Sample records for reaction control thrusters

  1. Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate the innovative Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) to provide rapid and reliable in-space impulse...

  2. Failure Investigation of an Intra-Manifold Explosion in a Horizontally-Mounted 870 lbf Reaction Control Thruster (United States)

    Durning, Joseph G., III; Westover, Shayne C.; Cone, Darren M.


    In June 2010, an 870 lbf Space Shuttle Orbiter Reaction Control System Primary Thruster experienced an unintended shutdown during a test being performed at the NASA White Sands Test Facility. Subsequent removal and inspection of the thruster revealed permanent deformation and misalignment of the thruster valve mounting plate. Destructive evaluation determined that after three nominal firing sequences, the thruster had experienced an energetic event within the fuel (monomethylhydrazine) manifold at the start of the fourth firing sequence. The current understanding of the phenomenon of intra-manifold explosions in hypergolic bipropellant thrusters is documented in literature where it is colloquially referred to as a ZOT. The typical ZOT scenario involves operation of a thruster in a gravitational field with environmental pressures above the triple point pressure of the propellants. Post-firing, when the thruster valves are commanded closed, there remains a residual quantity of propellant in both the fuel and oxidizer (nitrogen tetroxide) injector manifolds known as the "dribble volume". In an ambient ground test configuration, these propellant volumes will drain from the injector manifolds but are impeded by the local atmospheric pressure. The evacuation of propellants from the thruster injector manifolds relies on the fluids vapor pressure to expel the liquid. The higher vapor pressure oxidizer will evacuate from the manifold before the lower vapor pressure fuel. The localized cooling resulting from the oxidizer boiling during manifold draining can result in fuel vapor migration and condensation in the oxidizer passage. The liquid fuel will then react with the oxidizer that enters the manifold during the next firing and may produce a localized high pressure reaction or explosion within the confines of the oxidizer injector manifold. The typical ZOT scenario was considered during this failure investigation, but was ultimately ruled out as a cause of the explosion

  3. Design and Stability of an On-Orbit Attitude Control System Using Reaction Control Thrusters (United States)

    Hall, Robert A.; Hough, Steven; Orphee, Carolina; Clements, Keith


    NASA is providing preliminary design and requirements for the Space Launch System Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). The EUS will provide upper stage capability for vehicle ascent as well as on-orbit control capability. Requirements include performance of on-orbit burn to provide Orion vehicle with escape velocity. On-orbit attitude control is accommodated by a on-off Reaction Control System (RCS). Paper provides overview of approaches for design and stability of an attitude control system using a RCS.

  4. Cassini Thruster Calibration Algorithm Using Reaction Wheel Biasing Data (United States)

    Rizvi, Farheen


    Thrust force estimates for the reaction control thrusters on-board Cassini spacecraft are presented in this paper. Cassini consists of two thruster branches (A and B) each with eight thrusters. The four Z-thrusters control the X and Y-axes, while the four Y-thrusters control the Z-axis. It is important to track the thrust force estimates in order to detect any thruster degradation and for supporting various activities in spacecraft operations (Titan flyby, spacecraft maneuvers). The Euler equation, which describes the rotational motion of the spacecraft during a reaction wheel bias event, is used to develop the algorithm. The thrust estimates are obtained from the pseudo inverse solution using flight telemetry during the bias. Results show that the A-branch Z3A and Z4A thrusters exhibited degraded thrust in November 2008. Due to the degraded thrust performance of Z3A and Z4A, A-branch usage was discontinued and prime branch was swapped to B-branch in March 2009. The thrust estimates from the B-branch do not show any degradation to date. The algorithm is used to trend the B-branch thrust force estimates as the mission continues.

  5. Development of Eddy Current Technique for the Detection of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Thrusters (United States)

    Wincheski, Buzz; Simpson, John; Koshti, Ajay


    A recent identification of stress corrosion cracking in the Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) thrusters triggered an extensive nondestructive evaluation effort to develop techniques capable of identifying such damage on installed shuttle hardware. As a part of this effort, specially designed eddy current probes inserted into the acoustic cavity were explored for the detection of such flaws and for evaluation of the remaining material between the crack tip and acoustic cavity. The technique utilizes two orthogonal eddy current probes which are scanned under stepper motor control in the acoustic cavity to identify cracks hidden with as much as 0.060 remaining wall thickness to the cavity. As crack growth rates in this area have been determined to be very slow, such an inspection provides a large safety margin for continued operation of the critical shuttle hardware. Testing has been performed on thruster components with both actual and fabricated defects. This paper will review the design and performance of the developed eddy current inspection system. Detection of flaws as a function of remaining wall thickness will be presented along with the proposed system configuration for depot level or on-vehicle inspection capabilities.

  6. The Effect of Reaction Control System Thruster Plume Impingement on Orion Service Module Solar Array Power Production (United States)

    Bury, Kristen M.; Kerslake, Thomas W.


    NASA's new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle has geometry that orients the reaction control system (RCS) thrusters such that they can impinge upon the surface of Orion's solar array wings (SAW). Plume impingement can cause Paschen discharge, chemical contamination, thermal loading, erosion, and force loading on the SAW surface, especially when the SAWs are in a worst-case orientation (pointed 45 towards the aft end of the vehicle). Preliminary plume impingement assessment methods were needed to determine whether in-depth, timeconsuming calculations were required to assess power loss. Simple methods for assessing power loss as a result of these anomalies were developed to determine whether plume impingement induced power losses were below the assumed contamination loss budget of 2 percent. This paper details the methods that were developed and applies them to Orion's worst-case orientation.

  7. The Effect of Reaction Control System Thruster Plume Impingement on Orion Service Module Solar Array Power Production (United States)

    Bury, Kristen M.; Kerslake, Thomas W.


    NASA's new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle has geometry that orients the reaction control system (RCS) thrusters such that they can impinge upon the surface of Orion's solar array wings (SAW). Plume impingement can cause Paschen discharge, chemical contamination, thermal loading, erosion, and force loading on the SAW surface, especially when the SAWs are in a worst-case orientation (pointed 45 towards the aft end of the vehicle). Preliminary plume impingement assessment methods were needed to determine whether in-depth, timeconsuming calculations were required to assess power loss. Simple methods for assessing power loss as a result of these anomalies were developed to determine whether plume impingement induced power losses were below the assumed contamination loss budget of 2 percent. This paper details the methods that were developed and applies them to Orion's worst-case orientation.

  8. Pulsed Electrogasdynamic Thruster for Attitude Control and Orbit Maneuver Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new pulsed electric thruster, named "pulsed electrogasdynamic thruster," for attitude control and orbit maneuver is proposed. In this thruster, propellant gas is...

  9. Testing of a Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Reaction Control Thruster in a New Altitude Rocket Engine Test Facility (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Marshall, William M.


    A relocated rocket engine test facility, the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), was activated in 2009 at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility has the capability to test with a variety of propellants and up to a thrust level of 2000 lbf (8.9 kN) with precise measurement of propellant conditions, propellant flow rates, thrust and altitude conditions. These measurements enable accurate determination of a thruster and/or nozzle s altitude performance for both technology development and flight qualification purposes. In addition the facility was designed to enable efficient test operations to control costs for technology and advanced development projects. A liquid oxygen-liquid methane technology development test program was conducted in the ACS from the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2010. Three test phases were conducted investigating different operational modes and in addition, the project required the complexity of controlling propellant inlet temperatures over an extremely wide range. Despite the challenges of a unique propellant (liquid methane) and wide operating conditions, the facility performed well and delivered up to 24 hot fire tests in a single test day. The resulting data validated the feasibility of utilizing this propellant combination for future deep space applications.

  10. Pulsed Electrogasdynamic Thruster for Attitude Control and Orbit Maneuver Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program we successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the Pulsed ElectroGasdynamic (PEG) thruster for attitude control and orbital maneuvering. In...

  11. Advanced Development of a Compact 5-15 lbf Lox/Methane Thruster for an Integrated Reaction Control and Main Engine Propulsion System (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; McManamen, John Patrick; Sooknanen, Josh; Studak, Joseph W.


    This paper describes the advanced development and testing of a compact 5 to 15 lbf LOX/LCH4 thruster for a pressure-fed integrated main engine and RCS propulsion system to be used on a spacecraft "vertical" test bed (VTB). The ability of the RCS thruster and the main engine to operate off the same propellant supply in zero-g reduces mass and improves mission flexibility. This compact RCS engine incorporates several features to dramatically reduce mass and parts count, to ease manufacturing, and to maintain acceptable performance given that specific impulse (Isp) is not the driver. For example, radial injection holes placed on the chamber body for easier drilling, and high temperature Haynes 230 were selected for the chamber over other more expensive options. The valve inlets are rotatable before welding allowing different orientations for vehicle integration. In addition, the engine design effort selected a coil-on-plug ignition system which integrates a relay and coil with the plug electrode, and moves some exciter electronics to avionics driver board. The engine injector design has small dribble volumes to target minimum pulse widths of 20 msec. and an efficient minimum impulse bit of less than 0.05 lbf-sec. The propellants, oxygen and methane, were chosen because together they are a non-toxic, Mars-forward, high density, space storable, and high performance propellant combination that is capable of pressure-fed and pump-fed configurations and integration with life support and power subsystems. This paper will present the results of the advanced development testing to date of the RCS thruster and the integration with a vehicle propulsion system.

  12. A Flight-Calibrated Methodology for Determination of Cassini Thruster On-Times for Reaction Wheel Biases (United States)

    Sarani, Siamak


    This paper describes a methodology for accurate and flight-calibrated determination of the on-times of the Cassini spacecraft Reaction Control System (RCS) thrusters, without any form of dynamic simulation, for the reaction wheel biases. The hydrazine usage and the delta V vector in body frame are also computed from the respective thruster on-times. The Cassini spacecraft, the largest and most complex interplanetary spacecraft ever built, continues to undertake ambitious and unique scientific observations of planet Saturn, Titan, Enceladus, and other moons of Saturn. In order to maintain a stable attitude during the course of its mission, this three-axis stabilized spacecraft uses two different control systems: the RCS and the reaction wheel assembly control system. The RCS is used to execute a commanded spacecraft slew, to maintain three-axis attitude control, control spacecraft's attitude while performing science observations with coarse pointing requirements, e.g. during targeted low-altitude Titan and Enceladus flybys, bias the momentum of reaction wheels, and to perform RCS-based orbit trim maneuvers. The use of RCS often imparts undesired delta V on the spacecraft. The Cassini navigation team requires accurate predictions of the delta V in spacecraft coordinates and inertial frame resulting from slews using RCS thrusters and more importantly from reaction wheel bias events. It is crucial for the Cassini spacecraft attitude control and navigation teams to be able to, quickly but accurately, predict the hydrazine usage and delta V for various reaction wheel bias events without actually having to spend time and resources simulating the event in flight software-based dynamic simulation or hardware-in-the-loop simulation environments. The methodology described in this paper, and the ground software developed thereof, are designed to provide just that. This methodology assumes a priori knowledge of thrust magnitudes and thruster pulse rise and tail-off time

  13. Fault-Tolerant Region-Based Control of an Underwater Vehicle with Kinematically Redundant Thrusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zool H. Ismail


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control approach for an underwater vehicle with a kinematically redundant thruster system. This control scheme is derived based on a fault-tolerant decomposition for thruster force allocation and a region control scheme for the tracking objective. Given a redundant thruster system, that is, six or more pairs of thrusters are used, the proposed redundancy resolution and region control scheme determine the number of thruster faults, as well as providing the reference thruster forces in order to keep the underwater vehicle within the desired region. The stability of the presented control law is proven in the sense of a Lyapunov function. Numerical simulations are performed with an omnidirectional underwater vehicle and the results of the proposed scheme illustrate the effectiveness in terms of optimizing the thruster forces.

  14. Colloid Thruster for Attitude Control Systems (ACS) and Tip-off Control Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test key technologies needed for an integrated, high thrust colloid thruster system with no moving parts, for spacecraft attitude control...

  15. Thruster Imaging Analysis for Control of a Solar Concentrator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beasley, Joe


    .... Video capture images of an SRS solar thruster are analyzed to determine focal spot parameters and the best method of determining placement of the solar focal spot to provide maximum power transfer to the thruster...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Ali


    Full Text Available Remotely Operated Vehicles are underwater robots designed specifically for surveillance, monitoring and collecting data for underwater activities. In the underwater vehicle industries, the thruster is an important part in controlling the direction, depth and speed of the ROV. However, there are some ROVs that cannot be maintained at the specified depth for a long time because of disturbance. This paper proposes an auto depth control using a thruster system. A prototype of a thruster with an auto depth control is developed and attached to the previously fabricated UTeM ROV. This paper presents the operation of auto depth control as well as thrusters for submerging and emerging purposes and maintaining the specified depth. The thruster system utilizes a microcontroller as its brain, a piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensor and a DC brushless motor to run the propeller. Performance analysis of the auto depth control system is conducted to identify the sensitivity of the pressure sensor, and the accuracy and stability of the system. The results show that the thruster system performs well in maintaining a specified depth as well as stabilizing itself when a disturbanceoccurs even with a simple proportional controller used to control the thruster, where the thruster is an important component of the ROV.

  17. Operation of Direct Drive Systems: Experiments in Peak Power Tracking and Multi-Thruster Control (United States)

    Snyder, John Steven; Brophy, John R.


    Direct-drive power and propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce the mass of high-power solar electric propulsion spacecraft, among other advantages. Recent experimental direct-drive work has significantly mitigated or retired the technical risks associated with single-thruster operation, so attention is now moving toward systems-level areas of interest. One of those areas is the use of a Hall thruster system as a peak power tracker to fully use the available power from a solar array. A simple and elegant control based on the incremental conductance method, enhanced by combining it with the unique properties of Hall thruster systems, is derived here and it is shown to track peak solar array power very well. Another area of interest is multi-thruster operation and control. Dualthruster operation was investigated in a parallel electrical configuration, with both thrusters operating from discharge power provided by a single solar array. Startup and shutdown sequences are discussed, and it is shown that multi-thruster operation and control is as simple as for a single thruster. Some system architectures require operation of multiple cathodes while they are electrically connected together. Four different methods to control the discharge current emitted by individual cathodes in this configuration are investigated, with cathode flow rate control appearing to be advantageous. Dual-parallel thruster operation with equal cathode current sharing at total powers up to 10 kW is presented.

  18. Control Valve for Miniature Xenon Ion Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is continuing its development of electric propulsion engines for various applications. Efforts have been directed toward both large and small thrusters,...

  19. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg


    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  20. Reducing Pointing Errors During Cassini Reaction Control System Orbit Trim Maneuvers (United States)

    Rizvi, Farheen


    The effect of altering a gain parameter in the Cassini reaction control system (RCS) delta-V controller on the maneuver execution errors during orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) is explored. Cassini consists of two reaction control thruster branches (A & B) each with eight thrusters. Currently, the B-branch is operational while the A-branch serves as a back-up. The four Z-thrusters control the X and Y-axes, while the four Y-thrusters control the Z-axis. During an OTM, the Z-thrusters fire to maintain the X and Y-axes pointing within an attitude control dead-zone (-10 to 10 milliradians). The errors do not remain at zero due to pointing error sources such as spacecraft center of mass offset from the geometric center of the Z-facing thrusters, and variability in the thruster forces due to the thruster hardware differences. The delta-V reaction control system (RCS) controller ensures that the attitude error remains within this dead-zone. Gain parameters within the RCS delta-V controller affect the maneuver execution errors. Different parameter values are used to explore effect on these errors. It is found that pointing error decreases and magnitude error increases rapidly for gain parameters 10 times greater than the current parameter values used in the flight software.

  1. Cross Body Thruster Control and Modeling of a Body of Revolution Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (United States)


    Controller SVT – Stern Vertical Thruster xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xvii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Foremost, this work would not have been...7 2 4 3 3.350 10 - 2.352 10 1.923 10 - 3.106 10 4.480 10 SVT n n n n − − − − − Τ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ (133) Again, these equations are only...thruster was varied to achieve a commanded pitch of 0[ ]deg . Table 11 presents the results: 67 FVT [RPM] SVT [RPM] Thruster Differential [RPM

  2. Deterministic errors in the Magellan orbit due to attitude control thruster activity (United States)

    Engelhardt, Douglas B.; Mohan, Srinivas N.


    The pitch and yaw attitude control thrusters of the Magellan spacecraft generate uncoupled moments about the spacecraft center of mass, perturbing the spacecraft's orbit. A strategy to model these perturbing forces in the spacecraft equations of motion is presented. This strategy can model the thruster forces occurring in the nominal and contingency modes of attitude control operation. In the nominal mode, the thrusters fire only to balance the daily unloading of the momentum wheels. The contingency case will occur if a pitch or yaw axis momentum wheel fails, and the thrusters could fire up to 1200 times around the orbit to replace the failed wheel's momentum contribution. Deterministic errors are computed and shown to be under specified error requirements.

  3. Predictive fault-tolerant control of an all-thruster satellite in 6-DOF motion via neural network model updating (United States)

    Tavakoli, M. M.; Assadian, N.


    The problem of controlling an all-thruster spacecraft in the coupled translational-rotational motion in presence of actuators fault and/or failure is investigated in this paper. The nonlinear model predictive control approach is used because of its ability to predict the future behavior of the system. The fault/failure of the thrusters changes the mapping between the commanded forces to the thrusters and actual force/torque generated by the thruster system. Thus, the basic six degree-of-freedom kinetic equations are separated from this mapping and a set of neural networks are trained off-line to learn the kinetic equations. Then, two neural networks are attached to these trained networks in order to learn the thruster commands to force/torque mappings on-line. Different off-nominal conditions are modeled so that neural networks can detect any failure and fault, including scale factor and misalignment of thrusters. A simple model of the spacecraft relative motion is used in MPC to decrease the computational burden. However, a precise model by the means of orbit propagation including different types of perturbation is utilized to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed approach in actual conditions. The numerical simulation shows that this method can successfully control the all-thruster spacecraft with ON-OFF thrusters in different combinations of thruster fault and/or failure.

  4. Fabrication of LTCC based Micro Thruster for Precision Controlled Spaceflight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jack; Jørgensen, John Leif


    The paper at hand presents the initial investigations on the development and fabrication of a micro thruster based on LTCC technology, delivering a thrust in the micro Newton regime. Using smaller segments of an observation system distributed on two or more spacecrafts, one can realize an observa...... elimination of the disturbance forces perturbing the orbits and attitudes of formation flying spacecrafts. In the flowing the investigations on the dimensioning and the calculations on the somewhat predictive performance are presented in short form....

  5. Electrospray Thrusters for Attitude Control of a 1-U CubeSat (United States)

    Timilsina, Navin

    With a rapid increase in the interest in use of nanosatellites in the past decade, finding a precise and low-power-consuming attitude control system for these satellites has been a real challenge. In this thesis, it is intended to design and test an electrospray thruster system that could perform the attitude control of a 1-unit CubeSat. Firstly, an experimental setup is built to calculate the conductivity of different liquids that could be used as propellants for the CubeSat. Secondly, a Time-Of-Flight experiment is performed to find out the thrust and specific impulse given by these liquids and hence selecting the optimum propellant. On the other hand, a colloidal thruster system for a 1-U CubeSat is designed in Solidworks and fabricated using Lathe and CNC Milling Machine. Afterwards, passive propellant feeding is tested in this thruster system. Finally, the electronic circuit and wireless control system necessary to remotely control the CubeSat is designed and the final testing is performed. Among the propellants studied, Ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN) was selected as the best propellant for the CubeSat. Theoretical design and fabrication of the thruster system was performed successfully and so was the passive propellant feeding test. The satellite was assembled for the final experiment but unfortunately the microcontroller broke down during the first test and no promising results were found out. However, after proving that one thruster works with passive feeding, it could be said that the ACS testing would have worked if we had performed vacuum compatibility tests for other components beforehand.

  6. Development of a Hardware-in-the-loop Simulator for Spacecraft Attitude Control Using Thrusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Koh


    Full Text Available In this study, a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL simulator using thrusters is developed to validate the spacecraft attitude system. To control the attitude of the simulator, eight cold gas thrusters are aligned with roll, pitch and yaw axis. Also linear actuators are applied to the HIL simulator for automatic mass balancing to compensate the center of mass offset from the center of rotation. The HIL simulator consists of an embedded computer (Onboard PC for simulator system control, a wireless adapter for wireless network, a rate gyro sensor to measure 3-axis attitude of the simulator, an inclinometer to measure horizontal attitude, and a battery set to supply power for the simulator independently. For the performance test of the HIL simulator, a bang-bang controller and Pulse-Width Pulse-Frequency (PWPF modulator are evaluated successfully. The maneuver of 68 deg. in yaw axis is tested for the comparison of the both controllers. The settling time of the bang -bang controller is faster than that of the PWPF modulator by six seconds in the experiment. The required fuel of the PWPF modulator is used as much as 51% of bang-bang controller in the experiment. Overall, the HIL simulator is appropriately developed to validate the control algorithms using thrusters.

  7. Trade Study of Multiple Thruster Options for the Mars Airplane Concept (United States)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.; Gayle, Steven W.; Hunter, Craig A.; Kenney, Patrick S.; Scola, Salvatore; Paddock, David A.; Wright, Henry S.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.


    A trade study was performed at NASA Langley Research Center under the Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction (PARR) project (2004-2005) to examine the option of using multiple, smaller thrusters in place of a single large thruster on the Mars airplane concept with the goal to reduce overall cost, schedule, and technical risk. The 5-lbf (22N) thruster is a common reaction control thruster on many satellites. Thousands of these types of thrusters have been built and flown on numerous programs, including MILSTAR and Intelsat VI. This study has examined the use of three 22N thrusters for the Mars airplane propulsion system and compared the results to those of the baseline single thruster system.

  8. Colloid Thruster for Attitude Control Systems (ACS) and Tip-off Control Applications Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop and deliver a complete engineering model colloid thruster system, capable of thrust levels and lifetimes required for spacecraft...

  9. Performance and Qualification of the Power Supply and Control Unit for the HEMP Thruster (United States)

    Brag, R.; Herty, F.


    In 2013, Astrium GmbH delivered several flight model electronics for Electric Propulsion (EP) systems or corresponding components. One of the elements is a Power Supply and Control Unit (PSCU) for the Thales development "High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster" (HEMP-T) (see Figure 1). This paper presents the PSCU specification and results of the qualification and acceptance phase of the EQM and the PFM.

  10. Electric propulsion. [pulsed plasma thruster and electron bombardment ion engine for MSAT attitude control and stationkeeping (United States)


    An alternative propulsion subsystem for MSAT is presented which has a potential of reducing the satellite weight by more than 15%. The characteristics of pulsed plasma and ion engines are described and used to estimate of the mass of the propellant and thrusters for attitude control and stationkeeping functions for MSAT. Preliminary estimates indicate that the electric propulsion systems could also replace the large momentum wheels necessary to counteract the solar pressure; however, the fine pointing wheels would be retained. Estimates also show that either electric propulsion system can save approximately 18% to 20% of the initial 4,000 kg mass. The issues that require further experimentation are mentioned.

  11. Fuzzy based attitude controller for flexible spacecraft with on/off thrusters (United States)

    Knapp, Roger Glenn


    A fuzzy-based attitude controller is designed for attitude control of a generic spacecraft with on/off thrusters. The controller is comprised of packages of rules dedicated to addressing different objectives (e.g., disturbance rejection, low fuel consumption, avoiding the excitation of flexible appendages, etc.). These rule packages can be inserted or removed depending on the requirements of the particular spacecraft and are parameterized based on vehicle parameters such as inertia or operational parameters such as the maneuvering rate. Individual rule packages can be 'weighted' relative to each other to emphasize the importance of one objective relative to another. Finally, the fuzzy controller and rule packages are demonstrated using the high-fidelity Space Shuttle Interactive On-Orbit Simulator (IOS) while performing typical on-orbit operations and are subsequently compared with the existing shuttle flight control system performance.

  12. Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control for Thruster-Assisted Position Mooring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trong Dong; Blanke, Mogens; Sørensen, Asgeir


    Development of fault-tolerant control systems is crucial to maintain safe operation of o®shore installations. The objective of this paper is to develop a fault- tolerant control for thruster-assisted position mooring (PM) system with faults occurring in the mooring lines. Faults in line......'s pretension or line breaks will degrade the performance of the positioning of the vessel. Faults will be detected and isolated through a fault diagnosis procedure. When faults are detected, they can be accommodated through the control action in which only parameter of the controlled plant has to be updated...... to cope with the faulty condition. Simulations will be carried out to verify the advantages of the fault-tolerant control strategy for the PM system....

  13. Lifetime Improvement of Large Scale Green Monopropellant Thrusters via Novel, Long-Life Catalysts Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a high performance, non-toxic storable, "green" monopropellant thruster suitable for in-space reaction control propulsion. The engine will...

  14. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Roll and Reaction Control Systems Design Status (United States)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Chris G.; Pitts, Hank M.; Sharp, David J.


    This paper provides an update of design status following the preliminary design review of NASA s Ares I first stage roll and upper stage reaction control systems. The Ares I launch vehicle has been chosen to return humans to the moon, mars, and beyond. It consists of a first stage five segment solid rocket booster and an upper stage liquid bi-propellant J-2X engine. Similar to many launch vehicles, the Ares I has reaction control systems used to provide the vehicle with three degrees of freedom stabilization during the mission. During launch, the first stage roll control system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque. After first stage booster separation, the upper stage reaction control system will provide the upper stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. Trade studies and design assessments conducted on the roll and reaction control systems include: propellant selection, thruster arrangement, pressurization system configuration, and system component trades. Since successful completion of the preliminary design review, work has progressed towards the critical design review with accomplishments made in the following areas: pressurant / propellant tank, thruster assembly, and other component configurations, as well as thruster module design, and waterhammer mitigation approach. Also, results from early development testing are discussed along with plans for upcoming system testing. This paper concludes by summarizing the process of down selecting to the current baseline configuration for the Ares I roll and reaction control systems.

  15. Colloid thruster technology (United States)

    Perel, J.


    A program is described for attaining control, reproducibility, and predictability of operation for the annular colloid emitter. A thruster of an improved design was used for a 1000 hour test. The thruster was operated with a neutralizer for 1023 hours at 15 kV with an average thrust of 25 micropound and specific impulse of 1160 sec. The performance was stable, and the beam was vectored periodically. The clean condition of the emitter edge at the end of the test coupled with no degradation in performance during the test indicated that the lifetime could be extrapolated by at least an order of magnitude over the test time.

  16. Magnesium Hall Thruster (United States)

    Szabo, James J.


    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  17. Waterhammer Modeling for the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System Cold Flow Development Test Article (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan H.


    The Upper Stage Reaction Control System provides three-axis attitude control for the Ares I launch vehicle during active Upper Stage flight. The system design must accommodate rapid thruster firing to maintain the proper launch trajectory and thus allow for the possibility to pulse multiple thrusters simultaneously. Rapid thruster valve closure creates an increase in static pressure, known as waterhammer, which propagates throughout the propellant system at pressures exceeding nominal design values. A series of development tests conducted in the fall of 2009 at Marshall Space Flight Center were performed using a water-flow test article to better understand fluid performance characteristics of the Upper Stage Reaction Control System. A subset of the tests examined waterhammer along with the subsequent pressure and frequency response in the flight-representative system and provided data to anchor numerical models. This thesis presents a comparison of waterhammer test results with numerical model and analytical results. An overview of the flight system, test article, modeling and analysis are also provided.

  18. MEMS Reaction Control and Maneuvering for Picosat Beyond LEO (United States)

    Alexeenko, Alina


    The MEMS Reaction Control and Maneuvering for Picosat Beyond LEO project will further develop a multi-functional small satellite technology for low-power attitude control, or orientation, of picosatellites beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The Film-Evaporation MEMS Tunable Array (FEMTA) concept initially developed in 2013, is a thermal valving system which utilizes capillary forces in a microchannel to offset internal pressures in a bulk fluid. The local vapor pressure is increased by resistive film heating until it exceeds meniscus strength in a nozzle which induces vacuum boiling and provides a stagnation pressure equal to vapor pressure at that point which is used for propulsion. Interplanetary CubeSats can utilize FEMTA for high slew rate attitude corrections in addition to desaturating reaction wheels. The FEMTA in cooling mode can be used for thermal control during high-power communication events, which are likely to accompany the attitude correction. Current small satellite propulsion options are limited to orbit correction whereas picosatellites are lacking attitude control thrusters. The available attitude control systems are either quickly saturated reaction wheels or movable high drag surfaces with long response times.

  19. Predicting Ares I Reaction Control System Performance by Utilizing Analysis Anchored with Development Test Data (United States)

    Stein, William B.; Holt, K.; Holton, M.; Williams, J. H.; Butt, A.; Dervan, M.; Sharp, D.


    The Ares I launch vehicle is an integral part of NASA s Constellation Program, providing a foundation for a new era of space access. The Ares I is designed to lift the Orion Crew Module and will enable humans to return to the Moon as well as explore Mars.1 The Ares I is comprised of two inline stages: a Space Shuttle-derived five-segment Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) First Stage (FS) and an Upper Stage (US) powered by a Saturn V-derived J-2X engine. A dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS) located on the connecting interstage provides roll control prior to FS separation. Induced yaw and pitch moments are handled by the SRB nozzle vectoring. The FS SRB operates for approximately two minutes after which the US separates from the vehicle and the US Reaction Control System (ReCS) continues to provide reaction control for the remainder of the mission. A representation of the Ares I launch vehicle in the stacked configuration and including the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is shown in Figure 1. Each Reaction Control System (RCS) design incorporates a Gaseous Helium (GHe) pressurization system combined with a monopropellant Hydrazine (N2H4) propulsion system. Both systems have two diametrically opposed thruster modules. This architecture provides one failure tolerance for function and prevention of catastrophic hazards such as inadvertent thruster firing, bulk propellant leakage, and over-pressurization. The pressurization system on the RoCS includes two ambient pressure-referenced regulators on parallel strings in order to attain the required system level single Fault Tolerant (FT) design for function while the ReCS utilizes a blow-down approach. A single burst disk and relief valve assembly is also included on the RoCS to ensure single failure tolerance for must-not-occur catastrophic hazards. The Reaction Control Systems are designed to support simultaneously firing multiple thrusters as required

  20. Control System of a Three DOF Spacecraft Simulator by Vectorable Thrusters and Control Moment Gyros

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, William D


    ...) Spacecraft Simulator used in the Proximity Operations Simulator Facility, as part of the Naval Postgraduate School's Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory, to simulate autonomous guidance, navigation and control (GNC...

  1. Experimental investigation of the catalytic decomposition and combustion characteristics of a non-toxic ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based monopropellant thruster (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Guoxiu; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Meng; Yu, Yusong


    Low toxicity ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based aerospace propulsion systems currently show promise with regard to applications such as controlling satellite attitude. In the present work, the decomposition and combustion processes of an ADN-based monopropellant thruster were systematically studied, using a thermally stable catalyst to promote the decomposition reaction. The performance of the ADN propulsion system was investigated using a ground test system under vacuum, and the physical properties of the ADN-based propellant were also examined. Using this system, the effects of the preheating temperature and feed pressure on the combustion characteristics and thruster performance during steady state operation were observed. The results indicate that the propellant and catalyst employed during this work, as well as the design and manufacture of the thruster, met performance requirements. Moreover, the 1 N ADN thruster generated a specific impulse of 223 s, demonstrating the efficacy of the new catalyst. The thruster operational parameters (specifically, the preheating temperature and feed pressure) were found to have a significant effect on the decomposition and combustion processes within the thruster, and the performance of the thruster was demonstrated to improve at higher feed pressures and elevated preheating temperatures. A lower temperature of 140 °C was determined to activate the catalytic decomposition and combustion processes more effectively compared with the results obtained using other conditions. The data obtained in this study should be beneficial to future systematic and in-depth investigations of the combustion mechanism and characteristics within an ADN thruster.

  2. Aerodynamic Interactions of Propulsive Deceleration and Reaction Control System Jets on Mars-Entry Aeroshells (United States)

    Alkandry, Hicham

    Future missions to Mars, including sample-return and human-exploration missions, may require alternative entry, descent, and landing technologies in order to perform pinpoint landing of heavy vehicles. Two such alternatives are propulsive deceleration (PD) and reaction control systems (RCS). PD can slow the vehicle during Mars atmospheric descent by directing thrusters into the incoming freestream. RCS can provide vehicle control and steering by inducing moments using thrusters on the hack of the entry capsule. The use of these PD and RCS jets, however, involves complex flow interactions that are still not well understood. The fluid interactions induced by PD and RCS jets for Mars-entry vehicles in hypersonic freestream conditions are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The effects of central and peripheral PD configurations using both sonic and supersonic jets at various thrust conditions are examined in this dissertation. The RCS jet is directed either parallel or transverse to the freestream flow at different thrust conditions in order to examine the effects of the thruster orientation with respect to the center of gravity of the aeroshell. The physical accuracy of the computational method is also assessed by comparing the numerical results with available experimental data. The central PD configuration decreases the drag force acting on the entry capsule due to a shielding effect that prevents mass and momentum in the hypersonic freestream from reaching the aeroshell. The peripheral PD configuration also decreases the drag force by obstructing the flow around the aeroshell and creating low surface pressure regions downstream of the PD nozzles. The Mach number of the PD jets, however, does not have a significant effect on the induced fluid interactions. The reaction control system also alters the flowfield, surface, and aerodynamic properties of the aeroshell, while the jet orientation can have a significant effect on the control effectiveness

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Ion Thruster Optics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma Controls will manufacture and test a set of ion optics for electric propulsion ion thrusters using additive manufacturing technology, also known as 3D...

  4. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates (United States)

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice


    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  5. Femtosecond laser control of chemical reactions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A


    Full Text Available relative fragmentation ratios for unimolecular dissociation reactions – therefore selectively breaking bonds in a molecule. More interestingly, the same techniques can be used to provide control over chemical reactions involving two or more reactant...

  6. Preventing Corrosion by Controlling Cathodic Reaction Kinetics (United States)


    Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Progress Report for Period: 1 SEP 2015-31 MAR 2016 John Keith Department of...25 March 2016 Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Annual Summary Report: FY16 PI: John Keith, 412-624-7016,jakeith...elements on the kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed on titanium oxide in order to develop new approaches for controlling galvanic corrosion

  7. Vacuum Chamber Construction and Contamination Study of A Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Debevec, Jacob H


    The micro pulsed plasma thruster (micro-PPT) is a simple and versatile electric thruster capable of performing multiple missions, from precise attitude control on standard satellites to primary propulsion for nanosatellites...

  8. Solid State MEMS Thrusters Using Electrically Controlled Extinguishable Solid Propellant Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ET Materials, LLC developed the first ever electrically controlled extinguishable solid propellant (ECESP). The original propellant developed under Air Force SBIR...

  9. Laser ignition of a cryogenic thruster using a miniaturised Nd:YAG laser. (United States)

    Manfletti, Chiara; Kroupa, Gerhard


    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the feasibility of implementing laser ignition in cryogenic reaction and control and orbital manouvering thrusters. A experimental thruster with a single-coaxial injector element combustion chamber for testing with liquid oxygen/gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen/gaseous methane was designed for this purpose. Mapping tests conducted using a standard table top laser revealed that the minimum incident energies required for 100% reliable laser plasma and laser ablation ignition of liquid oxygen/gaseous hydrogen are 72 mJ and 14.5 mJ respectively. In addition, the miniaturised HIPoLas® laser was mounted directly on the thruster and used as ignition system. This paper reports locations of energy deposition, levels of delivered energy and associated ignition probabilities obtained. The results indicate the feasibility of using a laser system for the direct ignition of reaction and control and orbital manouvering thrusters and highlight further investigations and developments necessary for the implementation of miniaturised laser systems for vacuum igntion of cryogenic propellants.

  10. Estimating Thruster Impulses From IMU and Doppler Data (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.


    A computer program implements a thrust impulse measurement (TIM) filter, which processes data on changes in velocity and attitude of a spacecraft to estimate the small impulsive forces and torques exerted by the thrusters of the spacecraft reaction control system (RCS). The velocity-change data are obtained from line-of-sight-velocity data from Doppler measurements made from the Earth. The attitude-change data are the telemetered from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) aboard the spacecraft. The TIM filter estimates the threeaxis thrust vector for each RCS thruster, thereby enabling reduction of cumulative navigation error attributable to inaccurate prediction of thrust vectors. The filter has been augmented with a simple mathematical model to compensate for large temperature fluctuations in the spacecraft thruster catalyst bed in order to estimate thrust more accurately at deadbanding cold-firing levels. Also, rigorous consider-covariance estimation is applied in the TIM to account for the expected uncertainty in the moment of inertia and the location of the center of gravity of the spacecraft. The TIM filter was built with, and depends upon, a sigma-point consider-filter algorithm implemented in a Python-language computer program.

  11. Solution-phase reaction dynamics: Gaining control (United States)

    Case, Amanda S.


    Using infrared light to control the outcome of a chemical reaction is problematic in solution because of numerous interactions and non-specific sample heating. Now, condensed-phase results showing the vibrational enhancement of an otherwise thermally driven reaction may reinvigorate discussion of the practical applications of vibrational control.

  12. Chip based MEMS Ion Thruster to significantly enhance Cold Gas Thruster Lifetime for LISA (United States)

    Tajmar, M.; Laufer, P.; Bock, D.


    Micropropulsion is a key component for ultraprecise attitude and orbit control required by the eLISA mission. LISA pathfinder uses cold gas micro thrusters that are accurate but require large tanks due to their very low specific impulse, which in turn limits the possible mission duration of the follow up eLISA mission. Recently, we developed a compact MEMS ion thruster on the chip with a size of only 1cm2 that can be simply attached to a gas feeding line like the one used for cold gas thrusters. It provides a specific impulse greater than 1000 s and only requires a single DC voltage. Since the operating principle is based on field emission, very low thrust noises similar to FEEP thrusters are expected but with gas propellants. The MEMS ion thruster chip could be mounted in parallel to the existing gold gas system providing high Isp and therefore long mission durations while leaving the cold gas system in place. To enable a possible mission extension, the MEMS ion thruster could take over from the cold gas system as a backup while maintaining the existing micropropulsion thruster system with its heritage therefore minimum risk.

  13. Design and numerical evaluation of full-authority flight control systems for conventional and thruster-augmented helicopters employed in NOE operations (United States)

    Perri, Todd A.; Mckillip, R. M., Jr.; Curtiss, H. C., Jr.


    The development and methodology is presented for development of full-authority implicit model-following and explicit model-following optimal controllers for use on helicopters operating in the Nap-of-the Earth (NOE) environment. Pole placement, input-output frequency response, and step input response were used to evaluate handling qualities performance. The pilot was equipped with velocity-command inputs. A mathematical/computational trajectory optimization method was employed to evaluate the ability of each controller to fly NOE maneuvers. The method determines the optimal swashplate and thruster input histories from the helicopter's dynamics and the prescribed geometry and desired flying qualities of the maneuver. Three maneuvers were investigated for both the implicit and explicit controllers with and without auxiliary propulsion installed: pop-up/dash/descent, bob-up at 40 knots, and glideslope. The explicit controller proved to be superior to the implicit controller in performance and ease of design.

  14. Non-Toxic Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine Development for On-Orbit APS Applications (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.


    A non-toxic dual thrust proof-of-concept demonstration engine was successfully tested at the Aerojet Sacramento facility under a technology contract sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The goals of the NASA MSFC contract (NAS8-01109) were to develop and expand the technical maturity of a non-toxic, on-orbit auxiliary propulsion system (APS) thruster under the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program. The demonstration engine utilized the existing Kistler K-1 870 lbf LOX/Ethanol orbital maneuvering engine ( O m ) coupled with some special test equipment (STE) that enabled engine operation at 870 lbf in the primary mode and 25 lbf in the vernier mode. Ambient testing in primary mode varied mixture ratio (MR) from 1.28 to 1.71 and chamber pressure (P(c) from 110 to 181 psia, and evaluated electrical pulse widths (EPW) of 0.080, 0.100 and 0.250 seconds. Altitude testing in vernier mode explored igniter and thruster pulsing characteristics, long duration steady state operation (greater than 420 sec) and the impact of varying the percent fuel film cooling on vernier performance and chamber thermal response at low PC (4 psia). Data produced from the testing provided calibration of the performance and thermal models used in the design of the next version of the dual thrust Reaction Control Engine (RCE).

  15. Demonstration of a Non-Toxic Reaction Control Engine (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Turpin, Alicia A.; Veith, Eric M.


    T:hree non-toxic demonstration reaction control engines (RCE) were successfully tested at the Aerojet Sacramento facility under a technology contract sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The goals of the NASA MSFC contract (NAS8-01109) were to develop and expand the technical maturity of a non-toxic, on-orbit auxiliary propulsion system (APS) thruster under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The demonstration engine utilized Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and Ethanol as propellants to produce 870 lbf thrust. The Aerojet RCE's were successfully acceptance tested over a broad range of operating conditions. Steady state tests evaluated engine response to varying chamber pressures and mixture ratios. In addition to the steady state tests, a variety of pulsing tests were conducted over a wide range of electrical pulse widths (EPW). Each EPW condition was also tested over a range of percent duty cycles (DC), and bit impulse and pulsing specific impulse were determined for each of these conditions. Subsequent to acceptance testing at Aerojet, these three engines were delivered to the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) in April 2005 for incorporation into a cryogenic Auxiliary Propulsion System Test Bed (APSTB). The APSTB is a test article that will be utilized in an altitude test cell to simulate anticipated mission applications. The objectives of this APSTB testing included evaluation of engine performance over an extended duty cycle map of propellant pressure and temperature, as well as engine and system performance at typical mission duty cycles over extended periods of time. This paper provides acceptance test results and a status of the engine performance as part of the system level testing.

  16. Iodine Hall Thruster (United States)

    Szabo, James


    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  17. Oxygen-Methane Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orion Propulsion, Inc. proposes to develop an Oxygen and Methane RCS Thruster to advance the technology of alternate fuels. A successful Oxygen/CH4 RCS Thruster will...

  18. Nonlinear control of the Salnikov model reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recke, Bodil; Jørgensen, Sten Bay


    This paper explores different nonlinear control schemes, applied to a simple model reaction. The model is the Salnikov model, consisting of two ordinary differential equations. The control strategies investigated are I/O-linearisation, Exact linearisation, exact linearisation combined with LQR...

  19. Design and model experiments on thruster assisted mooring system; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no thruster ni yoru choshuki doyo seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Kajiwara, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering; Hyakudome, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    Described herein are dynamics and model experiments of the system in which positioning of a floating marine structure by mooring is combined with thruster-controlled positioning. Coefficients of dynamic forces acting on a floating structure model are determined experimentally and by the three-dimensional singularity distribution method, and the controller is designed by the PID, LQI and H{infinity} control theories. A model having a scale ratio of 1/100 was used for the experiments, where 2 thrusters were arranged in a diagonal line, one on the X-axis. It is found that the LQI and H{infinity} controllers of the thruster can control long-cycle rolling of the floating structure. They allow thruster control which is insensitive to wave cycle motion, and efficiently reduce positioning energy. The H{infinity} control regulates frequency characteristics of a closed loop more finely than the LQI control, and exhibits better controllability. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  20. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    -Effect Thruster (PMHET), developed at the Plasma Physics Laboratory of UnB. The idea of using an array of permanent magnets, instead of an electromagnet, to produce a radial magnetic field inside the cylindrical plasma drift channel of the thruster is very attractive, especially because of the possibility of developing a HET with power consumption low enough to be used in small satellites or medium-size satellites with low on board power. Hall-Effect Thrusters are now a very good option for spacecraft primary propulsion and also for station-keeping of medium and large satellites. This is because of their high specific impulse, efficient use of propellant mass and combined low and precise thrust capabilities, which are related to an economy in terms of propellant mass utilization , longer satellite lifetime and easier spacecraft maneuvering in microgravity environment. The first HETs were developed in the mid 1950’s, and they were first called Closed Drift Thrusters. Today, the successful use of electric thrusters for attitude control and orbit modification on hundreds of satellites shows the advanced stage of development of this technology. In addition to this, after the success of space missions such as Deep Space One and Dawn (NASA), Hayabusa (JAXA) and Smart-1 (ESA), the employment of electric thrusters is also consolidated for the primary propulsion of spacecraft. This success is mainly due to three factors: reliability of this technology; efficiency of propellant utilization, and therefore reduction of the initial mass of the ship; possibility of operation over long time intervals, with practically unlimited cycling and restarts. This thrusting system is designed to be used in satellite attitude control and long term space missions. One of the greatest advantage of this kind of thruster is the production of a steady state magnetic field by permanent magnets providing electron trapping and Hall current generation within a significant decrease on the electric energy supply

  1. Red light-controlled polymerase chain reaction. (United States)

    Meyer, A; Schikora, Margot; Mokhir, A


    A 23-mer DNA "caged" at its 3'-terminus with a 9-anthracenyl moiety was prepared. It can be uncaged in the presence of photosensitizer (In(pyropheophorbide-a)chloride)-containing DNAs (9-12 mers) and upon irradiation with red light. This mixture of DNAs was used to design red-light controlled polymerase chain reaction.

  2. Space Shuttle vernier thruster long-life chamber development (United States)

    Krohn, Douglas D.


    The Space Shuttle Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) vernier thruster is a pressure fed engine that utilizes storable propellants to provide precise attitude control for the Orbiter. The current vernier thruster is life limited due to its chamber material. By developing an iridium-lined rhenium chamber for the vernier, substantial gains could be achieved in the operational life of the chamber. The present RCS vernier, its requirements, operating characteristics, and life limitations are described. The current technology status of iridium-lined rhenium is presented along with a description of the operational life capabilities to be gained from implementing this material into the design of a long life vernier chamber. Discussion of the proposed demonstration program to be performed by the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center to attain additional insight into the application of this technology to the RCS vernier, includes the technical objectives, approach, and program schedule. The plans for further development and integration with the Orbiter and the Shuttle system are also presented.



    Ghuntla Tejas P.; Mehta Hemant B.; Gokhale Pradnya A.; Shah Chinmay J.


    Reaction is purposeful voluntary response to different stimuli as visual or auditory stimuli. Auditory reaction time is time required to response to auditory stimuli. Quickness of response is very important in games like basketball. This study was conducted to compare auditory reaction time of basketball players and healthy controls. The auditory reaction time was measured by the reaction time instrument in healthy controls and basketball players. Simple reaction time and choice reaction time...

  4. Finite-time sliding mode attitude control for a reentry vehicle with blended aerodynamic surfaces and a reaction control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Jie


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a finite-time robust flight controller, targeting for a reentry vehicle with blended aerodynamic surfaces and a reaction control system (RCS. Firstly, a novel finite-time attitude controller is pointed out with the introduction of a nonsingular finite-time sliding mode manifold. The attitude tracking errors are mathematically proved to converge to zero within finite time which can be estimated. In order to improve the performance, a second-order finite-time sliding mode controller is further developed to effectively alleviate chattering without any deterioration of robustness and accuracy. Moreover, an optimization control allocation algorithm, using linear programming and a pulse-width pulse-frequency (PWPF modulator, is designed to allocate torque commands for all the aerodynamic surface deflections and on–off switching-states of RCS thrusters. Simulations are provided for the reentry vehicle considering uncertain parameters and external disturbances for practical purposes, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the attitude control system.

  5. Characterization of a Pressure-Fed LOX/LCH4 Reaction Control System Under Simulated Altitude and Thermal Vacuum Conditions (United States)

    Atwell, Matthew J.; Melcher, John C.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Morehead, Robert L.


    A liquid oxygen, liquid methane (LOX/LCH4) reaction control system (RCS) was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under simulated altitude and thermal vacuum conditions. The RCS is a subsystem of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) and was initially developed under Project Morpheus. Composed of two 28 lbf-thrust and two 7 lbf-thrust engines, the RCS is fed in parallel with the ICPTA main engine from four propellant tanks. 40 tests consisting of 1,010 individual thruster pulses were performed across 6 different test days. Major test objectives were focused on system dynamics, and included characterization of fluid transients, manifold priming, manifold thermal conditioning, thermodynamic vent system (TVS) performance, and main engine/RCS interaction. Peak surge pressures from valve opening and closing events were examined. It was determined that these events were impacted significantly by vapor cavity formation and collapse. In most cases the valve opening transient was more severe than the valve closing. Under thermal vacuum conditions it was shown that TVS operation is unnecessary to maintain liquid conditions at the thruster inlets. However, under higher heat leak environments the RCS can still be operated in a self-conditioning mode without overboard TVS venting, contingent upon the engines managing a range of potentially severe thermal transients. Lastly, during testing under cold thermal conditions the engines experienced significant ignition problems. Only after warming the thruster bodies with a gaseous nitrogen purge to an intermediate temperature was successful ignition demonstrated.

  6. Helical plasma thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, A. D., E-mail: [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR{sup ®} rocket engine.

  7. Green Liquid Monopropellant Thruster (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash B.


    Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI), and Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) are developing a unique chemical propulsion system for next-generation NASA science spacecraft and missions. The system is compact, lightweight, and can operate with high reliability over extended periods of time and under a wide range of thermal environments. The system uses a new storable, low-toxicity liquid monopropellant as its working fluid. In Phase I, the team demonstrated experimentally the critical ignition and combustion processes for the propellant and used the data to develop thruster design concepts. In Phase II, the team developed and demonstrated in the laboratory a proof-of-concept prototype thruster. A Phase III project is envisioned to develop a full-scale protoflight propulsion system applicable to a class of NASA missions.

  8. Reaction Control Engine for Space Launch Initiative (United States)


    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have begun a series of engine tests on a new breed of space propulsion: a Reaction Control Engine developed for the Space Launch Initiative (SLI). The engine, developed by TRW Space and Electronics of Redondo Beach, California, is an auxiliary propulsion engine designed to maneuver vehicles in orbit. It is used for docking, reentry, attitude control, and fine-pointing while the vehicle is in orbit. The engine uses nontoxic chemicals as propellants, a feature that creates a safer environment for ground operators, lowers cost, and increases efficiency with less maintenance and quicker turnaround time between missions. Testing includes 30 hot-firings. This photograph shows the first engine test performed at MSFC that includes SLI technology. Another unique feature of the Reaction Control Engine is that it operates at dual thrust modes, combining two engine functions into one engine. The engine operates at both 25 and 1,000 pounds of force, reducing overall propulsion weight and allowing vehicles to easily maneuver in space. The low-level thrust of 25 pounds of force allows the vehicle to fine-point maneuver and dock while the high-level thrust of 1,000 pounds of force is used for reentry, orbit transfer, and coarse positioning. SLI is a NASA-wide research and development program, managed by the MSFC, designed to improve safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of space travel for second generation reusable launch vehicles.

  9. Thruster Modelling for Underwater Vehicle Using System Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahrieel Mohd Aras


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes a study of thruster modelling for a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV by system identification using Microbox 2000/2000C. Microbox 2000/2000C is an XPC target machine device to interface between an ROV thruster with the MATLAB 2009 software. In this project, a model of the thruster will be developed first so that the system identification toolbox in MATLAB can be used. This project also presents a comparison of mathematical and empirical modelling. The experiments were carried out by using a mini compressor as a dummy depth pressure applied to a pressure sensor. The thruster model will thrust and submerge until it reaches a set point and maintain the set point depth. The depth was based on pressure sensor measurement. A conventional proportional controller was used in this project and the results gathered justified its selection.

  10. Electric Propulsion Electronics And Thrusters As A Satellite Subsystem (United States)

    Gollor, Matthais


    The integration of electrical thrusters with an electronic into a subsystem and with this establishing an integrated design providing full function and performance is critical task. It starts with the proper specification of the electrical interfaces between thrusters and electronics, including a proper definition of the thrusters as an electric load. Furthermore the use of high voltage needs specific knowledge in design and is increasing the subsystem complexity due to obsolesce of suitable disconnect-able harness and of redundancy switching means. EMC is rising to a couple of questions, i.e. about possible interference of magnetic field emission with the satellites attitude control system or about the thruster plasma affecting RF transmission of communication links. End-to-end testing of the propulsion subsystem is limited as it is not possible to run the thruster together with the spacecraft in a vacuum facility. Therefore testing of the subsystem has to be "sliced": typically, the thruster is first characterized with the aid of lab power supplies and is later tested coupled with the "space" electronics. Finally system checkout on satellite level is performed with the using simulators.

  11. A Robust Digital Autopilot for Spacecraft Equipped with Pulse-Operated Thrusters (United States)

    Thurman, S. W.; Flashner, H.


    The analysis and design of attitude control systems for spacecraft employing pulse-operated (on-off) thrusters is usually accomplished through a combination of modeling approximations and empirical techniques. In this paper a new thruster pulse-modulation scheme for pointing and tracking applications is developed from nonlinear control theory.

