WorldWideScience

Sample records for reaching final objectives

  1. Object Permanence, Reaching, and Locomotion in Infants Who Are Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.; Tobin, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The literature on the effects of congenital blindness on infants' development of motor functions and concepts of object permanence is reviewed. The article questions the idea that infants must first develop an object concept before sound clues alone will elicit reaching. Possible interventions to redress the effects of congenital blindness on…

  2. Reaching the hip-hop generation: Final (symposium proceedings) report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this final (closing) report is to capture the flavor of the symposium held March 1 and 2, 1993 in New York City convened by Motivational Educational Entertainment, Inc. (MEE), a black-owned communications research, consulting, and video production company based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The mission of MEE is to understand, reach, and positively affect inner-city youth. Traditional communication approaches from mainstream sources to at-risk youth often don`t account for the unique way youth communicate among themselves and how they relate to the media. This understanding, however, is crucial. To understand youth communication, the people who create and send both entertaining and educational messages to urban youth must be brought into the dialogue. The meeting in New York was intended to provide an important opportunity for senders to meet and evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of their messages. In addition, the MEE symposium provided a forum for the continuing public debate about what needs to be done to reach today`s urban teens. Included in this document is a description of symposium goals/objectives, symposium activities, the reaction to and analysis of the symposium, recommendations for future MEE courses of action, and an appendix containing copies of press articles.

  3. Postural and Object-Oriented Experiences Advance Early Reaching, Object Exploration, and Means-End Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Michele A.; Galloway, James C.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of 3 weeks of social (control), postural, or object-oriented experiences on 9- to 21-week-old infants' (N = 42) reaching, exploration, and means-end behaviors were assessed. Coders recorded object contacts, mouthing, fingering, attention, and affect from video. Postural and object-oriented experiences advanced reaching, haptic…

  4. Interrupted object-based updating of reach program leads to a negative compatibility effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Lari

    2009-07-01

    The author investigated how the motor program elicited by an object's orientation is updated by object-based information while a participant reaches for the object. Participants selected the hand of response according to the thickness of the graspable object and then reached toward the location in which the object appeared. Reach initiation times decreased when the handle of the object was oriented toward the responding hand. This positive compatibility effect turned into a negative compatibility effect (NCE) during reach execution when the object was removed from the display 300 ms after object onset or replaced with a mask at movement onset. The results demonstrate that interrupted object-based updating of an ongoing reach movement triggers the NCE.

  5. Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eDomellöf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have observed investigated manual asymmetries performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored manual object-oriented behavioral strategies and hand side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left, and right, midline. Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and . The study also involved measurements of hand position opening prior to grasping., and Additionally, assessments of general hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings support the possibility of a shared underlying mechanism regarding for infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for horizontally objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal pathand vertically moving objects. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  6. Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domellöf, Erik; Barbu-Roth, Marianne; Rönnqvist, Louise; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Fagard, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated manual performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored object-oriented behavioral strategies and side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left and right). Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and hand opening prior to grasping. Additionally, assessments of hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings regarding infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal path. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  7. Object Permanence and Method of Disappearance: Looking Measures Further Contradict Reaching Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P.; Rivera, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Piaget proposed that understanding permanency, understanding occlusion events, and forming mental representations were synonymous; however, accumulating evidence indicates that those concepts are "not" unified in development. Infants reach for endarkened objects at younger ages than for occluded objects, and infants' looking patterns suggest that…

  8. Infants with Down Syndrome and Their Interactions with Objects: Development of Exploratory Actions after Reaching Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; da Costa, Carolina Souza Neves; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    During infant development, objects and their functions are learned by means of active exploration. Factors that may influence exploration include reaching and grasping ability, object properties and the presence of developmental disorders. We assessed the development of exploratory actions in 16 typically-developing (TD) infants and 9 infants with…

  9. Reach on sound: a key to object permanence in visually impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Elisa; Signorini, Sabrina Giovanna; Bomba, Monica; Luparia, Antonella; Lanners, Josée; Balottin, Umberto

    2011-04-01

    The capacity to reach an object presented through sound clue indicates, in the blind child, the acquisition of object permanence and gives information over his/her cognitive development. To assess cognitive development in congenitally blind children with or without multiple disabilities. Cohort study. Thirty-seven congenitally blind subjects (17 with associated multiple disabilities, 20 mainly blind) were enrolled. We used Bigelow's protocol to evaluate "reach on sound" capacity over time (at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months), and a battery of clinical, neurophysiological and cognitive instruments to assess clinical features. Tasks n.1 to 5 were acquired by most of the mainly blind children by 12 months of age. Task 6 coincided with a drop in performance, and the acquisition of the subsequent tasks showed a less agehomogeneous pattern. In blind children with multiple disabilities, task acquisition rates were lower, with the curves dipping in relation to the more complex tasks. The mainly blind subjects managed to overcome Fraiberg's "conceptual problem"--i.e., they acquired the ability to attribute an external object with identity and substance even when it manifested its presence through sound only--and thus developed the ability to reach an object presented through sound. Instead, most of the blind children with multiple disabilities presented poor performances on the "reach on sound" protocol and were unable, before 36 months of age, to develop the strategies needed to resolve Fraiberg's "conceptual problem". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How Do Object Size and Rigidity Affect Reaching and Grasping in Infants with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Ana Carolina; Francisco, Kelly Regina; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Reaching and grasping skills have been described to emerge from a dynamic interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the interaction between such an intrinsic factor, Down syndrome, and extrinsic factors, such as different object properties. Seven infants with Down syndrome and seven…

  11. Reaching Consensus on Essential Biomedical Science Learning Objectives in a Dental Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Leandra; Walton, Joanne N; Walker, Judith; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2016-04-01

    This article describes how the University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry reached consensus on essential basic biomedical science objectives for DMD students and applied the information to the renewal of its DMD curriculum. The Delphi Method was used to build consensus among dental faculty members and students regarding the relevance of over 1,500 existing biomedical science objectives. Volunteer panels of at least three faculty members (a basic scientist, a general dentist, and a dental specialist) and a fourth-year dental student were formed for each of 13 biomedical courses in the first two years of the program. Panel members worked independently and anonymously, rating each course objective as "need to know," "nice to know," "irrelevant," or "don't know." Panel members were advised after each round which objectives had not yet achieved a 75% consensus and were asked to reconsider their ratings. After a maximum of three rounds to reach consensus, a second group of faculty experts reviewed and refined the results to establish the biomedical science objectives for the renewed curriculum. There was consensus on 46% of the learning objectives after round one, 80% after round two, and 95% after round three. The second expert group addressed any remaining objectives as part of its review process. Only 47% of previous biomedical science course objectives were judged to be essential or "need to know" for the general dentist. The consensus reached by participants in the Delphi Method panels and a second group of faculty experts led to a streamlined, better integrated DMD curriculum to prepare graduates for future practice.

  12. The coordination patterns observed when two hands reach-to-grasp separate objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Geoffrey P; Hughes, Kirstie; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2008-01-01

    What determines coordination patterns when both hands reach to grasp separate objects at the same time? It is known that synchronous timing is preferred as the most stable mode of bimanual coordination. Nonetheless, normal unimanual prehension behaviour predicts asynchrony when the two hands reach towards unequal targets, with synchrony restricted to targets equal in size and distance. Additionally, sufficiently separated targets require sequential looking. Does synchrony occur in all cases because it is preferred in bimanual coordination or does asynchrony occur because of unimanual task constraints and the need for sequential looking? We investigated coordinative timing when participants (n = 8) moved their right (preferred) hand to the same object at a fixed distance but the left hand to objects of different width (3, 5, and 7 cm) and grip surface size (1, 2, and 3 cm) placed at different distances (20, 30, and 40 cm) over 270 randomised trials. The hand movements consisted of two components: (1) an initial component (IC) during which the hand reached towards the target while forming an appropriate grip aperture, stopping at (but not touching) the object; (2) a completion component (CC) during which the finger and thumb closed on the target. The two limbs started the IC together but did not interact until the deceleration phase when evidence of synchronisation began to appear. Nonetheless, asynchronous timing was present at the end of the IC and preserved through the CC even with equidistant targets. Thus, there was synchrony but requirements for visual information ultimately yielded asynchronous coordinative timing.

  13. Inertial torque during reaching directly impacts grip-force adaptation to weightless objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, T; Crevecoeur, F; McIntyre, J; Thonnard, J-L; Lefèvre, P

    2015-11-01

    A hallmark of movement control expressed by healthy humans is the ability to gradually improve motor performance through learning. In the context of object manipulation, previous work has shown that the presence of a torque load has a direct impact on grip-force control, characterized by a significantly slower grip-force adjustment across lifting movements. The origin of this slower adaptation rate remains unclear. On the one hand, information about tangential constraints during stationary holding may be difficult to extract in the presence of a torque. On the other hand, inertial torque experienced during movement may also potentially disrupt the grip-force adjustments, as the dynamical constraints clearly differ from the situation when no torque load is present. To address the influence of inertial torque loads, we instructed healthy adults to perform visually guided reaching movements in weightlessness while holding an unbalanced object relative to the grip axis. Weightlessness offered the possibility to remove gravitational constraints and isolate the effect of movement-related feedback on grip force adjustments. Grip-force adaptation rates were compared with a control group who manipulated a balanced object without any torque load and also in weightlessness. Our results clearly show that grip-force adaptation in the presence of a torque load is significantly slower, which suggests that the presence of torque loads experienced during movement may alter our internal estimates of how much force is required to hold an unbalanced object stable. This observation may explain why grasping objects around the expected location of the center of mass is such an important component of planning and control of manipulation tasks.

  14. Work Element B: 157. Sampling in Fish-Bearing Reaches [Variation in Productivity in Headwater Reaches of the Wenatchee Subbasin], Final Report for PNW Research Station.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polivka, Karl; Bennett, Rita L. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Wenatchee, WA

    2009-03-31

    We studied variation in productivity in headwater reaches of the Wenatchee subbasin for multiple field seasons with the objective that we could develop methods for monitoring headwater stream conditions at the subcatchment and stream levels, assign a landscape-scale context via the effects of geoclimatic parameters on biological productivity (macroinvertebrates and fish) and use this information to identify how variability in productivity measured in fishless headwaters is transmitted to fish communities in downstream habitats. In 2008, we addressed this final objective. In collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks we found some broad differences in the production of aquatic macroinvertebrates and in fish abundance across categories that combine the effects of climate and management intensity within the subbasin (ecoregions). From a monitoring standpoint, production of benthic macroinvertebrates was not a good predictor of drifting macroinvertebrates and therefore might be a poor predictor of food resources available to fish. Indeed, there is occasionally a correlation between drifting macroinvertebrate abundance and fish abundance which suggests that headwater-derived resources are important. However, fish in the headwaters appeared to be strongly food-limited and there was no evidence that fishless headwaters provided a consistent subsidy to fish in reaches downstream. Fish abundance and population dynamics in first order headwaters may be linked with similar metrics further down the watershed. The relative strength of local dynamics and inputs into productivity may be constrained or augmented by large-scale biogeoclimatic control. Headwater streams are nested within watersheds, which are in turn nested within ecological subregions; thus, we hypothesized that local effects would not necessarily be mutually exclusive from large-scale influence. To test this we examined the density of primarily salmonid fishes at several spatial and temporal scales

  15. Areva - 2013 annual results: breakeven free operating cash flow objective reached despite a difficult environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duperray, Julien; Grange, Aurelie; Rosso, Jerome; Thebault, Alexandre; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du

    2014-01-01

    The Areva group reached a major milestone in 2013 in turning performance around by meeting a key objective of its Action 2016 plan: the return to breakeven of free operating cash flow. For the first time since 2005, cash generated by the Group's operations allowed it to fully fund strategic capital expenditures essential to the group's profitable growth. To achieve this result, Areva built on robust growth in nuclear operations, on contributions from its cost reduction plan and on strict management of capital spending. However, two projects launched in the previous decade (OL3 and a power plant modernization) and the Renewable Energies business impacted negatively the group's 2013 net income. On the Renewable Energies market, in a situation marked by a reduction of capital spending by customers, AREVA anticipated the consolidation required in the sector by implementing industrial partnerships such as the joint venture project with Gamesa, which aims to create a European champion in offshore wind. Similar initiatives were undertaken in solar energy and energy storage. The Group continues to implement the Action 2016 plan to pursue its recovery. While the economic environment remains uncertain and projects launched in the previous decade remain a burden, the Group forecasts further performance improvement and significant growth in cash flow generation by the end of the plan

  16. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2009-03-02

    agricultural and industrial development. In some cases, the riverbed is armored such that it is more difficult for spawners to move, while in other cases the intrusion of fine sediment into spawning gravels has reduced water flow to sensitive eggs and young fry. Recovery of fall Chinook salmon populations may involve habitat restoration through such actions as dam removal and reservoir drawdown. In addition, habitat protection will be accomplished through set-asides of existing high-quality habitat. A key component to evaluating these actions is quantifying the salmon spawning habitat potential of a given river reach so that realistic recovery goals for salmon abundance can be developed. Quantifying salmon spawning habitat potential requires an understanding of the spawning behavior of Chinook salmon, as well as an understanding of the physical habitat where these fish spawn. Increasingly, fish biologists are recognizing that assessing the physical habitat of riverine systems where salmon spawn goes beyond measuring microhabitat like water depth, velocity, and substrate size. Geomorphic features of the river measured over a range of spatial scales set up the physical template upon which the microhabitat develops, and successful assessments of spawning habitat potential incorporate these geomorphic features. We had three primary objectives for this study. The first objective was to determine the relationship between physical habitats at different spatial scales and fall Chinook salmon spawning locations. The second objective was to estimate the fall Chinook salmon redd capacity for the Reach. The third objective was to suggest a protocol for determining preferable spawning reaches of fall Chinook salmon. To ensure that we collected physical data within habitat that was representative of the full range of potential spawning habitat, the study area was stratified based on geomorphic features of the river using a two-dimensional river channel index that classified the river cross

  17. Action without awareness: reaching to an object you do not remember seeing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heath

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous work by our group has shown that the scaling of reach trajectories to target size is independent of obligatory awareness of that target property and that "action without awareness" can persist for up to 2000 ms of visual delay. In the present investigation we sought to determine if the ability to scale reaching trajectories to target size following a delay is related to the pre-computing of movement parameters during initial stimulus presentation or the maintenance of a sensory (i.e., visual representation for on-demand response parameterization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants completed immediate or delayed (i.e., 2000 ms perceptual reports and reaching responses to different sized targets under non-masked and masked target conditions. For the reaching task, the limb associated with a trial (i.e., left or right was not specified until the time of response cuing: a manipulation that prevented participants from pre-computing the effector-related parameters of their response. In terms of the immediate and delayed perceptual tasks, target size was accurately reported during non-masked trials; however, for masked trials only a chance level of accuracy was observed. For the immediate and delayed reaching tasks, movement time as well as other temporal kinematic measures (e.g., times to peak acceleration, velocity and deceleration increased in relation to decreasing target size across non-masked and masked trials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that speed-accuracy relations were observed regardless of whether participants were aware (i.e., non-masked trials or unaware (i.e., masked trials of target size. Moreover, the equivalent scaling of immediate and delayed reaches during masked trials indicates that a persistent sensory-based representation supports the unconscious and metrical scaling of memory-guided reaching.

  18. Mapping the feel of the arm with the sight of the object: On the embodied origins of infant reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eCorbetta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the emergence and progression of infant reaching was assumed to be largely under the control of vision. More recently, however, the guiding role of vision in the emergence of reaching has been downplayed. Studies found that young infants can reach in the dark without seeing their hand and that corrections in infants’ initial hand trajectories are not the result of visual guidance of the hand, but rather the product of poor movement speed calibration to the goal. As a result, it has been proposed that learning to reach is an embodied process requiring infants to explore proprioceptively different movement solutions, before they can accurately map their actions onto the intended goal. Such an account, however, could still assume a preponderant (or prospective role of vision, where the movement is being monitored with the scope of approximating a future goal-location defined visually. At reach onset, it is unknown if infants map their action onto their vision, vision onto their action, or both. To examine how infants learn to map the feel of their hand with the sight of the object, we tracked the object-directed looking behavior (via eye-tracking of three infants followed weekly over an 11-week period throughout the transition to reaching. We also examined where they contacted the object. We find that with some objects, infants do not learn to align their reach to where they look, but rather learn to align their look to where they reach. We propose that the emergence of reaching is the product of a deeply embodied process, in which infants first learn how to direct their movement in space using proprioceptive and haptic feedback from self-produced movement contingencies with the environment. As they do so, they learn to map visual attention onto these bodily centered experiences, not the reverse. We suggest that this early visuo-motor mapping is critical for the formation of visually-elicited, prospective movement control.

  19. Raising objectives: how global PV production could reach 5 GWp by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.; Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent international workshop for the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry organised by the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) examined market trends and technological developments. Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, the EPIA predicts that the global PV market would only reach 3.2 GWp by 2010. But workshop participants believe that, given sufficient support measures to encourage investment, the global market could be accelerated to reach 5400 MW per year by 2010, with an achievable annual installed capacity of over 5 GWp and production of 30,000 tonnes of solar-grade silicon per year at a cost of 30-40 euros/kg. Major markets are expected to be Germany, Japan, USA, China and Spain. Examples of the type of policies and strategies necessary for accelerated growth are given and countries with potential for a significant increase in annual PV installation rates are identified. The current main constraint on market growth is the global shortage of suitable silicon, but confidence in the solar market is now sufficient for significant new manufacturing plant to be planned. Investment in other PV technologies is also required, plus a decrease in the price of PV modules. EPIA does not expect a short-term price reduction for PV until after 2007 but the workshop concluded that the PV industry could expect to see an average price reduction of around 5% per year (for cells, modules and complete systems) by 2011

  20. Volitional and automatic control of the hand when reaching to grasp objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongting; Saunders, Jeffrey Allen

    2018-02-26

    When picking up an object, we tend to grasp at contact points that allow a stable grip. Recent studies have demonstrated that appropriate grasp points can be selected during an ongoing movement in response to unexpected perturbations of the target object. In this study, we tested whether such online grip adjustments are automatic responses or can be controlled volitionally. Subjects performed virtual grasping movements toward target 2D shapes that sometimes changed shape or orientation during movement. Unlike in previous studies, the conditions and task requirements discouraged any online adjustments toward the perturbed shapes. In Experiment 1, target shapes were perturbed briefly (200 ms) during movement before reverting to the original shape, and subjects were instructed to ignore the transient perturbations. Despite subjects' intentions, we observed online adjustments of grip orientation that were toward the expected grip axis of the briefly presented shape. In Experiment 2, we added a stop-signal to the grasping task, with target perturbation as the stop cue. We again observed unnecessary online adjustments toward the grip axis of the perturbed shape, with similar latency. Furthermore, the grip adjustments continued after the forward motion of the hand had stopped, indicating that the automatic response to the perturbed target shape co-occurred with the volitional response to the perturbation onset. Our results provide evidence that automatic control mechanisms are used to guide the fingers to appropriate grasp points and suggest that these mechanisms are distinct from those involved with volitional control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Control of a long reach manipulator with suspension cables for waste storage tank remediation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  2. Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon, Hanford Reach, Columbia River : Final Report 1995 - 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1995 through 1998 on identifying the spawning habitat requirements of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The project investigated whether traditional spawning habitat models could be improved in order to make better predictions of available habitat for fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. Results suggest models could be improved if they used spawning area-specific, rather than river-specific, spawning characteristics; incorporated hyporheic discharge measurements; and gave further consideration to the geomorphic features that are present in the unconstrained segments of large alluvial rivers. Ultimately the recovery of endangered fall chinook salmon will depend on how well we are able to recreate the characteristics once common in alluvial floodplains of large rivers. The results from this research can be used to better define the relationship between these physical habitat characteristics and fall chinook salmon spawning site selection, and provide more efficient use of limited recovery resources. This report is divided into four chapters which were presented in the author's doctoral dissertation which he completed through the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University. Each of the chapters has been published in peer reviewed journals or is currently under review. Chapter one is a conceptual spawning habitat model that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Chapter two describes the comparison of the physical factors associated with fall chinook salmon redd clusters located at two sites within the Reach. Spatial point pattern analysis of redds showed that redd clusters averaged approximately 10 hectares in area and their locations were consistent from

  3. Specific Advice on Fulfilling Information Requirements for Nanomaterials under REACH (RIP-oN 2) – Final Project Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hankin, S. M.; Peters, S. A. K.; Poland, C. A.

