu, Mirela [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grecu, Maria Nicoleta [National Institute for Materials Physics, RO 77 125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Minea, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  5. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemtanu, Monica R.; Brasoveanu, Mirela; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Minea, R.

    2005-10-01

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  6. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  7. Decontamination of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae during selective digestive tract decontamination in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, E.A.; Smet, A.M. de; Kesecioglu, J.; Bonten, M.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Pickkers, P.; Sturm, P.D.; Voss, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Prevalences of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasing globally, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). The effect of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on the eradication of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from the intestinal tract is unknow

  8. Decontamination of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae during selective digestive tract decontamination in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Prevalences of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasing globally, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). The effect of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) on the eradication of cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from the intestinal tract is unknown. We quanti

  9. A study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Jung; Ahn, Byung Gil

    1997-12-01

    Through the project of {sup A} study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer{sup ,} the followings were investigated. 1. Highly probable decontamination technologies for the decontamination were investigated. 2. Development of gel type decontamination agent using ion-exchange resin powder (mixed type) as an ion exchanger. 3. Manufacturing of contaminated specimens (5 kinds) with Cs-137 solution and dust / Cs-137 solution. 4. Decontamination performance evaluation of the manufactured agent. 5. Analysis of composition (XRF) and the structure of surface of specimens (optic micrography). (author). 20 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Study on the Decontamination of Radionuclides in Spent Phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.

    2010-01-15

    The objective of the study is to confirm the possibility of further R and D thru pre-study on the decontamination technology for the safe, high decontamination factor, low waste arising and cost effective removal of radionuclide in spent phosphogypsum. The following contents were studied. 1) Decontamination of Radionuclide in Phosphogypsum - Effect of decontamination chemical formulation on Ra removal - Effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration on Ra removal - Effect of Sr concentration on Ra removal 2) Removal of Radionuclide in Liquid Waste from Decontamination of Phosphogypsum - Ra removal by chromate treatment - Ra removal by zeolite and ACF treatment

  11. Department of Defense Joint Chemical and Biological Defense Program 2009 Annual Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-27

    JPM-Decon began fielding the Joint Service Personnel/Skin Decontamination System (JSPDS) with Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion ( RSDL ). RSDL , an...decontaminate the skin after exposure to CWAs/ BWAs. RSDL supports immediate and thorough personnel decontamination operations—an improved capability...over the existing M291 skin decontaminating kit. RSDL neutralizes, as opposed to removing, the agent. Additionally, it can be used to decontaminate

  12. Hand decontamination: nurses' opinions and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D

    Infection is spread in hospital mainly by hands, making hand decontamination the most important means of preventing dissemination. There is some evidence to suggest that when access to hand-decontaminating agents is poor or the agents available are disliked, hands are washed too seldom, increasing risks of cross-infection. However, little attention has been paid to the use of towels and factors which promote their use, although it is known that damp hands transfer bacteria more readily than dry ones and that hands which become sore through poor drying have higher bacterial counts, contributing to the risk of cross-infection. This paper reports the results of the Nursing Times Hand Drying survey designed to assess nurses' access to hand decontamination agents and towels. The results suggest that the 112 nurses who participated were aware of the need for attention to hand hygiene but that access to both hand-decontaminating agents and paper towels was variable. Forty-one per cent complained of a shortage of soap and although nearly all used paper towels, these were in many cases of poor quality. Such towels were perceived as damaging to hands, leaving them feeling damp and sore. Good-quality, soft, paper towels were much appreciated by respondents in this sample. It is concluded that the quality of paper towels contributes to good infection control practice.

  13. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides into the tank. (3) The handler employer shall provide soap and single-use towels in quantities... vehicular access: (i) The soap, single-use towels, clean change of clothing, and water may be at the nearest..., streams, lakes, or other sources for decontamination at the remote work site, if such water is more...

  14. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

  15. Solid waste handling and decontamination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampton, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The Title 1 design of the decontamination part of the SWH and D facility is underway. Design criteria are listed. A flowsheet is given of the solid waste reduction. The incinerator scrubber is described. Design features of the Gunite Tank Sludge Removal and a schematic of the sluicer, TV camera, and recirculating system are given. 9 figures. (DLC)

  16. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

  17. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranuch Nakchat

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat.

  18. In chemico evaluation of tea tree essential oils as skin sensitizers. Impact of the chemical composition on aging and generation of reactive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a popular skin remedy obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia or M dissitiflora. Due to the commercial importance ofTTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka and kanuka oils) is common and may p...

  19. SKIN DOSIMETRY IN CONDITIONS OF ITS CONSTANT SURFACE CONTAMINATION WITH SOLUTIONS OF PLUTONIUM-239 AND AMERICIUM-241

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Ershov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers, on the basis of experimental data, the issue of assessing dose burdens to the skin basal layer in conditions of its permanent contamination with solutions of plutonium-239 and americium-241 and subsequent decontamination.

  20. Cold plasma decontamination of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemira, Brendan A

    2012-01-01

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization process. A wide array of cold plasma systems that operate at atmospheric pressures or in low pressure treatment chambers are under development. Reductions of greater than 5 logs can be obtained for pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Effective treatment times can range from 120 s to as little as 3 s, depending on the food treated and the processing conditions. Key limitations for cold plasma are the relatively early state of technology development, the variety and complexity of the necessary equipment, and the largely unexplored impacts of cold plasma treatment on the sensory and nutritional qualities of treated foods. Also, the antimicrobial modes of action for various cold plasma systems vary depending on the type of cold plasma generated. Optimization and scale up to commercial treatment levels require a more complete understanding of these chemical processes. Nevertheless, this area of technology shows promise and is the subject of active research to enhance efficacy.

  1. Decontamination of Surfaces Exposed to Carbonbased Nanotubes and Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zahra

    Contamination of surfaces by nanomaterials can happen due to accidental spillage and release or gradual accumulation during processing or handling. Considering the increasingly wide use of nanomaterials in industry and research labs and also taking into account the diversity of physical and chemical properties of different nanomaterials (such as solubility, aggregation/agglomeration, and surface reactivity), there is a pressing need to define reliable nanomaterial-specific decontamination guidelines. In this project, we propose and investigate a potential method for surface decontamination of carbon-based nanomaterials using solvent cleaning and wipes. The results show that the surfactant-assisted removal efficiencies of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, single walled carbon nantubes and single walled carbon nano-horns from silicon wafers through wiping is greater than 95%, 90% and 78%, respectively. The need for further studies to understand the mechanisms of nanomaterial removal from surfaces and development of standard techniques for surface decontamination of nanomaterials is highlighted. Another phase of experiments were performed to examine the efficiency of surfactants to remove multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from silicon substrates with nano and microscaled features. In the first set of experiments, nanoscale features were induced on silicon wafers using SF6 and O2 plasma. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to observe the surface topology and roughness. In the second set, well-defined microscale topological features were induced on silicon wafers using photo lithography and plasma etching. The etching time was varied to create semi-ellipsoidal pits with average diameter and height of ~ 7-9 microm, and ~ 1-3 microm, respectively. MWCNTs in the form of liquid solution were deposited on the surface of silicon wafers using the spin coating process. For the cleaning process, the contaminated surfaces were first sprayed with different types of surfactant

  2. Cold atmospheric plasma - A new technology for spacecraft component decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Satoshi; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julia L.; Hoeschen, Till; Linsmeier, Christian; Weber, Peter; Morfill, Gregor E.; Thomas, Hubertus M.

    2014-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) based on the Surface Micro-Discharge (SMD) technology was investigated for inactivation of different bacteria and endospores. The used technique was developed to serve as an alternative method for the decontamination of spacecraft components based on the COSPAR planetary protection policy where currently the dry heat microbial reduction method is the only applicable way to satisfy the required demands. However it is known, that dry heat can thermally damage sophisticated components installed on the device. Therefore, the development of a low temperature sterilization system is one of the high priority issues for upcoming space missions in the extraterrestrial field. In the study presented here, the vegetative bacteria Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans and several types of bacterial endospores - including Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus safensis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus megaterium 2c1 and Bacillus thuringiensis E24 - were inactivated by exposing them indirectly i.e. only to the reactive gases produced by the SMD electrode at room temperature. The results showed a 5 log inactivation for E. coli after 10 min of exposure. In contrast D. radiodurans proved to be more resistant resulting in a reduction of 3 log after exposure of 30 min. More than 6 log reductions were achieved for B. safensis, B. megaterium and B. megaterium 2c1 after 90 min of exposure. Furthermore the applicability of the used CAP system for spacecraft decontamination according to the planetary protection policy was investigated. This included also the investigation of the inactivation homogeneity by the plasma gas, the control of the temperature at the area of interest, the measurement of the O3 density in the treatment region and the detailed investigation of the effects of the exposure on different materials.

  3. Racial differences in the association of CD14 polymorphisms with serum total IgE levels and allergen skin test reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ZongYao Wang,1 John S Sundy,1 Catherine M Foss,1 Huiman X Barnhart,2 Scott M Palmer,1 Sallie D Allgood,3 Evan Trudeau,1 Katie M Alexander,3 Marc C Levesque31Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, 3Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground: The CD14 C-159T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP has been investigated widely as a candidate genetic locus in patients with allergic disease. There are conflicting results for the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP with total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels and atopy. There are limited data regarding the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP in subjects of African ancestry. The aim of the study was to determine whether the C-159T SNP and other CD14 SNPs (C1188G, C1341T were associated with total serum IgE levels and with allergy skin test results in nonatopic and atopic subjects; as well as in Caucasian and African American subjects.Methods: A total of 291 participants, 18–40 years old, were screened to determine whether they were atopic and/or asthmatic. Analyses were performed to determine the association between CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes with serum IgE levels and with the number of positive skin tests among Caucasian or African American subjects.Results: We found no significant association of serum total IgE level with CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes within nonatopic or atopic subjects. Subjects with CD14-159 T alleles had significantly more positive allergen skin tests than subjects without CD14-159 T alleles (P = 0.0388. There was a significant association between the CD14 1188 G allele, but not the CD14 1341 T allele, with the number of positive skin-test results in Caucasians, but not in African Americans.Conclusion: These results support a possible association between CD14 polymorphisms and atopy. CD14-159 T or CD14 1188 G alleles were associated with atopic

  4. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  5. MRSA prevalence rates detected in a tertiary care hospital in Austria and successful treatment of MRSA positive patients applying a decontamination regime with octenidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, G; Pux, C; Babeluk, R; Hermann, B; Stoiser, E; De Campo, A; Grisold, A; Zollner-Schwetz, I; Krause, R; Schippinger, W

    2017-08-28

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decontamination regimens predominantly use chlorhexidine bathing in combination with mupirocin nasal ointment. However, resistances in Staphylococcus aureus strains are increasingly common and there is a need of alternative, safe and feasible protocols. This interventional cohort study performed at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Graz, Austria, aimed to (1) determine MRSA prevalence at different body sites and (2) assess the efficacy of the decontamination using octenidine-based leave-on products added to existing robust infection control measures. All inpatients of this tertiary care hospital being treated in geriatric medical wards (GWs) and apallic care units (ACUs) were screened for MRSA and decontamination rates were determined after one, two or three decontamination cycles, respectively. At baseline, MRSA was detected in 25 of the 126 patients screened (19.8%). We found MRSA in 13/126 (10.3%) swabs from nasal vestibules, in 12/126 (9.5%) skin swabs, in 11/51 (21.6%) swabs from PEG-stomata or suprapubic catheters and in 8/13 (61.5%) tracheostomata swabs. A maximum of three 5-day decontamination cycles reduced the number of MRSA positive patients by 68.0%. Excluding non-compliant and deceased patients, decontamination reduced MRSA carriage by 93.3% (n = 15). No adverse events related to the applied decontamination regimen occurred. Exclusive screening of the nose might underreport MRSA prevalence rates. In this study, decontamination with octenidine-based leave-on products was safe and effective in a critical patient population.

  6. Lotus LADM Based Self-Decontaminating Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    angle on the prepared surfaces was measured with sessile water drops using a lab- designed goniometer at 20℃. The contact angle images were obtained... contact angles up to 178°. We have also developed Light Activated Decontamination Materials, LADM, that produce singlet oxygen. In addition a series of...materials. SELF-CLEANING SURFACES Superhydrophobic surfaces are defined as surfaces upon which water has an apparent contact angle of greater than

  7. Methods of decontaminating surfaces and related compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Crosby, Daniel; Norton, Christopher J.

    2016-11-22

    A composition of matter includes water, at least one acid, at least one surfactant, at least one fluoride salt, and ammonium nitrate. A method of decontaminating a surface includes exposing a surface to such a composition and removing the composition from the surface. Other compositions of matter include water, a fatty alcohol ether sulfate, nitrilotriacetic acid, at least one of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride, ammonium nitrate, and gelatin.

  8. Surface Decontamination of Blister Agents Lewisite, Sulfur ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use. Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials coupons (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3 % solution; and EasyDECON® DF200).

  9. Advanced robotics for decontamination and dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, W.R.; Haley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) robotics technology application area of the US Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program is explained and described. D&D robotic systems show real promise for the reduction of human exposure to hazards, for improvement of productivity, and for the reduction of secondary waste generation. Current research and development pertaining to automated floor characterization, robotic equipment removal, and special inspection is summarized. Future research directions for these and emerging activities is given.

  10. Metallic surfaces decontamination by using laser light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moggia, Fabrice [AREVA, Back End Business Group, Clean-Up Business Unit, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lecardonnel, Xavier [AREVA, Back End Business Group, Clean-Up Business Unit,La Hague (France)

    2013-07-01

    Metal surface cleaning appears to be one of the major priorities for industries especially for nuclear industries. The research and the development of a new technology that is able to meet the actual requirements (i.e. waste volume minimization, liquid effluents and chemicals free process...) seems to be the main commitment. Currently, a wide panel of technologies already exists (e.g. blasting, disk sander, electro-decontamination...) but for some of them, the efficiency is limited (e.g, Dry Ice blasting) and for others, the wastes production (liquid and/or solid) remains an important issue. One answer could be the use of a LASER light process. Since a couple of years, the Clean- Up Business Unit of the AREVA group investigates this decontamination technology. Many tests have been already performed in inactive (i.e. on simulants such as paints, inks, resins, metallic oxides) or active conditions (i.e. pieces covered with a thick metallic oxide layer and metallic pieces covered with grease). The paper will describe the results obtained in term of decontamination efficiency during all our validation process. Metallographic characterizations (i.e. SEM, X-ray scattering) and radiological analysis will be provided. We will also focus our paper on the future deployment of the LASER technology and its commercial use at La Hague reprocessing facility in 2013. (authors)

  11. Biodegradation of concrete intended for their decontamination; Biodegradation de matrices cimentaires en vue de leur decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jestin, A

    2005-05-15

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those microorganisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  12. Decontamination techniques of pathogen bacteria in meat and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçer, A Handan; Baysal, Taner

    2004-01-01

    Means of controlling or even improving the safety of food products is to decontaminate the carcasses or products during or at the end of the production line. The decontamination of meat and poultry can help to reduce human foodborne infections. However, process hygiene to prevent contamination should never be neglected. Some techniques of decontaminating raw meat and poultry meat products are discussed in this review.

  13. Decontamination and dismantlement of Plant 7 at Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertin, M.; Borgman, T.; Zebick, B.

    1994-11-07

    Decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) tasks have been successfully completed on Plant 7 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The seven story facility was radiologically, chemically, and biologically contaminated. The work involved the D&D work beginning with safe shutdown and gross decontamination, and ended with removal of the structural steel. A series of lessons learned were gained which include use of explosives, bidding tactics, safe shutdown, building decontamination and lockdown, use of seam climbers, etc.

  14. New decontamination process using foams containing particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France)

    2008-07-01

    One key point in the dismantling of nuclear facilities is the thorough cleaning of radiation- exposed surfaces on which radioactive deposits have formed. This cleaning step is often achieved by successive liquid rinses with specific solutions containing alkaline, acidic, or even oxidizing species depending on whether the aim is to dissolve greasy deposits (like ter-butylphosphate) or to corrode surfaces on micrometric thicknesses. An alternative process to reduce the amount of chemicals and the volume of the resulting nuclear wastes consists in using the same but foamed solutions (1). Carrying less liquid, the resulting foams still display similar kinetics of dissolution rates and their efficiency is determined by their ability to hold sufficient wetnesses during the time required for the decontamination. Classical foam decontamination process illustrated by foam pulverization or circulation in the 90 turned five years ago into a specific static process using high-lifetime viscosified foam at a steady state. One way to slow down the liquid drainage is to raise liquid viscosity by adding organic viscosifiers like xanthan gum (2). In 2005, new studies started on an innovative process proposed by S. Faure and based on triphasic foams containing particles [3]. The aim is to generate new decontamination foams containing less quantities of organics materials (surfactants and viscosifiers). Silica particles are obviously known to stabilize or destabilize foams (4). In the frame of S. Guignot Ph.D., new fundamental studies are initiated in order to clarify the role of silica solid microparticles in these foams. Our final goal is to determine whether this kind of new foam can be stable for several hours for a decontamination process. The results we will report focus on wet foams used for nuclear decontamination and incorporating fumed silica. The study is conducted on a vertical foam column in a pseudo-free drainage configuration, and aims at investigating the influence of

  15. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Michael G; Cawthon, David

    2015-02-01

    Accurate identification of the hazardous material is essential for proper care. Efficient hospital security and triage must prevent contaminated victims from entering the emergency department (ED) and causing secondary contamination. The decontamination area should be located outside the ambulance entrance. Decontamination priorities are protection of the health care worker, utilization of Level C personal protective equipment, and proper decontamination of the exposed patient. Decontamination proceeds in a head-to-toe sequence. Run-off water is a hazardous waste. Hospital and Community Management Planning for these emergencies is essential for proper preparation and effective response to the hazardous materials incident.

  16. 40 CFR 761.79 - Decontamination standards and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... separation, spraying, soaking, wiping, stripping of insulation, scraping, scarification or the use of... separated from regulated waste during decontamination (such as by chopping, shredding, scraping, abrading...

  17. In chemico evaluation of prohapten skin sensitizers: behavior of 2-methoxy-4-(¹³C)methylphenol in the peroxidase peptide reactivity assay (PPRA) as an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckel, Fabien; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Gerberick, G Frank; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-26

    In chemico methods, based on the assessment of a hapten's reactivity toward peptides, have been proposed as alternative methods for the assessment of the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals. However, even with these approaches showing promise, a major drawback is the activation of prohaptens, i.e. molecules needing a metabolic activation to become reactive and therefore sensitizing. Recently, it has been proposed to couple an enzymatic activation step based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/hydrogen peroxide to such peptide reactivity assays. To evaluate this approach, the behavior of 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (2M4MP), reported as a moderate sensitizer according to the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA), has been investigated in this assay. To follow the reaction with the peptides and characterize more easily intermediates and adducts, the molecule was first (13)C isotopically substituted at the most probable reactive position. When 2M4MP was incubated with HRP/H2O2 in a mixture PBS (pH 7.4, 0.1M)/acetonitrile 2:1, two main products were formed deriving from the formation of a quinone methide 2M4MQ subsequently trapped by either H2O2 or H2O to form a benzylic hydroperoxide or alcohol, respectively. When nucleophiles such as GSH or a peptide containing a cysteine residue (Pep-Cys) were present in the reaction medium, the quinone methide 2M4MQ was trapped by the more nucleophilic thiol function to form thio-adducts. No modifications of 2M4MP were observed when the same reactions were carried out without HRP confirming that the activation of the molecule was enzyme related. Amino nucleophiles were shown to be far less reactive towards the quinone methide 2M4MQ with only tiny formation of adducts with lysine or arginine side chains. In addition we demonstrated that the same enzymatic activation could also take place in a microemulsion based on sodium dodecyl sulfate/tert-butanol/chloroform/buffer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of CC2 as a Decontaminant in Various Hydrophilic and Lipophilic Formulations Against Sulphur Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate CC2 (N, N' -dichloro-bis [2, 4, 6-trichlorophenyl] urea) in various hydrophilic and lipophilic formulations as a personnel decontaminant for sulphur mustard (SM). Methods Twenty percent of CC2 was prepared as a suspension or ointment with various chemical agents and its stability was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated in mice by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM (LD50 =8.1 mg/kg dermally) and decontaminating it after 2 min with 200 mg of the formulation.Studies were also carried out with 10% and 20% CC2 in acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose,and the suspensions were stored in polyethylene containers. The stability of the suspensions was evaluated by active chlorine assay. The efficacy was evaluated by recording the mortality after applying 29 LD50 of SM in mice and 12 LD50 of SM in rats (LD50 = 2.4 mg/kg dermally), and decontaminating it with the formulations. LD50 by different routes and primary skin irritation test of CC2 were also carried out. Results CC2 reacted with peanut oil and neem oil, and was unstable in povidone iodine and Fuller's earth. Good stability was achieved with petroleum jelly, honey, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, calamine lotion, acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose. Though CC2 was stable in lipophilic formulations, it did not protect the animals. The hydrophilic formulations particularly acacia and hydroxypropyl cellulose gave very good protection and was stable in the polyethylene containers for a period of 1 year. The efficacy of 20% CC2 was better than 10% CC2. The oral and dermal LD50 of CC2 was found to be above 5.0 g/kg. CC2 was also found to be nonirritant.Conclusion Twenty percent of CC2 in hydroxypropyl cellulose is better with respect to stability, efficacy and ease of decontamination. CC2 is also a safe chemical.

  19. A chromosome 5q31.1 locus associates with tuberculin skin test reactivity in HIV-positive individuals from tuberculosis hyper-endemic regions in east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Rafal S; Stein, Catherine M; Kodaman, Nuri; Maro, Isaac; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Igo, Robert P; Magohe, Albert; Malone, LaShaunda L; Chervenak, Keith; Hall, Noemi B; Matee, Mecky; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Joloba, Moses; Moore, Jason H; Scott, William K; Lahey, Timothy; Boom, W Henry; von Reyn, C Fordham; Williams, Scott M; Sirugo, Giorgio

    2017-06-01

    One in three people has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), and the risk for MTB infection in HIV-infected individuals is even higher. We hypothesized that HIV-positive individuals living in tuberculosis-endemic regions who do not get infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are genetically resistant. Using an "experiment of nature" design that proved successful in our previous work, we performed a genome-wide association study of tuberculin skin test positivity using 469 HIV-positive patients from prospective study cohorts of tuberculosis from Tanzania and Uganda to identify genetic loci associated with MTB infection in the context of HIV-infection. Among these individuals, 244 tested were tuberculin skin test (TST) positive either at enrollment or during the >8 year follow up, while 225 were not. We identified a genome-wide significant association between a dominant model of rs877356 and binary TST status in the combined cohort (Odds ratio = 0.2671, p = 1.22x10-8). Association was replicated with similar significance when examining TST induration as a continuous trait. The variant lies in the 5q31.1 region, 57kb downstream from IL9. Two-locus analyses of association of variants near rs877356 showed a haplotype comprised of rs877356 and an IL9 missense variant, rs2069885, had the most significant association (p = 1.59x10-12). We also replicated previously linked loci on chromosomes 2, 5, and 11. IL9 is a cytokine produced by mast cells and TH2 cells during inflammatory responses, providing a possible link between airway inflammation and protection from MTB infection. Our results indicate that studying uninfected, HIV-positive participants with extensive exposure increases the power to detect associations in complex infectious disease.