  12. Thermodynamic Vent System for an On-Orbit Cryogenic Reaction Control Engine (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Romig, Kris A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Flores, Sam


    A report discusses a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) that integrates a Joule-Thompson (JT) device (expansion valve) and thermodynamic vent system (TVS) with a cryogenic distribution system to allow fine control of the propellant quality (subcooled liquid) during operation of the device. It enables zero-venting when coupled with an RCS engine. The proper attachment locations and sizing of the orifice are required with the propellant distribution line to facilitate line conditioning. During operations, system instrumentation was strategically installed along the distribution/TVS line assembly, and temperature control bands were identified. A sub-scale run tank, full-scale distribution line, open-loop TVS, and a combination of procured and custom-fabricated cryogenic components were used in the cryogenic RCS build-up. Simulated on-orbit activation and thruster firing profiles were performed to quantify system heat gain and evaluate the TVS s capability to maintain the required propellant conditions at the inlet to the engine valves. Test data determined that a small control valve, such as a piezoelectric, is optimal to provide continuously the required thermal control. The data obtained from testing has also assisted with the development of fluid and thermal models of an RCS to refine integrated cryogenic propulsion system designs. This system allows a liquid oxygenbased main propulsion and reaction control system for a spacecraft, which improves performance, safety, and cost over conventional hypergolic systems due to higher performance, use of nontoxic propellants, potential for integration with life support and power subsystems, and compatibility with in-situ produced propellants.

  13. Monopropellant Thruster Development Using a Family of Micro Reactors (United States)


    Reaction Processes - Thrust Characteristics - Propellant Flow Rate - SWAP • System Change on Mission/ Operations • Performance Variation Effect on Mission...Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202...NUMBER (Include area code) 17 February 2017 Briefing Charts 30 January 2017 - 28 February 2017 Monopropellant Thruster Development Using a Family of

  14. Artificial Neural Network Test Support Development for the Space Shuttle PRCS Thrusters (United States)

    Lehr, Mark E.


    A significant anomaly, Fuel Valve Pilot Seal Extrusion, is affecting the Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) Thrusters, and has caused 79 to fail. To help address this problem, a Shuttle PRCS Thruster Process Evaluation Team (TPET) was formed. The White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and Boeing members of the TPET have identified many discrete valve current trace characteristics that are predictive of the problem. However, these are difficult and time consuming to identify and trend by manual analysis. Based on this exhaustive analysis over months, 22 thrusters previously delivered by the Depot were identified as high risk for flight failures. Although these had only recently been installed, they had to be removed from Shuttles OV103 and OV104 for reprocessing, by directive of the Shuttle Project Office. The resulting impact of the thruster removal, replacement, and valve replacement was significant (months of work and hundreds of thousands of dollars). Much of this could have been saved had the proposed Neural Network (NN) tool described in this paper been in place. In addition to the significant benefits to the Shuttle indicated above, the development and implementation of this type of testing will be the genesis for potential Quality improvements across many areas of WSTF test data analysis and will be shared with other NASA centers. Future tests can be designed to incorporate engineering experience via Artificial Neural Nets (ANN) into depot level acceptance of hardware. Additionally, results were shared with a NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Super Problem Response Team (SPRT). There was extensive interest voiced among many different personnel from several centers. There are potential spin-offs of this effort that can be directly applied to other data acquisition systems as well as vehicle health management for current and future flight vehicles.

  15. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters (United States)

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander


    Returning samples of Martian soil and rock to Earth is of great interest to scientists. There were numerous studies to evaluate Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission architectures, technology needs, development plans, and requirements. The largest propulsion risk element of the MSR mission is the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). Along with the baseline solid-propellant vehicle, liquid propellants have been considered. Similar requirements apply to other lander ascent engines and reaction control systems. The performance of current state-ofthe- art liquid propellant engines can be significantly improved by increasing both combustion temperature and pressure. Pump-fed propulsion is suggested for a single-stage bipropellant MAV. Achieving a 90-percent stage propellant fraction is thought to be possible on a 100-kg scale, including sufficient thrust for lifting off Mars. To increase the performance of storable bipropellant rocket engines, a high-pressure, lightweight combustion chamber was designed. Iridium liner electrodeposition was investigated on complex-shaped thrust chamber mandrels. Dense, uniform iridium liners were produced on chamber and cylindrical mandrels. Carbon/carbon composite (C/C) structures were braided over iridium-lined mandrels and densified by chemical vapor infiltration. Niobium deposition was evaluated for forming a metallic attachment flange on the carbon/ carbon structure. The new thrust chamber was designed to exceed state-of-the-art performance, and was manufactured with an 83-percent weight savings. High-performance C/Cs possess a unique set of properties that make them desirable materials for high-temperature structures used in rocket propulsion components, hypersonic vehicles, and aircraft brakes. In particular, more attention is focused on 3D braided C/Cs due to their mesh-work structure. Research on the properties of C/Cs has shown that the strength of composites is strongly affected by the fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, and that weakening

  16. Study on Endurance and Performance of Impregnated Ruthenium Catalyst for Thruster System. (United States)

    Kim, Jincheol; Kim, Taegyu


    Performance and endurance of the Ru catalyst were studied for nitrous oxide monopropellant thruster system. The thermal decomposition of N2O requires a considerably high temperature, which make it difficult to be utilized as a thruster propellant, while the propellant decomposition temperature can be reduced by using the catalyst through the decomposition reaction with the propellant. However, the catalyst used for the thruster was frequently exposed to high temperature and high-pressure environment. Therefore, the state change of the catalyst according to the thruster operation was analyzed. Characterization of catalyst used in the operation condition of the thruster was performed using FE-SEM and EDS. As a result, performance degradation was occurred due to the volatilization of Ru catalyst and reduction of the specific surface area according to the phase change of Al2O3.

  17. System for Coupling an IEC Reactor to Ion Thrusters (United States)

    Webber, Jason; Burton, Rodney; Momoto, Hiromu; Miley, George; Richardson, Nathan


    A conceptual design for an electric-thruster-driven space ship using a D-He3 fueled Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion power unit was recently developed [1]. This propulsion system uses a bank of modified NSTAR-type krypton ion thrusters (specific impulse of 16,000 sec.) giving a total thrust of 1020 N. The thrust time for a typical outer planet mission ( e.g. Jupiter) with a delta-V of 50,000 m/s is then 200 days. A key component of this concept is a traveling wave direct energy converter that converts the kinetic energy of 14-MeV fusion reaction product protons to high voltage (about 1 MV) DC electrical output. A unique step-down transformer and rectifier system condition this output for use in the ion thrusters. Details of these components, the NSTAR-thruster modifications plus a magnetic hexa-pole collimator designed to guide the emitted protons into the traveling wave converter will be described. This advanced electric thruster design offers a very high power-to-weight ratio system that is crucial for deep space propulsion. [1] George H. Miley, Hiromu Momota, R. Burton, N.Richardson, M. Coventry, and Y. Shaban, IEC Based D-He3 Fusion for Space Propulsion, Trans Am. Nuclear Society, Annual Meeting, Hollywood, FL, June 2002.

  18. Oxygen-Methane Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two main innovations will be developed in the Phase II effort that are fundamentally associated with our gaseous oxygen/gaseous methane RCS thruster. The first...

  19. Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase II program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power...

  20. Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase I program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power...

  1. Electronegative Gas Thruster - Direct Thrust Measurement Project (United States)

    Dankanich, John (Principal Investigator); Aanesland, Ane; Polzin, Kurt; Walker, Mitchell


    This effort is an international collaboration and academic partnership to mature an innovative electric propulsion (EP) thruster concept to TRL 3 through direct thrust measurement. The initial target application is for Small Satellites, but can be extended to higher power. The Plasma propulsion with Electronegative GASES (PEGASES) concept simplifies ion thruster operation, eliminates a neutralizer requirement and should yield longer life capabilities and lower cost implementation over conventional gridded ion engines. The basic proof-of concept has been demonstrated and matured to TRL 2 over the past several years by researchers at the Laboratoire de Physique des Plasma in France. Due to the low maturity of the innovation, there are currently no domestic investments in electronegative gas thrusters anywhere within NASA, industry or academia. The end product of this Center Innovation Fund (CIF) project will be a validation of the proof-of-concept, maturation to TRL 3 and technology assessment report to summarize the potential for the PEGASES concept to supplant the incumbent technology. Information exchange with the foreign national will be one-way with the exception of the test results. Those test results will first go through a standard public release ITAR/export control review, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum.

  2. Micro-Satellite Configuration of Discoid and Asymmetrical, Gyroless with Thrusters Three-Axis Robust Control and Stability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou


    Full Text Available The center of mass of the micro-satellite can offset due to fuel consumption in the course of propulsion, with the interference of external orbital environment such as gravity gradient torque and solar radiation torque. If the structural shape is discoid and asymmetrical, the attitude control may be difficult. The only solution is to design a robust controller, so that the attitude pointing of the satellite can meet the mission requirements with the interference of internal parameter perturbation and external disturbance. Meanwhile, in order to reduce the weight and manufacturing cost of satellite, in the design of satellite attitude angular rate determination, the project used unscented kalman filter (UKF algorithm, coarse sun sensor (CSS and earth horizon sensor (EHS as measurement components to obtain the satellite attitude without rate gyro.

  3. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program, Busek Co. Inc. tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high flow iodine feed system,...

  4. Operating a magnetic nozzle helicon thruster with strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazunori, E-mail:; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)


    A pulsed axial magnetic field up to ∼2.8 kG is applied to a 26-mm-inner-diameter helicon plasma thruster immersed in a vacuum chamber, and the thrust is measured using a pendulum target. The pendulum is located 30-cm-downstream of the thruster, and the thruster rf power and argon flow rate are fixed at 1 kW and 70 sccm (which gives a chamber pressure of 0.7 mTorr). The imparted thrust increases as the applied magnetic field is increased and saturates at a maximum value of ∼9.5 mN for magnetic field above ∼2 kG. At the maximum magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the normalized plasma density, and the ion flow energy in the magnetic nozzle, agree within ∼50% and of 10%, respectively, with a one-dimensional model that ignores radial losses from the nozzle. This magnetic nozzle model is combined with a simple global model of the thruster source that incorporates an artificially controlled factor α, to account for radial plasma losses to the walls, where α = 0 and 1 correspond to zero losses and no magnetic field, respectively. Comparison between the experiments and the model implies that the radial losses in the thruster source are experimentally reduced by the applied magnetic field to about 10% of that obtained from the no magnetic field model.

  5. SLD Reaction Control and Propulsion System. Preliminary Design Study (United States)


    thruster (P/N 239500, S/N 001 and 002) initiated in June of 1980. This thruster is to be used in the Ford Aero- space & Communications Corporation ...quotations have been received from the Brunswick Corporation for their Kevlar wrapped aluminum liner and titan- ium liner tank designs. These cost datc...type tank is rcduced to 0.8%. Since the space- craft temperatura Is not expected to reach 1400 F, the actual ullage will always be greater than 0.8

  6. Power Electronics Development for the SPT-100 Thruster (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Sankovic, John M.


    Russian electric propulsion technologies have recently become available on the world market. Of significant interest is the Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) which has a significant flight heritage in the former Soviet space program. The SPT has performance levels of up to 1600 seconds of specific impulse at a thrust efficiency of 0.50. Studies have shown that this level of performance is well suited for stationkeeping applications, and the SPT-100, with a 1.35 kW input power level, is presently being evaluated for use on Western commercial satellites. Under a program sponsored by the Innovative Science and Technology Division of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, a team of U.S. electric propulsion specialists observed the operation of the SPT-100 in Russia. Under this same program, power electronics were developed to operate the SPT-100 to characterize thruster performance and operation in the U.S. The power electronics consisted of a discharge, cathode heater, and pulse igniter power supplies to operate the thruster with manual flow control. A Russian designed matching network was incorporated in the discharge supply to ensure proper operation with the thruster. The cathode heater power supply and igniter were derived from ongoing development projects. No attempts were made to augment thruster electromagnet current in this effort. The power electronics successfully started and operated the SPT-100 thruster in performance tests at NASA Lewis, with minimal oscillations in the discharge current. The efficiency of the main discharge supply was measured at 0.92, and straightforward modifications were identified which could increase the efficiency to 0.94.

  7. Vacuum arc plasma thrusters with inductive energy storage driver (United States)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan (Inventor)


    A plasma thruster with a cylindrical inner and cylindrical outer electrode generates plasma particles from the application of energy stored in an inductor to a surface suitable for the formation of a plasma and expansion of plasma particles. The plasma production results in the generation of charged particles suitable for generating a reaction force, and the charged particles are guided by a magnetic field produced by the same inductor used to store the energy used to form the plasma.

  8. Attitude Determination and Control System Design for a 6U Cube Sat for Proximity Operations and Rendezvous (United States)


    USA Michael V. Nayak § Red Sky Research, Albuquerque, New Mexico , 87108, USA Thorsten Pueschl ¶ dSPACE GmbH, Paderborn, 32102, Germany The work...volume, mass, and power constraints led to the decision of eliminating the reaction wheels in favor of an RCS thruster actuated control system. A trade ...the same distur- bance scenario was presented to the thruster actuated system. The total propellant per orbit needed to reject all exterior

  9. Modeling of Reaction Processes Controlled by Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Revelli, J


    Stochastic modeling is quite powerful in science and technology.The technics derived from this process have been used with great success in laser theory, biological systems and chemical reactions.Besides, they provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of experimental results on the field of particle's diffusion in ordered and disordered materials.In this work we analyze transport processes in one-dimensional fluctuating media, which are media that change their state in time.This fact induces changes in the movements of the particles giving rise to different phenomena and dynamics that will be described and analyzed in this work.We present some random walk models to describe these fluctuating media.These models include state transitions governed by different dynamical processes.We also analyze the trapping problem in a lattice by means of a simple model which predicts a resonance-like phenomenon.Also we study effective diffusion processes over surfaces due to random walks in the bulk.We consider differe...

  10. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T.


    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  11. Low Cost Refractory Matrix Composite Thruster for Mars Ascent Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The long-term goal for this effort is to develop a low-cost, high-temperature thruster. Within the attitude control propulsion community, many efforts have focused...

  12. Modelling and control of cell reaction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jha; J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)


    textabstractThe project aims at a study of the nonlinear systems arising in the biochemical processes occuring inside a cell. The cellular regulation has been formulated in the more familiar framework used in control and system theory in terms of inputs as the variables which can be influenced

  13. Mechanisms for control of biological electron transfer reactions. (United States)

    Williamson, Heather R; Dow, Brian A; Davidson, Victor L


    Electron transfer (ET) through and between proteins is a fundamental biological process. The rates and mechanisms of these ET reactions are controlled by the proteins in which the redox centers that donate and accept electrons reside. The protein influences the magnitudes of the ET parameters, the electronic coupling and reorganization energy that are associated with the ET reaction. The protein can regulate the rates of the ET reaction by requiring reaction steps to optimize the system for ET, leading to kinetic mechanisms of gated or coupled ET. Amino acid residues in the segment of the protein through which long range ET occurs can also modulate the ET rate by serving as staging points for hopping mechanisms of ET. Specific examples are presented to illustrate these mechanisms by which proteins control rates of ET reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatially controlled amyloid reactions using organic electronics. (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Hammarström, Per; Berggren, Magnus; Nilsson, K Peter R


    Abnormal protein aggregates, so called amyloid fibrils, are mainly known as pathological hallmarks of a wide range of diseases, but in addition these robust well-ordered self-assembled natural nanostructures can also be utilized for creating distinct nanomaterials for bioelectronic devices. However, current methods for producing amyloid fibrils in vitro offer no spatial control. Herein, we demonstrate a new way to produce and spatially control the assembly of amyloid-like structures using an organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) to pump distinct cations to a reservoir containing a negatively charged polypeptide. The morphology and kinetics of the created proteinaceous nanomaterials depends on the ion and current used, which we leveraged to create layers incorporating different conjugated thiophene derivatives, one fluorescent (p-FTAA) and one conducting (PEDOT-S). We anticipate that this new application for the OEIP will be useful for both biological studies of amyloid assembly and fibrillogenesis as well as for creating new bioelectronic nanomaterials and devices.

  15. Concept Study of Radio Frequency (RF Plasma Thruster for Space Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Theodora ANDREESCU


    Full Text Available Electric thrusters are capable of accelerating ions to speeds that are impossible to reach using chemical reaction. Recent advances in plasma-based concepts have led to the identification of electromagnetic (RF generation and acceleration systems as able to provide not only continuous thrust, but also highly controllable and wide-range exhaust velocities. For Future Space Propulsion there is a pressing need for low pressure, high mass flow rate and controlled ion energies. This paper explores the potential of using RF heated plasmas for space propulsion in order to mitigate the electric propulsion problems caused by erosion and gain flexibility in plasma manipulation. The main key components of RF thruster architecture are: a feeding system able to provide the required neutral gas flow, plasma source chamber, antenna/electrodes wrapped around the discharge tube and optimized electromagnetic field coils for plasma confinement. A preliminary analysis of system performance (thrust, specific impulse, efficiency is performed along with future plans of Space Propulsion based on this new concept of plasma mechanism.

  16. A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiravalle, Vincent P [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This presentation describes how a microwave thruster can be used for spacecraft propulsion. A microwave thruster is part of a larger class of electric propulsion devices that have higher specific impulse and lower thrust than conventional chemical rocket engines. Examples of electric propulsion devices are given in this presentation and it is shown how these devices have been used to accomplish two recent space missions. The microwave thruster is then described and it is explained how the thrust and specific impulse of the thruster can be measured. Calculations of the gas temperature and plasma properties in the microwave thruster are discussed. In addition a potential mission for the microwave thruster involving the orbit raising of a space station is explored.

  17. A High Stiffness Boom to Increase the Moment-Arm for a Propulsive Attitude Control System on FalconSAT-3


    Engberg, Brian; Spanjers, Greg; Wegner, Peter; Bromaghim, Daron; Fetchko, Pamela; Sellers, Jerry; Lake, Mark; Tupper, Mike; Harvey, Jeff; Evans, Jon


    Small satellite missions requiring attitude control can realize significant mass savings by extending the moment arm of a propulsion-based system. Replacing traditional torque rods and reaction wheels with small thrusters on extendable booms can significantly reduce the mass of the ACS. Small satellite buses pose significant integration challenges when incorporating electric micro-thrusters. Generally these satellites have low power capability and small geometries. This impacts attitude deter...

  18. Molecular Controls of the Oxygenation and Redox Reactions of Hemoglobin (United States)

    Henkens, Robert; Alayash, Abdu I.; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Crumbliss, Alvin L.


    Abstract Significance: The broad classes of O2-binding proteins known as hemoglobins (Hbs) carry out oxygenation and redox functions that allow organisms with significantly different physiological demands to exist in a wide range of environments. This is aided by allosteric controls that modulate the protein's redox reactions as well as its O2-binding functions. Recent Advances: The controls of Hb's redox reactions can differ appreciably from the molecular controls for Hb oxygenation and come into play in elegant mechanisms for dealing with nitrosative stress, in the malarial resistance conferred by sickle cell Hb, and in the as-yet unsuccessful designs for safe and effective blood substitutes. Critical Issues: An important basic principle in consideration of Hb's redox reactions is the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control. Clarification of these modes of control is critical to gaining an increased understanding of Hb-mediated oxidative processes and oxidative toxicity in vivo. Future Directions: This review addresses emerging concepts and some unresolved questions regarding the interplay between the oxygenation and oxidation reactions of structurally diverse Hbs, both within red blood cells and under acellular conditions. Developing methods that control Hb-mediated oxidative toxicity will be critical to the future development of Hb-based blood substitutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2298–2313. PMID:23198874

  19. Chain-reaction crash in traffic flow controlled by taillights (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi


    We study the chain-reaction crash (multiple-vehicle collision) in low-visibility condition on a road. In the traffic situation, drivers brake according to taillights of the forward vehicle. The first crash may induce more collisions. We investigate whether or not the first collision induces the chain-reaction crash, numerically and analytically. The dynamic transitions occur from no collisions through a single collision, double collisions and triple collisions, to multiple collisions with decreasing the headway. Also, we find that the dynamic transition occurs from the finite chain reaction to the infinite chain reaction when the headway is less than the critical value. We derive, analytically, the transition points and the region maps for the chain-reaction crash in traffic flow controlled by taillights.

  20. Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster (AMET) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) and the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) propose to develop the Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster...

  1. Electrodeless plasma thrusters for spacecraft: A review (United States)

    Bathgate, S. N.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.


    The physics of electrodeless electric thrusters that use directed plasma to propel spacecraft without employing electrodes subject to plasma erosion is reviewed. Electrodeless plasma thrusters are potentially more durable than presently deployed thrusters that use electrodes such as gridded ion, Hall thrusters, arcjets and resistojets. Like other plasma thrusters, electrodeless thrusters have the advantage of reduced fuel mass compared to chemical thrusters that produce the same thrust. The status of electrodeless plasma thrusters that could be used in communications satellites and in spacecraft for interplanetary missions is examined. Electrodeless thrusters under development or planned for deployment include devices that use a rotating magnetic field; devices that use a rotating electric field; pulsed inductive devices that exploit the Lorentz force on an induced current loop in a plasma; devices that use radiofrequency fields to heat plasmas and have magnetic nozzles to accelerate the hot plasma and other devices that exploit the Lorentz force. Using metrics of specific impulse and thrust efficiency, we find that the most promising designs are those that use Lorentz forces directly to expel plasma and those that use magnetic nozzles to accelerate plasma.

  2. Proline Control of the Feeding Reaction of Cordylophora (United States)

    Fulton, Chandler


    The colonial hydroid Cordylophora is a carnivore whose feeding is induced by substances released from captured prey. An active molecule, probably the only one, has been isolated from a fraction of the laboratory food of Cordylophora, brine shrimp larvae, and identified on paper chromatograms as the imino acid proline. Reagent proline induces the feeding reaction at 10-5 M. The reaction is specific in that only two α-imino acids very closely related to proline were found to possess significant activity: azetidine-2-carboxylic acid and pipecolic acid. The response to proline is inhibited by magnesium ions and enhanced by phosphate. Since previous studies have shown that the feeding reactions of Hydra, Physalia, and Campanularia are controlled by reduced glutathione, the phylogenetic implications of the proline control of feeding in Cordylophora are discussed. The feeding reactions of both Cordylophora and Hydra are also induced by proteases, suggesting similar mechanisms of induction in the two hydroids. PMID:13960251

  3. Waterhammer Testing and Modeling of the Ares I Upper Stage Reaction Control System (United States)

    Williams, J. Hunter; Holt, Kimberly A.


    NASA's Ares I rocket is the agency's first step in completing the goals of the Constellation Program, which plans to deliver a new generation of space explorers into low earth orbit for future missions to the International Space Station, the moon, and other destinations within the solar system. Ares I is a two-stage rocket topped by the Orion crew capsule and its service module. The launch vehicle's First Stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster (RSRB), derived from the Space Shuttle Program's four segment RSRB. The vehicle's Upper Stage, being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is propelled by a single J-2X Main Engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During active Upper Stage flight of the Ares I launch vehicle, the Upper Stage Reaction Control System (US ReCS) will perform attitude control operations for the vehicle. The US ReCS will provide three-axis attitude control capability (roll, pitch, and yaw) for the Upper Stage while the J-2X is not firing and roll control capability while the engine is firing. Because of the requirements imposed upon the system, the design must accommodate rapid pulsing of multiple thrusters simultaneously to maintain attitude control. In support of these design activities and in preparation for Critical Design Review, analytical models of the US ReCS propellant feed system have been developed using the Thermal Hydraulic Library of MSC.EASY5 v.2008, herein referred to as EASY5. EASY5 is a commercially available fluid system modeling package with significant history of modeling space propulsion systems. In Fall 2009, a series of development tests were conducted at MSFC on a cold-flow test article for the US ReCS, herein referred to as System Development Test Article (SDTA). A subset of those tests performed were aimed at examining the effects of waterhammer on a flight-representative system and to ensure that those effects could be quantified with analytical models and incorporated into

  4. Multi-Stage Plasma Thruster. (United States)


    thrnste.r. is derived in Appendix C and indicates scaling of ablation-fed plasma thrusters with endo- or exo- thermic fuel slabs. IV.l. ACCELERATION OF... insulator to initiate ablation for mass-addition. PI, e15 mass (and a means of initiating current flow in the second-stage). The kinetic energy of the PPT...mechanism establishing the discharge distribution. With proper insulation , acceleration of the plasma will cease slightly beyond the end of the rails and

  5. Synthesis of porous gold nanoshells by controlled transmetallation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattabi, Manjunatha, E-mail:; M, Krishnaprabha [Department of Materials Science, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri-574199 (India)


    Aqueous synthesis of porous gold nanoshells in one step is carried out through controlled transmetallation (TM) reaction using a naturally available egg shell membrane (ESM) as a barrier between the sacrificial silver particles (AgNPs) and the gold precursor solution (HAuCl{sub 4}). The formation of porous gold nanoshells via TM reaction is inferred from UV-Vis spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies.

  6. Stochastic properties of systems controlled by autocatalytic reactions I


    Pal, L.


    We analyzed the stochastic behavior of systems controlled by autocatalytic reaction A+X -> X+X. Assuming the distribution of reacting particles in the system volume to be uniform, we introduced the notion of the point model of reaction kinetics, and derived a system of differential equations for probabilities of finding n=0,1,... autocatalytic particles at a given time moment. It has been found that the kinetic law of the mass action cannot be supported by stochastic model.

  7. Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Material Applications for Thruster Components (United States)

    Elam, Sandra; Holmes, Richard; Hickman, Robert


    A variety of vacuum plasma spray (VPS) material systems have been successfully applied to injector and thrust chamber components. VPS offers a versatile fabrication process with relatively low costs to produce near net shape parts. The materials available with VPS increase operating margins and improve component life by providing superior thermal and oxidation protection in specific engine environments. Functional gradient materials (FGM) formed with VPS allow thrust chamber liners to be fabricated with GRCop-84 (an alloy of copper, chrome, and niobium) and a protective layer of NiCrAlY on the hot wall. A variety of thrust chamber liner designs have been fabricated to demonstrate the versatility of the process. Hot-fire test results have confined the improved durability and high temperature performance of the material systems for thrust chamber liners. Similar FGM s have been applied to provide superior thermal protection on injector faceplates with NiCrAlY and zirconia coatings. The durability of the applied materials has been demonstrated with hot-fire cycle testing on injector faceplates in high temperature environments. The material systems can benefit the components used in booster and main engine propulsion systems. More recent VPS efforts are focused on producing rhenium based material systems for high temperature applications to benefit in-space engines like reaction control system (RCS) thrusters.

  8. Investigating Discharge Ignition Fundamentals of Micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters (United States)

    Teel, George Lewis

    thruster concept to be developed, which is more robust and smaller than previous designed muCAT with erosion control built into the design. A new application for these vacuum arc thrusters has also been tested as underwater propulsion. This research has allowed us to come closer to a more perfected piece of propulsion technology.

  9. Review of reaction spheres for spacecraft attitude control (United States)

    Zhu, Linyu; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard


    With respect to spacecraft attitude control, reaction spheres are promising alternatives to conventional momentum exchange devices for the benefits brought by their 4π rotation. Many design concepts of reaction spheres have been proposed in the past decades, however, developments of the driving unit and the bearing, as well as their combination remain great challenges. To facilitate research and push developments in this field, this paper provides a comprehensive review of reaction spheres. To some extent, an in-depth survey of multi-DOF (degree of freedom) spherical motors and possible bearings is provided, along with their advantages and weaknesses addressed. Some multi-DOF actuators for different applications, such as robotic joints, are investigated since they share many similar challenges and techniques with reaction spheres. The experimental performances of realized reaction spheres are listed and compared. Limits of current designs are identified and their causes are analyzed and discussed. Compared with existing summaries on multi-DOF actuators and some surveys done for specific reaction spheres' design, this paper provides the first thorough review on reaction spheres, considering approaches to excite and support the free 4π rotation.

  10. Electrochemically responsive heterogeneous catalysis for controlling reaction kinetics. (United States)

    Mao, Xianwen; Tian, Wenda; Wu, Jie; Rutledge, Gregory C; Hatton, T Alan


    We report a method to control reaction kinetics using electrochemically responsive heterogeneous catalysis (ERHC). An ERHC system should possess a hybrid structure composed of an electron-conducting porous framework coated with redox-switchable catalysts. In contrast to other types of responsive catalysis, ERHC combines all the following desired characteristics for a catalysis control strategy: continuous variation of reaction rates as a function of the magnitude of external stimulus, easy integration into fixed-bed flow reactors, and precise spatial and temporal control of the catalyst activity. Herein we first demonstrate a facile approach to fabricating a model ERHC system that consists of carbon microfibers with conformal redox polymer coating. Second, using a Michael reaction whose kinetics depends on the redox state of the redox polymer catalyst, we show that use of different electrochemical potentials permits continuous adjustment of the reaction rates. The dependence of the reaction rate on the electrochemical potential generally agrees with the Nernstian prediction, with minor discrepancies due to the multilayer nature of the polymer film. Additionally, we show that the ERHC system can be employed to manipulate the shape of the reactant concentration-time profile in a batch reactor through applying customized potential-time programs. Furthermore, we perform COMSOL simulation for an ERHC-integrated flow reactor, demonstrating highly flexible manipulation of reactant concentrations as a function of both location and time.

  11. Development of ion thruster IT-500 (United States)

    Koroteev, Anatoly S.; Lovtsov, Alexander S.; Muravlev, Vyacheslav A.; Selivanov, Mikhail Y.; Shagayda, Andrey A.


    A high-power ion thruster IT-500 was designed, manufactured and tested at Keldysh Research Center within a transport-power module project. This module is being designed to perform near-Earth space and interplanetary transport missions. In its nominal operation mode, IT-500 provides thrust in the range from 375 to 750 mN at specific impulse of 70 000 m/s and thrust efficiency of 0.75. Due to a high cost of the experimental testing of a large thruster, the emphasis was placed on the numerical optimization of the thruster design. The thruster completed performance tests and a 300 h wear test. The output characteristics of the thruster, obtained during the tests, confirmed the correctness of the provisional numerical optimization. IT-500 design, performance, and validation of the design approaches are discussed in this paper. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Physics of Ion Beam Sources", edited by Holger Kersten and Horst Neumann.

  12. Attitude control of reentry vehicles in roll channel using single-gimbal control moment gyros and a reaction control system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Xiang; Liu, Kun


    A novel roll-channel attitude control scheme using a combination of single-gimbal control moment gyros and a reaction control system is proposed, providing sufficient control torque during the whole reentry process...

  13. Reaction parameters for controlled sonosynthesis of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez M, A. L. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon esq. Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Cabrera L, L. I. [UNAM-UAEM, Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Km 14.5 Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, 50200 San Cayetano-Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles by sonochemical technique has been previously performed with excellent results. The synthesis has been carried out in the presence of citric acid, a strong reducing agent, which allows the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles, at the same time that controls particle size. In this work we report the use of sodium tartrate as a mild reducing agent that allows a better understanding of the effect of the reaction parameters during gold nanoparticle synthesis. A conventional sonication bath (37 k Hz) was used for the sonochemical synthesis. This work focuses on the reaction temperature effect and the effect of sodium tartrate concentration. It was confirmed that particle size, and particle morphology is dependent of these two reaction parameters. Equally, colloidal stabilization was related to reaction temperature and sodium tartrate concentration. It was also determined that Ostwald ripening takes place during sonochemical reaction under our conditions, allowing to understand the mechanism that takes place during synthesis. Gold nanoparticles with main particle size of 17 nm were achieved by this method. Characterization techniques used: Fourier transform infrared spectra (Ftir), X-ray diffraction and Atomic Force Microscope was used in order to determine particle size of the synthetic product of reaction M10c by tapping mode. (Author)

  14. Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.


    While Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope down to 100W while maintaining an efficiency of 45- 55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from the order of 50 Watts up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics which are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHT has a lower insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion. This makes the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. Recently, a CHT that uses permanent magnets to produce the magnetic field topology was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed electromagnets. Data are presented for two purposes: to expose the effect different controllable parameters have on the discharge and to summarize performance measurements (thrust, Isp, efficiency) obtained using a thrust stand. These data are used to gain insight into the thruster's operation and to allow for quantitative comparisons between the permanent magnet CHT and the electromagnet CHT.

  15. Orbital Dynamics of a Simple Solar Photon Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Guerman


    Full Text Available We study orbital dynamics of a compound solar sail, namely, a Simple Solar Photon Thruster and compare its behavior to that of a common version of sailcraft. To perform this analysis, development of a mathematical model for force created by light reflection on all sailcraft elements is essential. We deduce the equations of sailcraft's motion and compare performance of two schemes of solar propulsion for two test time-optimal control problems of trajectory transfer.

  16. Orbital Dynamics of a Simple Solar Photon Thruster


    Anna D. Guerman; Georgi V. Smirnov; Maria Cecilia Pereira


    We study orbital dynamics of a compound solar sail, namely, a Simple Solar Photon Thruster and compare its behavior to that of a common version of sailcraft. To perform this analysis, development of a mathematical model for force created by light reflection on all sailcraft elements is essential. We deduce the equations of sailcraft's motion and compare performance of two schemes of solar propulsion for two test time-optimal control problems of trajectory transfer.

  17. Iron Cross Reaction Control Flight Simulator - test in hangar (United States)


    In the mid-1950s -- after the X-1 had exceeded the speed of sound, the D-558-II had doubled that speed, and the X-2 had flown to a speed of Mach 3.2 (3.2 times the speed of sound) -- the problem of maintaining control of a vehicle at the low dynamic pressures found at high altitudes became real. As the development of larger rocket engines than those used in the X-1, X-2, and D-558-II became a virtual certainty, travel to near-orbital and orbital velocities lay on the horizon. It became natural to investigate alternative means to control an aircraft for low dynamic pressures where aerodynamic controls would be inadequate (even absent for orbital flight outside the atmosphere). Consequently, the High-Speed Flight Station (HSFS--predecessor of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center) began pioneering work on simulating and then flying with reaction controls in the last years of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and the first years of its successor, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The HSFS began a two-phase study. One phase involved a fixed-base effort with an analog computer to solve the equations of motion needed for simulation; the other used a mechanical simulator in which the 'pilot' actually experienced the motions produced by the reaction-control jets. The 'pilot' operated the simulator through a single control stick that -- unusually for the time -- controlled three axes with one device. The stick controlled pitch by fore and aft movements, roll by lateral movements, and yaw through thumb movements. The simulator, shown in the video clip, was known as the 'Iron Cross.' It simulated the X-1B, which was equipped with reaction controls. Although the X-1B flew three missions with reaction controls, it developed fatigue cracks in a propellant tank and had to be retired from flight status. Subsequently, an F-104 equipped with reaction controls flew at relatively low dynamic pressures. Between the simulation studies with

  18. Hall Thruster Plume Measurements On-Board the Russian Express Satellites (United States)

    Manzella, David; Jankovsky, Robert; Elliott, Frederick; Mikellides, Ioannis; Jongeward, Gary; Allen, Doug


    The operation of North-South and East-West station-keeping Hall thruster propulsion systems on-board two Russian Express-A geosynchronous communication satellites were investigated through a collaborative effort with the manufacturer of the spacecraft. Over 435 firings of 16 different thrusters with a cumulative run time of over 550 hr were reported with no thruster failures. Momentum transfer due to plume impingement was evaluated based on reductions in the effective thrust of the SPT-100 thrusters and induced disturbance torques determined based on attitude control system data and range data. Hall thruster plasma plume effects on the transmission of C-band and Ku-band communication signals were shown to be negligible. On-orbit ion current density measurements were made and subsequently compared to predictions and ground test data. Ion energy, total pressure, and electric field strength measurements were also measured on-orbit. The effect of Hall thruster operation on solar array performance over several months was investigated. A subset of these data is presented.

  19. Design of automatic thruster assisted mooring systems for ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Strand


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mathematical modelling and controller design of an automatic thruster assisted position mooring system. Such control systems are applied to anchored floating production offloading and storage vessels and semi-subs. The controller is designed using model based control with a LQG feedback controller in conjunction with a Kalman filter. The controller design is in addition to the environmental loads accounting for the mooring forces acting on the vessel. This is reflected in the model structure and in the inclusion of new functionality.

  20. Controlling Reaction Selectivity through the Surface Termination of Perovskite Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Garzon, Felipe [Chemical Sciences Division and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Yang, Shi-Ze [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Fung, Victor [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside CA 92521 USA; Foo, Guo Shiou [Chemical Sciences Division and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Bickel, Elizabeth E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville TN 38505 USA; Chisholm, Matthew F. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Jiang, De-en [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside CA 92521 USA; Wu, Zili [Chemical Sciences Division and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA


    Although well known in the material science field, surface reconstruction of perovskites has not been implemented in heterogeneous catalysis. In this work, we employ multiple surface sensitive techniques to characterize the surface reconstruction of SrTiO3 (STO) after thermal pretreatment (Sr-enrichment) and chemical etching (Ti-enrichment). We show, using the conversion of 2-propanol as a probe reaction, that the surface reconstruction of STO can be controlled to greatly tune catalytic acid/base properties and consequently the reaction selectivities in a wide range, which are inaccessible using single metal oxides, either SrO or TiO2. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations well explain the selectivity tuning and reaction mechanism on differently reconstructed surfaces of STO. Similar catalytic tunability is also observed on BaZrO3, highlighting the generality of the finding from this work.

  1. Geometrical characterization and performance optimization of monopropellant thruster injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Nada


    Full Text Available The function of the injector in a monopropellant thruster is to atomize the liquid hydrazine and to distribute it over the catalyst bed as uniformly as possible. A second objective is to place the maximum amount of catalyst in contact with the propellant in as short time as possible to minimize the starting transient time. Coverage by the spray is controlled mainly by cone angle and diameter of the catalyst bed, while atomization quality is measured by the Sauter Mean Diameter, SMD. These parameters are evaluated using empirical formulae. In this paper, two main types of injectors are investigated; plain orifice and full cone pressure swirl injectors. The performance of these two types is examined for use with blow down monopropellant propulsion system. A comprehensive characterization is given and design charts are introduced to facilitate optimizing the performance of the injector. Full-cone injector is a more suitable choice for monopropellant thruster and it might be available commercially.

  2. Ion thruster charge-exchange plasma flow (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Gabriel, S. B.; Kitamura, S.


    The electron bombardment ion thruster has been under development for a number of years and during this time, studies of the plasmas produced by the thrusters and their interactions with spacecraft have been evaluated, based on available data. Due to diagnostic techniques used and facility effects, there is uncertainty as to the reliability of data from these early studies. This paper presents data on the flow of the charge-exchange plasma produced just downstream of the thruster's ion optics. The 'end-effect' of a cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to determine ion density and directed ion velocity. Results are compared with data obtained from a retarding potential analyzer-Faraday cup.

  3. Aromatic Interactions as Control Elements in Stereoselective Organic Reactions (United States)


    Conspectus This Account describes how attractive interaction of aromatic rings with other groups can influence and control the stereoselectivity of many reactions. Recent developments in theory have led to improved accuracy in the modeling of aromatic interactions. Quantum mechanical modeling can now provide insights into the roles of these interactions at a level of detail not previously accessible, both for ground-state species and for transition states of chemical reactions. In this Account, we show how transition-state modeling led to the discovery of the influence of aryl groups on the stereoselectivities of several types of organic reactions. These reaction types include asymmetric dihydroxylations, transfer hydrogenations, hetero-Diels–Alder reactions, acyl transfers, and Claisen rearrangements. Our recent studies have led to a novel mechanistic picture for two classes of (4+3) cycloadditions, both of which involve reactions of furans with oxyallyl intermediates. The first class of cycloadditions, developed by Hsung, features neutral oxyallyls containing a chiral oxazolidinone auxiliary. Originally, these cycloadditions were thought rely on differential steric crowding of the two faces of a planar intermediate. Computations reveal a different picture and show that cycloadditions with furan takes place preferentially through the more crowded transition state, with furan adding on the same side as the oxazolidinone’s Ph substituent. The crowded transition state is stabilized by a CH–π interaction between furan and Ph, worth about 2.0 kcal/mol. Stereocontrol in a second class of (4+3) cycloadditions, involving chiral alkoxy siloxyallyl cations, also is controlled by attractive interactions with aromatic rings. Alkoxy groups derived from chiral α-methylbenzyl alcohols are found to favor crowded transition states, where a CH–π interaction is again present between furan and Ar. The cationic cycloadditions are stepwise, while the Hsung cycloadditions are

  4. Manual control of catalytic reactions: Reactions by an apoenzyme gel and a cofactor gel (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuichiro; Takashima, Yoshinori; Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira


    Enzymes play a vital role in catalysing almost all chemical reactions that occur in biological systems. Some enzymes must form complexes with non-protein molecules called cofactors to express catalytic activities. Although the control of catalytic reactions via apoenzyme–cofactor complexes has attracted significant attention, the reports have been limited to the microscale. Here, we report a system to express catalytic activity by adhesion of an apoenzyme gel and a cofactor gel. The apoenzyme and cofactor gels act as catalysts when they form a gel assembly, but they lose catalytic ability upon manual dissociation. We successfully construct a system with switchable catalytic activity via adhesion and separation of the apoenzyme gel with the cofactor gel. We expect that this methodology can be applied to regulate the functional activities of enzymes that bear cofactors in their active sites, such as the oxygen transport of haemoglobin or myoglobin and the electron transport of cytochromes. PMID:26537172

  5. Kinetics of diffusion-controlled enzymatic reactions with charged substrates


    Lu, Benzhuo; McCammon, J. Andrew


    Abstract The Debye-Hückel limiting law (DHL) has often been used to estimate rate constants of diffusion-controlled reactions under different ionic strengths. Two main approximations are adopted in DHL: one is that the solution of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for a spherical cavity is used to estimate the excess electrostatic free energy of a solution; the other is that details of electrostatic interactions of the solutes are neglected. This ma...

  6. Control of Reaction Kinetics During Friction Stir Processing (United States)

    Das, Shamiparna; Martinez, Nelson Y.; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Grant, Glenn J.; Jana, Saumyadeep


    Friction stir processing (FSP) was used to successfully embed galfenol particles into aluminum (AA 1100 Al) matrix uniformly. However, intermetallic layer of Al3Fe was formed around the galfenol particles. Activation energy for Al3Fe formation during FSP was estimated, and attempts were made to minimize the Al3Fe layer thickness. By changing the processing conditions, FSP successfully eliminated the intermetallic layer. Hence, FSP, in addition to microstructural control, can successfully fabricate intermetallic-free embedded regions by controlling the reaction kinetics.

  7. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high power (high thrust) electric propulsion system featuring an iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET). The system to be...

  8. High Thrust Efficiency MPD Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can provide the high-specific impulse, high-power propulsion required to support human and robotic exploration missions to the...

  9. Optimized Magnetic Nozzles for MPD Thrusters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can provide the high-specific impulse, high-power propulsion required to enable ambitious human and robotic exploration missions...

  10. Q-thruster Breadboard Campaign Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Q-thruster technology is a mission enabling form of electric propulsion and is already being traded by NASA's Concept Architecture Team (CAT) & Human Space...

  11. Precision Electrospray Thruster Assembly (PETA) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New low cost, low volume, low power, rugged electrospray thrusters will be ideal as actuators for precision thrusting, if provided with precision high voltage power...

  12. Dual Mode Low Power Hall Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample and return missions desire and missions like Saturn Observer require a low power Hall thruster that can operate at high thrust to power as well as high...

  13. Light Metal Propellant Hall Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop light metal Hall Effect thrusters that will help reduce the travel time, mass, and cost of SMD spacecraft. Busek has identified three...

  14. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Component Verification Testing (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Pinero, Luis R.; Sovey, James S.


    Component testing is a critical facet of the comprehensive thruster life validation strategy devised by the NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program. Component testing to-date has consisted of long-duration high voltage propellant isolator and high-cycle heater life validation testing. The high voltage propellant isolator, a heritage design, will be operated under different environmental condition in the NEXT ion thruster requiring verification testing. The life test of two NEXT isolators was initiated with comparable voltage and pressure conditions with a higher temperature than measured for the NEXT prototype-model thruster. To date the NEXT isolators have accumulated 18,300 h of operation. Measurements indicate a negligible increase in leakage current over the testing duration to date. NEXT 1/2 in. heaters, whose manufacturing and control processes have heritage, were selected for verification testing based upon the change in physical dimensions resulting in a higher operating voltage as well as potential differences in thermal environment. The heater fabrication processes, developed for the International Space Station (ISS) plasma contactor hollow cathode assembly, were utilized with modification of heater dimensions to accommodate a larger cathode. Cyclic testing of five 1/22 in. diameter heaters was initiated to validate these modified fabrication processes while retaining high reliability heaters. To date two of the heaters have been cycled to 10,000 cycles and suspended to preserve hardware. Three of the heaters have been cycled to failure giving a B10 life of 12,615 cycles, approximately 6,000 more cycles than the established qualification B10 life of the ISS plasma contactor heaters.

  15. Hybrid multiscale simulation of a mixing-controlled reaction (United States)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Schuchardt, Karen; Agarwal, Khushbu; Chase, Jared; Yang, Xiaofan; Palmer, Bruce J.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Elsethagen, Todd; Redden, George


    Continuum-scale models, which employ a porous medium conceptualization to represent properties and processes averaged over a large number of solid grains and pore spaces, are widely used to study subsurface flow and reactive transport. Recently, pore-scale models, which explicitly resolve individual soil grains and pores, have been developed to more accurately model and study pore-scale phenomena, such as mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, microbially-mediated surface reactions, and other complex processes. However, these highly-resolved models are prohibitively expensive for modeling domains of sizes relevant to practical problems. To broaden the utility of pore-scale models for larger domains, we developed a hybrid multiscale model that initially simulates the full domain at the continuum scale and applies a pore-scale model only to areas of high reactivity. Since the location and number of pore-scale model regions in the model varies as the reactions proceed, an adaptive script defines the number and location of pore regions within each continuum iteration and initializes pore-scale simulations from macroscale information. Another script communicates information from the pore-scale simulation results back to the continuum scale. These components provide loose coupling between the pore- and continuum-scale codes into a single hybrid multiscale model implemented within the SWIFT workflow environment. In this paper, we consider an irreversible homogeneous bimolecular reaction (two solutes reacting to form a third solute) in a 2D test problem. This paper is focused on the approach used for multiscale coupling between pore- and continuum-scale models, application to a realistic test problem, and implications of the results for predictive simulation of mixing-controlled reactions in porous media. Our results and analysis demonstrate that the hybrid multiscale method provides a feasible approach for increasing the accuracy of subsurface reactive transport

  16. Control of serpentinisation rate by reaction-induced cracking (United States)

    Malvoisin, Benjamin; Brantut, Nicolas; Kaczmarek, Mary-Alix


    Serpentinisation of mantle rocks requires the generation and maintenance of transport pathways for water. The solid volume increase during serpentinisation can lead to stress build-up and trigger cracking, which ease fluid penetration into the rock. The quantitative effect of this reaction-induced cracking mechanism on reactive surface generation is poorly constrained, thus hampering our ability to predict serpentinisation rate in geological environments. Here we use a combined approach with numerical modelling and observations in natural samples to provide estimates of serpentinisation rate at mid-ocean ridges. We develop a micromechanical model to quantify the propagation of serpentinisation-induced cracks in olivine. The maximum crystallisation pressure deduced from thermodynamic calculations reaches several hundreds of megapascals but does not necessary lead to crack propagation if the olivine grain is subjected to high compressive stresses. The micromechanical model is then coupled to a simple geometrical model to predict reactive surface area formation during grain splitting, and thus bulk reaction rate. Our model reproduces quantitatively experimental kinetic data and the typical mesh texture formed during serpentinisation. We also compare the model results with olivine grain size distribution data obtained on natural serpentinised peridotites from the Marum ophiolite and the Papuan ultramafic belt (Papua New Guinea). The natural serpentinised peridotites show an increase of the number of olivine grains for a decrease of the mean grain size by one order of magnitude as reaction progresses from 5 to 40%. These results are in agreement with our model predictions, suggesting that reaction-induced cracking controls the serpentinisation rate. We use our model to estimate that, at mid-ocean ridges, serpentinisation occurs up to 12 km depth and reaction-induced cracking reduces the characteristic time of serpentinisation by one order of magnitude, down to values

  17. Q-Thruster Breadboard Campaign Project (United States)

    White, Harold


    Dr. Harold "Sonny" White has developed the physics theory basis for utilizing the quantum vacuum to produce thrust. The engineering implementation of the theory is known as Q-thrusters. During FY13, three test campaigns were conducted that conclusively demonstrated tangible evidence of Q-thruster physics with measurable thrust bringing the TRL up from TRL 2 to early TRL 3. This project will continue with the development of the technology to a breadboard level by leveraging the most recent NASA/industry test hardware. This project will replace the manual tuning process used in the 2013 test campaign with an automated Radio Frequency (RF) Phase Lock Loop system (precursor to flight-like implementation), and will redesign the signal ports to minimize RF leakage (improves efficiency). This project will build on the 2013 test campaign using the above improvements on the test implementation to get ready for subsequent Independent Verification and Validation testing at Glenn Research Center (GRC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in FY 2015. Q-thruster technology has a much higher thrust to power than current forms of electric propulsion (7x Hall thrusters), and can significantly reduce the total power required for either Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) or Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Also, due to the high thrust and high specific impulse, Q-thruster technology will greatly relax the specific mass requirements for in-space nuclear reactor systems. Q-thrusters can reduce transit times for a power-constrained architecture.

  18. High-Power Helicon Double Gun Thruster (United States)

    Murakami, Nao

    While chemical propulsion is necessary to launch a spacecraft from a planetary surface into space, electric propulsion has the potential to provide significant cost savings for the orbital transfer of payloads between planets. Due to extended wave particle interactions, a plasma thruster that can operate in the 100 kW to several MW power regime can only be attained by increasing the size of the thruster, or by using an array of plasma thrusters. The High-Power Helicon (HPH) Double Gun thruster experiment examines whether firing two helicon thrusters in parallel produces an exhaust velocity higher than the exhaust velocity of a single thruster. The scaling law that relates the downstream plasma velocity with the number of helicon antennae is derived, and compared with the experimental result. In conjunction with data analysis, two digital filtering algorithms are developed to filter out the noise from helicon antennae. The scaling law states that the downstream plasma velocity is proportional to square root of the number of helicon antennae, which is in agreement with the experimental result.

  19. Space Technology: Game Changing Development Deep Space Engine (DSE) 100 lbf and 5 lbf Thruster Development and Qualification (United States)

    Barnett, Gregory


    Science mission studies require spacecraft propulsion systems that are high-performance, lightweight, and compact. Highly matured technology and low-cost, short development time of the propulsion system are also very desirable. The Deep Space Engine (DSE) 100-lbf thruster is being developed to meet these needs. The overall goal of this game changing technology project is to qualify the DSE thrusters along with 5-lbf attitude control thrusters for space flight and for inclusion in science and exploration missions. The aim is to perform qualification tests representative of mission duty cycles. Most exploration missions are constrained by mass, power and cost. As major propulsion components, thrusters are identified as high-risk, long-lead development items. NASA spacecraft primarily rely on 1960s' heritage in-space thruster designs and opportunities exist for reducing size, weight, power, and cost through the utilization of modern materials and advanced manufacturing techniques. Advancements in MON-25/MMH hypergolic bipropellant thrusters represent a promising avenue for addressing these deficiencies with tremendous mission enhancing benefits. DSE is much lighter and costs less than currently available thrusters in comparable thrust classes. Because MON-25 propellants operate at lower temperatures, less power is needed for propellant conditioning for in-space propulsion applications, especially long duration and/or deep-space missions. Reduced power results in reduced mass for batteries and solar panels. DSE is capable of operating at a wide propellant temperature range (between -22 F and 122 F) while a similar existing thruster operates between 45 F and 70 F. Such a capability offers robust propulsion operation as well as flexibility in design. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center evaluated available operational Missile Defense Agency heritage thrusters suitable for the science and lunar lander propulsion systems.

  20. REAGERE: a reaction-based architecture for integration and control (United States)

    Berry, Nina M.; Kumara, Soundar R. T.


    This research is concerned with the design, development and implementation of a unique reaction-based multi-agent architecture (REAGERE) to integrate and control a manufacturing domain, by combining concepts from distributed problem solving and multi-agent systems. This architecture represents an emerging concept of reifying the parts, equipment, and software packages of the domain as individual agent entities. This research also improves on earlier top- down automated manufacturing systems, that suffered from lack of flexibility, upgradability, overhead difficulties, and performance problems when presented with the uncertainty and dynamics of modern competitive environments. The versatility of the domain is enhanced with the independent development of the agents and the object-oriented events that permit the agents to communicate through the underlying blackboard architecture BB1. This bottom-up concept permits the architecture's integration to rely on the agents' interactions and their perceptions of the current environmental problem(s). Hence the control and coordination of the architecture are adaptable to the agents' reactions to dynamic situations. REAGERE was applied to a simulated predefined automated manufacturing domain for the purpose of controlling and coordinating the internal processes of this domain.