    The European Commission (EC) began in 2009 a Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Implementation Project on Nanomaterials (RIPoN), which it intended to provide advice on key aspects of the implementation of REACH with regard to nanomaterials....

  4. Sustainability Logistics Basing - Science and Technology Objective - Demonstration; Industry Assessment and Demonstration Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    TECHNICAL REPORT AD ________________ NATICK/TR-17/019 SUSTAINABILITY ...LOGISTICS BASING – SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE – DEMONSTRATION; INDUSTRY ASSESSMENT AND DEMONSTRATION FINAL REPORT by Elizabeth D. Swisher and...Benjamin J. Campbell August 2017 Final Report December 2014 – February 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is

  5. Advancing Kohlberg through Codes: Using Professional Codes To Reach the Moral Reasoning Objective in Undergraduate Ethics Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Ginny; Ingram, Michael T.

    The development of moral reasoning as a key course objective in undergraduate communication ethics classes can be accomplished by the critical and deliberate introduction of professional codes of ethics and the internalization of values found in those codes. Notably, "fostering moral reasoning skills" and "surveying current ethical…

  6. Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Blackman, Jonathan; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence; Pfeiffer, Harald; Buonanno, Alessandra; Pan, Yi; Taracchini, Andrea; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45 . 5M⊙ . We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a loss in detection rate due to modeling error smaller than 0 . 3 % . In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display much greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  7. New Stream-reach Development (NSD): A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory with evaluating the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential of more than 3 million U.S. streams in order to help individuals and organizations evaluate the feasibility of developing new hydropower sources in the United States.

  8. [Level at which control objectives are reached in patients in different population groups with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A; Pinillos, J; Sabio, P; Martín, J L; Garzón, G; Gil, Á

    There is evidence of increased macro- and micro-vascular risk in diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to determine the level of control in patients in different population groups with type 2 diabetes. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Primary care. Madrid Health Service. Year: 2014. Patients over 14 years with type 2 diabetes. Number of patientes: n=6674. Variables on the degree of control (HbA1c, systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], LDL-c) and variables on patient characteristics (demographic, other cardiovascular risk factors, complications). The mean age of patients with controlled HbA1c was 67.8 years vs. 62.9 years in the uncontrolled (Pdifferences were statistically significant (P 140mmHg or DBP> 90mmHg. Over 25% of patients with hypertension or DL and uncontrolled levels were not receiving drug treatment. Control was improved in all groups, especially in younger patients, with particularly high cardiovascular risk by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors or macroangiopathy. A significant percentage of patients with uncontrolled BP and cLDL were not diagnosed or receiving drug treatment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Earlier and greater hand pre-shaping in the elderly: a study based on kinematic analysis of reaching movements to grasp objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Yoshiki; Naito, Yasuo; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    Elderly people are less able to manipulate objects skilfully than young adults. Although previous studies have examined age-related deterioration of hand movements with a focus on the phase after grasping objects, the changes in the reaching phase have not been studied thus far. We aimed to examine whether changes in hand shape patterns during the reaching phase of grasping movements differ between young adults and the elderly. Ten healthy elderly adults and 10 healthy young adults were examined using the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions and kinetic analysis of hand pre-shaping reach-to-grasp tasks. The results were then compared between the two groups. For kinetic analysis, we measured the time of peak tangential velocity of the wrist and the inter-fingertip distance (the distance between the tips of the thumb and index finger) at different time points. The results showed that the elderly group's performance on the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions was significantly lower than that of the young adult group, irrespective of whether the dominant or non-dominant hand was used, indicating deterioration of hand movement in the elderly. The peak tangential velocity of the wrist in either hand appeared significantly earlier in the elderly group than in the young adult group. The elderly group also showed larger inter-fingertip distances with arch-like fingertip trajectories compared to the young adult group for all object sizes. To perform accurate prehension, elderly people have an earlier peak tangential velocity point than young adults. This allows for a longer adjustment time for reaching and grasping movements and for reducing errors in object prehension by opening the hand and fingers wider. Elderly individuals gradually modify their strategy based on previous successes and failures during daily living to compensate for their decline in dexterity and operational capabilities. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. The Reaches Project : Ecological and Geomorphic Dtudies Supporting Normative Flows in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, Jack A.; Lorang, Mark N.; Matson, Phillip L. (University of Montana, Flathead Lake Biological Station, Poison, MT)

    2002-10-01

    The Yakima River system historically produced robust annual runs of chinook, sockeye, chum and coho salmon and steelhead. Many different stocks or life history types existed because the physiography of the basin is diverse, ranging from very dry and hot in the high desert of the lower basin to cold and wet in the Cascade Mountains of the headwaters (Snyder and Stanford 2001). Habitat diversity and life history diversity of salmonids are closely correlated in the Yakima Basin. Moreover, habitat diversity for salmonids and many other fishes maximizes in floodplain reaches of river systems (Ward and Stanford 1995, Independent Scientific Group 2000). The flood plains of Yakima River likely were extremely important for spawning and rearing of anadromous salmonids (Snyder and Stanford 2001). However, Yakima River flood plains are substantially degraded. Primary problems are: revetments that disconnect main and side channel habitats; dewatering associated with irrigation that changes base flow conditions and degrades the shallow-water food web; chemical and thermal pollution that prevents proper maturation of eggs and juveniles; and extensive gravel mining within the floodplain reaches that has severed groundwater-channel connectivity, increased thermal loading and increased opportunities for invasions of nonnative species. The Yakima River is too altered from its natural state to allow anything close to the historical abundance and diversity of anadromous fishes. Habitat loss, overharvest and dam and reservoir passage problems in the mainstem Columbia River downstream of the Yakima, coupled with ocean productivity variation, also are implicated in the loss of Yakima fisheries. Nonetheless, in an earlier analysis, Snyder and Stanford (2001) concluded that a significant amount of physical habitat remains in the five floodplain reaches of the mainstem river because habitat-structuring floods do still occur on the remaining expanses of floodplain environment. Assuming main

  11. MERIDIONAL COMA OF NEGATIVE ANASTIGMATIC LENSES AT THE FINAL POSITION OF AN OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bezrukov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the findings of negative anastigmatic lenses at the final position of an object. The negative lenses are considered with refraction index n=1.7849 (type of glass is TF12 and thickness d=5 mm, working with paraxial magnifications β=1,1x;1,3x;1,5x with account of the distances from the first lens surface to the object S1=9; 25 mm and the size of the object y=15 mm. Dependences of negative lens forms from the position of anastigmatic pupils and from radii of meridional caustics which are convenient for understanding aberrational properties of anastigmatic lenses. The findings give the possibility to synthesize wide-angle lenses with the corrected aberrations of image curvature and meridional coma without geometrical vignetting of wide sloping bunches.

  12. Multi-objective optimization for conjunctive water use using coupled hydrogeological and agronomic models: a case study in Heihe mid-reach (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Y.; Kinzelbach, W.; Pedrazzini, G.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater is a vital water resource to buffer unexpected drought risk in agricultural production, which is however apt to unsustainable exploitation due to its open access characteristic and a much underestimated marginal cost. Being a wicked problem of general water resource management, groundwater staying hidden from surface terrain further amplifies difficulties of management. China has been facing this challenge in last decades, particularly in the northern part where irrigated agriculture resides despite of scarce surface water available compared to the south. Farmers therefore have been increasingly exploiting groundwater as an alternative in order to reach Chinese food self-sufficiency requirements and feed fast socio-economic development. In this work, we studied Heihe mid-reach located in northern China, which represents one of a few regions suffering from symptoms of unsustainable groundwater use, such as a large drawdown of the groundwater table in some irrigation districts, or soil salinization due to phreatic evaporation in others. In addition, we focus on solving a multi-objective optimization problem of conjunctive water use in order to find an alternative management scheme that fits decision makers' preference. The methodology starts with a global sensitivity analysis to determine the most influential decision variables. Then a state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) is employed to search a hyper-dimensional Pareto Front. The aquifer system is simulated with a distributed Modflow model, which is able to capture the main phenomenon of interest. Results show that the current water allocation scheme seems to exploit the water resources in an inefficient way, where areas with depression cones and areas with salinization or groundwater table rise can both be mitigated with an alternative management scheme. When assuming uncertain boundary conditions according to future climate change, the optimal solutions can yield better

  13. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Dangerous Waste Sampling and Analysis; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes sampling and analytical requirements needed to meet state and federal regulations for dangerous waste (DW). The River Protection Project (RPP) is assigned to the task of storage and interim treatment of hazardous waste. Any final treatment or disposal operations, as well as requirements under the land disposal restrictions (LDRs), fall in the jurisdiction of another Hanford organization and are not part of this scope. The requirements for this Data Quality Objective (DQO) Process were developed using the RPP Data Quality Objective Procedure (Banning 1996), which is based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the DW DQO. Federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to waste contain requirements that are dependent upon the composition of the waste stream. These regulatory drivers require that pertinent information be obtained. For many requirements, documented process knowledge of a waste composition can be used instead of analytical data to characterize or designate a waste. When process knowledge alone is used to characterize a waste, it is a best management practice to validate the information with analytical measurements

  14. Accommodation modulates the individual difference between objective and subjective measures of the final convergence step response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, S; Hoormann, J; Jaschinski, W

    2009-03-01

    Measuring vergence eye movements with dichoptic nonius lines (subjectively) usually leads to an overestimation of the vergence state after a step response: a subjective vergence overestimation (SVO). We tried to reduce this SVO by presenting a vergence stimulus that decoupled vergence and accommodation during the step response, i.e. reduced the degree of 'forced vergence'. In a mirror-stereoscope, we estimated convergence step responses with nonius lines presented at 1000 ms after a disparity step-stimulus and compared it to objective recordings (EyeLink II; n = 6). We presented a vertical line, a cross/rectangle stimulus and a difference-of-gaussians (DOG) pattern. For 180 min arc step stimuli, the subjective measures revealed a larger final vergence response than the objective measure; for the vertical line this SVO was 20 min arc, while it was significantly smaller for the DOG (12 min arc). For 60 min arc step-responses, no overestimation was observed. Additionally, we measured accommodation, which changed more for the DOG-pattern compared with the line-stimulus; this relative increase correlated with the corresponding relative change of SVO (r = 0.77). Both findings (i.e. no overestimation for small steps and a weaker one for the DOG-pattern) reflect lesser conflicting demand on accommodation and vergence under 'forced-vergence' viewing; consequently, sensory compensation is reduced and subjective and objective measures of vergence step responses tend to agree.

  15. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  16. Windfield and trajectory models for tornado-propelled objects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmann, G.H.; Radbill, J.R.; Marte, J.E.; Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F.E.

    1983-03-01

    This is the final report of a three-phased research project to develop a six-degree-of-freedom mathematical model to predict the trajectories of tornado-propelled objects. The model is based on the meteorological, aerodynamic, and dynamic processes that govern the trajectories of missiles in a tornadic windfield. The aerodynamic coefficients for the postulated missiles were obtained from full-scale wind tunnel tests on a 12-inch pipe and car and from drop tests. Rocket sled tests were run whereby the 12-inch pipe and car were injected into a worst-case tornado windfield in order to verify the trajectory model. To simplify and facilitate the use of the trajectory model for design applications without having to run the computer program, this report gives the trajectory data for NRC-postulated missiles in tables based on given variables of initial conditions of injection and tornado windfield. Complete descriptions of the tornado windfield and trajectory models are presented. The trajectory model computer program is also included for those desiring to perform trajectory or sensitivity analyses beyond those included in the report or for those wishing to examine other missiles and use other variables

  17. Allocation of Home Office Expenses to Segments and Business Unit General and Administrative Expenses to Final Cost Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-16

    3 0 B. Cost Accounting Standard 418 ..................................................... 3 1 1. D efinitio n s ...objective" as an activity for which a separate measurement of cost is desired. C. Horngren , Cost Accounting . A Managerial Emphasis 21 (5th ed. 1982...Segments and Business Unit General and Administrative Expenses to Final Cost Objectives 6. AUTHOR( S ) Stephen Thomas Lynch, Major 7. PERFORMING

  18. Final Report: Legion Core Object Model, March 1, 1996 - September 30, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.

    1999-09-30

    The model specifies the composition and functionality of Legion's core objects - those objects that cooperate to create, locate, manage, and remove objects from the legion project. In particular, the object model facilitates a flexible extensible implementation, provides a single persistent name space, grants site autonomy to participating organizations, and scales to millions of sites and trillions of objects. Further, it offers a framework that is well suited to providing mechanisms for high performance, security, fault tolerance and commerce.

  19. Self-perceived versus objectively measured competence in performing clinical practical procedures by final year medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Katowa-Mukwato, Patricia; Banda, Sekelani

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the self-perceived and objectively measured competence in performing 14 core-clinical practical procedures by Final Year Medical Students of the University of Zambia. Methods The study included 56 out of 60 graduating University of Zambia Medical Students of the 2012/2013 academic year. Self-perceived competence: students rated their competence on 14 core- clinical practical procedures using a self-administered questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Objec...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.410 - Allocation of business unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unit general and administrative expenses to final cost objectives. 9904.410 Section 9904.410 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING...

  1. Environmental measurements and technology for non-proliferation objectives. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadway, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify multi-disciplinary and single focus laboratories from the environmental and public health communities that can serve as technical center of opportunity for nuclear, inorganic and organic analyses. The objectives of the Office of Research and Development effort are twofold: (1) to identify the technology shortcomings and technologies gaps (thus requirements) within these communities that could benefit from state-of-the-art infield analysis technologies currently under development and (2) to promote scientist-to-scientist dialog and technical exchange under such existing US government internship programs (eg SABIT/USDOC) to improve skills and work relationships. Although the data analysis will focus on environmentally sensitive signatures and materials, the office of Research and Development wishes to further its nuclear non-proliferation objectives by assessing the current technical skill and ingenious analytical tools in less-developed countries so as to broaden the base of capability for multi-species measurement technology development

  2. Influência do tamanho e da rigidez dos objetos nos ajustes proximais e distais do alcance de lactentes Influence of object size and rigidity on proximal and distal adjustments to infant reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NACF Rocha

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos têm identificado que as propriedades dos objetos induzem os ajustes no alcance; no entanto, poucos investigaram a influência específica do tamanho e rigidez dos objetos em lactentes jovens. OBJETIVO: Verificar se lactentes de 4 a 6 meses realizam ajustes proximais e distais ao alcançarem objetos de diferentes tamanhos e rigidez. MÉTODOS: Nove lactentes saudáveis foram posicionados em uma cadeira inclinada a 50º. Quatro objetos foram apresentados, um rígido grande (RG, um rígido pequeno (RP, um maleável grande (MG e um maleável pequeno (MP, por um período de 1 minuto cada. Em um total de 384 alcances, foram analisados os ajustes proximais (alcance uni e bimanual e distais (orientação da mão horizontal, vertical e oblíqua; mão aberta, fechada e semi-aberta e o sucesso do alcance dos objetos. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se ajuste bimanual para o objeto RG e unimanual para os demais. A orientação da mão oblíqua foi predominante no toque dos objetos, enquanto para a preensão dos mesmos, a predominância foi a vertical, principalmente para o objeto RG. A orientação horizontal não foi observada na preensão do objeto RG. A mão semi-aberta foi mais freqüente no início do alcance para todos os objetos, enquanto no toque do objeto RG a mão aberta foi predominante. O sucesso do alcance foi maior para os objetos maleáveis (MG, MP do que para os rígidos (RG e RP. CONCLUSÃO: Lactentes jovens estudados são capazes de planejar e ajustar seus movimentos baseados na percepção das propriedades físicas dos objetos, o que sugere interação percepção-ação.BACKGROUND: Studies have identified that object properties lead to adjustments to reaching. However, few have investigated the specific influence of object size and rigidity among young infants. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether four to six-month-old infants make proximal and distal adjustments when reaching for objects of different sizes and rigidity. METHOD

  3. Perceptual Discrimination of Basic Object Features Is Not Facilitated When Priming Stimuli Are Prevented From Reaching Awareness by Means of Visual Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Hayden J.; Sperandio, Irene; Laycock, Robin; Chouinard, Philippe A.

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of how form, orientation and size are processed within and outside of awareness is limited and requires further investigation. Therefore, we investigated whether or not the visual discrimination of basic object features can be influenced by subliminal processing of stimuli presented beforehand. Visual masking was used to render stimuli perceptually invisible. Three experiments examined if visible and invisible primes could facilitate the subsequent feature discrimination of visible targets. The experiments differed in the kind of perceptual discrimination that participants had to make. Namely, participants were asked to discriminate visual stimuli on the basis of their form, orientation, or size. In all three experiments, we demonstrated reliable priming effects when the primes were visible but not when the primes were made invisible. Our findings underscore the importance of conscious awareness in facilitating the perceptual discrimination of basic object features. PMID:29725292

  4. Perceptual Discrimination of Basic Object Features Is Not Facilitated When Priming Stimuli Are Prevented From Reaching Awareness by Means of Visual Masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Hayden J; Sperandio, Irene; Laycock, Robin; Chouinard, Philippe A

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of how form, orientation and size are processed within and outside of awareness is limited and requires further investigation. Therefore, we investigated whether or not the visual discrimination of basic object features can be influenced by subliminal processing of stimuli presented beforehand. Visual masking was used to render stimuli perceptually invisible. Three experiments examined if visible and invisible primes could facilitate the subsequent feature discrimination of visible targets. The experiments differed in the kind of perceptual discrimination that participants had to make. Namely, participants were asked to discriminate visual stimuli on the basis of their form, orientation, or size. In all three experiments, we demonstrated reliable priming effects when the primes were visible but not when the primes were made invisible. Our findings underscore the importance of conscious awareness in facilitating the perceptual discrimination of basic object features.