  20. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  1. Evaluation of RSDL, M291 SDK, 0.5 Bleach, 1% Soapy Water and SERPACWA: Part 11: Challenge with EA4243 (VR, Russian VX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Braue, EH, Jr, Doxzon, BF, Lumpkin, HL, Smith, KH, Devorak, JL, Stevenson, RS 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...diluted 1 to 10) and1% soapy water solution (liquid dish detergent) to decontaminate intact skin exposed to chemical warfare agents. Reactive Skin...delayed decontamination, Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), bleach, soapy water, M291 Skin Decontamination Kit, VR, Skin Exposure Reduction

  2. Polluted soils. Electro-kinetic decontamination seems promising; Sols pollues. Les promesses de la decontamination electrocinetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellier, S.; Astruc, M. [Pau Univ., Lab. de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5034 64 (France)

    2000-10-01

    The electro-kinetic treatment of polluted soils is a recent technique. It is particularly well adapted to the decontamination of low permeable media or of difficult species (metals, arsenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons..). Conditions where classical methods are often inefficient. (O.M.)

  3. Full system decontamination experience in BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N.; Sugai, K.; Katayouse, N.; Fujimori, A.; Iida, K.; Hayashi, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Kanasaki, T.; Inami, I. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan); Strohmer, F. [Framatome ANP Gmbh, Eelangen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 3, unit 2, unit 5 and unit 1 of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), the replacement of the core shroud and internals has been conducted since 1997 in this order. The welded core internals in operating BWR plants were replaced to improve stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance. At present these units are operating smoothly. The developed technology concept is to restore those internals in open air inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). To reduce the radiation dose rate inside the RPV, not only a shielding method was applied to cut the radiation from the irradiated structures but also a chemical decontamination method was applied to dissolve the radioactive crud deposited on the surface by using chemical agents. The calculated decontamination factor (DF) at the RPV bottom reached 35-117. As result, the dose rate decreased to approximately 0.1 mSv/h under water. Before and after the installation of the in-vessel shielding, a mechanical cleaning was extensively applied inside the RPV to remove the residual crud as well as the swarf, chips from cutting. As a result, the dose rate at the RPV bottom decreased to ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 mSv/h in air. A working environment for human access, which was better than expected, was established inside the RPV, resulting in 70, 140, 50 and 70 man-Sv (estimated) saving respectively at unit 3 (1F-3), unit 2(1F-2), unit 5(1F-5) and unit 1(1F-1). All four full system decontamination (FSDs) contributed to the successful realization of the core shroud replacement project under the dry condition in RPV.

  4. Contactless decontamination of hair samples: cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2017-02-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have already been shown to provide efficient extraction media for several systems, and to capture volatile compounds, namely opiates. In this work, a novel, contactless, artefact-free extraction procedure for the removal of Δ(9) -tetrahrydrocannabinol (THC) from the surface of human hair is presented. To prepare in vitro cannabinoids-contaminated hair, samples were flushed with hashish smoke for 7 h. The decontamination experiments were carried at 100 °C for 24 h, according to the procedure previously described. Fifty-three ILs were screened and presented decontamination efficiencies ranging from 0 to 96 %. Although the majority of the ILs presented efficiencies above 90%, the 1-ethanol-3-methyl tetrafluoroborate (96%) was chosen for further process optimization. The Design of Experiments results demonstrated that all studied variables were significant for the process and the obtained optimum conditions were: 100 °C, 13 h and 175 mg of IL. In the work of Perrotin-Brunel et al. (J. Mol. Struct. 2011, 987, 67), it is demonstrated that, at 100 °C, full conversion of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into THC is obtained after 60 min. Since our decontamination takes place over 13 h at 100 °C, full conversion of THCA into THC is expected. Additionally, our method was compared with the method proposed by Cairns et al. (Forensic Sci. Int. 2004, 145, 97), through the analysis of 15 in vitro contaminated hair samples. The results demonstrated that with our method a mean extraction efficiency of 11 % higher was obtained. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H. S.; Kim, G. N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of 'Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology', the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  6. Stability of Decontamination Foam Containing Silica Nanoparticles and Viscosifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, In Ho; Jung, Chong Hun; Yoon, Suk Bon; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jun Young; Park, Sang Yoon; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Wang Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This formulation can significantly decrease the amounts of chemical reagents and secondary waste. The advantage of decontamination foam is its potentially wide application for metallic walls, overhead surfaces, and the elements of complex components and facilities. In addition, foam is a good material for in situ decontamination because it generates low final waste volumes owing to its volume expansion. The application of foam allows for remote decontamination processing using only an injection nozzle and the equipment to generate the decontamination foam, which reduces operator exposure to high radioactivity. The decontamination efficiency can be enhanced by improving the contact time between chemical reagents and a contaminated surface through the addition of surfactants and viscosifiers into the decontamination foam. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of silica nanoparticles and a viscosifier on the foam stability and the dissolution behaviors of corroded specimens using a non-ionic surfactant. This study showed the effect of viscosifiers and nanoparticles on the foam stability when developing new formulations of decontamination foam. The addition of xanthan gum and the mixture of xanthan gum and silica nanoparticles (M-5) significantly increased the foam stability, compared to the surfactant solution alone. This result indicates that both the viscosifier and nanoparticles have a synergistic effect on the foam stability. As the contact time increased, the dissolution rate increased to become similar to the dissolution that contained decontamination liquid.

  7. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demilitarization and..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of...

  8. The effects of selective decontamination in Dutch Intensive Care Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, E.A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Infections are an important complication in the treatment of critical ill patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and are associated with increased mortality, morbidity and health care costs. Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract (SDD) and Selective Oropharyngeal Decontamination (SOD) are

  9. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2006-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: NPP Krsko revised decommissioning program, by Vladimir Lokner and Ivica Levanat, APO d.o.o., Croatia, and Nadja Zeleznik and Irena Mele, ARAO, Slovenia; Supporting the renaissance, by Marilyn C. Kray, Exelon Nuclear; Outage world an engineer's delight, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, NP Inc.; Optimizing refueling outages with R and D, by Ross Marcoot, GE Energy; and, A successful project, by Jim Lash, FirstEnergy.

  10. Automated Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennessen, Kristin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Pati, Amrita [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Recent technological advancements in single-cell genomics have encouraged the classification and functional assessment of microorganisms from a wide span of the biospheres phylogeny.1,2 Environmental processes of interest to the DOE, such as bioremediation and carbon cycling, can be elucidated through the genomic lens of these unculturable microbes. However, contamination can occur at various stages of the single-cell sequencing process. Contaminated data can lead to wasted time and effort on meaningless analyses, inaccurate or erroneous conclusions, and pollution of public databases. A fully automated decontamination tool is necessary to prevent these instances and increase the throughput of the single-cell sequencing process

  11. Microwave-Based Water Decontamination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system for decontaminating a medium. The system can include a medium having one or more contaminants disposed therein. The contaminants can be or include bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and combinations thereof. A microwave energy radiation device can be positioned proximate the medium. The microwave energy radiation device can be adapted to generate a signal having a frequency from about 10 GHz to about 100 GHz. The signal can be adapted to kill one or more of the contaminants disposed within the medium while increasing a temperature of the medium by less than about 10 C.

  12. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Skin Biopsy KidsHealth > For Teens > Skin Biopsy Print A A ... español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would Need One? In a biopsy, ...

  13. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  14. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  15. Evaluation of five decontamination methods for filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, Dennis J; Bergman, Michael S; Eimer, Benjamin C; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2009-11-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the availability of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) during an influenza pandemic. One possible strategy to mitigate a respirator shortage is to reuse FFRs following a biological decontamination process to render infectious material on the FFR inactive. However, little data exist on the effects of decontamination methods on respirator integrity and performance. This study evaluated five decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), ethylene oxide, vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP), microwave oven irradiation, and bleach] using nine models of NIOSH-certified respirators (three models each of N95 FFRs, surgical N95 respirators, and P100 FFRs) to determine which methods should be considered for future research studies. Following treatment by each decontamination method, the FFRs were evaluated for changes in physical appearance, odor, and laboratory performance (filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance). Additional experiments (dry heat laboratory oven exposures, off-gassing, and FFR hydrophobicity) were subsequently conducted to better understand material properties and possible health risks to the respirator user following decontamination. However, this study did not assess the efficiency of the decontamination methods to inactivate viable microorganisms. Microwave oven irradiation melted samples from two FFR models. The remainder of the FFR samples that had been decontaminated had expected levels of filter aerosol penetration and filter airflow resistance. The scent of bleach remained noticeable following overnight drying and low levels of chlorine gas were found to off-gas from bleach-decontaminated FFRs when rehydrated with deionized water. UVGI, ethylene oxide (EtO), and VHP were found to be the most promising decontamination methods; however, concerns remain about the throughput capabilities for EtO and VHP

  16. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination in intensive care unit patients : a cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; de Wit, G. A.; Bakker, Marina; de Smet, Anne-Marie; Bonten, M. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine costs and effects of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) as compared with standard care (ie, no SDD/SOD (SC)) from a healthcare perspective in Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Design: A post hoc analysis of a pre

  17. Cytokines and the Skin Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Malte Baron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The skin is the largest organ of the human body and builds a barrier to protect us from the harmful environment and also from unregulated loss of water. Keratinocytes form the skin barrier by undergoing a highly complex differentiation process that involves changing their morphology and structural integrity, a process referred to as cornification. Alterations in the epidermal cornification process affect the formation of the skin barrier. Typically, this results in a disturbed barrier, which allows the entry of substances into the skin that are immunologically reactive. This contributes to and promotes inflammatory processes in the skin but also affects other organs. In many common skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis, a defect in the formation of the skin barrier is observed. In these diseases the cytokine composition within the skin is different compared to normal human skin. This is the result of resident skin cells that produce cytokines, but also because additional immune cells are recruited. Many of the cytokines found in defective skin are able to influence various processes of differentiation and cornification. Here we summarize the current knowledge on cytokines and their functions in healthy skin and their contributions to inflammatory skin diseases.

  18. Project n.4: local strategies for decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Ramzaev, V. [Branch of Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Karchovka, Bryandk (Russian Federation); Antsypov, G. [Chernobyl State Committee of the Republic of Belarus, (Belarus); Sobotovich, E. [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore formation, Kiev (Ukraine); Anisimova, L. [EMERCOM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, and a return from experience from the area contaminated by the Chernobyl accident allowed to assess radiological efficiencies and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimisation of decontamination strategies. Results are presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with the contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined. (authors). 23 refs.

  19. In vitro percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of skin cleanser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; D'Agostin, Flavia; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Maina, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    The present study tried to investigate, using a synthetic sweat at pH 4.5, whether metallic chromium can pass through the skin (in vitro) and the effect of rapid skin decontamination with a common detergent. A suspension of chromium powder in synthetic sweat at pH 4.5 was prepared and shaken with a stirring plate at room temperature for 30 min. Human skin membranes were set up in Franz-diffusion cells and 1 ml of the freshly made suspension was applied to the outer surface of the skin for 24h. The tests were performed without and with decontamination using the cleanser 30 min after the start of exposure. The appearance of metal ions in the aqueous receptor phase was quantified by Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Speciation analysis and measurements of chromium skin content were also performed. Chromium skin permeation was demonstrated in in vitro experiments using the Franz cell system, giving a permeation flux of 0.84+/-0.25 ng cm(-2)h(-1) and a lag time of 1.1+/-0.7h. The cleaning procedure stop Cr permeation but its concentration into the skin significantly increased (Mann-Whitney U test P<0.03). The results revealed that chromium applied as powder can pass through the skin and that decontamination, done after 30 min of exposure, prevent Cr skin permeation but increase Cr content into the skin.

  20. [In vitro percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of skin cleanser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostin, F; Crosera, M; Adami, G; Malvestio, A; Rosani, R; Bovenzi, M; Maina, G; Filon, F Larese

    2007-01-01

    Occupational chromium dermatitis occurs frequently among cement and metal workers, workers dealing with leather tanning and employees in the ceramic industry. The present study, using an in-vitro system, evaluated percutaneous absorption of chromium powder and the effect of rapid skin decontamination with a common detergent. Experiments were performed using the Franz diffusion cell method with human skin. Physiological solution was used as receiving phase and a suspension of chromium powder in synthetic sweat was used as donor phase. The tests were performed without or with decontamination using the cleanser 30 minutes after the start of exposure. The amount of chromium permeated through the skin was analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and Electro Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Speciation analysis and measurements of chromium skin content were also performed. We calculated a permeation flux of 0.843 +/- 0.25 ng cm(-2) h(-1) and a lag time of 1.1 +/- 0.7 h. The cleaning procedure significantly increased chromium skin content, whereas skin passage was not increased. These results showed that chromium powder can pass through the skin and that skin decontamination did not decrease skin absorption. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent skin contamination when using toxic agents.

  1. The evaluation of the impact of age, skin tags, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, and smoking on homocysteine, endothelin-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and on the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Soliman El Safoury

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags (STs are small, pedunculated skin-colored or brown papules that occur around any site where skin folds occur. The literature is short of comprehensive and controlled clinical studies aimed to evaluate the atherogenic risk factors in patients with STs. Aim of Work: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of age, STs, metabolic syndrome (METs, body mass index (BMI, and smoking on homocysteine (Hcy, endothelin-1 (ET-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, and on cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: This study included 30 cardiac patients with STs, 30 non-cardiac patients with STs, and 30 healthy controls with neither heart disease nor STs. History of smoking, measurement of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, STs number, color, acanthosis nigricans, estimation of serum level of fasting glucose, triglycerides (TGs, cholesterol, high-dense lipoproteins (HDL, Hcy, ET-1, Hs-CRP, and the presence of the METs were elicited in the three groups. Results: Regarding the Hcy, ET-1, and Hs-CRP, the cardiac-STs group showed the highest levels and the control group showed the least ( P < 0.001. The percents of patients with METs were 56.7% in the cardiac-STs, 40% in the non-cardiac-STs, and 0% in the control group ( P < 0.001. Mean BMI exceeded the limit of obesity in the cardiac-STs group (30.9 ± 3.9 and the non-cardiac-STs group (32.6 ± 6 and was normal in the control group (24.7 ± 2.8. Hyperpigmented STs were present in 66.7% of the cardiac-STs group. Multivariate regression analysis for the independent effectors on Hcy level were the presence of STs ( P < 0.001, METs ( P = 0.001, and BMI ( P = 0.024. Regarding ET-1, the effectors were the presence of STs and METs ( P = 0.032. For Hs-CRP, effectors were the presence of STs ( P < 0.001 and smoking ( P = 0.040. Multivariate logistic regression of the predictors of cardiac disease showed that the independent predictors of the occurrence

  2. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Skin ... (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues beneath) are typical childhood skin infections. The usual bacterial culprits in skin ...

  3. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  4. Planning guidance for nuclear-power-plant decontamination. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, L.F.; Divine, J.R.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-06-01

    Direct and indirect costs of decontamination are considered in the benefit-cost analysis. A generic form of the benefit-cost ratio is evaluated in monetary and nonmonetary terms, and values of dollar per man-rem are cited. Federal and state agencies that may have jurisiction over various aspects of decontamination and waste disposal activities are identified. Methods of decontamination, their general effectiveness, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. Dilute or concentrated chemical solutions are usually used in-situ to dissolve the contamination layer and a thin layer of the underlying substrate. Electrochemical techniques are generally limited to components but show high decontamination effectiveness with uniform corrosion. Mechanical agents are particularly appropriate for certain out-of-system surfaces and disassembled parts. These processes are catagorized and specific concerns are discussed. The treatment, storage, and disposal or discharge or discharge of liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes generated during the decontamination process are discussed. Radioactive and other hazardous chemical wastes are considered. The monitoring, treatment, and control of radioactive and nonradioactive effluents, from both routine operations and possible accidents, are discussed. Protecting the health and safety of personnel onsite during decontamination is of prime importance and should be considered in each facet of the decontamination process. The radiation protection philosophy of reducing exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable should be stressed. These issues are discussed.

  5. Benefits of automated surface decontamination of a radioiodine ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Eliza; Broadhurst, Alicia; Crossley, Steven; Lee, Lloyd; Phan, Xuyen; Scharli, Rainer; Xu, Yan

    2012-02-01

    A floor-washing robot has been acquired to assist physicists with decontamination of radioiodine therapy ward rooms after discharge of the patient at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The effectiveness of the robot in decontaminating the ward has been evaluated. A controlled experiment was performed by deliberately contaminating a polyvinyl chloride flooring offcut with 131I followed by automated decontamination with the robot. The extent of fixed and removable contamination was assessed before and after decontamination by two methods: (1) direct Geiger-Mueller counting and (2) beta-counting wipe tests. Surface contamination was also assessed in situ on the ward by Geiger-Mueller counting and wipe testing. Contamination maps confirmed that contamination was removed rather than spread around by the robot. Wipe testing revealed that the robot was successful in clearing approximately 60-80% of removable contamination. The robotic floor-washing device was considered suitable to provide effective automated decontamination of the radioiodine ward. In addition, the robot affords other benefits: the time spent by the physicists decontaminating the room is greatly reduced offering financial and occupational safety and health benefits. The robot has also found utility in other decontamination applications in the healthcare environment.

  6. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  7. Nuclear disaster. Fukushima, hundred years of decontamination; Catastrophe nucleaire: Fukushima, cent ans de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, L.

    2011-04-15

    This article gives an overview of what will have to be done on the site of Fukushima to decontaminate and to dismantle it. Based on the experience gained in Three Mile Island and in Chernobyl, experts foresee ten years of work within the reactor cores, thirty years around the plant, sixty years of decontamination within the no man's land area around the plant; and centuries as far as scattered spots are concerned more than hundred kilometres away from the plant. Three radionuclides must be surveyed, but with different half lives: iodine 131 (8 days), caesium 137 (30 years), and plutonium 239 (24000 years). The expertise of French companies (Areva, Assystem, Bouygues and Vinci) in reactor dismantling, dismantling procedure design, and public works (protection arch like in Chernobyl) is briefly evoked, as well as the French approach for post-accident management

  8. Interacciones de las radiaciones electromagnéticas y especies reactivas del oxígeno sobre la piel Interactions of electromagnetic radiations and reactive oxygen species on skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Ferramola de Sancovich

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La energía radiante abarca todo el espectro electromagnético y proviene de la fusión en el sol, de 4 núcleos de hidrógeno en uno de helio. Las radiaciones electromagnéticas tienen características de ondas, con la velocidad de la luz (c y difieren en sus longitudes de ondas (λ. La energía lumínica es transmitida en unidades individuales o fotones: E = h c/λ así, los fotones de menores λs son los de mayor energía. Las radiaciones ultravioletas (UV (λs de 200 - 400 nm pueden dividirse: UVA (λs 315 - 400 nm; UVB (λs 280 - 315 nm y UVC (λs The energy of electromagnetic radiation is derived from the fusion in the sun of four hydrogen nuclei to form a helium nucleus. The sun radiates energy representing the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation. All electromagnetic radiation has wave characteristics and travels at the same speed (c: speed of light. But radiations differ in wavelength (λ. Light energy is transmitted not in a continuum stream but only in individual units or photons: E = h c/λ. Short wave light is more energetic than photons of light of longer wavelength. Ultraviolet radiations (UV (λs 200 - 400 nm can be classified in UVA (λs 315 - 400 nm.; UVB (λs 280 - 315 nm and UVC (λs < 280 nm. UVB and UVC are the most significant UV radiations to induce biological responses. Electromagnetic radiations on molecular oxygen lead to several reactive products known as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. High O2 content in biological systems promotes ROS synthesis. If ROS are not controlled by endogenous antioxidants, cell redox status is affected and tissue damage is produced ("oxidative stress". ROS induce lipid peroxidation, protein cross-linking, enzyme inhibition, loss of integrity and function of plasmatic and mitochondrial membranes conducing to inflammation, aging, carcinogenesis and cell death. While infra-red radiations lead to noticeable tissue temperature conducing to severe burns, UVA

  9. Laser Decontamination of Surfaces Contaminated with Cs+ Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baigalmaaa, B.; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, J. H. [Chungnam National University, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Laser decontamination technology has been proven to be an efficient method for a surface modification of metals and concretes contaminated with radioactive isotopes. Furthermore, the generation of a secondary waste is negligible. The radioactivity of hot cells in the DFDF (Dupic Fuel Development Facility) is presumed to be very high and the predominant radionuclide is Cs-137. A series of laser decontamination studies by a fabricated Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system were performed on stainless steel specimens artificially contaminated with Cs+ ion. Decontamination characteristics of the stainless steel were analyzed by SEM and EPMA.