  1. Kinetics of diffusion-controlled enzymatic reactions with charged substrates. (United States)

    Lu, Benzhuo; McCammon, J Andrew


    The Debye-Hückel limiting law (DHL) has often been used to estimate rate constants of diffusion-controlled reactions under different ionic strengths. Two main approximations are adopted in DHL: one is that the solution of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for a spherical cavity is used to estimate the excess electrostatic free energy of a solution; the other is that details of electrostatic interactions of the solutes are neglected. This makes DHL applicable only at low ionic strengths and dilute solutions (very low substrate/solute concentrations). We show in this work that through numerical solution of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations, diffusion-reaction processes can be studied at a variety of conditions including realistically concentrated solutions, high ionic strength, and certainly with non-equilibrium charge distributions. Reaction rate coefficients for the acetylcholine-acetylcholinesterase system are predicted to strongly depend on both ionic strength and substrate concentration. In particular, they increase considerably with increase of substrate concentrations at a fixed ionic strength, which is open to experimental testing. This phenomenon is also verified on a simple model, and is expected to be general for electrostatically attracting enzyme-substrate systems.PACS Codes: 82.45.Tv, 87.15.VvMSC Codes: 92C30.

  2. Diffusion-controlled reactions modeling in Geant4-DNA (United States)

    Karamitros, M.; Luan, S.; Bernal, M. A.; Allison, J.; Baldacchino, G.; Davidkova, M.; Francis, Z.; Friedland, W.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ivantchenko, A.; Mantero, A.; Nieminem, P.; Santin, G.; Tran, H. N.; Stepan, V.; Incerti, S.


    Context Under irradiation, a biological system undergoes a cascade of chemical reactions that can lead to an alteration of its normal operation. There are different types of radiation and many competing reactions. As a result the kinetics of chemical species is extremely complex. The simulation becomes then a powerful tool which, by describing the basic principles of chemical reactions, can reveal the dynamics of the macroscopic system. To understand the dynamics of biological systems under radiation, since the 80s there have been on-going efforts carried out by several research groups to establish a mechanistic model that consists in describing all the physical, chemical and biological phenomena following the irradiation of single cells. This approach is generally divided into a succession of stages that follow each other in time: (1) the physical stage, where the ionizing particles interact directly with the biological material; (2) the physico-chemical stage, where the targeted molecules release their energy by dissociating, creating new chemical species; (3) the chemical stage, where the new chemical species interact with each other or with the biomolecules; (4) the biological stage, where the repairing mechanisms of the cell come into play. This article focuses on the modeling of the chemical stage. Method This article presents a general method of speeding-up chemical reaction simulations in fluids based on the Smoluchowski equation and Monte-Carlo methods, where all molecules are explicitly simulated and the solvent is treated as a continuum. The model describes diffusion-controlled reactions. This method has been implemented in Geant4-DNA. The keys to the new algorithm include: (1) the combination of a method to compute time steps dynamically with a Brownian bridge process to account for chemical reactions, which avoids costly fixed time step simulations; (2) a k-d tree data structure for quickly locating, for a given molecule, its closest reactants. The

  3. Diffusion-controlled reactions modeling in Geant4-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamitros, M., E-mail: [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence (France); Luan, S. [University of New Mexico, Department of Computer Science, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Allison, J. [Geant4 Associates International Ltd (United Kingdom); Baldacchino, G. [CEA Saclay, IRAMIS, LIDYL, Radiation Physical Chemistry Group, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); CNRS, UMR3299, SIS2M, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Davidkova, M. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Francis, Z. [Saint Joseph University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, Mkalles, Beirut (Lebanon); Friedland, W. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ivantchenko, V. [Ecoanalytica, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation); Geant4 Associates International Ltd (United Kingdom); Ivantchenko, A. [Geant4 Associates International Ltd (United Kingdom); Mantero, A. [SwHaRD s.r.l., via Buccari 9, 16153 Genova (Italy); Nieminem, P.; Santin, G. [ESA-ESTEC, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Tran, H.N. [Division of Nuclear Physics and Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Stepan, V. [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Nuclear Physics Institute of the ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Incerti, S., E-mail: [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)


    Context Under irradiation, a biological system undergoes a cascade of chemical reactions that can lead to an alteration of its normal operation. There are different types of radiation and many competing reactions. As a result the kinetics of chemical species is extremely complex. The simulation becomes then a powerful tool which, by describing the basic principles of chemical reactions, can reveal the dynamics of the macroscopic system. To understand the dynamics of biological systems under radiation, since the 80s there have been on-going efforts carried out by several research groups to establish a mechanistic model that consists in describing all the physical, chemical and biological phenomena following the irradiation of single cells. This approach is generally divided into a succession of stages that follow each other in time: (1) the physical stage, where the ionizing particles interact directly with the biological material; (2) the physico-chemical stage, where the targeted molecules release their energy by dissociating, creating new chemical species; (3) the chemical stage, where the new chemical species interact with each other or with the biomolecules; (4) the biological stage, where the repairing mechanisms of the cell come into play. This article focuses on the modeling of the chemical stage. Method This article presents a general method of speeding-up chemical reaction simulations in fluids based on the Smoluchowski equation and Monte-Carlo methods, where all molecules are explicitly simulated and the solvent is treated as a continuum. The model describes diffusion-controlled reactions. This method has been implemented in Geant4-DNA. The keys to the new algorithm include: (1) the combination of a method to compute time steps dynamically with a Brownian bridge process to account for chemical reactions, which avoids costly fixed time step simulations; (2) a k–d tree data structure for quickly locating, for a given molecule, its closest reactants. The

  4. Integration Tests of the 4 kW-class High Voltage Hall Accelerator Power Processing Unit with the HiVHAc and the SPT-140 Hall Effect Thrusters (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Pinero, Luis; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Ahern, Drew; Liang, Ray; Shilo, Vlad


    NASAs Science Mission Directorate is sponsoring the development of a 4 kW-class Hall propulsion system for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. The main components of the system include the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc), an engineering model power processing unit (PPU) developed by Colorado Power Electronics, and a xenon flow control module (XFCM) developed by VACCO Industries. NASA Glenn Research Center is performing integrated tests of the Hall thruster propulsion system. This presentation presents results from integrated tests of the PPU and XFCM with the HiVHAc engineering development thruster and a SPT-140 thruster provided by Space System Loral. The results presented in this paper demonstrate thruster discharge initiation, open-loop and closed-loop control of the discharge current with anode flow for both the HiVHAc and the SPT-140 thrusters. Integrated tests with the SPT-140 thruster indicated that the PPU was able to repeatedly initiate the thrusters discharge, achieve steady state operation, and successfully throttle the thruster between 1.5 and 4.5 kW. The measured SPT-140 performance was identical to levels reported by Space Systems Loral.

  5. Low Mass Electromagnetic Plasmoid Thruster with Integrated PPU Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Electromagnetic Plasmoid Thruster (EMPT) is a revolutionary electric propulsion thruster and power processing (PPU) system that will allow a dramatic decrease in...

  6. Coaxial plasma thrusters for high specific impulse propulsion (United States)

    Schoenberg, Kurt F.; Gerwin, Richard A.; Barnes, Cris W.; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Moses, Ronald, Jr.; Scarberry, Richard; Wurden, Glen


    A fundamental basis for coaxial plasma thruster performance is presented and the steady-state, ideal MHD properties of a coaxial thruster using an annular magnetic nozzle are discussed. Formulas for power usage, thrust, mass flow rate, and specific impulse are acquired and employed to assess thruster performance. The performance estimates are compared with the observed properties of an unoptimized coaxial plasma gun. These comparisons support the hypothesis that ideal MHD has an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics.

  7. Development of a Micro-Thruster Test Facility which fulfils the LISA requirements (United States)

    Hey, Franz Georg; Keller, A.; Johann, U.; Braxmaier, C.; Tajmar, M.; Fitzsimons, E.; Weise, D.


    In the context of investigations for a sufficient attitude control thruster for LISA, we have developed a thruster test facility which consists of a highly precise thrust balance coupled with plasma diagnostics. In parallel to the test facility development, investigations to downscale a High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster (HEMP-T) are also being carried out. The thruster has been used to demonstrate the measurement capabilities of the facility. The setup allows a parallel operation of all instruments and can also be used for other types of μN propulsion systems including cold gas thrusters. The thrust balance consists of two pendulums. As read out a heterodyne laser interferometer is used. Differential wave front sensing (DWS) enables the measurement of the pendulum tilt which, via suitable calibration using an electrostatic comb, can be converted to a thrust. The whole setup is a symmetric configuration enabling a common-mode rejection of the dominant noise sources (e.g. seismic noise etc.). The thrust balance has a demonstrated precision of 0.1 μN. Based on our unique design, this precision can be attained down to 10-3 Hz. Thus, the measurement setup is especially suitable for characterising the thrust noise of potential eLISA propulsion candidates. We give an overview of the design, the present performance and the future plans.

  8. Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster Using Permanent Magnets (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.


    electromagnets. Data are presented to expose the effect different controllable parameters have on the discharge and to summarize performance measurements (thrust, Isp, efficiency) obtained using a thrust stand. In addition, beam current data are presented to show the effect of the magnetic field topology on the plume profile and current utilization and to gain insight into the thruster s operation. These data extend and improve upon the results previously presented by the authors in Ref. [1].

  9. Tutorial: Physics and modeling of Hall thrusters (United States)

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre


    Hall thrusters are very efficient and competitive electric propulsion devices for satellites and are currently in use in a number of telecommunications and government spacecraft. Their power spans from 100 W to 20 kW, with thrust between a few mN and 1 N and specific impulse values between 1000 and 3000 s. The basic idea of Hall thrusters consists in generating a large local electric field in a plasma by using a transverse magnetic field to reduce the electron conductivity. This electric field can extract positive ions from the plasma and accelerate them to high velocity without extracting grids, providing the thrust. These principles are simple in appearance but the physics of Hall thrusters is very intricate and non-linear because of the complex electron transport across the magnetic field and its coupling with the electric field and the neutral atom density. This paper describes the basic physics of Hall thrusters and gives a (non-exhaustive) summary of the research efforts that have been devoted to the modelling and understanding of these devices in the last 20 years. Although the predictive capabilities of the models are still not sufficient for a full computer aided design of Hall thrusters, significant progress has been made in the qualitative and quantitative understanding of these devices.

  10. Electrostatic ion thrusters - towards predictive modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalentev, O.; Matyash, K.; Duras, J.; Lueskow, K.F.; Schneider, R. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet Greifswald, D-17489 (Germany); Koch, N. [Technische Hochschule Nuernberg Georg Simon Ohm, Kesslerplatz 12, D-90489 Nuernberg (Germany); Schirra, M. [Thales Electronic Systems GmbH, Soeflinger Strasse 100, D-89077 Ulm (Germany)


    The development of electrostatic ion thrusters so far has mainly been based on empirical and qualitative know-how, and on evolutionary iteration steps. This resulted in considerable effort regarding prototype design, construction and testing and therefore in significant development and qualification costs and high time demands. For future developments it is anticipated to implement simulation tools which allow for quantitative prediction of ion thruster performance, long-term behavior and space craft interaction prior to hardware design and construction. Based on integrated numerical models combining self-consistent kinetic plasma models with plasma-wall interaction modules a new quality in the description of electrostatic thrusters can be reached. These open the perspective for predictive modeling in this field. This paper reviews the application of a set of predictive numerical modeling tools on an ion thruster model of the HEMP-T (High Efficiency Multi-stage Plasma Thruster) type patented by Thales Electron Devices GmbH. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. An Investigation into the Spectral Imaging of Hall Thruster Plumes (United States)


    exposure time λ wavelength ∗Research Engineer , ERC, Inc., 1 Ara Rd. Edwards AFB, CA 93524 †Research Scientist, AFRL/RQRS, 1 Ara Rd. Edwards AFB, CA...93524 ‡Research Engineer , AFRL/RQRS, 1 Ara Rd. Edwards AFB, CA 93524 1 of 18 Joint Conference of 30th ISTS, 34th IEPC and 6th NSAT, Kobe-Hyogo, Japan...Chamber 1 Interior Setup – Thruster mounted for profile view – Optical shade controlled with stepper motor driven stage • Blocks cathode and upstream

  12. Mode Transitions in Hall Effect Thrusters (United States)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.


    Mode transitions have been commonly observed in Hall Effect Thruster (HET) operation where a small change in a thruster operating parameter such as discharge voltage, magnetic field or mass flow rate causes the thruster discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude to increase significantly. Mode transitions in a 6-kW-class HET called the H6 are induced by varying the magnetic field intensity while holding all other operating parameters constant and measurements are acquired with ion saturation probes and ultra-fast imaging. Global and local oscillation modes are identified. In the global mode, the entire discharge channel oscillates in unison and azimuthal perturbations (spokes) are either absent or negligible. Downstream azimuthally spaced probes show no signal delay between each other and are very well correlated to the discharge current signal. In the local mode, signals from the azimuthally spaced probes exhibit a clear delay indicating the passage of "spokes" and are not well correlated to the discharge current. These spokes are localized oscillations propagating in the ExB direction that are typically 10-20% of the mean value. In contrast, the oscillations in the global mode can be 100% of the mean value. The transition between global and local modes occurs at higher relative magnetic field strengths for higher mass flow rates or higher discharge voltages. The thrust is constant through mode transition but the thrust-to-power decreased by 25% due to increasing discharge current. The plume shows significant differences between modes with the global mode significantly brighter in the channel and the near-field plasma plume as well as exhibiting a luminous spike on thruster centerline. Mode transitions provide valuable insight to thruster operation and suggest improved methods for thruster performance characterization.

  13. Pattern Recognition Control Design (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.


    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  14. Interior Controllability of a Broad Class of Reaction Diffusion Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Leiva


    Full Text Available We prove the interior approximate controllability of the following broad class of reaction diffusion equation in the Hilbert spaces Z=L2(Ω given by z′=−Az+1ωu(t, t∈[0,τ], where Ω is a domain in ℝn, ω is an open nonempty subset of Ω, 1ω denotes the characteristic function of the set ω, the distributed control u∈L2(0,t1;L2(Ω and A:D(A⊂Z→Z is an unbounded linear operator with the following spectral decomposition: Az=∑j=1∞λj∑k=1γj〈z,ϕj,k〉ϕj,k. The eigenvalues 0<λ1<λ2<⋯<⋯λn→∞ of A have finite multiplicity γj equal to the dimension of the corresponding eigenspace, and {ϕj,k} is a complete orthonormal set of eigenvectors of A. The operator −A generates a strongly continuous semigroup {T(t} given by T(tz=∑j=1∞e−λjt∑k=1γj〈z,ϕj,k〉ϕj,k. Our result can be applied to the nD heat equation, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck equation, the Laguerre equation, and the Jacobi equation.

  15. A Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Interactions between Dynamic Positioning Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Doo Hwa; Lee, Sang Wook [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we conducted computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the unsteady hydrodynamic interaction of multiple thrusters by solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+ was used for all simulations by employing a ducted thruster model with combination of a propeller and No. 19a duct. A sliding mesh technique was used to treat dynamic motion of propeller rotation and non-conformal hexahedral grid system was considered. Four different combinations in tilting and azimuth angles of the thrusters were considered to investigate the effects on the propulsion performance. We could find that thruster-hull and thruster-thruster interactions has significant effect on propulsion performance and further study will be required for the optimal configurations with the best tilting and relative azimuth angle between thrusters.

  16. Advanced laboratory for testing plasma thrusters and Hall thruster measurement campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelecka Agnieszka


    Full Text Available Plasma engines are used for space propulsion as an alternative to chemical thrusters. Due to the high exhaust velocity of the propellant, they are more efficient for long-distance interplanetary space missions than their conventional counterparts. An advanced laboratory of plasma space propulsion (PlaNS at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM specializes in designing and testing various electric propulsion devices. Inside of a special vacuum chamber with three performance pumps, an environment similar to the one that prevails in space is created. An innovative Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster (LμPPT with liquid propellant was built at the laboratory. Now it is used to test the second prototype of Hall effect thruster (HET operating on krypton propellant. Meantime, an improved prototype of krypton Hall thruster is constructed.

  17. Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen auxiliary power system thruster investigation (United States)

    Eberle, E. E.; Kusak, L.


    The design, fabrication, and demonstration of a 111 newton (25 lb) thrust, integrated auxiliary propulsion system (IAPS) thruster for use with LH2/LO2 propellants is described. Hydrogen was supplied at a temperature range of 22 to 33 K (40 to 60 R), and oxygen from 89 to 122 K (160 to 220 R). The thruster was designed to operate in both pulse mode and steady-state modes for vehicle attitude control, space maneuvering, and as an abort backup in the event of failure of the main propulsion system. A dual-sleeve, tri-axial injection system was designed that utilizes a primary injector/combustor where 100 percent of the oxygen and 8 percent of the hydrogen is introduced; a secondary injector/combustor where 45 percent of the hydrogen is introduced to mix with the primary combustor gases; and a boundary layer injector that uses the remaining 45 percent of the hydrogen to cool the thrust throat/nozzle design. Hot-fire evaluation of this thruster with a BLC injection distance of 2.79 cm (1.10 in.) indicated that a specific impulse value of 390 sec can be attained using a coated molybdenum thrust chamber. Pulse mode tests indicated that a chamber pressure buildup to 90 percent thrust can be achieved in a time on the order of 48 msec. Some problems were encountered in achieving ignition of each pulse during pulse trains. This was interpreted to indicate that a higher delivered spark energy level ( 100 mJ) would be required to maintain ignition reliability of the plasma torch ignition system under the extra 'cold' conditions resulting during pulsing.

  18. Femtosecond laser control of chemical reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A


    Full Text Available relative fragmentation ratios for unimolecular dissociation reactions – therefore selectively breaking bonds in a molecule. More interestingly, the same techniques can be used to provide control over chemical reactions involving two or more reactant...

  19. Copper-mediated fluoroalkylation reactions with iododifluoroacetamides: controlling the selectivity among cross-coupling, intramolecular cyclization, and homocoupling reactions. (United States)

    Zhu, Jieming; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Laijun; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Ji; Hu, Jinbo


    Cu-mediated fluoroalkylation reactions with iododifluoroacetamides 1 have been systematically investigated. It was found that three types of reactions may coexist in Cu-mediated reactions between iododifluoroacetamides and aryl/alkenyl iodides: cross-coupling, intramolecular cyclization, and homocoupling reactions. The selectivity among these three types of reactions could be controlled by tuning the substituents on the nitrogen atom of iododifluoroacetamides, and/or by removing the cross-coupling reaction partner (aryl/alkenyl halides). The general rule is as follows: (a) in the presence of proper aryl/alkenyl iodides, the cross-coupling products 2 (or 6) are generally formed as the major products; (b) in the absence of aryl/alkenyl iodides, and when R(1) = alkyl and R(2) = aryl groups, or when R(1) = R(2) = aryl groups, the intramolecular cyclization products 3 can be formed predominantly; and (c) in the absence of aryl/alkenyl iodides, and when R(1) = R(2) = alkyl groups, or when R(1) = H and R(2) = alkyl, aryl groups, the homocoupling products 4 can be formed dominantly. Our experimental results also indicate that in many cases when cross-coupling, homocoupling, and intramolecular cyclization reactions coexist in the Cu-mediated reaction system, the reactivity decreases in the following order: cross-coupling > intramolecular cyclization > homocoupling.

  20. A Model of an Ideal Electrohydrodynamic Thruster (United States)


    release; distribution unlimited (PA #10392). 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES For publication in the Journal of Propulsion and Power. 14. ABSTRACT...Senior Research Staff Engineer, † Manager of Advance Propulsion Group, time  = thruster efficiency I. Introduction Electrohydrodynamics (EHD), or alternatively electro-fluid-dynamics (EFD) or electrokinetics

  1. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.


    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  2. a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster for Satellite Orbit Maneuvering with Low Power (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo

    Plasma thrusters are known to have some advantages like high specific impulse. Electric propulsion is already recognized as a successful technology for long duration space missions. It has been used as primary propulsion system on earth-moon orbit trnsfer missions, comets and asteroids exploration and on commercially geosyncronous satellite attitude control systems. Closed Drift Plasma Thrusters, also called Hall Thrusters or SPT (Stationary Plasma Thruster) was conceived inthe USSR and, since then, they have been developed in several countries such as France, USA, Japan and Brazil. In this work, introductory remarks are made with focus on the most significant contributions of the electric propulsion to the progress of space missions and its future role on the brazillian space program. The main features of an inedit Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PMHT) developed at the Plasma Laboratory of the University of Brasilia is presented. The idea of using an array of permanent magnets, instead of an eletromagnet, to produce a radial magnetic field inside the cylindrical plasma drift channel of the thruster is a very important improvement, because it allows the possibility of developing a Hall Thruster with electric power consumption low enough to be used in small and medium size satellites. The new Halĺplasma source characterization is presented with plasma density, temperature and potential space profiles. Ion temperature mesurements based on Doppler broadening of spectral lines and ion energy measurements of the ejected plasma plume are also shown. Based on the mesured parameters of the accelerated plasma we constructed a merit figure for the PMHT. We also perform numerical simulations of satellite orbit raising from an altitude of 700 km to 36000 km using a PMHT operating in the 100 mN to 500 mN thrust range. In order to perform these caculations, integration techniques of spacecraft trajectory were used. The main simulation parameters were: orbit raising time

  3. Simplified Ion Thruster Xenon Feed System for NASA Science Missions (United States)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.


    The successful implementation of ion thruster technology on the Deep Space 1 technology demonstration mission paved the way for its first use on the Dawn science mission, which launched in September 2007. Both Deep Space 1 and Dawn used a "bang-bang" xenon feed system which has proven to be highly successful. This type of feed system, however, is complex with many parts and requires a significant amount of engineering work for architecture changes. A simplified feed system, with fewer parts and less engineering work for architecture changes, is desirable to reduce the feed system cost to future missions. An attractive new path for ion thruster feed systems is based on new components developed by industry in support of commercial applications of electric propulsion systems. For example, since the launch of Deep Space 1 tens of mechanical xenon pressure regulators have successfully flown on commercial spacecraft using electric propulsion. In addition, active proportional flow controllers have flown on the Hall-thruster-equipped Tacsat-2, are flying on the ion thruster GOCE mission, and will fly next year on the Advanced EHF spacecraft. This present paper briefly reviews the Dawn xenon feed system and those implemented on other xenon electric propulsion flight missions. A simplified feed system architecture is presented that is based on assembling flight-qualified components in a manner that will reduce non-recurring engineering associated with propulsion system architecture changes, and is compared to the NASA Dawn standard. The simplified feed system includes, compared to Dawn, passive high-pressure regulation, a reduced part count, reduced complexity due to cross-strapping, and reduced non-recurring engineering work required for feed system changes. A demonstration feed system was assembled using flight-like components and used to operate a laboratory NSTAR-class ion engine. Feed system components integrated into a single-string architecture successfully operated

  4. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Project Qualification Propellant Throughput Milestone: Performance, Erosion, and Thruster Service Life Prediction After 450 kg (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.


    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is tasked with significantly improving and extending the capabilities of current state-of-the-art NSTAR thruster. The service life capability of the NEXT ion thruster is being assessed by thruster wear test and life-modeling of critical thruster components, such as the ion optics and cathodes. The NEXT Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated to validate and qualify the NEXT thruster propellant throughput capability. The NEXT thruster completed the primary goal of the LDT; namely to demonstrate the project qualification throughput of 450 kg by the end of calendar year 2009. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated 28,500 hr of operation and processed 466 kg of xenon throughput--more than double the throughput demonstrated by the NSTAR flight-spare. Thruster performance changes have been consistent with a priori predictions. Thruster erosion has been minimal and consistent with the thruster service life assessment, which predicts the first failure mode at greater than 750 kg throughput. The life-limiting failure mode for NEXT is predicted to be loss of structural integrity of the accelerator grid due to erosion by charge-exchange ions.

  5. A Reaction Sphere for High Performance Attitude Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our innovative reaction sphere (Doty pending patent application serial number 61/164,868) has the potential to provide much higher performance than a conventional...

  6. Miniature Reaction Wheel for Small Satellite Control Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to design, develop, demonstrate, and deliver a miniature, high torque, low-vibration reaction wheel for use on small satellites....

  7. Ares I Reaction Control System Propellant Feedline Decontamination Modeling (United States)

    Pasch, James J.


    The objective of the work presented here is to quantify the effects of purge gas temperature, pressure, and mass flow rate on Hydrazine (Hz) decontamination rates of the Ares I Roll Control System and Reaction Control System. A survey of experts in this field revealed the absence of any decontamination rate prediction models. Three basic decontamination methods were identified for analysis and modeling. These include low pressure eduction, high flow rate purge, and pulse purge. For each method, an approach to predict the Hz mass transfer rate, as a function of system pressure, temperature, and purge gas mass flow rate, is developed based on the applicable physics. The models show that low pressure eduction is two orders of magnitude more effective than the high velocity purge, which in turn is two orders of magnitude more effective than the pure diffusion component of pulse purging of deadheads. Eduction subjects the system to low pressure conditions that promote the extraction of Hz vapors. At 120 F, Hz is saturated at approximately 1 psia. At lower pressures and 120 F, Hz will boil, which is an extremely efficient means to remove liquid Hz. The Hz boiling rate is predicted by equating the rate at which energy is added to the saturated liquid Hz through heaters at the tube outer wall with the energy removed from the liquid through evaporation. Boil-off fluxes were predicted by iterating through the range of local pressures with limits set by the minimum allowed pressure of 0.2 psia and maximum allowed wall temperature of 120 F established by the heaters, which gives a saturation pressure of approximately 1.0 psia. Figure 1 shows the resulting boil-off fluxes as a function of local eduction pressure. As depicted in figure 1, the flux is a strong inverse function of eduction pressure, and that minimizing the eduction pressure maximizes the boil-off flux. Also, higher outer wall temperatures lead to higher boil-off fluxes and allow for boil-off over a greater range

  8. Development of a 13 kW Hall Thruster Propulsion System Performance Model for AEPS (United States)

    Stanley, Steven; Allen, May; Goodfellow, Keith; Chew, Gilbert; Rapetti, Ryan; Tofil, Todd; Herman, Dan; Jackson, Jerry; Myers, Roger


    The Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) program will develop a flight 13kW Hall thruster propulsion system based on NASA's HERMeS thruster. The AEPS system includes the Hall Thruster, the Power Processing Unit (PPU) and the Xenon Flow Controller (XFC). These three primary components must operate together to ensure that the system generates the required combinations of thrust and specific impulse at the required system efficiencies for the desired system lifetime. At the highest level, the AEPS system will be integrated into the spacecraft and will receive power, propellant, and commands from the spacecraft. Power and propellant flow rates will be determined by the throttle set points commanded by the spacecraft. Within the system, the major control loop is between the mass flow rate and thruster current, with time-dependencies required to handle all expected transients, and additional, much slower interactions between the thruster and cathode temperatures, flow controller and PPU. The internal system interactions generally occur on shorter timescales than the spacecraft interactions, though certain failure modes may require rapid responses from the spacecraft. The AEPS system performance model is designed to account for all these interactions in a way that allows evaluation of the sensitivity of the system to expected changes over the planned mission as well as to assess the impacts of normal component and assembly variability during the production phase of the program. This effort describes the plan for the system performance model development, correlation to NASA test data, and how the model will be used to evaluate the critical internal and external interactions. The results will ensure the component requirements do not unnecessarily drive the system cost or overly constrain the development program. Finally, the model will be available to quickly troubleshoot any future unforeseen development challenges.

  9. A comparative study of visual reaction time in table tennis players and healthy controls. (United States)

    Bhabhor, Mahesh K; Vidja, Kalpesh; Bhanderi, Priti; Dodhia, Shital; Kathrotia, Rajesh; Joshi, Varsha


    Visual reaction time is time required to response to visual stimuli. The present study was conducted to measure visual reaction time in 209 subjects, 50 table tennis (TT) players and 159 healthy controls. The visual reaction time was measured by the direct RT computerized software in healthy controls and table tennis players. Simple visual reaction time was measured. During the reaction time testing, visual stimuli were given for eighteen times and average reaction time was taken as the final reaction time. The study shows that table tennis players had faster reaction time than healthy controls. On multivariate analysis, it was found that TT players had 74.121 sec (95% CI 98.8 and 49.4 sec) faster reaction time compared to non-TT players of same age and BMI. Also playing TT has a profound influence on visual reaction time than BMI. Our study concluded that persons involved in sports are having good reaction time as compared to controls. These results support the view that playing of table tennis is beneficial to eye-hand reaction time, improve the concentration and alertness.

  10. Investigation of beamed-energy ERH thruster performance (United States)

    Myrabo, Leik N.; Strayer, T. Darton; Bossard, John A.; Richard, Jacques C.; Gallimore, Alec D.


    The objective of this study was to determine the performance of an External Radiation Heated (ERH) thruster. In this thruster, high intensity laser energy is focused to ignite either a Laser Supported Combustion (LSC) wave or a Laser Supported Detonation (LSD) wave. Thrust is generated as the LSC or LSD wave propagates over the thruster's surface, or in the proposed thruster configuration, the vehicle afterbody. Thrust models for the LSC and LSD waves were developed and simulated on a computer. Performance parameters investigated include the effect of laser intensity, flight Mach number, and altitude on mean-thrust and coupling coefficient of the ERH thruster. Results from these models suggest that the ERH thruster using LSC/LSD wave ignition could provide propulsion performance considerably greater than any propulsion system currently available.

  11. Los Alamos NEP research in advanced plasma thrusters (United States)

    Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard


    Research was initiated in advanced plasma thrusters that capitalizes on lab capabilities in plasma science and technology. The goal of the program was to examine the scaling issues of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster performance in support of NASA's MPD thruster development program. The objective was to address multi-megawatt, large scale, quasi-steady state MPD thruster performance. Results to date include a new quasi-steady state operating regime which was obtained at space exploration initiative relevant power levels, that enables direct coaxial gun-MPD comparisons of thruster physics and performance. The radiative losses are neglible. Operation with an applied axial magnetic field shows the same operational stability and exhaust plume uniformity benefits seen in MPD thrusters. Observed gun impedance is in close agreement with the magnetic Bernoulli model predictions. Spatial and temporal measurements of magnetic field, electric field, plasma density, electron temperature, and ion/neutral energy distribution are underway. Model applications to advanced mission logistics are also underway.

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-fed Pulsed Plasma Thruster


    Kaartikey Misra


    Liquid propellants are fast becoming attractive for pulsed plasma thrusters due to their high efficiency and low contamination issues. However, the complete plasma interaction and acceleration processes are still not very clear. Present paper develops a multi-layer numerical model for liquid propellant PPTs (pulsed plasma thrusters). The model is based on a quasi-steady flow assumption. The model proposes a possible acceleration mechanism for liquid-fed pulsed plasma thrusters and accurately ...

  13. In Situ FTIR Spectroscopic Monitoring of Electrochemically Controlled Organic Reactions in a Recycle Reactor


    O?Brien, Alexander G; Luca, Oana R.; Baran, Phil S.; Blackmond, Donna G.


    An electrochemical cell coupled with a recycle loop through a transmission FTIR cell is employed in studies of two free radical organic reactions, the oxidation of allylic alcohols and the trifluoromethylation of heteroarenes. Rapid mixing through the recycle loop allows continuous monitoring of reaction progress. Electrochemical generation of free radicals allows their controlled mediation into the reaction mixture for more efficient reaction. Kinetic profiles provide mechanistic insight int...

  14. Carbon Nanotube Based Electric Propulsion Thruster with Low Power Consumption Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project is to develop field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thruster using carbon nanotubes (CNT) integrated anode. FEEP thrusters have gained...

  15. Diffusion-controlled sensitization of photocleavage reactions on surfaces. (United States)

    Wöll, Dominik; Lukzen, Nikita; Steiner, Ulrich E


    The kinetic rate equation for the photosensitized cleavage reaction of surface-bound photolabile chromophores with free diffusion of sensitizer molecules from the bulk of a solution to the surface is derived by determining the stationary solution of a diffusion equation with suitable boundary conditions. The relation between the phenomenological rate constant for the photosensitized reaction at the surface and in the bulk is established. Applying the result to the analysis of an experimental example, the origin of the quasi zeroth-order kinetics of the sensitized reaction is revealed. A theoretical comparison of intramolecular sensitization in photocleavable protecting groups with a molecular antenna and sensitization with the freely diffusing sensitizer shows that in a typical case sensitization with free diffusion is more effective than intramolecular sensitization for sensitizer concentrations higher than 5 mM.

  16. Conducting wall Hall thrusters in magnetic shielding and standard configurations (United States)

    Grimaud, Lou; Mazouffre, Stéphane


    Traditional Hall thrusters are fitted with boron nitride dielectric discharge channels that confine the plasma discharge. Wall properties have significant effects on the performances and stability of the thrusters. In magnetically shielded thrusters, interactions between the plasma and the walls are greatly reduced, and the potential drop responsible for ion acceleration is situated outside the channel. This opens the way to the utilization of alternative materials for the discharge channel. In this work, graphite walls are compared to BN-SiO2 walls in the 200 W magnetically shielded ISCT200-MS and the unshielded ISCT200-US Hall thrusters. The magnetically shielded thruster shows no significant change in the discharge current mean value and oscillations, while the unshielded thruster's discharge current increases by 25% and becomes noticeably less stable. The electric field profile is also investigated through laser spectroscopy, and no significant difference is recorded between the ceramic and graphite cases for the shielded thruster. The unshielded thruster, on the other hand, has its acceleration region shifted 15% of the channel length downstream. Lastly, the plume profile is measured with planar probes fitted with guard rings. Once again the material wall has little influence on the plume characteristics in the shielded thruster, while the unshielded one is significantly affected.

  17. Thermal Management of Superconducting Electromagnets in VASIMR Thrusters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future manned space exploration missions will require high power electric propulsion. VASIMR thrusters are the most attractive option because they offer short...

  18. High Efficiency Hall Thruster Discharge Power Converter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek leveraged previous, internally sponsored, high power, Hall thruster discharge converter development which allowed it to design, build, and test new printed...

  19. Laser-Assisted Micro-Pulsejet Thruster (United States)

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Eto, Sou


    A fundamental study of a laser-assisted micro-pulsejet thruster was conducted for a candidate of next-generation air-breathing micro-thruster systems. CFD analyses were conducted to evaluate internal phenomena, thrust performances, and influence of exhaust orifice for propellants of hydrogen-air mixture. Experimental investigations were also conducted to evaluate influence of exhaust orifices and the optimum configuration of the micro-combustion chamber. From the results, it was shown that the exhaust orifice was more effective for the improvement of thrust performance. Moreover, influence of combustor geometry on thrust performance for the improvement was confirmed. In our simulation and experimental results, the efficiency from ideal chemical energy, which is expected to be released from an ideal hydrogen-air mixture, into kinetic energy was a few percents. There are still some ways to recover this amount of loss with optimum combustor geometries and higher laser energies, and potential achieving much higher thrust performances.

  20. A collisionless plasma thruster plume expansion model (United States)

    Merino, Mario; Cichocki, Filippo; Ahedo, Eduardo


    A two-fluid model of the unmagnetized, collisionless far region expansion of the plasma plume for gridded ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters is presented. The model is integrated into two semi-analytical solutions valid in the hypersonic case. These solutions are discussed and compared against the results from the (exact) method of characteristics; the relative errors in density and velocity increase slowly axially and radially and are of the order of 10-2-10-3 in the cases studied. The plasma density, ion flux and ambipolar electric field are investigated. A sensitivity analysis of the problem parameters and initial conditions is carried out in order to characterize the far plume divergence angle in the range of interest for space electric propulsion. A qualitative discussion of the physics of the secondary plasma plume is also provided.

  1. Design of Attitude Control Actuators for a Simulated Spacecraft (United States)


    however, there are many dual-use applications, such as regenerative braking technology and flywheel energy storage. The reaction wheel system on Simsat...wheel and thruster control systems . The control moment gyroscope array was required to interface with SimSat’s existing structure, power supply, and...Captain Ryan Snider for sharing his lessons about Simsat, practical knowledge, and valuable hands-on time with someone who knew the system . Next, I’d

  2. Flex Dynamics Avoidance Control of the NEA Scout Solar Sail Spacecraft's Reaction Control System (United States)

    Heaton Andrew; Stiltner, Brandon; Diedrich, Benjamin; Becker, Christopher; Orphee, Juan


    The Attitude Control System (ACS) is developed for a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout mission using a solar sail. The NEA-Scout spacecraft is a 6U cubesat with an 86 square-meter solar sail. NEA Scout will launch on Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), currently scheduled to launch in 2018. The spacecraft will rendezvous with a target asteroid after a two year journey, and will conduct science imagery. The solar sail spacecraft ACS consists of three major actuating subsystems: a Reaction Wheel (RW) control system, a Reaction Control System (RCS), and an Adjustable Mass Translator (AMT) system. The three subsystems allow for a wide range of spacecraft attitude control capabilities, needed for the different phases of the NEA-Scout mission. Because the sail is a flexible structure, care must be taken in designing a control system to avoid exciting the structural modes of the sail. This is especially true for the RCS, which uses pulse actuated, cold-gas jets to control the spacecraft's attitude. While the reaction wheels can be commanded smoothly, the RCS jets are simple on-off actuators. Long duration firing of the RCS jets - firings greater than one second - can be thought of as step inputs to the spacecraft's torque. On the other hand, short duration firings - pulses on the order of 0.1 seconds - can be thought of as impulses in the spacecraft's torque. These types of inputs will excite the structural modes of the spacecraft, causing the sail to oscillate. Sail oscillations are undesirable for many reasons. Mainly, these oscillations will feed into the spacecraft attitude sensors and pointing accuracy, and long term oscillations may be undesirable over the lifetime of the solar sail. In order to limit the sail oscillations, an RCS control scheme is being developed to minimize sail excitations. Specifically, an input shaping scheme similar to the method described in Reference 1 will be employed. A detailed description of the RCS control scheme will

  3. Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven


    The components required for an in-space iodine vapor-fed Hall effect thruster propellant management system are described. A laboratory apparatus was assembled and used to produce iodine vapor and control the flow through the application of heating to the propellant reservoir and through the adjustment of the opening in a proportional flow control valve. Changing of the reservoir temperature altered the flowrate on the timescale of minutes while adjustment of the proportional flow control valve changed the flowrate immediately without an overshoot or undershoot in flowrate with the requisite recovery time associated with thermal control systems. The flowrates tested spanned a range from 0-1.5 mg/s of iodine, which is sufficient to feed a 200-W Hall effect thruster.

  4. Design of an embedded inverse-feedforward biomolecular tracking controller for enzymatic reaction processes. (United States)

    Foo, Mathias; Kim, Jongrae; Sawlekar, Rucha; Bates, Declan G


    Feedback control is widely used in chemical engineering to improve the performance and robustness of chemical processes. Feedback controllers require a 'subtractor' that is able to compute the error between the process output and the reference signal. In the case of embedded biomolecular control circuits, subtractors designed using standard chemical reaction network theory can only realise one-sided subtraction, rendering standard controller design approaches inadequate. Here, we show how a biomolecular controller that allows tracking of required changes in the outputs of enzymatic reaction processes can be designed and implemented within the framework of chemical reaction network theory. The controller architecture employs an inversion-based feedforward controller that compensates for the limitations of the one-sided subtractor that generates the error signals for a feedback controller. The proposed approach requires significantly fewer chemical reactions to implement than alternative designs, and should have wide applicability throughout the fields of synthetic biology and biological engineering.

  5. Haemostatic effect and tissue reactions of methods and agents used for haemorrhage control in apical surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Storgaard; Yazdi, P M; Hjørting-Hansen, Erik


    To compare the haemostatic effect and tissue reactions of different agents and methods used for haemorrhage control in apical surgery.......To compare the haemostatic effect and tissue reactions of different agents and methods used for haemorrhage control in apical surgery....

  6. Controlling porosity in bridged polysilsesquioxanes through elimination reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, M.D.; Loy, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prabakar, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.


    The retro Diels-Alder reaction was used to modify porosity in hydrocarbon-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels. Microporous polysilsesquioxanes incorporating a thermally labile Diels-Alder adduct as the hydrocarbon bridging group were prepared by sol-gel polymerization of trans-2,3-bis(triethoxysilyl)norbornene. Upon heating the 2,3-norbornenylene-bridges polymers at temperatures above 250 C, the norbornenylene-bridging group underwent a retro Diels-Alder reaction losing cyclopentadiene and leaving behind a ethenylene-bridged polysilsesquioxane. Less than theoretical quantities of cyclopentadiene were volatilized indicating that some of the diene was either reacting with the silanol and olefinic rich material or undergoing oligomerization. Both scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption porosimetry revealed net coarsening of pores (and reduction of surface area) in the materials with thermolysis.

  7. A review of electron bombardment thruster systems/spacecraft field and particle interfaces (United States)

    Byers, D. C.


    This paper collates and summarizes information on the field and particle interfaces of electron bombardment ion thruster systems. Major areas discussed are the nonpropellant particles, neutral propellant, ion beam, low energy plasma, and fields. Spacecraft functions and subsystems reviewed are solar arrays, thermal control systems, optical sensors, communications, science, structures and materials, and potential control. An appendix is included to facilitate identification of specific interaction areas.

  8. Metabolic control analysis of biochemical pathways based on a thermokinetic description of reaction rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal


    of the thermokinetic description of reaction rates to include the influence of effecters. Here the reaction rate is written as a linear function of the logarithm of the metabolite concentrations. With this type of rate function it is shown that the approach of Delgado and Liao [Biochem. J. (1992) 282, 919-927] can......Metabolic control analysis is a powerful technique for the evaluation of flux control within biochemical pathways. Its foundation is the elasticity coefficients and the flux control coefficients (FCCs). On the basis of a thermokinetic description of reaction rates it is here shown...... that the elasticity coefficients can be calculated directly from the pool levels of metabolites at steady state. The only requirement is that one thermodynamic parameter be known, namely the reaction affinity at the intercept of the tangent in the inflection point of the curve of reaction rate against reaction...

  9. NASA HERMeS Hall Thruster Electrical Configuration Characterization (United States)

    Peterson, Peter; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Gilland, James; Hofer, Richard


    NASAs Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Technology Demonstration Unit-1 (TDU-1) Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight ready propulsion system. Part of the technology maturation was to test the TDU-1 thruster in several ground based electrical configurations to assess the thruster robustness and suitability to successful in-space operation. The ground based electrical configuration testing has recently been demonstrated as an important step in understanding and assessing how a Hall thruster may operate differently in space compared to ground based testing, and to determine the best configuration to conduct development and qualification testing. This presentation will cover the electrical configuration testing of the TDU-1 HERMeS Hall thruster in NASA Glenn Research Centers Vacuum Facility 5. The three electrical configurations examined are the thruster body tied to facility ground, thruster floating, and finally the thruster body electrically tied to cathode common. The TDU-1 HERMeS was configured with two different exit plane boundary conditions, dielectric and conducting, to examine the influence on the electrical configuration characterization.

  10. Numerical simulation of SMART-1 Hall-thruster plasma interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajmar, Martin; Sedmik, René; Scharlemann, Carsten


    SMART-1 has been the first European mission using a Hall thruster to reach the moon. An onboard plasma diagnostic package allowed a detailed characterization of the thruster exhaust plasma and its interactions with the spacecraft. Analysis of in-flight data revealed, amongst others, an unpredicted

  11. Ion Voltage Diagnostics in the Far-Field Plume of a High-Specific Impulse Hall Thruster (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R.; Haas, James M.; Gallimore, Alec D.


    The effects of the magnetic field and discharge voltage on the far-field plume of the NASA 173Mv2 laboratory-model Hall thruster were investigated. A cylindrical Langmuir probe was used to measure the plasma potential and a retarding potential analyzer was employed to measure the ion voltage distribution. The plasma potential was affected by relatively small changes in the external magnetic field, which suggested a means to control the plasma surrounding the thruster. As the discharge voltage increased, the ion voltage distribution showed that the acceleration efficiency increased and the dispersion efficiency decreased. This implied that the ionization zone was growing axially and moving closer to the anode, which could have affected thruster efficiency and lifetime due to higher wall losses. However, wall losses may have been reduced by improved focusing efficiency since the total efficiency increased and the plume divergence decreased with discharge voltage.

  12. Marzipan: polymerase chain reaction-driven methods for authenticity control. (United States)

    Brüning, Philipp; Haase, Ilka; Matissek, Reinhard; Fischer, Markus


    According to German food guidelines, almonds are the only oilseed ingredient allowed for the production of marzipan. Persipan is a marzipan surrogate in which the almonds are replaced by apricot or peach kernels. Cross-contamination of marzipan products with persipan may occur if both products are produced using the same production line. Adulterations or dilutions, respectively, of marzipan with other plant-derived products, for example, lupine or pea, have also been found. Almond and apricot plants are closely related. Consequently, classical analytical methods for the identification/differentiation often fail or are not sensitive enough to quantify apricot concentrations below 1%. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been shown to enable the differentiation of closely related plant species in the past. These methods are characterized by high specificity and low detection limits. Isolation methods were developed and evaluated especially with respect to the matrix marzipan in terms of yield, purity, integrity, and amplificability of the isolated DNA. For the reliable detection of apricot, peach, pea, bean, lupine, soy, cashew, pistachio, and chickpea, qualitative standard and duplex PCR methods were developed and established. The applicability of these methods was tested by cross-reaction studies and analysis of spiked raw pastes. Contaminations at the level of 0.1% could be detected.

  13. [Software and hardware design for the temperature control system of quantitative polymerase chain reaction]. (United States)

    Qiu, Xian-bo; Yuan, Jing-qi; Li, Qi


    A temperature control system for quantitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is presented in the paper with both software and hardware configuration. The performance of the control system has been improved by optimizing the software and hardware design according to the system's properties. The control system has been proven to have a good repeatability and reliability as well as high control precision.

  14. Femtosecond laser induced and controlled chemical reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A


    Full Text Available Results from experiments aimed at bimolecular chemical reaction control of CO and H2 at room temperature and pressure, without any catalyst, using shaped femtosecond laser pulses are presented. A stable reaction product (CO 2) was measured after...

  15. Controlling factors of tunneling reactions in solid hydrogen at very low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo E-mail:; Kumagai, Jun; Kumada, Takayuki


    The recent studies on tunneling reactions of our group are auto-reviewed. The local structure around reactants, the new temperature effect, and the impurity effect are pointed out as important controlling factors of tunneling reactions in the solid phase. The distances between H(D) atoms and H{sub 2}(HD, D{sub 2}) molecules in solid hydrogen and solid argon were estimated by ESR, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), and electron spin echo (ESE). The new temperature effects on tunneling reaction were observed in a reaction D+HD{yields}D{sub 2}+H in solid HD. A mechanism of a vacancy-assisted tunneling reaction has been proposed to account for the temperature effect. The strange temperature dependence of a tunneling electron-transfer-reaction H{sub 2}{sup -}+H{sub 2}{yields}H{sub 2}+H{sub 2}{sup -} was explained in terms of the phonon-scattering effect and the impurity effect on the tunneling reaction. The rate constant for a tunneling reaction H+p-H{sub 2}{yields}p-H{sub 2}+H in solid para-H{sub 2} (p-H{sub 2}) decreases with the increase in the concentration of ortho-H{sub 2} (o-H{sub 2}). The results were explained by the model that the orientational defects by o-H{sub 2} molecules affect the tunneling reaction H+p-H{sub 2}. A tunneling reaction at very low temperature gives a surprising example in control of a reaction that a small amount of energy as such 2 cal mol{sup -1} can affect the rate of a reaction. The tunneling reaction in the solid phase, which can be considered as a multidimensional tunneling phenomenon, is affected significantly by the condition surrounding reactants. (author)

  16. On the capabilities of nano electrokinetic thrusters for space propulsion (United States)

    Diez, F. J.; Hernaiz, G.; Miranda, J. J.; Sureda, M.


    A theoretical analysis considering the capabilities of nano electrokinetic thrusters for space propulsion is presented. The work describes an electro-hydro-dynamic model of the electrokinetic flow in nano-channels and represents the first attempt to exploit the advantages of the electrokinetic effect as the basis for a new class of nano-scale thrusters suitable for space propulsion. Among such advantages are their small volume, fundamental simplicity, overall low mass, and actuation efficiency. Their electrokinetic efficiency is affected by the slip length, surface charge, pH and molarity. These design variables are analyzed and optimized for the highest electrokinetic performance inside nano-channels. The optimization is done for power consumption, thrust and specific impulse resulting in high theoretical efficiency ˜99% with corresponding high thrust-to-power ratios. Performance curves are obtained for the electrokinetic design variables showing that high molarity electrolytes lead to high thrust and specific impulse values, whereas low molarities provide highest thrust-to-power ratios and efficiencies. A theoretically designed 100 nm wide by 1 μm long emitter optimized using the ideal performance charts developed would deliver thrusts from 5 to 43 μN, specific impulse from 60 to 210 s, and would have power consumption between 1-15 mW. It should be noted that although this is a detail analytical analysis no prototypes exist and any future experimental work will face challenges that could affect the final performance. By designing an array composed of thousands of these single electrokinetic emitters, it would result in a flexible and scalable propulsion system capable of providing a wide range of thrust control for different mission scenarios and maintaining very high efficiencies and thrust-to-power ratio by varying the number of emitters in use at any one time.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Study of Spacecraft Contamination Problems Associated With Gas and Gas-Droplet Thruster Plume Flows (United States)


    sources of contamination of the surface of space vehicles are jets of their control thrusters, containing products of poor combustion (droplets... Etanol , 4861 Е Experimental Points Approximating Curve Fig. 2.16. Calibration dependence of optical radiation intensity for ethanol vapors -6

  18. Transient tests on an MHD thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, E.S. (Purdue Univ., Hammond, IN (United States). Dept. of Engineering); Libera, J.; Petrick, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)


    Three different types of transient tests were made -- coast downs to zero voltage and current under open circuit and short circuit conditions, reverses where the applied voltage was reversed to the same or a different value, and jumps where the voltage applied to the thruster was increased without a change in polarity. Most except the coast downs were dons both quickly (voltage changes as fast as possible) and slowly (6 s to complete the voltage change). A few slower (12 s) transients were done. Transient runs were made for water conductivities of 16.2 and 5.09 S/m. In all cases steady-state conditions were established and several seconds of data taken before initiating the transients. Data were measured every 0.75 to 1 .5 second over the time interval of interest. Particular attention was paid to looking for evidence of gas bubbles, and to the chance of the voltage profiles between the electrodes. The data are interpreted based on the behavior of the power supply and the thruster.

  19. Optimisation of a quantum pair space thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRAGAN


    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of propulsion for long term space missions. Traditionally a space propulsion unit has a propellant mass which is ejected trough a nozzle to generate thrust; this is also the case with inert gases energized by an on-board power unit. Unconventional methods for propulsion include high energy LASERs that rely on the momentum of photons to generate thrust. Anti-matter has also been proposed for energy storage. Although the momentum of ejected gas is significantly higher, the LASER propulsion offers the perspective of unlimited operational time – provided there is a power source. The paper will propose the use of the quantum pair formation for generating a working mass, this is different than conventional anti-matter thrusters since the material particles generated are used as propellant not as energy storage.Two methods will be compared: LASER and positron-electron, quantum pair formation. The latter will be shown to offer better momentum above certain energy levels.For the demonstrations an analytical solution is obtained and provided in the form of various coefficients. The implications are, for now, theoretical however the practicality of an optimized thruster using such particles is not to be neglected for long term space missions.

  20. Performance and flow characteristics of MHD seawater thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, E.D.


    The main goal of the research is to investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the electrical and flow fields inside MHD thrusters. The results of this study is important in the assessment of the feasibility of MHD seawater propulsion for the Navy. To accomplish this goal a three-dimensional fluid flow computer model has been developed and applied to study the concept of MHD seawater propulsion. The effects of strong magnetic fields on the current and electric fields inside the MHD thruster and their interaction with the flow fields, particularly those in the boundary layers, have been investigated. The results of the three-dimensional computations indicate that the velocity profiles are flatter over the sidewalls of the thruster walls in comparison to the velocity profiles over the electrode walls. These nonuniformities in the flow fields give rise to nonuniform distribution of the skin friction along the walls of the thrusters, where higher values are predicted over the sidewalls relative to those over the electrode walls. Also, a parametric study has been performed using the three-dimensional MHD flow model to analyze the performance of continuous electrode seawater thrusters under different operating parameters. The effects of these parameters on the fluid flow characteristics, and on the thruster efficiency have been investigated. Those parameters include the magnetic field (10--20 T), thruster diameter, surface roughness, flow velocity, and the electric load factor. The results show also that the thruster performance improves with the strength of the magnetic field and thruster diameter, and the efficiency decreases with the flow velocity and surface roughness.

  1. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster: The NEXT Ion Propulsion System for Solar System Exploration (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion system. The NEXT project is developing a solar electric ion propulsion system. The NEXT project is advancing the capability of ion propulsion to meet NASA robotic science mission needs. The NEXT system is planned to significantly improve performance over the state of the art electric propulsion systems, such as NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR). The status of NEXT development is reviewed, including information on the NEXT Thruster, the power processing unit, the propellant management system (PMS), the digital control interface unit, and the gimbal. Block diagrams NEXT system are presented. Also a review of the lessons learned from the Dawn and NSTAR systems is provided. In summary the NEXT project activities through 2007 have brought next-generation ion propulsion technology to a sufficient maturity level.