  5. Objectively measuring pain using facial expression: is the technology finally ready?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Thomas Richard; Eden-Green, Ben; Rosten, Claire; Giles, Julian; Governo, Ricardo; Marcelline, Francesca; Nduka, Charles

    2018-03-01

    Currently, clinicians observe pain-related behaviors and use patient self-report measures in order to determine pain severity. This paper reviews the evidence when facial expression is used as a measure of pain. We review the literature reporting the relevance of facial expression as a diagnostic measure, which facial movements are indicative of pain, and whether such movements can be reliably used to measure pain. We conclude that although the technology for objective pain measurement is not yet ready for use in clinical settings, the potential benefits to patients in improved pain management, combined with the advances being made in sensor technology and artificial intelligence, provide opportunities for research and innovation.

  6. Reaching the hard to reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhiwandi, P; Campbell, M; Potts, M

    1994-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development proposed increasing contraceptive couple protection from 550 million in 1995 to 880 million in 2015. The task for family planning (FP) programs is to provide access to services for, sometimes, inaccessible rural populations. FP need based on desire for no more children has ranged from under 20% in Senegal to almost 80% in Peru. Socioeconomic development was found not to be a prerequisite for fertility change. Gender inequalities in education and social autonomy must be changed. FP access is very important among women with a disadvantaged background or among women unsure about FP. Bangladesh is a good example of a country with increased contraceptive prevalence despite low income. The rule of thumb is that contraception increases of 15% contribute to a drop in family size of about one child. Program effectiveness is related to a variety of factors: contraceptive availability at many locations, acceptable price of contraception, delivery of the oral contraceptives without prescriptions, and other strategies. FP is a service not a medical treatment. A range of methods must be promoted and available from a range of facilities. Contraceptive use is dependent on the woman's stage in her lifecycle and is dependent on informed choice. Community-based distribution systems are effective, whereas free distribution by poorly-trained field workers is not always very effective because patient payment of all or part of the cost assures quality and freedom of choice. Effective programs for underprivileged groups involve aggressive, easy to manage programs that can be replicated rapidly. FP serves a useful function in depressing maternal mortality among the poor in Africa, who have no access to quality health services. Social marketing is an effective strategy for reaching remote areas. Political will and robust management are necessary commodities.

  7. Reaching Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-11-01

    , television programs, museums, theme parks, Web sites, and many other venues that include science. However, I always have a twinge of disappointment when I look at the shelves in our local bookstore and find that there are far more titles in other sciences than in chemistry. Are other sciences inherently more interestingor their practitioners inherently more literate? I think not. Popularizing chemistry is more dependent on human interaction than is popularizing many other sciences. People deal with devices that approximate Newtonian physics every day. The stars, moon, and planets are there every night, and their vast number and regular motions inspire awe. Living systems are familiar to everyone, and we can observe their behavior and classify them. But chemistry is often hidden or complicated. Cooking food changes the food chemically, but both initial and final versions, like most other substances we encounter daily, are complicated mixtures. Chemists' atomic-scale models are not accessible to our senses. In order for chemistry not to be magic, someone needs to select simple, interesting, relevant examples, demonstrate them or help the average person work with them, and then relate those examples to everyday life. Participating in and supporting National Chemistry Week and other outreach programs is crucial to the health of our discipline. Without chemists who donate their time and expertise to helping people understand and become familiar with chemistry, our fascinating subject is likely to seem dullor even scary. During National Chemistry Week, and during every other week of the year, we should extend hearty thanks to the myriad chemists and teachers whose time, energy, and expertise contribute to helping the public recognize how important and interesting chemistry is.

  8. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants

  9. Self-perceived versus objectively measured competence in performing clinical practical procedures by final year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katowa-Mukwato, Patricia; Banda, Sekelani

    2016-04-30

    To determine and compare the self-perceived and objectively measured competence in performing 14 core-clinical practical procedures by Final Year Medical Students of the University of Zambia. The study included 56 out of 60 graduating University of Zambia Medical Students of the 2012/2013 academic year. Self-perceived competence: students rated their competence on 14 core- clinical practical procedures using a self-administered questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Objective competence: it was measured by Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) by faculty using predetermined rating scales. Rank order correlation test was performed for self-perceived and objectively measured competence. Two thirds 36 (66.7%) of the participants perceived themselves as moderately competent, 15 (27.8%) rated themselves as highly competent while 3 (5.6%) had low self-perception. With objective competence, the majority 52 (92.8%) were barely competent while 4 (7.2%) were absolutely competent. When overall self-perception was compared to objectively measured competence, there was a discordance which was demonstrated by a negative correlation (Spearman rho -.123). Significant numbers of students reported low self-competence in performing procedures such as endotracheal intubation, gastric lavage and cardiopulmonary resuscitation which most never performed during the clinical years of medical education. In addition, the negative correlation between self-perceived and objectively measured competence demonstrated the inability of students to assess and rate themselves objectively due to fear that others may know their weaknesses and realize that they are not as competent as expected at a specific level of training.

  10. A near-peer teaching program designed, developed and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates for final year medical students sitting the final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobowale Oluwaseun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The General Medical Council states that teaching doctors and students is important for the care of patients. Our aim was to deliver a structured teaching program to final year medical students, evaluate the efficacy of teaching given by junior doctors and review the pertinent literature. Methods We developed a revision package for final year medical students sitting the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. The package was created and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates and consisted of lectures and small group seminars covering the core areas of medicine and surgery, with a focus on specific OSCE station examples. Students were asked to complete a feedback questionnaire during and immediately after the program. Results One hundred and eighteen completed feedback questionnaires were analysed. All participants stated that the content covered was relevant to their revision. 73.2% stated that junior doctors delivered teaching that is comparable to that of consultant - led teaching. 97.9% stated the revision course had a positive influence on their learning. Conclusions Our study showed that recent medical graduates are able to create and deliver a structured, formal revision program and provide a unique perspective to exam preparation that was very well received by our student cohort. The role of junior doctors teaching medical students in a formal structured environment is very valuable and should be encouraged.

  11. Areva reached its objectives in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    In 2002 the turnover of the Areva group has fallen by 7,1 % from 8,90 milliard euros in 2001 to 8,26 milliard euros. This fall breaks up into -3,6 % for the nuclear sector and -20,7 % for connector engineering. The sharp drop for connector engineering is not surprising and is attributed to the fact that in 2002 there was no revival of business in the market of communication equipment. (A.C.)

  12. The main decisions which the Parliament and Government will have to take from summer 2012 in order France be able to reach its energy policy objectives. Report to the Prime Minister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Based on several hearings, this report aims at formulating a set of propositions of decisions which the French Parliament and Government should take during the 2012-2017 term to reach France's energy policy objectives. After having recalled the context and outlined why years to come are crucial for energy policy, in France and in the rest of Europe as well, the author discusses the European and French commitments in relationship with investment programs, perspectives of electricity price increase and radioactive waste management. Then, he addresses the main energy challenges to be faced, more particularly with respect to energy efficiency, renewable energies, power grids, gas (including shale gas) and electronuclear production. He also discusses transverse issues like research and development, carbon tax, energy precariousness, and other issues related to sustainable development

  13. Behind the Final Grade in Hybrid v. Traditional Courses: Comparing Student Performance by Assessment Type, Core Competency, and Course Objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Lisa Z.

    2012-01-01

    There are many different delivery methods used by institutions of higher education. These include traditional, hybrid, and online course offerings. The comparisons of these typically use final grade as the measure of student performance. This research study looks behind the final grade and compares student performance by assessment type, core…

  14. Ajustes nos movimentos de alcançar e apreender objetos: impacto da Síndrome de Down Adjustments in the movements of reaching for and grasping objects: the impact of Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Martins dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a influência das propriedades dos objetos nos ajustes realizados por lactentes típicos e com Síndrome de Down (SD dos quatro aos oito meses de idade ao alcançar e apreender objetos. MÉTODOS: 16 lactentes, avaliados uma vez ao mês dos 4 aos 8 meses, sendo oito típicos e oito com SD. Quatro objetos esféricos (maleável grande, maleável pequeno, rígido grande e rígido pequeno foram apresentados, e os cinco primeiros movimentos válidos foram registrados para análise das variáveis: ajuste proximal (uni e bimanual, ajuste distal (orientação da palma, abertura da mão e apreensão do objeto. RESULTADOS: os lactentes típicos apresentaram mais ajuste bimanual para objetos grandes aos seis e oito meses e os com SD aos sete meses. Quanto aos ajustes distais, os lactentes típicos variaram seu comportamento enquanto os com SD apresentaram uso predominante da posição oblíqua. Em geral, o grupo típico apresentou maior sucesso na apreensão dos objetos rígidos e maleável pequeno quando comparados aos lactentes com SD. CONCLUSÕES: Os lactentes com SD apresentaram menor variedade de ajustes o que levou a um menor sucesso na apreensão, possivelmente devido a restrições intrínsecas da SD.OBJECTIVES: to verify the influence that properties of objects have on the reaching and grasping adjustments made by infants with and without Down syndrome (DS between four to eight months of age. METHODS: 16 infants, eight typical and eight with DS, were evaluated once a month from months 4 to 8. Four spherical objects (large soft, small soft, large hard and small hard were offered and the first five valid movements were recorded for analysis of the variables: proximal adjustment (uni- and bimanual, distal adjustments (palm orientation, hand opening and grasping of the object. RESULTS: the typical infants displayed greater bimanual adjustment for large objects at six and eight months and those with DS at seven months. As for distal

  15. Reach and get capability in a computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Ann M [Albuquerque, NM; Osbourn, Gordon C [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-05

    A reach and get technique includes invoking a reach command from a reach location within a computing environment. A user can then navigate to an object within the computing environment and invoke a get command on the object. In response to invoking the get command, the computing environment is automatically navigated back to the reach location and the object copied into the reach location.

  16. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  17. GAP-REACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Raggio, Greer A.; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Duan, Naihua; Marcus, Sue; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Humensky, Jennifer; Becker, Anne E.; Alarcón, Renato D.; Oquendo, María A.; Hansen, Helena; Like, Robert C.; Weiss, Mitchell; Desai, Prakash N.; Jacobsen, Frederick M.; Foulks, Edward F.; Primm, Annelle; Lu, Francis; Kopelowicz, Alex; Hinton, Ladson; Hinton, Devon E.

    2015-01-01

    Growing awareness of health and health care disparities highlights the importance of including information about race, ethnicity, and culture (REC) in health research. Reporting of REC factors in research publications, however, is notoriously imprecise and unsystematic. This article describes the development of a checklist to assess the comprehensiveness and the applicability of REC factor reporting in psychiatric research publications. The 16-itemGAP-REACH© checklist was developed through a rigorous process of expert consensus, empirical content analysis in a sample of publications (N = 1205), and interrater reliability (IRR) assessment (N = 30). The items assess each section in the conventional structure of a health research article. Data from the assessment may be considered on an item-by-item basis or as a total score ranging from 0% to 100%. The final checklist has excellent IRR (κ = 0.91). The GAP-REACH may be used by multiple research stakeholders to assess the scope of REC reporting in a research article. PMID:24080673

  18. Reaching the hard-to-reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, C

    1992-01-01

    Guatemala's family planning (FP) programs are innovative but contraceptive use is only 23%. Total fertility is 5.3 children/woman, and the 9.5 million population will double in 23 years. The problem is poverty and illiteracy among rural residents removed from health services. 80% live in poverty and 80% are illiterate. Government effort is devoted to combating diseases such as diarrhea so there are few funds for implementing a comprehensive population policy. There is support within the national government but FP lacks priority status. APROFAM's goals are to use innovative marketing methods to inform the rural population who lack access to and knowledge about FP. Service delivery is constrained by the difficulty in reaching remote areas where 4 out of 10 indigenous Guatemalans live. Infant mortality can reach as high as 200/1000 live births. Population growth has slowed, and APROFAM plans to reach 16,000 more in the future. Promotions are conducted in several languages and aired on radio, television, and in the print media. It has been found that market research is the most effective strategy in reaching indigenous families. APROFAM has also been effective in upgrading service facilities through training, client surveys, and setting improved clinic standards. Breastfeeding, training, and voluntary sterilization programs contribute to the primary care effort. The example is given of Paulina Lebron from a very poor area who has learned how to space her children and thus improve the standard of living for her family. Eventually, she convinced herself and her family that sterilization was necessary, and now the couple enjoy the bliss of newlyweds without fear of pregnancy.

  19. Evolutionary multi-objective optimization for software development teams building: a way of obtaining quality in the final product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasnalla Rivero Peña

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/01/29 - Accepted: 2015/03/25In this research a mathematical model to approach the process of creating software development teams as a discrete multi-objective problem is proposed. The objectives considered are the level of competition and the level of utilization of professionals in the team. Given the complexity of the problem search space, the application of an approximate optimization method is proposed. Specifically, the genetic algorithm NSGA-II based on the concept of Pareto dominance was selected. This method was applied in six different scenarios in order to analyze the quality of the obtained solutions. In general we can say that the method is efficient and gets solutions (assignments of high quality.

  20. LEGOS: Object-based software components for mission-critical systems. Final report, June 1, 1995--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    An estimated 85% of the installed base of software is a custom application with a production quantity of one. In practice, almost 100% of military software systems are custom software. Paradoxically, the marginal costs of producing additional units are near zero. So why hasn`t the software market, a market with high design costs and low productions costs evolved like other similar custom widget industries, such as automobiles and hardware chips? The military software industry seems immune to market pressures that have motivated a multilevel supply chain structure in other widget industries: design cost recovery, improve quality through specialization, and enable rapid assembly from purchased components. The primary goal of the ComponentWare Consortium (CWC) technology plan was to overcome barriers to building and deploying mission-critical information systems by using verified, reusable software components (Component Ware). The adoption of the ComponentWare infrastructure is predicated upon a critical mass of the leading platform vendors` inevitable adoption of adopting emerging, object-based, distributed computing frameworks--initially CORBA and COM/OLE. The long-range goal of this work is to build and deploy military systems from verified reusable architectures. The promise of component-based applications is to enable developers to snap together new applications by mixing and matching prefabricated software components. A key result of this effort is the concept of reusable software architectures. A second important contribution is the notion that a software architecture is something that can be captured in a formal language and reused across multiple applications. The formalization and reuse of software architectures provide major cost and schedule improvements. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is fast becoming the industry standard for object-oriented analysis and design notation for object-based systems. However, the lack of a standard real-time distributed

  1. Optimizing the CSP Tower Air Brayton Cycle System to Meet the SunShot Objectives - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryner, Elliott [Soutwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Brun, Klaus [Soutwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Coogan, Shane [Soutwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Cunningham, C. Seth [Soutwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Poerner, Nathan [Soutwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-02-26

    The objective of this project is to increase Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) tower air receiver and gas turbine temperature capabilities to 1,000ºC by the development of a novel gas turbine combustor, which can be integrated on a megawatt-scale gas turbine, such as the Solar Turbines Mercury 50™. No combustor technology currently available is compatible with the CSP application target inlet air temperature of 1,000°C. Autoignition and flashback at this temperature prevent the use of conventional lean pre-mix injectors that are currently employed to manage NOx emissions. Additional challenges are introduced by the variability of the high-temperature heat source provided by the field of solar collectors, the heliostat in CSP plants. For optimum energy generation from the power turbine, the turbine rotor inlet temperature (TRIT) should remain constant. As a result of changing heat load provided to the solar collector from the heliostat, the amount of energy input required from the combustion system must be adjusted to compensate. A novel multi-bank lean micro-mix injector has been designed and built to address the challenges of high-temperature combustion found in CSP applications. The multi-bank arrangement of the micro-mix injector selectively injects fuel to meet the heat addition requirements to maintain constant TRIT with changing solar load. To validate the design, operation, and performance of the multi-bank lean micro-mix injector, a novel combustion test facility has been designed and built at Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) in San Antonio, TX. This facility, located in the Turbomachinery Research Facility, provides in excess of two kilograms per second of compressed air at nearly eight bar pressure. A two-megawatt electric heater raises the inlet temperature to 800°C while a secondary gas-fired heater extends the operational temperature range of the facility to 1,000°C. A combustor test rig connected to the heater has been designed and built to

  2. Teratology testing under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Steve

    2013-01-01

    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  3. Global reach and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  4. RECORDS REACHING RECORDING DATA TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. L. Gresik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  5. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  6. Reaching the unreached.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyaratne, A T

    1989-01-01

    Embodied in the child survival revolution are ideological, methodological, and organizational innovations aimed at radical change in the condition of the world's children as rapidly as possible. In countries such as Sri Lanka, child survival and health for all by the year 2000 often seem to be impossible goals, given the tumultuous socioeconomic and political conditions. In Sri Lanka, the quality of life has been eroded, not enhanced, by the importation of Western technology and managerial capitalism and the destruction of indigenous processes. The chaos and violence that have been brought into the country have made it difficult to reach the poor children, women, and refugees in rural areas with primary health care interventions. Sri Lanka's unreachable--the decision making elites--have blocked access to the unreached--the urban and rural poor. If governments are to reach the unreached, they must remove the obstacles to a people-centered, community development process. It is the people themselves, and the institutions of their creation, that can reach the children amidst them in greatest need. To achieve this task, local communities must be provided with basic human rights, the power to make decisions that affect their lives, necessary resources, and appropriate technologies. Nongovernmental organizations can play a crucial role as bridges between the unreached and the unreachable by promoting community empowerment, aiding in the formation of networks of community organizations, and establishing linkages with government programs. If the ruling elites in developing countries can be persuaded to accommodate the needs and aspirations of those who, to date, have been excluded from the development process, the child survival revolution can be a nonviolent one.

  7. Solar Hydrogen Reaching Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongé Jan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly vast research efforts are devoted to the development of materials and processes for solar hydrogen production by light-driven dissociation of water into oxygen and hydrogen. Storage of solar energy in chemical bonds resolves the issues associated with the intermittent nature of sunlight, by decoupling energy generation and consumption. This paper investigates recent advances and prospects in solar hydrogen processes that are reaching market readiness. Future energy scenarios involving solar hydrogen are proposed and a case is made for systems producing hydrogen from water vapor present in air, supported by advanced modeling.

  8. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10 13 ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10 13 ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10 13 ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found

  9. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10{sup 13} ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10{sup 13} ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10{sup 13} ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found.

  10. Reaching Beyond The Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Mariah; Rosenthal, L.; Gaughan, A.; Hopkins, E.

    2014-01-01

    Strawbridge Observatory at Haverford College is home to a undergraduate-led public observing program. Our program holds ~once monthly public events throughout the academic year that take advantage of eyepiece observing on our 16-inch and 12-inch telescopes as well as of the classroom, library, and projection system. These resources allow us to organize a variety of astronomy related activities that are engaging for individuals of all ages: accessible student talks, current film screenings and even arts and crafts for the families who attend with young children. These events aim to spark curiosity in others about scientific discovery and about the remarkable nature of the world in which we live. In addition to exciting local families about astronomy, this program has excited Haverford students from a range of disciplines about both science and education. Being entirely student led means that we are able to take the initiative in planning, coordinating and running all events, fostering an atmosphere of collaboration, experimentation and commitment amongst our volunteers. Additionally, this program is one of the few at Haverford that regularly reaches beyond the campus walls to promote and build relationships with the outside community. In light of this, our program presents a distinctive and enlightening opportunity for student volunteers: we get to use our scientific backgrounds to educate a general audience, while also learning from them about how to communicate and inspire in others the excitement we feel about the subject of astronomy. The work on this project has been supported by NSF AST-1151462.