  10. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-06-30

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers

  11. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  12. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  13. Decontamination of minimally invasive surgical endoscopes and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayliffe, G

    2000-08-01

    (1) Infections following invasive endoscopy are rare and are usually of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, infections do occur due to inadequate cleaning and disinfection and the use of contaminated rinse water and processing equipment. (2) Rigid and flexible operative endoscopes and accessories should be thoroughly cleaned and preferably sterilized using properly validated processes. (3) Heat tolerant operative endoscopes and accessories should be sterilized using a vacuum assisted steam sterilizer. Use autoclavable instrument trays or containers to protect equipment during transit and processing. Small bench top sterilizers without vacuum assisted air removal are unsuitable for packaged and lumened devices. (4) Heat sensitive rigid and flexible endoscopes and accessories should preferably be sterilized using ethylene oxide, low temperature steam and formaldehyde (rigid only) or gas plasma (if appropriate). (5) If there are insufficient instruments or time to sterilize invasive endoscopes, or if no suitable method is available locally, they may be disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or a suitable alternative. An immersion time of at least 10 min should be adopted for glutaraldehyde. This is sufficient to inactivate most vegetative bacteria and viruses including HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Longer contact times of 20 min or more may be necessary if a mycobacterial infection is known or suspected. At least 3 h immersion in glutaraldehyde is required to kill spores. (6) Glutaraldehyde is irritant and sensitizing to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Measures must be taken to ensure glutaraldehyde is used in a safe manner, i.e., total containment and/or extraction of harmful vapour and the provision of suitable personal protective equipment, i.e., gloves, apron and eye protection if splashing could occur. Health surveillance of staff is recommended and should include a pre-employment enquiry regarding asthma, skin and mucosal sensitivity problems and

  14. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2008-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

  15. ONLINE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROGRESS OF DECONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine if the sensor technology and the decontamination technology will face problems once integrated, a feasibility study (see Appendix B) was produced in which the effect of motion on the efficiency of a radiation sensor was measured. It was found that the effect is not negligible; however, it is not catastrophic, and if the sensors are properly calibrated, this obstacle can be overcome. During the first year of this project, many important tasks have been accomplished. The search for radiation sensors provided knowledge on the technologies commercially available. This, in turn, allowed for a proper assessment of the properties, limitations, different methods of measurement, and requirements of a large number of sensors. The best possible characterization and data collection instrument and decontamination technologies were chosen using the requirement information in Appendix A. There are technical problems with installing sensors within the blasting head, such as steel shot and dust interference. Therefore, the sensor array is placed so that it will measure the radioactivity after the blasting. Sensors are rather sensitive, and therefore it is not feasible to place the sensor windows in such an abrasive environment. Other factors, such as the need for radiation hardening in extreme cases, and the possible interference of gamma rays with the radio frequency modem, have been considered. These factors are expected to be negligible and can be revisited at the time of prototype production. Factors that need to be addressed are the vibrations of the blasting unit and how to isolate the sensor array from these. In addition, an electromagnetic survey must be performed to ensure there will be no interference with the electronic component that will be integrated. The integration design is shown in section 4.0.

  16. Microbial decontamination of uranium mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hard, B.C.; Babel, W. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    One of the problems one is faced with when uranium mines are closed is the decontamination of acid mine drainage (AMD) from tailings and flooding of the underground mines. The high concentrations of sulfates and metals in mining water make it impossible to dispose of the water into rivers without having to decontaminate it first. A bioremediation process is proposed in which sulfate-reducing bacteria are used to remove metals, neutralize the water and reduce the sulfate concentrations. Methylotrophic sulfate-reducing strains have been isolated which can be used in such a process. Lab scale experiments with different reactor types were carried out in order to find the optimum design for this bioremediation process. Comparisons were made between methanol and other electron donors with regards to their suitability as substrate for this process. Methanol was found to be most suited. Laboratory data suggest that immobilizing the bacteria on pumice particles increases the sulfate-reduction rate (SRR) up to three fold to 18 mg/l.h, compared to the rates of free flowing cells of between 3.7 and 6.8 mg/l.h. Preliminary experiments on a larger scale (15 l) using acid mine drainage pH 2.5 show SRR of 0.71 mg/l.h. In biosorption experiments up to 140 mg of aluminium per g biomass was removed from the water. One strain was found to reduce uranium VI, thus changing it from the soluble to the insoluble form. The application of the proposed process with regards to bioremediation of AMD are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Effects of Whole-Body VX Vapor Exposure on Lethality in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    17 2.6 Decontamination with Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion ( RSDL ) ..... 17 2.7 Experimental Design...palpation 2.6 Decontamination with Reactive Skin Decontaminant Lotion ( RSDL ) The chemical name for RSDL is 2,3-butanedione monoximate in a...polyethyleneglycol monomethylether vehicle. All exposed rats in Part I of this study (see Section 2.7) were decontaminated with RSDL within 20 to 60 min post-exposure

  18. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutaka, T.; Naito, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  19. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  20. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klute, Stefan; Kupke, Peter [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH Am Taubenfeld 25/1, 69123 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In February 2009, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for the design, manufacture, delivery and construction of a new Decontamination Facility in the controlled area for Kruemmel NPP. The new decontamination equipment has been installed according to the state of art of Kruemmel NPP. The existing space required the following modification, retrofitting and reconstruction works: - Demounting of the existing installation: to create space for the new facility it was necessary to dismantle the old facility. The concrete walls and ceilings were cut into sizes of no more than 400 kg for ease of handling. This enabled decontamination so largest possible amount could be released for recycling. All steel parts were cut into sizes fitting for iron-barred boxes, respecting the requirement to render the parts decontaminable and releasable. - Reconstructing a decontamination facility: Reconstruction of a decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies was conducted using pressurized air with abrasives (glass beads or steel shots). The walls were equipped with sound protection, the inner walls were welded gap-free to prevent the emergence of interstices and were equipped with changeable wear and tear curtains. Abrasive processing unit positioned underneath the dry blasting box adjacent to the two discharge hoppers. A switch has been installed for the separation of the glass beads and the steel shot. The glass beads are directed into a 200 l drum for the disposal. The steel shot was cleaned using a separator. The cleaned steel shot was routed via transportation devices to the storage container, making it available for further blasting operations. A decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies using high pressure water technology was provided by new construction. Water pressures between 160 bar and 800 bar can be selected. The inner

  1. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Decontamination of the Pericarps of Fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perni, Stefano; Liu, David W; Shama, Gilbert; Kong, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    .... The operating voltage necessary for efficient microbial decontamination of fruit pericarps was first established using Escherichia coli at a concentration of 107 CFU/cm2 on the surface of mango...

  2. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betty, Rita G [Rio Rancho, NM; Tucker, Mark D [Albuquerque, NM; Brockmann, John E [Albuquerque, NM; Lucero, Daniel A [Albuquerque, NM; Levin, Bruce L [Tijeras, NM; Leonard, Jonathan [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  3. Dermal absorption and skin damage following hydrofluoric acid exposure in an ex vivo human skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerlein, Kathrin; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Kilo, Sonja; Jäger, Thomas; Göen, Thomas; Korinth, Gintautas; Drexler, Hans

    2016-04-25

    The wide industrial use of hydrofluoric acid (HF) poses a high risk for accidental dermal exposure. Despite local and systemic hazards associated with HF, information on percutaneous penetration and tissue damage is rare. In the present ex vivo study, the dermal absorption of HF (detected in terms of fluoride ions) was quantified and the skin damaging potential as a function of concentration and exposure duration was assessed. Percutaneous penetration of HF (c=5, 30, and 50%) at 3 exposure durations (3, 5, and 10 min) was investigated in a static diffusion cell model using freshly excised human skin. Alterations of skin were histologically evaluated. HF rapidly penetrated through skin under formation of a considerable intradermal reservoir (∼ 13-67% of total absorbed fluoride). Histologically, epidermal alterations were detected already after exposure to 5% HF for 3 min. The degree of skin damage increased with rising concentration and exposure duration leading to coagulation necrosis. For HF concentrations of ≥ 30%, skin damage progressed into deeper skin layers. Topically applied HF concentration was the principal parameter determining HF induced skin effects. The intradermal HF retention capacity associated with progression and prolongation of HF induced skin effects must be considered in the review of skin decontamination procedures.

  4. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S. [Babcock & Wilcox, Co., R& DD, Alliance, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. This report describes the results of the performance testing of chelates and solvents for the dissolution of uranium.

  5. Evaluation of Five Decontamination Methods for Filtering Facepiece Respirators

    OpenAIRE

    Viscusi, Dennis J.; Bergman, Michael S.; Eimer, Benjamin C.; Ronald E. Shaffer

    2009-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the availability of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) during an influenza pandemic. One possible strategy to mitigate a respirator shortage is to reuse FFRs following a biological decontamination process to render infectious material on the FFR inactive. However, little data exist on the effects of decontamination methods on respirator integrity and performance. This study eval...

  6. Recent developments in collaborative CBRN decontamination science : a retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanofsky, N. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Volchek, K.; Fingas, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre, Science and Technology Branch; Filatov, B. [Research Inst. of Hygiene, Toxicology and Occupational Pathology, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The importance of addressing the risk of chemical, biological and radiological/nuclear (CBRN) attacks was discussed with particular reference to recent developments in Canadian-led decontamination studies as part of the remediation response to a terrorist attack. Research efforts have been supported by government programs such as the CBRN Research and Technology Initiative of Defence Research and Development Canada and the Global Partnership Program of the Department of Foreign Affairs. In 2005, Environment Canada and Defence Research and Development Canada co-organized an international workshop with the Research Institute of Health, Toxicology and Occupational Pathology of Volgograd, Russia. The workshop brought together researchers from Canada, Russia, United States, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Poland and Bulgaria, with the view to eventually develop longer term collaborations. The theme focused on membrane technology and its application in CBRN decontamination. This paper reviewed these collaborative and international research efforts and identified areas in need of future work, such as bioremediation and radio-nuclear remediation. It addressed issues supporting a collaborative international research agenda in decontamination science; membrane filtration as a feasible approach to decontamination waste treatment; and possible areas of CBRN collaboration. It was suggested that the key to successful decontamination requires the creation of computer systems for the initial identification of chemical substances; complete toxicological characterization of the most dangerous agents; regulatory safety standards; quantitative determination of chemical substances; antidotes for most chemical threat agents; universal decontamination agents; and, validation of criteria for decontaminating buildings. The question of who pays for decontamination, be it the private or public sector, was also discussed.

  7. Formulation of Topical Protectants/Decontaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-14

    Ingredient from the Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) Tablets. II. The Release of Dihydroxybenzoic Acids and Gallic Acid ," 79, 117 (1970). 21. Kahela, P., and...32. Hammond, P.S., Forster, J., Farmer, A., and Durst, H.D., "Update on the Use of o-Iodosobenzoic Acid and Its Derivatives for Skin Decontamina- tion...Transform Infr,:rtd Spectrophotometry, o-lodoso- benroic Acid , Protective Barriers, Skin Dtcontaminstion~ 1) I RAV 19 STRACT (Conftie an re,’ersif

  8. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Experience Practices on Decontamination Activity in NPP Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Kim, Jeongju; Sohn, Wook [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (NPP) involves various technical and administrative activities for a utility to terminate its license, which allows the plant site to be released from the regulatory control (site release). Decontamination activity in NPP decommissioning is one of the main technical activities to be performed during the decommissioning. The decontamination at decommissioning sites is usually performed due to several reasons such as reducing personnel dose and disposal costs, and cleanup to meet license termination requirements by using physical or chemical removal techniques proven through the previous experience practices. This paper introduces the best and worst practices for the decontamination activities collected from the decommissioning operational experiences through the implementation of nuclear decommissioning projects around the world. Review of the experiences of decontamination shows that it is important to conduct an advanced planning for optimized implementation of decontamination taking into considering site specific conditions such as operating time, reactor type, system, and so on. Also, a review of newer decontamination methods is necessary to safely and economically decommission the nuclear facility.

  10. Reducing Risk of Salmonellosis through Egg Decontamination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection.

  11. Reducing Risk of Salmonellosis through Egg Decontamination Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthirathne, Thilini Piushani; Ross, Kirstin; Fallowfield, Howard; Whiley, Harriet

    2017-03-22

    Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection.

  12. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  13. Effectiveness and reaction networks of H2O2 vapor with NH3 gas for decontamination of the toxic warfare nerve agent, VX on a solid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon Ryu, Sam; Wan Lee, Hae

    2015-01-01

    The nerve agent, O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) must be promptly eliminated following its release into the environment because it is extremely toxic, can cause death within a few minutes after exposure, acts through direct skin contact as well as inhalation, and persists in the environment for several weeks after release. A mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas was examined as a decontaminant for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature, and the reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). All the VX on glass wool filter disks was found to be eliminated after 2 h of exposure to the decontaminant mixtures, and the primary decomposition product was determined to be non-toxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA); no toxic S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (EA-2192), which is usually produced in traditional basic hydrolysis systems, was found to be formed. However, other by-products, such as toxic O-ethyl S-vinyl methylphosphonothioate and (2-diisopropylaminoethyl) vinyl disulfide, were detected up to 150 min of exposure to the decontaminant mixture; these by-products disappeared after 3 h. The two detected vinyl byproducts were identified first in this study with the decontamination system of liquid VX on solid surfaces using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas. The detailed decontamination reaction networks of VX on solid surfaces produced by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas were suggested based on the reaction products. These findings suggest that the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas investigated in this study is an efficient decontaminant mixture for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature despite the formation of a toxic by-product in the reaction process.

  14. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are round and lie directly under squamous cells. Melanocytes are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. It also protects the ...

  15. Skin turgor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arm or abdomen is checked. The skin is held for a few seconds then released. Skin with ... University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  16. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  17. Analysis of the effectiveness of Sodium Hypochlorite decontamination of cadaveric human tissues at retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolin, Adolfo; Trojan, Diletta; Carniato, Antonio; Tasca, Fabio; Massarin, Ervino; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cogliati, Elisa

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial contamination of tissues retrieved from cadaveric donors is a common feature worldwide, and every tissue bank, albeit using different methods, conducts decontamination to guarantee safe tissues suitable for clinical use. The effectiveness of the methods used to eradicate pathogens differs. In order to reduce the tissue bioburden at retrieval, we have introduced a new method involving rinsing tissues in a sodium hypochlorite solution. To test its effectiveness we analyzed two comparable groups of tissues: Group A: 1881 tissues, all rinsed with isotonic saline solution after retrieval, and Group B: 1968 tissues immersed in an isotonic saline solution containing sodium hypochlorite (final concentration 0.1 %) for different lengths of time and subsequently rinsed with isotonic saline. The rinsing solution of each tissue was then sampled for microbiological cultures in both groups. The resultant overall contamination rate was 40.5 % for Group A and 6.7 % for Group B, with an 82.8 % difference in the reduction of contamination between the two groups. This was especially the case for commensal skin bacteria in musculoskeletal tissue, which accounted for over half the overall contamination. Our data highlighted that decontamination with sodium hypochlorite was helpful in reducing the bacterial bioburden in tissues retrieved from cadaveric donors.

  18. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  19. Site Plan Safety Submission for Sampling, Monitoring and Decontamination of Mustard Agent, South Plant, Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    will occur if they are not decontaminated within one (1) minute. (c) High concentrations of Lewisite cause pulmonary edema , diarrhea, subnormal...EtogO o oseo so .oetc tseoo sfteenig:s &*.vbO lsin’t. "ecf el 2. It uJ0000.w sot-tltl. SWoeldwo-situlaa on. srano. -OSa ’or. dom-,M l~l~it~o~te4CMa. Con...marrow, eyes, and the respiratory system. (c) Symptoms: Local: (1) Irritation of skin, eyes, and upper respiratory tract. (2) Pulmonary edema and

  20. 过敏性哮喘患者蟑螂抗原皮肤反应性调查%Survey on Reactivity of Cockroach Allergy in Out- Patients with Allergic Asthma Through Skin Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金德; 许以平; 曹兰芳; 尹洪云; 汪玮弛; 姚苏航

    2001-01-01

    Objective To roughly evaluate the prevalence of cockroach allergy in outpatients with allergic asthma or rhinitis, and to compare the positive reactivity from two different kinds of cockroaches, i.e. Periplaneta fuliginosa and Periplaneta americana. Methods The positive rates of the skin prick test using cockroach body extract in 212 cases of pediatric out-patients with allergic asthma or rhinitis, and the positive reactivity of intradermal test in 34 cases of adult asthmatic out-patients, were carefully com- pared and statistically analyzed, respectively. Results The positive rate of cockroach allergy in pediatric patients was 28.7 %, which was the fourth one among all the allergens used and the third to the allergens of two kinds of mites (Der p. and Der f., 89.6% ) among the aeroallergens. The positive rate of cock- roach allergy in adults was 17.7 % and a strict concordance between two kinds of cockroaches was seen. Conclusion Cockroach allergens were common among aeroallergens and were the third to the two kinds of mites. Reactivity of patients with asthma to allergens from Periplaneta fuliginosa and Periplaneta americana is in strict accordance.%目的对门诊蟑螂过敏性哮喘发病情况进行粗略判断,并以对黑胸大蠊与美洲大蠊抗原皮肤反应性作一比较。方法回顾分析212例有14种抗原(皮肤点刺试验)资料的过敏性哮喘及过敏性鼻炎患儿蟑螂抗原皮试结果;总结34例成人过敏性哮喘患者上述两种蟑螂抗原皮试(皮内试验)结果。结果有皮试资料的212例患儿中,蟑螂抗原皮肤点刺试验阳性61例,阳性率28.7%,占14种抗原皮试结果的第4位。而就气传变应原相比较,排在屋尘螨及粉尘螨(均为89.6%)之后,居第3位;34例成人患者中,蟑螂抗原皮内试验阳性6例,阳性率17.7%。黑胸大蠊与美洲大蠊抗原皮试阳性结果一致。结论蟑螂是门诊过敏性哮喘及过敏性鼻炎患儿常见致敏原

  1. Natural history of skin prick test reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Nielsen, Jesper; Meteran, Howraman; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    of sensitization were variable. In the group of individuals tested more than once (n = 592), 16% developed sensitization during the study period and 9% became desensitized. In the group of individuals tested at all 4 examinations (n = 148), 34% developed sensitization and 22% became desensitized. In the group who...... developed sensitization, 55% had rhinitis, 17% had asthma, and 70% had eczema. In the group who became desensitized, 30% had rhinitis, 10% had asthma, and 50% had eczema. CONCLUSION: This 20-year prospective study found that sensitization is common, but its prevalence in individuals is also variable over...... time. Furthermore, through puberty and early adulthood a large number of individuals develop sensitization and a smaller number become desensitized. In addition, we found that symptoms of rhinitis rarely preceded sensitization....

  2. Mobile worksystems for decontamination and dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bares, L.C.; Thompson, B.R. [RedZone Robotics, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Many DOE nuclear facilities have aged beyond their useful lifetimes. They need to be decommissioned in order to be safe for human presence in the short term, to eventually recover valuable materials they contain, and ultimately to be transitioned to alternative uses or green field conditions. Decontamination and dismantlement are broad classes of activities that will enable these changes to occur. Most of these facilities - uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities - are dormant, though periodic inspection, surveillance and maintenance activities within them are on-going. DOE estimates that there are over 5000 buildings that require deactivation to reduce the costs of performing such work with manual labor. In the long term, 1200 buildings will be decommissioned, and millions of metric tons of metal and concrete will have to be recycled or disposed of. The magnitude of the problem calls for new approaches that are far more cost effective than currently available techniques. This paper describes a mobile workstation termed ROSIE, which provides remote work capabilities for D&D activities.

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, J. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1989-11-01

    To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  5. Decontamination method for radioactively contaminated material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Yuichi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hitoshi; Komatsubara, Masaru

    1998-09-02

    Radioactively contaminated materials having surfaces contaminated by radioactive materials are dissolved in molten salts by the effect of chlorine gas. The molten salts are brought into contact with a low melting point metal to reduce only radioactive materials by substitution reaction and recover them into the low melting point metal. Then, a low melting point metal phase and a molten salt phase are separated. The low melting point metal phase is evaporated to separate the radioactive materials from molten metals. On the other hand, other metal ions dissolved in the molten salts are reduced into metals by electrolysis at an anode and separated from the molten salts and served for regeneration. The low melting point metals are reutilized together with contaminated lead, after subjected to decontamination, generated from facilities such as nuclear power plant or lead for disposal. Since almost all materials including the molten salts and the molten metals can be enclosed, the amount of wastes can be reduced. In addition, radiation exposure of operators who handle them can be reduced. (T.M.)

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Ricky Lynn [Idaho National Laboratory; Reese, Stephen Joseph [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. Several practical, easily deployable methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using a surrogate contaminant and americium (241Am), were developed and tested. The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent practical, quantitatively. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, mechanical grinding, strippable coatings, and fixative barriers), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and water washing is easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (~2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from water washed coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever contamination is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  7. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2015-07-01

    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here.

  8. Establishing the irradiation dose for paper decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Ioan Valentin; Virgolici, Marian; Negut, Constantin Daniel; Manea, Mihaela; Alexandru, Mioara; Trandafir, Laura; Zorila, Florina Lucica; Talasman, Catalina Mihaela; Manea, Daniela; Nisipeanu, Steluta; Haiducu, Maria; Balan, Zamfir

    2012-08-01

    Museums, libraries and archives are preserving documents that are slowly degrading due to the inherent ageing of the cellulose substrate or to the technological errors of the past (acid paper, iron gall ink). Beside this, large quantities of paper are rapidly damaged by biological attacks following natural disasters and improper storage conditions. The treatment of paper documents with ionizing radiation can be used for mass decontamination of cultural heritage items but conservators and restaurators are still reserved because of the radiation induced degradation. We conducted a study for establishing the dose needed for the effective treatment of paper documents, taking into account the biological burden and the irradiation effects on paper structure. We used physical testing specific to paper industry and less destructive analytical methods (thermal analysis). Our results show that an effective treatment can be performed with doses lower than 10 kGy. Old paper appears to be less affected by gamma radiation than recent paper but the sampling is highly affected by the non-uniform degree of the initial degradation status. The extent of testing for degradation and the magnitude of acceptable degradation should take into account the biological threat and the expected life time of the paper documents.