  2. Energetics and control of ultracold isotope-exchange reactions between heteronuclear dimers in external fields (United States)

    Tomza, Michal


    We show that isotope-exchange reactions between ground-state alkali-metal, alkaline-earth-metal, and lanthanide heteronuclear dimers consisting of two isotopes of the same atom are exothermic with an energy change in the range of 1-8000 MHz, thus resulting in cold or ultracold products. For these chemical reactions, there are only one rovibrational and at most several hyperfine possible product states. The number and energetics of open and closed reactive channels can be controlled by the laser and magnetic fields. We suggest a laser-induced isotope- and state-selective Stark shift control to tune the exothermic isotope-exchange reactions to become endothermic, thus providing the ground for testing models of the chemical reactivity. The present proposal opens the way for studying the state-to-state dynamics of ultracold chemical reactions beyond the universal limit with a meaningful control over the quantum states of both reactants and products.

  3. Design of an embedded inverse-feedforward biomolecular tracking controller for enzymatic reaction processes


    Foo, Mathias; Kim, Jongrae; Sawlekar, Rucha; Bates, Declan G.


    Feedback control is widely used in chemical engineering to improve the performance and robustness of chemical processes. Feedback controllers require a ?subtractor? that is able to compute the error between the process output and the reference signal. In the case of embedded biomolecular control circuits, subtractors designed using standard chemical reaction network theory can only realise one-sided subtraction, rendering standard controller design approaches inadequate. Here, we show how a b...

  4. Formose Reaction Controlled by a Copolymer of N,N-Dimethylacrylamide and 4-Vinylphenylboronic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Michitaka


    Full Text Available The formose reaction is an oligomerization of formaldehyde under basic conditions, which produces a complicated mixture of monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. Selective formation of useful monosaccharides by the formose reaction has been an important challenge. In this study, we have investigated the formose reaction controlled by N,N-dimethylacrylamide/4-vinylphenylboronic acid copolymer (pDMA/VBA and phenylboronic acid (PBA because boronic acid compounds form esters with polyols, e.g., monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. We obtained time–conversion data in the presence of these boronic acid compounds, and characterized the products by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy and NMR measurements. pDMA/VBA and PBA decelerated the formose reaction because of the formation of boronic acid esters with products. It is noteworthy that the formose reaction in the presence of pDMA/VBA and PBA formed favorably six- and seven-carbon branched monosaccharides and sugar alcohols.

  5. Radio Frequency Micro Ion Thruster for Precision Propulsion Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to continue development of an engineering model radio frequency discharge, gridded micro ion thruster that produces sub-mN to mN thrust precisely...

  6. Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation being developed in this program is a Mg Hall Effect Thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization based solar system...

  7. High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek is developing a high throughput nominal 100-W Hall Effect Thruster. This device is well sized for spacecraft ranging in size from several tens of kilograms to...

  8. High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high throughput, nominal 100 W Hall Effect Thruster (HET). This HET will be sized for small spacecraft (< 180 kg), including...

  9. High Input Voltage Hall Thruster Discharge Converter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall scope of this Phase I/II effort is the development of a high efficiency 15kW (nominal) Hall thruster discharge converter. In Phase I, Busek Co. Inc. will...

  10. Radio Frequency Micro Ion Thruster for Precision Propulsion Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop radio frequency discharge, gridded micro-ion thruster that produces sub-mN thrust precisely adjustable over a wide dynamic thrust range....

  11. Performance prediction of electrohydrodynamic thrusters by the perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, H., E-mail:; Watanabe, Y. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Suzuki, K. [Department of Advanced Energy, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)


    In this paper, we present a novel method for analyzing electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thrusters. The method is based on a perturbation technique applied to a set of drift-diffusion equations, similar to the one introduced in our previous study on estimating breakdown voltage. The thrust-to-current ratio is generalized to represent the performance of EHD thrusters. We have compared the thrust-to-current ratio obtained theoretically with that obtained from the proposed method under atmospheric air conditions, and we have obtained good quantitative agreement. Also, we have conducted a numerical simulation in more complex thruster geometries, such as the dual-stage thruster developed by Masuyama and Barrett [Proc. R. Soc. A 469, 20120623 (2013)]. We quantitatively clarify the fact that if the magnitude of a third electrode voltage is low, the effective gap distance shortens, whereas if the magnitude of the third electrode voltage is sufficiently high, the effective gap distance lengthens.

  12. 20mN, Variable Specific Impulse Colloid Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Colloid thrusters have long been known for their exceptional thrust efficiency and ability to operate over a range of specific impulse due to easily variable...

  13. Three Phase Resonant DC Power Converter for Ion Thrusters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The new generation of, high performance electric propulsion missions will require high mass throughput and most likely the use of grided ion thruster equipped with...

  14. Four Thruster Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) Cubesat Board Demonstration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cubesat Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) system module prototype will be designed, built and tested to demonstrate that a four MEP thruster system can...

  15. A High Performance Cathode Heater for Hall Thrusters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High current hollow cathodes are the baseline electron source for next generation high power Hall thrusters. Currently for electron sources providing current levels...

  16. Design and Performance Estimates of an Ablative Gallium Electromagnetic Thruster (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.


    The present study details the high-power condensable propellant research being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center. The gallium electromagnetic thruster is an ablative coaxial accelerator designed to operate at arc discharge currents in the range of 10-25 kA. The thruster is driven by a four-parallel line pulse forming network capable of producing a 250 microsec pulse with a 60 kA amplitude. A torsional-type thrust stand is used to measure the impulse of a coaxial GEM thruster. Tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber 1.5 m in diameter and 4.5 m long with a background pressure of 2 microtorr. Electromagnetic scaling calculations predict a thruster efficiency of 50% at a specific impulse of 2800 seconds.

  17. Long Life Cold Cathodes for Hall effect Thrusters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electron source incorporating long life, high current density cold cathodes inside a microchannel plate for use with ion thrusters is proposed. Cathode lifetime...

  18. Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to prove the feasibility of a Mg Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) based solar system...

  19. 20mN, Variable Specific Impulse Colloid Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During Phase I, Busek designed and manufactured an electrospray emitter capable of generating 20 mN in a 7" x 7" x 1.7" package. The thruster consists of nine...

  20. Slew Maneuver Control for Spacecraft Equipped with Star Camera and Reaction Wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.


    torque distribution in a reaction wheel assembly. The attitude controller is synthesized applying the energy shaping technique, where the desired potential function is carefully designed using a physical insight into the nature of the problem. The system stability is thoroughly analyzed and the control......A configuration consisting of a star camera, four reaction wheels and magnetorquers for momentum unloading has become standard for many spacecraft missions. This popularity has motivated numerous agencies and private companies to initiate work on the design of an imbedded attitude control system...

  1. Controlling Behaviors in Middle School Youth's Dating Relationships: Reactions and Help-Seeking Behaviors (United States)

    Elias-Lambert, Nada; Black, Beverly M.; Chigbu, Kingsley U.


    This exploratory study examined middle school students' (N = 380) help-seeking behaviors and other reactions to controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Over three-fourths of the participants perpetrated and were victimized by controlling behaviors in their dating relationships. Youth used emotional/verbal and dominance/isolation forms…

  2. Low-Cost, High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System (United States)

    Hesterman, Bryce


    Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular PPU for Hall thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper supplies, and an interface module. This high-performance PPU offers resonant circuit topologies, magnetics design, modularity, and a stable and sustained operation during severe Hall effect thruster current oscillations. Laboratory testing has demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96 percent, which is considerably higher than current state of the art.

  3. Pseudospectral Model for Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation (United States)


    Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall-effect thruster simulationect...of a pseudospectral azimuthal-axial hybrid- PIC HET code which is designed to explicitly resolve and filter azimuthal fluctuations in the...661-275-5908 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall-effect thruster simulation IEPC

  4. NASA Brief: Q-Thruster Physics (United States)

    White, Harold


    Q-thrusters are a low-TRL form of electric propulsion that operates on the principle of pushing off of the quantum vacuum. A terrestrial analog to this is to consider how a submarine uses its propeller to push a column of water in one direction, while the sub recoils in the other to conserve momentum -the submarine does not carry a "tank" of sea water to be used as propellant. In our case, we use the tools of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to show how the thruster pushes off of the quantum vacuum which can be thought of as a sea of virtual particles -principally electrons and positrons that pop into and out of existence, and where fields are stronger, there are more virtual particles. The idea of pushing off the quantum vacuum has been in the technical literature for a few decades, but to date, the obstacle has been the magnitude of the predicted thrust which has been derived analytically to be very small, and therefore not likely to be useful for human spaceflight. Our recent theoretical model development and test data suggests that we can greatly increase the magnitude of the negative pressure of the quantum vacuum and generate a specific force such that technology based on this approach can be competitive for in-space propulsion approx. 0.1N/kW), and possibly for terrestrial applications (approx. 10N/kW). As an additional validation of the approach, the theory allows calculation of physics constants from first principles: Gravitational constant, Planck constant, Bohr radius, dark energy fraction, electron mass.

  5. Low-Mass, Low-Power Hall Thruster System (United States)

    Pote, Bruce


    NASA is developing an electric propulsion system capable of producing 20 mN thrust with input power up to 1,000 W and specific impulse ranging from 1,600 to 3,500 seconds. The key technical challenge is the target mass of 1 kg for the thruster and 2 kg for the power processing unit (PPU). In Phase I, Busek Company, Inc., developed an overall subsystem design for the thruster/cathode, PPU, and xenon feed system. This project demonstrated the feasibility of a low-mass power processing architecture that replaces four of the DC-DC converters of a typical PPU with a single multifunctional converter and a low-mass Hall thruster design employing permanent magnets. In Phase II, the team developed an engineering prototype model of its low-mass BHT-600 Hall thruster system, with the primary focus on the low-mass PPU and thruster. The goal was to develop an electric propulsion thruster with the appropriate specific impulse and propellant throughput to enable radioisotope electric propulsion (REP). This is important because REP offers the benefits of nuclear electric propulsion without the need for an excessively large spacecraft and power system.

  6. In-Flight Position Calibration of the Cassini Articulated Reaction Wheel Assembly (United States)

    Brown, Todd S.


    NASA's long-lived Cassini-Huygens spacecraft is currently in its 14th year of flight and in the midst of its second, and final, extended mission. Cassini is a massive interplanetary spacecraft that is three axis stabilized and can maintain attitude control using either its reaction control system thrusters or using reaction wheel control. Cassini has four identical reaction wheels, of which three are mutually orthogonal and have a fixed orientation. The fourth reaction wheel has an articulation motor that allows this reaction wheel to be aligned with the momentum direction of any of the other three fixed reaction wheels. The articulation motor allows this reaction wheel to be used as a replacement for any of the other three wheels without any performance degradation. However, due to limitations in the design of this backup system, there are few telemetric indications of the orientation of this reaction wheel following an articulation. This investigation serves to outline the procedures that have been developed by the Cassini Attitude and Articulation Control Subsystem to calibrate the position of the articulated reaction wheel assembly in the event that the momentum direction of this reaction wheel must be reoriented.

  7. Sonocatalyzed synthesis of 2-phenylvaleronitrile under controlled reaction conditions--a kinetic study. (United States)

    Vivekanand, P A; Wang, Maw-Ling


    In the current study, kinetics of synthesis of 2-phenylvaleronitrile (PVN) was successfully carried out by selective C-alkylation of benzyl cyanide (BC) with n-bromopropane (BP) using aqueous KOH and catalyzed by TBAB under ultrasonic (300W) assisted organic solvent-free conditions. Selective monoalkylation of benzyl cyanide has been achieved by controlling the reaction conditions and has been followed using gas chromatogram. The effects of various parameters such as agitation speed, catalyst concentration, KOH concentration, benzyl cyanide concentration, volume of water, ultrasonic frequency and temperature were studied systematically to understand their influence on the rate of the reaction. The experimental observations are consistent with an interfacial-type process. Further the kinetic results demonstrate clearly, that ultrasonic assisted phase-transfer catalysis significantly increased the reaction rate when compared to silent reactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. General Attitude Control Algorithm for Spacecraft Equipped with Star Camera and Reaction Wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.

    A configuration consisting of a star camera, four reaction wheels and magnetorquers for momentum unloading has become standard for many spacecraft missions. This popularity has motivated numerous agencies and private companies to initiate work on the design of an imbedded attitude control system...... realized on an integrated circuit. This paper considers two issues: slew maneuver with a feature of avoiding direct exposure of the camera's CCD chip to the Sun %, three-axis attitude control and optimal control torque distribution in a reaction wheel assembly. The attitude controller is synthesized...... applying the energy shaping technique, where the desired potential function is carefully designed using a physical insight into the nature of the problem. The system stability is thoroughly analyzed and the control performance simulated...

  9. Reaction Wheel Installation Deviation Compensation for Overactuated Spacecraft with Finite-Time Attitude Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Zhang


    Full Text Available A novel attitude tracking control scheme is presented for overactuated spacecraft to address the attitude stabilization problem in presence of reaction wheel installation deviation, external disturbance and uncertain mass of moment inertia. An adaptive sliding mode control technique is proposed to track the uncertainty. A Lyapunov-based analysis shows that the compensation control law can guarantee that the desired attitude trajectories are followed in finite-time. The key feature of the proposed control strategy is that it globally asymptotically stabilizes the system, even in the presence of reaction wheel installation deviation, external disturbances, and uncertain mass of moment inertia. The attitude track performance using the proposed finite-time compensation control is evaluated through a numerical example.

  10. Design of an Adaptive-Neural Network Attitude Controller of a Satellite using Reaction Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ajorkar


    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive attitude control algorithm is developed based on neural network for a satellite using four reaction wheels in a tetrahedron configuration. Then, an attitude control based on feedback linearization control has been designed and uncertainties in the moment of inertia matrix and disturbances torque have been considered. In order to eliminate the effect of these uncertainties, a multilayer neural network with back-propagation law is designed. In this structure, the parameters of the moment of inertia matrix and external disturbances are estimated and used in feedback linearization control law. Finally, the performance of the designed attitude controller is investigated by several simulations.

  11. Adaptive FTC based on Control Allocation and Fault Accommodation for Satellite Reaction Wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, P.; Blanke, Mogens; Castaldi, P.


    This paper proposes an active fault tolerant control scheme to cope with faults or failures affecting the flywheel spin rate sensors or satellite reaction wheel motors. The active fault tolerant control system consists of a fault detection and diagnosis module along with a control allocation...... estimation filters, which do not need a priori information about the internal model of the signal to be estimated. The adaptive control allocation and sensor fault accommodation can handle both temporal faults and failures. Simulation results illustrate the convincing fault correction and attitude control...

  12. Wear Testing of the HERMeS Thruster (United States)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Gilland, James H.; Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Ahern, Drew M.; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel A.; Hofer, Richard R.; Sekerak, Michael


    The Hall-Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) thruster is being developed and tested at NASA GRC and NASA JPL through support of the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) as primary propulsion for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). This thruster is advancing the state-of-the-art of Hall-effect thrusters and is intended to serve as a precursor to higher power systems for human interplanetary exploration. A 2000-hour wear test has been initiated at NASA GRC with the HERMeS Technology Demonstration Unit One and three of four test segments have been completed totaling 728 h of operation. This is the first test of a NASA-designed magnetically shielded thruster to extend beyond 300 hr of continuous operation. Trends in performance, component wear, thermal design, plume properties, and back-sputtered deposition are discussed for two wear-test segments of 246 h and 360 h. The first incorporated graphite pole covers in an electrical configuration where cathode was electrically connected to thruster body. The second utilized traditional alumina pole covers with the thruster body floating. It was shown that the magnetic shielding in both configurations completely eliminated erosion of the boron nitride discharge channel but resulted in erosion of the inner pole cover. The volumetric erosion rate of the graphite pole covers was roughly 2/3 that of the alumina pole covers and the thruster exhibited slightly better performance. Buildup of back-sputtered carbon on the BN channel at a rate of roughly 1.5 µm/kh is shown to have negligible impact on the performance.

  13. Precise through-space control of an abiotic electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction (United States)

    Murphy, Kyle E.; Bocanegra, Jessica L.; Liu, Xiaoxi; Chau, H.-Y. Katharine; Lee, Patrick C.; Li, Jianing; Schneebeli, Severin T.


    Nature has evolved selective enzymes for the efficient biosynthesis of complex products. This exceptional ability stems from adapted enzymatic pockets, which geometrically constrain reactants and stabilize specific reactive intermediates by placing electron-donating/accepting residues nearby. Here we perform an abiotic electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction, which is directed precisely through space. Ester arms--positioned above the planes of aromatic rings--enable it to distinguish between nearly identical, neighbouring reactive positions. Quantum mechanical calculations show that, in two competing reaction pathways, both [C-H...O]-hydrogen bonding and electrophile preorganization by coordination to a carbonyl group likely play a role in controlling the reaction. These through-space-directed mechanisms are inspired by dimethylallyl tryptophan synthases, which direct biological electrophilic aromatic substitutions by preorganizing dimethylallyl cations and by stabilizing reactive intermediates with [C-H...N]-hydrogen bonding. Our results demonstrate how the third dimension above and underneath aromatic rings can be exploited to precisely control electrophilic aromatic substitutions.

  14. Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (uPIT_SF) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (5PIT_SF) is a high-precision impulse bit electromagnetic plasma micro-thruster. The 5PIT prototype is a...

  15. Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a flight version of a high power Hall Effect thruster. While numerous high power Hall Effect thrusters have been demonstrated in the...

  16. High Performance Plasma Channel Insulators for High Power Hall Thrusters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA missions for planetary exploration require high power, long-life Hall thrusters. However, thruster power and lifetime are limited by the erosion of plasma...

  17. Lifetime Improvement of Large Scale Green Monopropellant Thrusters via Novel, Long-Life Catalysts Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop and life-test a flight-weight, 5N class green monopropellant thruster in Phase II. The most important feature that sets this thruster apart...

  18. Design and Development of a Two-Axis Thruster Gimbal with Xenon Propellant Lines (United States)

    Asadurian, Armond


    A Two-Axis Thruster Gimbal was developed for a two degree-of-freedom tip-tilt gimbal application. This light weight gimbal mechanism is equipped with flexible xenon propellant lines and features numerous thermal control features for all its critical components. Unique thermal profiles and operating environments have been the key design drivers for this mechanism which is fully tolerant of extreme space environmental conditions. Providing thermal controls that are compatible with flexible components and are also capable of surviving launch vibration within this gimbal mechanism has proven to be especially demanding, requiring creativity and significant development effort. Some of these features, design drivers, and lessons learned will be examined herein.

  19. An approach to simple reaction control for auto-thermal fuel-reforming systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komachiya, M.; Hiyama, K.; Higashiyama, K. [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd. 1-1, Omika-cho 7-chome, Hitachi-shi Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Okano, T.; Yatabe, H. [Kure Division, Babcock-Hitachi K.K., 6-9 Takara-machi, Kure-shi, Hiroshima-ken (Japan); Imada, N.; Kaku, H. [Kure Research Laboratory, Babcock-Hitachi K.K., 3-36 Takara-machi, Kure-shi, Hiroshima-ken (Japan)


    A simple approach to reaction control for autothermal fuel-reforming systems was proposed and examined. The amount of air supplied to the fuel-reforming system was chosen as the variable in the feedback (closed-loop) control operation, and simply by varying the amount of air supplied, it was attempted to control and stabilize the temperature of the auto-thermal reforming reaction. The amounts of other fuels and water were chosen from pre-determined values by open-loop operation. Since the feedback operation was limited to the air-supply mechanism, it was expected that both the hardware structure of the system and its software configurations could be significantly simplified. The applicability of this simple feedback control operation was confirmed experimentally by using a methanol reformer of the direct-injection type. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Multifaceted and route-controlled "click" reactions based on vapor-deposited coatings. (United States)

    Sun, Ting-Pi; Tai, Ching-Heng; Wu, Jyun-Ting; Wu, Chih-Yu; Liang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Hsien-Yeh


    "Click" reactions provide precise and reliable chemical transformations for the preparation of functional architectures for biomaterials and biointerfaces. The emergence of a multiple-click reaction strategy has paved the way for a multifunctional microenvironment with orthogonality and precise multitasking that mimics nature. We demonstrate a multifaceted and route-controlled click interface using vapor-deposited functionalized poly-para-xylylenes. Distinctly clickable moieties of ethynyl and maleimide were introduced into poly-para-xylylenes in one step via a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) copolymerization process. The advanced interface coating allows for a double-click route with concurrent copper(i)-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) and the thiol-maleimide click reaction. Additionally, double-click reactions can also be performed in a cascade manner by controlling the initiation route to enable the CuAAC and/or thiol-yne reaction using a mono-functional alkyne-functionalized poly-para-xylylene. The use of multifaceted coatings to create straightforward and orthogonal interface properties with respect to protein adsorption and cell attachment is demonstrated and characterized.

  1. Quantum-limited biochemical magnetometers designed using the Fisher information and quantum reaction control (United States)

    Vitalis, K. M.; Kominis, I. K.


    Radical-ion pairs and their reactions have triggered the study of quantum effects in biological systems. This is because they exhibit a number of effects best understood within quantum information science, and at the same time are central in understanding the avian magnetic compass and the spin transport dynamics in photosynthetic reaction centers. Here we address radical-pair reactions from the perspective of quantum metrology. Since the coherent spin motion of radical pairs is effected by an external magnetic field, these spin-dependent reactions essentially realize a biochemical magnetometer. Using the quantum Fisher information, we find the fundamental quantum limits to the magnetic sensitivity of radical-pair magnetometers, arriving at a sensitivity δ B =2 pT /τ [1 μ s] √{ν0[1012] } , given in terms of radical-pair lifetime τ and number of radical pairs ν0. We then explore how well the usual measurement scheme considered in radical-pair reactions, the measurement of reaction yields, approaches the fundamental limits. In doing so, we find the optimal hyperfine interaction Hamiltonian that leads to the best magnetic sensitivity as obtained from reaction yields. This is still an order of magnitude smaller than the absolute quantum limit. Finally, we demonstrate that with a realistic quantum reaction control reminding one of Ramsey interferometry, here presented as a quantum circuit involving the spin-exchange interaction and a recently proposed molecular switch, we can approach the fundamental quantum limit within a factor of 2. This work opens the application of well-advanced quantum metrology methods to biological systems.

  2. Charge-exchange plasma generated by an ion thruster (United States)

    Kaufman, H. R.


    The use of high voltage solar arrays greatly reduces or eliminates power processing requirements in space electric propulsion systems. This use also requires substantial areas of solar array to be at high positive potential relative to space and most of the spacecraft. The charge exchange plasma conducts electrons from the ion beam to such positive surfaces, and thereby electrically load the high voltage solar array. To evaluate this problem, the charge-exchange plasma generated by an ion beam was investigated experimentally. Based upon the experimental data, a simple model was derived for the charge-exchange plasma. This model is conservative in the sense that both the electron/ion density and the electron current density should be equal to, or less than, the preducted value for all directions in the hemisphere upstream of the ion beam direction. Increasing the distance between a positive potential surface (such as a high voltage solar array) and the thruster is the simplest way to control interactions. Both densities and currents vary as the inverse square of this distance.

  3. Export Controls and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base. Volume 1. Summary Report, and Volume 2. Appendices (United States)


    guidance navigation and control (GNC): gyros and reaction wheels • valves and tanks: thruster propellant valves and tanks • power systems: solar panels...Mitsubishi), Russia (Korolev, NPO PM, RSC Energia ) • 8 commercial payloads with 45 subcontracts listed. • Primes in countries with a developing space...heavy nuclei, which can go to very high levels during solar flares. For electronics to survive a nuclear radiation environment, they must be able to

  4. Scaling of FRC Thrusters with Neutral Entrainment (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts) (United States)


    Entrainment Thruster ( NET ) can effectively accelerate neutral propellant to high specific impulse, without major ionization or frozen flow losses. This will...magnetic field, the Neutral Entrainment Thruster ( NET ) can effectively accelerate neutral propellant to high specific impulse, without major ionization or...propulsion systems. The MSNW Neutral Entrainment Thruster ( NET ) [2] has the capability to address these demanding combined requirements of high specific

  5. A novel approach to sports concussion assessment: Computerized multilimb reaction times and balance control testing. (United States)

    Vartiainen, Matti V; Holm, Anu; Lukander, Jani; Lukander, Kristian; Koskinen, Sanna; Bornstein, Robert; Hokkanen, Laura


    Mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI) or concussions often result in problems with attention, executive functions, and motor control. For better identification of these diverse problems, novel approaches integrating tests of cognitive and motor functioning are needed. The aim was to characterize minor changes in motor and cognitive performance after sports-related concussions with a novel test battery, including balance tests and a computerized multilimb reaction time test. The cognitive demands of the battery gradually increase from a simple stimulus response to a complex task requiring executive attention. A total of 113 male ice hockey players (mean age = 24.6 years, SD = 5.7) were assessed before a season. During the season, nine concussed players were retested within 36 hours, four to six days after the concussion, and after the season. A control group of seven nonconcussed players from the same pool of players with comparable demographics were retested after the season. Performance was measured using a balance test and the Motor Cognitive Test battery (MotCoTe) with multilimb responses in simple reaction, choice reaction, inhibition, and conflict resolution conditions. The performance of the concussed group declined at the postconcussion assessment compared to both the baseline measurement and the nonconcussed controls. Significant changes were observed in the concussed group for the multilimb choice reaction and inhibition tests. Tapping and balance showed a similar trend, but no statistically significant difference in performance. In sports-related concussions, complex motor tests can be valuable additions in assessing the outcome and recovery. In the current study, using subtasks with varying cognitive demands, it was shown that while simple motor performance was largely unaffected, the more complex tasks induced impaired reaction times for the concussed subjects. The increased reaction times may reflect the disruption of complex and integrative cognitive

  6. 20-mN Variable Specific Impulse (Isp) Colloid Thruster (United States)

    Demmons, Nathaniel


    Busek Company, Inc., has designed and manufactured an electrospray emitter capable of generating 20 mN in a compact package (7x7x1.7 in). The thruster consists of nine porous-surface emitters operating in parallel from a common propellant supply. Each emitter is capable of supporting over 70,000 electrospray emission sites with the plume from each emitter being accelerated through a single aperture, eliminating the need for individual emission site alignment to an extraction grid. The total number of emission sites during operation is expected to approach 700,000. This Phase II project optimized and characterized the thruster fabricated during the Phase I effort. Additional porous emitters also were fabricated for full-scale testing. Propellant is supplied to the thruster via existing feed-system and microvalve technology previously developed by Busek, under the NASA Space Technology 7's Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS) mission and via follow-on electric propulsion programs. This project investigated methods for extending thruster life beyond the previously demonstrated 450 hours. The life-extending capabilities will be demonstrated on a subscale version of the thruster.

  7. Thrust Stand Measurements of a Conical Pulsed Inductive Plasma Thruster (United States)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Emsellem, Gregory D.


    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. The thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters can su er from both high pulse energy requirements imposed by the voltage demands of inductive propellant ionization, and low propellant utilization efficiencies. The Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA)[4], shown in Fig. 1 is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that is able to operate at lower pulse energies by partially ionizing propellant with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge inside a conical inductive coil whose geometry serves to potentially increase propellant and plasma plume containment relative to at coil geometries. The ECR plasma is created with the use of permanent mag- nets arranged to produce a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation and, in turn, current sheet formation to areas of high magnetic coupling to the driving coil.

  8. Liquid fluorine/hydrazine rhenium thruster update (United States)

    Appel, M. A.; Kaplan, R. B.; Tuffias, R. H.


    The status of a fluorine/hydrazine thruster development program is discussed. A solid rhenium metal sea-level thrust chamber was successfully fabricated and tested for a total run duration of 1075 s with 17 starts. Rhenium fabrication methods are discussed. A test program was conducted to evaluate performance and chamber cooling. Acceptable performance was reached and cooling was adequate. A flight-type injector was fabricated that achieved an average extrapolated performance value of 3608 N-s/kg (368 lbf-s/lbm). Altitude thrust chambers were fabricated. One chamber incorporates a rhenium combustor and nozzle with an area ratio of 15:1, and a columbium nozzle extension with area ratios from 15:1 to 60:1. The other chamber was fabricated completely with a carbon/carbon composite. Because of the attributes of rhenium for use in high-temperature applications, a program to provide the materials and processes technology needed to reliably fabricate and/or repair vapor-deposited rhenium parts of relatively large size and complex shape is recommended.

  9. Neural Network Control of CSTR for Reversible Reaction Using Reverence Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan ALOKO


    Full Text Available In this work, non-linear control of CSTR for reversible reaction is carried out using Neural Network as design tool. The Model Reverence approach in used to design ANN controller. The idea is to have a control system that will be able to achieve improvement in the level of conversion and to be able to track set point change and reject load disturbance. We use PID control scheme as benchmark to study the performance of the controller. The comparison shows that ANN controller out perform PID in the extreme range of non-linearity.This paper represents a preliminary effort to design a simplified neutral network control scheme for a class of non-linear process. Future works will involve further investigation of the effectiveness of thin approach for the real industrial chemical process

  10. Proton mediated control of biochemical reactions with bioelectronic pH modulation (United States)

    Deng, Yingxin; Miyake, Takeo; Keene, Scott; Josberger, Erik E.; Rolandi, Marco


    In Nature, protons (H+) can mediate metabolic process through enzymatic reactions. Examples include glucose oxidation with glucose dehydrogenase to regulate blood glucose level, alcohol dissolution into carboxylic acid through alcohol dehydrogenase, and voltage-regulated H+ channels activating bioluminescence in firefly and jellyfish. Artificial devices that control H+ currents and H+ concentration (pH) are able to actively influence biochemical processes. Here, we demonstrate a biotransducer that monitors and actively regulates pH-responsive enzymatic reactions by monitoring and controlling the flow of H+ between PdHx contacts and solution. The present transducer records bistable pH modulation from an “enzymatic flip-flop” circuit that comprises glucose dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The transducer also controls bioluminescence from firefly luciferase by affecting solution pH.

  11. Neuro-genetic optimization of temperature control for a continuous flow polymerase chain reaction microdevice. (United States)

    Lee, Hing Wah; Arunasalam, Parthiban; Laratta, William P; Seetharamu, Kankanhalli N; Azid, Ishak A


    In this study, a hybridized neuro-genetic optimization methodology realized by embedding finite element analysis (FEA) trained artificial neural networks (ANN) into genetic algorithms (GA), is used to optimize temperature control in a ceramic based continuous flow polymerase chain reaction (CPCR) device. The CPCR device requires three thermally isolated reaction zones of 94 degrees C, 65 degrees C, and 72 degrees C for the denaturing, annealing, and extension processes, respectively, to complete a cycle of polymerase chain reaction. The most important aspect of temperature control in the CPCR is to maintain temperature distribution at each reaction zone with a precision of +/-1 degree C or better, irrespective of changing ambient conditions. Results obtained from the FEA simulation shows good comparison with published experimental work for the temperature control in each reaction zone of the microfluidic channels. The simulation data are then used to train the ANN to predict the temperature distribution of the microfluidic channel for various heater input power and fluid flow rate. Once trained, the ANN analysis is able to predict the temperature distribution in the microchannel in less than 20 min, whereas the FEA simulation takes approximately 7 h to do so. The final optimization of temperature control in the CPCR device is achieved by embedding the trained ANN results as a fitness function into GA. Finally, the GA optimized results are used to build a new FEA model for numerical simulation analysis. The simulation results for the neuro-genetic optimized CPCR model and the initial CPCR model are then compared. The neuro-genetic optimized model shows a significant improvement from the initial model, establishing the optimization method's superiority.

  12. Laser propulsion 10 kW thruster test program results (United States)

    Black, J.; Krier, H.; Glumb, R. J.


    This paper summarizes the results of the first-ever experimental tests of a 10 kW laser-powered rocket engine. The rocket engine used high-temperature laser-sustained plasmas to heat flows of argon and hydrogen propellants, which were then exhausted through a rocket nozzle to generate thrust. This paper describes the design of the thruster and test support equipment in detail, including a description of the diagnostic systems used. This is followed by a summary of the performance data acquired during the thruster tests, particularly specific impulse and thruster efficiency as functions of pressure and propellant type. Key findings include demonstrations of specific impulse values of up to 350 seconds at efficiencies near 40 percent using hydrogen propellant, and the discovery of a low-velocity stability limit for laser-sustained plasmas.

  13. The effects of aniline impurities on monopropellant hydrazine thruster performance (United States)

    Holcomb, L.; Mattson, L.; Oshiro, R.


    Both a 0.45-N and a 0.9-N thruster representative of the designs being flown on 3-axis stabilized spacecraft were used in testing various grades of hydrazine for the phenomenon of monopropellant hydrazine thruster catalyst bed poisoning. Both designs employed Shell 405 ABSG spontaneous catalyst. It is found that pulse shape distortion can be minimized, if not eliminated, by using aniline-free hydrazine. The mechanisms for both steady-state and pulse-mode performance loss are associated with the formation of a catalyst coke similar to the polycyclic aromatic poisons encountered in the petroleum industry. These poisoning mechanisms are reversible, with high-temperature operation being required to drive off the aniline coke deposits. It is recommended that a purified-grade hydrazine be considered for any mission that imposes operational conditions on a thruster which can result in aniline-induced poisoning of the catalyst bed.

  14. Inert gas radio-frequency thruster RIT 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, K.H.; Blum, O.; Rado, H.; Loeb, H.W.


    It is noted that the use of mercury as a propellant may restrict the application of the electric propulsion system due to the poisonousness and/or availability of mercury. The present paper describes the RIT 10 engine modified to operate with xenon and argon. Attention is given to the modified design, function tests and performance mapping for the ion thruster and the plasma bridge neutralizer. The experiments show that the thruster works well with both gases, noting that the data for xenon are similar to that of mercury, but preliminary tests demonstrate lower efficiencies for argon than with xenon. In conclusion, it is proven that no fundamental problems exist in operating the ion thruster with argon.

  15. Cathode and insulator materials for a 30 kW arcjet thruster (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold; O'Donnell, Tim; Deininger, William


    This paper describes past experience with 30 kW arcjet engines, emphasizing the operational parameters pertinent to the selection of new/alternate erosion-resistant materials to enhance lifetime. Mechanisms of mass loss from the electrodes and insulators are suggested, and ways of identifying potential processes for controlling cathode erosion and insulator degradation are proposed. The limitations of present materials used in critical arcjet thruster components are described. An outline is given of the criteria and the figure of merit on which the selection of candidate materials can be based. Potentially useful new/alternate materials are listed based on available thermophysical and other material properties.

  16. Modeling and Experimental Investigations of Mixing-Controlled Geochemical and Biological Reactions at the Pore Scale (United States)

    Valocchi, A. J.; Werth, C. J.; Yoon, H.; Tang, Y.


    Several studies have demonstrated the important role played by mixing-controlled reactions in porous media. For example, transverse mixing of nutrients along the fringes of a contaminant plume is often the limiting step that controls overall degradation rate during natural or engineered in situ bioremediation. Similar mixing processes can promote precipitation/dissolution reactions during geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. Field and laboratory investigations have demonstrated that the length scale of transverse mixing zones can be very small, often on the order of centimeters or less. To study dispersion, mixing and reaction at this scale, we use pore-scale numerical simulation models and micro-fluidics laboratory experiments. An overview of our methods and findings, including comparisons between direct numerical simulations and laboratory experiments will be presented. The presentation will emphasize recent results including: (a) coupling of precipitation/dissolution with porosity reduction under different geochemical conditions, and (b) impact of pore structure on biodegradation and biofilm growth patterns. Our work has improved understanding of coupled flow, transport and reaction processes; however, there remain significant challenges in extending the results to larger field scales.

  17. Global control of reaction wheel pendulum through energy regulation and extended linearization of the state variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Montoya-Giraldo


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and simulation of a global controller for the Reaction Wheel Pendulum system using energy regulation and extended linearization methods for the state feedback. The proposed energy regulation is based on the gradual reduction of the energy of the system to reach the unstable equilibrium point. The signal input for this task is obtained from the Lyapunov stability theory. The extended state feedback controller design is used to get a smooth nonlinear function that extends the region of operation to a bigger range, in contrast with the static linear state feedback obtained through the method of approximate linearization around an operating point. The general designed controller operates with a switching between the two control signals depending upon the region of operation; perturbations are applied in the control signal and the (simulated measured variables to verify the robustness and efficiency of the controller. Finally, simulations and tests using the model of the reaction wheel pendulum system, allow to observe the versatility and functionality of the proposed controller in the entire operation region of the pendulum.

  18. Recycle Requirements for NASA's 30 cm Xenon Ion Thruster (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.


    Electrical breakdowns have been observed during ion thruster operation. These breakdowns, or arcs, can be caused by several conditions. In flight systems, the power processing unit must be designed to handle these faults autonomously. This has a strong impact on power processor requirements and must be understood fully for the power processing unit being designed for the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program. In this study, fault conditions were investigated using a NASA 30 cm ion thruster and a power console. Power processing unit output specifications were defined based on the breakdown phenomena identified and characterized.

  19. Microwave processes in the SPD-ATON stationary plasma thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirdyashev, K. P., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation)


    Results of experimental studies of microwave processes accompanying plasma acceleration in the SPD-ATON stationary plasma thruster are presented. Specific features of the generation of microwave oscillations in both the acceleration channel and the plasma flow outgoing from the thruster are analyzed on the basis of local measurements of the spectra of the plasma wave fields. Mechanisms for generation of microwave oscillations are considered with allowance for the inhomogeneity of the electron density and magnetic field behind the edge of the acceleration channel. The effect of microwave oscillations on the electron transport and the formation of the discharge current in the acceleration channel is discussed.

  20. 100-LBF LO2/LCH4 - Reaction Control Engine Technology Development for Future Space Vehicles (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 100-lbf (445 N) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign MR, ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

  1. Controlling the ambiphilic nature of σ-arylpalladium intermediates in intramolecular cyclization reactions. (United States)

    Solé, Daniel; Fernández, Israel


    The reactivity of main group organometallics, such as organolithium compounds (RLi) and Grignard reagents (RMgX), is quite straightforward. In these species the R group usually exhibits nucleophilic reactivity without any possibility of inducing electrophilic character. In contrast, in organopalladium complexes, researchers can switch the reactivity from electrophilic to nucleophilic relatively simply. Although σ-aryl and σ-vinylpalladium complexes are commonly used as electrophiles in C-C bond-forming reactions, recent research has demonstrated that they can also react with carbon-heteroatom multiple bonds in a nucleophilic manner. Nevertheless, researchers have completely ignored the issue of controlling the ambiphilic nature of such species. This Account describes our efforts toward selectively promoting the same starting materials toward either electrophilic α-arylation or nucleophilic addition reactions to different carbonyl groups. We could tune the properties of the σ-arylpalladium intermediates derived from amino-tethered aryl halides and carbonyl compounds to achieve chemoselective transformations. Therefore, chemists can control the ambiphilic nature of such intermediates and, consequently, the competition between the alternative reaction pathways by the adequate selection of the reaction conditions and additives (base, presence/absence of phenol, bidentate phosphines). The nature of the carbonyl group (aldehydes, ketones, esters, and amides) and the length of the tether connecting it to the aniline moiety also play an important role in the outcome of these processes. Our joint computational and experimental efforts to elucidate the reaction mechanism of these palladium-catalyzed transformations suggest that beyond the formation of the four-membered azapalladacycle, two major factors help to control the dual character of the palladium(II) intermediates derived from 2-haloanilines. First, their high nucleophilicity strongly modifies the interaction of

  2. Reaction of dwarf cashew clones to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates in controlled environment


    LÓPEZ,Ana Maria Queijeiro; Lucas, John Alexander


    The cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) crop is an important source of income for the population of the Brazilian Northeast, and anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides leads to significant production loss. However, there is little information on either the host resistance or the variation in the aggressiveness of the pathogen under controlled environment. The reaction of commercial (CCP-06, CCP-09, CCP-76 and CCP-1001) and one non-commercial (CAP-14) dwarf cashew clones w...

  3. Orbiter subsystem hardware/software interaction analysis. Volume 8: AFT reaction control system, part 2 (United States)

    Becker, D. D.


    The orbiter subsystems and interfacing program elements which interact with the orbiter computer flight software are analyzed. The failure modes identified in the subsystem/element failure mode and effects analysis are examined. Potential interaction with the software is examined through an evaluation of the software requirements. The analysis is restricted to flight software requirements and excludes utility/checkout software. The results of the hardware/software interaction analysis for the forward reaction control system are presented.

  4. Orbiter subsystem hardware/software interaction analysis. Volume 8: Forward reaction control system (United States)

    Becker, D. D.


    The results of the orbiter hardware/software interaction analysis for the AFT reaction control system are presented. The interaction between hardware failure modes and software are examined in order to identify associated issues and risks. All orbiter subsystems and interfacing program elements which interact with the orbiter computer flight software are analyzed. The failure modes identified in the subsystem/element failure mode and effects analysis are discussed.

  5. Kinetic studies in solid state reactions by sample-controlled methods and advanced analysis procedures


    Pérez-Maqueda, Luis A.; Criado, J. M.; Sánchez-Jiménez, P.E.; Perejón, Antonio


    A comparative study of both conventional rising temperature and sample-controlled methods, like constant rate thermal analysis (CRTA), is carried out after analyzing a set of solid state reactions using both methods. It is shown that CRTA avoids the influence of heat and mass transfer phenomena for a wide range of sample sizes leading to reliable kinetic parameters. On the other hand, conventional rising temperature methods yield α–T plots dependent on experimental conditions, even when using...

  6. Employee reactions to the use of management control systems in hospitals: motivation vs. threat. (United States)

    Lopez-Valeiras, Ernesto; Gomez-Conde, Jacobo; Lunkes, Rogerio Joao


    Management control systems (such as budgets or balanced scorecards) are formal procedures used by managers to promote employee behavior aligned with organisational objectives. Employees may react to these control systems by either becoming more motivated or perceiving them as a threat. The aim of this paper is to determine the extent to which hospital ownership (public or private), professional group (physician, nurse, pharmacist or administrative employee), type of contract (fixed or temporary), gender and tenure can condition employee reaction to management control systems. We conducted the study in the three largest hospitals in the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil), two public (federal and state-owned) and one private (non-profit organisation). Physicians, nurses, pharmacists and administrative employees received a questionnaire between October 2013 and January 2014 concerning their current perceptions. We obtained 100 valid responses and conducted an ANOVA variance analysis. Our results show that the effect of management control systems on employees differs according to hospital ownership, professional group and type of contract. However, no significant evidence was found concerning gender or tenure. The results obtained contribute to creating specific knowledge on the reactions of employees to the use of management control systems in hospitals. This information may be important in adapting management control systems to the characteristics of the hospital and its employees, which may in turn contribute to reducing dysfunctional worker behavior. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Study and Developement of Compact Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters for Future Brazillian Space Missions (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre; Cerda, Rodrigo


    The Plasma Physics Laboratory of UnB has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the UNIESPAÇO program, part of the Space Activities Program conducted by AEB- The Brazillian Space Agency since 2004. Electric propulsion is now a very successful method for primary and secondary propulsion systems. It is essential for several existing geostationary satellite station keeping systems and for deep space long duration solar system missions, where the thrusting system can be designed to be used on orbit transfer maneuvering and/or for satellite attitude control in long term space missions. Applications of compact versions of Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters on future brazillian space missions are needed and foreseen for the coming years beginning with the use of small divergent cusp field (DCFH) Hall Thrusters type on CUBESATS ( 5-10 kg , 1W-5 W power consumption) and on Micro satellites ( 50- 100 kg, 10W-100W). Brazillian (AEB) and German (DLR) space agencies and research institutions are developing a new rocket dedicated to small satellite launching. The VLM- Microsatellite Launch Vehicle. The development of PHALL compact versions can also be important for the recently proposed SBG system, a future brazillian geostationary satellite system that is already been developed by an international consortium of brazillian and foreign space industries. The exploration of small bodies in the Solar System with spacecraft has been done by several countries with increasing frequency in these past twenty five years. Since their historical beginning on the sixties, most of the Solar System missions were based on gravity assisted trajectories very much depended on planet orbit positioning relative to the Sun and the Earth. The consequence was always the narrowing of the mission launch window. Today, the need for Solar System icy bodies in situ exploration requires less dependence on gravity assisted maneuvering and new high precision low thrust navigation methods

  8. Geo satellite attitude and orbit control: fixed orbit control thrasters


    Ermoshkin, Yu; V. Raevsky; Urusov, V.


    The paper describes the enhanced application ofhigh-economical electro-jet orbit control thrusters for geostationary satellites; in particular, generation of controlling moments to the benefit of satellite attitude determination and control subsystems in the course of orbit control maneuvers ongoing. The scheme with thrusters fixed on a satellite body is analyzed. Possible orbit control session procedures are proposed on the basis of controlling moments generation. Advantages and disadvantage...

  9. Unexpected Control Structure Interaction on International Space Station (United States)

    Gomez, Susan F.; Platonov, Valery; Medina, Elizabeth A.; Borisenko, Alexander; Bogachev, Alexey


    On June 23, 2011, the International Space Station (ISS) was performing a routine 180 degree yaw maneuver in support of a Russian vehicle docking when the on board Russian Segment (RS) software unexpectedly declared two attitude thrusters failed and switched thruster configurations in response to unanticipated ISS dynamic motion. Flight data analysis after the maneuver indicated that higher than predicted structural loads had been induced at various locations on the United States (U.S.) segment of the ISS. Further analysis revealed that the attitude control system was firing thrusters in response to both structural flex and rigid body rates, which resonated the structure and caused high loads and fatigue cycles. It was later determined that the thruster themselves were healthy. The RS software logic, which was intended to react to thruster failures, had instead been heavily influenced by interaction between the control system and structural flex. This paper will discuss the technical aspects of the control structure interaction problem that led to the RS control system firing thrusters in response to structural flex, the factors that led to insufficient preflight analysis of the thruster firings, and the ramifications the event had on the ISS. An immediate consequence included limiting which thrusters could be used for attitude control. This complicated the planning of on-orbit thruster events and necessitated the use of suboptimal thruster configurations that increased propellant usage and caused thruster lifetime usage concerns. In addition to the technical aspects of the problem, the team dynamics and communication shortcomings that led to such an event happening in an environment where extensive analysis is performed in support of human space flight will also be examined. Finally, the technical solution will be presented, which required a multidisciplinary effort between the U.S. and Russian control system engineers and loads and dynamics structural engineers to

  10. Dynamic Neural Network-Based Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) Fault Detection and Isolation for Formation Flying of Satellites (United States)

    Valdes, A.; Khorasani, K.

    The main objective of this paper is to develop a dynamic neural network-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme for the Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPTs) that are used in the Attitude Control Subsystem (ACS) of satellites that are tasked to perform a formation flying mission. By using data collected from the relative attitudes of the formation flying satellites our proposed "High Level" FDI scheme can detect the pair of thrusters which is faulty, however fault isolation cannot be accomplished. Based on the "High Level" FDI scheme and the DNN-based "Low Level" FDI scheme developed earlier by the authors, an "Integrated" DNN-based FDI scheme is then proposed. To demonstrate the FDI capabilities of the proposed schemes various fault scenarios are simulated.

  11. Simulations of a Plasma Thruster Utilizing the FRC Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cohen, B. I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This report describes work performed by LLNL to model the behavior and performance of a reverse-field configuration (FRC) type of plasma device as a plasma thruster as summarized by Razin et al. [1], which also describes the MNX device at PPPL used to study this concept.

  12. Parametric studies of the Hall current plasma thruster (United States)

    Ashkenazy, J.; Raitses, Y.; Appelbaum, G.


    The Hall current plasma thruster accelerates a plasma jet by an axial electric field and an applied radial magnetic field in an annular ceramic channel. A relatively large current density (>0.1 A/cm2) can be obtained as the acceleration mechanism is not limited by space charge effects. Such a device can be used as a small rocket engine on board spacecraft with the advantage of a large jet velocity compared to conventional rocket engines (10000-30000 m/s versus 2000-4800 m/s). An experimental Hall thruster was constructed and operated in a broad range of operating conditions and under various configuration variations. Electrical, magnetic and plasma diagnostics, and as well accurate thrust and gas flow rate measurements, have been used to investigate the dependence of thruster behavior on the applied voltage, gas flow rate, magnetic field, channel geometry and wall material. The studies conducted so far have demonstrated a significant effect of channel material on thruster electrical characteristics and the existence of an optimal channel length for a given flow rate. Representative results highlighting these findings are presented.

  13. High Fidelity Modeling of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) Thrusters (United States)


    expedited through the hiring of two new employees, Dr. Eder Sousa (recent graduate of U. of Washington) and Dr. Artan Qerushi (formerly at Tri- Alpha ...Effect on Field-Reversed Configuration Thruster Efficiency, Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol 30, No. 6, Nov- Dec 2014. - Qerushi, A, “Overview of

  14. Thermal stability of the krypton Hall effect thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelecka Agnieszka


    Full Text Available The Krypton Large IMpulse Thruster (KLIMT ESA/PECS project, which has been implemented in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM and now is approaching its final phase, was aimed at incremental development of a ~500 W class Hall effect thruster (HET. Xenon, predominantly used as a propellant in the state-of-the-art HETs, is extremely expensive. Krypton has been considered as a cheaper alternative since more than fifteen years; however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has not been a HET model especially designed for this noble gas. To address this issue, KLIMT has been geared towards operation primarily with krypton. During the project, three subsequent prototype versions of the thruster were designed, manufactured and tested, aimed at gradual improvement of each next exemplar. In the current paper, the heat loads in new engine have been discussed. It has been shown that thermal equilibrium of the thruster is gained within the safety limits of the materials used. Extensive testing with both gases was performed to compare KLIMT’s thermal behaviour when supplied with krypton and xenon propellants.

  15. Rapid evaluation of ion thruster lifetime using optical emission spectroscopy (United States)

    Rock, B. A.; Parsons, M. L.; Mantenieks, M. A.


    A major life-limiting phenomenon of electric thrusters is the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components. Thrusters for space propulsion are required to operate for extended periods of time, usually in excess of 10,000 hr. Lengthy and very costly life-tests in high-vacuum facilities have been required in the past to determine the erosion rates of thruster components. Alternative methods for determining erosion rates which can be performed in relatively short periods of time at considerably lower costs are studied. An attempt to relate optical emission intensity from an ion bombarded surface (screen grid) to the sputtering rate of that surface is made. The model used a kinetic steady-state (KSS) approach, balancing the rates of population and depopulation of ten low-lying excited states of the sputtered molybdenum atom (MoI) with those of the ground state to relate the spectral intensities of the various transitions of the MoI to the population densities. Once this is accomplished, the population density can be related to the sputting rate of the target. Radiative and collisional modes of excitation and decay are considered. Since actual data has not been published for MoI excitation rate and decay constants, semiempirical equations are used. The calculated sputtering rate and intensity is compared to the measured intensity and sputtering rates of the 8 and 30 cm ion thrusters.

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-fed Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaartikey Misra


    Full Text Available Liquid propellants are fast becoming attractive for pulsed plasma thrusters due to their high efficiency and low contamination issues. However, the complete plasma interaction and acceleration processes are still not very clear. Present paper develops a multi-layer numerical model for liquid propellant PPTs (pulsed plasma thrusters. The model is based on a quasi-steady flow assumption. The model proposes a possible acceleration mechanism for liquid-fed pulsed plasma thrusters and accurately predicts the propellant utilization capabilities and estimations for the fraction of propellant gas that is completely ionized and accelerated to high exit velocities. Validation of the numerical model and the assumptions on which the model is based on is achieved by comparing the experimental results and the simulation results for two different liquid-fed thrusters developed at the University of Tokyo. Simulation results shows that up-to 50 % of liquid propellant injected is completely ionized and accelerated to high exit velocities (>50 Km/s, whereas, neutral gas contribute to only 7 % of the total specific impulse and accelerated to low exit velocity (<4 Km/s. The model shows an accuracy up-to 92 % . Optimization methods are briefly discussed to ensure efficient propellant utilization and performance. The model acts as a tool to understand the background physics and to optimize the performance for liquid-fed PPTs.

  17. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani


    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  18. Magnetic mirror effect in a cylindrical Hall thruster (United States)

    Jiang, Yiwei; Tang, Haibin; Ren, Junxue; Li, Min; Cao, Jinbin


    For cylindrical Hall thrusters, the magnetic field geometry is totally different from that in conventional Hall thrusters. In this study, we investigate the magnetic mirror effect in a fully cylindrical Hall thruster by changing the number of iron rings (0–5), which surround the discharge channel wall. The plasma properties inside the discharge channel and plume area are simulated with a self-developed PIC-MCC code. The numerical results show significant influence of magnetic geometry on the electron confinement. With the number of rings increasing above three, the near-wall electron density gap is reduced, indicating the suppression of neutral gas leakage. The electron temperature inside the discharge channel reaches its peak (38.4 eV) when the magnetic mirror is strongest. It is also found that the thruster performance has strong relations with the magnetic mirror as the propellant utilisation efficiency reaches the maximum (1.18) at the biggest magnetic mirror ratio. Also, the optimal magnetic mirror improves the multi-charged ion dynamics, including the ion production and propellant utilisation efficiency.