  11. UX-15 Reaches LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The creation of the world's largest sandstone cavern, not a small feat! At the bottom, cave-in preventing steel mesh can be seen clinging to the top of the tunnel. The digging of UX-15, the cavern that will house ATLAS, reached the upper ceiling of LEP on October 10th. The breakthrough which took place nearly 100 metres underground occurred precisely on schedule and exactly as planned. But much caution was taken beforehand to make the LEP breakthrough clean and safe. To prevent the possibility of cave-ins in the side tunnels that will eventually be attached to the completed UX-15 cavern, reinforcing steel mesh was fixed into the walls with bolts. Obviously no people were allowed in the LEP tunnels below UX-15 as the breakthrough occurred. The area was completely evacuated and fences were put into place to keep all personnel out. However, while personnel were being kept out of the tunnels below, this has been anything but the case for the work taking place up above. With the creation of the world's largest...

  12. Memory-guided reaching in a patient with visual hemiagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Sonja; Rennig, Johannes; Himmelbach, Marc

    2016-06-01

    The two-visual-systems hypothesis (TVSH) postulates that memory-guided movements rely on intact functions of the ventral stream. Its particular importance for memory-guided actions was initially inferred from behavioral dissociations in the well-known patient DF. Despite of rather accurate reaching and grasping movements to visible targets, she demonstrated grossly impaired memory-guided grasping as much as impaired memory-guided reaching. These dissociations were later complemented by apparently reversed dissociations in patients with dorsal damage and optic ataxia. However, grasping studies in DF and optic ataxia patients differed with respect to the retinotopic position of target objects, questioning the interpretation of the respective findings as a double dissociation. In contrast, the findings for reaching errors in both types of patients came from similar peripheral target presentations. However, new data on brain structural changes and visuomotor deficits in DF also questioned the validity of a double dissociation in reaching. A severe visuospatial short-term memory deficit in DF further questioned the specificity of her memory-guided reaching deficit. Therefore, we compared movement accuracy in visually-guided and memory-guided reaching in a new patient who suffered a confined unilateral damage to the ventral visual system due to stroke. Our results indeed support previous descriptions of memory-guided movements' inaccuracies in DF. Furthermore, our data suggest that recently discovered optic-ataxia like misreaching in DF is most likely caused by her parieto-occipital and not by her ventral stream damage. Finally, multiple visuospatial memory measurements in HWS suggest that inaccuracies in memory-guided reaching tasks in patients with ventral damage cannot be explained by visuospatial short-term memory or perceptual deficits, but by a specific deficit in visuomotor processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reach the sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana Peicuti, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    I am working as primary teacher at Scoala Gimnaziala Dumbrava,Timis County, Romania & my pupils has 6 to 10 years old. I was&I am a main pillar in my community, always disseminating knowledge and experience to students, other teachers in the school area &Timis County.Astronomy is the must favorite subject of my students from my classes. They are very courious & always come to me with questions about Earth and Sky because Curriculum scientific disciplines provides too little information about Earth and Sky.I need to know more about how to teach space contents into my classes&what competencies can form in elementary school and also to share my experience to the others.As a result of participation at this meeting I want to attract as many students to astronomy,science/STEM disciplines&space technologies, to astronomy topics and exploration of outer space.Schools needs to be prepared for social life needs,new generations needs,on science/space technologies,which are one of the key points for developing the knowledge society.I intend to introduce new scientific activities as part of the existing curriculum.I am passionate about astronomy,I need to know new approaches and new ideas for primary because I think Science is very important in daily life. Here are some developed activities with pupils from K-2 grade levels wich I wish share with colleagues in Viena. Subject: MATHEMATICS. Primary Topic: MEASUREMENT : -+= ☼ Rockets by Size. Students cut out,color and sequence paper rockets/Read the information on the International Space Station and rockets/Gather pictures of different types of rockets/Print/cut out/color&laminate rocket drawings/Find objects in the room to put in order by height. ☼ Oil Spot Photometer - Measure the brightness of the sun using cooking oil and a white card. A smear of oil on a white card becomes a powerful tool for comparing the brightness of two light sources, including the sun. ☼ The Sundial & Making Shadows-device to measure time by the

  14. Reaching for the red planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  15. The destination of sewage sludges. The main objective to XXI century; El destino final de los lodos de depuradora. Objetivo prioritario para el siglo XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemuy Vila, D.

    2000-07-01

    The processes of water depuration produce a kind of waste, the depuration sludge, whose main is to retain the pollutants dragged by the water, Reached a high level of depuration, water depuration is generating very considerable quantities of coming residuals from these processes, and the challenge of the X XI century is their adequate administration. (Author)

  16. The research of Digital Holographic Object Wave Field Reconstruction in Image and Object Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-Chang; PENG Zu-Jie; FU Yun-Chang

    2011-01-01

    @@ For conveniently detecting objects of different sizes using digital holography, usual measurements employ the object wave transformed by an optical system with different magnifications to fit charge coupled devices (CCDs), then the object field reconstruction involves the diffraction calculation of the optic wave passing through the optical system.We propose two methods to reconstruct the object field.The one is that, when the object is imaging in an image space in which we reconstruct the image of the object field, the object field can be expressed according to the object-image relationship.The other is that, when the object field reaching CCD is imaged in an object space in which we reconstruct the object field, the optical system is described by introducing matrix optics in this paper.The reconstruction formulae which easily use classic diffraction integral are derived.Finally, experimental verifications are also accomplished.%For conveniently detecting objects of different sizes using digital holography, usual measurements employ the object wave transformed by an optical system with different magnifications to fit charge coupled devices (CCDs), then the object Reid reconstruction involves the diffraction calculation of the optic wave passing through the optical system. We propose two methods to reconstruct the object field. The one is that, when the object is imaging in an image space in which we reconstruct the image of the object field, the object field can be expressed according to the object-image relationship. The other is that, when the object field reaching CCD is imaged in an object space in which we reconstruct the object field, the optical system is described by introducing matrix optics in this paper. The reconstruction formulae which easily use classic diffraction integral are derived. Finally, experimental verifications are also accomplished.

  17. A Project to Computerize Performance Objectives and Criterion-Referenced Measures in Occupational Education for Research and Determination of Applicability to Handicapped Learners. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Connie W.; Hinson, Tony M.

    This publication is the final report of a 21-month project designed to (1) expand and refine the computer capabilities of the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) to ensure rapid data access for generating routine and special occupational data-based reports; (2) develop and implement a computer storage and retrieval system…

  18. Water quality objectives for priority substances aiming at the protection of the aquatic community. Final report; Ableitung von Zielvorgaben fuer prioritaere Stoffe zum Schutz von Oberflaechengewaessern. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrchen, M.; Mueller, M.; Storm, A.

    2000-03-15

    Beside the emission principle operationalized as best available technology (BAT) the derivation of water quality criteria is a main approach to protect surface waters. Water quality criteria are defined as not legally binding objectives of protection and are no limit values. The quality objectives are derived for pre-defined objectives namely the aquatic community, fishery, sediments and drinking water. It was aim of the project to derive quality objectives for the aquatic community. In principle, the lowest NOEC-value for the most sensitive species out of four trophic levels of the biocenose was used as the basis. In case the entire data set was not available factors were applied with their figures depending on test duration, biological endpoint and size of the data ensemble. The current report mainly presents water quality objectives for plant protection products, but also gives some figures for halogenated compounds as well as the currently discussed nonylphenols and tributyltin compounds. The acquired data allows for a derivation of quality objectives for 11 out of 27 compounds/groups of compounds. Results of the data acquistion as well as of the evaluation are documented in both, an electronic data base with a link to the oekotoxikologische Schnellauskunft (OESA)' and data reports. (orig.) [German] Neben dem Emissionsansatz ist das Prinzip der Formulierung von Gewaessergueteanforderungen - im Sinne eines Immissionsminimierungsprinzips - ein wesentlicher Bestandteil des Schutzes der Oberflaechengewaesser. Waehrend die Gewaessergueteanforderungen zunaechst als Qualitaetsziele beschrieben wurden, wurde dieser Terminus zur Vermeidung des Eindrucks einer rechtlichen Verbindlichkeit - im Sinne von Grenzwerten - in Zielvorgaben umformuliert. Die Zielvorgaben werden schutzzielbezogen abgeleitet, wobei es sich um die Schutzgueter aquatische Lebensgemeinschaft, Berufs- und Sportfischerei und Sedimente sowie Trinkwasserversorgung handelt. Zur Ableitung der

  19. A Programming Environment Evaluation Methodology for Object-Oriented Systems. Ph.D Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1987-01-01

    The object-oriented design strategy as both a problem decomposition and system development paradigm has made impressive inroads into the various areas of the computing sciences. Substantial development productivity improvements have been demonstrated in areas ranging from artificial intelligence to user interface design. However, there has been very little progress in the formal characterization of these productivity improvements and in the identification of the underlying cognitive mechanisms. The development and validation of models and metrics of this sort require large amounts of systematically-gathered structural and productivity data. There has, however, been a notable lack of systematically-gathered information on these development environments. A large part of this problem is attributable to the lack of a systematic programming environment evaluation methodology that is appropriate to the evaluation of object-oriented systems.

  20. Reaching ignition in the tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1985-06-01

    This review covers the following areas: (1) the physics of burning plasmas, (2) plasma physics requirements for reaching ignition, (3) design studies for ignition devices, and (4) prospects for an ignition project

  1. Shaping of Reach-to-Grasp Kinematics by Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Ida; Køppe, Simo

    2017-01-01

    is primarily associated with transporting the hand to the object (i.e., extrinsic object properties), the decelerating part of the reach is used as a preparation for object manipulation (i.e., prepare the grasp or the subsequent action), and the grasp is associated with manipulating the object's intrinsic...

  2. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    -- an outline which at the same time indicates the need for transformations of the Durkheimian model on decisive points. Thus, thirdly, it returns to Durkheim and undertakes to develop his concepts in a direction suitable for a sociological theory of fashion. Finally, it discusses the theoretical implications......This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...

  3. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  4. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  5. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ball at a distance of nine miles, and to keep their smooth reflecting surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair. Once the transporter reached the high plateau it carried the antenna to a concrete pad -- a docking station with connections for power and fiber optics -- and positioned it with an accuracy of a small fraction of an inch. The transporter is guided by a laser steering system and, just like some cars, also has ultrasonic collision detectors. These sensors ensure the safety of the state-of-the-art antennas as the transporter drives them across what will soon be a rather crowded plateau. Ultimately, ALMA will have at least 66 antennas distributed over about 200 pads, spread over distances of up to 11.5 miles and operating as a single, giant telescope. Even when ALMA is fully operational, the transporters will be used to move the antennas between pads to reconfigure the telescope for different kinds of observations. This first ALMA antenna at the high site will soon be joined by others, and the ALMA team looks forward to making their first observations from the Chajnantor plateau. They plan to link three antennas by early 2010, and to make the first scientific observations with ALMA in the second half of 2011. ALMA will help astronomers answer important questions about our cosmic origins. The telescope will observe the Universe using light with millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, between infrared light and radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Light at these wavelengths comes from some of the coldest, and from some of the most distant objects in the cosmos. These include cold clouds of gas and dust where new stars are being born, or remote galaxies towards the edge of the observable universe. The Universe is relatively unexplored at submillimeter wavelengths, as the telescopes need extremely dry atmospheric conditions, such as those at Chajnantor, and advanced detector technology. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

  6. Environmental stressors afflicting tailwater stream reaches across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The tailwater is the reach of a stream immediately below an impoundment that is hydrologically, physicochemically and biologically altered by the presence and operation of a dam. The overall goal of this study was to gain a nationwide awareness of the issues afflicting tailwater reaches in the United States. Specific objectives included the following: (i) estimate the percentage of reservoirs that support tailwater reaches with environmental conditions suitable for fish assemblages throughout the year, (ii) identify and quantify major sources of environmental stress in those tailwaters that do support fish assemblages and (iii) identify environmental features of tailwater reaches that determine prevalence of key fish taxa. Data were collected through an online survey of fishery managers. Relative to objective 1, 42% of the 1306 reservoirs included in this study had tailwater reaches with sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. The surface area of the reservoir and catchment most strongly delineated reservoirs maintaining tailwater reaches with or without sufficient flow to support a fish assemblage throughout the year. Relative to objective 2, major sources of environmental stress generally reflected flow variables, followed by water quality variables. Relative to objective 3, zoogeography was the primary factor discriminating fish taxa in tailwaters, followed by a wide range of flow and water quality variables. Results for objectives 1–3 varied greatly among nine geographic regions distributed throughout the continental United States. Our results provide a large-scale view of the effects of reservoirs on tailwater reaches and may help guide research and management needs.

  7. Searches for new objects decaying to high-pT lepton final states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV with the ATLAS and CMS detectors

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00212355; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Searches for high mass objects involving final states consisting of pairs of reconstructed leptons, or one reconstructed lepton and a neutrino, are experimentally attractive and theoretically well-motivated. These so-called W' and Z' searches have been a feature of the ATLAS and CMS physics programmes since the LHC began operating, and have become increasingly relevant as the centre-of-mass energy has risen. This contribution summarises the W' and Z' searches conducted by the two experiments during the first 13 TeV run of the LHC, during 2015.

  8. Small space object imaging : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Valley, Michael T.; Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2009-10-01

    We report the results of an LDRD effort to investigate new technologies for the identification of small-sized (mm to cm) debris in low-earth orbit. This small-yet-energetic debris presents a threat to the integrity of space-assets worldwide and represents significant security challenge to the international community. We present a nonexhaustive review of recent US and Russian efforts to meet the challenges of debris identification and removal and then provide a detailed description of joint US-Russian plans for sensitive, laser-based imaging of small debris at distances of hundreds of kilometers and relative velocities of several kilometers per second. Plans for the upcoming experimental testing of these imaging schemes are presented and a preliminary path toward system integration is identified.

  9. REACH and nanomaterials: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Di Prospero Fanghella, Paola; Polci, Maria Letizia; Castelli, Stefano; Pettirossi, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    New challenges for regulators are emerging about a specific assessment and appropriate management of the potential risks of nanomaterials. In the framework of European legislation on chemicals, Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 REACH aims to ensure the safety of human health and the environment through the collection of information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the substances and on their profile (eco) toxicological and the identification of appropriate risk management linked to 'exposure to these substances without impeding scientific progress and the competitiveness of industry. In order to cover the current shortage of information on the safety of nanomaterials and tackle the acknowledged legal vacuum, are being a rich activities, carried out both by regulators both by stake holders, and discussions on the proposals for adapting the European regulatory framework for chemicals . The European Commission is geared to strengthen the REACH Regulation by means of updates of its annexes. The importance of responding to the regulatory requirements has highlighted the need for cooperation between European organizations, scientists and industries to promote and ensure the safe use of nanomaterials. [it

  10. Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures--so-called metasurfaces--have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications.

  11. Adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation improves quality of reaching movements more than traditional reaching therapy following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Margaret; Chen, Yinpeng; Cheng, Long; Liu, Sheng-Min; Blake, Paul; Wolf, Steven L; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2013-05-01

    Adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation (AMRR) is a novel integration of motion capture technology and high-level media computing that provides precise kinematic measurements and engaging multimodal feedback for self-assessment during a therapeutic task. We describe the first proof-of-concept study to compare outcomes of AMRR and traditional upper-extremity physical therapy. Two groups of participants with chronic stroke received either a month of AMRR therapy (n = 11) or matched dosing of traditional repetitive task therapy (n = 10). Participants were right handed, between 35 and 85 years old, and could independently reach to and at least partially grasp an object in front of them. Upper-extremity clinical scale scores and kinematic performances were measured before and after treatment. Both groups showed increased function after therapy, demonstrated by statistically significant improvements in Wolf Motor Function Test and upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scores, with the traditional therapy group improving significantly more on the FMA. However, only participants who received AMRR therapy showed a consistent improvement in kinematic measurements, both for the trained task of reaching to grasp a cone and the untrained task of reaching to push a lighted button. AMRR may be useful in improving both functionality and the kinematics of reaching. Further study is needed to determine if AMRR therapy induces long-term changes in movement quality that foster better functional recovery.

  12. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics. T...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object.......This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...

  13. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is given of the principal characteristics and problems associated with the prototype BL Lacertae. The most important characteristics of this group and its relevance, the consideration of a few particular objects in moderate detail, the relation between these objects QSOs, and normal galaxies, and finally the possible physical nature of BL Lac objects and the important questions they raise are treated. 15 references

  14. EGYPTIAN MUTUAL FUNDS ANALYSIS: HISTORY, PERFORMANCE, OBJECTIVES, RISK AND RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru STEFEA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to overview the mutual fund in Egypt. The establishment of the first mutual funds was achieved in 1994. Nowadays, the total mutual funds reached 90 funds , approximately. The income funds represent the largest share of the Egyptian mutual funds (40%, growth funds (25% and the private equity funds is at least (1%. The total population of the Egyptian mutual funds reached 22. Finally, the study proved that the Egyptian mutual funds have an impact on fund return , total risk and systemic; when analysis relationship between risk and return. The study found influencing for mutual fund's objectives on Sharpe and Terynor ratios.

  15. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  16. Operational Reach: Is Current Army Doctrine Adequate?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heintzelman, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The term operational reach, an element of operational design, is new to U.S. Army doctrine. Operational reach is not found in the previous edition of the Army's basic operational doctrine, Field Manual...

  17. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  18. CAST reaches milestone but keeps on searching

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Courier (september 2011 issue)

    2011-01-01

    After eight years of searching for the emission of a dark matter candidate particle, the axion, from the Sun, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has fulfilled its original physics programme.   Members of the CAST collaboration in July, together with dipole-based helioscope. CAST, the world’s most sensitive axion helioscope, points a recycled prototype LHC dipole magnet at the Sun at dawn and dusk, looking for the conversion of axions to X-rays. It incorporates four state-of-the-art X-ray detectors: three Micromegas detectors and a pn-CCD imaging camera attached to a focusing X-ray telescope that was recovered from the German space programme (see CERN Courier April 2010).  Over the years, CAST has operated with the magnet bores - the location of the axion conversion - in different conditions: first in vacuum, covering axion masses up to 20 meV/c2, and then with a buffer gas (4He and later 3He) at various densities, finally reaching the goal of 1.17 eV/c2 on 22 ...