  9. Polyoxometalate-based Catalysts for Toxic Compound Decontamination and Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiwei

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) have been attracting interest from researchers in the fields of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Biomolecular Chemistry, etc. Their unique structures and properties render them versatile and facilitate applications in medicine, magnetism, electrochemistry, photochemistry and catalysis. In particular, toxic compound (chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial compounds (TICs)) decontamination and solar energy conversion by POM-based materials have becoming promising and important research areas that deserve much attention. The focus of this thesis is to explore the structural features of POMs, to develop POM-based materials and to investigate their applications in toxic compound decontamination and solar energy conversion. The first part of this thesis gives a general introduction on the history, structures, properties and applications of POMs. The second part reports the synthesis, structures, and reactivity of different types of POMs in the destruction of TICs and CWAs. Three tetra-n-butylammonium (TBA) salts of polyvanadotungstates, [n-Bu4N]6[ PW9V3], [n-Bu4N] 5H2PW8V4O40 (PW 8V4), [n-Bu4N]4H 5PW6V6O40· 20H2O (PW6V6) are discussed in detail. These vanadium-substituted Keggin type POMs show effective activity for the aerobic oxidation of formaldehyde (a major TIC and human-environment carcingen) to formic acid under ambient conditions. Moreover, two types of POMs have also been developed for the removal of CWAs and/or their simulants. Specifically, a layered manganese(IV)-containing heteropolyvanadate with a 1:14 Stoichiometry, K4Li2[MnV14O40]˙21H2 O has been prepared. Its catalytic activity for oxidative removal of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (a mustard simulant) is discussed. The second type of POM developed for decontamination of CWAs and their simulants is the new one-dimensional polymeric polyniobate (P-PONb), K12[Ti 2O2][GeNb12O40]˙19H2O (KGeNb). The complex has been applied to the decontamination of a wide range

  10. Oxidation of Ce(III) in Foam Decontaminant by Ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Yoon, I. H.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. S. [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant is composed of a surfactant and nanoparticles for the generation and maintenance of foam, and a chemical decontamination agent made of Ce(IV) dissolved in nitric acid. Ce(IV) will be reduced to Ce(III) through the decontamination process. Oxidizing cerium(III) can be reused as a decontamination agent, Ce(IV). Oxidation treatment technology by ozone uses its strong oxidizing power. It can be regarded as an environmentally friendly process, because ozone cannot be stored and transported like other industrial gases (because it quickly decays into diatomic oxygen) and must therefore be produced on site, and used ozone can decompose immediately. The ozonation treatment of Ce(III) in foam decontaminant containing a surfactant is necessary for the effective regeneration of Ce(III). Thus, the present study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) into Ce(IV) in the nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing surfactant. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions for ozonation treatment in the regeneration of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) in nanoparticle-based foam decontaminant containing a TBS surfactant. The oxidation conversion rate of Ce(III) was increased with an increase in the flow rate of the gas mixture and ozone injection amount. The oxidation time required for the 100% oxidation conversion of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) at a specific ozone injection amount can be predicted from these experimental data.

  11. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A.

    1997-05-01

    Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of RSDL, M291 SDK, 0.5% Bleach, 1% Soapy Water and SERPACWA. Part 12: Challenge with EA1212 (GF, cyclosarin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Braue, EH, Jr, Doxzon, BF, Lumpkin, HL, Smith, KH, Devorak, JL, Stevenson, RS 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...soapy water solution (liquid dish detergent) to decontaminate intact skin exposed to chemical warfare agents. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL...products in the haired guinea pig model following exposure to GF (EA1212). 15. SUBJECT TERMS decontamination, delayed decontamination, Reactive Skin

  13. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  14. Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

    1998-09-08

    The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste.

  15. Laser decontamination and decomposition of PCB-containing paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthofer, A.; Kögler, P.; Friedrich, C.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Decontamination of concrete surfaces contaminated with paint containing polychlorinated biphenyls is an elaborate and complex task that must be performed within the scope of nuclear power plant dismantling as well as conventional pollutant cleanup in buildings. The state of the art is mechanical decontamination, which generates dust as well as secondary waste and is both dangerous and physically demanding. Moreover, the ablated PCB-containing paint has to be treated in a separate process step. Laser technology offers a multitude of possibilities for contactless surface treatment with no restoring forces and a high potential for automation. An advanced experimental setup was developed for performing standard laser decontamination investigations on PCB-painted concrete surfaces. As tested with epoxy paints, a high-power diode laser with a laser power of 10 kW in continuous wave (CW) mode was implemented and resulted in decontamination of the concrete surfaces as well as significant PCB decomposition. The experimental results showed PCB removal of 96.8% from the concrete surface and PCB decomposition of 88.8% in the laser decontamination process. Significant PCDD/F formation was thereby avoided. A surface ablation rate of approx. 7.2 m2/h was realized.

  16. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amlôt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS. The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  17. Ecological effects of selective decontamination on resistant gram-negative bacterial colonization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, E.A.; Smet, A.M. de; Blok, H.E.; Thieme Groen, E.S.; Asselt, G.J. van; Benus, R.F.; Bernards, S.A.; Frenay, I.H.; Jansz, A.R.; Jongh, B.M. de; Kaan, J.A.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Mascini, E.M.; Pauw, W.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Thijsen, S.F.; Kluytmans, J.A.; Bonten, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) eradicate gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from the intestinal and respiratory tract in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, but their effect on antibiotic resistance remains controversial. OBJECT

  18. Selective decontamination of the oropharynx and the digestive tract in ICU patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, A.M.G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Selective Digestive tract Decontamination (SDD) and Selective Oropharyngeal Decontamination (SOD) are effective infection prevention measures in intensive care patients, but reported effects on patient outcome are conflicting and the effects on infections and respiratory tract colonizati

  19. Ecological Effects of Selective Decontamination on Resistant Gram-negative Bacterial Colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Blok, Hetty E. M.; Groen, Emily S. Thieme; van Asselt, Gerard J.; Benus, Robin F. J.; Bernards, Sandra A. T.; Frenay, Ine H. M. E.; Jansz, Arjan R.; de Jongh, Bartelt M.; Kaan, Jan A.; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A.; Mascini, Ellen M.; Pauw, Wouter; Sturm, Patrick D. J.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) eradicate gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from the intestinal and respiratory tract in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, but their effect on antibiotic resistance remains controversial. Object

  20. Vitamin C protects against UV irradiation-induced apoptosis through reactivating silenced tumor suppressor genes p21 and p16 in a Tet-dependent DNA demethylation manner in human skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-ran; Qin, Hai-hong; Wu, Wen-yu; He, Shu-juan; Xu, Jin-hua

    2014-08-01

    DNA methylation plays important roles in various kinds of carcinogenesis. Vitamin C could induce Tet-dependent DNA demethylation in embryonic stem cells. Therefore, the antagonizing activity of vitamin C on ultraviolet (UV)-induced apoptosis was investigated in this study. Apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and p16-knockout (KO) or p21-KO fibroblasts was assessed by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to determine the relative expression levels of p12, p21, and Tet1/2/3 genes. The global DNA methylation levels were determined using MethylFlash Methylated DNA Quantification Kit in A431 cells with or without vitamin C treatment. To examine the DNA demethylation activity of vitamin C, DNA immunoprecipitation (DIP)-qPCR was performed to determine the relative levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in p16 and p21 promoter regions containing cytosine-phosphorothiolated guanine (CpG) islands. The increasing apoptosis of A431 cells under prolonged UV irradiation was remarkably decreased by the combination of vitamin C treatment, suggesting that vitamin C protects against UV-induced apoptosis. Concurrently, vitamin C induced a significant reduction of global DNA methylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in A431 cells. Vitamin C also reactivated the expression of p16 and p21 at mRNA and protein levels. Mechanistically, about 27% 5hmC-positive cells were observed in vitamin C-treated A431 cells, and the 5hmC enrichment at p16 and p21 promoter regions was also largely increased by vitamin C. Moreover, the expression of p16 and p21 was decreased in Tet1/2 double-knockdown cells, in which the inhibitory effect of vitamin C on UV-induced apoptosis was dismissed. Furthermore, the inhibition of UV-induced apoptosis on vitamin C treatment nearly disappeared in p16- or p21-knockout primary cultured fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that vitamin C effectively antagonizes UV

  1. Decontamination Systems Information and Reseach Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Echol E

    1998-04-01

    The following paragraphs comprise the research efforts during the first quarter of 1998 (January 1 - March 31). These tasks have been granted a continuation from the 1997 work and will all end in June 1998. This report represents the last technical quarterly report deliverable for the WVU Cooperative Agreement - Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Final reports for all of the 1997 projects will be submitted afterwards as one document. During this period, groundwater extraction operations were completed on Task 1.6 - Pilot Scale Demonstration of TCE Flushing Through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant. The data have been evaluated and graphs are presented. The plot of TCE Concentration versus Time shows that the up-gradient groundwater monitoring well produced consistent levels of TCE contamination. A similar trend was observed for the down-gradient wells via grab samples tested. Groundwater samples from the PVD test pad Zone of Influence showed consistent reductions in TCE concentrations with respect to time. In addition, a natural pulse frequency is evident which will have a significant impact on the efficiency of the contaminant removal under natural groundwater advection/diffusion processes. The relationships between the PVD Extraction Flow Rate versus Cumulative Time shows a clear trend in flow rate. Consistent values between 20 to 30 g.p.m. at the beginning of the extraction duration, to less than 10 g.p.m. by the end of the extraction cycle are observed. As evidenced by the aquifer's diminishing recharge levels, the PVD extraction is affecting the response of the aquifer's natural attenuation capability. Progress was also marked on the Injection and Circulation of Potable Water Through PVDs task. Data reduction from this sequence of testing is ongoing. Work planned for next quarter includes completing the Injection / Extraction of potable water task and beginning the Surfactant Injection and removal task.

  2. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Steven D.; Saladin, Michael E.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held one week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions. PMID:17537583

  3. Reactivity to nicotine cues over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Steven D; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2007-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reactivity to nicotine-related cues would attenuate across four experimental sessions held 1 week apart. Participants were nineteen non-treatment seeking, nicotine-dependent males. Cue reactivity sessions were performed in an outpatient research center using in vivo cues consisting of standardized smoking-related paraphernalia (e.g., cigarettes) and neutral comparison paraphernalia (e.g., pencils). Craving ratings were collected before and after both cue presentations while physiological measures (heart rate, skin conductance) were collected before and during the cue presentations. Although craving levels decreased across sessions, smoking-related cues consistently evoked significantly greater increases in craving relative to neutral cues over all four experimental sessions. Skin conductance was higher in response to smoking cues, though this effect was not as robust as that observed for craving. Results suggest that, under the described experimental parameters, craving can be reliably elicited over repeated cue reactivity sessions.

  4. Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, W. Z.; Won, H. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2007-11-15

    Through the project of 'Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution', the followings were studied. 1. Investigation of decontamination characteristics of chemical decontamination process 2. Analysis of COD, ferrous ion concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration 3. Decomposition tests of hardly decomposable organic compounds 4. Improvement of organic acid decomposition process by ultrasonic wave and UV light 5. Optimization of decomposition process using a surrogate decontamination waste solution.

  5. A Rapid and Inexpensive Bioassay to Evaluate the Decontamination of Organophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    anydrolase (a hydrolyzing enzyme ), and decon- taminating foam with hydrogen peroxide. Much of the research required to quantify CWA decontamination re...household cleaners as potential decontaminating agents, but only 5% bleach was effective at improving survival of insects on steel plates treated...required to obtain nearly complete decontamination of malathion. The bioassay was also used to screen common household cleaners as potential decontaminating

  6. Biophysical Evaluation of Food Decontamination Effects on Tissue and Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    employ differential scanning calorimetry, second harmonics generation imaging microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and green fluorescence protein-expressing bacteria and compare our results with those obtained by traditional methods of food quality and safety evaluations. Our results show......Traditionally, the effects and efficiency of food surface decontamination processes, such as chlorine washing, radiation, or heating, have been evaluated by sensoric analysis and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of surface swabs or carcass rinses. These methods suffice when determining probable...... in both food surface and bacteria upon surface decontamination by SonoSteam®. SonoSteam® is a recently developed method of food surface decontamination, which employs steam and ultrasound for effective heat transfer and short treatment times, resulting in significant reduction in surface bacteria. We...

  7. Criteria for the evaluation of a dilute decontamination demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Divine, J.R.; Hoenes, G.R.; Munson, L.F.; Card, C.J.

    1981-12-01

    This document provides the prerequisite technical information required to evaluate and/or develop a project to demonstrate the dilute chemical decontamination of the primary coolant system of light water reactors. The document focuses on five key areas: the basis for establishing programmatic prerequisites and the key decision points that are required for proposal evaluation and/or RFP (Request for Proposal) issuance; a technical review of the state-of-the-art to identify the potential impacts of a reactor's primary-system decontamination on typical BWR and PWR plants; a discussion of the licensing, recertification, fuel warranty, and institutional considerations and processes; a preliminary identification and development of the selection criteria for the reactor and the decontamination process; and a preliminary identification of further research and development that might be required.

  8. Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

  9. Biophysical Evaluation of Food Decontamination Effects on Tissue and Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, the effects and efficiency of food surface decontamination processes, such as chlorine washing, radiation, or heating, have been evaluated by sensoric analysis and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of surface swabs or carcass rinses. These methods suffice when determining probable...... consumer responses or meeting legislative contamination limits. However, in the often very costly, optimization process of a new method, more quantitative and unbiased results are invaluable. In this study, we employed a biophysical approach for the investigation of qualitative and quantitative changes...... in both food surface and bacteria upon surface decontamination by SonoSteam®. SonoSteam® is a recently developed method of food surface decontamination, which employs steam and ultrasound for effective heat transfer and short treatment times, resulting in significant reduction in surface bacteria. We...

  10. Testing and evaluation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The goals and objectives of the technical task plan (TTP) are to (1) describe the nature and extent of concrete contamination within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and emerging and commercial technologies applicable to these problems; (2) to match technologies to the concrete problems and recommend up to four demonstrations; (3) to initiate recommended demonstrations; and (4) to continue investigation and evaluation of the application of electrokinetic decontamination processes to concrete. This document presents findings of experimental and theoretical studies of the electrokinetic decontamination (EK) process and their implications for field demonstrations. This effort is an extension of the work performed under TTP 142005, ``Electroosmotic Concrete Decontamination. The goals of this task were to determine the applicability of EK for treating contaminated concrete and, if warranted, to evaluate EK as a potential technology for demonstration. 62 refs.

  11. Treatment of spent NTA-based decontamination solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlík, A.; Semelová, M.; John, J.; Černochová, K.; Šebesta, F.

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with potential treatment of spent NTA-containing decontamination solutions for final disposal. The method proposed is based on the degradation of organic substances followed by the separation of radionuclides. The influence of various parameters (pH value, irradiation time, temperature, catalyst amount, type and various combinations of catalysts) on photocatalytic degradation of NTA has been studied. Photo-Fenton reagent (Fe3+/H2O2) as a homogenous catalyst was found to be much more efficient than the TiO2-based heterogeneous catalyst Degussa P25. Under optimum conditions NTA in a simulant of a spent decontamination solution without or with hydrazine could be degraded within 5 or 9 hours, respectively. The study of sorption properties of a series of absorbers revealed that radiostrontium and radiosilver can be effectively removed from the simulant of a spent decontamination solution even in the presence of NTA, while total NTA degradation is necessary for effective radiocobalt separation.

  12. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  13. Cold atmospheric plasma decontamination of the pericarps of fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Stefano; Liu, David W; Shama, Gilbert; Kong, Michael G

    2008-02-01

    This investigation describes the inactivation by cold atmospheric plasmas of one pathogenic and three spoilage organisms on the pericarps of mangoes and melons. The operating voltage necessary for efficient microbial decontamination of fruit pericarps was first established using Escherichia coli at a concentration of 10(7) CFU/cm2 on the surface of mango. It was found that, when the plasma was sustained slightly above its breakdown voltage of 12 kV (peak to peak), no inactivation was detected when cells were plated onto tryptone soya extract agar (TSA). However, when plated onto eosin methylene blue agar, sublethal injury corresponding to approximately 1 log reduction was achieved, whereas on TSA supplemented with 4% NaCl a greater reduction of 1.5 log was revealed. When the voltage was increased by 33% to 16 kV, a reduction in cell counts of 3 log was achieved on all three plating media. Further investigations at these new operating conditions were conducted using a range of spoilage microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens) all at a surface concentration of 106 CFU/cm2 on the pericarps of mango and melon. P. agglomerans and G. liquefaciens were reduced below the detection limit (corresponding to 3 log) after only 2.5 s on both fruits, whereas E. coli required 5 s to reach the same level of inactivation. S. cerevisae was the most resistant organism studied and was reduced in numbers below the detection limit after 10 s on mango and 30 s on melon. The optical emission spectra generated by the cold atmospheric plasma at both high and low operating voltages were compared in order to identify putative lethal species. It was shown that an increase in the applied voltage led to more efficient production of reactive plasma species, particularly oxygen atoms, and the production of oxygen atoms was related to the level of bacterial inactivation achieved. Production of atomic oxygen could be used as an indicator of

  14. Physicochemical characteristics of PFC surfactants for dry decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Lee, Chi Woo [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Even the trace amount of the used nuclear fuels of high radioactivity are hazardous to the earth and humans. Perfluorocarbons and perfluorocarbon surfactants are emerging to be efficient chemicals in the dry decontamination process of the used fuels of high radioactivity. The theme was undertaken to increase the knowledge on perfluorocarbon surfactants to develop the perfluorocarbon system in the dry decontamination process in Korea. Several cationic and anionic pfc surfactants were synthesized. Effects of pfc surfactants on electrochemical etching of silicon were investigated to form porous silicons. Forces were measured between silicon surfaces and AFM tip in the absence and presence of pfc surfactants. 7 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  15. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: mirela@infim.ro; Nemtanu, Monica [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Minea, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grecu, Maria Nicoleta [National Institute for Materials Physics, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mazilu, Elena [Hofigal SA (Romania); Radulescu, Nora [Hofigal SA (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

  16. Decontamination properties of bentonite in rats irradiated contaminated with radiocesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, S.; Dziura, A. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Decontamination properties of bentonite were examined in rats irradiated with 154.5 mC/kg and contaminated with 13.83 kBq of Cs-137. The rats were fed a granulated LSM diet supplemented with 10% bentonite for 1, 3 and 5 days and were examined radiometrically for Cs-137 concentration in the small intestine, liver, kidneys, lung, spleen, heart, muscles, tongue, blood, brain, testicles and prostate. The findings revealed that the highest decontamination efficacy in the rats contaminated 1 and 5 days postirradiation was achieved after three-day administration of bentonite. (author). 16 refs, 2 tabs.

  17. A Method for Image Decontamination Based on Partial Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Junping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will introduce the method to apply partial differential equations for the decontamination processing of images. It will establish continuous partial differential mathematical models for image information and use specific solving methods to conduct decontamination processing to images during the process of solving partial differential equations, such as image noise reduction, image denoising and image segmentation. This paper will study the uniqueness of solution for the partial differential equations and the monotonicity that functional constrain has on multipliers by making analysis of the ROF model in the partial differential mathematical model.

  18. Economies of capacity use in decontamination of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the economies of capacity use regarding hot water decontamination to reduce postslaughter risk of pathogens in meat, taking interfarm heterogeneities of Salmonella risk and costs of transportation into account, using Denmark as a case study. If risk reduction goals are stated...... at the processing plant level, then the exploitation of the favorable cost-effectiveness properties of hot water slaughtering requires fairly ambitious risk reduction goals and thus high use of decontamination capacity. If instead risk reduction goals are formulated for the sector as a whole, the cost...

  19. [Decontamination of continual cell lines spontaneously infected with mycoplasmas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machatková, M; Jurmanová, K; Snejdar, V

    1986-07-01

    The continual cell lines of bovine kidneys MDBK and AUBEK, and porcine kidneys RPD and IBRS, spontaneously infected with Mycoplasma arginini and Acholeplasma laidlawii, were decontaminated by the method of selective elimination. Two elimination procedures were modified to be used for the decontamination: one based on the reduction of infection by the light treatment of the cultures, the other based on the selection of mycoplasma-free cell population through cell clonation. On the basis of a long-continued control of the cell clones a methodical procedure of the preparation of mycoplasma-free cell lines was worked out.

  20. Electron beam irradiation for biological decontamination of Spirulina platensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasoveanu, Mirela; Nemtanu, Monica; Minea, R.; Grecu, Maria Nicoleta; Mazilu, Elena; Radulescu, Nora

    2005-10-01

    The Cyanobacterium Spirulina is commercialized for its use in health foods and for therapeutic purposes due to its valuable constituents particularly proteins and vitamins. The aim of the paper is to study the Spirulina platensis behaviour when it is electron beam irradiated for biological decontamination. Microbial load, antioxidant activity, enzymatic inhibition, electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-Vis spectra were measured for doses up to 80 kGy. The results were correlated with doses in order to find where decontamination is efficient, keeping the Spirulina qualities.

  1. Decontamination and Decommissioned Small Nuclear AIP Hybrid Systems Submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangya Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Being equipped with small reactor AIP is the trend of conventional submarine power in 21st century as well as a real power revolution in conventional submarine. Thus, the quantity of small reactor AIP Submarines is on the increase, and its decommissioning and decontamination will also become a significant international issue. However, decommissioning the small reactor AIP submarines is not only a problem that appears beyond the lifetime of the small reactor nuclear devices, but the problem involving the entire process of design, construction, running and closure. In the paper, the problem is explored based on the conception and the feasible decommissioning and decontamination means are supplied to choose from.

  2. A mass casualty incident involving children and chemical decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Nathan; Reeves, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents involving contaminated children are a rare but ever-present possibility. In this article we outline one such event that resulted in 53 pediatric patients and 3 adults presenting to the emergency department of a children's hospital for decontamination and treatment. We pay special attention to the training that allowed this responses to occur. We also outline the institutional response with emphasis on incident command, communication, and resource utilization. Specific lessons learned are explored in detail. Finally, we set forth a series of recommendations to assist other institutions should they be called upon to care for and decontaminate pediatric patients.

  3. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    EHS is being developed for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals. EHS involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface; high impulse pressure results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. Objective of Phase I was to prove the technical feasibility of EH for controlled scabbling and decontamination of concrete. Phase I is complete.

  4. Mycotoxin Decontamination of Food: Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma versus "Classic" Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnik, Nataša; Cvelbar, Uroš; Tavčar-Kalcher, Gabrijela; Walsh, James L; Križaj, Igor

    2017-04-28

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several filamentous fungi, which frequently contaminate our food, and can result in human diseases affecting vital systems such as the nervous and immune systems. They can also trigger various forms of cancer. Intensive food production is contributing to incorrect handling, transport and storage of the food, resulting in increased levels of mycotoxin contamination. Mycotoxins are structurally very diverse molecules necessitating versatile food decontamination approaches, which are grouped into physical, chemical and biological techniques. In this review, a new and promising approach involving the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma is considered, which may overcome multiple weaknesses associated with the classical methods. In addition to its mycotoxin destruction efficiency, cold atmospheric pressure plasma is cost effective, ecologically neutral and has a negligible effect on the quality of food products following treatment in comparison to classical methods.

  5. Oily skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  6. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body. Without skin, people's muscles, bones, and organs would be hanging out all over the place. Skin holds everything together. It also: protects our bodies helps keep our bodies at just the right temperature allows us to have the sense of touch Don't Miss Your Epidermis The ...