  19. Mode Transitions in Magnetically Shielded Hall Effect Thrusters (United States)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Hofer, Richard R.; Jorns, Benjamin A.; Polk, James E.


    A mode transition study is conducted in magnetically shielded thrusters where the magnetic field magnitude is varied to induce mode transitions. Three different oscillatory modes are identified with the 20-kW NASA-300MS-2 and the 6-kW H6MS: Mode 1) global mode similar to unshielded thrusters at low magnetic fields, Mode 2) cathode oscillations at nominal magnetic fields, and Mode 3) combined spoke, cathode and breathing mode oscillations at high magnetic fields. Mode 1 exhibits large amplitude, low frequency (1-10 kHz), breathing mode type oscillations where discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude peak. The mean discharge current is minimized while thrust-to-power and anode efficiency are maximized in Mode 2, where higher frequency (50-90 kHz), low amplitude, cathode oscillations dominate. Thrust is maximized in Mode 3 and decreases by 5-6% with decreasing magnetic field strength. The presence or absence of spokes and strong cathode oscillations do not affect each other or discharge current. Similar to unshielded thrusters, mode transitions and plasma oscillations affect magnetically shielded thruster performance and should be characterized during system development.

  20. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion System Information Summary (United States)

    Pencil, Eirc S.; Benson, Scott W.


    This document is a guide to New Frontiers mission proposal teams. The document describes the development and status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system (IPS) technology, its application to planetary missions, and the process anticipated to transition NEXT to the first flight mission.

  1. A general strategy for nanohybrids synthesis via coupled competitive reactions controlled in a hybrid process. (United States)

    Wang, Rongming; Yang, Wantai; Song, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaomiao; Wang, Junmei; Zhong, Xiaodi; Li, Shuai; Song, Yujun


    A new methodology based on core alloying and shell gradient-doping are developed for the synthesis of nanohybrids, realized by coupled competitive reactions, or sequenced reducing-nucleation and co-precipitation reaction of mixed metal salts in a microfluidic and batch-cooling process. The latent time of nucleation and the growth of nanohybrids can be well controlled due to the formation of controllable intermediates in the coupled competitive reactions. Thus, spatiotemporal-resolved synthesis can be realized by the hybrid process, which enables us to investigate nanohybrid formation at each stage through their solution color changes and TEM images. By adjusting the bi-channel solvents and kinetic parameters of each stage, the primary components of alloyed cores and the second components of transition metal doping ZnO or Al2O3 as surface coatings can be successively formed. The core alloying and shell gradient-doping strategy can efficiently eliminate the crystal lattice mismatch in different components. Consequently, varieties of gradient core-shell nanohybrids can be synthesized using CoM, FeM, AuM, AgM (M = Zn or Al) alloys as cores and transition metal gradient-doping ZnO or Al2O3 as shells, endowing these nanohybrids with unique magnetic and optical properties (e.g., high temperature ferromagnetic property and enhanced blue emission).

  2. Optimal Attitude Control of Agile Spacecraft Using Combined Reaction Wheel and Control Moment Gyroscope Arrays (United States)


    for attitude control of a satellite in space begin with Euler’s equation ~Mb̂ = Ib̂ ~̇ω b̂î b̂ + ~ωb̂î b̂ × Ib̂~ωb̂îb̂ (2.1) where ~Mb̂ is a vector...calculation is given in Section 2.5. The final set of equations needed to study satellite attitude control is a set of kinematic relations...greater than 0.025% over the whole mission. Due to the nonlinear equations involved in satellite control, the ~̇hmax value is further checked and

  3. Control of scroll wave turbulence in a three-dimensional reaction-diffusion system with gradient (United States)

    Qiao, Chun; Wu, Yabi; Lu, XiaoChuan; Wang, ChunYan; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Hongli


    In this paper, we summarize our recent experimental and theoretical works on observation and control of scroll wave (SW) turbulence. The experiments were conducted in a three-dimensional Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction-diffusion system with chemical concentration gradients in one dimension. A spatially homogeneous external forcing was used in the experiments as a control; it was realized by illuminating white light on the light sensitive reaction medium. We observed that, in the oscillatory regime of the system, SW can appear automatically in the gradient system, which will be led to spatiotemporal chaos under certain conditions. A suitable periodic forcing may stabilize inherent turbulence of SW. The mechanism of the transition to SW turbulence is due to the phase twist of SW in the presence of chemical gradients, while modulating the phase twist with a proper periodic forcing can delay this transition. Using the FitzHugh-Nagumo model with an external periodic forcing, we confirmed the control mechanism with numerical simulation. Moreover, we also show in the simulation that adding temporal external noise to the system may have the same control effect. During this process, we observed a new state called "intermittent turbulence," which may undergo a transition into a new type of SW collapse when the noise intensity is further increased. The intermittent state and the collapse could be explained by a random process.

  4. Hardware in the Loop Testing of an Iodine-Fed Hall Thruster (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven R.; Cecil, Jim; Lewis, Brandon L.; Molina Fraticelli, Jose C.; Clark, James P.


    chamber (it is under 10(exp -6) torr at -75 C), making it possible to 'cryopump' the propellant with lower-cost recirculating refrigerant-based systems as opposed to using liquid nitrogen or low temperature gaseous helium cryopanels. In the present paper, we describe testing performed using an iodine-fed 200 W Hall thruster mounted to a thrust stand and operated in conjunction with MSFCs Small Projects Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) Portable Hardware In the Loop (PHIL) hardware. This work is performed in support of the iodine satellite (iSAT) project, which aims to fly a 200-W iodine-fed thruster on a 12-U CubeSat. The SPRITE PHIL hardware allows a given vehicle to do a checkout of its avionics algorithm by allowing it to monitor and feed data to simulated sensors and effectors in a digital environment. These data are then used to determine the attitude of the vehicle and a separate computer is used to interpret the data set and visualize it using a 3D graphical interface. The PHIL hardware allows the testing of the vehicles bus by providing 'real' hardware interfaces (in the case of this test a real RS422 bus) and specific components can be modeled to show their interactions with the avionics algorithm (e.g. a thruster model). For the iSAT project the PHIL is used to visualize the operating cycle of the thruster and the subsequent effect this thrusting has on the attitude of the satellite over a given period of time. The test is controlled using software running on an Andrews Space Cortex 160 flight computer. This computer is the current baseline for a full iSAT mission. While the test could be conducted with a lab computer and software, the team chose to exercise the propulsion system with a representative CubeSat-class computer. For purposes of this test, the "flight" software monitored the propulsion and PPU systems, controlled operation of the thruster, and provided thruster state data to the PHIL simulation. Commands to operate the thruster were

  5. Comparisons in Performance of Electromagnet and Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thrusters (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Gayoso, J. C.; Fisch, N. J.


    Three different low-power cylindrical Hall thrusters, which more readily lend themselves to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, are compared to evaluate the propulsive performance of each. One thruster uses electromagnet coils to produce the magnetic field within the discharge channel while the others use permanent magnets, promising power reduction relative to the electromagnet thruster. A magnetic screen is added to the permanent magnet thruster to improve performance by keeping the magnetic field from expanding into space beyond the exit of the thruster. The combined dataset spans a power range from 50-350 W. The thrust levels over this range were 1.3-7.3 mN, with thruster efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 3.5-28.7% and 400-1940 s, respectively. The efficiency is generally higher for the permanent magnet thruster with the magnetic screen, while That thruster s specific impulse as a function of discharge voltage is comparable to the electromagnet thruster.

  6. Low Cost Electric Propulsion Thruster for Deep Space Robotic Science Missions (United States)

    Manzella, David


    Electric Propulsion (EP) has found widespread acceptance by commercial satellite providers for on-orbit station keeping due to the total life cycle cost advantages these systems offer. NASA has also sought to benefit from the use of EP for primary propulsion onboard the Deep Space-1 and DAWN spacecraft. These applications utilized EP systems based on gridded ion thrusters, which offer performance unequaled by other electric propulsion thrusters. Through the In-Space Propulsion Project, a lower cost thruster technology is currently under development designed to make electric propulsion intended for primary propulsion applications cost competitive with chemical propulsion systems. The basis for this new technology is a very reliable electric propulsion thruster called the Hall thruster. Hall thrusters, which have been flown by the Russians dating back to the 1970s, have been used by the Europeans on the SMART-1 lunar orbiter and currently employed by 15 other geostationary spacecraft. Since the inception of the Hall thruster, over 100 of these devices have been used with no known failures. This paper describes the latest accomplishments of a development task that seeks to improve Hall thruster technology by increasing its specific impulse, throttle-ability, and lifetime to make this type of electric propulsion thruster applicable to NASA deep space science missions. In addition to discussing recent progress on this task, this paper describes the performance and cost benefits projected to result from the use of advanced Hall thrusters for deep space science missions.

  7. Reaction-Multi Diffusion Model for Nutrient Release and Autocatalytic Degradation of PLA-Coated Controlled-Release Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ameenuddin Irfan


    Full Text Available A mathematical model for the reaction-diffusion equation is developed to describe the nutrient release profiles and degradation of poly(lactic acid (PLA-coated controlled-release fertilizer. A multi-diffusion model that consists of coupled partial differential equations is used to study the diffusion and chemical reaction (autocatalytic degradation simultaneously. The model is solved using an analytical-numerical method. Firstly, the model equation is transformed using the Laplace transformation as the Laplace transform cannot be inverted analytically. Numerical inversion of the Laplace transform is used by employing the Zakian method. The solution is useful in predicting the nutrient release profiles at various diffusivity, concentration of extraction medium, and reaction rates. It also helps in explaining the transformation of autocatalytic concentration in the coating material for various reaction rates, times of reaction, and reaction-multi diffusion. The solution is also applicable to the other biodegradable polymer-coated controlled-release fertilizers.

  8. Gravity Compensation and Feedback of Ground Reaction Forces for Biped Balance Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ito


    Full Text Available This paper considers the balance control of a biped robot under a constant external force or on a sloped ground. We have proposed a control method with feedback of the ground reaction forces and have realized adaptive posture changes that ensure the stability of the robot. However, fast responses have not been obtained because effective control is achieved by an integral feedback that accompanies a time delay necessary for error accumulation. To improve this response, here, we introduce gravity compensation in a feedforward manner. The stationary state and its stability are analyzed based on dynamic equations, and the robustness as well as the response is evaluated using computer simulations. Finally, the adaptive behaviors of the robot are confirmed by standing experiments on the slope.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Fomich


    Full Text Available Article is devoted to studying the Significance of orthostatic reactions of ventricular rate (OR VR in the clinical course of permanent atrial fibrillation (AF to improve the effectiveness of its control. It was found that among patients with AF there are all 3 types of OR VR as during sinus rhythm, positive OR VR predo-minate over negative and absent. It was shown, that positive OR are favorable to reduce the severity of symptoms of AF, according to European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA, less favorable – absent, and unfavorable – negative OR VR. It was established, that the control of AF with by beta adrenergic anta-gonists (BAA is possible in any type of OR VR except qualified positive, combination of BAA and amioda-rone – for BAA inefficiency, and control of AF with amiodarone is preferable in qualified positive and ne-gative OR VR and when there are contraindications to BAA.

  10. Ex vivo engineered immune organoids for controlled germinal center reactions. (United States)

    Purwada, Alberto; Jaiswal, Manish K; Ahn, Haelee; Nojima, Takuya; Kitamura, Daisuke; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K; Cerchietti, Leandro; Singh, Ankur


    Ex vivo engineered three-dimensional organotypic cultures have enabled the real-time study and control of biological functioning of mammalian tissues. Organs of broad interest where its architectural, cellular, and molecular complexity has prevented progress in ex vivo engineering are the secondary immune organs. Ex vivo immune organs can enable mechanistic understanding of the immune system and more importantly, accelerate the translation of immunotherapies as well as a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that lead to their malignant transformation into a variety of B and T cell malignancies. However, till date, no modular ex vivo immune organ has been developed with an ability to control the rate of immune reaction through tunable design parameter. Here we describe a B cell follicle organoid made of nanocomposite biomaterials, which recapitulates the anatomical microenvironment of a lymphoid tissue that provides the basis to induce an accelerated germinal center (GC) reaction by continuously providing extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell signals to naïve B cells. Compared to existing co-cultures, immune organoids provide a control over primary B cell proliferation with ∼100-fold higher and rapid differentiation to the GC phenotype with robust antibody class switching. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How does practise of internal Chinese martial arts influence postural reaction control? (United States)

    Gorgy, Olivier; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Coyle, Thelma


    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Chinese martial arts practice on postural reaction control after perturbation. Participants standing in Romberg tandem posture were subjected to an unexpected lateral platform translation with the eyes open or closed at two translation amplitudes. The peak displacement of the centre of pressure and of the centre of mass, and the onset latency of muscular activity (tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, lumbodorsal muscular group, and rectus abdominis), were evaluated for martial arts practitioners and for sport and non-sport participants. Compared with the sport and non-sport participants, the martial arts group showed lower maximal centre of pressure and centre of mass peak displacements in both the lateral and anterior - posterior directions, but no difference was found in the onset of muscular responses. We conclude that martial arts practice influences postural reaction control during a fixed-support strategy in a tandem task. The martial arts group used the ankle joint more frequently than the sport and non-sport participants, especially in the eyes-closed conditions. Our results suggest that the better balance recovery in the martial arts group is a consequence of better control of biomechanical properties of the lower limbs (e.g. through muscular response by co-contraction), not a change in the neuromuscular temporal pattern.

  12. The reactive collision mechanism evinced: stereodynamical control of the elementary Br + H2 → H + HBr reaction. (United States)

    Herráez-Aguilar, D; Jambrina, P G; Aldegunde, J; Sáez-Rábanos, Vicente; de Miranda, M P; Aoiz, F J


    From a kinetics standpoint, reactive molecular collisions are the building blocks of the mechanisms of chemical reactions. In contrast, a dynamics standpoint reveals molecular collisions to have their own internal mechanisms, which are not mere theoretical abstractions: through suitable preparation of the reactants internal and stereochemical states, features of the mechanisms of a reactive molecular collision can be made evident and used as "handles" to control the reaction outcome. Using time-independent quantum dynamical calculations, we demonstrate this for the Br + H2(v = 0-1, j = 2) → H + HBr reaction in the 1.0-1.6 eV range of total energies. Despite its pronounced effect on reactivity, which is in agreement with the predictions from Polanyi rules, reactant vibration is found to have little effect on the mechanism of this endoergic, late-barrier reaction. Analysis of the correlations between directional reaction properties shows that the collision stereochemistry strongly depends on the total energy, but not on how this energy is partitioned between reactant translation and vibration. The stereodynamical preferences implied by the collision mechanisms determine how and to what extent one can control the reaction. Regarding the overall reaction, the extent of control is found to be large near the reaction threshold but not when the total energy is high. Regarding state-to-state reactions, the effect of reactant stereochemistry on the product rotational state distribution is found to be nontrivial and energy dependent.

  13. STS-39 OV-103 reaction control system (RCS) jets fire during onorbit maneuver (United States)


    During STS-39 rendezvous maneuvers, two of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, right reaction control system (RCS) jets fire (one up and one to the right). The RCS jet firings create a glow around OV-103's orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods and vertical tail against the blackness of space. Some reflection from the crew compartment windows is visible. In the foreground are the Space Test Payload 1 (STP-1) multipurpose experiment support structure (MPESS) (front) and the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675) experiment support system (ESS) (back). The remote manipulator system (RMS) arm is stowed along the port side sill longeron.

  14. Coupled transport and reaction kinetics control the nitrate source-sink function of hyporheic zones (United States)

    Zarnetske, Jay P.; Haggerty, Roy; Wondzell, Steven M.; Bokil, Vrushali A.; GonzáLez-Pinzón, Ricardo


    The fate of biologically available nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in stream ecosystems is controlled by the coupling of physical transport and biogeochemical reaction kinetics. However, determining the relative role of physical and biogeochemical controls at different temporal and spatial scales is difficult. The hyporheic zone (HZ), where groundwater-stream water mix, can be an important location controlling N and C transformations because it creates strong gradients in both the physical and biogeochemical conditions that control redox biogeochemistry. We evaluated the coupling of physical transport and biogeochemical redox reactions by linking an advection, dispersion, and residence time model with a multiple Monod kinetics model simulating the concentrations of oxygen (O2), ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We used global Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses with a nondimensional form of the model to examine coupled nitrification-denitrification dynamics across many scales of transport and reaction conditions. Results demonstrated that the residence time of water in the HZ and the uptake rate of O2 from either respiration and/or nitrification determined whether the HZ was a source or a sink of NO3 to the stream. We further show that whether the HZ is a net NO3 source or net NO3 sink is determined by the ratio of the characteristic transport time to the characteristic reaction time of O2 (i.e., the Damköhler number, DaO2), where HZs with DaO2 < 1 will be net nitrification environments and HZs with DaO2 ≪ 1 will be net denitrification environments. Our coupling of the hydrologic and biogeochemical limitations of N transformations across different temporal and spatial scales within the HZ allows us to explain the widely contrasting results of previous investigations of HZ N dynamics which variously identify the HZ as either a net source or sink of NO3. Our model results suggest that only estimates of residence times and O2uptake rates

  15. Theory of Solvation-Controlled Reactions in Stimuli-Responsive Nanoreactors

    CERN Document Server

    Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Ballauff, Matthias; Dzubiella, Joachim


    Metallic nanoparticles embedded in stimuli-responsive polymers can be regarded as nanoreactors since their catalytic activity can be changed within wide limits: the physicochemical properties of the polymer network can be tuned and switched by external parameters, e.g. temperature or pH, and thus allows a selective control of reactant mobility and concentration close to the reaction site. Based on a combination of Debye's model of diffusion through an energy landscape and a two-state model for the polymer, here we develop an analytical expression for the observed reaction rate constant $k_{\\rm obs}$. Our formula shows an exponential dependence of this rate on the solvation free enthalpy change $\\Delta \\bar{G}_{\\rm sol}$, a quantity which describes the partitioning of the reactant in the network versus bulk. Thus, changes in $\\Delta \\bar{G}_{\\rm sol}$, and not in the diffusion coefficient, will be the decisive factor affecting the reaction rate in most cases. A comparison with recent experimental data on switc...

  16. Terminal Alkyne Coupling on a Corrugated Noble Metal Surface: From Controlled Precursor Alignment to Selective Reactions. (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhang, Liding; Björk, Jonas; Chen, Zhi; Ruben, Mario; Barth, Johannes V; Klappenberger, Florian


    Surface-templated covalent coupling of organic precursors currently emerges as a promising route to the atom-precise fabrication of low-dimensional carbon materials. Here, we investigate the adsorption and the coupling reactions of 4,4''-diethynyl-1,1':4',1''-terphenyl on Au(110) under ultra-high vacuum conditions by using scanning tunneling microscopy combined with density functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo calculations. Temperature treatment induces both 1,2,4-asymmetric cyclotrimerization and homocoupling, resulting in various reaction products, including a previously unreported, surface-templated H-shaped pentamer. Our analysis of the temperature-dependent relative product abundances unravels that 1,2,4-trimerization and homocoupling proceed via identical intermediate species with the final products depending on the competition of coupling to a third monomer versus dehydrogenation. Our study sheds light on the control of coupling reactions by corrugated surfaces and annealing protocols. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Use of model peptide reactions for the characterization of kinetically controlled ligation. (United States)

    Lee, Joongoo; Kwon, Yoonjin; Pentelute, Brad L; Bang, Duhee


    Since the introduction of kinetically controlled ligation (KCL), a chemoselective reaction between a peptide-(α)thioarylester and a Cys-peptide-(α)thioalkylester, KCL has been utilized for the total chemical synthesis of large proteins (i.e., lysozyme and HIV-protease) by providing fully convergent synthetic routes. Although KCL has the potential to become an important chemistry for protein synthesis, the principle of KCL is not fully characterized. In particular, prior work on KCL has focused on the reactivity difference of the two different -(α)thioester forms-alkyl vs aryl. Another equally important feature of KCL, Xaa-Cys ligation sites, has not been investigated. The work reported here describes combinatorial KCL reactions using model peptides to dissect the interplay of the Xaa(1), Xaa(2), -(α)thioarylester, and -(α)thioalkylester. Results from these studies provide fundamental insights into the KCL reaction, and will lead to the optimal synthetic route for the routine chemical synthesis of large target protein molecules.

  18. pH-Controlled Oxidation of an Aromatic Ketone: Structural Elucidation of the Products of Two Green Chemical Reactions (United States)

    Ballard, C. Eric


    A laboratory experiment emphasizing the structural elucidation of organic compounds has been developed as a discovery exercise. The "unknown" compounds are the products of the pH-controlled oxidation of 4'-methoxyacetophenone with bleach. The chemoselectivity of this reaction is highly dependent on the pH of the reaction media: under basic…

  19. Bimolecular electron transfer reactions in coumarin amine systems: Donor acceptor orientational effect on diffusion-controlled reaction rates (United States)

    Satpati, A. K.; Nath, S.; Kumbhakar, M.; Maity, D. K.; Senthilkumar, S.; Pal, H.


    Electron transfer (ET) reactions between excited coumarin dyes and different aliphatic amine (AlA) and aromatic amine (ArA) donors have been investigated in acetonitrile solution using steady-state (SS) and time-resolved (TR) fluorescence quenching measurements. No ground state complex or emissive exciplex formation has been indicated in these systems. SS and TR measurements give similar quenching constants ( kq) for each of the coumarin-amine pairs, suggesting dynamic nature of interaction in these systems. On correlating kq values with the free energy changes (Δ G0) of the ET reactions show the typical Rehm-Weller type of behavior as expected for bimolecular ET reactions under diffusive condition, where kq increases with -Δ G0 at the lower exergonicity (-Δ G0) region but ultimately saturate to a diffusion-limited value (kqDC) at the higher exergonicity region. It is, however, interestingly observed that the kqDC values vary largely depending on the type of the amines used. Thus, kqDC is much higher with ArAs than AlAs. Similarly, the kqDC for cyclic monoamine 1-azabicyclo-[2,2,2]-octane (ABCO) is distinctly lower and that for cyclic diamine 1,4-diazabicyclo-[2,2,2]-octane (DABCO) is distinctly higher than the kqDC value obtained for other noncyclic AlAs. These differences in the kqDC values have been rationalized on the basis of the differences in the orientational restrictions involved in the ET reactions with different types of amines. As understood, n-type donors (AlAs) introduce large orientational restriction and thus significantly reduces the ET efficiency in comparison to the π-type donors (ArAs). Structural constrains are inferred to be the reason for the differences in the kqDC values involving ABCO, DABCO donors in comparison to other noncyclic AlAs. Supportive evidence for the orientational restrictions involving different types of amines donors has also been obtained from DFT based quantum chemical calculations on the molecular orbitals of

  20. The Development of Plasma Thrusters and Its Importance for Space Technology and Science Education at University of Brasilia (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Calvoso, Lui; Gessini, Paolo; Ferreira, Ivan

    Since 2004 The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia (Brazil) is developing Hall Plasma Thurusters for Satellite station keeping and orbit control. The project is supported by CNPq, CAPES, FAP DF and from The Brazillian Space Agency-AEB. The project is part of The UNIESPAÇO Program for Space Activities Development in Brazillian Universities. In this work we are going to present the highlights of this project together with its vital contribution to include University of Brasilia in the Brazillian Space Program. Electric propulsion has already shown, over the years, its great advantages in being used as main and secondary thruster system of several space mission types. Between the many thruster concepts, one that has more tradition in flying real spacecraft is the Hall Effect Thruster (HET). These thrusters, first developed by the USSR in the 1960s, uses, in the traditional design, the radial magnetic field and axial electric field to trap electrons, ionize the gas and accelerate the plasma to therefore generate thrust. In contrast to the usual solution of using electromagnets to generate the magnetic field, the research group of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasília has been working to develop new models of HETs that uses combined permanent magnets to generate the necessary magnetic field, with the main objective of saving electric power in the final system design. Since the beginning of this research line it was developed and implemented two prototypes of the Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PMHT). The first prototype, called P-HALL1, was successfully tested with the using of many diagnostics instruments, including, RF probe, Langmuir probe, Ion collector and Ion energy analyzer. The second prototype, P-HALL2, is currently under testing, and it’s planned the increasing of the plasma diagnostics and technology analysis, with the inclusion of a thrust balance, mass spectroscopy and Doppler broadening. We are also developing an

  1. Pickup ion processes associated with spacecraft thrusters: Implications for solar probe plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, Adam, E-mail:; Burgess, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London (United Kingdom)


    Chemical thrusters are widely used in spacecraft for attitude control and orbital manoeuvres. They create an exhaust plume of neutral gas which produces ions via photoionization and charge exchange. Measurements of local plasma properties will be affected by perturbations caused by the coupling between the newborn ions and the plasma. A model of neutral expansion has been used in conjunction with a fully three-dimensional hybrid code to study the evolution and ionization over time of the neutral cloud produced by the firing of a mono-propellant hydrazine thruster as well as the interactions of the resulting ion cloud with the ambient solar wind. Results are presented which show that the plasma in the region near to the spacecraft will be perturbed for an extended period of time with the formation of an interaction region around the spacecraft, a moderate amplitude density bow wave bounding the interaction region and evidence of an instability at the forefront of the interaction region which causes clumps of ions to be ejected from the main ion cloud quasi-periodically.

  2. Computational molecular technology towards macroscopic chemical phenomena-molecular control of complex chemical reactions, stereospecificity and aggregate structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Masataka [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Honmachi, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan); ESICB, Kyoto University, Kyodai Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)


    A new efficient hybrid Monte Carlo (MC)/molecular dynamics (MD) reaction method with a rare event-driving mechanism is introduced as a practical ‘atomistic’ molecular simulation of large-scale chemically reactive systems. Starting its demonstrative application to the racemization reaction of (R)-2-chlorobutane in N,N-dimethylformamide solution, several other applications are shown from the practical viewpoint of molecular controlling of complex chemical reactions, stereochemistry and aggregate structures. Finally, I would like to mention the future applications of the hybrid MC/MD reaction method.

  3. Case-control study of immediate and delayed vasovagal reactions in blood donors. (United States)

    Narbey, D; Fillet, A-M; Jbilou, S; Tiberghien, P; Djoudi, R


    Vasovagal reactions (VVRs) are the most common adverse events associated with blood donations. To assess the relative importance of VVR risk factors, a retrospective case-control study of severe immediate and delayed VVRs was performed. Vasovagal reactions were defined as immediate when occurring at the transfusion site and as delayed when occurring outside the transfusion site and within 24 h following donation. VVRs with probable or certain imputability and moderate to death severity were considered. One control/case was drawn randomly from among donors without VVR. Explanatory variables (sex, age, body mass index (BMI), donation status, type of phlebotomy) as well as the matching variables (donation region, date) and the interaction term (sex and BMI) were integrated into the multivariate model. In French hemovigilance data collected from 2011 to 2013, 8410 immediate and 833 delayed VVRs occurred among 8 834 214 donations. In multivariate analysis, occurrence of immediate VVR was strongly associated with first-time donation (OR 4·34; 95% CI: 3·93-4·79, P donor is at risk of delayed VVR. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  4. Film evaporation MEMS thruster array for micropropulsion (United States)

    Cofer, Anthony G.

    Current small sat propulsion systems require a substantial mass fraction of the vehicle involving tradeoffs between useful payload mass and maneuverability. This is also an issue with available attitude control systems which are either quickly saturated reaction wheels or movable high drag surfaces with long response times. What is needed is a low mass low power self-contained propulsion unit that can be easily installed and modeled. The proposed Film-Evaporation MEMS Tunable Array (FEMTA), exploits the small scale surface tension effect in conjunction with temperature dependent vapor pressure to realize a thermal valving system. The local vapor pressure is increased by resistive film heating until it exceeds meniscus strength in the nozzle inducing vacuum boiling which provides a stagnation pressure equal to vapor pressure at that point which is used for propulsion. The heat of vaporization is drawn from the bulk fluid and is replaced by either an integrated heater or waste heat from the vehicle. Proof of concept was initially achieved with a macroscale device made possible by using ethylene glycol, which has a low vapor pressure and high surface tension, as the working fluid. Both the thermal valving effect and cooling feature were demonstrated though at reduced performance than would be expected for water. Three generations of prototype FEMTA devices have been fabricated at Birck Nanotechnology Center on 200 and 500 micrometer thick silicon wafers. Preliminary testing on first generation models had tenuously demonstrated behavior consistent with the macroscale tests but there was not enough data for solid confirmation. Some reliability issues had arisen with the integrated heaters which were only partially alleviated in the second generation of FEMTAs. This led to a third generation and two changes in heater material until a chemically resilient material was found. The third generation of microthrusters were tested on the microNewton thrust stand at Purdue

  5. Post-Test Inspection of Nasa's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Long Duration Test Hardware: Ion Optics (United States)

    Soulas, George C.; Shastry, Rohit


    A Long Duration Test (LDT) was initiated in June 2005 as a part of NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) service life validation approach. Testing was voluntarily terminated in February 2014, with the thruster accumulating 51,184 hours of operation, processing 918 kg of xenon propellant, and delivering 35.5 MN-s of total impulse. This presentation will present the post-test inspection results to date for the thrusters ion optics.

  6. Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster (United States)

    Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Nurden, Glen


    This paper summarizes preliminary experimental and theoretical research that was directed towards the study of quasisteady-state power flow in a large, un-optimized, multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster. The report addresses large coaxial thruster operation and includes evaluation and interpretation of the experimental results with a view to the development of efficient, steady-state megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters.

  7. Novel reaction control techniques for redundant space manipulators: Theory and simulated microgravity tests (United States)

    Cocuzza, Silvio; Pretto, Isacco; Debei, Stefano


    This paper presents two novel redundancy resolution schemes aimed at locally minimizing the reaction torque transferred to the spacecraft during manipulator manoeuvres. The subject is of particular interest in space robotics because reduced reactions result in reduced energy consumption and longer operating life of the attitude control system. The first presented solution is based on a weighted Jacobian pseudoinverse and is derived by using Lagrangian multipliers. The weight matrix is defined by means of the inertia matrix which appears in the spacecraft reaction torque dynamics. The second one is based on a least squares formulation of the minimization problem. In this formulation the linearity of the forward kinematics and of the reaction torque dynamics equations with respect to the joint accelerations is used. A closed-form solution is derived for both the presented methods, and their equivalence is proven analytically. Moreover, the proposed solutions, which are suitable for real-time implementation, are extended in order to take into account the physical limits of the manipulator joints directly inside the solution algorithms. A software simulator has been developed in order to simulate the performance of the presented solutions for the selected test cases. The proposed solutions have then been experimentally tested using a 3D free-flying robot previously tested in an ESA parabolic flight campaign. In the test campaign the 3D robot has been converted in a 2D robot thanks to its modularity in order to perform planar tests, in which the microgravity environment can be simulated without time constraints. Air-bearings are used to sustain the links weight, and a dynamometer is used to measure the reaction torque. The experimental validation of the presented inverse kinematics solutions, with an insight on the effect of joint flexibility on their performance, has been carried out, and the experimental results confirmed the good performance of the proposed methods

  8. Low-Cost High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular power processing unit (PPU) for Hall Thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper...

  9. Carbon Nanotube Based Electric Propulsion Thruster with Low Power Consumption Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thrusters have gained considerable attention for spacecrafts disturbance compensation because of excellent characteristics....

  10. Fiber Optic Sensors for the Study of Spacecraft-Thruster Interactions: Ion Sputtering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketsdever, Andrew D


    .... Typically, quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) are used to investigate spacecraft-thruster interactions where the major contamination mechanism is the adsorption of molecular species on critical surfaces...

  11. A 200 W Hall thruster with hollow indented anode (United States)

    Ding, Yongjie; Sun, Hezhi; Wei, Liqiu; Li, Peng; Su, Hongbo; Peng, Wuji; Yu, Daren


    A hollow indented anode is proposed for increasing the neutral gas density in a discharge channel, in order to improve the performance of the thruster. The experimental results show that a hollow indented anode structure can effectively improve the performance, compared to a hollow straight anode under similar operating conditions, in terms of thrust, propellant utilization, ionization rate, and anode efficiency. Furthermore, simulations show that the indented anode can effectively increase the neutral gas density in a discharge channel and on the centerline of the channel, compared to a hollow straight anode. In addition, it can increase the ionization rate in the channel and the pre-ionization in the anode. Therefore, the hollow indented anode could be considered as an important design idea for improving thruster performance.

  12. Micropropulsion in space via dust-plasma thruster (United States)

    Avinash, K.; Zank, G. P.


    A new engine for propulsion in space, i.e., the dust-plasma thruster, is proposed. The scheme uses plasma thermal energy to charge externally injected sub-micrometer-sized particles and simultaneously create electric fields in the plasma that accelerates them. Particles are subsequently charge stripped and exhausted to produce electrically neutral thrust obviating the need of a charge neutralizer. For reasonable plasma and particle parameters, thrust and specific impulse over a broad range may be produced. The dependence of thrust on particle size, number of injected particles, and plasma temperature density allows for a better thruster precision. The scheme is shown to have modest power requirements. It may be realized in a simple design where there are no high voltage grids or electrodes, charge neutralizer, valves, pressurized gases, etc., and can operate in space or vacuum. A layout for the possible configuration is described.

  13. Micro-propulsion in space via dust - plasma thruster (United States)

    Zank, Gary; Avinash, Khare


    A new scheme of micro propulsion in space i.e. the dust -- plasma thruster is proposed. The scheme uses plasma thermal energy to charge externally injected sub micron sized particles and simultaneously create electric fields in the plasma which accelerates them. Particles are subsequently charge stripped and exhausted to produce electrically neutral thrust obviating the need of a charge neutralizer. For reasonable plasma and particle parameters, thrust and specific impulse over a broad range may be produced. The dependence of thrust on particle size and other plasma parameters allows for a better thruster precision. The scheme is shown to have modest power requirements. It may be realized in a simple design where there are no high voltage grids or electrodes, charge neutralizer, valves, pressurized gases etc and can operate in space or vacuum. A layout for the possible configuration is described.

  14. Attitude Control Synthesis for Small Satellites Using Gradient Method. Part II Linear Equations, Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian CHELARU


    Full Text Available In order to continue paper [5] which presented the nonlinear equations of the movement for small satellite, this paper presents some aspects regarding the synthesis of the attitude control. Afterthe movement equation linearization, the stability and command matrixes will be established and by using the gradient methods controller we will obtain them. Two attitude control cases will beanalysed: the reaction wheels and the micro thrusters. The results will be used in the project European Space Moon Orbit - ESMO, founded by the European Space Agency in which the POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest is involved.

  15. Controlled state-to-state atom-exchange reaction in an ultracold atom-dimer mixture


    Rui, Jun; Yang, Huan; Liu, Lan; Zhang, De-Chao; Liu, Ya-Xiong; Nan, Jue; Zhao, Bo; Pan, Jian-Wei


    Ultracold molecules offer remarkable opportunities to study chemical reactions at nearly zero temperature. Although significant progresses have been achieved in exploring ultracold bimolecular reactions, the investigations are usually limited to measurements of the overall loss rates of the reactants. Detection of the reaction products will shed new light on understanding the reaction mechanism and provide a unique opportunity to study the state-to-state reaction dynamics. Here we report on t...

  16. Bifurcation analysis of a delay reaction-diffusion malware propagation model with feedback control (United States)

    Zhu, Linhe; Zhao, Hongyong; Wang, Xiaoming


    With the rapid development of network information technology, information networks security has become a very critical issue in our work and daily life. This paper attempts to develop a delay reaction-diffusion model with a state feedback controller to describe the process of malware propagation in mobile wireless sensor networks (MWSNs). By analyzing the stability and Hopf bifurcation, we show that the state feedback method can successfully be used to control unstable steady states or periodic oscillations. Moreover, formulas for determining the properties of the bifurcating periodic oscillations are derived by applying the normal form method and center manifold theorem. Finally, we conduct extensive simulations on large-scale MWSNs to evaluate the proposed model. Numerical evidences show that the linear term of the controller is enough to delay the onset of the Hopf bifurcation and the properties of the bifurcation can be regulated to achieve some desirable behaviors by choosing the appropriate higher terms of the controller. Furthermore, we obtain that the spatial-temporal dynamic characteristics of malware propagation are closely related to the rate constant for nodes leaving the infective class for recovered class and the mobile behavior of nodes.

  17. Plasma Measurements in an Integrated-System FARAD Thruster (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Rose, M. F.; Miller, R.; Best, S.


    Pulsed inductive plasma accelerators are spacecraft propulsion devices in which energy is stored in a capacitor and then discharged through an inductive coil. The device is electrodeless, inducing a current sheet in a plasma located near the face of the coil. The propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (order of 10 km/s) through the interaction of the plasma current and the induced magnetic field. The Faraday Accelerator with RF-Assisted Discharge (FARAD) thruster[1,2] is a type of pulsed inductive plasma accelerator in which the plasma is preionized by a mechanism separate from that used to form the current sheet and accelerate the gas. Employing a separate preionization mechanism allows for the formation of an inductive current sheet at much lower discharge energies and voltages than those used in previous pulsed inductive accelerators like the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT). A benchtop FARAD thruster was designed following guidelines and similarity performance parameters presented in Refs. [3,4]. This design is described in detail in Ref. [5]. In this paper, we present the temporally and spatially resolved measurements of the preionized plasma and inductively-accelerated current sheet in the FARAD thruster operating with a Vector Inversion Generator (VIG) to preionize the gas and a Bernardes and Merryman circuit topology to provide inductive acceleration. The acceleration stage operates on the order of 100 J/pulse. Fast-framing photography will be used to produce a time-resolved, global view of the evolving current sheet. Local diagnostics used include a fast ionization gauge capable of mapping the gas distribution prior to plasma initiation; direct measurement of the induced magnetic field using B-dot probes, induced azimuthal current measurement using a mini-Rogowski coil, and direct probing of the number density and electron temperature using triple probes.

  18. Iodine Plasma Species Measurements in a Hall Effect Thruster Plume (United States)


    60 90 0 2 4 6 8 Current (mA/cm^2) A n g l e ( d e g ) Xenon Iodine 500 V, 2 A, I2 Presented at 2012 JPC 33 Distribution A: Approved for public...Over 1 hour of operation on iodine – Additional 1/2 hour with thruster flowing Xe – Current up to ~50 A into anode Presented at 2012 JPC

  19. Risk Factors for Severe Reactions during Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenges. (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Asaumi, Tomoyuki; Ogura, Kiyotake; Ebisawa, Motohiro


    Severe anaphylactic symptoms can occur during oral food challenges (OFCs). Thus, high-risk patients (e.g., patients with a history of anaphylaxis or high antigen-specific immunoglobulin E [IgE] levels) must carefully undergo OFCs in hospitals. We attempted to identify the risk factors for severe symptoms during OFC testing among high-risk patients. We retrospectively evaluated patients' characteristics and severe symptoms that were experienced during a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test performed before the patients underwent oral immunotherapy between June 2008 and June 2012. Patients were ≥5 years old and had an anaphylactic history or antigen-specific IgE (>30 kUA/L). Severe symptoms were defined using the grading of the Japanese Anaphylaxis Guidelines, which are modified from the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Guidelines. We evaluated 393 cases with positive test results, including 98 cases with severe symptoms. The most frequent severe symptoms were respiratory (77%), gastrointestinal (28%), cardiovascular (27%), and neurological (13%) symptoms. Multivariate analysis revealed that the significant factors for a severe reaction were a history of anaphylaxis to the causative food (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.147, p = 0.003), older age (per 1 year increase, adjusted OR: 1.102, p = 0.044), and an egg OFC (adjusted OR: 0.433, p = 0.003). The risk factors for a severe reaction to OFCs were a history of an anaphylactic reaction and older age. An egg OFC was associated with low risk of severe symptoms during OFC. Therefore, OFCs for patients with these risk factors should only be performed under specialist supervision with access to rapid treatment and full resuscitation equipment. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Control and Automation of Fluid Flow, Mass Transfer and Chemical Reactions in Microscale Segmented Flow (United States)

    Abolhasani, Milad

    Flowing trains of uniformly sized bubbles/droplets (i.e., segmented flows) and the associated mass transfer enhancement over their single-phase counterparts have been studied extensively during the past fifty years. Although the scaling behaviour of segmented flow formation is increasingly well understood, the predictive adjustment of the desired flow characteristics that influence the mixing and residence times, remains a challenge. Currently, a time consuming, slow and often inconsistent manual manipulation of experimental conditions is required to address this task. In my thesis, I have overcome the above-mentioned challenges and developed an experimental strategy that for the first time provided predictive control over segmented flows in a hands-off manner. A computer-controlled platform that consisted of a real-time image processing module within an integral controller, a silicon-based microreactor and automated fluid delivery technique was designed, implemented and validated. In a first part of my thesis I utilized this approach for the automated screening of physical mass transfer and solubility characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a physical solvent at a well-defined temperature and pressure and a throughput of 12 conditions per hour. Second, by applying the segmented flow approach to a recently discovered CO2 chemical absorbent, frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs), I determined the thermodynamic characteristics of the CO2-FLP reaction. Finally, the segmented flow approach was employed for characterization and investigation of CO2-governed liquid-liquid phase separation process. The second part of my thesis utilized the segmented flow platform for the preparation and shape control of high quality colloidal nanomaterials (e.g., CdSe/CdS) via the automated control of residence times up to approximately 5 minutes. By introducing a novel oscillatory segmented flow concept, I was able to further extend the residence time limitation to 24 hours. A case study of a

  1. Chemical kinetic performance losses for a hydrogen laser thermal thruster (United States)

    Mccay, T. D.; Dexter, C. E.


    Projected requirements for efficient, economical, orbit-raising propulsion systems have generated investigations into several potentially high specific impulse, moderate thrust, advanced systems. One of these systems, laser thermal propulsion, utilizes a high temperature plasma as the enthalpy source. The plasma is sustained by a focused laser beam which maintains the plasma temperature at levels near 20,000 K. Since such temperature levels lead to total dissociation and high ionization, the plasma thruster system potentially has a high specific impulse decrement due to recombination losses. The nozzle flow is expected to be sufficiently nonequilibrium to warrant concern over the achievable specific impluse. This investigation was an attempt at evaluation of those losses. The One-Dimensional Kinetics (ODK) option of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) Computer Program was used with a chemical kinetics rate set obtained from available literature to determine the chemical kinetic energy losses for typical plasma thruster conditions. The rates were varied about the nominal accepted values to band the possible losses. Kinetic losses were shown to be highly significant for a laser thermal thruster using hydrogen. A 30 percent reduction in specific impulse is possible simply due to the inability to completely extract the molecular recombination energy.

  2. High-Efficiency Hall Thruster Discharge Power Converter (United States)

    Jaquish, Thomas


    Busek Company, Inc., is designing, building, and testing a new printed circuit board converter. The new converter consists of two series or parallel boards (slices) intended to power a high-voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster or other similarly sized electric propulsion devices. The converter accepts 80- to 160-V input and generates 200- to 700-V isolated output while delivering continually adjustable 300-W to 3.5-kW power. Busek built and demonstrated one board that achieved nearly 94 percent efficiency the first time it was turned on, with projected efficiency exceeding 97 percent following timing software optimization. The board has a projected specific mass of 1.2 kg/kW, achieved through high-frequency switching. In Phase II, Busek optimized to exceed 97 percent efficiency and built a second prototype in a form factor more appropriate for flight. This converter then was integrated with a set of upgraded existing boards for powering magnets and the cathode. The program culminated with integrating the entire power processing unit and testing it on a Busek thruster and on NASA's HiVHAC thruster.

  3. Near-Term IEC Thrusters and Future Fusion Propulsion (United States)

    Miley, George; Gu, Yibin; Jurczyk, Brian


    For space missions beyond orbital and lunar distances, studies indicate that advanced power and propulsion systems will be required. Conceptual fusion rocket design studies using the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) concept have predicted excellent performance for a variety of space missions.(Williams, C.H., S.K. Borowski, "Fusion Propulsion System Survey and Desired Operating Parameters," Fusion Propulsion Workshop, Huntsville, AL, 1997.)(Bussard, R.W., L.W. Jameson, "Design Considerations for Clean QED Fusion Propulsion Systems," Proc. 11th Symp. on Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion, 1994.)(Miley, G.H., et al., "Innovative Technology for and Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Propulsion Unit," Fusion Energy in Space Propulsion, vol. 167, 1995.) Research at the University of Illinois has shifted towards the development of a small-scale xenon jet plasma thruster ( 500W) for satellite adjustment and station-keeping. The scalability of the IEC physics will allow the research on this thruster to contribute to the eventual goal of a high-power fusion propulsion unit, while simultaneously generating a spin-off technology that can be utilized in the near term. A presentation of the experimental setup and preliminary results will be given for the IEC thruster.

  4. [Demonstration of nested case-control study design in mechanisms research of allergic reaction of tanreqing injection]. (United States)

    Xie, Peng-Yang; Xie, Yan-Ming; Wang, Lian-Xin; Chang, Yan-Peng; Liu, Shao-Yong


    The paper is focused on the clinical applications of Tanreqing injection after listing, detecting and analyzing the related blood indicators of patients with allergic reactions based on prospective, multi-center, large sample, registration-type clinical safety monitoring nested case-control study (NCCS) to explore the possible mechanisms of allergic reaction of Tanreqing injection, 3 006 patients cases used with Tanreqing injection were monitored, including 3 cases of adverse reactions and 2 cases of allergic reactions. Each patient of allergic reactions, according to the ratio of 1:4 matches four cases of not adverse reactions as a control group of patients, while 5 healthy and 5 cases of volunteers into the healthy group. We examined the correlation detection of cases of allergic reactions among groups such as T-IgE, IgA, IgG, C3, C4, IFN-g, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10. Allergic reactions of Tanreqing injection may be mediated by IgE as type I based on existing research data. This results and conclusions will promote the justifiability and safety of clinical applications.

  5. Reaction-Controlled Phase-Transfer Catalysis for Propylene Epoxidation to Propylene Oxide (United States)

    Zuwei, Xi; Ning, Zhou; Yu, Sun; Kunlan, Li


    The epoxidation of olefins with H2O2 was performed with a tungsten-containing catalyst. This insoluble catalyst forms soluble active species by the action of H2O2, and when the H2O2 is used up, the catalyst precipitates for easy recycling. Thus, the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts are combined in one system through reaction-controlled phase transfer of the catalyst. When coupled with the 2-ethylanthraquinone/2-ethylanthrahydroquinone redox process for H2O2 production, O2 can be used for the epoxidation of propylene to propylene oxide with 85% yield based on 2-ethylanthrahydroquinone without any co-products. This approach avoids the problematic co-products normally associated with the industrial production of propylene oxide.

  6. Test Results for a Non-toxic, Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Turpin, Alicia A.


    A non-toxic, dual thrust reaction control engine (RCE) was successfully tested over a broad range of operating conditions at the Aerojet Sacramento facility. The RCE utilized LOX/Ethanol propellants; and was tested in steady state and pulsing modes at 25-lbf thrust (vernier) and at 870-lbf thrust (primary). Steady state vernier tests vaned chamber pressure (Pc) from 0.78 to 5.96 psia, and mixture ratio (MR) from 0.73 to 1.82, while primary steady state tests vaned Pc from 103 to 179 psia and MR from 1.33 to 1.76. Pulsing tests explored EPW from 0.080 to 10 seconds and DC from 5 to 50 percent at both thrust levels. Vernier testing accumulated a total of 6,670 seconds of firing time, and 7,215 pulses, and primary testing accumulated a total of 2,060 seconds of firing time and 3,646 pulses.

  7. CFD Simulation of the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle with Booster Separation Motor and Reaction Control Plumes (United States)

    Gea, L. M.; Vicker, D.


    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate a very complicated flow field encountered during the space shuttle ascent. The flow field features nozzle plumes from booster separation motor (BSM) and reaction control system (RCS) jets with a supersonic incoming cross flow at speed of Mach 4. The overset Navier-Stokes code OVERFLOW, was used to simulate the flow field surrounding the entire space shuttle launch vehicle (SSLV) with high geometric fidelity. The variable gamma option was chosen due to the high temperature nature of nozzle flows and different plume species. CFD predicted Mach contours are in good agreement with the schlieren photos from wind tunnel test. Flow fields are discussed in detail and the results are used to support the debris analysis for the space shuttle Return To Flight (RTF) task.

  8. A systems approach towards an intelligent and self-controlling platform for integrated continuous reaction sequences. (United States)

    Ingham, Richard J; Battilocchio, Claudio; Fitzpatrick, Daniel E; Sliwinski, Eric; Hawkins, Joel M; Ley, Steven V


    Performing reactions in flow can offer major advantages over batch methods. However, laboratory flow chemistry processes are currently often limited to single steps or short sequences due to the complexity involved with operating a multi-step process. Using new modular components for downstream processing, coupled with control technologies, more advanced multi-step flow sequences can be realized. These tools are applied to the synthesis of 2-aminoadamantane-2-carboxylic acid. A system comprising three chemistry steps and three workup steps was developed, having sufficient autonomy and self-regulation to be managed by a single operator. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  9. Optimal control of an invasive species using a reaction-diffusion model and linear programming (United States)

    Bonneau, Mathieu; Johnson, Fred A.; Smith, Brian J.; Romagosa, Christina M.; Martin, Julien; Mazzotti, Frank J.


    Managing an invasive species is particularly challenging as little is generally known about the species’ biological characteristics in its new habitat. In practice, removal of individuals often starts before the species is studied to provide the information that will later improve control. Therefore, the locations and the amount of control have to be determined in the face of great uncertainty about the species characteristics and with a limited amount of resources. We propose framing spatial control as a linear programming optimization problem. This formulation, paired with a discrete reaction-diffusion model, permits calculation of an optimal control strategy that minimizes the remaining number of invaders for a fixed cost or that minimizes the control cost for containment or protecting specific areas from invasion. We propose computing the optimal strategy for a range of possible model parameters, representing current uncertainty on the possible invasion scenarios. Then, a best strategy can be identified depending on the risk attitude of the decision-maker. We use this framework to study the spatial control of the Argentine black and white tegus (Salvator merianae) in South Florida. There is uncertainty about tegu demography and we considered several combinations of model parameters, exhibiting various dynamics of invasion. For a fixed one-year budget, we show that the risk-averse strategy, which optimizes the worst-case scenario of tegus’ dynamics, and the risk-neutral strategy, which optimizes the expected scenario, both concentrated control close to the point of introduction. A risk-seeking strategy, which optimizes the best-case scenario, focuses more on models where eradication of the species in a cell is possible and consists of spreading control as much as possible. For the establishment of a containment area, assuming an exponential growth we show that with current control methods it might not be possible to implement such a strategy for some of the

  10. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test as of 736 kg of Propellant Throughput (United States)

    Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.


    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is developing the next-generation solar-electric ion propulsion system with significant enhancements beyond the state-of-the-art NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) ion propulsion system to provide future NASA science missions with enhanced mission capabilities. A Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated in June 2005 to validate the thruster service life modeling and to qualify the thruster propellant throughput capability. The thruster has set electric propulsion records for the longest operating duration, highest propellant throughput, and most total impulse demonstrated. At the time of this publication, the NEXT LDT has surpassed 42,100 h of operation, processed more than 736 kg of xenon propellant, and demonstrated greater than 28.1 MN s total impulse. Thruster performance has been steady with negligible degradation. The NEXT thruster design has mitigated several lifetime limiting mechanisms encountered in the NSTAR design, including the NSTAR first failure mode, thereby drastically improving thruster capabilities. Component erosion rates and the progression of the predicted life-limiting erosion mechanism for the thruster compare favorably to pretest predictions based upon semi-empirical ion thruster models used in the thruster service life assessment. Service life model validation has been accomplished by the NEXT LDT. Assuming full-power operation until test article failure, the models and extrapolated erosion data predict penetration of the accelerator grid grooves after more than 45,000 hours of operation while processing over 800 kg of xenon propellant. Thruster failure due to degradation of the accelerator grid structural integrity is expected after groove penetration.

  11. Use of virtual reality intervention to improve reaction time in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Pourazar, Morteza; Mirakhori, Fatemeh; Hemayattalab, Rasool; Bagherzadeh, Fazlolah


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the training effects of Virtual Reality (VR) intervention program on reaction time in children with cerebral palsy. Thirty boys ranging from 7 to 12 years (mean = 11.20; SD = .76) were selected by available sampling method and randomly divided into the experimental and control groups. Simple Reaction Time (SRT) and Discriminative Reaction Time (DRT) were measured at baseline and 1 day after completion of VR intervention. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and paired sample t-test were performed to analyze the results. MANOVA test revealed significant effects for group in posttest phase, with lower reaction time in both measures for the experimental group. Based on paired sample t-test results, both RT measures significantly improved in experimental group following the VR intervention program. This paper proposes VR as a promising tool into the rehabilitation process for improving reaction time in children with cerebral palsy.

  12. End-of-test Performance and Wear Characterization of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test (United States)

    Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel Andrew; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.