  19. Functional reach and lateral reach tests adapted for aquatic physical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Angélica Ribeiro de Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional reach (FR and lateral reach (LR tests are widely used in scientific research and clinical practice. Assessment tools are useful in assessing subjects with greater accuracy and are usually adapted according to the limitations of each condition. Objective: To adapt FR and LR tests for use in an aquatic environment and assess the performance of healthy young adults. Methods: We collected anthropometric data and information on whether the participant exercised regularly or not. The FR and LR tests were adapted for use in an aquatic environment and administered to 47 healthy subjects aged 20-30 years. Each test was repeated three times. Results: Forty-one females and six males were assessed. The mean FR test score for men was 24.06 cm, whereas the mean value for right lateral reach (RLR was 10.94 cm and for left lateral reach (LLR was 9.78 cm. For females, the mean FR score was 17.57 cm, while the mean values for RLR was 8.84cm and for LLR was 7.76 cm. Men performed better in the FR (p < 0.001 and RLR tests than women (p = 0.037. Individuals who exercised regularly showed no differences in performance level when compared with their counterparts. Conclusion: The FR and LR tests were adapted for use in an aquatic environment. Males performed better on the FR and RLR tests, when compared to females. There was no correlation between the FR and LR tests and weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI, foot length or length of the dominant upper limb.

  20. Elegant objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bugayenko, Yegor

    2017-01-01

    There are 23 practical recommendations for object-oriented programmers. Most of them are completely against everything you've read in other books. For example, static methods, NULL references, getters, setters, and mutable classes are called evil. Compound variable names, validators, private static literals, configurable objects, inheritance, annotations, MVC, dependency injection containers, reflection, ORM and even algorithms are our enemies.

  1. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  2. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    OpenAIRE

    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging...

  3. REACH: impact on the US cosmetics industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Anne; Polla, Barbara; Polla, Ada

    2009-03-01

    The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a recent European regulation on chemical substances meant to protect human health and the environment. REACH imposes the "precautionary principle" where additional data and definitive action are required when uncertainty is identified. The cosmetics industry is only partially concerned by REACH: while the stages of registration and evaluation apply to cosmetics, those of authorization and restriction most likely will not, as cosmetic ingredients are already subject to regulation by various agencies and directives. REACH has potential benefits to the industry including the possibility of reassuring consumers and improving their image of chemicals and cosmetics. However, REACH also has potential disadvantages, mainly with regard to impeding innovation. The American cosmetics industry will be affected by REACH, because all US manufacturers who export substances to Europe will have to fully comply with REACH.

  4. Proprioceptive body illusions modulate the visual perception of reaching distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Petroni

    Full Text Available The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide-without engaging in explicit action-whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas.

  5. Decoding natural reach-and-grasp actions from human EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Andreas; Ofner, Patrick; Pereira, Joana; Ioana Sburlea, Andreea; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Despite the high number of degrees of freedom of the human hand, most actions of daily life can be executed incorporating only palmar, pincer and lateral grasp. In this study we attempt to discriminate these three different executed reach-and-grasp actions utilizing their EEG neural correlates. Approach. In a cue-guided experiment, 15 healthy individuals were asked to perform these actions using daily life objects. We recorded 72 trials for each reach-and-grasp condition and from a no-movement condition. Main results. Using low-frequency time domain features from 0.3 to 3 Hz, we achieved binary classification accuracies of 72.4%, STD  ±  5.8% between grasp types, for grasps versus no-movement condition peak performances of 93.5%, STD  ±  4.6% could be reached. In an offline multiclass classification scenario which incorporated not only all reach-and-grasp actions but also the no-movement condition, the highest performance could be reached using a window of 1000 ms for feature extraction. Classification performance peaked at 65.9%, STD  ±  8.1%. Underlying neural correlates of the reach-and-grasp actions, investigated over the primary motor cortex, showed significant differences starting from approximately 800 ms to 1200 ms after the movement onset which is also the same time frame where classification performance reached its maximum. Significance. We could show that it is possible to discriminate three executed reach-and-grasp actions prominent in people’s everyday use from non-invasive EEG. Underlying neural correlates showed significant differences between all tested conditions. These findings will eventually contribute to our attempt of controlling a neuroprosthesis in a natural and intuitive way, which could ultimately benefit motor impaired end users in their daily life actions.

  6. Task-dependent vestibular feedback responses in reaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyser, J.; Medendorp, W.P.; Selen, L.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    When reaching for an earth-fixed object during self-rotation, the motor system should appropriately integrate vestibular signals and sensory predictions to compensate for the intervening motion and its induced inertial forces. While it is well established that this integration occurs rapidly, it is

  7. Reaching the Millennium Development Goals : Mauritania Should Care

    OpenAIRE

    Magnoli Bocchi, Alessandro; Pontara, Nicola; Fall, Khayar; Tejada, Catalina M.; Gallego Cuervo, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Mauritania is a resource-rich developing country. As many other African nations, it will not reach most of the Millennium Development Goals, unless the authorities commit to accelerating progress. To succeed by 2015, the government needs to: mobilize additional financial resources, introduce policy changes at the sector level, and strengthen the links between strategic objectives and the b...

  8. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  9. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  10. REACH: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibieta, Luke

    2016-01-01

    REACH is a targeted reading support programme designed to improve reading accuracy and comprehension in pupils with reading difficulties in Years 7 and 8. It is based on research by the Centre for Reading and Language at York and is delivered by specially trained teaching assistants (TAs). This evaluation tested two REACH interventions, one based…

  11. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  12. The database for reaching experiments and models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Walker

    Full Text Available Reaching is one of the central experimental paradigms in the field of motor control, and many computational models of reaching have been published. While most of these models try to explain subject data (such as movement kinematics, reaching performance, forces, etc. from only a single experiment, distinct experiments often share experimental conditions and record similar kinematics. This suggests that reaching models could be applied to (and falsified by multiple experiments. However, using multiple datasets is difficult because experimental data formats vary widely. Standardizing data formats promises to enable scientists to test model predictions against many experiments and to compare experimental results across labs. Here we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a database of reaching called the Database for Reaching Experiments And Models (DREAM. DREAM collects both experimental datasets and models and facilitates their comparison by standardizing formats. The DREAM project promises to be useful for experimentalists who want to understand how their data relates to models, for modelers who want to test their theories, and for educators who want to help students better understand reaching experiments, models, and data analysis.

  13. Reaching remote areas in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, R

    1994-01-01

    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  14. On marginally resolved objects in optical interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaume, R.

    2003-03-01

    With the present and soon-to-be breakthrough of optical interferometry, countless objects shall be within reach of interferometers; yet, most of them are expected to remain only marginally resolved with hectometric baselines. In this paper, we tackle the problem of deriving the properties of a marginally resolved object from its optical visibilities. We show that they depend on the moments of flux distribution of the object: centre, mean angular size, asymmetry, and curtosis. We also point out that the visibility amplitude is a second-order phenomenon, whereas the phase is a combination of a first-order term, giving the location of the photocentre, and a third-order term, more difficult to detect than the visibility amplitude, giving an asymmetry coefficient of the object. We then demonstrate that optical visibilities are not a good model constraint while the object stays marginally resolved, unless observations are carried out at different wavelengths. Finally, we show an application of this formalism to circumstellar discs.

  15. Enhancing US Operational Reach in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitchcock, David

    2003-01-01

    .... While this treat continues to exist, the US Pacific Command (PACOM) must also pursue a neat term methodology to expand its operational reach and ability to respond to contingencies throughout the East Asian littoral, especially within Southeast Asia...

  16. Reaching the Overlooked Student in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, Keri; Esslinger, Travis; Bagshaw, Jarad

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of live action role-playing, or "LARPing," as a non-traditional activity that has the potential to reach students who are not interested in traditional physical education.

  17. Compact muon solenoid magnet reaches full field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Scientist of the U.S. Department of Energy in Fermilab and collaborators of the US/CMS project announced that the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet has reached full field in tests at CERN. (1 apge)

  18. Improving the safety of Ukrainian NPP to reach an internationally accepted level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhko, S.; Helske, J.; Janke, R.; Mayoral, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the safety status and the modernization progress of Ukrainian NPPs towards an internationally accepted level of safety. After a brief discussion of the concept of what is called an 'international accepted level' for new and operating NPPs, the status of Russian type WWER and in particular the Ukrainian NPPs is presented. Then, the performed investigations of the gaps between international accepted level and the original status of Ukrainian NPPs are presented. The safety objectives of the modernization programs, some examples of defence in depth improvements, and an overall view of the modernization programs of Ukrainian NPPs are produced. Then, few important safety improvements implemented at the oldest Ukrainian WWER-1000 South Ukraine-1 are given in more detail. Finally, a conclusion presents the current status on the way to fulfill the national safety targets and to reach an internationally accepted level for all the Ukrainian NPPs. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  19. Grip type and task goal modify reach-to-grasp performance in post-stroke hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y; DeJong, Stacey L; Cherry, Kendra M; Lang, Catherine E

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated whether grip type and/or task goal influenced reaching and grasping performance in poststroke hemiparesis. Sixteen adults with poststroke hemiparesis and twelve healthy adults reached to and grasped a cylindrical object using one of two grip types (3-finger or palmar) to achieve one of two task goals (hold or lift). Performance of the stroke group was characteristic of hemiparetic limb movement during reach-to-grasp, with more curved handpaths and slower velocities compared with the control group. These effects were present regardless of grip type or task goal. Other measures of reaching (reach time and reach velocity at object contact) and grasping (peak thumb-index finger aperture during the reach and peak grip force during the grasp) were differentially affected by grip type, task goal, or both, despite the presence of hemiparesis, providing new evidence that changes in motor patterns after stroke may occur to compensate for stroke-related motor impairment.

  20. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.

  1. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo......The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition...... of developing best practices in the education and implementation of IHL in capacity building of security forces....

  2. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  3. Ethical aspects of final disposal. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, B.; Leder, W.; Achenbach, G.B.; Spaemann, R.; Gerhardt, V.

    2003-01-01

    In fulfilment of this task the Federal Environmental Ministry has commissioned GRS to summarise the current national and international status of ethical aspects of the final disposal of radioactive wastes as part of the project titled ''Final disposal of radioactive wastes as seen from the viewpoint of ethical objectives''. The questions arising from the opinions, positions and publications presented in the report by GRS were to serve as a basis for an expert discussion or an interdisciplinary discussion forum for all concerned with the ethical aspects of an answerable approach to the final disposal of radioactive wastes. In April 2001 GRS held a one-day seminar at which leading ethicists and philosophers offered statements on the questions referred to above and joined in a discussion with experts on issues of final disposal. This report documents the questions that arose ahead of the workshop, the specialist lectures held there and a summary of the discussion results [de

  4. Reaching Reluctant Students: Insights from Torey Hayden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates principles of reaching students who fight or avoid adults by using examples drawn from the writings of Torey Hayden. Presents ten concepts that can serve as guidelines for building relationships with resistant children, and gives excerpts from Hayden's works to illustrate each concept. Demonstrates how books provide teachers with…

  5. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  6. TESS Objects of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Natalia; Glidden, Ana; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the search for TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs), led by the MIT branch of the TESS Science Office (TSO). TSO has developed a tool called TESS Exoplanet Vetter (TEV) to facilitate this process. Individuals independently examine data validation products for each target and assign a category to the object: planet candidate, eclipsing binary, other astrophysical, stellar variability, or instrument noise/systematic. TEV assigns a preliminary follow-up priority designation to each object and allows for modification when final dispositions are decided on in a group setting. When all targets are vetted, TEV exports a catalogue of TOIs which is delivered to the TESS Follow-Up Observing Program (TFOP), working with ExoFOP-TESS, and made publicly available on the official TESS website and the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  7. Objective environmental risks - subjective risk perception in the public - an unsolvable discrepancy? Presentation by a comparison of the final disposal of radioactive and chemotoxical wastes, proposals for overcoming this problem, questions of realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, D.

    2005-01-01

    The main results of a BMU research project are presented, comprising comparisons of quantities of radioactive and chemotoxical wastes, of the respective hazardous potentials, of the regulatory requirements and safety standards, of the costs, and of the discrepancy between objective risk and risk perception in the public. (orig.)

  8. Inactivation of Parietal Reach Region Affects Reaching But Not Saccade Choices in Internally Guided Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Vassilios N; Bonaiuto, James; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A

    2015-08-19

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been considered important for awareness, spatial perception, and attention. However, recent findings provide evidence that the PPC also encodes information important for making decisions. These findings have initiated a running argument of whether the PPC is critically involved in decision making. To examine this issue, we reversibly inactivated the parietal reach region (PRR), the area of the PPC that is specialized for reaching movements, while two monkeys performed a memory-guided reaching or saccade task. The task included choices between two equally rewarded targets presented simultaneously in opposite visual fields. Free-choice trials were interleaved with instructed trials, in which a single cue presented in the peripheral visual field defined the reach and saccade target unequivocally. We found that PRR inactivation led to a strong reduction of contralesional choices, but only for reaches. On the other hand, saccade choices were not affected by PRR inactivation. Importantly, reaching and saccade movements to single instructed targets remained largely intact. These results cannot be explained as an effector-nonspecific deficit in spatial attention or awareness, since the temporary "lesion" had an impact only on reach choices. Hence, the PPR is a part of a network for reach decisions and not just reach planning. There has been an ongoing debate on whether the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) represents only spatial awareness, perception, and attention or whether it is also involved in decision making for actions. In this study we explore whether the parietal reach region (PRR), the region of the PPC that is specialized for reaches, is involved in the decision process. We inactivated the PRR while two monkeys performed reach and saccade choices between two targets presented simultaneously in both hemifields. We found that inactivation affected only the reach choices, while leaving saccade choices intact

  9. Task-dependent vestibular feedback responses in reaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Johannes; Medendorp, W Pieter; Selen, Luc P J

    2017-07-01

    When reaching for an earth-fixed object during self-rotation, the motor system should appropriately integrate vestibular signals and sensory predictions to compensate for the intervening motion and its induced inertial forces. While it is well established that this integration occurs rapidly, it is unknown whether vestibular feedback is specifically processed dependent on the behavioral goal. Here, we studied whether vestibular signals evoke fixed responses with the aim to preserve the hand trajectory in space or are processed more flexibly, correcting trajectories only in task-relevant spatial dimensions. We used galvanic vestibular stimulation to perturb reaching movements toward a narrow or a wide target. Results show that the same vestibular stimulation led to smaller trajectory corrections to the wide than the narrow target. We interpret this reduced compensation as a task-dependent modulation of vestibular feedback responses, tuned to minimally intervene with the task-irrelevant dimension of the reach. These task-dependent vestibular feedback corrections are in accordance with a central prediction of optimal feedback control theory and mirror the sophistication seen in feedback responses to mechanical and visual perturbations of the upper limb. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Correcting limb movements for external perturbations is a hallmark of flexible sensorimotor behavior. While visual and mechanical perturbations are corrected in a task-dependent manner, it is unclear whether a vestibular perturbation, naturally arising when the body moves, is selectively processed in reach control. We show, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, that reach corrections to vestibular perturbations are task dependent, consistent with a prediction of optimal feedback control theory. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Improving exposure scenario definitions within REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne

    In recent years, the paradigm of chemical management system has changed from being toxicity oriented and media based to being risk oriented and receptor based. This trend is evident not only regarding environmental quality standards, but also for industrial chemical regulations. Political...... instruments to support a precautionary chemicals management system and to protect receptor’s health have also been increasing. Since 2007, the European Union adopted REACH (the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals): REACH makes industry responsible for assessing...... and managing the risks posed by industrial chemicals and providing appropriate safety information to their users (EC, 2007). However, to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment, there is a need to consider ‘aggregate exposure’ including background exposures from environment which...

  11. Reach-to-grasp movement as a minimization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Feldman, Anatol G

    2010-02-01

    It is known that hand transport and grasping are functionally different but spatially coordinated components of reach-to-grasp (RTG) movements. As an extension of this notion, we suggested that body segments involved in RTG movements are controlled as a coherent ensemble by a global minimization process associated with the necessity for the hand to reach the motor goal. Different RTG components emerge following this process without pre-programming. Specifically, the minimization process may result from the tendency of neuromuscular elements to diminish the spatial gap between the actual arm-hand configuration and its virtual (referent) configuration specified by the brain. The referent configuration is specified depending on the object shape, localization, and orientation. Since the minimization process is gradual, it can be interrupted and resumed following mechanical perturbations, at any phase during RTG movements, including hand closure. To test this prediction of the minimization hypothesis, we asked subjects to reach and grasp a cube placed within the reach of the arm. Vision was prevented during movement until the hand returned to its initial position. As predicted, by arresting wrist motion at different points of hand transport in randomly selected trials, it was possible to halt changes in hand aperture at any phase, not only during hand opening but also during hand closure. Aperture changes resumed soon after the wrist was released. Another test of the minimization hypothesis was made in RTG movements to an object placed beyond the reach of the arm. It has previously been shown (Rossi et al. in J Physiol 538:659-671, 2002) that in such movements, the trunk motion begins to contribute to hand transport only after a critical phase when the shifts in the referent arm configuration have finished (at about the time when hand velocity is maximal). The minimization rule suggests that when the virtual contribution of the arm to hand transport is completed

  12. Olefins and chemical regulation in Europe: REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Mike; Banton, Marcy; Erler, Steffen; Moore, Nigel; Semmler, Klaus

    2015-11-05

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the European Union's chemical regulation for the management of risk to human health and the environment (European Chemicals Agency, 2006). This regulation entered into force in June 2007 and required manufacturers and importers to register substances produced in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more by December 2010, with further deadlines for lower tonnages in 2013 and 2018. Depending on the type of registration, required information included the substance's identification, the hazards of the substance, the potential exposure arising from the manufacture or import, the identified uses of the substance, and the operational conditions and risk management measures applied or recommended to downstream users. Among the content developed to support this information were Derived No-Effect Levels or Derived Minimal Effect Levels (DNELs/DMELs) for human health hazard assessment, Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for environmental hazard assessment, and exposure scenarios for exposure and risk assessment. Once registered, substances may undergo evaluation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) or Member State authorities and be subject to requests for additional information or testing as well as additional risk reduction measures. To manage the REACH registration and related activities for the European olefins and aromatics industry, the Lower Olefins and Aromatics REACH Consortium was formed in 2008 with administrative and technical support provided by Penman Consulting. A total of 135 substances are managed by this group including 26 individual chemical registrations (e.g. benzene, 1,3-butadiene) and 13 categories consisting of 5-26 substances. This presentation will describe the content of selected registrations prepared for 2010 in addition to the significant post-2010 activities. Beyond REACH, content of the registrations may also be relevant to other European activities, for

  13. Performance reach in the LHC for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arduini, G.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the 2011 experience and Machine Development study results, the performance reach of the LHC with 25 and 50 ns beams will be addressed for operation at 3.5 and 4 TeV. The possible scrubbing scenarios and potential intensity limitations resulting from vacuum, heating will be taken into account wherever possible. The paper mainly covers the performance of the two high luminosity regions in IR1 and IR5. (author)

  14. Decoding Grasping Movements from the Parieto-Frontal Reaching Circuit in the Nonhuman Primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Koen; Fiave, Prosper Agbesi; Vanduffel, Wim

    2018-04-01

    Prehension movements typically include a reaching phase, guiding the hand toward the object, and a grip phase, shaping the hand around it. The dominant view posits that these components rely upon largely independent parieto-frontal circuits: a dorso-medial circuit involved in reaching and a dorso-lateral circuit involved in grasping. However, mounting evidence suggests a more complex arrangement, with dorso-medial areas contributing to both reaching and grasping. To investigate the role of the dorso-medial reaching circuit in grasping, we trained monkeys to reach-and-grasp different objects in the dark and determined if hand configurations could be decoded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) responses obtained from the reaching and grasping circuits. Indicative of their established role in grasping, object-specific grasp decoding was found in anterior intraparietal (AIP) area, inferior parietal lobule area PFG and ventral premotor region F5 of the lateral grasping circuit, and primary motor cortex. Importantly, the medial reaching circuit also conveyed robust grasp-specific information, as evidenced by significant decoding in parietal reach regions (particular V6A) and dorsal premotor region F2. These data support the proposed role of dorso-medial "reach" regions in controlling aspects of grasping and demonstrate the value of complementing univariate with more sensitive multivariate analyses of functional MRI (fMRI) data in uncovering information coding in the brain.