  7. Definition of a concrete bio-decontamination process in nuclear substructures; Biodegradation de matrices cimentaires en vue de leur decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jestin, A

    2005-05-15

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high-importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those micro-organisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  8. Modelling of the hydrodynamic behaviour of a decontamination foam; Modelisation du comportement hydrodynamique d'une mousse de decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faury, M.; Fournel, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    Decontamination of large components of nuclear power plants (refrigerants, vapor generators, effluents storage tanks...) produces an important volume of secondary effluents. The use of decontamination foams is an alternative allowing a significant diminution of this volume (about of a factor ten). The aim of this work is to propose models which could be applied by an industrialist in order to anticipate the behaviour of a foam flowing out in a component of any geometry and simplifying then the pre-study steps. (O.M.)

  9. Role of antioxidants in the skin: anti-aging effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hitoshi

    2010-05-01

    Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) advance skin aging, which is characterized by wrinkles and atypical pigmentation. Because UV enhances ROS generation in cells, skin aging is usually discussed in relation to UV exposure. The use of antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced aging of the skin. In this review, the mechanisms of ROS generation and ROS elimination in the body are summarized. The effects of ROS generated in the skin and the roles of ROS in altering the skin are also discussed. In addition, the effects of representative antioxidants on the skin are summarized with a focus on skin aging.

  10. Results of chemical decontamination of DOE`s uranium-enrichment scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    The CORPEX{reg_sign} Nuclear Decontamination Processes were used to decontaminate representative scrap metal specimens obtained from the existing scrap metal piles located at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. In September 1995, under contract to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, MELE Associates, Inc. performed the on-site decontamination demonstration. The decontamination demonstration proved that significant amounts of the existing DOE scrap metal can be decontaminated to levels where the scrap metal could be economically released by DOE for beneficial reuse. This simple and environmentally friendly process can be used as an alternative, or in addition to, smelting radiologically contaminated scrap metal.

  11. Skin absorption of actinides: influence of solvents or chelates on skin penetration ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazrart, Anissa; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Coudert, Sylvie; Lamart, Stephanie; Miller, Brian W; Angulo, Jaime F; Briançon, Stéphanie; Griffiths, Nina M

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate skin penetration and retention of americium (Am) and plutonium (Pu), in different chemical forms relevant to the nuclear industry and to treatment by chelation. Percutaneous penetration of different Am and Pu forms were evaluated using viable pig skin with the Franz cell diffusion system. The behavior of the complex Pu-tributyl phosphate (Pu-TBP), Am or Pu complexed to the chelator Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was assessed. Radioactivity was measured in skin and receiver compartments. Three approaches were used to visualize activity in skin including the recent iQID technique for quantification. Transfer of Am was 24-fold greater than Pu and Pu-TBP complex penetration was enhanced by 500-fold. Actinide-DTPA transfer was greater than the Am or Pu alone (17-fold and 148-fold, respectively). The stratum corneum retained the majority of activity in all cases and both DMSO and TBP enhanced skin retention of Am and Pu, respectively. Histological and bioimaging data confirmed these results and the iQID camera allowed the quantification of skin activity. Skin penetration and fixation profiles are different depending on the chemical actinide form. Altered behavior of Pu-TBP and actinide-DTPA complexes reinforces the need to address decontamination protocols.

  12. Chemical decontamination of façade cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzold, Merlin A.; Landel, Julien R.; Dalziel, Stuart B.

    2016-11-01

    The problem of cleaning and decontamination of buildings arises in the context of chemical spillages, terrorist attacks, industrial applications and in day-to-day situations such as the removal of graffiti. A common feature of all buildings is the existence of cracks and fissures, which act as contaminant traps. This contribution reports experiments and modelling of the removal of a water-soluble contaminant from the bottom of an idealised V-shaped crack. The contaminant is dissolved in a polymer thickened droplet. The surface washing techniques commonly used in industrial decontamination induce a flow in the crack which is mostly controlled by the crack geometry. Rinsing with pure water is compared against the situation in which a neutralising chemical is present. The cleaning process is modelled by solving the time-dependent diffusion equation within the droplet coupled to the steady state advection-diffusion equation outside the droplet. This approach is similar to the work of Landel et al. on decontaminating plane surfaces beneath falling films. Our results indicate that the proposed model describes successfully the earlier stages of decontamination. In later stages the dissolution of the thickened matrix may contribute to the process.

  13. Chemical decontamination technical resources at Los Alamos National Laboratory (2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Murray E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    This document supplies information resources for a person seeking to create planning or pre-planning documents for chemical decontamination operations. A building decontamination plan can be separated into four different sections: Pre-planning, Characterization, Decontamination (Initial response and also complete cleanup), and Clearance. Of the identified Los Alamos resources, they can be matched with these four sections: Pre-planning -- Dave Seidel, EO-EPP, Emergency Planning and Preparedness; David DeCroix and Bruce Letellier, D-3, Computational fluids modeling of structures; Murray E. Moore, RP-2, Aerosol sampling and ventilation engineering. Characterization (this can include development projects) -- Beth Perry, IAT-3, Nuclear Counterterrorism Response (SNIPER database); Fernando Garzon, MPA-11, Sensors and Electrochemical Devices (development); George Havrilla, C-CDE, Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering; Kristen McCabe, B-7, Biosecurity and Public Health. Decontamination -- Adam Stively, EO-ER, Emergency Response; Dina Matz, IHS-IP, Industrial hygiene; Don Hickmott, EES-6, Chemical cleanup. Clearance (validation) -- Larry Ticknor, CCS-6, Statistical Sciences.

  14. The Ultimate Hacker: SETI Signals May Need to Be Decontaminated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.

    2004-06-01

    Biological contamination from space is a remote but recognized possibility. SETI signals might also contain harmful information. Some argue that a SETI signal could not contaminate a terrestrial computer because the idiosyncratic computer logic and code constitute an impenetrable firewall. Suggestions are given below on how to probe these arguments and decontaminate SETI signals.

  15. Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients and processing aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3-10 kGy (0.3-1 mrad) have proved sufficient to reduce the viable counts to a satisfactory level. Ionising radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature. The flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for satisfactory decontamination, and radiation obviates the chemical residue problem. The microflora surviving radiation decontamination of dry ingredients are more susceptible to subsequent antimicrobial treatments. Recontamination can be prevented as the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation could be carried out in commercial containers and would result in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of these commodities is an established technology in several countries and more clearances on irradiated foods are expected to be granted in the near future.

  16. Disinfectants used for environmental disinfection and new room decontamination technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2013-05-01

    Environmental contamination plays an important role in the transmission of several key health care-associated pathogens. Effective and thorough cleaning/disinfecting of the patient environment is essential. Room decontamination units (such as ultraviolet-C and hydrogen peroxide systems) aid in reducing environmental contamination after terminal room cleaning and disinfection.

  17. Use of selective digestive tract decontamination in European intensive cares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis Miranda, D; Citerio, G; Perner, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that the use of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) reduces mortality. However, fear for increasing multi drug resistance might prevent wide acceptance. A survey was performed among the units registered in the European Registry for Intensive Care...

  18. Ultrasonic decontamination of prototype fast breeder reactor fuel pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Bhatt, R B; Behere, P G; Afzal, Mohd

    2014-04-01

    Fuel pin decontamination is the process of removing particulates of radioactive material from its exterior surface. It is an important process step in nuclear fuel fabrication. It assumes more significance with plutonium bearing fuel known to be highly radio-toxic owing to its relatively longer biological half life and shorter radiological half life. Release of even minute quantity of plutonium oxide powder in the atmosphere during its handling can cause alarming air borne activity and may pose a severe health hazard to personnel working in the vicinity. Decontamination of fuel pins post pellet loading operation is thus mandatory before they are removed from the glove box for further processing and assembly. This paper describes the setting up of ultrasonic decontamination process, installed inside a custom built fume-hood in the production line, comprising of a cleaning tank with transducers, heaters, pin handling device and water filtration system and its application in cleaning of fuel pins for prototype fast breeder reactor. The cleaning process yielded a typical decontamination efficiency of more than 99%.

  19. Pulse lavage washing in decontamination of allografts improves safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Vuento, R

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the bacterial contamination rate of 140 femoral head allografts after rinsing the allografts in different decontamination solutions. Bacterial screening methods and cleansing effect of antibiotics (cefuroxime and rifampicin) and pulse lavage were compared. Swabbing and taking small pieces of bone for culture were the screening methods used. Both methods proved to be quite unreliable. Approximately one-fourth of the results were false negative. Culturing small pieces of bone gave the most accurate and reliable results and, therefore, can be recommended as a bacterial screening method. The use of antibiotics in allograft decontamination is controversial. In prophylactic use antibiotics include risks of allergic reactions and resistant development and our results in the present study show that antibiotics do not improve the decontamination any better than low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution. Therefore, pulse lavage with sterile saline solution can be recommended for allograft decontamination. Our results demonstrate that it decreases bacterial bioburden as effectively as the antibiotics without persisting the disadvantages.

  20. Fundamental study of cesium decontamination from soil by superconducting magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Susumu, E-mail: igarashi@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko, E-mail: yoko-ak@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The method for the soil decontamination by the superconducting magnet is proposed. •Cesium ion can be absorbed by Prussian blue in potassium iodide wash fluid. •It is possible to recover Cs{sup +} ion-adsorbing Prussian blue with a high rate by HGMS. •It is expected that HGMS can be applied to the actual soil decontamination. -- Abstract: The radioactive substances have been spread out all over the surrounding area of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the accident in March 2011. Decontamination and volume reduction of radioactive substances, especially cesium ion, are desired issue. This study proposed a decontamination method of the soil by the magnetic separation using superconducting magnet. Cesium ion was adsorbed by Prussian blue in the potassium iodide solution. We succeeded in separating selectively the cesium ion-adsorbed Prussian blue out of the liquid phase by high gradient magnetic separation. High recovery ratio of the Prussian blue was achieved by this method.

  1. Pesticides water decontamination in oxygen-limited conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Ferrari, Federico; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Merli, Annalisa; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a laboratory bioreactor, with a functioning principle similar with that of biobed systems but working in oxygen-limited conditions, suitable for decontaminating wastewater mixtures with pesticides. The system is composed by two cylindrical plastic containers. The first one, where the pesticides solution is collected, is open, whereas the second one, where the biomass is disposed, is closed. The pesticides solution was pumped at the biomass surface and subsequently recollected and disposed in the first container. Four pesticides with different physical-chemical characteristics were tested. The results obtained showed a relatively good capacity of the developed prototype to decontaminate waste water containing the mixture of pesticides. The time of the experiment, the number of cycles that the solution made in the system and the environmental temperature have a significantly influence for the decontamination of acetochlor and chlorpyrifos whereas for the decontamination of terbuthylazine and metalaxyl no significant influence was observed. Even if the present prototype could represent a valid solution to manage the water pesticides residues in a farm and to increase the confidence of bystanders and residents, the practical difficulties when replacing the biomass could represent a limit of the system.

  2. Decontamination of tried-in orthodontic molar bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, M R; Ireland, A J; Main, B G

    2003-12-01

    Molar bands are commonly used to retain orthodontic attachments on posterior teeth and due to the variation in the size of such teeth, it is usually necessary to 'try in' several bands before the correct one is selected. A possible concern with re-using such bands is the lack of cross-infection control, even following autoclaving, due to the presence of one or more small bore lumen (the archwire and headgear tubes). The aim of this experiment was, therefore, to determine whether such bands could be successfully decontaminated so that they could be re-used without a cross-infection risk. Two hundred orthodontic molar bands that had previously been tried in patients' mouths, but not cemented into place, were tested. Each band was decontaminated using an enzymatic cleaner/disinfectant and then sterilized using either a downward displacement (n = 100) or a vacuum cycle autoclave (n = 100). Following autoclaving each band was inoculated into brain heart infusion culture broth and incubated at 37 degrees C for 5 days. None of the decontaminated bands exhibited growth after 5 days. It would appear that, using this methodology, there is little risk of a cross-infection hazard occurring with the re-use of previously tried-in and decontaminated molar bands.

  3. Selective digestive decontamination in patients in intensive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, MJM; Kullberg, BJ; Girbes, ARJ; Hoepelman, IM; Hustinx, W; van der Meer, JWM; Speelman, P; Stobberingh, EE; Verbrugh, HA; Verhoef, J; Zwaveling, JH

    2000-01-01

    Selective digestive decontamination (SDD) is the most extensively studied method for the prevention of infection in patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Despite 27 prospective randomized studies and six meta-analyses, routine use of SDD is still controversial. In this review, we summarize the av

  4. Median lethal dose determination for percutaneous exposure to soman and VX in guinea pigs and the effectiveness of decontamination with M291 SDK or SANDIA foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Edward D; Schulz, Susan M; Railer, Roy F; Smith, Kelly H

    2012-08-03

    Soman (GD) and VX are chemical warfare agents that can be absorbed through the skin. We determined the median lethal dose (MLD) for the cutaneous application of GD and VX in anesthetized haired guinea pigs and then tested the ability of a currently fielded decontamination kit, the M291 Skin Decontamination Kit (SDK), and decontaminating foam made by SANDIA Labs to decontaminate areas that have been exposed to cutaneous applications of GD and VX. The fur of guinea pigs was clipped on the left flank 24h prior to exposure. Animals were anesthetized and 5 min later neat GD or neat VX was applied. The MLD for percutaneous exposure to GD was 11.6 mg/kg, and to VX it was 0.10mg/kg. To test the ability of the M291 SDK, either GD or VX was applied and removed 1 min later with the pads of the M291 SDK clasped in a pair of forceps and wiped across the flank of the animal. The MLDs for GD and VX removed with the M291 SDK pads were 76.9 mg/kg and 0.87 mg/kg, respectively. When neat GD or neat VX was applied and removed 1 min later in the same manner with gauze soaked in SANDIA foam (MDF-100), the MLDs were 412 mg/kg and 10.4 mg/kg respectively. These data demonstrate that GD and VX are significantly less potent when applied cutaneously than previously reported for subcutaneous injections and indicate that improvement is needed on the limited protective ratio provided by the M291 SDK.

  5. Reactive Hypoglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) that occurs while fasting. Signs and symptoms of reactive hypoglycemia may include ... and very important. It's also important to include physical activity in your daily routine. Your doctor can help ...

  6. Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Erken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299

  7. Legionella on board trains: effectiveness of environmental surveillance and decontamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaranta Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila is increasingly recognised as a significant cause of sporadic and epidemic community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Many studies describe the frequency and severity of Legionella spp. contamination in spa pools, natural pools, hotels and ships, but there is no study analysing the environmental monitoring of Legionella on board trains. The aims of the present study were to conduct periodic and precise environmental surveillance of Legionella spp. in water systems and water tanks that supply the toilet systems on trains, to assess the degree of contamination of such structures and to determine the effectiveness of decontamination. Methods A comparative pre-post ecological study was conducted from September 2006 to January 2011. A total of 1,245 water samples were collected from plumbing and toilet water tanks on passenger trains. The prevalence proportion of all positive samples was calculated. The unpaired t-test was performed to evaluate statistically significant differences between the mean load values before and after the decontamination procedures; statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results In the pre-decontamination period, 58% of the water samples were positive for Legionella. Only Legionella pneumophila was identified: 55.84% were serogroup 1, 19.03% were serogroups 2–14 and 25.13% contained both serogroups. The mean bacterial load value was 2.14 × 103 CFU/L. During the post-decontamination period, 42.75% of water samples were positive for Legionella spp.; 98.76% were positive for Legionella pneumophila: 74.06% contained serogroup 1, 16.32% contained serogroups 2–14 and 9.62% contained both. The mean bacterial load in the post-decontamination period was 1.72 × 103 CFU/L. According to the t-test, there was a statistically significant decrease in total bacterial load until approximately one and a half year after beginning the decontamination programme (p

  8. Decontamination Processes for Restorative Operations and as a Precursor to Decommissioning: A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J. L.; Divine, J. R.

    1981-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an comprehensive literature review of actual reactor decontamination processes that are currently available. In general, any decontamination process should be based on the following criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, safety, and waste production. The information that was collected and analyzed has been divided into three major categories of decontamination: chemical, mechanical, and electrochemical. Chemical methods can be further classified as either low-concentration, singlestep processes or high-concentration, single- or multistep processes. Numerous chemical decontamination methods are detailed. Mechanical decontamination methods are usually restricted to the removal of a contaminated surface layer, whlch limits their versatility; several mechanical decontamination methods are described. Electrochemical decontamination. is both fast and easily controlled, and numerous processes that have been used in industry for many years are discussed. Information obtained from this work is tabulated in Appendix A for easy access, and a bibliography and a glossary have been provided.

  9. Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A; Ravnbak, Mette H

    2010-01-01

    Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure....

  10. Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A; Ravnbak, Mette H

    2010-01-01

    Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure....

  11. Fighting Ebola through Novel Spore Decontamination Technologies for the Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Doona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRecently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF, the World Health Organization (WHO, Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH, and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs, a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned. The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2 produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army – Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established nonthermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers

  12. Development of the dry decontamination technique using plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Seo, Yong Dae; Lee, Dong Uk; Jeon, Sang Hwan; Jung, Young Suk [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced dry decontamination method, dry decontamination technique using gaseous plasma is studied. Scopes of the research are 1) literature survey and case studies of the international R and D activities and industrial application, 2) contaminant characteristics analysis, 3) feasibility and applicability study of the unit techniques, 4) process development study on the plasma decontamination, 5) plasma diagnostics and quantitative analysis by QMS and OES, and 6) design of (microwave) plasma torch system. The major research results are as belows. The maximum etching rate of UO{sub 2} is achieved to be 0.8 {mu}m/min. under 300 deg C, 150 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} r.f. plasma maintaining the optimum ratio of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} of four, and that of Co and Mo is 0.06 {mu}m/min. and 1.9 {mu}m/min., respectively, under 380 deg C, 220 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} r.f. plasma. The optimum process for the dry decontamination of TRU, CP, and or FP nuclides, therefore, requires the optimum gas composition above 350 deg C and 220W power. It is also demonstrated that this optimum process can be extrapolated to atmospheric high power torch system. In conclusion, if plasma power and temperature increases with maintaining the optimum gas composition, this dry decontamination techniques must be definitely effective and efficient. 17 refs., 62 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  13. Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: model studies and commercial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofos, J N; Smith, G C

    1998-11-10

    Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, the new regulations have established microbiological testing criteria for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as a means of evaluating plant performance. These developments have renewed and intensified interest in the development and commercial application of meat and poultry decontamination procedures. Technologies developed and evaluated for decontamination include live animal cleaning/washing, chemical dehairing, carcass knife-trimming to remove physical contaminants, steam/hot water-vacuuming for spot-cleaning/decontamination of carcasses, spray washing/rinsing of carcasses with water of low or high pressures and temperatures or chemical solutions, and exposure of carcass sides to pressurized steam. Under appropriate conditions, the technologies applied to carcasses may reduce mean microbiological counts by approximately one-three log colony forming units (cfu)/cm2, and some of them have been approved and are employed in commercial applications (i.e., steam-vacuuming; carcass spray-washing with water, chlorine, organic acid or trisodium phosphate solutions; hot water deluging/spraying/rinsing, and pressurized steam). The contribution of these decontamination technologies to the enhancement of food safety will be determined over the long term, as surveillance data on microbial foodborne illness are collected. This review examines carcass decontamination technologies, other than organic acids, with emphasis placed on recent advances and commercial applications.

  14. Treatability studies for decontamination of Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, W.D.; Fowler, V.L.; Perona, J.J.; McTaggart, D.R.

    1992-08-01

    Liquid low-level waste, primarily nitric acid contaminated with radionuclides and minor concentrations of organics and heavy metals, is neutralized with sodium hydroxide, concentrated by evaporation, and stored for processing and disposal. The evaporator concentrate separates into sludge and supernate phases upon cooling. The supernate is 4 to 5 mol/L sodium nitrate contaminated with soluble radionuclides, principally {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 14}C, while the sludge consists of precipitated carbonates and hydroxides of metals and transuranic elements. Methods for treatment and disposal of this waste are being developed. In studies to determine the feasibility of removing {sup 137}Cs from the supernates before solidification campaigns, batch sorption measurements were made from four simulated supernate solutions with four different samples of potassium hexacyanocobalt ferrate (KCCF). Cesium decontamination factors of 1 to 8 were obtained with different KCCF batches from a highly-salted supernate at pH 13. Decontamination factors as high as 50 were measured from supernates with lower salt content and pH, in fact, the pH had a greater effect than the solution composition on the decontamination factors. The decontamination factors were highest after 1 to 2 d of mixing and decreased with longer mixing times due to decomposition of the KCCF in the alkaline solution. The decontamination factors decreased with settling time and were lower for the same total contact time (mixing + settling) for the longer mixing times, indicating more rapid KCCF decomposition during mixing than during settling. There was no stratification of cesium in the tubes as the KCCF decomposed.

  15. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Echol E; Beatty, Tia Maria

    1998-07-01

    The following paragraphs comprise the research efforts during the second quarter of 1998 (April 1 - June 30.) These tasks have been granted a continuation until the end of August 1998. This report represents the last technical quarterly report deliverable for the WVU Cooperative Agreement - Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program. Final draft technical reports will be the next submission. During this period, work was completed on the Injection and Circulation of Potable Water Through PVDs on Task 1.6 - Pilot Scale Demonstration of TCE Flushing Through PVDs at the DOE/RMI Extrusion Plant. The data has been evaluated and representative graphs are presented. The plot of Cumulative Injected Volume vs. Cumulative Week Time show the ability to consistently inject through the two center PVDs at a rate of approximately ten (10) gallons per hour. This injection rate was achieved under a static head that varied from five (5) feet to three (3) feet. The plot of Extracted Flow Rate vs. Cumulative Week Time compares the extraction rate with and without the injection of water. The injection operation was continuous for eight hour periods while the extraction operation was executed over a pulsing schedule. Extraction rates as high as forty-five (45) gallons per hour were achieved in conjunction with injection (a 350% increase over no injection.) The retrieved TCE in the liquid phase varied to a considerable degree depending on the pulsing scheme, indicating a significant amount of stripping (volatilization) took place during the extraction process. A field experiment was conducted to confirm this. A liquid sample was obtained using the same vacuum system used in the pad operation and a second liquid sample was taken by a bailer. Analyzation of TCE concentration showed 99.5% volatilization when the vacuum system was used for extraction. This was also confirmed by data from the air monitoring program which indicated that 92%-99% of the retrieved TCE was being

  16. Aging skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L

    1995-01-16

    Aging of the skin is a composite of actinic damage, chronologic aging, and hormonal influences. The majority of changes associated with aging, such as wrinkles and solar lentigines ("liver spots"), are due to photoaging and reflect cumulative sun exposure as well as skin pigmentation. Classically, chronologic aging includes those cutaneous changes that occur in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the buttocks, and are observed in both men and women. A clinical example would be soft tissue sagging due to elastic fiber degeneration. In women, investigations into the effect of hormones on aging of the skin have concentrated on estrogens; in men, there have been a limited number of studies on the influence of testosterone. The latter have shown an age-dependent decrease in tissue androgens in pubic skin, but not scrotal or thigh skin. To date, age has not been shown to have an effect on androgen receptor binding, although a decrease in foreskin 5 alpha-reductase activity with increasing age has been described. In fibroblast cultures from foreskins, there have been conflicting results as to whether 5 alpha-reductase activity decreases in an age-dependent manner. Some of the skin changes that have been categorized as secondary to chronologic aging, such as decreased sebaceous gland activity and decreased hair growth, may actually represent a decline in the concentration of tissue androgens with increasing age. The influence of androgens on age-related changes in keratinocyte and fibroblast function remains speculative.