    This presentation describes results from the end-of-test performance characterization of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test (LDT). Sub-component performance as well as overall thruster performance is presented and compared to results over the course of the test. Overall wear of critical thruster components is also described, and an update on the first failure mode of the thruster is provided.

  13. Power to the People: Using Learner Control to Improve Trainee Reactions and Learning in Web-Based Instructional Environments (United States)

    Orvis, Karin A.; Fisher, Sandra L.; Wasserman, Michael E.


    This experimental study investigated the mechanisms by which learner control influences learning in an e-learning environment. The authors hypothesized that learner control would enhance learning indirectly through its effect on trainee reactions and learner engagement (in particular, off-task attention), such that learners who were more satisfied…

  14. Estimation and Modeling of Enceladus Plume Jet Density Using Reaction Wheel Control Data (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Pilinski, Emily B.; Macala, Glenn A.; Feldman, Antonette


    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 by a Titan 4B launch vehicle. After an interplanetary cruise of almost seven years, it arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. In 2005, Cassini completed three flybys of Enceladus, a small, icy satellite of Saturn. Observations made during these flybys confirmed the existence of a water vapor plume in the south polar region of Enceladus. Five additional low-altitude flybys of Enceladus were successfully executed in 2008-9 to better characterize these watery plumes. The first of these flybys was the 50-km Enceladus-3 (E3) flyby executed on March 12, 2008. During the E3 flyby, the spacecraft attitude was controlled by a set of three reaction wheels. During the flyby, multiple plume jets imparted disturbance torque on the spacecraft resulting in small but visible attitude control errors. Using the known and unique transfer function between the disturbance torque and the attitude control error, the collected attitude control error telemetry could be used to estimate the disturbance torque. The effectiveness of this methodology is confirmed using the E3 telemetry data. Given good estimates of spacecraft's projected area, center of pressure location, and spacecraft velocity, the time history of the Enceladus plume density is reconstructed accordingly. The 1-sigma uncertainty of the estimated density is 7.7%. Next, we modeled the density due to each plume jet as a function of both the radial and angular distances of the spacecraft from the plume source. We also conjecture that the total plume density experienced by the spacecraft is the sum of the component plume densities. By comparing the time history of the reconstructed E3 plume density with that predicted by the plume model, values of the plume model parameters are determined. Results obtained are compared with those determined by other Cassini science instruments.

  15. Performance of a Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Kimberlin, A. C.; Raites, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.


    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic topologies. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying higher thrust efficiency. Thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 70-350 W and with the cathode orifice located at three different axial positions relative to the thruster exit plane. The thrust levels over this power range were 1.25-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 4-21% and 400-1950 s, respectively. The anode efficiency of the permanent-magnet thruster compares favorable with the efficiency of the electromagnet thruster when the power consumed by the electromagnets is taken into account.

  16. Scalable preparation of sized-controlled Co-N-C electrocatalyst for efficient oxygen reduction reaction (United States)

    Ai, Kelong; Li, Zelun; Cui, Xiaoqiang


    Heat-treated metal-nitrogen-carbon (M-N-C) materials are emerging as promising non-precious catalysts to replace expensive Pt-based materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in energy conversion and storage devices. Despite recent progress, their activity and durability are still far from satisfactory. The activity site and particle size are among the most important factors for the ORR activity of M-N-C catalysts. Extensive efforts have been made to reveal the correlation of active site and activity. However, it remains unclear to what extent the particle size will influence the ORR activity of M-N-C materials. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, controllable synthesis of M-N-C catalysts with high-density activity sites remains elusive. Herein, we develop a straightforward method to produce a monodisperse and size-controlled Co-N-C (Nano-P-ZIF-67) electrocatalyst, and systemically investigate its catalytic mechanisms. Only by optimizing the particle size, Nano-P-ZIF-67 outperforms the commercial 20 wt% Pt/C regarding all evaluating indicators for ORR catalysts in alkaline media including higher catalytic activity, durability, and stronger methanol tolerance. Nano-P-ZIF-67 is assembled into a cell, and the cell shows a power density of 45.5 mW/cm2, which is the highest value among currently studied cathode catalysts. We expect Nano-P-ZIF-67 to be a highly interesting candidate for the next generation of ORR catalysts.

  17. Controlled Synthesis of Pt Nanowires with Ordered Large Mesopores for Methanol Oxidation Reaction (United States)

    Zhang, Chengwei; Xu, Lianbin; Yan, Yushan; Chen, Jianfeng


    Catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) are at the heart of key green-energy fuel cell technology. Nanostructured Pt materials are the most popular and effective catalysts for MOR. Controlling the morphology and structure of Pt nanomaterials can provide opportunities to greatly increase their activity and stability. Ordered nanoporous Pt nanowires with controlled large mesopores (15, 30 and 45 nm) are facilely fabricated by chemical reduction deposition from dual templates using porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with silica nanospheres self-assembled in the channels. The prepared mesoporous Pt nanowires are highly active and stable electrocatalysts for MOR. The mesoporous Pt nanowires with 15 nm mesopores exhibit a large electrochemically active surface area (ECSA, 40.5 m2 g-1), a high mass activity (398 mA mg-1) and specific activity (0.98 mA cm-2), and a good If/Ib ratio (1.15), better than the other mesoporous Pt nanowires and the commercial Pt black catalyst.

  18. Controllable antioxidative xylan-chitosan Maillard reaction products used for lipid food storage. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Shi, Xiaowen; Jin, Yong; Ding, Fuyuan; Du, Yumin


    Controllable antioxidative xylan-chitosan Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared by co-heating xylan and chitosan at different time periods and used for lipid food storage in lecithin model system and refrigerated pork meat. The results of antioxidant protective effect on lecithin liposome peroxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride revealed that the MRPs heated for 120 min and 180 min showed much higher inhibitory activity than chitosan or MRP heated for 60 min. In the experiment of fresh pork protection, the MRPs heated for 60 and 120 min retarded the growth of spoilage organisms more effectively. Lipid oxidation potential of the meat, determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, also showed that the samples treated by the MRPs heated for 60 and 120 min had higher acceptance than others. These results demonstrate that the MRPs of xylan and chitosan are promising controllable antioxidative preservatives for lipid food formulations, and the antioxidant behavior depends not only on the antioxidant substances, but also on the interaction of the food systems. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Summary of Altitude Pulse Testing of a 100-lbf L02/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.


    Recently, liquid oxygen-liquid methane (LO2/LCH4) has been considered as a potential "green" propellant alternative for future exploration missions. The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project has been tasked by NASA to develop this propulsion combination to enable safe and cost effective exploration missions. To date, limited experience with such combinations exist, and as a result a comprehensive test program is critical to demonstrating the viability of implementing such a system. The NASA Glenn Research Center has conducted a test program of a 100-lbf (445-N) reaction control engine (RCE) at the center s Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), focusing on altitude testing over a wide variety of operational conditions. The ACS facility includes a unique propellant conditioning feed system (PCFS) which allows precise control of propellant inlet conditions to the engine. Engine performance as a result of these inlet conditions was examined extensively during the test program. This paper is a companion to the previous specific impulse testing paper, and discusses the pulsed mode operation portion of testing, with a focus on minimum impulse bit (I-bit) and repeatable pulse performance. The engine successfully demonstrated target minimum impulse bit performance at all conditions, as well as successful demonstration of repeatable pulse widths. Some anomalous conditions experienced during testing are also discussed, including a double pulse phenomenon which was not noted in previous test programs for this engine.

  20. MarsCAT: Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster (United States)

    Bering, E. A., III; Pinsky, L.; Li, L.; Jackson, D. R.; Chen, J.; Reed, H.; Moldwin, M.; Kasper, J. C.; Sheehan, J. P.; Forbes, J.; Heine, T.; Case, A. W.; Stevens, M. L.; Sibeck, D. G.


    The MarsCAT (Mars Array of ionospheric Research Satellites using the CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster) Mission is a two 6U CubeSat mission to study the ionosphere of Mars proposed for the NASA SIMPLeX opportunity. The mission will investigate the plasma and magnetic structure of the Martian ionosphere, including transient plasma structures, magnetic field structure and dynamics, and energetic particle activity. The transit plan calls for a piggy back ride with Mars 2020 using a CAT burn for MOI, the first demonstration of CubeSat propulsion for interplanetary travel. MarsCAT will make correlated multipoint studies of the ionosphere and magnetic field of Mars. Specifically, the two spacecraft will make in situ observations of the plasma density, temperature, and convection in the ionosphere of Mars. They will also make total electron content measurements along the line of sight between the two spacecraft and simultaneous 3-axis local magnetic field measurements in two locations. Additionally, MarsCAT will demonstrate the performance of new CubeSat telemetry antennas designed at the University of Houston that are designed to be low profile, rugged, and with a higher gain than conventional monopole (whip) antennas. The two MarsCAT CubeSats will have five science instruments: a 3-axis DC magnetometer, adouble-Langmuir probe, a Faraday cup, a solid state energetic particle detector (Science Enhancement Option), and interspacecraft total electron content radio occulation experiment. The MarsCAT spacecraft will be solar powered and equipped with a CAT thruster that can provide up to 4.8 km/s of delta-V, which is sufficient to achieve Mars orbit using the Mars 2020 piggyback. They have an active attitude control system, using a sun sensor and flight-proven star tracker for determination, and momentum wheels for 3-axis attitude control.

  1. [Modern elucidative strategies for scientific connotation of controlling toxic reactions while toxic herbs are used to the indication syndrome]. (United States)

    Tan, Yong; Li, Jian; Lu, Cheng; He, Xiao-Juan; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Ai-Ping


    One of effective measures for controlling toxic reactions is to use toxic herbs according to corresponding indication syndrome. It is important to develop toxicity theory of Chinese medicine in a sound and international way using modern language to elucidate its scientific connotation. We expect to explain scientific connotation of controlling toxic reaction while toxic herbs are used to the indication syndrome by using holistic research ideas and methods capable of reflecting governing exterior to infer interior, establish appropriate corresponding syndrome animal models by cutting into dose-effect/toxicity of toxic Chinese herbs, construct and analyze multi-layer molecular network using theories and technologies of metabonomics, network biology, and bioinformatics.

  2. Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.


    Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of

  3. Controlling the nano-deformation of polymer by a reversible photo-cross-linking reaction (United States)

    Van-Pham, Dan-Thuy; Nguyen, Minh Tri; Ohdomari, Ken; Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Norisuye, Tomohisa; Tran-Cong-Miyata, Qui


    The reaction-induced deformation and its recovery process in the nanometer scale of a photo-cross-linkable poly(ethyl acrylate) were in situ studied by using Mach-Zehnder interferometry. The ON-OFF modulated irradiation using two different UV wavelengths, 365 nm and 297 nm, was carried out to elucidate the effects of the reversible cross-link on the deformation kinetics of the polymer. It was found that the irradiation time-dependence of the crosslink density generated during the ON-OFF irradiation process deviates from the data obtained by continuous irradiation process, revealing the relaxation effect of the forming poly(ethyl acrylate) networks in the dark during each irradiation cycle. Furthermore, the recovery of the sample thickness can be achieved by photodissociation of the anthracene photodimers by irradiating the cross-linked sample with 297 nm UV light. These experimental results reveal the possibility of reversible control the shrinkage and swelling proceses of a polymeric film by using the photodimerization of anthracene.

  4. Optically Controlled Electron-Transfer Reaction Kinetics and Solvation Dynamics: Effect of Franck-Condon States. (United States)

    Gupta, Kriti; Patra, Aniket; Dhole, Kajal; Samanta, Alok Kumar; Ghosh, Swapan K


    Experimental results for optically controlled electron-transfer reaction kinetics (ETRK) and nonequilibrium solvation dynamics (NESD) of Coumarin 480 in DMPC vesicle show their dependence on excitation wavelength λex. However, the celebrated Marcus theory and linear-response-theory-based approaches for ETRK and NESD, respectively, predict both of the processes to be independent of λex. The above said lacuna in these theories prompted us to develop a novel theory in 1D space, where the effect of innumerable Franck-Condon states is included through λex. The present theory not only sheds light on the origin of failure of the existing theories but also gives the correct trend for the effect of λex on ETRK and NESD. More importantly, the calculated results of NESD are in excellent agreement with the experimental results for different values of λex. The new theory will therefore advance the knowledge of scientific community on the dynamics of photoinduced nonequilibrium processes.

  5. Controlling Solid–Liquid Conversion Reactions for a Highly Reversible Aqueous Zinc–Iodine Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Huilin; Li, Bin; Mei, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Shao, Yuyan; Li, Guosheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Han, Kee Sung; Muller, Karl T.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun


    Aqueous rechargeable batteries are desirable for many energy storage applications due to their low cost and high safety. However, low capacity and short cycle life are the significant obstacles to their practical applications. Here, we demonstrate a highly reversible aqueous zinc-iodine battery using encapsulated iodine in microporous active carbon fibers (ACFs) as cathode materials through the rational control of solid-liquid conversion reactions. The experiments and density function theory (DFT) calculations were employed to investigate the effects of solvents and properties of carbon hosts, e.g. pore size, surface chemistries, on the adsorption of iodine species. The rational manipulation of the competition between the adsorption in carbon and solvation in electrolytes for iodine species is responsible for the high reversibility and cycling stability. The zinc-iodine batteries deliver a high capacity of 180 mAh g-1 at 1C and a stable cycle life over 3000 cycles with ~90% capacity retention as well as negligible self-discharge. We believe the principles for stabilizing the zinc-iodine system could provide new insight into conversion systems such as Li-S systems.

  6. Suicide Survivors' Mental Health and Grief Reactions: A Systematic Review of Controlled Studies (United States)

    Sveen, Carl-Aksel; Walby, Fredrik A.


    There has been a debate over several decades whether suicide survivors experience more severe mental health consequences and grief reactions than those who have been bereaved through other causes of death. This is the first systematic review of suicide survivors' reactions compared with survivors after other modes of death. Studies were identified…

  7. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school. (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D


    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Study of Auditory, Visual Reaction Time and Glycemic Control (HBA1C) in Chronic Type II Diabetes Mellitus. (United States)

    M, Muhil; Sembian, Umapathy; Babitha; N, Ethiya; K, Muthuselvi


    Diabetes mellitus is a disease of insulin deficiencyleads to micro and macro vascular disorder. Neuropathy is one of the major complication of chronic uncontrolled Diabetes affecting the Reaction time. To study the correlation between the glycosylated HbA1C and Auditory, visual Reaction time in chronic Type II diabetes (40-60y) of on oral hypoglycemic drugs of>10 y duration in two groups (n-100 in each group , both Males & females) and compared within the study groups and also with the age matched control group (100). HbA1C-Glycosylated HbA1C was measured by Particle enhanced immunoturbidimetric test method. Auditory and visual reaction time (ART, VRT) were measured by PC 1000 Reaction timer for control & study groups i.e. Group-I - Chronic Type II DM for >10 y with HbA1c 10 y with HbA1c > 7.0 ie impaired glycemic control. Exclusion Criteria- Subjects with Auditory and visual disturbances, alcoholism and smoking. Statistical Analysis - One-way ANOVA. Using SPSS 21 software. Both the groups had prolonged ART and VRT than controls. Among the study group, G-II (DM with HbA1C >7) had increased Auditory & Visual Reaction time than Group I which is statistically significant p-value 7 who have shown increased Auditory and Visual Reaction time than chronic DM with HbA1C<7.Severity of Peripheral neuropathy in Type II Diabetics could be due to elevated HbA1C.

  9. Controlled growth of gold nanoparticles in zeolite L via ion-exchange reactions and thermal reduction processes

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Shangjing


    The growth of gold nanoparticles in zeolite can be controlled using ion-exchange reactions and thermal reduction processes. We produce a number of different sizes of the gold nanoparticles with the particle size increasing with increased temperature of the final heat treatment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effects of Age, Intelligence and Executive Control Function on Saccadic Reaction Time in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Haishi, Koichi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru


    The current research aimed to clarify the influence of age, intelligence and executive control function on the central tendency and intraindividual variability of saccadic reaction time in persons with intellectual disabilities. Participants were 44 persons with intellectual disabilities aged between 13 and 57 years whose IQs were between 14 and…

  11. Late reactions in food-allergic children and adolescents after double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh-Langenberg, J.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; AlAgla, N.; Kollen, B. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    The time during which children are observed following a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) varies in clinical practice. There are little data on late reactions (LRs) following DBPCFCs. Therefore, we determined the prevalence, severity and clinical characteristics of late

  12. Effect of Inductive Coil Geometry on the Operating Characteristics of an Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster (United States)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Kimberlin, Adam C.; Perdue, Kevin A.


    Operational characteristics of two separate inductive thrusters with conical theta pinch coils of different cone angles are explored through thrust stand measurements and time- integrated, unfiltered photography. Trends in impulse bit measurements indicate that, in the present experimental configuration, the thruster with the inductive coil possessing a smaller cone angle produced larger values of thrust, in apparent contradiction to results of a previous thruster acceleration model. Areas of greater light intensity in photographs of thruster operation are assumed to qualitatively represent locations of increased current density. Light intensity is generally greater in images of the thruster with the smaller cone angle when compared to those of the thruster with the larger half cone angle for the same operating conditions. The intensity generally decreases in both thrusters for decreasing mass flow rate and capacitor voltage. The location of brightest light intensity shifts upstream for decreasing mass flow rate of propellant and downstream for decreasing applied voltage. Recognizing that there typically exists an optimum ratio of applied electric field to gas pressure with respect to breakdown efficiency, this result may indicate that the optimum ratio was not achieved uniformly over the coil face, leading to non-uniform and incomplete current sheet formation in violation of the model assumption of immediate formation where all the injected propellant is contained in a magnetically-impermeable current sheet.

  13. Quantum Diffusion-Controlled Chemistry: Reactions of Atomic Hydrogen with Nitric Oxide in Solid Parahydrogen. (United States)

    Ruzi, Mahmut; Anderson, David T


    Our group has been working to develop parahydrogen (pH2) matrix isolation spectroscopy as a method to study low-temperature condensed-phase reactions of atomic hydrogen with various reaction partners. Guided by the well-defined studies of cold atom chemistry in rare-gas solids, the special properties of quantum hosts such as solid pH2 afford new opportunities to study the analogous chemical reactions under quantum diffusion conditions in hopes of discovering new types of chemical reaction mechanisms. In this study, we present Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies of the 193 nm photoinduced chemistry of nitric oxide (NO) isolated in solid pH2 over the 1.8 to 4.3 K temperature range. Upon short-term in situ irradiation the NO readily undergoes photolysis to yield HNO, NOH, NH, NH3, H2O, and H atoms. We map the postphotolysis reactions of mobile H atoms with NO and document first-order growth in HNO and NOH reaction products for up to 5 h after photolysis. We perform three experiments at 4.3 K and one at 1.8 K to permit the temperature dependence of the reaction kinetics to be quantified. We observe Arrhenius-type behavior with a pre-exponential factor of A = 0.036(2) min(-1) and Ea = 2.39(1) cm(-1). This is in sharp contrast to previous H atom reactions we have studied in solid pH2 that display definitively non-Arrhenius behavior. The contrasting temperature dependence measured for the H + NO reaction is likely related to the details of H atom quantum diffusion in solid pH2 and deserves further study.

  14. Study of the catastrophic discharge phenomenon in a Hall thruster (United States)

    Ding, Yongjie; Su, Hongbo; Li, Peng; Wei, Liqiu; Li, Hong; Peng, Wuji; Xu, Yu; Sun, Hezhi; Yu, Daren


    In a 1350-W Hall-effect thruster, in which a technique for pushing down the magnetic field is implemented, a catastrophic discharge phenomenon is identified by varying the magnetic field strength while keeping all other operating parameters constant. According to experiments, before and after the discharge catastrophe, the plume changes from focusing state to a divergent state, and discharge parameters such as discharge current and thrust exhibit noticeable changes. The divergence half-angle of the plume increases from 22° to 46°. The oscillation amplitude and mean values of the discharge current significantly increase from 0.8 A to 4 A and from 4.6 A to 6.3 A, respectively, while the thrust increases from 89.3 mN to 91 mN. Analysis of the experimental results shows that as the maximum magnetic field of the thruster we developed is in the plume region, the acceleration occurs in the plume region and a large number of Xe2+ ions appear in the plume area, the catastrophic discharge phenomenon observed.

  15. Ion angular distribution simulation of the HEMP Thruster (United States)

    Duras, Julia; Koch, Norbert; Kahnfeld, Daniel; Bandelow, Gunnar; Matthias, Paul; Lüskow, Karl Felix; Schneider, Ralf; Kemnitz, Stefan


    Ion angular current and energy distributions are important parameters for ion thrusters, which are typically measured at a few tens of centimetres to a few meters distance from thruster exit. However, fully kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulations are not able to simulate such domain sizes, due to high computational costs. Therefore, a parallelisation strategy of the code is presented to reduce computational time. To map diagnostics information from the domain boundary of the calculational domain to the positions of experimental diagnostics the concept of transfer functions is introduced. The calculated ion beam angular distributions in the plume region are quite sensitive to boundary conditions of the potential, possible additional source contributions, e.g. from secondary electron emission at vessel walls, and charge exchange collisions. This work was supported by the Bavarian State Ministry of Education Science and the Arts and the German Space Agency DLR. We also like to thank R. Heidemann from THALES Electron Devices GmbH, for interesting and stimulating discussions.

  16. Engineering Risk Assessment of Space Thruster Challenge Problem (United States)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Mattenberger, Christopher J.; Go, Susie


    The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center utilizes dynamic models with linked physics-of-failure analyses to produce quantitative risk assessments of space exploration missions. This paper applies the ERA approach to the baseline and extended versions of the PSAM Space Thruster Challenge Problem, which investigates mission risk for a deep space ion propulsion system with time-varying thruster requirements and operations schedules. The dynamic mission is modeled using a combination of discrete and continuous-time reliability elements within the commercially available GoldSim software. Loss-of-mission (LOM) probability results are generated via Monte Carlo sampling performed by the integrated model. Model convergence studies are presented to illustrate the sensitivity of integrated LOM results to the number of Monte Carlo trials. A deterministic risk model was also built for the three baseline and extended missions using the Ames Reliability Tool (ART), and results are compared to the simulation results to evaluate the relative importance of mission dynamics. The ART model did a reasonable job of matching the simulation models for the baseline case, while a hybrid approach using offline dynamic models was required for the extended missions. This study highlighted that state-of-the-art techniques can adequately adapt to a range of dynamic problems.

  17. Experimental Investigations of a Krypton Stationary Plasma Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bugrova


    Full Text Available Stationary plasma thrusters are attractive electric propulsion systems for spacecrafts. The usual propellant is xenon. Among the other suggested propellants, krypton could be one of the best candidates. Most studies have been carried out with a Hall effect thruster previously designed for xenon. The ATON A-3 developed by MSTU MIREA (Moscow initially defined for xenon has been optimized for krypton. The stable high-performance ATON A-3 operation in Kr has been achieved after optimization of its magnetic field configuration and its optimization in different parameters: length and width of the channel, buffer volume dimensions, mode of the cathode operation, and input parameters. For a voltage of 400 V and the anode mass flow rate of 2.5 mg/s the anode efficiency reaches 60% and the specific impulse reaches 2900 s under A-3 operating with Kr. The achieved performances under operation A-3 with Kr are presented and compared with performances obtained with Xe.

  18. Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.


    Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  19. Update on Modular Laser Launch System and Heat Exchanger Thruster (United States)

    Kare, Jordin T.


    The heat-exchanger (HX) thruster and modular laser array provide a comparatively low-risk route to a ground-to-orbit laser launch system. Recently, the reference designs for the propulsion system, laser array, and overall launch system have evolved significantly. By combining a variable flow of dense propellant with the primary hydrogen propellant, the heat exchanger thruster can trade reduced Isp for increased thrust at liftoff, with minimal increase in tank mass. Single-mode CW fiber lasers up to 10 kW power allow a beam module to be built with off-the-shelf commercial lasers. Low-cost high-radiance laser diode arrays can deliver launch-level fluxes of 5-10 MW/m2 over tens of kilometers, sufficient to power a vehicle through the atmosphere, and high enough to hand off propulsion to a main laser array several hundred kilometers downrange. These and other enhancements enable a system design with a true single-stage vehicle in which the only component not yet demonstrated is the silicon-carbide heat exchanger itself.

  20. Influence of Triply-Charged Ions and Ionization Cross-Sections in a Hybrid-PIC Model of a Hall Thruster Discharge (United States)

    Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iain D.; Kamhawi, Hani


    The sensitivity of xenon ionization rates to collision cross-sections is studied within the framework of a hybrid-PIC model of a Hall thruster discharge. A revised curve fit based on the Drawin form is proposed and is shown to better reproduce the measured crosssections at high electron energies, with differences in the integrated rate coefficients being on the order of 10% for electron temperatures between 20 eV and 30 eV. The revised fit is implemented into HPHall and the updated model is used to simulate NASA's HiVHAc EDU2 Hall thruster at discharge voltages of 300, 400, and 500 V. For all three operating points, the revised cross-sections result in an increase in the predicted thrust and anode efficiency, reducing the error relative to experimental performance measurements. Electron temperature and ionization reaction rates are shown to follow the trends expected based on the integrated rate coefficients. The effects of triply-charged xenon are also assessed. The predicted thruster performance is found to have little or no dependence on the presence of triply-charged ions. The fraction of ion current carried by triply-charged ions is found to be on the order of 1% and increases slightly with increasing discharge voltage. The reaction rates for the 0?III, I?III, and II?III ionization reactions are found to be of similar order of magnitude and are about one order of magnitude smaller than the rate of 0?II ionization in the discharge channel.

  1. Quantum-State Controlled Chemical Reactions of Ultracold Potassium-Rubidium Molecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. Ospelkaus; K.-K. Ni; D. Wang; M. H. G. de Miranda; B. Neyenhuis; G. Queméméner; P. S. Julienne; J. L. Bohn; D. S. Jin; J. Ye


    ...? Starting with an optically trapped near-quantum-degenerate gas of polar 40 K 87 Rb molecules prepared in their absolute ground state, we report experimental evidence for exothermic atom-exchange chemical reactions...

  2. Entropy-based critical reaction time for mixing-controlled reactive transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Rolle, Massimo


    the concentration distribution of the transported species is Gaussian and we observe that, even in case of an instantaneous complete bimolecular reaction, dilution caused by dispersive processes dominates the entropy balance at early times and results in the net increase of the entropy density of a reactive species...... on the dimensionality of the problem, on the stoichiometry of the reaction and on the initial concentrations of the reactants. Furthermore, we provide simple analytical expressions to compute the critical reaction time, i.e., the time at which the critical dilution index is reached, for selected flow configurations....... Our results show that, differently from the critical dilution index, the critical reaction time depends on solute transport processes such as advection and hydrodynamic dispersion....

  3. Diffusion-controlled reaction rates for two active sites on a sphere. (United States)

    Shoup, David E


    The diffusion-limited reaction rate of a uniform spherical reactant is generalized to anisotropic reactivity. Previous work has shown that the protein model of a uniform sphere is unsatisfactory in many cases. Competition of ligands binding to two active sites, on a spherical enzyme or cell is studied analytically. The reaction rate constant is given for two sites at opposite ends of the species of interest. This is compared with twice the reaction rate for a single site. It is found that the competition between sites lowers the reaction rate over what is expected for two sites individually. Competition between sites does not show up, until the site half angle is greater than 30 degrees. Competition between sites is negligible until the site size becomes large. The competitive effect grows as theta becomes large. The maximum effect is given for theta = pi/2.

  4. Development and Control of the Naval Postgraduate School Planar Autonomous Docking Simulator (NPADS) (United States)

    Porter, Robert D.


    The objective of this thesis was to design, construct and develop the initial autonomous control algorithm for the NPS Planar Autonomous Docking Simulator (NPADS) The effort included hardware design, fabrication, installation and integration; mass property determination; and the development and testing of control laws utilizing MATLAB and Simulink for modeling and LabView for NPADS control, The NPADS vehicle uses air pads and a granite table to simulate a 2-D, drag-free, zero-g space environment, It is a completely self-contained vehicle equipped with eight cold-gas, bang-bang type thrusters and a reaction wheel for motion control, A 'star sensor' CCD camera locates the vehicle on the table while a color CCD docking camera and two robotic arms will locate and dock with a target vehicle, The on-board computer system leverages PXI technology and a single source, simplifying systems integration, The vehicle is powered by two lead-acid batteries for completely autonomous operation, A graphical user interface and wireless Ethernet enable the user to command and monitor the vehicle from a remote command and data acquisition computer. Two control algorithms were developed and allow the user to either control the thrusters and reaction wheel manually or simply specify a desired location and rotation angle,

  5. Theory of Square-wave Voltammetry of Kinetically Controlled Two-step Electrode Reactions


    Lovrić, Milivoj; Komorsky-Lovrić, Šebojka


    An influence of electron transfer kinetics on square-wave voltammograms of two-step electrode reaction is investigated theoretically. A phenomenon of “kinetic burden” of potential inversion is described for the case of equal kinetic parameters. A linear relationship between standard rate constant and the difference between standard potentials of the second and the first charge transfers is demonstrated for the reactions with thermodynamically unstable intermediate. (doi: 10.5562/cca2126)

  6. On the meaning of the impingement parameter in kinetic equations of diffusion controlled reactions


    Starink, M.J.


    If certain preconditions are met, the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) kinetic equation is exactly accurate for nucleation and growth reactions with linear growth and is, at least, a good approximation for nucleation and growth reactions with parabolic growth. These preconditions include randomly distributed product phases, isotropic growth and constant equilibrium state. Mechanisms causing deviations from these preconditions include: capillarity effect, vacancy annihilation, blocking du...

  7. Kinetic and thermodynamic control in β-phenylethylamines reaction with isatin (United States)

    Vélez, Yormari; Díaz-Oviedo, Christian; Quevedo, Rodolfo


    In this work it was established that dopamine's reaction with isatin produces the respective spiroisoquinoline through a Pictet-Spengler reaction whilst phenylethylamines, having less activated aromatic rings (tyramine and phenylethylamine), produce the respective imine as a mixture of stereoisomers E and Z. This article analyses the spectroscopic and structural patterns of the stereoisomers (E/Z) obtained and proposes the experimental conditions necessary for obtaining each of them as major products.

  8. Exposures and reactions to allergens among hairdressing apprentices and matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil


    Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally.......Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally....

  9. Characteristics of plasma properties in double discharge ablative pulsed plasma thrusters (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwen; Sun, Guorui; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Xiangyang; Xie, Kan; Wang, Ningfei


    Ablative pulsed plasma thrusters, the earliest electric space propulsion devices, create highly transient plasmas in short discharges that are expelled to create thrust. In recent years, the double-discharge ablative pulsed plasma thruster design has been proposed to improve the low-thrust efficiency. In this study, optical emission spectroscopy was applied to investigate the plasma properties in different regions and energy distributions. The electron temperature and electron density of the plasmas are derived and discussed. This study provides a physical mechanism for double-discharge pulsed plasma thrusters.

  10. Dual-Polarity Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry: Dynamic Monitoring and Controlling Gas-phase Ion-Ion Reactions (United States)

    He, Muyi; Jiang, You; Guo, Dan; Xiong, Xingchuang; Fang, Xiang; Xu, Wei


    A dual-polarity linear ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometer was developed in this study, and the method for simultaneously controlling and detecting cations and anions was proposed and realized in the LIT. With the application of an additional dipolar DC field on the ejection electrodes of an LIT, dual-polarity mass spectra could be obtained, which include both the mass-to-charge ( m/z) ratio and charge polarity information of an ion. Compared with conventional method, the ion ejection and detection efficiency could also be improved by about one-fold. Furthermore, ion-ion reactions within the LIT could be dynamically controlled and monitored by manipulating the distributions of ions with opposite charge polarities. This method was then used to control and study the reaction kinetics of ion-ion reactions, including electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and charge inversion reactions. A dual-polarity collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiment was proposed and performed to enhance the sequence coverage of a peptide ion. Ion trajectory simulations were also carried out for concept validation and system optimization.

  11. Performance, Facility Pressure Effects, and Stability Characterization Tests of NASA's Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding Thruster (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Gilland, James; Peterson, Peter; Hofer, Richard; Mikellides, Ioannis


    NASAs Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Technology Demonstration Unit-1 (TDU-1) Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for flight system development. Part of the technology maturation effort included experimental evaluation of the TDU-1 thruster with conducting and dielectric front pole cover materials in two different electrical configurations. A graphite front pole cover thruster configuration with the thruster body electrically tied to cathode and an alumina front pole cover thruster configuration with the thruster body floating were evaluated. Both configurations were also evaluated at different facility background pressure conditions to evaluate background pressure effects on thruster operation. Performance characterization tests found that higher thruster performance was attained with the graphite front pole cover configuration with the thruster electrically tied to cathode. A total thrust efficiency of 68 and a total specific impulse of 2,820 s was demonstrated at a discharge voltage of 600 V and a discharge power of 12.5 kW. Thruster stability regimes were characterized with respect to the thruster discharge current oscillations and with maps of the current-voltage-magnetic field (IVB). Analysis of TDU-1 discharge current waveforms found that lower normalized discharge current peak-to-peak and root mean square magnitudes were attained when the thruster was electrically floated with alumina front pole covers. Background pressure effects characterization tests indicated that the thruster performance and stability was mostly invariant to changes in the facility background pressure for vacuum chamber pressure below 110-5 Torr-Xe (for thruster flow rate above 8 mgs). Power spectral density analysis of the discharge current waveform showed that increasing the vacuum chamber background pressure resulted in a higher discharge current dominant frequency. Finally the IVB maps of the TDU-1

  12. Effects of regular Tai Chi practice and jogging on neuromuscular reaction during lateral postural control in older people. (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Jun; Xu, Dong-Qing; Li, Jing-Xian


    This study examined the effects of regular Tai Chi practice and jogging on the neuromuscular activity of the trunk, hip, and ankle joint muscles of older people during lateral postural perturbation. A total of 42 older people participated in the study and formed the Tai Chi, jogging, and sedentary control groups. Electromyography signals were collected from the peroneus longus, anterior tibialis, gluteus medius, and erector spinae during unpredictable mediolateral perturbation. The Tai Chi group exhibited significantly faster latencies of the tibialis anterior and erector spinae than the control group. The jogging group showed a significantly shorter neuromuscular reaction time of the erector spinae than the control group. No significant difference was observed between the Tai Chi and jogging groups. Long-term regular Tai Chi practice enhanced the neuromuscular reaction of the erector spinae and tibialis anterior to lateral perturbation and will help timely posture correction when lateral postural distributions occur.

  13. Design and test of a simple fast electromagnetic inductive gas valve for planar pulsed inductive plasma thruster (United States)

    Guo, Dawei; Cheng, Mousen; Li, Xiaokang


    In support of our planar pulsed inductive plasma thruster research, a fast electromagnetic inductive valve for a gas propellant injection system has been built and tested. A new and important design feature is the use of a conical diaphragm as the action part, which greatly contributes to the virtue of simplicity for adopting the resultant force of the diaphragm deformation as the closing force. An optical transmission technique is adopted to measure the opening and closing characters of the valve while the gas throughput is determined by measuring the pressure change per pulse in a test chamber with a capacitance manometer. The experimental results revealed that the delay time before the valve reaction is less than 40 μs, and the valve pulse width is no longer than 160 μs full width at half maximum. The valve delivers 0-2.5 mg of argon gas per pulse varied by adjusting the drive voltage and gas pressure.

  14. Diffusion-controlled solid-state reactions of spherical particles, a general model for multiphase binary systems. (United States)

    Buscaglia, Vincenzo; Milanese, Chiara


    The formal treatment of the diffusion-controlled growth of n binary compounds with narrow homogeneity range during the reaction of a sphere of reactant A immersed in reactant B is presented and discussed. Both constituents are assumed to be mobile. The reaction products are assumed to grow simultaneously as uniform and compact concentric layers with ideal contact at the interfaces as well as at the external surface of the sphere. The kinetic equations follow from the coupling between chemical reactions and partitioning of the diffusion flux at phase boundaries. The results for the formation of two and three compounds are presented. The influence of the initial radius of the sphere, of the relative magnitude of the kinetic constants, and of the volume variation is discussed in detail.

  15. Serologic reactions against Salmonella in samples from broiler parent stock with and without preceding colibacillosis: A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradel, K.O.; Feld, Niels Christian; Andersen, J. S.


    response is measured in percentage optical density (OD%) of a strong positive reaction, and the cutoff value has been determined to be 40 OD%. Two or more reactors above 40 OD% will place the parent flock under suspicion. There has been concern about possible cross-reactions between Salmonella spp...... (colibacillosis) from two Danish hatcheries, supplying about 62% of the Danish broiler production, is described. In order to eliminate a possible bias from age and season, the controls were matched on age of the birds and on time of submitting the samples. This study shows that flocks with preceding...... colibacillosis did nor have higher salmonella reactions than matched flocks without a preceding colibacillosis. This observation was confirmed in longitudinal studies....

  16. Status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test After 30,352 Hours of Operation (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.


    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is tasked with significantly improving and extending the capabilities of current state-of-the-art NSTAR thruster. The service life capability of the NEXT ion thruster is being assessed by thruster wear test and life-modeling of critical thruster components, such as the ion optics and cathodes. The NEXT Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated to validate and qualify the NEXT thruster propellant throughput capability. The NEXT thruster completed the primary goal of the LDT; namely to demonstrate the project qualification throughput of 450 kg by the end of calendar year 2009. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated 30,352 hr of operation and processed 490 kg of xenon throughput--surpassing the NSTAR Extended Life Test hours demonstrated and more than double the throughput demonstrated by the NSTAR flight-spare. Thruster performance changes have been consistent with a priori predictions. Thruster erosion has been minimal and consistent with the thruster service life assessment, which predicts the first failure mode at greater than 750 kg throughput. The life-limiting failure mode for NEXT is predicted to be loss of structural integrity of the accelerator grid due to erosion by charge-exchange ions.

  17. Application of a conproportionation reaction to a synthesis of shape-controlled gold nanoparticles (United States)

    Kawamura, G.; Nogami, M.


    Synthesis of gold nanoparticles with multiple shapes by a modified seeding growth method is reported. The optical extinction spectra of a mixture of the seed and growth solutions indicate that the seed particle size decreases during stirring the mixture by a conproportionation reaction of Au metal with Au(III) ions. This conproportionation reaction is used to investigate the effects of variation in seed particle size on the resultant gold nanoparticle shape. When single crystalline and multiply twinned particles are used as the seed particles, they grow into gold nanorods and nanobipyramids, respectively. By letting the seed particles experience the conproportionation reaction before the particle growth to decrease the size, the surface of resultant nanoparticles roughens. Increasing the conproportionation reaction time up to 5 min, multi-branched gold nanoparticles with many lattice defects grow from both of the seed particles. This indicates that the conproportionation reaction is useful to generate lattice defects during the particle growth, which lead to the formation of gold nanoparticles with complex shapes.

  18. The efficiency of driving chemical reactions by a physical non-equilibrium is kinetically controlled. (United States)

    Göppel, Tobias; Palyulin, Vladimir V; Gerland, Ulrich


    An out-of-equilibrium physical environment can drive chemical reactions into thermodynamically unfavorable regimes. Under prebiotic conditions such a coupling between physical and chemical non-equilibria may have enabled the spontaneous emergence of primitive evolutionary processes. Here, we study the coupling efficiency within a theoretical model that is inspired by recent laboratory experiments, but focuses on generic effects arising whenever reactant and product molecules have different transport coefficients in a flow-through system. In our model, the physical non-equilibrium is represented by a drift-diffusion process, which is a valid coarse-grained description for the interplay between thermophoresis and convection, as well as for many other molecular transport processes. As a simple chemical reaction, we consider a reversible dimerization process, which is coupled to the transport process by different drift velocities for monomers and dimers. Within this minimal model, the coupling efficiency between the non-equilibrium transport process and the chemical reaction can be analyzed in all parameter regimes. The analysis shows that the efficiency depends strongly on the Damköhler number, a parameter that measures the relative timescales associated with the transport and reaction kinetics. Our model and results will be useful for a better understanding of the conditions for which non-equilibrium environments can provide a significant driving force for chemical reactions in a prebiotic setting.

  19. Reaction rate estimation of controlled-release antifouling paint binders: Rosin-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meseguer Yebra, Diego; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim


    accuracies. The latter is important because very low steady state reaction rates (about 0.70 +/- 0.26 mu g Zn(2+)cm(-2)day(-1) at 25 degrees C and pH 8.2) are measured. Steady state reaction rates of Cu2+- and Mg2+ -derivatives are also determined and discussed. The experimental procedures developed are used...... to the hydroxide ion concentration, a, is 0.86 +/- 0.42. L-znR is the estimated solubility product of the ZnR resin which has a value of 3.1 x 10(-12) (mol/l)(-3) (about 6 mg Zn2+/l in equilibrium). The low value of the activation energy is believed to result from the complex reaction mechanisms hypothesised......+ for Cu2+ in the resin structure during paint dispersion and immersion results in a lower reaction rate compared to the pure ZnR. Cu-carboxylate has a reaction rate of about 5.8 +/- 1.0 mu g CuR cm(-2) day(-1) at 25 degrees C and pH 8.2. The presence of Mg and Na compounds (probably Mg- and Na...

  20. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plante, Ianik, E-mail: [Wyle Science, Technology & Engineering, 1290 Hercules, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Devroye, Luc, E-mail: [School of Computer Science, McGill University, 3480 University Street, Montreal H3A 0E9 (Canada)


    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well.

  1. On the Green's function of the partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction for radiation chemistry codes (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Devroye, Luc


    Several computer codes simulating chemical reactions in particles systems are based on the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE). Indeed, many types of chemical systems have been simulated using the exact GFDE, which has also become the gold standard for validating other theoretical models. In this work, a simulation algorithm is presented to sample the interparticle distance for partially diffusion-controlled reversible ABCD reaction. This algorithm is considered exact for 2-particles systems, is faster than conventional look-up tables and uses only a few kilobytes of memory. The simulation results obtained with this method are compared with those obtained with the independent reaction times (IRT) method. This work is part of our effort in developing models to understand the role of chemical reactions in the radiation effects on cells and tissues and may eventually be included in event-based models of space radiation risks. However, as many reactions are of this type in biological systems, this algorithm might play a pivotal role in future simulation programs not only in radiation chemistry, but also in the simulation of biochemical networks in time and space as well.

  2. DHA supplementation improved both memory and reaction time in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cathryn A; Podd, John; Hill, Stephen R; Minihane, Anne M; Haskell, Crystal; Kennedy, David


    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, and its status is dependent on dietary intakes. Therefore, individuals who consume diets low in omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids may cognitively benefit from DHA supplementation. Sex and apolipoprotein E genotype (APOE) affect cognition and may modulate the response to DHA supplementation. We investigated whether a DHA supplement improves cognitive performance in healthy young adults and whether sex and APOE modulate the response. Healthy adults (n = 176; age range: 18-45 y; nonsmoking and with a low intake of DHA) completed a 6-mo randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention in which they consumed 1.16 g DHA/d or a placebo. Cognitive performance was assessed by using a computerized cognitive test battery. For all tests, z scores were calculated and clustered into cognitive domains as follows: episodic and working memory, attention, reaction time (RT) of episodic and working memory, and attention and processing speed. ANCOVA was conducted with sex and APOE as independent variables. RTs of episodic and working memory improved with DHA compared with placebo [mean difference (95% CI): -0.18 SD (-0.33, -0.03 SD) (P = 0.02) and -0.36 SD (-0.58, -0.14 SD) (P = 0.002), respectively]. Sex × treatment interactions occurred for episodic memory (P = 0.006) and the RT of working memory (P = 0.03). Compared with the placebo, DHA improved episodic memory in women [0.28 SD (0.08, 0.48 SD); P = 0.006] and RTs of working memory in men [-0.60 SD (-0.95, -0.25 SD); P = 0.001]. APOE did not affect cognitive function, but there were some indications of APOE × sex × treatment interactions. DHA supplementation improved memory and the RT of memory in healthy, young adults whose habitual diets were low in DHA. The response was modulated by sex. This trial was registered at the New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( as ACTRN12610000212055.

  3. Control of chemical reactions with electron beams; Kontrolle chemischer Reaktionen mit Elektronenstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, Esther


    Interaction between low-energy electrons and molecules can lead to dissociative electron attachment (DEA) or dissociative ionization (DI). In condensed matter, the resulting reactive fragments can attack adjacent molecules to yield larger products. In this thesis, reactions initiated by DEA to acetonitrile in condensed phase have been compared to the known gas phase fragmentation channels. Also, gas phase DEA experiments have been performed on chlorosilanes to study the effect of a variation of the organic ligands on the energy of their molecular orbitals and reactivity in DEA processes. Furthermore, hydroamination reactions induced by DI for different alkenes and amines have been investigated. A similar reaction of ammonia and carbon monoxide was shown to produce formamide (HCONH2), which is the smallest molecule to contain a peptide bond and thus represents an important building block of biologically relevant substances.

  4. Kinetic Molecular Dynamic Model of Hall Thruster Channel Wall Erosion Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters are being considered for many space missions because their high specific impulse delivers a larger payload mass fraction than chemical rockets. With a...

  5. Wide Throttling, High Throughput Hall Thruster for Science and Exploration Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to Topic S3.04 "Propulsion Systems," Busek Co. Inc. will develop a high throughput Hall effect thruster with a nominal peak power of 1-kW and wide...

  6. Colloid micro-Newton thruster development for the ST7-DRS and LISA missions (United States)

    Ziemer, John K.; Gamero-Castano, Manuel; Hruby, Vlad; Spence, Doug; Demmons, Nate; McCormick, Ryan; Roy, Tom


    We present recent progress and development of the Busek Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster (CMNT) for the Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS) and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Missions.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program will utilize a well-characterized Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) to test experimental high-energy extinguishable solid propellants (HE), instead of...

  8. Effect of Ambipolar Potential on the Propulsive Performance of the GDM Plasma Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) plasma thruster has the ability to confine high-density plasma for the length of time required to heat it to the temperatures...

  9. Effect of Ambipolar Potential on the Propulsive Performance of the GDM Plasma Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) thruster is an electric propulsion device, without electrodes, that will magnetically confine a plasma with such density and temperature...

  10. Hot-Fire Testing of a 1N AF-M315E Thruster (United States)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pedersen, Kevin; Pierce, Charles W.


    This hot-fire test continues NASA investigation of green propellant technologies for future missions. To show the potential for green propellants to replace some hydrazine systems in future spacecraft, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continuing to embark on hot-fire test campaigns with various green propellant blends. NASA completed a hot-fire test of a 1N AF-M315E monopropellant thruster at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the small altitude test stand located in building 4205. The thruster is a ground test article used for basic performance determination and catalyst studies. The purpose of the hot-fire testing was for performance determination of a 1N size thruster and form a baseline from which to study catalyst performance and life with follow-on testing to be conducted at a later date. The thruster performed as expected. The result of the hot-fire testing are presented in this paper and presentation.

  11. Laser-Powered Thrusters for High Efficiency Variable Specific Impulse Missions (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phipps, Claude R; Luke, J. R; Helgeson, W. D


    .... Considering a laser ablation propulsion device as an electric thruster, use of energetic ablation fuels can give thrust electrical efficiency greater than unity at the bottom of this Isp range...

  12. Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I Busek matured the design of an existing 15-kW laboratory thruster. Magnetic modeling was performed to generate a circuit incorporating magnetic shielding....

  13. Feasibility of a 5mN Laser-Driven Mini-Thruster Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a next-generation thruster under a Phase II SBIR which we believe can meet NASA requirements after some modifications and improvements. It is the...

  14. Propellantless Spacecraft Formation-Flying and Maneuvering with Photonic Laser Thrusters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Until the former NIAC was closed, we had investigated a nano-meter accuracy formation flight method based on photon thrusters and tethers, Photon Tether Formation...

  15. Horseback Riding Improves the Ability to Cause the Appropriate Action (Go Reaction) and the Appropriate Self-control (No-Go Reaction) in Children. (United States)

    Ohtani, Nobuyo; Kitagawa, Kenji; Mikami, Kinuyo; Kitawaki, Kasumi; Akiyama, Junko; Fuchikami, Maho; Uchiyama, Hidehiko; Ohta, Mitsuaki


    There are many obvious health benefits to riding, including developing a strong core and legs, but there are also many less obvious benefits, such as increased confidence and introspection. Few studies have addressed the effects of horseback riding on children and the mechanisms underlying how riding affects humans. We examined the effects of horseback riding on the ability to distinguish Go/No-go tasks and solve arithmetic problems in children. The subjects were 34 boys and 72 girls, aged 10-12 years old, which were divided into three groups (horse riding, walking, and resting). They were healthy typical children, who performed the Go/No-go tasks and solved the arithmetic problems. The heart rate and heart rate variability of the children, and the three-dimensional acceleration of the children while walking horses, were examined. Riding on a half-breed horse or a pony improved the ability to perform Go/No-go tasks and solve arithmetic problems, possibly through sympathetic activity. Some horses, like the Kiso, might provide a healing effect to children through parasympathetic activity. Statistically significant differences in the three-dimensional acceleration and the autonomic activities were observed among the three horses. The acceleration in the Kiso horse group during walking in hand was significantly different from those involving the other two horses, indicating that the vibrations produced by these horses might modify the autonomic activities. The most important beneficial factor of horseback riding for children and for human health appears to be associated with the horse's vibrations, which may differ among horses. Riding some horses may improve the ability of children to respond with an appropriate action depending on the situation (Go reaction) or use self-control appropriately (No-go reaction), possibly through the activation of the sympathetic nervous system.

  16. Optimal control of the initiation of a pericyclic reaction in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Pericyclic reactions in the electronic ground state may be initiated by down-chirped pump-dump sub-pulses of an optimal laser pulse, in the ultraviolet (UV) frequency and sub-10 femtosecond (fs) time domain. This is demonstrated by means of a quantum dynamics model simulation of the Cope rearrangement.

  17. Marcus Theory: Thermodynamics CAN Control the Kinetics of Electron Transfer Reactions (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd P.


    Although it is generally true that thermodynamics do not influence kinetics, this is NOT the case for electron transfer reactions in solution. Marcus Theory explains why this is so, using straightforward physical chemical principles such as transition state theory, Arrhenius' Law, and the Franck-Condon Principle. Here the background and…

  18. Exposures and reactions to allergens among hairdressing apprentices and matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil


    Early and extensive exposures to chemical substances such as are found in hair dyes, perfumes and nickel are known risk factors for allergic reactions. Hairdressing apprentices belong to a high-risk group, as they are exposed both occupationally and personally....

  19. Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation (United States)


    Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster...macroparticle growth and distribution and statistical noise are key challenges for particle kinetic models such as particle-in-cell ( PIC ). For hybrid fluid... PIC models such as those commonly used in Hall-effect thruster (HET) simulation, the statistical noise adds an additional challenge due to the

  20. Performance and Thermal Characterization of the NASA-300MS 20 kW Hall Effect Thruster (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Shastry, Rohit; Soulas, George; Smith, Timothy; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard


    NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate is sponsoring the development of a high fidelity 15 kW-class long-life high performance Hall thruster for candidate NASA technology demonstration missions. An essential element of the development process is demonstration that incorporation of magnetic shielding on a 20 kW-class Hall thruster will yield significant improvements in the throughput capability of the thruster without any significant reduction in thruster performance. As such, NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory collaborated on modifying the NASA-300M 20 kW Hall thruster to improve its propellant throughput capability. JPL and NASA Glenn researchers performed plasma numerical simulations with JPL's Hall2De and a commercially available magnetic modeling code that indicated significant enhancement in the throughput capability of the NASA-300M can be attained by modifying the thruster's magnetic circuit. This led to modifying the NASA-300M magnetic topology to a magnetically shielded topology. This paper presents performance evaluation results of the two NASA-300M magnetically shielded thruster configurations, designated 300MS and 300MS-2. The 300MS and 300MS-2 were operated at power levels between 2.5 and 20 kW at discharge voltages between 200 and 700 V. Discharge channel deposition from back-sputtered facility wall flux, and plasma potential and electron temperature measurements made on the inner and outer discharge channel surfaces confirmed that magnetic shielding was achieved. Peak total thrust efficiency of 64% and total specific impulse of 3,050 sec were demonstrated with the 300MS-2 at 20 kW. Thermal characterization results indicate that the boron nitride discharge chamber walls temperatures are approximately 100 C lower for the 300MS when compared to the NASA- 300M at the same thruster operating discharge power.

  1. Development of a DP system for CS Enterprise I with Voith Schneider thrusters


    Skåtun, Håkon Nødset


    A model ship named CS Enterprise 1 (CSE1) has been purchased by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) to be used for demonstrations and student experiments at the Marine Cybernetics Laboratory (MC Lab). This model ship has in this project been equipped with two Voith Schneider Propellers (VSPs), and a new bow thruster, in addition instrumentation for these new actuators have been installed. Once the outfitting was completed, the aim was to develop a manual thruster co...