  15. Kinematic analysis of head, trunk, and pelvis movement when people early after stroke reach sideways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheyden, G.; Duijnhoven, H.J.R. van; Burnett, M.; Littlewood, J.; Kunkel, D.; Ashburn, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sideways reaching with the unaffected arm while seated is a component of everyday activities and can be a challenging task early after stroke. Kinematic analysis of a lateral reach task may provide potential rehabilitation strategies. OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the difference

  16. Binding Energy and Equilibrium of Compact Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of the existence of a limit mass for compact astronomic ob- jects requires the solution of the Einstein’s equations of g eneral relativity together with an appropriate equation of state. Analytical solutions exi st in some special cases like the spherically symmetric static object without energy sou rces that is here considered. Solutions, i.e. the spacetime metrics, can have a singular m athematical form (the so called Schwarzschild metric due to Hilbert or a nonsingula r form (original work of Schwarzschild. The former predicts a limit mass and, conse quently, the existence of black holes above this limit. Here it is shown that, the origi nal Schwarzschild met- ric permits compact objects, without mass limit, having rea sonable values for central density and pressure. The lack of a limit mass is also demonst rated analytically just imposing reasonable conditions on the energy-matter densi ty, of positivity and decreas- ing with radius. Finally the ratio between proper mass and to tal mass tends to 2 for high values of mass so that the binding energy reaches the lim it m (total mass seen by a distant observer. As it is known the negative binding energ y reduces the gravitational mass of the object; the limit of m for the binding energy provides a mechanism for stable equilibrium of any amount of mass to contrast the gravitatio nal collapse.

  17. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R. [Arizona Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  18. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  19. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  20. Evaluating Remapped Physical Reach for Hand Interactions with Passive Haptics in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dustin T; Suhail, Mohamed; Ragan, Eric D

    2018-04-01

    Virtual reality often uses motion tracking to incorporate physical hand movements into interaction techniques for selection and manipulation of virtual objects. To increase realism and allow direct hand interaction, real-world physical objects can be aligned with virtual objects to provide tactile feedback and physical grasping. However, unless a physical space is custom configured to match a specific virtual reality experience, the ability to perfectly match the physical and virtual objects is limited. Our research addresses this challenge by studying methods that allow one physical object to be mapped to multiple virtual objects that can exist at different virtual locations in an egocentric reference frame. We study two such techniques: one that introduces a static translational offset between the virtual and physical hand before a reaching action, and one that dynamically interpolates the position of the virtual hand during a reaching motion. We conducted two experiments to assess how the two methods affect reaching effectiveness, comfort, and ability to adapt to the remapping techniques when reaching for objects with different types of mismatches between physical and virtual locations. We also present a case study to demonstrate how the hand remapping techniques could be used in an immersive game application to support realistic hand interaction while optimizing usability. Overall, the translational technique performed better than the interpolated reach technique and was more robust for situations with larger mismatches between virtual and physical objects.

  1. Long-reach manipulators for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, D.A.; Challinor, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of redundant facilities at Sellafield has identified that in many cases the conventional means of deploying remote handling equipment are not appropriate and that novel means must be employed. However, decommissioning is not a value adding activity and so expensive one off designs must be avoided. The paper will describe BNFL's approach to the synthesis from proprietary parts of a manipulator which can lift 3 te at a horizontal reach of over 5 metres and yet can still perform the dextrous manipulation necessary to remove small items. It will also cover the development of the manipulator control systems and the adaption of commercial handtools to be manipulator friendly. (author)

  2. Luminosity performance reach after LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W.

    2012-01-01

    Based on past experience (2010/2011), in particular expected limitations from beam-beam effects, and taking into account the expected beam quality from the LHC injectors, the peak and integrated luminosity at top energy is discussed for different scenarios (e.g. bunch spacing, beta*). In particular it will be shown which are the key parameters to reach the nominal luminosity and it is also shown that peak luminosities two times larger than nominal (or higher) are possible. Possible test in 2012 are discussed

  3. City Reach Code Technical Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Yan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frankel, Mark [New Buildings Inst., Portland, OR (United States); Lyles, Mark [New Buildings Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-10-31

    This report describes and analyzes a set of energy efficiency measures that will save 20% energy over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013. The measures will be used to formulate a Reach Code for cities aiming to go beyond national model energy codes. A coalition of U.S. cities together with other stakeholders wanted to facilitate the development of voluntary guidelines and standards that can be implemented in stages at the city level to improve building energy efficiency. The coalition's efforts are being supported by the U.S. Department of Energy via Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and in collaboration with the New Buildings Institute.

  4. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  5. Efficacy of REACH Forgiveness across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin; Worthington, Everett L; Griffin, Brandon J; Greer, Chelsea L; Opare-Henaku, Annabella; Lavelock, Caroline R; Hook, Joshua N; Ho, Man Yee; Muller, Holly

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of the 6-hour REACH Forgiveness intervention among culturally diverse undergraduates. Female undergraduates (N = 102) and foreign extraction (46.2%) and domestic (43.8%) students in the United States were randomly assigned to immediate treatment or waitlist conditions. Treatment efficacy and the effect of culture on treatment response were assessed using measures of emotional and decisional forgiveness across 3 time periods. Students in the treatment condition reported greater improvement in emotional forgiveness, but not decisional forgiveness, relative to those in the waitlist condition. Gains were maintained at a 1-week follow-up. Although culture did not moderate the effect of treatment, a main effect of culture on emotional forgiveness and marginally significant interaction effect of culture on decisional forgiveness were found. The REACH Forgiveness intervention was efficacious for college students from different cultural backgrounds when conducted in the United States. However, some evidence may warrant development of culturally adapted forgiveness interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  7. Narrative Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Kotin Mortimer

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.

  8. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  9. Modern industrial simulation tools: Kernel-level integration of high performance parallel processing, object-oriented numerics, and adaptive finite element analysis. Final report, July 16, 1993--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, M.K.; Kennon, S.R.

    1998-04-01

    A cooperative R&D effort between industry and the US government, this project, under the HPPP (High Performance Parallel Processing) initiative of the Dept. of Energy, started the investigations into parallel object-oriented (OO) numerics. The basic goal was to research and utilize the emerging technologies to create a physics-independent computational kernel for applications using adaptive finite element method. The industrial team included Computational Mechanics Co., Inc. (COMCO) of Austin, TX (as the primary contractor), Scientific Computing Associates, Inc. (SCA) of New Haven, CT, Texaco and CONVEX. Sandia National Laboratory (Albq., NM) was the technology partner from the government side. COMCO had the responsibility of the main kernel design and development, SCA had the lead in parallel solver technology and guidance on OO technologies was Sandia`s main expertise in this venture. CONVEX and Texaco supported the partnership by hardware resource and application knowledge, respectively. As such, a minimum of fifty-percent cost-sharing was provided by the industry partnership during this project. This report describes the R&D activities and provides some details about the prototype kernel and example applications.

  10. Intuitive modeling of vaporish objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Dmitry; Gentil, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to model gases in computer graphics started in the late 1970s. Since that time, there have been many approaches developed. In this paper we present a non-physical method allowing to create vaporish objects like clouds or smoky characters. The idea is to create a few sketches describing the rough shape of the final vaporish object. These sketches will be used as condensation sets of Iterated Function Systems, providing intuitive control over the object. The advantages of the new method are: simplicity, good control of resulting shapes and ease of eventual object animation.

  11. Unified communication to reach vulnerable mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, B; Von Rege, I; Henkson, H; Oteng-Ntim, E

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of using a mobile text to reach vulnerable patient groups was assessed in this study. A total of 121 pregnant or postnatal women were randomly asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire was given to them in the antenatal clinic, postnatal ward, antenatal ward or in the day assessment unit at St Thomas' Hospital, London. The forms were collected and analysed using an Excel database. The results of this survey show that mobile technology is readily available for 97% of the obstetric population. In mothers from vulnerable groups and in mothers from deprived areas, 61% possessed 3rd generation mobile technology. The majority of mothers surveyed wanted their care supplemented by the use of their mobile phones.

  12. Validity of an Interactive Functional Reach Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galen, Sujay S; Pardo, Vicky; Wyatt, Douglas; Diamond, Andrew; Brodith, Victor; Pavlov, Alex

    2015-08-01

    Videogaming platforms such as the Microsoft (Redmond, WA) Kinect(®) are increasingly being used in rehabilitation to improve balance performance and mobility. These gaming platforms do not have built-in clinical measures that offer clinically meaningful data. We have now developed software that will enable the Kinect sensor to assess a patient's balance using an interactive functional reach test (I-FRT). The aim of the study was to test the concurrent validity of the I-FRT and to establish the feasibility of implementing the I-FRT in a clinical setting. The concurrent validity of the I-FRT was tested among 20 healthy adults (mean age, 25.8±3.4 years; 14 women). The Functional Reach Test (FRT) was measured simultaneously by both the Kinect sensor using the I-FRT software and the Optotrak Certus(®) 3D motion-capture system (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, ON, Canada). The feasibility of implementing the I-FRT in a clinical setting was assessed by performing the I-FRT in 10 participants with mild balance impairments recruited from the outpatient physical therapy clinic (mean age, 55.8±13.5 years; four women) and obtaining their feedback using a NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire. There was moderate to good agreement between FRT measures made by the two measurement systems. The greatest agreement between the two measurement system was found with the Kinect sensor placed at a distance of 2.5 m [intraclass correlation coefficient (2,k)=0.786; PNASA/TLX questionnaire. FRT measures made using the Kinect sensor I-FRT software provides a valid clinical measure that can be used with the gaming platforms.

  13. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  14. The Parliament finally made the decision - but how was it reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ala-Heikkilae, J.; Nevander, O.

    2002-01-01

    On May 24, 2002, the Finnish Parliament voted for the application to build a fifth nuclear power reactor with a clear majority, 107-92. The application was submitted in November 2000 by the company TVO, operating two power reactors in Olkiluoto that started commercial operation in 1978 and 1980. A historical perspective to nuclear power in Finland is given and the reasons for the success of the current application are discussed. (author)

  15. Toxicological comments to the discussion about REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Helmut; Arand, Michael; Autrup, Herman; Bolt, Hermann M; Bridges, James; Dybing, Erik; Glomot, Rémi; Foa, Vito; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf

    2006-03-01

    It is the ultimate goal of the intended REACH process (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) of the European Union to identify substances of hazardous properties and to evaluate the risks of human and environmental exposure. During the last few months there has been a controversial discussion as to what extent in vitro studies and consideration of structure activity relationship provide sufficient information to waive repeated exposure studies. Industry as well as certain regulatory agencies or NGOs support this approach and propose that repeated dose studies may only be required beyond 100 t/a. From a toxicological point of view it has to be stressed that this discussion primarily considers the cost reduction and protection of animals, whereas protection of human health and the environment are secondary. In vitro studies only allow identification of specific hazardous properties which can be detected by the specific test system. Moreover, appropriate information on the dose response of adverse effects, identification of thresholds and NOELs that are essential for risk characterization cannot be obtained from these studies. Consequently, identification of all relevant hazardous properties and endpoints of adverse effects can only be determined in the intact animal by repeated dose studies such as 28-day or 90-day studies. In the absence of such information the hazard identification is incomplete and there is no basis for appropriate risk assessment of human exposure. Thus, any waiving of repeated dose studies in animals bears the probability of unforeseen effects in case of acute or continuous human exposure. From this the undersigning European Toxicologists conclude: 1. The intention of REACH is to identify hazardous properties in order that a reliable risk assessment can be made and measures taken to deal with chemicals posing a significant risk. 2. The recent debate has centered on ways in which the well established in vivo methods for risk

  16. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  17. Anticipatory reaching of seven- to eleven-month-old infants in occlusion situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wermeskerken, M; van der Kamp, J.; te Velde, A.F.; Valero-Garcia, A.V.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined 7- to 11-month-old infants' anticipatory and reactive reaching for temporarily occluded objects. Infants were presented with laterally approaching objects that moved at different velocities (10, 20, and 40. cm/s) in different occlusion situations (no-, 20. cm-, and 40.

  18. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  19. ESO telbib: Linking In and Reaching Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2015-04-01

    Measuring an observatory's research output is an integral part of its science operations. Like many other observatories, ESO tracks scholarly papers that use observational data from ESO facilities and uses state-of-the-art tools to create, maintain, and further develop the Telescope Bibliography database (telbib). While telbib started out as a stand-alone tool mostly used to compile lists of papers, it has by now developed into a multi-faceted, interlinked system. The core of the telbib database is links between scientific papers and observational data generated by the La Silla Paranal Observatory residing in the ESO archive. This functionality has also been deployed for ALMA data. In addition, telbib reaches out to several other systems, including ESO press releases, the NASA ADS Abstract Service, databases at the CDS Strasbourg, and impact scores at Altmetric.com. We illustrate these features to show how the interconnected telbib system enhances the content of the database as well as the user experience.

  20. Using New Media to Reach Broad Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.

    2008-06-01

    The International Year of Astronomy New Media Working Group (IYA NMWG) has a singular mission: To flood the Internet with ways to learn about astronomy, interact with astronomers and astronomy content, and socially network with astronomy. Within each of these areas, we seek to build lasting programs and partnerships that will continue beyond 2009. Our weapon of choice is New Media. It is often easiest to define New Media by what it is not. Television, radio, print and their online redistribution of content are not New Media. Many forms of New Media start as user provided content and content infrastructures that answer that individual's creative whim in a way that is adopted by a broader audience. Classic examples include Blogs and Podcasts. This media is typically distributed through content specific websites and RSS feeds, which allow syndication. RSS aggregators (iTunes has audio and video aggregation abilities) allow subscribers to have content delivered to their computers automatically when they connect to the Internet. RSS technology is also being used in such creative ways as allowing automatically updating Google-maps that show the location of someone with an intelligent GPS system, and in sharing 100 word microblogs from anyone (Twitters) through a single feed. In this poster, we outline how the IYA NMWG plans to use New Media to reach target primary audiences of astronomy enthusiasts, image lovers, and amateur astronomers, as well as secondary audiences, including: science fiction fans, online gamers, and skeptics.

  1. Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haswell, Katy

    2007-08-01

    The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

  2. Has Athletic Performance Reached its Peak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Sedeaud, Adrien; Marck, Adrien; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Schipman, Julien; Saulière, Guillaume; Marc, Andy; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-09-01

    Limits to athletic performance have long been a topic of myth and debate. However, sport performance appears to have reached a state of stagnation in recent years, suggesting that the physical capabilities of humans and other athletic species, such as greyhounds and thoroughbreds, cannot progress indefinitely. Although the ultimate capabilities may be predictable, the exact path for the absolute maximal performance values remains difficult to assess and relies on technical innovations, sport regulation, and other parameters that depend on current societal and economic conditions. The aim of this literature review was to assess the possible plateau of top physical capabilities in various events and detail the historical backgrounds and sociocultural, anthropometrical, and physiological factors influencing the progress and regression of athletic performance. Time series of performances in Olympic disciplines, such as track and field and swimming events, from 1896 to 2012 reveal a major decrease in performance development. Such a saturation effect is simultaneous in greyhound, thoroughbred, and frog performances. The genetic condition, exhaustion of phenotypic pools, economic context, and the depletion of optimal morphological traits contribute to the observed limitation of physical capabilities. Present conditions prevailing, we approach absolute physical limits and endure a continued period of world record scarcity. Optional scenarios for further improvements will mostly depend on sport technology and modification competition rules.

  3. LEP Dismantling Reaches Half-Way Stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    LEP's last superconducting module leaves its home port... Just seven months into the operation, LEP dismantling is forging ahead. Two of the eight arcs which form the tunnel have already been emptied and the last of the accelerator's radiofrequency (RF) cavities has just been raised to the surface. The 160 people working on LEP dismantling have reason to feel pleased with their progress. All of the accelerator's 72 superconducting RF modules have already been brought to the surface, with the last one being extracted on 2nd May. This represents an important step in the dismantling process, as head of the project, John Poole, explains. 'This was the most delicate part of the project, because the modules are very big and they could only come out at one place', he says. The shaft at point 1.8 through which the RF cavity modules pass is 18 metres in diameter, while each module is 11.5 metres long. Some modules had to travel more than 10 kilometres to reach the shaft. ... is lifted up the PM 1.8 shaft, after a m...

  4. Important ATLAS Forward Calorimeter Milestone Reached

    CERN Document Server

    Loch, P.

    The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter working group has reached an important milestone in the production of their detectors. The mechanical assembly of the first electromagnetic module (FCal1C) has been completed at the University of Arizona on February 25, 2002, only ten days after the originally scheduled date. The photo shows the University of Arizona FCal group in the clean room, together with the assembled FCal1C module. The module consists of a stack of 18 round copper plates, each about one inch thick. Each plate is about 90 cm in diameter, and has 12260 precision-drilled holes in it, to accommodate the tube/rod electrode assembly. The machining of the plates, which was done at the Science Technology Center (STC) at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, required high precision to allow for easy insertion of the electrode copper tube. The plates have been carefully cleaned at the University of Arizona, to remove any machining residue and metal flakes. This process alone took about eleven weeks. Exactly 122...

  5. Probing the reaching-grasping network in humans through multivoxel pattern decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bono, Maria Grazia; Begliomini, Chiara; Castiello, Umberto; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The quest for a putative human homolog of the reaching-grasping network identified in monkeys has been the focus of many neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies in recent years. These studies have shown that the network underlying reaching-only and reach-to-grasp movements includes the superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC), the anterior part of the human intraparietal sulcus (hAIP), the ventral and the dorsal portion of the premotor cortex, and the primary motor cortex (M1). Recent evidence for a wider frontoparietal network coding for different aspects of reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions calls for a more fine-grained assessment of the reaching-grasping network in humans by exploiting pattern decoding methods (multivoxel pattern analysis--MVPA). Here, we used MPVA on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to assess whether regions of the frontoparietal network discriminate between reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions, natural and constrained grasping, different grasp types, and object sizes. Participants were required to perform either reaching-only movements or two reach-to-grasp types (precision or whole hand grasp) upon spherical objects of different sizes. Multivoxel pattern analysis highlighted that, independently from the object size, all the selected regions of both hemispheres contribute in coding for grasp type, with the exception of SPOC and the right hAIP. Consistent with recent neurophysiological findings on monkeys, there was no evidence for a clear-cut distinction between a dorsomedial and a dorsolateral pathway that would be specialized for reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions, respectively. Nevertheless, the comparison of decoding accuracy across brain areas highlighted their different contributions to reaching-only and grasping actions. Altogether, our findings enrich the current knowledge regarding the functional role of key brain areas involved in the cortical control of reaching-only and reach-to-grasp actions

  6. [The heuristics of reaching a diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, Eduardo

    2009-12-01

    Making a diagnosis in medicine is a complex process in which many cognitive and psychological issues are involved. After the first encounter with the patient, an unconscious process ensues to suspect the presence of a particular disease. Usually, complementary tests are requested to confirm the clinical suspicion. The interpretation of requested tests can be biased by the clinical diagnosis that was considered in the first encounter with the patient. The awareness of these sources of error is essential in the interpretation of the findings that will eventually lead to a final diagnosis. This article discusses some aspects of the heuristics involved in the adjudication of priory probabilities and provides a brief review of current concepts of the reasoning process.