  17. Decontamination of soils and materials containing medium-fired PuO{sub 2} using inhibited fluorides with polymer filtration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temer, D.J.; Villarreal, R.; Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The decontamination of soils and/or materials from medium-fired plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) with an effective and efficient decontamination agent that will not significantly dissolve the matrix requires a new and innovative technology. After testing several decontamination agents and solutions for dissolution of medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, the most successful decontamination solutions were fluoride compounds, which were effective in breaking the Pu-oxide bond but would not extensively dissolve soil constituents and other materials. The fluoride compounds, tetra fluoboric acid (HBF{sub 4}) and hydrofluorosilicic acid (H{sub 2}F{sub 6}Si), were effective in dissolving medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, and did not seem to have the potential to dissolve the matrix. In both compounds, the fluoride atom is attached to a boron or silicon atom that inhibits the reactivity of the fluoride towards other compounds or materials containing atoms less attracted to the fluoride atom in an acid solution. Because of this inhibition of the reactivity of the fluoride ion, these compounds are termed inhibited fluoride compounds or agents. Both inhibited fluorides studied effectively dissolved medium-fired PuO{sub 2} but exhibited a tendency to not attack stainless steel or soil. The basis for selecting inhibited fluorides was confirmed during leaching tests of medium-fired PuO{sub 2} spiked into soil taken from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When dissolved in dilute HNO{sub 3}, HCl, or HBr, both inhibited fluoride compounds were effective at solubilizing the medium-fired PuO{sub 2} from spiked INEL soil.

  18. Bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles for groundwater decontamination: effect of groundwater constituents on surface deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanlai; Yan, Weile

    2014-12-01

    The incorporation of catalytic metals on iron nanoparticles to form bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) generates a class of highly reactive materials for degrading chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene, TCE) in groundwater. Successful implementation of BNPs to groundwater decontamination relies critically on the stability of surface reactive sites of BNPs in groundwater matrices. This study investigated the effect of common groundwater solutes on TCE reduction with Ni-Fe (with Ni at 2 wt.%) bimetallic nanoparticles (herein denoted as Ni-Fe BNPs). Batch experiments involving pre-exposing the nanoparticles to various groundwater solutions for 24 h followed by reactions with TCE solutions were conducted. The results suggest that the deactivation behavior of Ni-Fe BNPs differs significantly from that of the well-studied Pd-Fe BNPs. Specifically, Ni-Fe BNPs were chemically stable in pure water. Mild reduction in TCE reaction rates were observed for Ni-Fe BNPs pre-exposed to chloride (Cl(-)), bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), sulfite (SO3(2-)) and humic acid solutions. Nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)) and phosphate (HPO4(2-)) may cause moderate to severe deactivation at elevated concentrations (>1 mM). Product analysis and surface chemistry investigations using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) reveal that NO3(-) decreased particle reactivity mainly due to progressive formation of passivating oxides, whereas SO4(2-) and phosphate elicited rapid deactivation as a result of specific poisoning of the surface nickel sites. At similar levels, phosphate is the most potent deactivation agent among the solutes examined in this study. While our findings point out the desirable quality of Ni-Fe nanoparticles, particularly their greater electrochemical stability compared to Pd-Fe BNPs, its susceptibility to chemical poisoning at high levels of complexing ligands is also noted. Groundwater chemistry is therefore an important factor to consider when

  19. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  20. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  1. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic formulary restrictions Access to ... Skin care for men Skin care on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin of ...

  2. Decontamination effects of low-temperature plasma generated by corona discharge. Part II: new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, V; Julák, J; Kríha, V; Mosinger, J; Kopecká, S

    2007-01-01

    The second part of our paper presents the results of experiments with the decontamination of surfaces by low-temperature plasma generated by corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. A simple device is described and the effects of the corona discharge on model microorganisms, viz. the yeast Candida albicans, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Neisseria sicca, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Gram-positive bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and vegetative and spore forms of Geobacillus stearothermophilus are discussed. A similar microbicidal effect after about one-minute exposure was observed in all vegetative forms of the microorganisms. Measurement in growth inhibition zones on a semisolid medium was used to determine the dependence of the microbicidal effect on exposure time and the distance between electrodes. Counting of colonies served to assess the microbicidal effect of the discharge on contaminated inert surfaces observable after more than 1 min exposure. Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were found to have several times lower susceptibility to the action of the discharge and the microbicidal effect was observed only after an 8 min exposure. Reaction with the iodide reagent did not unambiguously demonstrate the difference between ozone and singlet oxygen as presumed active components of the corona. The area distribution of reactive oxygen species was determined; it was found to differ from the Wartburg law depending on exposure time. Qualitative evidence was obtained on the penetration of the reactive oxygen species into the semisolid medium.

  3. Perforating disorders of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Arora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perforating disorders of the skin, is an often overlooked entity characterized by transepidermal elimination of material from the upper dermis and are classified histopathologically according to the type of epidermal disruption and the nature of the eliminated material. They include Kyrle′s disease, perforating folliculitis, reactive perforating collagenosis, and elastosis perforans serpiginosa. Aim: The aim of this study was to delineate the clinical and histopathological features of perforating disorders of the skin. Materials and Methods: In our study, we reviewed last 2 years skin biopsies received by us. Hematoxylin and eosin sections were re-examined and histochemical stainings (elastic van Gieson and Masson trichrome stains were also used for histopathological evaluation. Results: We reviewed five cases of perforating disorders of skin which included two cases of Kyrle′s disease, two cases of reactive perforating collagenosis and a single case of perforating folliculitis. Two patients had family history of perforating dermatosis in their siblings and three had associated systemic disease. Conclusion: Perforating disorders of the skin should be considered when ulcer with keratotic plugs is found.

  4. Study on the Decontamination Methodology for the Refurbishment of Spent Fuel Dry Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Moon, J. K.; Byambatsere, Baigalmaa; Park, G. I.; Lee, D. Y.; Lee, J. W.; Song, K. C.

    2010-01-15

    As the increase of the operation age of the domestic high radiation facilities such as IMEF, PIEF and DFDF, the necessity of decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells in these facilities is also increased. In the near future, the possibilities of refurbishment of hot cells in compliance with the new regulations, the reuse of hot cells for the other purposes and the decommissioning of the facilities also exist. The following contents were studied. 1) State of the art on the decontamination technologies on the spent fuel dry processing facility - Case study on the decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells in the foreign countries. - Understanding of radioactive contamination characteristics of spent fuel powder treatment equipment operated under the high radiation field of the spent fuel dry processing facility. - Evaluation of applicable decontamination technologies 2) Comparative tests of the candidate decontamination technology - Preparation of the surrogate test specimens and derivation of gel decontamination condition - Decontamination tests and comparison with light ablation method 3) Establishment of decontamination methodology for the refurbishment of hot cells of the spent fuel dry processing facility - Derivation of required equipment for the hot cell decontamination - Establishment of decontamination methodologies on the contaminated equipment

  5. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53-5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55-2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed.

  6. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC's novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  7. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  8. The Role of Antioxidants in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Godic; Borut Poljšak; Metka Adamic; Raja Dahmane

    2014-01-01

    Skin cells are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress from exogenous and endogenous sources. UV radiation is the most important environmental factor in the development of skin cancer and skin aging. The primary products caused by UV exposure are generally direct DNA oxidation or generation of free radicals which form and decompose extremely quickly but can produce effects that can last for hours, days, or even years. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin d...

  9. The Role of Antioxidants in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Godic; Borut Poljšak; Metka Adamic; Raja Dahmane

    2014-01-01

    Skin cells are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress from exogenous and endogenous sources. UV radiation is the most important environmental factor in the development of skin cancer and skin aging. The primary products caused by UV exposure are generally direct DNA oxidation or generation of free radicals which form and decompose extremely quickly but can produce effects that can last for hours, days, or even years. UV-induced generation of ROS in the skin d...

  10. Cefuroxime, rifampicin and pulse lavage in decontamination of allograft bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, M; Laitinen, M; Pirkkalainen, S; Vuento, R

    2004-03-01

    The risk of bacterial infection through allogenic bone transplantation is one of the major problems facing tissue banks. Different screening methods and decontamination procedures are being used to achieve a safe surgical result. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contamination rate in fresh frozen bone allografts after treating them with different decontamination methods. The allografts were contaminated by rubbing on the operating theatre floor for 60 min, after which they were rinsed either with sterile physiological saline, cefuroxime or rifampicin solution or they were washed with low-pressure pulse lavage of sterile physiological saline. Our findings show that low-pressure pulse lavage with sterile saline solution is very effective in removing bacteria from bone allograft, when compared with the antibiotic solutions tested.

  11. Biofilm mediated decontamination of pollutants from the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we highlight beneficial use of microbial biofilms in remediation of environmental pollutants by bioremediation. Bioremediation is an environment friendly, cost effective, sustainable technology that utilizes microbes to decontaminate and degrade a wide variety of pollutants into less harmful products. Relative to free-floating planktonic cells, microbes existing in biofilm mode are advantageous for bioremediation because of greater tolerance to pollutants, environmental stress and ability to degrade varied harsh pollutants via diverse catabolic pathways. In biofilm mode, microbes are immobilized in a self-synthesized matrix which offers protection from stress, contaminants and predatory protozoa. Contaminants ranging from heavy metals, petroleum, explosives, pesticides have been remediated using microbial consortia of biofilms. In the industry, biofilm based bioremediation is used to decontaminate polluted soil and groundwater. Here we discuss conventional and newer strategies utilizing biofilms in environmental remediation.

  12. Physico-Chemical Dynamics of Nanoparticle Formation during Laser Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, M.D.

    2005-06-01

    Laser-ablation based decontamination is a new and effective approach for simultaneous removal and characterization of contaminants from surfaces (e.g., building interior and exterior walls, ground floors, etc.). The scientific objectives of this research are to: (1) characterize particulate matter generated during the laser-ablation based decontamination, (2) develop a technique for simultaneous cleaning and spectroscopic verification, and (3) develop an empirical model for predicting particle generation for the size range from 10 nm to tens of micrometers. This research project provides fundamental data obtained through a systematic study on the particle generation mechanism, and also provides a working model for prediction of particle generation such that an effective operational strategy can be devised to facilitate worker protection.

  13. Decontamination and Decommissioning activities photobriefing book FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) is dedicated to the safe and cost effective D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. There is currently a backlog of more than 7,000 contaminated US Department of Energy facilities nationwide. Added to this are 110 licensed commercial nuclear power reactors operated by utilities learning to cope with deregulation and an aging infrastructure that supports the commercial nuclear power industry, as well as medical and other uses of radioactive materials. With this volume it becomes easy to understand the importance of addressing the unique issues and objectives associated with the D{ampersand}D of surplus nuclear facilities. This photobriefing book summarizes the decontamination and decommissioning projects and activities either completed or continuing at the ANL-E site during the year.

  14. Testing of a portable ultrahigh pressure water decontamination system (UHPWDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovell, A.; Dahlby, J.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the tests done with a portable ultrahigh pressure water decontamination system (UHPWDS) on highly radioactively contaminated surfaces. A small unit was purchased, modified, and used for in-situ decontamination to change the waste level of the contaminated box from transuranic (TRU) waste to low- level waste (LLW). Low-level waste is less costly by as much as a factor of five or more if compared with TRU waste when handling, storage, and disposal are considered. The portable unit we tested is commercially available and requires minimal utilities for operation. We describe the UHPWDS unit itself, a procedure for its use, the results of the testing we did, and conclusions including positive and negative aspects of the UHPWDS.

  15. Decontamination of Radionuclides from Concrete During and After Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Z.P.

    1998-09-15

    The objective was to clarify from the theoretical viewpoint the mechanical, diffusional, thermodynamic and electromagnetic aspects of the decontaminations problem, by means of developing a powerful computational model to evaluate the effect of a very rapid heating regime on the on the contaminated concrete walls or slabs. The practical objective was to assess the feasibility of the microwave heating scheme envisaged and determine its suitable parameters such as power and duration. This objective was complementary to, but separate from, the chemical and nuclear aspects of long-time processes that led to the contamination and various conceivable alternative methods of decontamination which were investigated by Dr. Brian Spalding of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with whom the start-up phase of this project was coordinated.

  16. Biophysical Evaluation of Food Decontamination Effects on Tissue and Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ann Zahle; Duelund, Lars; Brewer, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, the effects and efficiency of food surface decontamination processes, such as chlorine washing, radiation, or heating, have been evaluated by sensoric analysis and colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of surface swabs or carcass rinses. These methods suffice when determining probable...... employ differential scanning calorimetry, second harmonics generation imaging microscopy, two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and green fluorescence protein-expressing bacteria and compare our results with those obtained by traditional methods of food quality and safety evaluations. Our results show...

  17. Decontamination effectiveness of bentonite after a single administration of radiocesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, S.; Dziura, A. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland)

    1992-12-31

    Decontamination effectiveness of bentonite was investigated in male Wistar rats contaminated intragastrically with Cs 137. The contaminated animals were fed a granulated LSM diet with 10% addition of bentonite for 1, 3 and 5 days after the contamination. The results revealed that rats fed bentonite showed a significant decrease in the radioactivity in examined organs and tissues as early as one day after the contamination, which was intensified with the feeding period. (author). 28 refs, 1 tab.

  18. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  19. Uranium Enrichment: Analysis of Decontamination and Decommissioning Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    from a September 1991 report entitled Preliminary Cost Estimate Decontamination & Decommissioning of the Gaseous Diffusion Plants , prepared for DOE by...DOE) three aging uranium enrichment plants . These plants are located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah , Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. On October 16... Diffusion Plants Assessment of Costs for Remedial Actions. This report was prepared for DOE by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, DOE’s management and

  20. Recommendations and Proposed Strategic Plan: Water Sector Decontamination Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    representing the GCC and SCC on this working group, we would like to thank you for the opportunity to serve as leaders of this esteemed group of professionals...revolving fund-type initiative, self insurance, regional pooling, stratification of funding based on risk) Provide utilities with a resource to...SECTOR DECONTAMINATION ISSUES − Residential uses (e.g., toilet, washing, showering, cooling, pet consumption, cooking) − Business uses (e.g., with

  1. Dental unit water lines decontamination with the aid of nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Paramashivaiah

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Biofilm formation in DUWLs is inevitable with the subsequent release of part of microbiota into the otherwise sterile dental settings. These consequences can be quite serious on clinicians and dental patients. Though conventional measures in water decontamination have been partly successful, the quest for more foolproof methods has led to the use of latest technology, i.e., nanotechnology. The most practical option has to be chosen based on the ease of their usage.

  2. Dental unit water lines decontamination with the aid of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Paramashivaiah; M. L. V. Prabhuji; Roopalakshmi Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This article reviews the issue of dental unit waterline (DUWL) contamination which affects all the clinical and hospital settings. The contaminating microorganisms commonly isolated from these settings and the most pathogenic among them have serious consequences. Over the years several measures are inculcated for decontamination of water, their advantages and shortcomings have been addressed. Options using nanotechnology which are available in the market are described briefly. Materi...

  3. Application of a novel decontamination process using gaseous ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moat, J.; Shone, J.; Upton, M. [Manchester Univ., School of Medecine, Manchester (United Kingdom). Medical Microbiology, Translation Medicine; Cargill, J. [Old Medical School, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Microbiology

    2009-08-15

    Hospital surfaces that are touched regularly by staff carry bacterial spores and pathogens. Environmental disinfection of health care facilities is an important aspect of infection control. This paper presented a recent innovation aimed at improving hospital hygiene and decontamination of laboratory equipment. The vapour- and gas-based treatment was developed to penetrate rooms or soft furnishings and reach places inaccessible by conventional approaches. Surfaces seeded with a range of vegetative cells and spores of bacteria of clinical relevance were decontaminated using the ozone-based treatment. The efficiency of the approach for room sanitization was also evaluated. A quenching agent was used to rapidly reduce ozone concentrations to safe levels allowing treatment times of less than 1 h for most of the organisms tested. Bacteria was seeded onto agar plates and solid surfaces. Reductions in bacterial load of greater than 3 log values were then recorded for a number of organisms including Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Application of the process in a 30 m{sup 3} room showed similar reductions in viable counts for these organisms and for Clostridium difficile spores. It was concluded that ozone-based decontamination of healthcare environments could prove to be a highly cost-effective intervention. 35 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  4. Decontamination Methods Used for Dental Burs – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Deepa; Hugar, Santosh; Ranjan, Shashi; Kadani, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Infection control and modes of sterilizations are the key factors to avoid cross transmission of infection in the field of dentistry. Transmission of disease or infection is noted with improper sterilization of reused instruments. Dental burs are the most important tool in any endodontic or conservative procedures of teeth involving tooth contouring, restorative filling procedures and endodontic procedures. Hence, the present study is undertaken to assess the efficacy of different methods of sterilization or decontamination which are routinely used in dental clinics. Materials and Methods: For the present study 96 round diamond burs were selected and divided into 6 groups. These burs were used for the access cavity preparation to get contamination and subjected for bacteriological culture. After getting base line date burs were subjected to manual scrubbing, hot air oven, glass bead sterilizer, ultrasonic cleaner and autoclave to get post decontamination data. Results: The study revealed that mean colony forming units/ml of Streptococcus mutans decreased maximum for autoclave with 80% reduction, for Lactobacilli 76% reduction and for Candida albicans maximum reduction seen for glass bead sterilizer with 74%. Conclusion: Findings of our study revealed that none of the methods used were found to be absolutely efficacious in the decontamination of dental burs. However, among the experimental groups used in the present study, autoclave was found to be the relatively best method. PMID:25121062

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Mayaguez (Puerto Rico) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.K.; Freemerman, R.L. [Bechtel National, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1989-11-01

    On February 6, 1987 the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the final phase of the decontamination and decommissioning of the nuclear and reactor facilities at the Center for Energy and Environmental Research (CEER), in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Bechtel National, Inc., was made the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) contractor. The goal of the project was to enable DOE to proceed with release of the CEER facility for use by the University of Puerto Rico, who was the operator. This presentation describes that project and lesson learned during its progress. The CEER facility was established in 1957 as the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center, a part of the Atoms for Peace Program. It was a nuclear training and research institution with emphasis on the needs of Latin America. It originally consisted of a 1-megawatt Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), support facilities and research laboratories. After eleven years of operation the MTR was shutdown and defueled. A 2-megawatt TRIGA reactor was installed in 1972 and operated until 1976, when it woo was shutdown. Other radioactive facilities at the center included a 10-watt homogeneous L-77 training reactor, a natural uranium graphite-moderated subcritical assembly, a 200KV particle accelerator, and a 15,000 Ci Co-60 irradiation facility. Support facilities included radiochemistry laboratories, counting rooms and two hot cells. As the emphasis shifted to non-nuclear energy technology a name change resulted in the CEER designation, and plans were started for the decontamination and decommissioning effort.

  6. Decontamination of mass casualties--re-evaluating existing dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, Howard W; Siegelson, Henry J; Dickinson, Stanley; Halpern, Pinchas; Haraguchi, Yoshikura; Nocera, Anthony; Turineck, David

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 became the catalyst for many to shift their disaster preparedness efforts towards mass-casualty incidents. Emergency responders, healthcare workers, emergency managers, and public health officials worldwide are being tasked to improve their readiness by acquiring equipment, providing training and implementing policy, especially in the area of mass-casualty decontamination. Accomplishing each of these tasks requires good information, which is lacking. Management of the incident scene and the approach to victim care varies throughout the world and is based more on dogma than scientific data. In order to plan effectively for and to manage a chemical, mass-casualty event, we must critically assess the criteria upon which we base our response. This paper reviews current standards surrounding the response to a release of hazardous materials that results in massive numbers of exposed human survivors. In addition, a significant effort is made to prepare an international perspective on this response. Preparations for the 24-hour threat of exposure of a community to hazardous material are a community responsibility for first-responders and the hospital. Preparations for a mass-casualty event related to a terrorist attack are a governmental responsibility. Reshaping response protocols and decontamination needs on the differences between vapor and liquid chemical threats can enable local responders to effectively manage a chemical attack resulting in mass casualties. Ensuring that hospitals have adequate resources and training to mount an effective decontamination response in a rapid manner is essential.

  7. Irradiation as a decontamination processing for rice paper sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Michel M.; Thomaz, Fernanda S.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Aquino, Simone; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo USP, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Micologia]. E-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Starch is one of the most important plant products to man. The major sources of this compound for man's use are the cereals, but roots and tubers are also important. The starch industry comes in recent years growing and perfecting it self, leading to the necessity products with specific characteristics that take care the requirements of the market, it makes possible through processing raw material, still seldom explored. Rice paper sheet is an edible product derived from potatoes and rice, being commonly used to cover cakes, pies, and sweets in confectioner's shop. A microbiological control is necessary to give a high quality and to guarantee the security of this food. Irradiation would be a safe alternative as a decontamination method without adverse effects on the physical properties in the final products. The aim of this study was to investigate the best dose used as a decontamination method as well as discover the most prevalent fungi found in this product and changes on physical properties. Samples of rice paper sheet were irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy using a {sup 60}Co irradiator. Irradiation appeared as a safe alternative as a decontamination method without adverse effects on the physical properties in the final products. (author)

  8. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  9. Decontamination of dental implant surface in peri-implantitis treatment: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Mellado Valero, Ana; Buitrago Vera, Pedro José; Solá Ruiz, María Fernanda; Ferrer García, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Etiological treatment of peri-implantitis aims to reduce the bacterial load within the peri-implant pocket and decontaminate the implant surface in order to promote osseointegration. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the efficacy of different methods of implant surface decontamination. A search was conducted using the PubMed (Medline) database, which identified 36 articles including in vivo and in vitro studies, and reviews of different decontamination systems (chemical, mecha...