  2. Steady State Analysis of Hydrazine Catalytic Thrusters for Different Types of Catalysts (United States)



  3. Development of the Multiple Use Plug Hybrid for Nanosats (Muphyn) Miniature Thruster


    Eilers, Shannon Dean


    The Multiple Use Plug Hybrid for Nanosats (MUPHyN) prototype thruster incorporates solutions to several major challenges that have traditionally limited the deployment of chemical propulsion systems on small spacecraft. The MUPHyN thruster offers several features that are uniquely suited for small satellite applications. These features include 1) a non-explosive ignition system, 2) non-mechanical thrust vectoring using secondary fluid injection on an aerospike nozzle cooled with the oxidizer ...

  4. Global Linear Stability Analysis of the Spoke Oscillation in Hall Effect Thrusters (United States)


    Stubbers, B.E. Jurczyk, et al. Hall Thruster Electron Mobility Investigation using Full 3DMonte Carlo Trajectory Simulations. In Proceedings of the...112] A. Dinklage, T. Klinger, G. Marx , and L. Schweikhard. Plasma physics: confinement, transport and collective effects. Berlin Springer Verlag...Garrigues. Study of stochastic effects in a Hall effect thruster using a test particles Monte- Carlo model. In Proceedings of the 32nd International

  5. RHETT2/EPDM Hall Thruster Propulsion System Electromagnetic Compatibility Evaluation (United States)

    Sarmiento, Charles J.; Sankovic, John M.; Freitas, Joseph; Lynn, Peter R.


    Electromagnetic compatibility measurements were obtained as part of the Electric Propulsion Demonstration Module (EPDM) flight qualification program. Tests were conducted on a Hall thruster system operating at a nominal 66O W discharge power. Measurements of conducted and radiated susceptibility and emissions were obtained and referenced to MEL-STD-461 C. The power processor showed some conducted susceptibility below 4 kHz for the magnet current and discharge voltage. Radiated susceptibility testing yielded a null result. Conducted emissions showed slight violations of the specified limit for MIL-461C CE03. Radiated emissions exceeded the RE02 standard at low frequencies, below 300 MHz, by up to 40 dB RV/m/MHz.

  6. Elimination of Lifetime Limiting Mechanism of Hall Thrusters (United States)

    Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Manzella, David H. (Inventor)


    A Hall thruster includes inner and outer electromagnets, with the outer electromagnet circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer poles, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner pole having a mostly circular shape and the outer pole having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber separating the inner and outer poles, a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at an upstream portion of the discharge chamber and supplying propellant gas and an actuator, in contact with a sleeve portion of the discharge chamber. The actuator is configured to extend the sleeve portion or portions of the discharge chamber along the centerline axis with respect to the inner and outer poles.

  7. Attitude Dynamics and Stability of a Simple Solar Photon Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Guerman


    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the development of a model of the attitude dynamics for a nonideal Simple Solar Photon Thruster (SSPT and to the analysis of sailcraft motions with respect to their centre of mass. Derivation of the expressions for force and torque due to solar radiation that is valid for the case, when there is a misalignment of the SSPT axis with the sun direction, is followed by study of sailcraft dynamics and stability properties. Analysis of stability shows that an ideally reflecting sail is unstable, while for a sailcraft with nonideal collector, the symmetry axis is stable with respect to the Sun direction for large variety of system parameters. The motion around symmetry axis is always unstable and requires an active stabilizer.

  8. A randomised controlled trial of two infusion rates to decrease reactions to antivenom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Snake envenoming is a major clinical problem in Sri Lanka, with an estimated 40,000 bites annually. Antivenom is only available from India and there is a high rate of systemic hypersensitivity reactions. This study aimed to investigate whether the rate of infusion of antivenom reduced the frequency of severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a randomized comparison trial of two infusion rates of antivenom for treatment of non-pregnant adult patients (>14 y with snake envenoming in Sri Lanka. Snake identification was by patient or hospital examination of dead snakes when available and confirmed by enzyme-immunoassay for Russell's viper envenoming. Patients were blindly allocated in a 11 randomisation schedule to receive antivenom either as a 20 minute infusion (rapid or a two hour infusion (slow. The primary outcome was the proportion with severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions (grade 3 by Brown grading system within 4 hours of commencement of antivenom. Secondary outcomes included the proportion with mild/moderate hypersensitivity reactions and repeat antivenom doses. Of 1004 patients with suspected snakebites, 247 patients received antivenom. 49 patients were excluded or not recruited leaving 104 patients allocated to the rapid antivenom infusion and 94 to the slow antivenom infusion. The median actual duration of antivenom infusion in the rapid group was 20 min (Interquartile range[IQR]:20-25 min versus 120 min (IQR:75-120 min in the slow group. There was no difference in severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions between those given rapid and slow infusions (32% vs. 35%; difference 3%; 95%CI:-10% to +17%;p = 0.65. The frequency of mild/moderate reactions was also similar. Similar numbers of patients in each arm received further doses of antivenom (30/104 vs. 23/94. CONCLUSIONS: A slower infusion rate would not reduce the rate of severe systemic hypersensitivity reactions from current high

  9. 100-Lb(f) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine Technology Development for Future Space Vehicles (United States)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Smith, Timothy D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified liquid oxygen (LO2)/liquid methane (LCH4) propulsion systems as promising options for some future space vehicles. NASA issued a contract to Aerojet to develop a 100-lbf (445 N) LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine (RCE) aimed at reducing the risk of utilizing a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) on a space vehicle. Aerojet utilized innovative design solutions to develop an RCE that can ignite reliably over a broad range of inlet temperatures, perform short minimum impulse bits (MIB) at small electrical pulse widths (EPW), and produce excellent specific impulse (Isp) across a range of engine mixture ratios (MR). These design innovations also provide a start transient with a benign MR, ensuring good thrust chamber compatibility and long life. In addition, this RCE can successfully operate at MRs associated with main engines, enabling the RCE to provide emergency backup propulsion to minimize vehicle propellant load and overall system mass.

  10. Controlled Logic Gates-Switch Gate and Fredkin Gate Based on Enzyme-Biocatalyzed Reactions Realized in Flow Cells. (United States)

    Fratto, Brian E; Katz, Evgeny


    Controlled logic gates, where the logic operations on the Data inputs are performed in the way determined by the Control signal, were designed in a chemical fashion. Specifically, the systems where the Data output signals directed to various output channels depending on the logic value of the Control input signal have been designed based on enzyme biocatalyzed reactions performed in a multi-cell flow system. In the Switch gate one Data signal was directed to one of two possible output channels depending on the logic value of the Control input signal. In the reversible Fredkin gate the routing of two Data signals between two output channels is controlled by the third Control signal. The flow devices were created using a network of flow cells, each modified with one enzyme that biocatalyzed one chemical reaction. The enzymatic cascade was realized by moving the solution from one reacting cell to another which were organized in a specific network. The modular design of the enzyme-based systems realized in the flow device allowed easy reconfiguration of the logic system, thus allowing simple extension of the logic operation from the 2-input/3-output channels in the Switch gate to the 3-input/3-output channels in the Fredkin gate. Further increase of the system complexity for realization of various logic processes is feasible with the use of the flow cell modular design. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Measuring the spacecraft and environmental interactions of the 8-cm mercury ion thrusters on the P80-1 mission (United States)

    Power, J. L.


    The subject interface measurements are described for the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) flight test of two 8-cm thrusters. The diagnostic devices and the effects to be measured include: 1) quartz crystal microbalances to detect nonvolatile deposition due to thruster operation; 2) warm and cold solar cell monitors for nonvolatile and volatile (mercury) deposition; 3) retarding potential ion collectors to characterize the low energy thruster ionic efflux; and 4) a probe to measure the spacecraft potential and thruster generated electron currents to biased spacecraft surfaces. The diagnostics will also assess space environmental interactions of the spacecraft and thrusters. The diagnostic data will characterize mercury thruster interfaces and provide data useful for future applications.

  12. Magnetic Field Effects on the Plume of a Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster

    KAUST Repository

    Matlock, Taylor


    The Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster (DCFT) uses three permanent ring magnets of alternating polarity to create a unique magnetic topology intended to reduce plasma losses to the discharge chamber surfaces. The magnetic field strength within the DCFT discharge chamber (up to 4 kG on axis) is much higher than in thrusters of similar geometry, which is believed to be a driving factor in the high measured anode efficiencies. The field strength in the near plume region is large as well, which may bear on the high beam divergences measured, with peaks in ion current found at angles of around 30-35 from the thruster axis. Characterization of the DCFT has heretofore involved only one magnetic topology. It is then the purpose of this study to investigate changes to the near-field plume caused by altering the shape and strength of the magnetic field. A thick magnetic collar, encircling the thruster body, is used to lower the field strength outside of the discharge chamber and thus lessen any effects caused by the external field. Changes in the thruster plume with field topology are monitored by the use of normal Langmuir and emissive probes interrogating the near-field plasma. Results are related to other observations that suggest a unified conceptual framework for the important near-exit region of the thruster.

  13. Hybrid-PIC Modeling of a High-Voltage, High-Specific-Impulse Hall Thruster (United States)

    Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iain D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng


    The primary life-limiting mechanism of Hall thrusters is the sputter erosion of the discharge channel walls by high-energy propellant ions. Because of the difficulty involved in characterizing this erosion experimentally, many past efforts have focused on numerical modeling to predict erosion rates and thruster lifespan, but those analyses were limited to Hall thrusters operating in the 200-400V discharge voltage range. Thrusters operating at higher discharge voltages (V(sub d) >= 500 V) present an erosion environment that may differ greatly from that of the lower-voltage thrusters modeled in the past. In this work, HPHall, a well-established hybrid-PIC code, is used to simulate NASA's High-Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) at discharge voltages of 300, 400, and 500V as a first step towards modeling the discharge channel erosion. It is found that the model accurately predicts the thruster performance at all operating conditions to within 6%. The model predicts a normalized plasma potential profile that is consistent between all three operating points, with the acceleration zone appearing in the same approximate location. The expected trend of increasing electron temperature with increasing discharge voltage is observed. An analysis of the discharge current oscillations shows that the model predicts oscillations that are much greater in amplitude than those measured experimentally at all operating points, suggesting that the differences in oscillation amplitude are not strongly associated with discharge voltage.

  14. 3D ion velocity distribution function measurement in an electric thruster using laser induced fluorescence tomography. (United States)

    Elias, P Q; Jarrige, J; Cucchetti, E; Cannat, F; Packan, D


    Measuring the full ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) by non-intrusive techniques can improve our understanding of the ionization processes and beam dynamics at work in electric thrusters. In this paper, a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) tomographic reconstruction technique is applied to the measurement of the IVDF in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster. A setup is developed to move the laser axis along two rotation axes around the measurement volume. The fluorescence spectra taken from different viewing angles are combined using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to build the complete 3D (in phase space) time-averaged distribution function. For the first time, this technique is used in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster to measure the full distribution function of the xenon ions. Two examples of reconstructions are provided, in front of the thruster nose-cone and in front of the anode channel. The reconstruction reveals the features of the ion beam, in particular on the thruster axis where a toroidal distribution function is observed. These findings are consistent with the thruster shape and operation. This technique, which can be used with other LIF schemes, could be helpful in revealing the details of the ion production regions and the beam dynamics. Using a more powerful laser source, the current implementation of the technique could be improved to reduce the measurement time and also to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the distribution function.

  15. 3D ion velocity distribution function measurement in an electric thruster using laser induced fluorescence tomography (United States)

    Elias, P. Q.; Jarrige, J.; Cucchetti, E.; Cannat, F.; Packan, D.


    Measuring the full ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) by non-intrusive techniques can improve our understanding of the ionization processes and beam dynamics at work in electric thrusters. In this paper, a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) tomographic reconstruction technique is applied to the measurement of the IVDF in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster. A setup is developed to move the laser axis along two rotation axes around the measurement volume. The fluorescence spectra taken from different viewing angles are combined using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to build the complete 3D (in phase space) time-averaged distribution function. For the first time, this technique is used in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster to measure the full distribution function of the xenon ions. Two examples of reconstructions are provided, in front of the thruster nose-cone and in front of the anode channel. The reconstruction reveals the features of the ion beam, in particular on the thruster axis where a toroidal distribution function is observed. These findings are consistent with the thruster shape and operation. This technique, which can be used with other LIF schemes, could be helpful in revealing the details of the ion production regions and the beam dynamics. Using a more powerful laser source, the current implementation of the technique could be improved to reduce the measurement time and also to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the distribution function.

  16. Reflexive reaction to feelings predicts failed smoking cessation better than does lack of general self-control. (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Carver, Charles S


    Many treatment-seeking smokers have difficulty quitting and maintaining abstinence. Trait impulsivity versus self-control is relevant to this problem. However, impulsivity is a multifaceted construct, and different measures emphasize different parts of it. This study compared 2 self-report measures of self-control versus impulsiveness as predictors of smoking cessation. One measure taps a very specific tendency to respond impulsively when experiencing emotions. The other taps overall self-control without reference to emotional states. Adult smokers (N = 116) recruited from the community participated in a group-based smoking cessation intervention. The sample was racially/ethnically diverse, mostly male, middle aged, single, low income, and moderately nicotine dependent. Self-reports on scales titled Reflexive reaction to feelings and Self-control were completed at entry. Seven-day point prevalence abstinence (ppa) was assessed at end-of-therapy (EOT) and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) tested overall relationships of the self-report scales with 7-day ppa across the assessments. Bivariate analyses revealed inverse associations between Reflexive reaction to feelings and 7-day ppa; a positive association emerged between Self-control and 7-day ppa only at EOT. A GEE found that elevated scores on Reflexive reaction to feelings predicted failure in smoking cessation across the study period (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.69 [0.49-0.96], p = .03) and that Self-control scores did not do so significantly (AOR = 1.26 [0.80-1.99], p = .32). Results add to a literature suggesting the importance of emotion-related impulsivity to behavioral problems by showing its relevance to smoking cessation in treatment-seekers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of mini-satellite respinup by weak internal controllable torques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somov, Yevgeny, E-mail: [Samara State Technical University, Department for Guidance, Navigation and Control, 244 Molodogvardeyskaya Str., Samara 443100 (Russian Federation)


    Contemporary space engineering advanced new problem before theoretical mechanics and motion control theory: a spacecraft directed respinup by the weak restricted control internal forces. The paper presents some results on this problem, which is very actual for energy supply of information mini-satellites (for communication, geodesy, radio- and opto-electronic observation of the Earth et al.) with electro-reaction plasma thrusters and gyro moment cluster based on the reaction wheels or the control moment gyros. The solution achieved is based on the methods for synthesis of nonlinear robust control and on rigorous analytical proof for the required spacecraft rotation stability by Lyapunov function method. These results were verified by a computer simulation of strongly nonlinear oscillatory processes at respinuping of a flexible spacecraft.

  18. Hyporheic zone denitrification: controls on effective reaction depth and contribution to whole-stream mass balance (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Böhlke, John Karl; Voytek, Mary A.; Scott, Durelle; Tobias, Craig R.


    Stream denitrification is thought to be enhanced by hyporheic transport but there is little direct evidence from the field. To demonstrate at a field site, we injected 15NO3−, Br (conservative tracer), and SF6 (gas exchange tracer) and compared measured whole-stream denitrification with in situ hyporheic denitrification in shallow and deeper flow paths of contrasting geomorphic units. Hyporheic denitrification accounted for between 1 and 200% of whole-stream denitrification. The reaction rate constant was positively related to hyporheic exchange rate (greater substrate delivery), concentrations of substrates DOC and nitrate, microbial denitrifier abundance (nirS), and measures of granular surface area and presence of anoxic microzones. The dimensionless product of the reaction rate constant and hyporheic residence time, λhzτhz define a Damköhler number, Daden-hz that was optimal in the subset of hyporheic flow paths where Daden-hz ≈ 1. Optimal conditions exclude inefficient deep pathways transport where substrates are used up and also exclude inefficient shallow pathways that require repeated hyporheic entries and exits to complete the reaction. The whole-stream reaction significance, Rs (dimensionless), was quantified by multiplying Daden-hz by the proportion of stream discharge passing through the hyporheic zone. Together these two dimensionless metrics, one flow-path scale and the other reach-scale, quantify the whole-stream significance of hyporheic denitrification. One consequence is that the effective zone of significant denitrification often differs from the full depth of the hyporheic zone, which is one reason why whole-stream denitrification rates have not previously been explained based on total hyporheic-zone metrics such as hyporheic-zone size or residence time.

  19. A single residue controls electron transfer gating in photosynthetic reaction centers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shlyk, O.; Samish, I.; Matěnová, M.; Dulebo, A.; Poláková, H.; Kaftan, David; Scherz, A.


    Roč. 7, MAR 16 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 44580. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00703S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : BACTERIA L REACTION CENTERS * INDUCED STRUCTURAL-CHANGES * ATOMIC-FORCE MICROSCOPE Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  20. Polychlorinated ethane reaction with zero-valent zinc: pathways and rate control (United States)

    Arnold, William A.; Ball, William P.; Roberts, A. Lynn


    Efficient design of zero-valent metal permeable `barriers' for the reduction of organohalides requires information regarding the pertinent reaction rates as well as an understanding of the resultant distribution of products. In this study, the pathways and kinetics for reaction of polychlorinated ethanes with Zn(0) have been examined in batch reactors. Reductive β-elimination was the only route through which hexachloroethane (HCA), 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,1,2-TeCA), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TeCA), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) reacted. Pentachloroethane (PCA) reacted via concurrent reductive β-elimination (93%) and hydrolysis (7%). As previously demonstrated, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) reacted predominantly via reductive α-elimination. Attempts to correlate BET surface area-normalized rate constants ( kSA-BET) with one-electron reduction potential ( E1) met with limited success, as HCA, PCA, 1,1,1,2-TeCA, and 1,1,1-TCA reacted at nearly identical rates despite substantial differences in E1 values. Comparison of the pseudo-first-order rate constants ( kobs) for these species with rate constants ( kLa) obtained from a correlation for mass transfer to suspended particles revealed that the reaction of these species was mass transfer limited even though reaction rates were unaffected by mixing speed. Calculations suggest that mass transfer limitations may also play a role in the design of treatment systems for highly reactive species, with overall rate constants predicted to increase with flow velocity.

  1. Controlled silanization-amination reactions on the Ti6Al4V surface for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cano, Abraham; Cintas, Pedro; Fernández-Calderón, María-Coronada; Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel-Ángel; Crespo, Lara; Saldaña, Laura; Vilaboa, Nuria; González-Martín, María-Luisa; Babiano, Reyes


    Formation of thin films on titanium alloys incorporating bioactive small molecules or macromolecules is a route to improve their biocompatibility. Aminoalkylsilanes are commonly employed as interface reagents that combine good adhesion properties with an amino tail group susceptible of further functionalization. This article introduces a reproducible methodology to obtain a cross-linked polymer-type brush structure of covalently-bonded aminoalkylsiloxane chains on Ti6Al4V. The experimental protocol can be fine-tuned to provide a high density of surface-coated amino groups (threshold value: 2.1±0.1×10(-8) mol cm(-2)) as proven by chemical and spectrophotometric analyses. Using a model reaction involving the condensation of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) on Ti6Al4V alloy, we herein show the effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and solvent humidity on the composition and structure of the film. The stability of the resulting coating under physiological-like conditions as well as the possibility of surface re-silanization has also been evaluated. To verify if detrimental effects on the biological performance of the Ti6Al4V alloy were induced by this coverage, human primary osteoblasts behavior, Staphylococci adhesion and biofilm formation have been tested and compared to the Ti6Al4V oxidized surface. Reaction with trans-cinnamaldehyde has used in order to determine useful amino groups at aminosilanized surface, XPS and UV analyses of imino derivatives generated reveal that almost a 50% of these groups are actually available at the siloxane chains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical morphogenesis: recent experimental advances in reaction-diffusion system design and control. (United States)

    Szalai, István; Cuiñas, Daniel; Takács, Nándor; Horváth, Judit; De Kepper, Patrick


    In his seminal 1952 paper, Alan Turing predicted that diffusion could spontaneously drive an initially uniform solution of reacting chemicals to develop stable spatially periodic concentration patterns. It took nearly 40 years before the first two unquestionable experimental demonstrations of such reaction-diffusion patterns could be made in isothermal single phase reaction systems. The number of these examples stagnated for nearly 20 years. We recently proposed a design method that made their number increase to six in less than 3 years. In this report, we formally justify our original semi-empirical method and support the approach with numerical simulations based on a simple but realistic kinetic model. To retain a number of basic properties of real spatial reactors but keep calculations to a minimal complexity, we introduce a new way to collapse the confined spatial direction of these reactors. Contrary to similar reduced descriptions, we take into account the effect of the geometric size in the confinement direction and the influence of the differences in the diffusion coefficient on exchange rates of species with their feed environment. We experimentally support the method by the observation of stationary patterns in red-ox reactions not based on oxihalogen chemistry. Emphasis is also brought on how one of these new systems can process different initial conditions and memorize them in the form of localized patterns of different geometries.

  3. Factors Controlling the Redox Activity of Oxygen in Perovskites: From Theory to Application for Catalytic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzhen Yang


    Full Text Available Triggering the redox reaction of oxygens has become essential for the development of (electro catalytic properties of transition metal oxides, especially for perovskite materials that have been envisaged for a variety of applications such as the oxygen evolution or reduction reactions (OER and ORR, respectively, CO or hydrocarbons oxidation, NO reduction and others. While the formation of ligand hole for perovskites is well-known for solid state physicists and/or chemists and has been widely studied for the understanding of important electronic properties such as superconductivity, insulator-metal transitions, magnetoresistance, ferroelectrics, redox properties etc., oxygen electrocatalysis in aqueous media at low temperature barely scratches the surface of the concept of oxygen ions oxidation. In this review, we briefly explain the electronic structure of perovskite materials and go through a few important parameters such as the ionization potential, Madelung potential, and charge transfer energy that govern the oxidation of oxygen ions. We then describe the surface reactivity that can be induced by the redox activity of the oxygen network and the formation of highly reactive surface oxygen species before describing their participation in catalytic reactions and providing mechanistic insights and strategies for designing new (electro catalysts. Finally, we give a brief overview of the different techniques that can be employed to detect the formation of such transient oxygen species.

  4. Control of chemical chaos through medium viscosity in a batch ferroin-catalysed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. (United States)

    Budroni, Marcello A; Calabrese, Ilaria; Miele, Ylenia; Rustici, Mauro; Marchettini, Nadia; Rossi, Federico


    In this paper we show that the active interplay of nonlinear kinetics and transport phenomena in a chemical oscillator can be exploited to induce and control chaos. To this aim we use as a model system the ferroin-catalysed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillating reaction, which is known to evolve to characteristic chaotic transient dynamics when carried out under batch and unstirred conditions. In particular, chemical chaos was found to appear and disappear by following a Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse (RTN) scenario. Here we use medium viscosity as a bifurcation parameter to tune the reaction-diffusion-convection (RDC) interplay and force the reaction in a specific sequence of dynamical regimes: either (i) periodic → quasi-periodic → chaotic or (ii) periodic → quasi-periodic or (iii) only periodic. The medium viscosity can be set by adding different amounts of surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate), known to have a little impact on the reaction mechanism, above its critical micelle concentration. Experimental results are supported by means of numerical simulations of a RDC model, which combines self-sustained oscillations to the related chemically-induced buoyancy convection.

  5. Control of interspecies electron transfer flow during anaerobic digestion: dynamic diffusion reaction models for hydrogen gas transfer in microbial flocs. (United States)

    Ozturk, S S; Palsson, B O; Thiele, J H


    Dynamic reaction diffusion models were used to analyze the consequences of aggregation for syntrophic reactions in methanogenic ecosystems. Flocs from a whey digestor were used to measure all model parameters under the in situ conditions of a particular defined biological system. Fermentation simulations without adjustable parameters could precisely predict the kinetics of H(2) gas production of digestor flocs during syntrophic methanogenesis from ethanol. The results demonstrated a kinetic compartmentalization of H(2) metabolism inside the flocs. The interspecies electron transfer reaction was mildly diffusion controlled. The H(2) gas profiles across the flocs showed high H (2) concentrations inside the flocs at any time. Simulations of the syntrophic metabolism at low substrate concentrations such as in digestors or sediments showed that it is impossible to achieve high H(2) gas turnovers at simultaneously low steady-state H(2) concentrations. This showed a mechanistic contradiction in the concept of postulated low H(2) microenvironments for the anaerobic digestion process. The results of the computer experiments support the conclusion that syntrophic H(2) production may only be a side reaction of H(2) independent interspecies electron transfer in methanogenic ecosystems.

  6. Field-controlled electron transfer and reaction kinetics of the biological catalytic system of microperoxidase-11 and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongki Choi


    Full Text Available Controlled reaction kinetics of the bio-catalytic system of microperoxidase-11 and hydrogen peroxide has been achieved using an electrostatic technique. The technique allowed independent control of 1 the thermodynamics of the system using electrochemical setup and 2 the quantum mechanical tunneling at the interface between microperoxidase-11 and the working electrode by applying a gating voltage to the electrode. The cathodic currents of electrodes immobilized with microperoxidase-11 showed a dependence on the gating voltage in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, indicating a controllable reduction reaction. The measured kinetic parameters of the bio-catalytic reduction showed nonlinear dependences on the gating voltage as the result of modified interfacial electron tunnel due to the field induced at the microperoxidase-11-electrode interface. Our results indicate that the kinetics of the reduction of hydrogen peroxide can be controlled by a gating voltage and illustrate the operation of a field-effect bio-catalytic transistor, whose current-generating mechanism is the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water with the current being controlled by the gating voltage.

  7. Ring Walking/Oxidative Addition Reactions for the Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan, Guillermo C


    Power conversion efficiencies of plastic solar cells depend strongly on the molecular weight characteristics of the semiconducting polymers used for their fabrication. The synthesis of these materials typically relies on transition metal mediated catalytic reactions. In many instances, the ideal structures cannot be attained because of deficiencies in these reactions, particularly when it comes to being able to achieve high number average molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Another important conjugated polymer structure of interest is one in which a single functional group is attached at the end group of the chain. Such systems would be ideal for modifying surface properties at interfaces and for labeling biomolecular probes used in fluorescent biosensors. To respond to the challenges above, our efforts have centered on the design of homogenous transition metal complexes that are easy to prepare and effective in carrying out living, or quasi-living, condensative chain polymerization reactions. The key mechanistic challenge for the success of this reaction is to force the insertion of one monomer unit at a time via a process that involves migration of the transition metal-containing fragment to one terminus of the polymer chain. Chain growth characteristics are therefore favored when the metal does not dissociate from the newly formed reductive elimination product. We have proposed that dissociation is disfavored by the formation of a -complex, in which the metal can sample various locations of the electronically delocalized framework, a process that we term ring-walking , and find the functionality where oxidative addition takes place. Success has been achieved in the nickel-mediated cross coupling reaction of Grignard reagents with aromatic halides by using bromo[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]phenylnickel. This reagent can yield poly(thiophene)s (one of the most widely used type of polymer in plastic solar cells) with excellent

  8. Engineering Model Propellant Feed System Development for an Iodine Hall Thruster Demonstration Mission (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.


    CUBESATS are relatively new spacecraft platforms that are typically deployed from a launch vehicle as a secondary payload, providing low-cost access to space for a wide range of end-users. These satellites are comprised of building blocks having dimensions of 10x10x10 cu cm and a mass of 1.33 kg (a 1-U size). While providing low-cost access to space, a major operational limitation is the lack of a propulsion system that can fit within a CubeSat and is capable of executing high (Delta)v maneuvers. This makes it difficult to use CubeSats on missions requiring certain types of maneuvers (i.e. formation flying, spacecraft rendezvous). Recently, work has been performed investigating the use of iodine as a propellant for Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) 2 that could subsequently be used to provide a high specific impulse path to CubeSat propulsion. 3, 4 Iodine stores as a dense solid at very low pressures, making it acceptable as a propellant on a secondary payload. It has exceptionally high ?Isp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing the potential for systems-level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine flow can also be thermally regulated, subliming at relatively low temperature (system. Finally, a cold surface can be installed in a vacuum test chamber on which expended iodine propellant can deposit. In addition, the temperature doesn't have to be extremely cold to maintain a low vapor pressure in the vacuum chamber (it is under 10(exp -6) torr at -75 C), making it possible to 'cryopump' the propellant with lower-cost recirculating refrigerant-based systems as opposed to using liquid nitrogen or low temperature gaseous helium cryopanels. In the present paper, we describe the design and testing of the engineering model propellant feed system for iSAT (see Fig. 1). The feed system is based around an iodine propellant reservoir and two proportional control

  9. In-Situ Measurement of Hall Thruster Erosion Using a Fiber Optic Regression Probe (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt; Korman, Valentin


    One potential life-limiting mechanism in a Hall thruster is the erosion of the ceramic material comprising the discharge channel. This is especially true for missions that require long thrusting periods and can be problematic for lifetime qualification, especially when attempting to qualify a thruster by analysis rather than a test lasting the full duration of the mission. In addition to lifetime, several analytical and numerical models include electrode erosion as a mechanism contributing to enhanced transport properties. However, there is still a great deal of dispute over the importance of erosion to transport in Hall thrusters. The capability to perform an in-situ measurement of discharge channel erosion is useful in addressing both the lifetime and transport concerns. An in-situ measurement would allow for real-time data regarding the erosion rates at different operating points, providing a quick method for empirically anchoring any analysis geared towards lifetime qualification. Erosion rate data over a thruster s operating envelope would also be useful in the modeling of the detailed physics inside the discharge chamber. There are many different sensors and techniques that have been employed to quantify discharge channel erosion in Hall thrusters. Snapshots of the wear pattern can be obtained at regular shutdown intervals using laser profilometry. Many non-intrusive techniques of varying complexity and sensitivity have been employed to detect the time-varying presence of erosion products in the thruster plume. These include the use quartz crystal microbalances, emission spectroscopy, laser induced flourescence, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. While these techniques can provide a very accurate picture of the level of eroded material in the thruster plume, it is more difficult to use them to determine the location from which the material was eroded. Furthermore, none of the methods cited provide a true in-situ measure of erosion at the channel surface while

  10. Imaging and controlling intracellular reactions: Lysosome transport as a function of diameter and the intracellular synthesis of conducting polymers (United States)

    Payne, Christine


    Eukaryotic cells are the ultimate complex environment with intracellular chemical reactions regulated by the local cellular environment. For example, reactants are sequestered into specific organelles to control local concentration and pH, motor proteins transport reactants within the cell, and intracellular vesicles undergo fusion to bring reactants together. Current research in the Payne Lab in the School of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech is aimed at understanding and utilizing this complex environment to control intracellular chemical reactions. This will be illustrated using two examples, intracellular transport as a function of organelle diameter and the intracellular synthesis of conducting polymers. Using single particle tracking fluorescence microscopy, we measured the intracellular transport of lysosomes, membrane-bound organelles, as a function of diameter as they underwent transport in living cells. Both ATP-dependent active transport and diffusion were examined. As expected, diffusion scales with the diameter of the lysosome. However, active transport is unaffected suggesting that motor proteins are insensitive to cytosolic drag. In a second example, we utilize intracellular complexity, specifically the distinct micro-environments of different organelles, to carry out chemical reactions. We show that catalase, found in the peroxisomes of cells, can be used to catalyze the polymerization of the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS. More importantly, we have found that a range of iron-containing biomolecules are suitable catalysts with different iron-containing biomolecules leading to different polymer properties. These experiments illustrate the advantage of intracellular complexity for the synthesis of novel materials.

  11. Perceived control, voluntariness and emotional reactions. A study conducted in relocated areas of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, C.J. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology


    This paper use data from a pilot study to analyse relationships between type of resettlement (voluntary or involuntary) and individuals' everyday feelings, perceptions of risk, health status and control. The data were collected in 1995, within the Joint Study Project 2, i.e., a collaborative research project of the European Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, 1991/92 - 95/96. The aim of the study was to investigate reactions to change and new life conditions of people who had been resettled due to the Chernobyl accident. Participants from the respective countries included adult individuals sampled from two age groups of less than 45 years and 45 years and older, with approximately the same number of men and women. The questionnaire presented various topics to which responses were indicated on quantitative response scales, as well as in open ended response formats. The results presented here focus on emotional reactions, perceived risk and self-rated health among resettled people. The effects of type of resettlement on emotional reactions, Perceived risk and control are discussed.

  12. Temperature-controlled cross-linking of silver nanoparticles with Diels-Alder reaction and its application on antibacterial property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lian; Yang, Pengfei, E-mail:; Li, Junying; Zhang, Zhiliang; Yu, Xi; Lu, Ling


    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were functionalized by furan groups. • The DA reaction of furan with bismaleimide was used to cross-link the particles. • The reverse cross-linking could be controlled by temperature. • The antibacterial activity of silvers could be adjusted by the cross-linking. - Abstract: Sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized and functionalized with furan group on their surface, followed by the reverse Diels-Alder (DA) reaction with bismaleimide to vary the particle size, so as to give different antibacterial activities. These nanoparticles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV–vis), Nanoparticle Size Analyzer and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the cross-linking reaction with bismaleimide had a great effect on the size of AgNPs. The size of the AgNPs could be controlled by the temperature of DA/r-DA equilibrium. The antibacterial activity was assessed using the inhibition zone diameter by introducing the particles into a media containing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. It was found that these particles were effective bactericides. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles decreased orderly as the particle size enlarged.

  13. Boosting Gas Involved Reactions at Nanochannel Reactor with Joint Gas-Solid-Liquid Interfaces and Controlled Wettability. (United States)

    Mi, Li; Yu, Jiachao; He, Fei; Jiang, Ling; Wu, Yafeng; Yang, Lijun; Han, Xiaofeng; Li, Ying; Liu, Anran; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yuanjian; Tian, Ye; Liu, Songqin; Jiang, Lei


    The low solubility of gases in aqueous solution is the major kinetic limitation of reactions that involve gases. To address this challenge, we report a nanochannel reactor with joint gas-solid-liquid interfaces and controlled wettability. As a proof of concept, a porous anodic alumina (PAA) nanochannel membrane with different wettability is used for glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization, which contacts with glucose aqueous solution on one side, while the other side gets in touch with the gas phase directly. Interestingly, it is observed that the O2 could participate in the enzymatic reaction directly from gas phase through the proposed nanochannels, and a hydrophobic interface is more favorable for the enzymatic reaction due to the rearrangement of GOx structure as well as the high gas adhesion. As a result, the catalytic efficiency of GOx in the proposed interface is increased up to 80-fold compared with that of the free state in traditional aqueous air-saturated electrolyte. This triphase interface with controlled wettability can be generally applied to immobilize enzymes or catalysts with gas substrates for high efficiency.

  14. Stochasticity of intranuclear biochemical reaction processes controls the final decision of cell fate associated with DNA damage. (United States)

    Iwamoto, Kazunari; Hamada, Hiroyuki; Eguchi, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Masahiro


    A massive integrative mathematical model of DNA double-strand break (DSB) generation, DSB repair system, p53 signaling network, and apoptosis induction pathway was constructed to explore the dominant factors of unknown criteria of cell fate decision. In the proposed model, intranuclear reactions were modeled as stochastic processes and cytoplasmic reactions as deterministic processes, and both reaction sets were simulated simultaneously. The simulated results at the single-cell level showed that the model generated several sustained oscillations (pulses) of p53, Mdm2, ATM, and Wip1, and cell-to-cell variability in the number of p53 pulses depended on IR intensity. In cell populations, the model generated damped p53 oscillations, and IR intensity affected the amplitude of the first p53 oscillation. Cells were then subjected to the same IR dose exhibiting apoptosis induction variability. These simulated results are in quantitative agreement with major biological findings observed in human breast cancer epithelial MCF7, NIH3T3, and fibrosarcoma cells, demonstrating that the proposed model was concededly biologically appropriate. Statistical analysis of the simulated results shows that the generation of multiple p53 pulses is a prerequisite for apoptosis induction. Furthermore, cells exhibited considerable individual variability in p53 dynamics, which correlated with intrinsic apoptosis induction. The simulated results based on the proposed model demonstrated that the stochasticity of intranuclear biochemical reaction processes controls the final decision of cell fate associated with DNA damage. Applying stochastic simulation to an exploration of intranuclear biochemical reaction processes is indispensable in enhancing the understanding of the dynamic characteristics of biological multi-layered systems of higher organisms.

  15. Methods for Controlling Effects of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete. (United States)


    AD-536, AD-536(2). Silica fume from Alabama. 9. Standard chemical and physical tests were made on all 4 cements plus repeat shipments and 11...Engineers. 1983. "Alkali-Silica Aggregate Reactions," Appendix B, in " Standard Practice for Concrete," Engineer Manual 1110-2-2000, 5 Sep 1985...0.29 1.54 Total as Na7a % 0.00 0.74 0.32 1.46 4- PHYSICAL T.STS 4-, S-ecific Gravity: 2.58 Fineness: Z retained on 325 Sieve .- Surface Area: 12830

  16. Temperature-controlled cross-linking of silver nanoparticles with diels-alder reaction and its application on antibacterial property (United States)

    Liu, Lian; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Junying; Zhang, Zhiliang; Yu, Xi; Lu, Ling


    Sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized and functionalized with furan group on their surface, followed by the reverse Diels-Alder (DA) reaction with bismaleimide to vary the particle size, so as to give different antibacterial activities. These nanoparticles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis), Nanoparticle Size Analyzer and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the cross-linking reaction with bismaleimide had a great effect on the size of AgNPs. The size of the AgNPs could be controlled by the temperature of DA/r-DA equilibrium. The antibacterial activity was assessed using the inhibition zone diameter by introducing the particles into a media containing Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. It was found that these particles were effective bactericides. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanoparticles decreased orderly as the particle size enlarged.

  17. Design of Satellite Attitude Control Algorithm Based on the SDRE Method Using Gas Jets and Reaction Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. G. de Souza


    Full Text Available An experimental attitude control algorithm design using prototypes can minimize space mission costs by reducing the number of errors transmitted to the next phase of the project. The Space Mechanics and Control Division (DMC of INPE is constructing a 3D simulator to supply the conditions for implementing and testing satellite control hardware and software. Satellite large angle maneuver makes the plant highly nonlinear and if the parameters of the system are not well determined, the plant can also present some level of uncertainty. As a result, controller designed by a linear control technique can have its performance and robustness degraded. In this paper the standard LQR linear controller and the SDRE controller associated with an SDRE filter are applied to design a controller for a nonlinear plant. The plant is similar to the DMC 3D satellite simulator where the unstructured uncertainties of the system are represented by process and measurements noise. In the sequel the State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE method is used to design and test an attitude control algorithm based on gas jets and reaction wheel torques to perform large angle maneuver in three axes. The SDRE controller design takes into account the effects of the plant nonlinearities and system noise which represents uncertainty. The SDRE controller performance and robustness are tested during the transition phase from angular velocity reductions to normal mode of operation with stringent pointing accuracy using a switching control algorithm based on minimum system energy. This work serves to validate the numerical simulator model and to verify the functionality of the control algorithm designed by the SDRE method.

  18. Smoluchowski rate for diffusion-controlled reactions of molecules with antenna (United States)

    Vasilyev, Oleg A.; Lizana, Ludvig; Oshanin, Gleb


    We study the current J_m(β U_0) of particles to an immobile perfect trap attached to an antenna—a linear array of m partially adsorbing sites with a barrier against desorption U 0 and β being the inverse temperature. Supposing that particles perform standard random walks, in discrete time n, between the nearest-neighbouring sites of an infinite simple cubic lattice, we calculate the current analytically in the limit n \\to ∞ as a function of m and β U0 . We find that for each β U0 , there exists some effective length m * of the antenna, such that J_m(β U_0) is an increasing function of m for m    m *, meaning that only a portion m */m of the antenna (which otherwise can be arbitrarily long) effectively enhances the reaction rate. Our analysis is relevant to such practically important situations as, e.g. reactions with the so-called antenna molecules or protein binding to specific sites on a stretched DNA.

  19. Performance of Solar Electric Powered Deep Space Missions Using Hall Thruster Propulsion (United States)

    Witzberger, Kevin E.; Manzella, David


    Power limited, low-thrust trajectories were assessed for missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune utilizing a single Venus Gravity Assist (VGA) and a primary propulsion system based on either a 3-kW high voltage Hall thruster, of the type being developed by the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program, or an 8-kW variant of this thruster. These Hall thrusters operate with specific impulses below 3,000 seconds. A trade study was conducted to examine mission parameters that include: net delivered mass (NDM), beginning-of-life (BOL) solar array power, heliocentric transfer time, required launch vehicle, number of operating thrusters, and throttle profile. The top performing spacecraft configuration was defined to be the one that delivered the highest mass for a range of transfer times. In order to evaluate the potential future benefit of using next generation Hall thrusters as the primary propulsion system, comparisons were made with the advanced state-of-the-art (ASOA), 7-kW, 4,100 second NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) for the same mission scenarios. For the BOL array powers considered in this study (less than 30 kW), the results show that the performance of the Hall thrusters, relative to NEXT, is largely dependant on the performance capability of the launch vehicle, and that at least a 10 percent performance gain, equating to at least an additional 200 kg dry mass at each target planet, is achieved over the higher specific impulse NEXT when launched on an Atlas 551.

  20. Numerical validation of a Eulerian hydrochemical code using a 1D multisolute mass transport system involving heterogeneous kinetically controlled reactions (United States)

    Gérard, F.; Clément, A.; Fritz, B.


    It is demonstrated that at steady state, the 1D thermo-kinetic hydrochemical Eulerian mass balance equations in pure advective mode are indeed identical to the governing mass balance equations of a single reaction path (or geochemical) code in open system mode. Thus, both calculated reaction paths should be theoretically identical whatever the chemical complexity of the water-rock system (i.e., multicomponent, multireaction zones kinetically and equilibrium-controlled). We propose to use this property to numerically test the thermo-kinetic hydrochemical Eulerian codes and we employ it to verify the algorithm of the 1D finite difference code KIRMAT. Compared to the other methods to perform such numerical tests (i.e., comparisons with analytical, semi-analytical solutions, between two Eulerian hydrochemical codes), the advantage of this new method is the absence of constraints on the chemical complexity of the modelled water-rock systems. Moreover, the same thermo-kinetic databases and geochemical functions can be easily and mechanically used in both calculations, when the numerical reference comes from the Eulerian code with no transport terms ( u and D=0) and modify to be consistent with the definition of the open system mode in geochemical modelling. The ability of KIRMAT to treat multicomponent pure advective transport, subjected to several kinetically equilibrium-controlled dissolution and precipitation reactions, and to track their boundaries has been successfully verified with the property of interest. The required numerical validation of the reference calculations is bypassed in developing the Eulerian code from an already checked single reaction path code. A forward time-upstream weighting scheme (a mixing cell scheme) is used in this study. An appropriate choice of grid spacing allows to calculate within the grid size uncertainty the correct mineral reaction zone boundaries, despite the presence of numerical dispersion. Its correction enables us to improve

  1. Iron Reduction and Radionuclide Immobilization: Kinetic, Thermodynamic and Hydrologic controls & Reaction-Based Modeling - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William D. Burgos


    Our research focused on (1) microbial reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) individually, and concomitantly in natural sediments, (2) Fe(III) oxide surface chemistry, specifically with respect to reactions with Fe(II)and U(VI), (3) the influence of humic substances on Fe(III) and U(VI) bioreduction, and on U(VI) complexation, and (4) the development of reaction-based reactive transport biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results. We have continued our investigations on microbial reduction of Fe(III) oxides. Modeling our earlier experimental results required assumption of a hydrated surface for hematite, more reactive than predicted based on theoretical solubility (Burgos et al.2002). Subsequent studies with Shewanella putrefaciens and Geobacter sulfurreducens confirmed the rates of Fe(III) bioreduction depend on oxide surface area rather than oxide thermodynamic properties (Roden,2003a,b;2004; Burgos et al,2003). We examined the potential for bioreduction of U(VI) by Geobacter sulfurreducens in the presence of synthetic Fe(III) oxides and natural Fe(III) oxide-containing solids (Jeon et al,2004a,b) in which more than 95% of added U(VI) was sorbed to mineral surfaces. The results showed a significant portion of solid-associated U(VI) was resistant to both enzymatic and abiotic (Fe(II)-driven) reduction, but the rate and extent of bioreduction of U(VI) was increased due to the addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). We conducted long-term semicontinuous culture and column experiments on coupled Fe(III) oxide/U(VI) reduction. These experiments were conducted with natural subsurface sediment from the Oyster site in Virginia, whose Fe content and microbial reducibility are comparable to ORNL FRC sediments (Jeon et al, 2004b). The results conclusively demonstrated the potential for sustained removal of U(VI) from solution via DMRB activity in excess of the U(VI) sorption capacity of the natural mineral assemblages. Jang (2004) demonstrated

  2. Placebo reactions in double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van der Heide, S.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.; Kukler, J.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Background: A cardinal feature of the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is that placebo administration is included as a control. To date, the occurrence and diagnostic significance of placebo events have not extensively been documented. Objective: To analyse the occurrence and

  3. Placebo reactions in double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van der Heide, S.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.; Kukler, J.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.


    A cardinal feature of the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is that placebo administration is included as a control. To date, the occurrence and diagnostic significance of placebo events have not extensively been documented. To analyse the occurrence and features of placebo

  4. Next-Generation Maneuvering System with Control-Moment Gyroscopes for Extravehicular Activities Near Low-Gravity Objects (United States)

    Carpenter, Michele; Jackson, Kimberly; Cohanim, Babak; Duda, Kevin R.; Rize, Jared; Dopart, Celena; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Curiel, Pedro; Studak, Joseph; Ponica, Dina; hide


    Looking ahead to the human exploration of Mars, NASA is planning for exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the Martian moons. Performing tasks near the surface of such low-gravity objects will likely require the use of an updated version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) since the surface gravity is not high enough to allow astronauts to walk, or have sufficient resistance to counter reaction forces and torques during movements. The extravehicular activity (EVA) Jetpack device currently under development is based on the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) unit and has maneuvering capabilities to assist EVA astronauts with their tasks. This maneuvering unit has gas thrusters for attitude control and translation. When EVA astronauts are performing tasks that require ne motor control such as sample collection and equipment placement, the current control system will re thrusters to compensate for the resulting changes in center-of-mass location and moments of inertia, adversely affecting task performance. The proposed design of a next-generation maneuvering and stability system incorporates control concepts optimized to support astronaut tasks and adds control-moment gyroscopes (CMGs) to the current Jetpack system. This design aims to reduce fuel consumption, as well as improve task performance for astronauts by providing a sti er work platform. The high-level control architecture for an EVA maneuvering system using both thrusters and CMGs considers an initial assessment of tasks to be performed by an astronaut and an evaluation of the corresponding human-system dynamics. For a scenario in which the astronaut orbits an asteroid, simulation results from the current EVA maneuvering system are compared to those from a simulation of the same system augmented with CMGs, demonstrating that the forces and torques on an astronaut can be significantly reduced with the new control system actuation while conserving onboard fuel.

  5. Assessment of the ribose-induced Maillard reaction as a means of gelatine powder identification and quality control. (United States)

    Tan, Thuan-Chew; AlKarkhi, Abbas F M; Easa, Azhar Mat


    The addition of ribose to bovine or porcine gelatine solutions followed by heating at 95 °C yielded brown solutions with different pH, colour (CIE L(*) and b(*)) and absorbance (A(420*) values. These differences were used for gelatine powder identification, differentiation and quality control. Differentiation analysis of the Maillard reaction parameters was conducted using cluster analysis (CA) and confidence intervals (CI). The potential use of the method as a quality control procedure was evaluated by using statistical process control (SPC). CA revealed that the two types of gelatine could be classified into two different groups. CI (95% confidence) revealed that the absorbance and colour values could be used as indicators for differentiation between the two types of gelatine because the intervals between the Maillard reaction parameters of the samples were far apart. The methodology demonstrated good reproducibility because it behaved predictably based on the X¯-S charts generated from the SPC charts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Rich Data on Comorbidities in Case-Control Study Design with Electronic Health Record Data Improves Control of Confounding in the Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions. (United States)

    Backenroth, Daniel; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol; Wei, Ying


    Recent research has suggested that the case-control study design, unlike the self-controlled study design, performs poorly in controlling confounding in the detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from administrative claims and electronic health record (EHR) data, resulting in biased estimates of the causal effects of drugs on health outcomes of interest (HOI) and inaccurate confidence intervals. Here we show that using rich data on comorbidities and automatic variable selection strategies for selecting confounders can better control confounding within a case-control study design and provide a more solid basis for inference regarding the causal effects of drugs on HOIs. Four HOIs are examined: acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, acute myocardial infarction and gastrointestinal ulcer hospitalization. For each of these HOIs we use a previously published reference set of positive and negative control drugs to evaluate the performance of our methods. Our methods have AUCs that are often substantially higher than the AUCs of a baseline method that only uses demographic characteristics for confounding control. Our methods also give confidence intervals for causal effect parameters that cover the expected no effect value substantially more often than this baseline method. The case-control study design, unlike the self-controlled study design, can be used in the fairly typical setting of EHR databases without longitudinal information on patients. With our variable selection method, these databases can be more effectively used for the detection of ADRs.

  7. A Contingency in the Rosetta Reaction Control System: Alternative Cruise Trajectory Strategies to Cope with Degraded Delta-V Resources (United States)

    Bauske, Rainer; Companys, Vincente


    Since August 2006 a pressure transducer of the Rosetta Reaction Control System (RCS) shows anomalous telemetries indicating a possible leak in a pressurant line. The future operation mode of the RCS may be affected by this problem, resulting in performance degradation. The current propellant budget and its future evolution are evaluated to show the possible states w.r.t. the required mission delta-V. Alternative cruise trajectory strategies are analyzed, providing delta-V savings, to compensate for the expected performance loss of the RCS.

  8. Adolescents' perceptions of privacy invasion in reaction to parental solicitation and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawk, S.T.; Hale, W.W., III; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Meeus, W.


    Following suggestions from prior research, this 2-wave longitudinal study examined whether parental solicitation and control influenced adolescents’ later perceptions of privacy invasion. Data from 307 Dutch adolescents were tested with structural equation modeling (SEM). Differences in adolescents’

  9. Modeling and Thrust Optimization of a Bio-Inspired Pulsatile Jet Thruster (United States)

    Krieg, Michael W.

    A new type of thruster technology offers promising low speed maneuvering capabilities for underwater vehicles. Similar to the natural locomotion of squid and jellyfish the thruster successively forces fluid jets in and out of a small internal cavity. We investigate several properties of squid and jellyfish locomotion to drive the thruster design including actuation of nozzle geometry and vortex ring thrust augmentation. The thrusters are compact with no extruding components to negatively impact the vehicle's drag. These devices have thrust rise-times orders of magnitude faster than those reported for typical propeller thrusters, making them an attractive option for high accuracy underwater vehicle maneuvering. The dynamics of starting jet circulation, impulse, and kinetic energy are derived in terms of kinematics at the entrance boundary of a semi-infinite domain, specifically identifying the effect of a non-parallel incoming flow. A model for pressure at the nozzle is derived without the typical reliance on a predetermined potential function, making it a powerful tool for modeling any jet flow. Jets are created from multiple nozzle configurations to validate these models, and velocity and vorticity fields are determined using DPIV techniques. A converging starting jet resulted in circulation 90--100%, impulse 70--75%, and energy 105--135% larger than a parallel starting jet with identical volume flux and piston velocity, depending on the stroke ratio. The new model is a much better predictor of the jet properties than the standard 1D slug model. A simplified thrust model, was derived to describe the high frequency thruster characteristics. This model accurately predicts the average thrust, measured directly, for stroke ratios up to a critical value where the leading vortex ring separates from the remainder of the shear flow. A new model predicting the vortex ring pinch-off process is developed based on characteristic centerline velocities. The vortex ring pinch

  10. Testing of Diode-Clamping in an Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster Circuit (United States)

    Toftul, Alexandra; Polzin, Kurt A.; Martin, Adam K.; Hudgins, Jerry L.