  7. Planning of the Extended Reach well Dieksand 2; Planung der Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, U.; Berners, H. [RWE-DEA AG, Hamburg (Germany). Drilling Team Mittelplate und Dieksand; Hadow, A.; Klop, G.; Sickinger, W. [Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke, Barnstdorf (Germany); Sudron, K.

    1998-12-31

    The Mittelplate oil field is located 7 km offshore the town of Friedrichskoog. Reserves are estimated at 30 million tonnes of oil. At a production rate of 2,500 t/d, it will last about 33 years. The transport capacity of the offshore platform is limited, so that attempts were made to enhance production by constructing the extended reach borehole Dieksand 2. Details are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Erdoelfeld Mittelplate liegt am suedlichen Rand des Nationalparks Schleswig Holsteinisches Wattenmeer, ca. 7000 m westlich der Ortschaft Friedrichskoog. Die gewinnbaren Reserven betragen ca. 30 Millionen t Oel. Bei einer Foerderkapazitaet von 2.500 t/Tag betraegt die Foerderdauer ca. 33 Jahre. Aufgrund der begrenzten Transportkapazitaeten von der Insel, laesst sich durch zusaetzliche Bohrungen von der kuenstlichen Insel Mittelplate keine entscheidende Erhoehung der Foerderkapazitaet erzielen. Ab Sommer 1996 wurde erstmals die Moeglichkeit der Lagerstaettenerschliessung von Land untersucht. Ein im Mai 1997 in Hamburg etabliertes Drilling Team wurde mit der Aufgabe betraut, die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 zu planen und abzuteufen. Die Planungsphasen fuer die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 wurden aufgezeigt. Die fuer den Erfolg einer Extended Reach Bohrung wichtigen Planungsparameter wurden erlaeutert. Es wurden Wege gezeigt, wie bei diesem Projekt technische und geologische Risiken in der Planung mit beruecksichtigt und nach Beginn der Bohrung weiter bearbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  8. Experiences of final year nursing students in their preparedness to become registered nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Carlson

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of final year nursing students relating to how they experience their preparedness to fulfil the role of professional nurse; secondly, to explore and describe the experiences of novice professional nurses in the role of professional nurse; finally, to generate a model which will assist the final year nursing student to become a professional nurse. A theory-generative, qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilized to reach the objectives of the study. Results indicated that final year nursing students experience a lack of confidence to take on the responsibilities of professional nursing. The results are displayed in table form and discussed in the article. This abstract forms part of a bigger study that addresses the professional maturity of the novice professional nurse for the practice of nursing.

  9. Integration of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of a natural environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFiehler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available When interacting with our environment we generally make use of egocentric and allocentric object information by coding object positions relative to the observer or relative to the environment, respectively. Bayesian theories suggest that the brain integrates both sources of information optimally for perception and action. However, experimental evidence for egocentric and allocentric integration is sparse and has only been studied using abstract stimuli lacking ecological relevance. Here, we investigated the use of egocentric and allocentric information during memory-guided reaching to images of naturalistic scenes. Participants encoded a breakfast scene containing six objects on a table (local objects and three objects in the environment (global objects. After a 2s delay, a visual test scene reappeared for 1s in which one local object was missing (=target and of the remaining, one, three or five local objects or one of the global objects were shifted to the left or to the right. The offset of the test scene prompted participants to reach to the target as precisely as possible. Only local objects served as potential reach targets and thus were task-relevant. When shifting objects we predicted accurate reaching if participants only used egocentric coding of object position and systematic shifts of reach endpoints if allocentric information were used for movement planning. We found that reaching movements were largely affected by allocentric shifts showing an increase in endpoint errors in the direction of object shifts with the number of local objects shifted. No effect occurred when one local or one global object was shifted. Our findings suggest that allocentric cues are indeed used by the brain for memory-guided reaching towards targets in naturalistic visual scenes. Moreover, the integration of egocentric and allocentric object information seems to depend on the extent of changes in the scene.

  10. Can coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Doyle, J. G.

    2011-08-01

    Aims: The present study aims to provide observational evidence of whether coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures. Methods: We combine multi-instrument co-observations obtained with the SUMER/SoHO and with the EIS/SOT/XRT/Hinode. Results: The analysed three large spicules were found to be comprised of numerous thin spicules that rise, rotate, and descend simultaneously forming a bush-like feature. Their rotation resembles the untwisting of a large flux rope. They show velocities ranging from 50 to 250 kms-1. We clearly associated the red- and blue-shifted emissions in transition region lines not only with rotating but also with rising and descending plasmas. Our main result is that these spicules although very large and dynamic, are not present in the spectral lines formed at temperatures above 300 000 K. Conclusions: In this paper we present the analysis of three Ca ii H large spicules that are composed of numerous dynamic thin spicules but appear as macrospicules in lower resolution EUV images. We found no coronal counterpart of these and smaller spicules. We believe that the identification of phenomena that have very different origins as macrospicules is due to the interpretation of the transition region emission, and especially the He ii emission, wherein both chromospheric large spicules and coronal X-ray jets are present. We suggest that the recent observation of spicules in the coronal AIA/SDO 171 Å and 211 Å channels probably comes from the existence of transition region emission there. Movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. When Does the Warmest Water Reach Greenland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grist, J. P.; Josey, S. A.; Boehme, L.; Meredith, M. P.; Laidre, K. L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M. P.; Kovacs, K. M.; Lydersen, C.; Davidson, F. J. M.; Stenson, G. B.; Hammill, M. O.; Marsh, R.; Coward, A.

    2016-02-01

    The warmest water reaching the east and west coast of Greenland is found between 200 and 600 m, in the warm Atlantic Water Layer (WL). Temperature changes within the WL have been highlighted as a possible cause of accelerated melting of tidewater glaciers and therefore are an important consideration for understanding global sea level rise. However, a limited number of winter observations of the WL have prohibited determining its seasonal variability. To address this, temperature data from Argo profiling floats, a range of sources within the World Ocean Database, and unprecedented coverage from marine-mammal borne sensors have been analyzed for the period 2002-2011. A significant seasonal range in temperature ( 1-2°C) is found in the warm layer, in contrast to most of the surrounding ocean. The magnitude of the seasonal cycle is thus comparable with the 1990s warming that was associated with an increased melt rate in a marine terminating glacier of West Greenland. The phase of the seasonal cycle exhibits considerable spatial variability; with high-resolution ocean model trajectory analysis suggesting it is determined by the time taken for waters to be advected from the subduction site in the Irminger Basin. For western Greenland, the annual temperature maximum occurs near or after the turn of the calendar year. This is significant because a recent study suggested that it is in the non-summer months when fjord-shelf exchanges allow the WL to most strongly influence glacier melt rate. However this is also the time of the year when the WL is least well observed. It is therefore clear that year-round subsurface temperature measurements are still required for a complete description of the WL seasonality, and in particular to ensure that the ice-melting potential of the WL is not underestimated.

  12. Reaching Spanish-speaking smokers online: a 10-year worldwide research program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Felipe Muñoz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe a 10-year proof-of-concept smoking cessation research program evaluating the reach of online health interventions throughout the Americas. METHODS: Recruitment occurred from 2002 - 2011, primarily using Google.com AdWords. Over 6 million smokers from the Americas entered keywords related to smoking cessation; 57 882 smokers (15 912 English speakers and 41 970 Spanish speakers were recruited into online self-help automated intervention studies. To examine disparities in utilization of methods to quit smoking, cessation aids used by English speakers and Spanish speakers were compared. To determine whether online interventions reduce disparities, abstinence rates were also compared. Finally, the reach of the intervention was illustrated for three large Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas-Argentina, Mexico, and Peru-and the United States of America. RESULTS: Few participants had utilized other methods to stop smoking before coming to the Internet site; most reported using no previous smoking cessation aids: 69.2% of Spanish speakers versus 51.8% of English speakers (P < 0.01. The most used method was nicotine gum, 13.9%. Nicotine dependence levels were similar to those reported for in-person smoking cessation trials. Overall observed quit rate for English speakers was 38.1% and for Spanish speakers, 37.0%; quit rates in which participants with missing data were considered to be smoking were 11.1% and 10.6%, respectively. Neither comparison was significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic use of evidence-based Internet interventions for health problems could have a broad impact throughout the Americas, at little or no cost to individuals or to ministries of health.

  13. Generalization of unconstrained reaching with hand-weight changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Wang, Qining; Lu, Zhengchuan; Stevenson, Ian H; Körding, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin

    2013-01-01

    Studies of motor generalization usually perturb hand reaches by distorting visual feedback with virtual reality or by applying forces with a robotic manipulandum. Whereas such perturbations are useful for studying how the central nervous system adapts and generalizes to novel dynamics, they are rarely encountered in daily life. The most common perturbations that we experience are changes in the weights of objects that we hold. Here, we use a center-out, free-reaching task, in which we can manipulate the weight of a participant's hand to examine adaptation and generalization following naturalistic perturbations. In both trial-by-trial paradigms and block-based paradigms, we find that learning converges rapidly (on a timescale of approximately two trials), and this learning generalizes mostly to movements in nearby directions with a unimodal pattern. However, contrary to studies using more artificial perturbations, we find that the generalization has a strong global component. Furthermore, the generalization is enhanced with repeated exposure of the same perturbation. These results suggest that the familiarity of a perturbation is a major factor in movement generalization and that several theories of the neural control of movement, based on perturbations applied by robots or in virtual reality, may need to be extended by incorporating prior influence that is characterized by the familiarity of the perturbation.

  14. The contributions of vision and haptics to reaching and grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla Dawn Stone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to provide a comprehensive outlook on the sensory (visual and haptic contributions to reaching and grasping. The focus is on studies in developing children, normal and neuropsychological populations, and in sensory-deprived individuals. Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually-guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically-guided object recognition. This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand. We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping. We ultimately discuss how the integration of these two sensory modalities shape hand preference.

  15. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Søndergaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Java finalizers perform clean-up and finalisation of objects at garbage collection time. In real-time Java profiles the use of finalizers is either discouraged (RTSJ, Ravenscar Java) or even disallowed (JSR-302), mainly because of the unpredictability of finalizers and in particular their impact...... on the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for Predictable Java...... programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way....

  16. The visual extent of an object: suppose we know the object locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijlings, J.R.R.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Scha, R.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The visual extent of an object reaches beyond the object itself. This is a long standing fact in psychology and is reflected in image retrieval techniques which aggregate statistics from the whole image in order to identify the object within. However, it is unclear to what degree and how the visual

  17. How Medical Students Use Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Terrill A.; And Others

    Two related studies were undertaken at Southern Illinois University on how students in the School of Medicine use the instructional objectives faculty prepare for them. Students in the classes of 1978 and 1979 were surveyed in their final month of training. The second survey was modified, based on responses from the first. The five research…

  18. Conscientious objection in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuře Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with conscientious objection in health care, addressing the problems of scope, verification and limitation of such refusal, paying attention to ideological agendas hidden behind the right of conscience where the claimed refusal can cause harm or where such a claim is an attempt to impose certain moral values on society or an excuse for not providing health care. The nature of conscientious objection will be investigated and an ethical analysis of conscientious objection will be conducted. Finally some suggestions for health care policy will be proposed.

  19. Periodontal microsurgery: Reaching new heights of precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikender Singh; Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhatia, Anu; Yadav, Renu

    2018-01-01

    The use of magnification to perform various procedures in medical and dental field, particularly endodontics has long been recognized. Unfortunately, its application in periodontics is not widely popularized. The objective of this article is to emphasize the application of microsurgical principles in various periodontal surgical procedures and to reinforce the incorporation of microscope into periodontal practice. The most recent periodontal journals were reviewed and a search of databases such as PubMed or Medline and Google Scholar was conducted for relevant material from published literature up to 2017. Medical Subject Headings words looked for were “periodontal microsurgery” and “minimally invasive periodontal surgery.” The available literature, specifically to periodontal surgical procedures was analyzed and compiled. The analysis indicates that incorporation of magnification in periodontal practice is associated with improved visual acuity, ergonomic benefits, decreased patient morbidity, rapid healing, and enhanced patient acceptance. PMID:29568165

  20. Perspective: Reaches of chemical physics in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebele, Martin; Thirumalai, D.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical physics as a discipline contributes many experimental tools, algorithms, and fundamental theoretical models that can be applied to biological problems. This is especially true now as the molecular level and the systems level descriptions begin to connect, and multi-scale approaches are being developed to solve cutting edge problems in biology. In some cases, the concepts and tools got their start in non-biological fields, and migrated over, such as the idea of glassy landscapes, fluorescence spectroscopy, or master equation approaches. In other cases, the tools were specifically developed with biological physics applications in mind, such as modeling of single molecule trajectories or super-resolution laser techniques. In this introduction to the special topic section on chemical physics of biological systems, we consider a wide range of contributions, all the way from the molecular level, to molecular assemblies, chemical physics of the cell, and finally systems-level approaches, based on the contributions to this special issue. Chemical physicists can look forward to an exciting future where computational tools, analytical models, and new instrumentation will push the boundaries of biological inquiry. PMID:24089712

  1. Reaching High Interactive Levels with Situated Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán-Obando J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El documento presenta un proceso coordinado a través del cual los agentes situados son capaces de trabajar en forma conjunta con el conocimiento de sus habilidades para interactuar con otras entidades similares. Una buena coordinación se deriva de que cada agente situado es capaz de representar sus tasas de idoneidad para llevar a cabo cualquier acción de una manera eficaz. Además de utilizar dichas tasas, un agente puede coordinar sus acciones con otros agentes. En este sentido, cada agente situado trata de seleccionar y realizar sólo las acciones con los mayores índices de ejecución. Algunos experimentos en un verdadero fútbol robótico banco de pruebas están diseñadas para poner en práctica el enfoque coordinado propuesto. Observaciones finales concluir la eficacia y las ventajas de la obra presentada con el fin de aumentar el rendimiento de un equipo integrado por agentes situados cuando tienen que resolver tareas complejas en un escenario dinámico, competitivo e impredecible.

  2. Perspective: Reaches of chemical physics in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruebele, Martin; Thirumalai, D

    2013-09-28

    Chemical physics as a discipline contributes many experimental tools, algorithms, and fundamental theoretical models that can be applied to biological problems. This is especially true now as the molecular level and the systems level descriptions begin to connect, and multi-scale approaches are being developed to solve cutting edge problems in biology. In some cases, the concepts and tools got their start in non-biological fields, and migrated over, such as the idea of glassy landscapes, fluorescence spectroscopy, or master equation approaches. In other cases, the tools were specifically developed with biological physics applications in mind, such as modeling of single molecule trajectories or super-resolution laser techniques. In this introduction to the special topic section on chemical physics of biological systems, we consider a wide range of contributions, all the way from the molecular level, to molecular assemblies, chemical physics of the cell, and finally systems-level approaches, based on the contributions to this special issue. Chemical physicists can look forward to an exciting future where computational tools, analytical models, and new instrumentation will push the boundaries of biological inquiry.

  3. From reaching every district to reaching every community: analysis and response to the challenge of equity in immunization in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan Soeung, Sann; Grundy, John; Duncan, Richard; Thor, Rasoka; Bilous, Julian B

    2013-01-01

    Background An international review of the Cambodian Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 2010 and other data show that despite immunization coverage increases and vaccine preventable diseases incidence reductions, inequities in access to immunization services exist. Utilizing immunization and health systems literature, analysis of global health databases and the EPI review findings, this paper examines the characteristics of immunization access and outcome inequities, and describes proposed longer-term strategic and operational responses to these problems. Findings The national programme has evolved from earlier central and provincial level planning to strengthening routine immunization coverage through the District level ‘Reaching Every District Strategy’. However, despite remarkable improvements, the review found over 20% of children surveyed were not fully immunized, primarily from communities where inequities of both access and impact persist. These inequities relate mainly to socio-economic exposures including wealth and education level, population mobility and ethnicity. To address these problems, a shift in strategic and operational response is proposed that will include (a) a re-focus of planning on facility level to detect disadvantaged communities, (b) establishment of monitoring systems to provide detailed information on community access and utilization, (c) development of communication strategies and health networks that enable providers to adjust service delivery according to the needs of vulnerable populations, and (d) securing financial, management and political commitment for ‘reaching every community’. Conclusions For Cambodia to achieve its immunization equity objectives and disease reduction goals, a shift of emphasis to health centre and community is needed. This approach will maximize the benefits of new vaccine introduction in the coming ‘Decade of Vaccines’, plus potentially extend the reach of other life-saving maternal

  4. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  5. S201 catalog of far-ultraviolet objects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, T.; Carruthers, G.K.; Hill, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A catalog of star images was compiled from images obtained by an NRL Far-Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph operated from 21 to 23 April 1972 on the lunar surface during the Apollo-16 mission. These images were scanned on a microdensitometer, and the output recorded on magnetic tapes. The catalog is divided into 11 parts, covering ten fields in the sky (the Sagittarius field being covered by two parts), and each part is headed by a constellation name and the field center coordinates. The errors in position of the detected images are less than about 3 arc-min. Correlations are given with star numbers in the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory catalog. Values are given of the peak density and the density volume. The text includes a discussion of the photometry, corrections thereto due to threshold and saturation effects, and its comparison with theoretical expectation, stellar model atmospheres, and a generalized far-ultraviolet interstellar extinction law. The S201 catalog is also available on a single reel of seven-track magnetic tape

  6. IAEA Patient Protection Effort Reaches Key Milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) effort to help people track their radiation exposure from medical procedures achieved a significant milestone this week. The Agency received the final approval from a group of medical oversight organizations for the 'Joint Position Statement on the IAEA Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking', a set of principles to guide patient protection efforts at the sub-national, national, and international level. The joint statement endorses the IAEA's three-year-old Smart Card/SmartRadTrack project, which aims to help nations develop systems to track medical radiation procedures and radiation doses. The statement has been agreed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Society of Radiology (ESR), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT), and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, USA (CRCPD). 'This system is critical if the medical community is going to keep patients safe when they are being referred for more and more diagnostic scans. These scans, over the years, are made using more and more powerful machines', said Madan Rehani, Radiation Safety Specialist in the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients Unit. 'The tracking system will draw doctors' attention to previous radiological examinations, both in terms of clinical information and radiation dose and thus help them assess whether the 11th or 20th CT scan is really appropriate, whether it will do more good than harm.' Advances in radiation-based diagnostic technologies, such as the CT scan, have led to patients receiving such procedures more frequently. The convenience of CT with the added advantage of increased information has resulted in increased usage to the point that there are instances of patients getting tens of CT scans in a few years, not all of which may be justified, or getting CT

  7. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TI-based electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  8. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidambaram, Dev [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Misra, Mano [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Heske, Clemens [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    The objectives included: Develop high efficiency metal oxide nanotubular array photo-anodes for generating hydrogen by water splitting; Develop density functional theory to understand the effect of the morphology of the nanotubes on the photo-electrochemical (PEC) properties of the photo-anodes; Develop kinetics and formation mechanism of the metal oxide nanotubes under different synthesis conditions; Develop combinatorial approach to prepare hybrid photo-anodes having multiple hetero-atoms incorporation in a single photo anode; Improve the durability of the material; and Scale up the laboratory demonstration to production unit.