  10. Compatibility and Decontamination of High-Density Polyethylene Exposed to Sulfur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    and taken through the entire decontamination procedure. ***For coupons 11–20, the water temperature was ~65 oC when added. In all subsequent trials...the water temperature was ~ 95 oC. NA, not applicable. 11 Table 3. Decontamination Data–Pretreated Coupons Coupon Name and Number...COMPATIBILITY AND DECONTAMINATION OF HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE EXPOSED TO SULFUR MUSTARD ECBC-TR-1235

  11. EDF/CIDEN - ONECTRA: PWR decontamination; EDF/CIDEN - ONECTRA: assainissement REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayolle, P. [EDFICIDEN, 35-37, rue Louis Guerin - B.P. 21212, 69611 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Orcel, H. [ONECTRA, ZA les Tomples BP45, 26701 Pierrelatte Cedex (France); Wertz, L. [ONECTRA, Le Britannia, Allee C, 20 Bd Eugene Deruelle, 69432 Lyon Cedex 03 (France)

    2010-07-01

    In the context of PWR circuit renewal (expected in 2011) and their decontamination, an analysis of data coming from cartography and on site decontamination measurements as well as from premise modelling by means of the PANTHERE radioprotection code, is presented. Several French PWRs have been studied. After a presentation of code principles and operation, the authors discuss the radiological context of a workstation, and give an assessment of the annual dose associated with maintenance operations with or without decontamination

  12. Skin and surface lead contamination, hygiene programs, and work practices of bridge surface preparation and painting contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Woskie, Susan R; Pepper, Lewis D

    2009-02-01

    A 2005 regulatory review of the lead in construction standard by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) noted that alternative pathways of exposure can be as significant as inhalation exposure and that noncompliance with the standard pertaining to hygiene facilities and practices was the second most commonly violated section of the standard. Noncompliance with provisions of the standard and unhealthy work and hygiene practices likely increase the likelihood of take-home lead via contaminated clothing, automobiles, and skin, thus contributing to elevated blood lead levels (BLL) among construction workers and their family members. We performed a cross-sectional study of bridge painters working for small contractors in Massachusetts to investigate causes of persistent elevated BLLs and to assess lead exposures. Thirteen work sites were evaluated for a 2-week period during which surface and skin wipe samples were collected and qualitative information was obtained on personal hygiene practices, decontamination and hand wash facilities, and respiratory protection programs. Results showed lead contamination on workers' skin, respirators, personal automobiles, and the decontamination unit, indicating a significant potential for take-home lead exposure. Overall, the geometric mean (GM) skin lead levels ranged from 373 microg on workers' faces at end of shift to 814 microg on hands at break time. The overall GM lead level inside respirators was 143 microg before work and 286 microg after work. Lead contamination was also present inside workers' personal vehicles as well as on surfaces inside the clean side of the decontamination unit. Review of the respiratory protection programs, work site decontamination and hand wash facilities, and personal hygiene practices indicated that these factors had significant impact on skin and surface contamination levels and identified significant opportunities for improving work site facilities and personal practices

  13. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  14. Decontamination of B. globigii spores from drinking water infrastructure using disinfectants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to common drinking water infrastructure surfaces was evaluated using a variety of disinfectants. Corroded iron and...

  15. Decontamination and decommissioning technology tree and the current status of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H.J.; Kim, G.N.; Lee, K.W.; Chol, W.K.; Jung, C.H.; Kim, C.J.; Kim, S.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Chung, C.M

    2001-03-01

    A technology tree diagram was developed on the basis of the necessary technologies applicable to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The technology tree diagram is consist of 6 main areas such as characterization, decontamination, decommissioning and remote technology, radwaste management, site restoration, and decommissioning plan and engineering. Characterization is divided into 4 regions such as sampling and data collection, general characterization, chemical analysis and radiological analysis. Decontamination is also divided into 4 regions such as chemical decontamination, mechanical decontamination, the other decontamination technologies and new decontamination technologies. Decommissioning and remote technology area is divided into 4 regions such as cutting techniques, decommissioning technologies, new developing technologies and remote technologies. Radwaste management area is divided into 5 regions such as solid waste treatment, sludge treatment, liquid waste treatment, gas waste treatment and thermal treatment. Site restoration area is divided into 3 regions such as the evaluation of site contamination, soil decontamination and ground water decontamination. Finally, permission, decommissioning process, cost evaluation, quality assurance and the estimation of radionuclide inventory were mentioned in the decommissioning plan and engineering area. The estimated items for each technology are applicable domestic D and D facilities, D and D problem area and contamination/requirement, classification of D and D technology, similar technology, principle and overview of technology, status, science technology needs, implementation needs, reference and contact point.

  16. Evaluation of Veriox as a Skin Decontamination Product after Dermal Exposure to the Nerve Agent VX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    proprietary peracids. A 1:6 dilution in deionized water was prepared according to the manufacturer’s formula each test day. VX Exposure: Neat VX was...were analyzed by probit analysis using SAS NLIN and special purpose probit programs developed by Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) to generate an interim LD50

  17. Development of a Safe and Effective Skin Decontamination System: Demonstration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    519 26.0% (by weight) Hydroxypropyl cellulose 7.3% Preservative blend 1.0% (methylparaben, propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea in propylene glycol...concentrations of mineral oil and modified maize starch. Two formulations eventually evolved from this early work. Both contained maize starch, fumed silica, and...not it would be necessary to monitor bacteria as part of future stability/shelf-life testing, or possibly include a bactericide in the resin system

  18. Rosacea, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Azelaic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Jones

    2009-01-01

    Rosacea is a common skin condition thought to be primarily an inflammatory disorder. Neutrophils, in particular, have been implicated in the inflammation associated with rosacea and mediate many of their effects through the release of reactive oxygen species. Recently, the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathophysiology of rosacea has been recognized. Many effective agents for rosacea, including topical azelaic acid and topical metronidazole, have anti-inflammatory properties. in-vitro...

  19. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  20. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  1. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The ...

  2. Skin Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Samira M.

    2015-01-01

    In this project, I aim to investigate the reasoning behind the practice of skin bleaching by analyzing the documentary ”Dark Girls”, to gain a better understanding of race and colorism issues. Also this project tries to see if there is a connection with history and if this has been a part of making the european beauty ideal determine the choices black’s make in regards to beauty.

  3. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  4. A novel water-assisted pulsed light processing for decontamination of blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaoxin; Chen, Haiqiang

    2014-06-01

    Sample heating and shadowing effect have limited the application of pulsed light (PL) technology for decontamination of fresh produce. In this study, a novel setup using water-assisted PL processing was developed to overcome these limitations. Blueberries inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella were either treated with PL directly (dry PL treatment) or immersed in agitated water during the PL treatment (wet PL treatment) for 5-60 s. Although both pathogens were effectively inactivated by the dry PL treatments, the appearance of the blueberries was adversely affected and a maximum temperature of 64.8 °C on the blueberry surface was recorded. On the other hand, the visual appearance of blueberries remained unchanged after wet PL treatments and sample heating was significantly reduced. The wet PL treatments were more effective than chlorine washing on inactivating both pathogens. After a 60-s wet PL treatment, the populations of E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on calyx and skin of blueberries were reduced by 3.0 and >5.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella on blueberry calyx and skin was reduced by 3.6 and >5.9 log CFU/g, respectively. No viable bacterial cells were recovered from the water used in the wet PL treatments, demonstrating that this setup could prevent the risk of cross-contamination during fresh produce washing. Our results suggest that this new water-assisted PL treatment could be a potential non-chemical alternative (residue free) to chlorine washing since it is both more effective and environmentally friendly than chlorine washing.

  5. CBRN Decontamination: Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    artillery attacks. a. CW Agents and Delivery Means. Typically classified by their effects on the body, CW agents consist of choking, nerve , blood...chemical agents, especially nerve agents, kill within minutes. a. Chemical. (1) Use the SDK within 1 minute of contamination of the exposed skin...shoulder, and reattaches them to the hook-and-pile fasteners. He loosens the draw cord on Buddy 2’s hood. The M40 voice amplifier (M7) and the M42A2

  6. What Is Reactive Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arthritis PDF Version Size: 69 KB November 2014 What is Reactive Arthritis? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Information About Reactive Arthritis and Other Related Conditions What Causes Reactive Arthritis? Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set ...

  7. Metabolic reengineering invoked by microbial systems to decontaminate aluminum: implications for bioremediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Christopher; Han, Sungwon; Appanna, Varun P; Thomas, Sean C; Ulibarri, Gerardo; Appanna, Vasu D

    2013-01-01

    As our reliance on aluminum (Al) increases, so too does its presence in the environment and living systems. Although generally recognized as safe, its interactions with most living systems have been nefarious. This review presents an overview of the noxious effects of Al and how a subset of microbes can rework their metabolic pathways in order to survive an Al-contaminated environment. For instance, in order to expulse the metal as an insoluble precipitate, Pseudomonas fluorescens shuttles metabolites toward the production of organic acids and lipids that play key roles in chelating, immobilizing and exuding Al. Further, the reconfiguration of metabolic modules enables the microorganism to combat the dearth of iron (Fe) and the excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promoted by Al toxicity. While in Rhizobium spp., exopolysaccharides have been invoked to sequester this metal, an ATPase is known to safeguard Anoxybacillus gonensis against the trivalent metal. Hydroxyl, carboxyl and phosphate moieties have also been exploited by microbes to trap Al. Hence, an understanding of the metabolic networks that are operative in microorganisms residing in polluted environments is critical in devising bioremediation technologies aimed at managing metal wastes. Metabolic engineering is essential in elaborating effective biotechnological processes to decontaminate metal-polluted surroundings.

  8. Quantification of skin penetration of antioxidants of varying lipophilicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abla, M J; Banga, A K

    2013-02-01

    Antioxidants play a vital role in protecting the skin from environmental distress. As the skin is constantly exposed to harmful UV radiation, endogenous antioxidants present in the superficial layers of the skin neutralize reactive oxygen species. Over time, antioxidants become depleted and loss their protective effect on the skin. Therefore, supplementing skin with topical antioxidant can help replenish this loss and fight the oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to deliver antioxidants topically and quantify the amount permeated in the stratum corneum and underlying skin. Polyphenols (catechin, resveratrol and curcumin) and vitamin (retinol) with various lipophilic properties were delivered via porcine ear skin, using propylene glycol as a vehicle. The amount in the stratum corneum and underlying skin was quantified using tape stripping and skin extraction methods, respectively, and samples were analysed via HPLC. All four antioxidants permeated into the skin from the propylene glycol vehicle. The order of the amount of antioxidant in the stratum corneum was catechin > resveratrol~ retinol> curcumin, whereas that in the underlying skin was retinol > catechin~ resveratrol~ curcumin. Of the total amount of polyphenols in the skin, approximately 90% was retained in the stratum corneum whereas 10% was quantified in the underlying skin. In contrast, 10% of retinol was retained in the stratum corneum whereas 90% permeated in the underlying skin. Polyphenols (catechin, resveratrol and curcumin) showed high concentration in the stratum corneum whereas retinol showed high accumulation in the underlying layers of the skin.

  9. Decontamination of liquid radioactive waste by thorium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselle, J.; Grandjean, S.; Dacheux, N.; Genet, M

    2004-07-01

    In the field of the complete reexamination of the chemistry of thorium phosphate and of the improvement of the homogeneity of Thorium Phosphate Diphosphate (TPD, Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) prepared at high temperature, several crystallized compounds were prepared as initial powdered precursors. Due to the very low solubility products associated to these phases, their use in the field of the efficient decontamination of high-level radioactive liquid waste containing actinides (An) was carefully considered. Two main processes (called 'oxalate' and 'hydrothermal' chemical routes) were developed through a new concept combining the decontamination of liquid waste and the immobilization of the actinides in a ceramic matrix (TPD). In phosphoric media ('hydrothermal route'), the key-precursor was the Thorium Phosphate Hydrogen Phosphate hydrate (Th{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}). H{sub 2}O, TPHP, solubility product log(K{sub S,0}{sup 0}) {approx} - 67). The replacement of thorium by other tetravalent actinides (U, Np, Pu) in the structure, leading to the preparation of Th{sub 2-x/2}An{sub x/2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}). H{sub 2}O solid solutions, was examined. A second method was also considered in parallel to illustrate this concept using the more well-known precipitation of oxalate as the initial decontamination step. For this method, the final transformation to single phase TPD containing actinides was purchased by heating a mixture of phosphate ions with the oxalate precipitate at high temperature. (authors)

  10. Method for Cs-137 separation from the decontamination solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropov, I.G.; Efremenkov, V.M.; Toropova, V.V.; Satsukevich, V.M.; Davidov, Yu.P.

    1995-12-31

    In this work results of investigations are presented on separation of radiocaesium from the decontamination solutions containing reducing agents (thiocarbamide). The scientific basis for radiocaesium removal from the solution focuses on the state of the radionuclide and its sorption behavior in the solution with a complicated composition. Then using a combination of sorption and ultrafiltration methods it would be possible to concentrate the radionuclide in a small volume and to purify the main part of the solution. As a sorbent for radiocaesium removal from the solution, a ferrocyanide based sorbent is proposed. Use of this sorbent is justified since its high selectivity and effectiveness for radiocaesium sorption from the solutions of different composition is well known. When synthesis of the sorbent is performed directly in the treating solution, two components as a minimum should be added to it, namely K{sub 4}Fe(CN){sub 6} and metal ions of Ni-II, Co-II, Cu-II, etc. The results are presented which show the possibility of radiocaesium separation from the decontamination solutions (containing 60--100 g/l of salts) using sorption and membrane separation methods without the use of metal salts. At the same time by using FE-2 in solution in the presence of cyanide ions and thiocarbamide, it is possible to avoid the addition of metal salts (Ni, Cu, etc.). Utilization of the proposed method for spent decontamination solution treatment allows a relatively easy way to reduce the concentration of radiocaesium in solution on 2--4 orders of magnitudes, and to exclude the utilization of relatively expensive metal salts.

  11. A state of the art on the chemical gel decontamination technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Moon, J. K.; Won, H. J.; Lee, K. W.; Kim, C. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Overseas, highly radioactive hot cell facilities has been aging and was contaminated with radioactivity inside through reprocessing research activities. These facilities enhance the safety regulations and the need for change in any other purposes or complete demolition of these facilities, is growing. As the increase of the operation age of the domestic high radiation facilities such as IMEF, PIEF and DFDF, the necessity of decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells in these facilities is also increased. Since the hot cell facilities has the limited space of the highly radioactive, high removal efficiency(a high DF, rapid decontamination), the remote control, and minimization of the 2nd waste is essential as an effective decontamination technology. Chemical gel decontamination technology that has the characteristics of rapid removal from large contaminated area and no waste arising, has been developed as one of main decontamination technologies. In this study, chemical contamination and decontamination chemistry with respect to chemical gel decontamination are examined, and the gel manufacturing precursors and control factors of the gel viscosity is described. In the high radiation hot cell facilities of the United States, France and other countries overseas, demonstration and application cases on site, and R and D status of the chemical gel decontamination technology have been investigated. This requires the current level of technology and related research topics were derived

  12. A State of the Art Report on the Case Study of Hot Cell Decontamination and Refurbishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Moon, J. K.; Park, G. I.; Song, K. C

    2008-08-15

    As the increase of the operation age of the domestic high radiation facilities such as IMEF, PIEF and DFDF, the necessity of decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells in these facilities is also increased. In the near future, the possibilities of refurbishment of hot cells in compliance with the new regulations, the reuse of hot cells for the other purposes and the decommissioning of the facilities also exist. To prepare against the decontamination and refurbishment of hot cells, the reports on the refurbishment, decommissioning and decontamination experiences of hot cells in USA, Japan, France, Belgium and Great Britain were investigated. ANL of USA performed the project on the decontamination of hot cells. The purpose of the project was to practically eliminate the radioactive emissions of Rn-220 to the environment and to restore the hot cells to an empty restricted use condition. The five hot cells were emptied and decontaminated for restricted use. Chemical processing facility in JAEA of Japan was used for the reprocessing study of spent fuels, hot cells in CPF were refurbished from 1995 for the tests of the newly developed reprocessing process. In a first stage, decommissioning and decontamination were fully performed by the remote operation Then, decommissioning and decontamination were performed manually. By the newly developed process, they reported that the radiation exposure of workers were satisfactorily reduced. In the other countries, they also make an effort for the refurbishment and decontamination of hot cells and it is inferred that they accumulate experiences in these fields.

  13. For whom should we use selective decontamination of the digestive tract?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review This review discusses the relevant studies on selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) published between 2009 and mid-2011. Recent findings In a multicenter cluster-randomized cross-over study in the Netherlands, SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) w

  14. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  15. Chem-Bio Self-Decontaminating Surfaces (Briefing Slides). AFRL Quarterly Summary on DARPA Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-05

    AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2008-4558 CHEM- BIO SELF-DECONTAMINATING SURFACES (BRIEFING SLIDES) AFRL QUARTERLY SUMMARY ON DARPA EFFORT Joseph D...distribution unlimited. Chem- Bio Self-Decontaminating Surfaces 2 Coupon Test Method Development Small scale aerosol test stand was optimized to

  16. Percutaneous toxicity and decontamination of soman, VX, and paraoxon in rats using detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misík, Jan; Pavliková, Růžena; Kuča, Kamil

    2013-06-01

    Highly toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were originally developed for warfare or as agricultural pesticides. Today, OPs represent a serious threat to military personnel and civilians. This study investigates the in vivo decontamination of male Wistar rats percutaneously exposed to paraoxon and two potent nerve agents--soman (GD) and VX. Four commercial detergents were tested as decontaminants--Neodekont(TM), Argos(TM), Dermogel(TM), and FloraFree(TM). Decontamination performed 2 min after exposure resulted in a higher survival rate in comparison with non-decontaminated controls. The decontamination effectiveness was expressed as protective ratio (PR, median lethal dose of agent in decontaminated animals divided by the median lethal dose of agent in untreated animals). The highest decontamination effectiveness was consistently achieved with Argos(TM) (PR=2.3 to 64.8), followed by Dermogel(TM) (PR=2.4 to 46.1). Neodekont(TM) and FloraFree(TM) provided the lowest decontamination effectiveness, equivalent to distilled water (PR=1.0 to 43.2).

  17. 40 CFR 265.114 - Disposal or decontamination of equipment, structures and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment, structures and soils. 265.114 Section 265.114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... decontamination of equipment, structures and soils. During the partial and final closure periods, all contaminated equipment, structures and soil must be properly disposed of, or decontaminated unless specified otherwise...

  18. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. The work described here has focused on recycle of the concentrated and high-value contaminated scrap metal resource that will arise from cleanup of DOE`s gaseous diffusion plants.

  19. Unit for air decontamination; Unidad para descontaminacion de aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano H, E

    1991-02-15

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  20. [Detection of enzyme activity in decontaminated spices in industrial use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R; Theobald, R

    1995-03-01

    A range of decontaminated species of industrial use have been examined for their enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, amylase, lipase activity). The genuine enzymes remain fully active in irradiated spices, whereas the microbial load is clearly reduced. In contrast steam treated spices no longer demonstrate enzyme activities. Steam treatment offers e.g. black pepper without lipase activity, which can no longer cause fat deterioration. Low microbial load in combination with clearly detectable enzyme activity in spices is an indication for irradiation, whereas, reduced microbial contamination combined with enzyme inactivation indicate steam treatment of raw material.

  1. [Biological decontamination of the imprints obtained from different dental materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekhlichuk, P P; Petrov, V O; Bati, V V; Levchuk, O B; Boĭko, N V

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of the imprints made of alginate ("Ypeen") and silicone material ("Speedex") with and without the correction supplement has been investigated. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus have been estimated to be the most survivable species on the imprint surface, however their concentration differ depending on the type of imprints' material. The strains resistant to antibiotics dominated among all the isolated microorganisms. Bacterial preparations based on Bacillus - Biosporin and Subalin and some extracts of edible plants, fruits and berries can be used in dentistry for the decontamination of imprints obtained by the use of different materials.

  2. Improved Technologies for Decontamination of Crated Large Metal Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFee, J.; Barbour, K.; Stallings, E.

    2003-02-25

    The Los Alamos Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) has been identifying and demonstrating technologies to reduce the cost and risk of management of transuranic element contaminated large metal objects, i.e. gloveboxes. DOE must dispose of hundreds of gloveboxes from Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and other DOE sites. This paper reports on the results of four technology demonstrations on decontamination of plutonium contaminated gloveboxes with each technology compared to a common baseline technology, wipedown with nitric acid.

  3. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  4. Japan, one year after. In Fukushima, a decontamination by forced march; Japon, un an apres. A Fukushima, une decontamination a marche forcee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leglu, D.; Mulot, R.; Khalathari, A.; Lafon, B.; Stanley, T.; Linton, M.

    2012-03-15

    In a first part, the author describes how people living in the contaminated area around Fukushima try to deal with the difficult and almost impossible decontamination of their houses, gardens, schools, and so on. The destruction of forests is planned as they concentrate radioactivity. Thousands of inhabitants must wear dosimeters. An article comments the caesium activity measurements. Several data and figures are presented: evacuation areas, radioactive emissions and releases, doses received by emergency personnel, size of areas to be decontaminated, impact on the Japanese energy sector, contamination rates for soils and seawater, decontamination and dismantling costs, health impacts. An article proposes an overview of the different methods which are implemented and tested by the Japanese for large scale decontamination

  5. Influence of dietary carotenoids on radical scavenging capacity of the skin and skin lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, M C; Friedrich, A; Tscherch, K; Haag, S F; Darvin, M E; Vollert, H; Groth, N; Lademann, J; Rohn, S

    2013-06-01

    Nutrition rich in carotenoids is well known to prevent cell damage, premature skin aging, and skin cancer. Cutaneous carotenoids can be enriched in the skin by nutrition and topically applied antioxidants have shown an increase in radical protection after VIS/NIR irradiation. In this paper, it was investigated whether orally administered carotenoids increase the radical scavenging activity and the radical protection of the skin using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the skin lipid profile was investigated applying HPTLC on skin lipid extracts. Furthermore, in vivo Raman resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the cutaneous carotenoid concentration. A double blind placebo controlled clinical study was performed with 24 healthy volunteers, who have shown a slow but significant and effective increase in cutaneous carotenoids in the verum group. The enhancement in carotenoids increases the radical scavenging activity of the skin and provides a significant protection against stress induced radical formation. Furthermore, the skin lipids in the verum group increased compared to the placebo group but only significantly for ceramide [NS]. These results indicate that a supplementation with dietary products containing carotenoids in physiological concentrations can protect the skin against reactive oxygen species and could avoid premature skin aging and other radical associated skin diseases.