    Testing of a 5.5 kV silicon (Si) diode and 5.8 kV prototype silicon carbide (SiC) diode in an inductive pulsed plasma thruster (IPPT) circuit was performed to obtain a comparison of the resulting circuit recapture efficiency,eta(sub r), defined as the percentage of the initial charge energy remaining on the capacitor bank after the diode interrupts the current. The diode was placed in a pulsed circuit in series with a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) switch, and the voltages across different components and current waveforms were collected over a range of capacitor charge voltages. Reverse recovery parameters, including turn-off time and peak reverse recovery current, were measured and capacitor voltage waveforms were used to determine the recapture efficiency for each case. The Si fast recovery diode in the circuit was shown to yield a recapture efficiency of up to 20% for the conditions tested, while the SiC diode further increased recapture efficiency to nearly 30%. The data presented show that fast recovery diodes operate on a timescale that permits them to clamp the discharge quickly after the first half cycle, supporting the idea that diode-clamping in IPPT circuit reduces energy dissipation that occurs after the first half cycle

  11. Numerical studies of wall–plasma interactions and ionization phenomena in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lei [Beijing Research Institute of Precise Mechatronic Controls, Beijing 100076 (China); School of Astronautics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zeng, Guangshang; Huang, Yuping [Beijing Research Institute of Precise Mechatronic Controls, Beijing 100076 (China); Tang, Haibin [School of Astronautics, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Xiangyang [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)


    Wall–plasma interactions excited by ablation controlled arcs are very critical physical processes in pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs). Their effects on the ionization processes of ablated vapor into discharge plasma directly determine PPT performances. To reveal the physics governing the ionization phenomena in PPT discharge, a modified model taking into account the pyrolysis effect of heated polytetrafluoroethylene propellant on the wall–plasma interactions was developed. The feasibility of the modified model was analyzed by creating a one-dimensional simulation of a rectangular ablative PPT. The wall–plasma interaction results based on this modified model were found to be more realistic than for the unmodified model; this reflects the dynamic changes of the inflow parameters during discharge in our model. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial variations of the different plasma species in the discharge chamber were numerically studied. The numerical studies showed that polytetrafluoroethylene plasma was mainly composed of monovalent ions; carbon and fluorine ions were concentrated in the upstream and downstream discharge chamber, respectively. The results based on this modified model were in good agreement with the experimental formation times of the various plasma species. A large number of short-lived and highly ionized carbon and fluorine species (divalent and trivalent ions) were created during initial discharge. These highly ionized species reached their peak density earlier than the singly ionized species.

  12. Thermal decomposition of specifically phosphorylated D-glucoses and their role in the control of the Maillard reaction. (United States)

    Yaylayan, Varoujan A; Machiels, David; Istasse, Louis


    One of the main shortcomings of the information available on the Maillard reaction is the lack of knowledge to control the different pathways, especially when it is desired to direct the reaction away from the formation of carcinogenic and other toxic substances to more aroma and color generation. The use of specifically phosphorylated sugars may impart some elements of control over the aroma profile generated by the Maillard reaction. Thermal decomposition of 1- and 6-phosphorylated glucoses was studied in the presence and absence of ammonia and selected amino acids through pyrolysis/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using nonpolar PLOT and medium polar DB-1 columns. The analysis of the data has indicated that glucose-1-phosphate relative to glucose undergoes more extensive phosphate-catalyzed ring opening followed by formation of sugar-derived reactive intermediates as was indicated by a 9-fold increase in the amount of trimethylpyrazine and a 5-fold increase in the amount of 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, when pyrolyzed in the presence of glycine. In addition, glucose-1-phosphate alone generated a 6-fold excess of acetol as compared to glucose. On the other hand, glucose-6-phosphate enhanced retro-aldol reactions initiated from a C-6 hydroxyl group and increased the subsequent formation of furfural and 4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione. Furthermore, it also stabilized 1- and 3-deoxyglucosone intermediates and enhanced the formation of six carbon atom-containing Maillard products derived directly from them through elimination reactions such as 1,6-dimethyl-2,4-dihydroxy-3-(2H)-furanone (acetylformoin), 2-acetylpyrrole, 5-methylfurfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone (Furaneol), due to the enhanced leaving group ability of the phosphate moiety at the C-6 carbon. However, Maillard products generated through the nucleophilic action of the C-6 hydroxyl group such as 2-acetylfuran and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one were retarded, due

  13. In situ generation of N-Boc-protected alkenyl imines: controlling the E/Z geometry of alkenyl moieties in the Mukaiyama-Mannich reaction. (United States)

    Bai, Jian-Fei; Sasagawa, Hajime; Yurino, Taiga; Kano, Taichi; Maruoka, Keiji


    Readily available Boc-protected Z-alkenyl aminals could be used as Z-alkenyl and E-alkenyl imine precursors under acidic conditions. In the Mukaiyama-Mannich reaction of Z-alkenyl Boc-aminals, the E/Z geometry of the products was controlled by the catalyst used. The present method was also applied to asymmetric Mukaiyama-Mannich reactions.

  14. Spatiotemporal study of gas heating mechanisms in a radio-frequency electrothermal plasma micro-thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia eGreig


    Full Text Available A spatiotemporal study of neutral gas temperature during the first 100 s of operation for a radio-frequency electrothermal plasma micro-thruster operating on nitrogen at 60 W and 1.5 Torr is performed to identify the heating mechanisms involved. Neutral gas temperature is estimated from rovibrational band fitting of the nitrogen second positive system. A set of baffles are used to restrict the optical image and separate the heating mechanisms occurring in the central bulk discharge region and near the thruster walls.For each spatial region there are three distinct gas heating mechanisms being fast heating from ion-neutral collisions with timescales of tens of milliseconds, intermediate heating with timescales of 10 s from ion bombardment on the inner thruster tube surface creating wall heating, and slow heating with timescales of 100 s from gradual warming of the entire thruster housing. The results are discussed in relation to optimising the thermal properties of future thruster designs.

  15. Integration Testing of a Modular Discharge Supply for NASA's High Voltage Hall Accelerator Thruster (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Kamhawi, hani; Drummond, Geoff


    NASA s In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing a high performance Hall thruster that can fulfill the needs of future Discovery-class missions. The result of this effort is the High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster that can operate over a power range from 0.3 to 3.5 kW and a specific impulse from 1,000 to 2,800 sec, and process 300 kg of xenon propellant. Simultaneously, a 4.0 kW discharge power supply comprised of two parallel modules was developed. These power modules use an innovative three-phase resonant topology that can efficiently supply full power to the thruster at an output voltage range of 200 to 700 V at an input voltage range of 80 to 160 V. Efficiencies as high as 95.9 percent were measured during an integration test with the NASA103M.XL thruster. The accuracy of the master/slave current sharing circuit and various thruster ignition techniques were evaluated.

  16. Study on the influences of ionization region material arrangement on Hall thruster channel discharge characteristics (United States)

    Xiang, HU; Ping, DUAN; Jilei, SONG; Wenqing, LI; Long, CHEN; Xingyu, BIAN


    There exists strong interaction between the plasma and channel wall in the Hall thruster, which greatly affects the discharge performance of the thruster. In this paper, a two-dimensional physical model is established based on the actual size of an Aton P70 Hall thruster discharge channel. The particle-in-cell simulation method is applied to study the influences of segmented low emissive graphite electrode biased with anode voltage on the discharge characteristics of the Hall thruster channel. The influences of segmented electrode placed at the ionization region on electric potential, ion number density, electron temperature, ionization rate, discharge current and specific impulse are discussed. The results show that, when segmented electrode is placed at the ionization region, the axial length of the acceleration region is shortened, the equipotential lines tend to be vertical with wall at the acceleration region, thus radial velocity of ions is reduced along with the wall corrosion. The axial position of the maximal electron temperature moves towards the exit with the expansion of ionization region. Furthermore, the electron-wall collision frequency and ionization rate also increase, the discharge current decreases and the specific impulse of the Hall thruster is slightly enhanced.

  17. Near-infrared light controlled photocatalytic activity of carbon quantum dots for highly selective oxidation reaction (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui


    Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize the transformation from benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with high selectivity (100%) and conversion (92%) under NIR light irradiation. HO&z.rad; is the main active oxygen specie in benzyl alcohol selective oxidative reaction confirmed by terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing assay (TA-PL), selecting toluene as the substrate. Such metal-free photocatalytic system also selectively converts other alcohol substrates to their corresponding aldehydes with high conversion, demonstrating a potential application of accessing traditional alcohol oxidation chemistry.Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize

  18. Numerical Simulation of High Specific Impulse Ion Thruster Grid System (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshinori

    A high specific impulse ion thruster (HiIsp-IT) operated at a voltage of over 10 kV has been studied and the problems of direct ion impingement on the accelerating grid and of production and impingement of charge-exchange ions have been considered. In order to investigate these problems and to facilitate the grid systems design, a three-dimensional particle simulation code that employs an energy compensation method, a simplified pre-sheath definition method, a region sharing method was developed. This code also simulates the production and subsequent motion of charge-exchange ions. Using this code, results obtained quickly using a personal computer are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data associated with: the crossover impingement under low-beam-current condition and the star-shaped pattern of ion beam cross section as it passes through the accelerating grid. It argued that this code is a useful tool for rapid preliminary analysis and design of HiIsp-IT grid systems.

  19. Investigation of a Gallium MPD Thruster with an Ablating Cathode (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, Kurt A.


    Arc impedance, exhaust velocity, and plasma probe measurements are presented. The thruster is driven by a 50 microsecond pulse from a 6.2 milliohm pulse forming network, and gallium is supplied to the discharge by evaporation of the cathode. The arc voltage is found to vary linearly with the discharge current with an arc impedance of 6.5 milliohms. Electrostatic probes yield an exhaust velocity that is invariant with the discharge current and has a peak value of 20 kilometers per second, which is in reasonable agreement with the value (16 plus or minus 1 kilometer per second) calculated from the mass bit and discharge current data. Triple probe measurements yield on axis electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV, electron densities in the range of 1.6 x 10(exp 21) to 2.1 x 10(exp 22) per cubic meter, and a divergence half angle of 16 degrees. Measurements within the interelectrode region yield a peak magnetic field of 0.8 T, and the observed radial trends are consistent with an azimuthally symmetric current distribution. A cathode power balance model is coupled with an ablative heat conduction model predicting mass bit values that are within 20% of the experimental values.

  20. Ion velocities in a micro-cathode arc thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael [The George Washington University, Washington, DC 22202 (United States); Beilis, Isak [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)


    Ion velocities in the plasma jet generated by the micro-cathode arc thruster are studied by means of time-of-flight method using enhanced ion detection system (EIDS). The EIDS triggers perturbations (spikes) on arc current waveform, and the larger current in the spike generates denser plasma bunches propagating along with the mainstream plasma. The EIDS utilizes double electrostatic probes rather than single probes. The average Ti ion velocity is measured to be around 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s without a magnetic field. It was found that the application of a magnetic field does not change ion velocities in the interelectrode region while leads to ion acceleration in the free expanding plasma plume by a factor of about 2. Ion velocities of about 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s were detected for the magnetic field of about 300 mT at distance of about 100-200 mm from the cathode. It is proposed that plasma is accelerated due to Lorentz force. The average thrust is calculated using the ion velocity measurements and the cathode mass consumption rate, and its increase with the magnetic field is demonstrated.

  1. An ablative pulsed plasma thruster with a segmented anode (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Junxue; Tang, Haibin; Ling, William Yeong Liang; York, Thomas M.


    An ablative pulsed plasma thruster (APPT) design with a ‘segmented anode’ is proposed in this paper. We aim to examine the effect that this asymmetric electrode configuration (a normal cathode and a segmented anode) has on the performance of an APPT. The magnetic field of the discharge arc, plasma density in the exit plume, impulse bit, and thrust efficiency were studied using a magnetic probe, Langmuir probe, thrust stand, and mass bit measurements, respectively. When compared with conventional symmetric parallel electrodes, the segmented anode APPT shows an improvement in the impulse bit of up to 28%. The thrust efficiency is also improved by 49% (from 5.3% to 7.9% for conventional and segmented designs, respectively). Long-exposure broadband emission images of the discharge morphology show that compared with a normal anode, a segmented anode results in clear differences in the luminous discharge morphology and better collimation of the plasma. The magnetic probe data indicate that the segmented anode APPT exhibits a higher current density in the discharge arc. Furthermore, Langmuir probe data collected from the central exit plane show that the peak electron density is 75% higher than with conventional parallel electrodes. These results are believed to be fundamental to the physical mechanisms behind the increased impulse bit of an APPT with a segmented electrode.

  2. Thrust Stand Characterization of the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) (United States)

    Diamant, Kevin D.; Pollard, James E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.


    Direct thrust measurements have been made on the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion engine using a standard pendulum style thrust stand constructed specifically for this application. Values have been obtained for the full 40-level throttle table, as well as for a few off-nominal operating conditions. Measurements differ from the nominal NASA throttle table 10 (TT10) values by 3.1 percent at most, while at 30 throttle levels (TLs) the difference is less than 2.0 percent. When measurements are compared to TT10 values that have been corrected using ion beam current density and charge state data obtained at The Aerospace Corporation, they differ by 1.2 percent at most, and by 1.0 percent or less at 37 TLs. Thrust correction factors calculated from direct thrust measurements and from The Aerospace Corporation s plume data agree to within measurement error for all but one TL. Thrust due to cold flow and "discharge only" operation has been measured, and analytical expressions are presented which accurately predict thrust based on thermal thrust generation mechanisms.

  3. Controlling nanomaterial synthesis, chemical reactions and self assembly in dynamic thin films. (United States)

    Chen, Xianjue; Smith, Nicole M; Iyer, K Swaminathan; Raston, Colin L


    Recent advances in continuous-flow processors, which integrate sustainability metrics including scalability, have established their utility in materials and chemical processing. In this review the spinning disc processor (SDP) and the related rotating tube processor (RTP), are highlighted in the use of highly sheared and micro-mixed dynamic thin films in gaining control over such processing for a wide range of applications. Both SDP and RTP have a number of control parameters beyond traditional batch processing which are effective in (i) manipulating the size, shape, defects, agglomeration, and precipitation of nanoparticles, as well as decorating preformed nano-structures, for a variety of inorganic and organic compounds, (ii) controlling chemical reactivity and selectivity including the formation of polymers, and (iii) disassembling self organised nano-structures, as a tool for probing macromolecular structure under shear conditions.

  4. Dynamic Control of Aptamer-Ligand Activity Using Strand Displacement Reactions. (United States)

    Lloyd, Jonathan; Tran, Claire H; Wadhwani, Krishen; Cuba Samaniego, Christian; Subramanian, Hari K K; Franco, Elisa


    Nucleic acid aptamers are an expandable toolkit of sensors and regulators. To employ aptamer regulators within nonequilibrium molecular networks, the aptamer-ligand interactions should be tunable over time, so that functions within a given system can be activated or suppressed on demand. This is accomplished through complementary sequences to aptamers, which achieve programmable aptamer-ligand dissociation by displacing the aptamer from the ligand. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our simple approach on light-up aptamers as well as on aptamers inhibiting viral RNA polymerases, dynamically controlling the functionality of the aptamer-ligand complex. Mathematical models allow us to obtain estimates for the aptamer displacement kinetics. Our results suggest that aptamers, paired with their complement, could be used to build dynamic nucleic acid networks with direct control over a variety of aptamer-controllable enzymes and their downstream pathways.

  5. A Novel, Essential Control for Clonality Analysis with Human Androgen Receptor Gene Polymerase Chain Reaction (United States)

    van Dijk, Jeroen P.; Heuver, Leonie H.; van der Reijden, Bert A.; Raymakers, Reinier A.; de Witte, Theo; Jansen, Joop H.


    The most widely used technique for determining clonality based on X-chromosome inactivation is the human androgen receptor gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The reliability of this assay depends critically on the digestion of DNA before PCR with the methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme HpaII. We have developed a novel method for quantitatively monitoring the HpaII digestion in individual samples. Using real-time quantitative PCR we measured the efficiency of HpaII digestion by measuring the amplification of a gene that escapes X-chromosome inactivation (XE169) before and after digestion. This method was tested in blood samples from 30 individuals: 2 healthy donors and 28 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. We found a lack of XE169 DNA reduction after digestion in the granulocytes of two myelodysplastic syndrome patients leading to a false polyclonal X-chromosome inactivation pattern. In all other samples a significant reduction of XE169 DNA was observed after HpaII digestion. The median reduction was 220-fold, ranging from a 9.0-fold to a 57,000-fold reduction. Also paraffin-embedded malignant tissue was investigated from two samples of patients with mantle cell lymphoma and two samples of patients with colon carcinoma. In three of these cases inefficient HpaII digestion led to inaccurate X-chromosome inactivation pattern ratios. We conclude that monitoring the efficiency of the HpaII digestion in a human androgen receptor gene PCR setting is both necessary and feasible. PMID:12213708

  6. Hot-Fire Testing of 100 LB(sub F) LOX/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine at Altitude Conditions (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.


    Liquid oxygen/liquid methane (LO2/LCH4 ) has recently been viewed as a potential green propulsion system for both the Altair ascent main engine (AME) and reaction control system (RCS). The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development Project (PCAD) has been tasked by NASA to develop these green propellant systems to enable safe and cost effective exploration missions. However, experience with LO2/LCH4 as a propellant combination is limited, so testing of these systems is critical to demonstrating reliable ignition and performance. A test program of a 100 lb f reaction control engine (RCE) is underway at the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) of the NASA Glenn Research Center, with a focus on conducting tests at altitude conditions. These tests include a unique propellant conditioning feed system (PCFS) which allows for the inlet conditions of the propellant to be varied to test warm to subcooled liquid propellant temperatures. Engine performance, including thrust, c* and vacuum specific impulse (I(sub sp,vac)) will be presented as a function of propellant temperature conditions. In general, the engine performed as expected, with higher performance at warmer propellant temperatures but better efficiency at lower propellant temperatures. Mixture ratio effects were inconclusive within the uncertainty bands of data, but qualitatively showed higher performance at lower ratios.

  7. Optimal Trajectory Planning and Coordinated Tracking Control Method of Tethered Space Robot Based on Velocity Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfeng Huang


    Full Text Available The tethered space robot (TSR is a new concept of space robot which consists of a robot platform, space tether and operation robot. This paper presents a multi-objective optimal trajectory planning and a coordinated tracking control scheme for TSR based on velocity impulse in the approaching phase. Both total velocity impulse and flight time are included in this optimization. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is employed to obtain the optimal trajectory Pareto solution using the TSR dynamic model and optimal trajectory planning model. The coordinated tracking control scheme utilizes optimal velocity impulse. Furthermore, the PID controller is designed in order to compensate for the distance measurement errors. The PID control force is optimized and distributed to thrusters and the space tether using a simulated annealing algorithm. The attitude interferential torque of the space tether is compensated a using time-delay algorithm through reaction wheels. The simulation results show that the multi-objective optimal trajectory planning method can reveal the relationships among flight time, fuel consumption, planar view angle and velocity impulse number. This method can provide a series of optimal trajectory according to a number of special tasks. The coordinated control scheme can significantly save thruster fuel for tracking the optimal trajectory, restrain the attitude interferential torque produced by space tether and maintain the relative attitude stability of the operation robot.

  8. Control of spatially heterogeneous and time-varying cellular reaction networks: a new summation law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Peletier (Mark); H.V. Westerhoff (Hans); B.N. Kholodenko


    textabstractA hallmark of a plethora of intracellular signaling pathways is the spatial separation of activation and deactivation processes that potentially results in precipitous gradients of activated proteins. The classical Metabolic Control Analysis (MCA), which quantifies the influence of an

  9. Construction of cryptographic information protection in automated control systems for rapid reaction military forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Petrovich Evseev


    Full Text Available New approaches to realizations of military operations are analyzed. The main factors that directly affect the construction and operation of information security subsystems in prospective automated command and control military systems are described. Possible ways of the construction of cryptographic subsystems of information protection in automated operation management systems for united military force groups are investigated.

  10. Cascade Polymerization via Controlled Tandem Olefin Metathesis/Metallotropic 1,3-Shift Reactions for the Synthesis of Fully Conjugated Polyenynes. (United States)

    Kang, Cheol; Park, Hyeon; Lee, Jin-Kyung; Choi, Tae-Lim


    We demonstrate the first example of cascade polymerization by combining olefin metathesis and metallotropic 1,3-shift reactions to form unique conjugated polyenynes. Rational design of monomers enabled controlled polymerization, and kinetic investigation of the polymerization mechanism was conducted.

  11. Cost-Effective Control of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Accounting for Societal Reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M Fast

    Full Text Available Studies of cost-effective disease prevention have typically focused on the tradeoff between the cost of disease transmission and the cost of applying control measures. We present a novel approach that also accounts for the cost of social disruptions resulting from the spread of disease. These disruptions, which we call social response, can include heightened anxiety, strain on healthcare infrastructure, economic losses, or violence.The spread of disease and social response are simulated under several different intervention strategies. The modeled social response depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, the extent of disease spread, and the media involvement. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we estimate the total number of infections and total social response for each strategy. We then identify the strategy that minimizes the expected total cost of the disease, which includes the cost of the disease itself, the cost of control measures, and the cost of social response.The model-based simulations suggest that the least-cost disease control strategy depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, as well as media intervention. The most cost-effective solution for diseases with low perceived risk was to implement moderate control measures. For diseases with higher perceived severity, such as SARS or Ebola, the most cost-effective strategy shifted toward intervening earlier in the outbreak, with greater resources. When intervention elicited increased media involvement, it remained important to control high severity diseases quickly. For moderate severity diseases, however, it became most cost-effective to implement no intervention and allow the disease to run its course. Our simulation results imply that, when diseases are perceived as severe, the costs of social response have a significant influence on selecting the most cost-effective strategy.

  12. Cost-Effective Control of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Accounting for Societal Reaction. (United States)

    Fast, Shannon M; González, Marta C; Markuzon, Natasha


    Studies of cost-effective disease prevention have typically focused on the tradeoff between the cost of disease transmission and the cost of applying control measures. We present a novel approach that also accounts for the cost of social disruptions resulting from the spread of disease. These disruptions, which we call social response, can include heightened anxiety, strain on healthcare infrastructure, economic losses, or violence. The spread of disease and social response are simulated under several different intervention strategies. The modeled social response depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, the extent of disease spread, and the media involvement. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we estimate the total number of infections and total social response for each strategy. We then identify the strategy that minimizes the expected total cost of the disease, which includes the cost of the disease itself, the cost of control measures, and the cost of social response. The model-based simulations suggest that the least-cost disease control strategy depends upon the perceived risk of the disease, as well as media intervention. The most cost-effective solution for diseases with low perceived risk was to implement moderate control measures. For diseases with higher perceived severity, such as SARS or Ebola, the most cost-effective strategy shifted toward intervening earlier in the outbreak, with greater resources. When intervention elicited increased media involvement, it remained important to control high severity diseases quickly. For moderate severity diseases, however, it became most cost-effective to implement no intervention and allow the disease to run its course. Our simulation results imply that, when diseases are perceived as severe, the costs of social response have a significant influence on selecting the most cost-effective strategy.

  13. AZALEP a randomized controlled trial of azathioprine to treat leprosy nerve damage and Type 1 reactions in India: Main findings. (United States)

    Lockwood, Diana N J; Darlong, Joydeepa; Govindharaj, Pitchaimani; Kurian, Royce; Sundarrao, Pamidipani; John, Annamma S


    Leprosy Type 1 reactions are difficult to treat and only 70% of patients respond to steroid treatment. Azathioprine has been used as an immune-suppressant and we tested its efficacy in treating leprosy T1R. Randomised controlled trial adding azathioprine to steroid treatment for leprosy reactions. This trial was conducted in four leprosy hospitals in India. Patients with a new leprosy Type 1 reaction affecting either skin or nerve were recruited. They were given a 20 week course of oral prednisolone either with placebo or azathioprine 50mg for 24, 36 or 48 weeks. Outcomes were measured using a verified combined clinical reaction severity score (CCS) and the score difference between baseline and end of study calculated. An intention to treat analysis was done on the 279 patients who had an outcome. 345 patients were recruited, 145 were lost due to adverse events, loss to follow up or death. 36% needed extra steroids due to a recurrence of their skin and/or nerve reaction. 76% of patients had improvements in their CCS the end of the study, 22% had no change and 1.1% deteriorated. Adding azathioprine to steroid treatment did not improve CCS. So the improvements were attributable to treatment with steroids. We analysed the skin, sensory and motor scores separately and found that skin improvement contributed most with 78.9% of patients having skin improvement, azathioprine treatment for 48 weeks improved sensory scores it also improved motor scores but so did treatment with prednisolone alone. We identified significant adverse effects attributable to steroid treatment. When azathioprine and Dapsone were given together significant numbers of patients developed significant anaemia. Azathioprine is not recommended for the treatment of leprosy reactions and does not improve steroid treatment. Recurrent reactions are a major challenge. We have also identified that 65% of patients with sensory and 50% with motor nerve damage do not improve. Future studies should test giving

  14. Evidence of a complex species controlling the setting reaction of glass ionomer cements. (United States)

    Dickey, Brett; Price, Richard; Boyd, Daniel


    To elucidate the mechanism(s) responsible for the profound impact germanium has on the setting reaction of zinc silicate glass ionomer cements (GICs). Five glass powder compositions (0.48-xSiO2, xGeO2, 0.36 ZnO, 0.16 CaO; where x=0.12, 0.24, 0.36, 0.48mol. fraction) were synthesized. Glass degradation was assessed under simulated setting conditions using acetic acid from 0.5 to 60min, monitoring the concentrations of ions released using ICP-OES. Subsequently, GICs were prepared by mixing fresh glass powders with polyacrylic acid (PAA, Mw=12,500g/mol, 50wt% aq. solution) at a 1:0.75 ratio. Cement structure and properties were evaluated using ATR-FTIR and rheology (for 60min), as well as 24h biaxial flexural strength. Reduced Si:Ge ratios yielded faster degrading glasses, yet contrary to expectation, the corresponding ATR-FTIR spectra indicated slower crosslinking within the GIC matrix. Rheology testing found the initial viscosity cement pastes reduced with decreased Si:Ge, and Ge containing cements all set significantly slower than the Si based GIC. Interestingly, biaxial flexural strength remained consistent regardless of setting behavior. This counter-intuitive combination of behaviors is attributed to the presence of a chemical complex species specific to Ge-containing glasses that delays, but does not hinder, the formation of the GIC matrix. These findings embody chemical complex species as a mechanism to decouple glass reactivity from cement setting rate, a mechanism with the potential to enhance the utility of GICs in both dental and orthopaedic applications. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Liquid-metal-fed Pulsed Plasma Thrusters for In-space Propulsion (United States)

    Markusic, Thomas E.


    Liquid metal propellants may provide a path toward more reliable and efficient pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs). Conceptual thruster designs which eliminate the need for high current switches and propellant metering valves are described. Propellant loading techniques are suggested that show promise to increase thruster propellant utilization, dynamic, and electrical efficiency. Calibration results from a compact, electromagnetically-pumped propellant feed system are presented. Results for lithium and gallium propellants show capability to meter propellant at flow rates up to 10 +/- 0.1 mg/s. Experiments investigating the initiation of arc discharges using liquid metal droplets are presented. High speed photography and laser interferometry provide spatially and temporally resolved information on the decomposition of liquid metal droplets , and the evolution of the accelerating current channel.

  16. Diffusion and interface controlled reactions in {alpha}-(Cu-Al-Ag) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, A.T. [Instituto de Quimica, Unesp, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Silva, R.A.G. [Instituto de Quimica, Unesp, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Magdalena, A.G. [Instituto de Quimica, Unesp, Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)


    The isothermal kinetics of Ag precipitation was studied in Cu-Al-Ag alloys with concentrations ranging from 2 to 8 wt.%Al and 2 to 12 wt.%Ag, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and microhardness measurements. The results indicated a change in the precipitates growing mechanism from diffusion to interface controlled process, probably due to a change in the nature of the interface with the Ag and Al enrichment of the precipitates.

  17. Longer reaction time of the fibularis longus muscle and reduced postural control in basketball players with functional ankle instability: A pilot study. (United States)

    Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Guzmán-Muñoz, Eduardo; Gatica-Rojas, Valeska; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann


    Motor control evaluation in subjects with functional ankle instability is questionable when both ankles of the same subject are compared (affected vs non-affected). To compare the postural control and reaction time of ankle muscles among: basketball players with FAI (instability group), basketball players without FAI (non-instability group) and healthy non-basketball-playing participants (control group). Case-control study. Laboratory. Instability (n = 10), non-instability (n = 10), and control groups (n = 11). Centre of pressure variables (area, velocity and sway) were measured with a force platform. Reaction time of ankle muscles was measured via electromyography. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated that there were significant differences between the instability and non-instability groups in the fibularis longus (p Basketball players with FAI have reduced postural control and longer reaction time of the fibularis and tibialis anterior muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hall-Effect Thruster Simulations with 2-D Electron Transport and Hydrodynamic Ions (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard H.; Goebel, Dan M.


    A computational approach that has been used extensively in the last two decades for Hall thruster simulations is to solve a diffusion equation and energy conservation law for the electrons in a direction that is perpendicular to the magnetic field, and use discrete-particle methods for the heavy species. This "hybrid" approach has allowed for the capture of bulk plasma phenomena inside these thrusters within reasonable computational times. Regions of the thruster with complex magnetic field arrangements (such as those near eroded walls and magnets) and/or reduced Hall parameter (such as those near the anode and the cathode plume) challenge the validity of the quasi-one-dimensional assumption for the electrons. This paper reports on the development of a computer code that solves numerically the 2-D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law, with no assumptions regarding the rate of electron transport in the parallel and perpendicular directions. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations in a computational mesh that is aligned with the magnetic field. The fully-2D approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction, and encompasses the cathode boundary. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for charge-exchange and multiple-ionization collisions in the momentum equations. A first series of simulations of two Hall thrusters, namely the BPT-4000 and a 6-kW laboratory thruster, quantifies the significance of ion diffusion in the anode region and the importance of the extended physical domain on studies related to the impact of the transport coefficients on the electron flow field.

  19. Non-Maxwellian electron energy probability functions in the plume of a SPT-100 Hall thruster (United States)

    Giono, G.; Gudmundsson, J. T.; Ivchenko, N.; Mazouffre, S.; Dannenmayer, K.; Loubère, D.; Popelier, L.; Merino, M.; Olentšenko, G.


    We present measurements of the electron density, the effective electron temperature, the plasma potential, and the electron energy probability function (EEPF) in the plume of a 1.5 kW-class SPT-100 Hall thruster, derived from cylindrical Langmuir probe measurements. The measurements were taken on the plume axis at distances between 550 and 1550 mm from the thruster exit plane, and at different angles from the plume axis at 550 mm for three operating points of the thruster, characterized by different discharge voltages and mass flow rates. The bulk of the electron population can be approximated as a Maxwellian distribution, but the measured distributions were seen to decline faster at higher energy. The measured EEPFs were best modelled with a general EEPF with an exponent α between 1.2 and 1.5, and their axial and angular characteristics were studied for the different operating points of the thruster. As a result, the exponent α from the fitted distribution was seen to be almost constant as a function of the axial distance along the plume, as well as across the angles. However, the exponent α was seen to be affected by the mass flow rate, suggesting a possible relationship with the collision rate, especially close to the thruster exit. The ratio of the specific heats, the γ factor, between the measured plasma parameters was found to be lower than the adiabatic value of 5/3 for each of the thruster settings, indicating the existence of non-trivial kinetic heat fluxes in the near collisionless plume. These results are intended to be used as input and/or testing properties for plume expansion models in further work.

  20. Influence of the magnetic field configuration on the plasma flow in Hall thrusters (United States)

    Andreussi, T.; Giannetti, V.; Leporini, A.; Saravia, M. M.; Andrenucci, M.


    In Hall propulsion, the thrust is provided by the acceleration of ions in a plasma generated in a cross-field configuration. Standard thruster configurations have annular channels with an almost radial magnetic field at the channel exit. A potential difference is imposed in the axial direction and the intensity of the magnetic field is calibrated in order to hinder the electron motion, while leaving the ions non-magnetised. Magnetic field lines can be assumed, as a first approximation, as lines of constant electron temperature and of thermalized potential. In typical thruster configurations, the discharge occurs inside a ceramic channel and, due to plasma–wall interactions, the electron temperature is typically low, less than few tens of eV. Hence, the magnetic field lines can be effectively used to tailor the distribution of the electrostatic potential. However, the erosion of the ceramic walls caused by the ion bombardment represents the main limiting factor of the thruster lifetime and new thruster configurations are currently under development. For these configurations, classical first order models of the plasma dynamics fail to grasp the influence of the magnetic topology on the plasma flow. In the present paper, a novel approach to investigate the correlation between magnetic field topology and thruster performance is presented. Due to the anisotropy induced by the magnetic field, the gradients of the plasma properties are assumed to be mainly in the direction orthogonal to the local magnetic field, thus enabling a quasi-one-dimensional description in magnetic coordinates. Theoretical and experimental investigations performed on a 5 kW class Hall thruster with different magnetic field configurations are then presented and discussed.

  1. Cassini Orbit Trim Maneuvers at Saturn - Overview of Attitude Control Flight Operations (United States)

    Burk, Thomas A.


    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since July 1, 2004. To remain on the planned trajectory which maximizes science data return, Cassini must perform orbit trim maneuvers using either its main engine or its reaction control system thrusters. Over 200 maneuvers have been executed on the spacecraft since arrival at Saturn. To improve performance and maintain spacecraft health, changes have been made in maneuver design command placement, in accelerometer scale factor, and in the pre-aim vector used to align the engine gimbal actuator prior to main engine burn ignition. These and other changes have improved maneuver performance execution errors significantly since 2004. A strategy has been developed to decide whether a main engine maneuver should be performed, or whether the maneuver can be executed using the reaction control system.

  2. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry for noncontact temperature control of nanoliter-volume enzymatic reactions in glass microchips. (United States)

    Easley, Christopher J; Legendre, Lindsay A; Roper, Michael G; Wavering, Thomas A; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P


    Optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry (EFPI) was investigated as a noncontact temperature sensor and utilized for regulating the temperature of small-volume solutions in microchips. Interference pattern analysis determined the optical path lengths (OPL) associated with reflections from various surfaces on or in the microchip, in particular, from gold sputtered on the bottom of a microchannel. Since OPL is directly proportional to refractive index, which is dependent on solution temperature, the EFPI sensor was capable of noncontact monitoring of solution temperature simply from alterations in the measured path length. Calibration of the sensor against a thermocouple was performed while heating the microchip in a noncontact manner with an IR lamp. The combination of EFPI temperature sensor, IR-mediated heating, and air cooling allowed a fully noncontact system for small-volume temperature control in microchip structures, and its utility was illustrated by optimal digestion of DNA by a temperature-dependent restriction endonuclease in 320 nL. The functionality and simplicity of the microchip EFPI temperature sensor was enhanced by replacing the prebonding sputtered gold with a tunable, chemically plated semireflective silver coating created in situ after chip fabrication. This provided an 8-fold improvement in the lowest detectable temperature change (deltaT = 0.1 degrees C), facilitated primarily by enhanced reflection from both the bottom and top surfaces of the microchannel. This approach for controlling micro- and nanoscale reactions--with heating, cooling, and temperature control being carried out in a completely noncontact fashion--provides an accurate and sensitive method for executing chemical and biochemical reactions in microchips.

  3. Evalution Of A 4.5-kW D-100 Thruster With Anode Layer (United States)

    Garner, C. E.; Tverdokhlebov, S. O.; Semenkin, A. V.; Garkusha, V. I.


    Design characteristics and performance data of a 4.5-kW, thruster with anode layer (TAL) developed at the Central Research Institue for Machine Building (TsNIIMASH) are presented. The TAL is designated the D-100 with a discharge chamber of outer diameter approximately 100mm. Performance characteristics demonstrated by the D-100 and life estimates by TsNIIMASH make this thruster an excellent candidate for a wide range of station keeping, orbit raising, orbit maneuvering and JPL planetary missions.

  4. Comparison of foot pedal reaction time among patients with right or left hemiplegia and able-bodied controls. (United States)

    Pauley, Tim; Ismail, Farooq; Boulias, Chris; Devlin, Michael; Phadke, Chetan P


    Although inpatient stroke rehabilitation provides clinicians with the opportunity to prepare patients for continuation of prestroke activities, little is known about the patients' ability to safely resume driving at the point of discharge to the community. To compare foot pedal response times of 20 stroke patients with right hemiplegia (RH) or left hemiplegia (LH) and 10 controls. A cross-sectional design was used. Response times were measured using 3 foot pedal operation techniques: (1) right-sided accelerator with right leg operating accelerator and brake, (2) right-sided accelerator with left leg operating accelerator and brake, and (3) left-sided accelerator with left leg operating accelerator and brake. Outcomes included reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), and total response time (TRT). Controls demonstrated faster RT than patients with RH (263 vs 348 ms; P < .001) or LH (316 ms; P < .05) for all conditions, as well as faster MT than patients with RH (P < .05 for all) but not LH when using the right leg (258 vs 251 ms; P = .82). Controls demonstrated faster TRT than patients with RH (P < .001 for all) but not LH when using the right leg (515 vs 553 ms; P = .44). When using the nonparetic leg, patients with LH had braking response times comparable to controls, but patients with RH demonstrated significant impairment of both the paretic and nonparetic legs.

  5. Pretreatment Differences in Intraindividual Variability in Reaction Time between Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer and Healthy Controls. (United States)

    Yao, Christie; Rich, Jill B; Tannock, Ian F; Seruga, Bostjan; Tirona, Kattleya; Bernstein, Lori J


    Chemotherapy has adverse effects on cognitive performance in women treated for breast cancer, but less is known about the period before chemotherapy. Studies have focused on mean level of performance, yet there is increasing recognition that variability in performance within an individual is also an important behavioral indicator of cognitive functioning and underlying neural integrity. We examined intraindividual variability (IIV) before chemotherapy and surgery in women diagnosed with breast cancer (n=31), and a healthy control group matched on age and education (n=25). IIV was calculated across trials of a computerized Stroop task, including an examination of the slowest and fastest trials of reaction time (RT) responses. The groups were equivalent on overall accuracy and speed, and participants in both groups were less accurate and slower on incongruent trials compared with congruent trials. However, women with breast cancer became more variable with increased task difficulty relative to healthy controls. Among the slowest RT responses, women with breast cancer were significantly more variable than healthy controls on incongruent trials. This suggests that a specific variability-producing process (e.g., attentional lapses) occurs in task conditions that require executive control (e.g., incongruent trials). Results are consistent with other evidence of executive dysfunction among women treated for breast cancer. These findings highlight the importance of pretreatment assessment and show that variability in performance provides information about cognition that measures of central tendency do not.

  6. Power to the people: using learner control to improve trainee reactions and learning in web-based instructional environments. (United States)

    Orvis, Karin A; Fisher, Sandra L; Wasserman, Michael E


    This experimental study investigated the mechanisms by which learner control influences learning in an e-learning environment. The authors hypothesized that learner control would enhance learning indirectly through its effect on trainee reactions and learner engagement (in particular, off-task attention), such that learners who were more satisfied with the training and devoted more cognitive resources toward the instructional content versus off-task thoughts would possess greater posttraining knowledge. The study also examined the role of individual differences (training motivation and goal orientation) in the prediction of these 2 mediating variables. A sample of 274 undergraduates completed an e-learning program, either with or without interactive, learner control tools. Results suggest that both training satisfaction and off-task attention predicted subsequent learning. Learner control had a positive impact on training satisfaction but was not related to off-task attention. The individual difference variables had a differential impact on the mediating variables. In particular, performance orientation was linked to off-task attention, whereas mastery orientation was found to indirectly influence satisfaction via its direct effect on training motivation. Implications for the design and further study of e-learning are discussed.

  7. Self-Regulated and Temporal Control of a "Breathing" Microgel Mediated by Enzymatic Reaction. (United States)

    Che, Hailong; Buddingh', Bastiaan C; van Hest, Jan C M


    Naturally occurring systems have the ability to self-regulate, which plays a key role in their structural and functional adaptation. The autonomous behavior in living systems is biocatalytically controlled by the continuous consumption of energy to remain in a non-equilibrium condition. In this work, we show the construction of a self-regulated "breathing" microgel that uses chemical fuels to keep the system in the out-of-equilibrium state. The enzyme urease is utilized to program a feedback-induced pH change, which in turn tunes the size switch and fluorescence intensity of the microgel. A continuous supply of chemical fuels to the system allows the process to be reversible. This microgel with tunable autonomous properties provides insights into the design of artificial systems and dynamic soft materials. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. Apparatus for investigating the reactions of soft-bodied invertebrates to controlled humidity gradients. (United States)

    Russell, Joshua; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T


    While many studies have assayed behavioral responses of animals to chemical, temperature and light gradients, fewer studies have assayed how animals respond to humidity gradients. Our novel humidity chamber has allowed us to study the neuromolecular basis of humidity sensation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (Russell et al., 2014). We describe an easy-to-construct, low-cost humidity chamber to assay the behavior of small animals, including soft-bodied invertebrates, in controlled humidity gradients. We show that our humidity-chamber design is amenable to soft-bodied invertebrates and can produce reliable gradients ranging 0.3-8% RH/cm across a 9-cm long × 7.5-cm wide gel-covered arena. Previous humidity chambers relied on circulating dry and moist air to produce a steep humidity gradient in a small arena (e.g. Sayeed and Benzer, 1996). To remove the confound of moving air that may elicit mechanical responses independent of humidity responses, our chamber controlled the humidity gradient using reservoirs of hygroscopic materials. Additionally, to better observe the behavioral mechanisms for humidity responses, our chamber provided a larger arena. Although similar chambers have been described previously, these approaches were not suitable for soft-bodied invertebrates or for easy imaging of behavior because they required that animals move across wire or fabric mesh. The general applicability of our humidity chamber overcomes limitations of previous designs and opens the door to observe the behavioral responses of soft-bodied invertebrates, including genetically powerful C. elegans and Drosophila larvae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Zoledronic acid enhances lipopolysaccharide-stimulated proinflammatory reactions through controlled expression of SOCS1 in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Muratsu

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ is a serious side effect of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (NBP use. Many studies have shown that BRONJ is limited to the jawbone and does not occur in the other bones. We hypothesized that BRONJ is related to local bacterial iections and involves the innate immune system. To examine the relationship between BRONJ and innate immunity, we examined the effects of NBPs on macrophages, one of the important cell types in innate immunity. The expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4 in cells after pretreatment with zoledronic acid (ZOL did not considerably differ from that in untreated control cells. However, cytokine levels and nitric oxide (NO production increased after pretreatment with ZOL. Furthermore, ZOL induced NF-κB activation by enhancing IκB-α degradation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced apoptosis also increased after pretreatment with ZOL. This effect was mediated by a reduction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1, which is a negative regulator of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD 88-dependent signaling. These results suggest that ZOL induced excessive innate immune response and proinflammatory cytokine production and that these processes may be involved in the bone destruction observed in BRONJ.

  10. Size and morphology controlled NiSe nanoparticles as efficient catalyst for the reduction reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, Udumula; Marakatti, Vijaykumar S. [New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Amshumali, Mungalimane K. [New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Vijayanagara Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Jnanasagara Campus, Cantonment, Bellary 583105 (India); Loukya, B. [International Center for Materials Science, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Singh, Dheeraj Kumar [Chemistry & Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Datta, Ranjan [International Center for Materials Science, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India); Peter, Sebastian C., E-mail: [New Chemistry Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur P.O., Bangalore 560064 (India)


    Facile and efficient ball milling and polyol methods were employed for the synthesis of nickel selenide (NiSe) nanoparticle. The particle size of the NiSe nanoparticle has been controlled mechanically by varying the ball size in the milling process. The role of the surfactants in the formation of various morphologies was studied. The compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The efficiency of the NiSe nanoparticle as a catalyst was tested for the reduction of para-nitroaniline (PNA) to para-phenyldiamine (PPD) and para-nitrophenol (PNP) to para-aminophenol (PAP) using NaBH{sub 4} as the reducing agent. Particle size, morphology and the presence of surfactant played a crucial role in the reduction process. - Graphical abstract: NiSe nanoparticles in different size and morphology were synthesized using facile ball milling and polyol methods. Particle size, morphology and the presence of surfactant in these materials played a crucial role in the hydrogenation of PNA and PNP. - Highlights: • NiSe nanoparticles synthesized using ball milling and solution phase methods. • NiSe nanoparticle is an efficient catalyst for the reduction of PNA and PNP. • NiSe is found to be better than the best reported noble metal catalysts.

  11. CFD Simulation of the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle with Booster Separation Motor and Reaction Control System Plumes (United States)

    Gea, L. M.; Vicker, D.


    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate a very complicated flow field encountered during the space shuttle ascent. The flow field features nozzle plumes from booster separation motor (BSM) and reaction control system (RCS) jets with a supersonic incoming cross flow at speed of Mach 4. The overset Navier-Stokes code OVERFLOW, was used to simulate the flow field surrounding the entire space shuttle launch vehicle (SSLV) with high geometric fidelity. The variable gamma option was chosen due to the high temperature nature of nozzle flows and different plume species. CFD predicted Mach contours are in good agreement with the schlieren photos from wind tunnel test. Flow fields are discussed in detail and the results are used to support the debris analysis for the space shuttle Return To Flight (RTF) task.

  12. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Prototype Model 1R (PM1R) Ion Thruster and Propellant Management System Wear Test Results (United States)

    VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.; Sovey, James S.


    The results of the NEXT wear test are presented. This test was conducted with a 36-cm ion engine (designated PM1R) and an engineering model propellant management system. The thruster operated with beam extraction for a total of 1680 hr and processed 30.5 kg of xenon during the wear test, which included performance testing and some operation with an engineering model power processing unit. A total of 1312 hr was accumulated at full power, 277 hr at low power, and the remainder was at intermediate throttle levels. Overall ion engine performance, which includes thrust, thruster input power, specific impulse, and thrust efficiency, was steady with no indications of performance degradation. The propellant management system performed without incident during the wear test. The ion engine and propellant management system were also inspected following the test with no indication of anomalous hardware degradation from operation.

  13. 5.8kV SiC PiN Diode for Switching of High-Efficiency Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster Circuits (United States)

    Toftul, Alexandra; Polzin, Kurt A.; Hudgins, Jerry L.


    Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster (IPPT) pulse circuits, such as those needed to operate the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT), are required to quickly switch capacitor banks operating at a period of µs while conducting current at levels on the order of at least 10 kA. [1,2] For all iterations of the PIT to date, spark gaps have been used to discharge the capacitor bank through an inductive coil. Recent availability of fast, high-power solid state switching devices makes it possible to consider the use of semiconductor switches in modern IPPTs. In addition, novel pre-ionization schemes have led to a reduction in discharge energy per pulse for electric thrusters of this type, relaxing the switching requirements for these thrusters. [3,4] Solid state switches offer the advantage of greater controllability and reliability, as well as decreased drive circuit dimensions and mass relative to spark gap switches. The use of solid state devices such as Integrated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs), Gate Turn-off Thyristors (GTOs) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCRs) often involves the use of power diodes. These semiconductor devices may be connected antiparallel to the switch for protection from reverse current, or used to reduce power loss in a circuit by clamping off current ringing. In each case, higher circuit efficiency may be achieved by using a diode that is able to transition, or 'switch,' from the forward conducting state ('on' state) to the reverse blocking state ('off' state) in the shortest amount of time, thereby minimizing current ringing and switching losses. Silicon Carbide (SiC) PiN diodes offer significant advantages to conventional fast-switching Silicon (Si) diodes for high power and fast switching applications. A wider band gap results in a breakdown voltage 10 times that of Si, so that a SiC device may have a thinner drift region for a given blocking voltage. [5] This leads to smaller, lighter devices for high voltage applications, as well as reduced

  14. Preliminary Results of Performance Measurements on a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.


    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic configurations. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying a higher thrust efficiency. Preliminary thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 100-250 W. The thrust levels over this power range were 3.5-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 14-19% and 875- 1425 s, respectively. The magnetic field in the thruster was lower for the thrust measurements than the plasma probe measurements due to heating and weakening of the permanent magnets, reducing the maximum field strength from 2 kG to roughly 750-800 G. The discharge current levels observed during thrust stand testing were anomalously high compared to those levels measured in previous experiments with this thruster.

  15. Study of the design and efficiency of single stage EHD thrusters at the sub-atmospheric pressure of 1.3 kPa (United States)

    Granados, Victor H.; Pinheiro, Mario J.; Sá, Paulo A.


    The goal of this article is to contribute to the advancement and the improvement of the performances of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) propulsion systems for space missions, especially in what concerns the control of the geometries of the electrodes and the employed gas and its efficiency. We use a previously developed self-consistent model to compare and study the performance of these systems using three different working gases (argon, nitrogen, and oxygen) in terms of net thrust production and thrust-to-power efficiency of single-stage EHD thrusters. In order to verify the dependency of those physical parameters on the configuration and orientation of the electrodes, we conduct systematic simulations of three thruster cathode configurations (conical, cylindrical, and funnel-like). In the present study, the working pressure is ≈1.3 kPa (10 Torr), well below the normal atmospheric pressure, and the gas temperature is 300 K. A similar systematic investigation was conducted in a recent paper at a relatively much lower pressure of 0.5 Torr (20 times less) for the same cathode duct geometries and working gases, which permit to compare the performances of the considered thrusters and gases at these two pressures; then and now, the distance between the electrodes is fixed at 28 mm, but in addition to the pressure, other parameters were modified. Thus, the input voltage is fixed at 3 kV, and the resistance of the ballast varies in the range of 500-5000 MΩ. Nitrogen gas performed better than argon for all proposed geometries, doubling the produced thrust while presenting higher T/P ratios in almost all cases. Oxygen presented significantly better performance than nitrogen's and argon's, e.g., funnel like cathode configuration presented a net thrust higher than 0.1 mN, about one order of magnitude higher than nitrogen's.

  16. Monitoring and Control of a Continuous Grignard Reaction for the Synthesis of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using Inline NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Nielsen, Jesper; Jønch Pedersen, Michael


    Inline near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to monitor a continuous synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) intermediate by a Grignard alkylation reaction. The reaction between a ketone substrate and allylmagnesium chloride may form significant impurities with excess...... feeding of the Grignard reagent beyond the stoichiometric ratio. On the other hand, limiting this reagent would imply a loss in yield. Therefore, accurate dosing of the two reactants is essential. A feedforward–feedback control loop was conceived in order to maintain the reaction as closely as possible...... to the stoichiometric ratio, leading the path to full process automation. The feedback control loop relies on NIR transmission measurements performed in a flow cell where, in contrast to labor-intensive offline HPLC analytical methods, the whole reaction product can be scanned in real time without sample dilution...

  17. Pre-vaccination care-seeking in females reporting severe adverse reactions to HPV vaccine. A registry based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kåre; Hansen, Niels Dalum; Valentiner-Branth, Palle


    Background Since 2013 the number of suspected adverse reactions to the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine reported to the Danish Medicines Agency (DMA) has increased. Due to the resulting public concerns about vaccine safety, the coverage of HPV vaccinations in the childhood...... vaccination programme has declined. The aim of the present study was to determine health care-seeking prior to the first HPV vaccination among females who suspected adverse reactions to HPV vaccine. Methods In this registry-based case-control study, we included as cases vaccinated females with reports...... to the DMA of suspected severe adverse reactions.We selected controls without reports of adverse reactions from the Danish vaccination registry and matched by year of vaccination, age of vaccination, and municipality, and obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry and The National Health Insurance...

  18. Hybrid-PIC simulation of sputtering product distribution in a Hall thruster (United States)

    Cao, Xifeng; Hang, Guanrong; Liu, Hui; Meng, Yingchao; Luo, Xiaoming; Yu, Daren


    Hall thrusters have been widely used in orbit correction and the station-keeping of geostationary satellites due to their high specific impulse, long life, and high reliability. During the operating life of a Hall thruster, high-energy ions will bombard the discharge channel and cause serious erosion. As time passes, this sputtering process will change the macroscopic surface morphology of the discharge channel, especially near the exit, thus affecting the performance of the thruster. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out research on the motion of the sputtering products and erosion process of the discharge wall. To better understand the moving characteristics of sputtering products, based on the hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical method, this paper simulates the different erosion states of the thruster discharge channel in different moments and analyzes the moving process of different particles, such as B atoms and B+ ions. In this paper, the main conclusion is that B atoms are mainly produced on both sides of the channel exit, and B+ ions are mainly produced in the middle of the channel exit. The ionization rate of B atoms is approximately 1%.

  19. Hybrid-PIC Modeling of the Transport of Atomic Boron in a Hall Thruster (United States)

    Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iaian D.; Kamhawi, Hani


    Computational analysis of the transport of boron eroded from the walls of a Hall thruster is performed by implementing sputter yields of hexagonal boron nitride and velocity distribution functions of boron within the hybrid-PIC model HPHall. The model is applied to simulate NASA's HiVHAc Hall thruster at a discharge voltage of 500V and discharge powers of 1-3 kW. The number densities of ground- and 4P-state boron are computed. The density of ground-state boron is shown to be a factor of about 30 less than the plasma density. The density of the excited state is shown to be about three orders of magnitude less than that of the ground state, indicating that electron impact excitation does not significantly affect the density of ground-state boron in the discharge channel or near-field plume of a Hall thruster. Comparing the rates of excitation and ionization suggests that ionization has a greater influence on the density of ground-state boron, but is still negligible. The ground-state boron density is then integrated and compared to cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements for each operating point. The simulation results show good agreement with the measurements for all operating points and provide evidence in support of CRDS as a tool for measuring Hall thruster erosion in situ.

  20. A modular assembly method of a feed and thruster system for Cubesats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, M.C.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    A modular assembly method for devices based on micro system technology is presented. The assembly method forms the foundation for a miniaturized feed and thruster system as part of a micro propulsion unit working as a simple blow-down system of a rocket engine. The micro rocket is designed to be