  6. Development of Novel Decontamination Techniques for Chemical Agents (GB, VX, HD) Contaminated Facilities. Phase 1. Identification and Evaluation of Novel Decontamination Concepts. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    composition reaction the effect will be probably smal I. 4.2.2 Removal or Reaction of Contaminant from Surface Complete decontamination of all surfaces is...spallIng and descaling . 1.2 Origination of Idea Used in the decontamination of nuclear facilities ond described in deta’l in the Decommissioning Handbook...for RD. 1.4 Variations of Idea Various application methods could be used including sprays, foams, gels , creams, etc. Inclusion of an additive might make

  7. Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear decontamination: Recent trends and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN decontamination is the removal of CBRN material from equipment or humans. The objective of the decontamination is to reduce radiation burden, salvage equipment, and materials, remove loose CBRN contaminants, and fix the remaining in place in preparation for protective storage or permanent disposal work activities. Decontamination may be carried out using chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical means. Like materials, humans may also be contaminated with CBRN contamination. Changes in cellular function can occur at lower radiation doses and exposure to chemicals. At high dose, cell death may take place. Therefore, decontamination of humans at the time of emergency while generating bare minimum waste is an enormous task requiring dedication of large number of personnel and large amount of time. General principles of CBRN decontamination are discussed in this review with emphasis on radiodecontamination.

  8. Development and application of ozone chemical decontamination for nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enda, Masami; Yaita, Yumi; Inami, Ichiro; Sakai, Hitoshi [Toshiba Corp. (Japan). Power systems and Services Company; Nakagami, Motoyori; Kani, Kazuhiro [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    By focusing to use gaseous ozone for an oxidant under aiming to further reduce amounts of the secondary wastes, ozone chemical decontamination technique was developed. Here were described results of investigation on a process applying ozone to oxidation process for chemical decontamination and of application to decontamination of contaminated machine. As a result carrying out the contaminated machine, it was found that , 1) temperature of ozone water processing at solution test of chromium oxide using ozone water was selected to 80 centigrade, 2) ozone concentration of ozone water using for decontamination test of metal test pieces polluted by radioactive materials was more than 1 ppm, and 3) ion-exchange resins consumed by decontamination agents could be regenerated by using a third of amounts of permanganic acid. (G.K.)

  9. Electrolytic decontamination of metal low level waste (LLW) and mixed low level waste (MLLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Metal objects resulting from ER activities were decontaminated using electrolytic methods. The project involved about 500 kg of ballistic test projectiles, 23 augers and drill heads, and 50 pieces of shrapnel containing lead. All objects were free-released and either reclaimed as scrap metal or reused. Electrolytic decontamination was proven to be an effective method to decontaminate metal waste objects to free-release standards. A cost analysis showed the process to be economical, especially when applied to decontamination of mixed waste, TRU waste, or when the recovered materials could be reused or recycled. The cost of decontamination of scrap iron is approximately equal to the cost of its land disposal as low level waste.

  10. Guide on the use of low energy electron beams for microbiological decontamination of surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Helt-Hansen, Jakob; Gondim, Ondina

    This Guide describes the validation and routine monitoring of microbiological decontamination of surfaces by low energy electron beams (100-200 keV). The Guide is mainly based on experience gained in connection with installation of electron beam systems for surface decontamination of pre-steriliz......This Guide describes the validation and routine monitoring of microbiological decontamination of surfaces by low energy electron beams (100-200 keV). The Guide is mainly based on experience gained in connection with installation of electron beam systems for surface decontamination of pre......-sterilized containers at several aseptic filling lines at pharmaceutical manufacturers. Its main emphasis is on the dosimetric measurements that should be carried out for the validation of the decontamination process and on establishing the appropriate effective dose. Other aspects such as use of measurement...... uncertainties and formation of radiation induced by-products are also addressed....

  11. Skin Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  12. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting literature search and decontamination scoping tests report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1993-12-01

    Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using current decontamination techniques. Chemical decontamination flushes have provided a satisfactory level of decontamination. However, this method generates large amounts of sodium-bearing secondary waste. Steam jet cleaning has also been used with a great deal of success but cannot be used on concrete or soft materials. With the curtailment of reprocessing at the ICPP, the focus of decontamination is shifting from maintenance for continued operation of the facilities to decommissioning. Treatment of sodium-bearing waste is a particularly difficult problem due to the high content of alkali metals in the sodium-bearing liquid waste. It requires a very large volume of cold chemical additive for calcination. In addition, the sodium content of the sodium-bearing waste exceeds the limit that can be incorporated into vitrified waste without the addition of glass-forming compounds (primarily silicon) to produce an acceptable immobilized waste form. The primary initiatives of the Decontamination Development Program is the development of methods to eliminate/minimize the use of sodium-bearing decontamination chemicals and to minimize all liquid decontamination wastes. One method chosen for cold scoping studies during FY-93 was CO{sub 2} pellet blasting. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting has been used extensively by commercial industries for general cleaning. However, using this method for decontamination of nuclear materials is a fairly new concept. The following report discusses the research and scoping tests completed on CO{sub 2} pellet blasting.

  13. Effectiveness of three decontamination treatments against influenza virus applied to filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lore, Michael B; Heimbuch, Brian K; Brown, Teanne L; Wander, Joseph D; Hinrichs, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are recommended for use as precautions against airborne pathogenic microorganisms; however, during pandemics demand for FFRs may far exceed availability. Reuse of FFRs following decontamination has been proposed but few reported studies have addressed the feasibility. Concerns regarding biocidal efficacy, respirator performance post decontamination, decontamination cost, and user safety have impeded adoption of reuse measures. This study examined the effectiveness of three energetic decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), microwave-generated steam, and moist heat] on two National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified N95 FFRs (3M models 1860s and 1870) contaminated with H5N1. An aerosol settling chamber was used to apply virus-laden droplets to FFRs in a method designed to simulate respiratory deposition of droplets onto surfaces. When FFRs were examined post decontamination by viral culture, all three decontamination methods were effective, reducing virus load by > 4 log median tissue culture infective dose. Analysis of treated FFRs using a quantitative molecular amplification assay (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) indicated that UVGI decontamination resulted in lower levels of detectable viral RNA than the other two methods. Filter performance was evaluated before and after decontamination using a 1% NaCl aerosol. As all FFRs displayed <5% penetration by 300-nm particles, no profound reduction in filtration performance was caused in the FFRs tested by exposure to virus and subsequent decontamination by the methods used. These findings indicate that, when properly implemented, these methods effectively decontaminate H5N1 on the two FFR models tested and do not drastically affect their filtering function; however, other considerations may influence decisions to reuse FFRs.

  14. In vitro evaluation of percutaneous diffusion of uranyl nitrate through intact or excoriated skin of rat and pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitot, F.; Moreels, A.M.; Paquet, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Lab. d' Etudes Appliquees de Radiotoxicologie, Service de Dosimetrie, Dept. de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, Pierrelatte CEDEX (France)]. E-mail: fabrice.petitot@irsn.fr

    2004-02-01

    At the present time, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has not published any model concerning internal radioactive contamination by uptake from wounds. The aims of our work were to determine the time available to treat contamination of intact or wounded skin before a significant uptake of uranium occurred and to evaluate the consequences of incomplete decontamination on uranium uptake. The kinetics of percutaneous diffusion of uranium through intact or excoriated skin and its distribution in skin layers were evaluated using an in vitro technique. Our data demonstrated a dramatic increase of uranium percutaneous diffusion through excoriated skin compared with intact skin. Significant uptake of uranium through excoriated skin occurred in only 30 min, indicating that there is only a short interval available to treat a contaminated wound effectively. Moreover, in the case of an incompletely decontaminated superficial wound, viable epidermis behaved as a reservoir for uranium that remained bioavailable. At the present time, potential uptake of uranium and perhaps other radionuclides through intact or wounded skin is not adequately taken into account by radiological protection agencies. Our results emphasize the need for further study and modeling of uptake of radionuclides through intact or wounded skin. (author)

  15. Decontamination of control rod housing from Palisades Nuclear Power Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, M.D.; Nunez, L.; Purohit, A.

    1999-05-03

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel decontamination solvent for removing oxide scales formed on ferrous metals typical of nuclear reactor piping. The decontamination process is based on the properties of the diphosphonic acids (specifically 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid or HEDPA) coupled with strong reducing-agents (e.g., sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, SFS, and hydroxylamine nitrate, HAN). To study this solvent further, ANL has solicited actual stainless steel piping material that has been recently removed from an operating nuclear reactor. On March 3, 1999 ANL received segments of control rod housing from Consumers Energy's Palisades Nuclear Plant (Covert, MI) containing radioactive contamination from both neutron activation and surface scale deposits. Palisades Power plant is a PWR type nuclear generating plant. A total of eight segments were received. These segments were from control rod housing that was in service for about 6.5 years. Of the eight pieces that were received two were chosen for our experimentation--small pieces labeled Piece A and Piece B. The wetted surfaces (with the reactor's pressurized water coolant/moderator) of the pieces were covered with as a scale that is best characterized visually as a smooth, shiny, adherent, and black/brown in color type oxide covering. This tenacious oxide could not be scratched or removed except by aggressive mechanical means (e.g., filing, cutting).

  16. Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future.

  17. Mechanical decontamination tests in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Barkovsky, A.N.; Fogh, C.L.; Mishine, A.S.; Olsen, S.K.; Ponamarjov, A.V.; Prip, H.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Vorobiev, B.F

    1998-08-01

    Decontamination was carried out around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the summer of 1997. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.27) and outdoor (DRF = 0.17) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roof of one of the houses was replaced with a new roof. This reduced the Chernobyl related dose rate by 10% at the ground floor and by 27% at the first floor. The soil around the houses was removed by a bobcat, while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination with handheld dose meters. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a skim-and-burial plough developed especially for treatment of contaminated land. In the appendices of the report the measurement data is available for further analysis. (au) 24 tabs., 75 ills., 33 refs.

  18. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Javaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation.

  19. Tritium contamination and decontamination of sealing oil for vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, T.; Kotoh, K.; Kawabata, Y.; Tanaka, J.I. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Kawamura, S.; Iwata, M. [ATOX Co. Ltd, Technoly Development Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The existence of tritium-contaminated oils from vacuum pumps used in tritium facilities, is becoming an important issue since there is no disposal way for tritiated waste oils. On recovery of tritiated water vapor in gas streams, it is well-known that the isotope exchange reaction between the gas phase and the liquid phase occurs effectively at room temperature. We have carried out experiments using bubbles to examine the tritium contamination and decontamination of a volume of rotary-vacuum-pump oil. The contamination of the pump oil was made by bubbling tritiated water vapor and tritiated hydrogen gas into the oil. Subsequently the decontamination was processed by bubbling pure water vapor and dry argon gas into the tritiated oil. Results show that the water vapor bubbling was more effective than dry argon gas. The experiment also shows that the water vapor bubbling in an oil bottle can remove and transfer tritium efficiently from the tritiated oil into another water-bubbling bottle.

  20. Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, David B.; Burwinkle, T. W.; Cannon, T. R.; Ford, M. K.; Holder, Jr., L.; Clotfelter, O. K.; Faulkner, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Wooten, H. O.

    1991-12-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D D is devoted to S M at each of the sites. Our S M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

  1. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  2. Dismantlement and decontamination of a plutonium-238 facility at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.H. Jr.; Hootman, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    There has been very little, documented decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) experience on which to project cleanup costs and schedules for plutonium facilities at SRS and other DOE sites. A portion of the HB-Line, a plutonium-238 processing facility at SRS, has been undergoing D&D intermittently since 1984. Although this cleanup effort was not originally intended to quantify results, some key data have been project has demonstrated effective methods of accumulated, and the performing D&D work, and has demonstrated cleanup equipment and techniques under conditions of high contamination. Plutonium facilities where D&D is already underway provide an opportunity for` timely field testing of characterization, size reduction, and decontamination techniques. Some data are presented here; however, more specific tests and data may be obtained during the remainder of this project. This project has been recommended as a candidate test facility for a DOE planned ``Integrated D&D Demonstration`` managed by EM-50 to develop and demonstrate technology for D&D and surplus facilities deactivation. Both the remainder of this project and the Integrated D&D Demonstration Program can benefit from a joint effort, and the, overall costs should be reduced.

  3. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  4. Study of Reactive Materials for Development of new Protective Clothing Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    monoethanol - amine and sodium hydroxide will not significantly decontaminate diphenyl chlorophosphatt. under the conditions employed in our tests. The...internal standards. The most significant observation thus far is the slow reactivity of polyamide microcapsules containing monoethanol amine and sodium...and various amines as the core phase. We are now identifying and developing microcapsule wall materials that will be stable to the highly basic core

  5. Separation of heavy metals from landfill leachate by reactive liquid-liquid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickler, W. [Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie und Didaktik der Chemie

    2001-05-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the decontamination of a model landfill leachate by simultaneous separation of heavy metals from alkaline earth metals and iron in order to obtain a leachate that can be led back to the landfill. Reactive extraction as a separation process offers the possibility of selectively separating cations, that is, of separating toxic components from less problematic ones, and also includes the possibility of electrolysis and further processes to obtain the desired metals. (orig.)

  6. Decontamination of Surfaces by Ultrasonics; La decontamination des surfaces par l'emploi des ultra-sons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerre, P.; Mestre, E.; Kerdelleau, J. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    A study was made of factors such as frequency, intensity, and time in the case of steel and of cotton cloth contaminated by fission products. Results show that the method is only of value in the case of steel and that it is necessary to operate at an optimum frequency of 80 khz and with an intensity of at least 4 W/cm{sup 2}. The difficulty of proposing a valid explanation for the decontamination mechanism is discussed. (authors) [French] Apres un examen des donnees theoriques du probleme, les auteurs font une etude systematique des facteurs frequence, intensite et temps dans le cas de l'acier et des tissus de coton contamines par des produits de fission. Ils montrent que la methode n'est interessante que pour l'acier qu'il faut operer a la frequence optimale de 80 kHz avec une intensite d'au moins 4 W/cm{sup 2}. Ils concluent en insistant sur la difficulte de proposer une explication valable pour le mecanisme de decontamination. (auteurs)

  7. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  8. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Youkee

    Full Text Available Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas contained detectable Ebola virus RNA. In areas beneath the bed there was evidence of transfer of Ebola virus material during cleaning. Retraining of cleaning staff reduced evidence of environmental contamination after decontamination. Current decontamination procedures appear to be effective in eradicating persistence of viral RNA. This study supports the use of viral swabs to assess Ebola viral contamination within the clinical setting. We recommend that regular refresher training of cleaning staff and audit of environmental contamination become standard practice at all Ebola care facilities during EVD outbreaks.

  9. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  10. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies.

  11. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S; Lilburn, Paul; Shetty, Nandini; Brooks, Tim; Simpson, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Lado, Marta; Kamara, Thaim B; Walker, Naomi F; Johnson, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs) and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas contained detectable Ebola virus RNA. In areas beneath the bed there was evidence of transfer of Ebola virus material during cleaning. Retraining of cleaning staff reduced evidence of environmental contamination after decontamination. Current decontamination procedures appear to be effective in eradicating persistence of viral RNA. This study supports the use of viral swabs to assess Ebola viral contamination within the clinical setting. We recommend that regular refresher training of cleaning staff and audit of environmental contamination become standard practice at all Ebola care facilities during EVD outbreaks.

  12. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  13. The restoration project : decontamination of facilities from chemical, biological and radiological contamination after terrorist action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Volchek, K.; Thouin, G.; Harrison, S.; Kuang, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div; Velicogna, D.; Hornof, M.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Payette, P.; Duncan, L.; Best, M.; Krishnan; Wagener, S.; Bernard, K.; Majcher, M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Cousins, T.; Jones, T. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Bioterrorism poses a real threat to the public health and national security, and the restoration of affected facilities after a chemical, biological or radiological attack is a major concern. This paper reviewed aspects of a project conducted to collect information, test and validate procedures for site restoration after a terrorist attack. The project began with a review of existing technology and then examined new technologies. Restoration included pickup, neutralization, decontamination, removal and final destruction and deposition of contaminants as well as cleaning and neutralization of material and contaminated waste from decontamination. The project was also intended to test existing concepts and develop new ideas. Laboratory scale experiments consisted of testing, using standard laboratory techniques. Radiation decontamination consisted of removal and concentration of the radioisotopes from removal fluid. General restoration guidelines were provided, as well as details of factors considered important in specific applications, including growth conditions and phases of microorganisms in biological decontamination, or the presence of inhibitors or scavengers in chemical decontamination. Various agents were proposed that were considered to have broad spectrum capability. Test surrogates for anthrax were discussed. The feasibility of enhanced oxidation processes was examined in relation to the destruction of organophosphorus, organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. The goal was to identify a process for the treatment of surfaces contaminated with pesticides. Tests included removal from carpet, porous ceiling tile, steel plates, and floor tiles. General radiation contamination procedures and techniques were reviewed, as well as radiological decontamination waste treatment. It was concluded that there is no single decontamination technique applicable for all contaminants, and decontamination methods depend on economic, social and health factors. The amount of

  14. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E

    2003-12-01

    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants.

  15. Innovative surface decontamination using a manipulator-deployed laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremmer, J.; Gentes, S. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology and Management in Construction Technology and Management for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities; Littwin, R.; Hurtado, A.; Lippmann, W. [Dresden Univ. of Technology (TUD) (Germany). Chair of Hydrogen Technology and Nuclear Power Engineering

    2010-05-15

    The successful decommissioning and dismantlement of nuclear facilities requires a great number and variety of processes and actions. These include, inter alia, the qualified decontamination of surfaces. The associated tasks are manifold, ranging from simple cleaning to complete surface ablation. The latter is particularly challenging due to the multitude of surfaces in nuclear facilities which, to complicate things further, are made of the most diverse materials. Consequently, besides pure surfaces of concrete, plaster or masonry, it is also necessary to ablate coatings such as protective paints. These can be found both on mineral and metallic constructional components. A crucial factor in surface decontamination work is the effectiveness and economic efficiency of the methods used. The same applies to the avoidance of cross contamination and secondary waste. Only few of the currently available processes fully meet all these criteria and are suited for this kind of task. Due to the increasing number of decommissioning projects in Germany and the small number of processes available to accomplish them, there is a rising demand for suitable and efficient decommissioning systems. An innovative system for manipulator-controlled laser ablation of surfaces that fully meets these criteria is currently being developed under the research project MANOLA (manipulatorgesteuerter Abtrag von Oberflaechen durch Lasertechnologie = manipulator-controlled laser ablation of surfaces), a joint project of the Chair of Hydrogen Technology and Power Engineering of the Dresden University of Technology and the Chair of Technology and Management of the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The objective of this research project is to ablate contaminated surfaces by means of a manipulator-deployed laser head. It was shown by numerous experiments in the preceding research

  16. 575 Photoaging Attenuates Skin Test Response to Histamine More Than Natural Aging

    OpenAIRE

    King, Monroe James; Fitzhugh, David; Lockey, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experience suggests that skin test reactivity is often decreased in photo-exposed skin versus sun-protected skin in older individuals. The current study was designed to address whether photoaging or natural aging of skin causes a greater diminution in skin test reponse. Methods Prick-puncture skin tests to histamine were performed on sun-exposed and sun-protected areas in younger (n = 61, age 20–50) and older (n = 63, age 60–87) adult volunteers who were recruited for skin...

  17. Decontamination Characteristics of Stainless Steel Surface Contaminated with Cs{sup +} Ion by Light Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baigalmaa, Byambatseren; Won, Hui-Jun; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Jung, Chong-Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jae-Hyuk [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The characteristics of decontamination method by light ablation are the remote operation, a short application time, and the high removal efficiency. Furthermore, the generation of the secondary waste is negligible. The radioactivity of hot cells in DFDF (Dupic Fuel Development Facility) is presumed to be very high and the predominant radionuclide is Cs-137. A series of laser decontamination studies by the fabricated Qswitched Nd-YAG laser system were performed on the stainless steel specimens artificially contaminated with Cs{sup +} ion. Decontamination characteristics of the stainless steel were analyzed by SEM and EPMA.

  18. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migdał, W.; K ȩdzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

  19. Electromagnetic mixed waste processing system for asbestos decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasevich, R.S. [KAI Technologies, Inc., Portsmouth, NH (United States); Vaux, W.G. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nocito, T. [Ohio DSI Corp., New York (United States)

    1995-10-01

    DOE sites contain a broad spectrum of asbestos materials (cloth, pipe lagging, sprayed insulation and other substances) which are contaminated with a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes due to its use during the development of the U.S. nuclear weapons complex. These wastes consist of cutting oils, lubricants, solvents, PCB`s, heavy metals and radioactive contaminants. The radioactive contaminants are the activation, decay and fission products of DOE operations. The asbestos must be converted by removing and separating the hazardous and radioactive materials to prevent the formation of mixed wastes and to allow for both sanitary disposal and effective decontamination. Currently, no technology exists that can meet these sanitary and other objectives.

  20. Composition suitable for decontaminating a porous surface contaminated with cesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Finck, Martha R.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2010-06-15

    A method of decontaminating porous surfaces contaminated with water soluble radionuclides by contacting the contaminated porous surfaces with an ionic solution capable of solubilizing radionuclides present in the porous surfaces followed by contacting the solubilized radionuclides with a gel containing a radionuclide chelator to bind the radionuclides to the gel, and physically removing the gel from the porous surfaces. A dry mix is also disclosed of a cross-linked ionic polymer salt, a linear ionic polymer salt, a radionuclide chelator, and a gel formation controller present in the range of from 0% to about 40% by weight of the dry mix, wherein the ionic polymer salts are granular and the non cross-linked ionic polymer salt is present as a minor constituent.