  9. Grip type and task goal modify reach-to-grasp performance in post-stroke hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y.; DeJong, Stacey L.; Cherry, Kendra M.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether grip type and/or task goal influenced reaching and grasping performance in post-stroke hemiparesis. Sixteen adults with post-stroke hemiparesis and twelve healthy adults reached to and grasped a cylindrical object using one of two grip types (3-finger or palmar) to achieve one of two task goals (hold or lift). Performance of the stroke group was characteristic of hemiparetic limb movement during reach-to-grasp, with more curved handpaths and slower velocities compared to the control group. These effects were present regardless of grip type or task goal. Other measures of reaching (reach time and reach velocity at object contact) and grasping (peak thumb-index finger aperture during the reach and peak grip force during the grasp) were differentially affected by grip type, task goal, or both, despite the presence of hemiparesis, providing new evidence that changes in motor patterns after stroke may occur to compensate for stroke-related motor impairment. PMID:22357103

  10. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  12. FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Eckert; Anthony K. Cheetham (Principal Investigator)

    2011-03-11

    information on the effects on hydrogen binding from framework modifications, including charged frameworks and extraframework cations, from reduction in pore sizes, functionalization of the organic linking group, and most importantly, that of the various types of metal sites. We provided a clear demonstration that metal sites are most effective if the metal is highly undercoordinated, open and completely accessible to the H{sub 2} molecule, a condition which is not currently met in MOFs with intra-framework metals. The results obtained from this project therefore will give detailed direction to efforts in the synthesis of new materials that can reach the goal of a practical sorption based hydrogen storage material.

  13. Ape metaphysics: object individuation without language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natacha; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2008-02-01

    Developmental research suggests that whereas very young infants individuate objects purely on spatiotemporal grounds, from (at latest) around 1 year of age children are capable of individuating objects according to the kind they belong to and the properties they instantiate. As the latter ability has been found to correlate with language, some have speculated whether it might be essentially language dependent and therefore uniquely human. Existing studies with non-human primates seem to speak against this hypothesis, but fail to present conclusive evidence due to methodological shortcomings. In the present experiments we set out to test non-linguistic object individuation in three great ape species with a refined manual search methodology. Experiment 1 tested for spatiotemporal object individuation: Subjects saw 1 or 2 objects simultaneously being placed inside a box in which they could reach, and then in both conditions only found 1 object. After retrieval of the 1 object, subjects reached again significantly more often when they had seen 2 than when they had seen 1 object. Experiment 2 tested for object individuation according to property/kind information only: Subjects saw 1 object being placed inside the box, and then either found that object (expected) or an object of a different kind (unexpected). Analogously to Experiment 1, after retrieval of the 1 object, subjects reached again significantly more often in the unexpected than in the expected condition. These results thus confirm previous findings suggesting that individuating objects according to their property/kind is neither uniquely human nor essentially language dependent. It remains to be seen, however, whether this kind of object individuation requires sortal concepts as human linguistic thinkers use them, or whether some simpler form of tracking properties is sufficient.

  14. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  15. Sliding Mode Tracking Control of Manipulator Based on the Improved Reaching Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Na ZHAI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the mechanical hand often have serious uncertainty, as the state in which the different and external changes, also its parameters are changing, this is very adverse to achieve precise control. In this paper, the traditional sliding mode variable structure was improved, the sign function is replaced by saturated function based on the double power reaching law, by adjusting the values of e1, e2, a, b, g and k to effectively improve the manipulator joint reaching speed, track expected trajectory fast and shorten the system response time. Finally, the method is used for simulation of manipulator trajectory tracking, compared to two reaching law control algorithms. The simulation results show that the control algorithm has good dynamic performance, which can effectively restrain the chattering and quickly track the desired trajectory. Therefore, the improved reaching law can effectively improve the performance of robotic manipulator.

  16. Planning Ahead: Object-Directed Sequential Actions Decoded from Human Frontoparietal and Occipitotemporal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, Jason P.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Randall Flanagan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Object-manipulation tasks (e.g., drinking from a cup) typically involve sequencing together a series of distinct motor acts (e.g., reaching toward, grasping, lifting, and transporting the cup) in order to accomplish some overarching goal (e.g., quenching thirst). Although several studies in humans have investigated the neural mechanisms supporting the planning of visually guided movements directed toward objects (such as reaching or pointing), only a handful have examined how manipulatory sequences of actions—those that occur after an object has been grasped—are planned and represented in the brain. Here, using event-related functional MRI and pattern decoding methods, we investigated the neural basis of real-object manipulation using a delayed-movement task in which participants first prepared and then executed different object-directed action sequences that varied either in their complexity or final spatial goals. Consistent with previous reports of preparatory brain activity in non-human primates, we found that activity patterns in several frontoparietal areas reliably predicted entire action sequences in advance of movement. Notably, we found that similar sequence-related information could also be decoded from pre-movement signals in object- and body-selective occipitotemporal cortex (OTC). These findings suggest that both frontoparietal and occipitotemporal circuits are engaged in transforming object-related information into complex, goal-directed movements. PMID:25576538

  17. [Understanding and reaching young clandestine sex workers in Burkina Faso to improve response to HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthé, Abdramane; Huygens, Pierre; Ouattara, Cécile; Sanon, Anselme; Ouédraogo, Abdoulaye; Nagot, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, researchers in Burkina Faso enrolled 300 women more or less involved in commercial sex work in an open cohort to determine whether adequate management of their sexually transmitted infections and exposure to well-designed, well-delivered, and plentiful communication for behaviour change (CBC) might reduce their vulnerability to HIV. In 2000, they observed that the non-professional sex workers (occasional or clandestine sex workers) were more difficult to reach, to mobilize and to keep involved in the project's different activities. This group was also infected at the same or higher rates than professional sex workers because they did not use condoms routinely. To accomplish the project objectives, they therefore chose to recruit more non-professional sex workers in the new cohort of 700 women. This social-anthropological study was conducted to help them to enrol young clandestine sex workers. The overall objective of this study was to understand the life of this category of sex workers and to identify strategic actors to reach them. Using a qualitative method, social anthropologists reviewed literature, identified and geo-referenced all local places suitable to encountering these women, obtained life stories from some of them and interviewed key informants and participants in the field. The results showed that in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso): - most young women who are clandestine sex workers are Burkinabe, and girls entering the sex trade are increasingly young and increasingly uneducated; - most of them come from families with low capital (financial, cultural, or social). The parents' socioeconomic status (contextual poverty) results in unmet financial needs, which in turn exposes them to starting work early, including commercial sex work; - of all the income-generating activities available to unskilled young girls, commercial sex work is one of the most profitable and easily accessible; - in the three-fold context of an HIV epidemic, poverty, and

  18. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order ... Reaching mode; sliding mode controlled systems; output tracking ... The uncertainty in the input distribution function g is expressed as.

  19. Nanomaterials under REACH. Nanosilver as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk MEJ; Wijnhoven SWP; Bleeker EAJ; Heugens EHW; Peijnenburg WJGM; Luttik R; Hakkert BC; SEC; SIR; LER

    2009-01-01

    Om de risico's van nanomaterialen te kunnen inschatten en beheersen, zijn enkele aanpassingen nodig in de Europese chemicalienwetgeving REACH. De gegevens over stoffen waar REACH standaard om vraagt, zijn namelijk onvoldoende om de specifieke eigenschappen van nanomaterialen te bepalen. Hetzelfde

  20. Reaching Adolescents and Youth in Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    typical profile of individuals in contact with peer educators or attending youth ... being reached (versus not reached) by programs ... characteristics in order to serve groups that may be ... places for counseling services but the frequency of.

  1. Reaching Hard-to-Reach Individuals: Nonselective Versus Targeted Outbreak Response Vaccination for Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Andrea; Hurtado, Northan; Grais, Rebecca F.; Ferrari, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Current mass vaccination campaigns in measles outbreak response are nonselective with respect to the immune status of individuals. However, the heterogeneity in immunity, due to previous vaccination coverage or infection, may lead to potential bias of such campaigns toward those with previous high access to vaccination and may result in a lower-than-expected effective impact. During the 2010 measles outbreak in Malawi, only 3 of the 8 districts where vaccination occurred achieved a measureable effective campaign impact (i.e., a reduction in measles cases in the targeted age groups greater than that observed in nonvaccinated districts). Simulation models suggest that selective campaigns targeting hard-to-reach individuals are of greater benefit, particularly in highly vaccinated populations, even for low target coverage and with late implementation. However, the choice between targeted and nonselective campaigns should be context specific, achieving a reasonable balance of feasibility, cost, and expected impact. In addition, it is critical to develop operational strategies to identify and target hard-to-reach individuals. PMID:24131555

  2. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, L.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij)

    1983-07-01

    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex structure of Seyfert galaxies, quasars and lacertae objects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronouys radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation.

  3. Manually locating physical and virtual reality objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Karen B; Kimmel, Ryan A; Bartholomew, Aaron; Ponto, Kevin; Gleicher, Michael L; Radwin, Robert G

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we compared how users locate physical and equivalent three-dimensional images of virtual objects in a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) using the hand to examine how human performance (accuracy, time, and approach) is affected by object size, location, and distance. Virtual reality (VR) offers the promise to flexibly simulate arbitrary environments for studying human performance. Previously, VR researchers primarily considered differences between virtual and physical distance estimation rather than reaching for close-up objects. Fourteen participants completed manual targeting tasks that involved reaching for corners on equivalent physical and virtual boxes of three different sizes. Predicted errors were calculated from a geometric model based on user interpupillary distance, eye location, distance from the eyes to the projector screen, and object. Users were 1.64 times less accurate (p virtual versus physical box corners using the hands. Predicted virtual targeting errors were on average 1.53 times (p virtual targets but not significantly different for close-up virtual targets. Target size, location, and distance, in addition to binocular disparity, affected virtual object targeting inaccuracy. Observed virtual box inaccuracy was less than predicted for farther locations, suggesting possible influence of cues other than binocular vision. Human physical interaction with objects in VR for simulation, training, and prototyping involving reaching and manually handling virtual objects in a CAVE are more accurate than predicted when locating farther objects.

  4. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Blasie; W.F. DeGrado; J.G. Saven; M.J. Therien

    2012-05-24

    The overall objective is to create robust artificial protein modules as scaffolds to control both (a) the conformation of novel cofactors incorporated into the modules thereby making the modules possess a desired functionality and (b) the organization of these functional modules into ordered macroscopic ensembles, whose macroscopic materials properties derive from the designed microscopic function of the modules. We focus on two specific types of cofactors for imparting functionality in this project; primarily nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores designed to exhibit extraordinary molecular hyperpolarizabilities, as well as donor-bridge-acceptor cofactors designed to exhibit highly efficient, 'through-bonds' light-induced electron transfer (LIET) over nano-scale distances. The ensembles range from 2-D to 3-D, designed to possess the degree of orientational and positional order necessary to optimize their macroscopic response, the latter ranging from liquid-crystalline or glass-like to long-range periodic. Computational techniques, firmly based in statistical thermodynamics, are utilized for the design the artificial protein modules, based on robust {alpha}-helical bundle motifs, necessarily incorporating the desired conformation, location, and environment of the cofactor. Importantly, this design approach also includes optimization of the interactions between the modules to promote their organization into ordered macroscopic ensembles in 2-D and 3-D via either directed-assembly or self-assembly. When long-range periodic order is required, the design can be optimized to result a specified lattice symmetry. The structure and functionality of the individual modules are fully characterized at the microscopic level, as well as that of the ensembles at the macroscopic level, employing modern experimental physical-chemical and computational techniques. These include, for example, multi-dimensional NMR, various pump-probe transient spectroscopies to ultrafast time

  5. Beyond the Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

  6. Ability to Reach Orgasm in Patients with Prostate Cancer Treated with Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østby-Deglum, Marie; Axcrona, K; Brennhovd, B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the ability to reach orgasm after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) in relation to demographic, cancer-related, and surgical variables, and the use of erectile aids. Methods In this cross-sectional study at a mean of 3 years after RALP at Oslo University Hospital......, 982 men were invited to complete a mailed questionnaire, and 777 responded. Respondents who reported postoperative radiotherapy or hormone treatment, or did not report on orgasm were omitted, leaving 609 patients for analysis. Ability to reach orgasm was rated on 1 question from The Expanded Prostate...... Cancer Index Composite 26-item version, and dichotomized into "good" or "poor." Results Overall, 27% of the men reported good ability to reach orgasm: 22% among those did not use erectile aids and 34% among those did (P =.001). Univariate analysis of men with good versus poor ability to reach orgasm...

  7. Neurons in Primary Motor Cortex Encode Hand Orientation in a Reach-to-Grasp Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaolin; Ma, Xuan; Fan, Jing; He, Jiping

    2017-08-01

    It is disputed whether those neurons in the primary motor cortex (M1) that encode hand orientation constitute an independent channel for orientation control in reach-to-grasp behaviors. Here, we trained two monkeys to reach forward and grasp objects positioned in the frontal plane at different orientation angles, and simultaneously recorded the activity of M1 neurons. Among the 2235 neurons recorded in M1, we found that 18.7% had a high correlation exclusively with hand orientation, 15.9% with movement direction, and 29.5% with both movement direction and hand orientation. The distributions of neurons encoding hand orientation and those encoding movement direction were not uniform but coexisted in the same region. The trajectory of hand rotation was reproduced by the firing patterns of the orientation-related neurons independent of the hand reaching direction. These results suggest that hand orientation is an independent component for the control of reaching and grasping activity.

  8. Usefulness of the jump-and-reach test in assessment of vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Hans-Joachim; Chagas, Mauro H; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Araujo, Silvia R; Campos, Carlos E; Giannetti, Marcus R

    2010-02-01

    The objective was to estimate the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Jump-and-Reach Test for the assessment of squat, countermovement, and drop jump performance of 32 male Brazilian professional volleyball players. Performance of squat, countermovement, and drop jumps with different dropping heights was assessed on the Jump-and-Reach Test and the measurement of flight time, then compared across different jump trials. The very high reliability coefficients of both assessment methods and the lower correlation coefficients between scores on the assessments indicate a very high consistency of each method but only moderate covariation, which means that they measure partly different items. As a consequence, the Jump-and-Reach Test has good ecological validity in situations when reaching height during the flight phase is critical for performance (e.g., basketball and volleyball) but only limited accuracy for the assessment of vertical impulse production with different jump techniques and conditions.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnovatyi Kogan, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects are reviewed in this paper. First the accretion of the magnetized matter into a single black hole and spectra of radiation are considered. Then the magnetic-field phenomena in the disk accretion, when the black hole is in a pair are discussed. Furthermore, the magnetohydrodynamics phenomena during supernova explosion are considered. Finally the magnetohydrodynamics in the accretion of a neutron star is considered in connection With x-ray sources

  10. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, Scott [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The overall objectives of this research effort were to expand the capabilities of spectroscopic and ion chemistry tools for the structural characterization of polyatomic ions of relevance to the broad mission of the Department of Energy. Mass spectrometry currently plays an important role in virtually all of the molecular sciences by virtue of the value of the accurate measurement of mass and the structural information that can be derived from various structural probes based on, for example, ion chemistry, ion mobility, and ion spectroscopy. Mass spectrometry has long played important roles in supporting the missions of the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies, particularly in the area of isotopic analysis of nuclides. Molecular mass spectrometry has played increasingly important roles is many aspects of the production and use of energy as the nation has diversified its energy portfolio. There is an ongoing need for the expansion of the measurement capabilities associated with molecular mass spectrometry that involves both technological developments as well as improved understanding of the chemical and physical processes that take place upon ionization and ion analysis in a mass spectrometer. Advances in mass spectrometry have impacted science broadly and further advances will be required to meet the needs of current energy and environmental research. This program has historically focused on the structural characterization of polyatomic ions, usually within the context of a tandem mass spectrometry experiment. A wide variety of physical and chemical processes can take place within a mass spectrometer and advantage can be taken of such processes to enhance the quality and quantity of information that can be derived for a given chemical system of interest. For example, ions can undergo interactions with neutral molecules/atoms, light, surfaces, electrons, or oppositely charged ions. The outcomes of all such interactions can be sensitive to the structures

  11. End-state comfort trumps handedness in object manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Chase J; Studenka, Breanna E; Rosenbaum, David A

    2014-04-01

    A goal of research on human perception and performance is to explore the relative importance of constraints shaping action selection. The present study concerned the relative importance of two constraints that have not been directly contrasted: (1) the tendency to grasp objects in ways that afford comfortable or easy-to-control final postures; and (2) the tendency to grasp objects with the dominant rather than the nondominant hand. We asked participants to reach out and grasp a horizontal rod whose left or right end was to be placed into a target after a 90° rotation. In one condition, we told participants which hand to use and let them choose an overhand or underhand initial grasp. In another condition, we told participants which grasp to use and let them choose either hand. Participants sacrificed hand preference to perform the task in a way that ensured a comfortable or easy to control thumb-up posture at the time of object placement, indicating that comfort trumped handedness. A second experiment confirmed that comfort was indeed higher for thumb-down postures than thumb-up postures. A third experiment confirmed that the choice data could be linked to objective performance differences. The results point to the importance of identifying constraint weightings for action selection and support an account of hand selection that ascribes hand preference to sensitivity to performance differences. The results do not support the hypothesis that hand preference simply reflects a bias to use the dominant hand.

  12. Postural adjustments and reaching in 4-and 6-month-old infants : an EMG and kinematical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf-Peters, Victorine B.; Bakker, Hanneke; van Eykern, Leo A.; Otten, Bert; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Adequate postural control is a prerequisite for daily activities such as reaching for an object. However, knowledge on the relationship between postural adjustments and the quality of reaching movements during human ontogeny is scarce. Therefore we evaluated the development of the relationship

  13. Solid expandable systems put deepwater targets within reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Roca, Eduardo [Enventure Global Technology L.L.C., Houston, TX (United States). Latin America; Fristch, Jerry [Enventure Global Technology L.L.C., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Enabling technologies that take drilling operations to deeper objectives have made a significant impact on the practicality of many projects, especially deep water offshore targets. Increasing vertical depth and lateral reach requires adequate hole size to attain the desired objectives of the well bore. Solid expandable technology can maintain and retain hole size to address both the physical limitations and the economic feasibility of deep water operations. With each and every casing point, the potential for adequate hole size at total depth (TD) decreases. Solid expandable open hole liners and single-diameter systems reduce and eliminate, respectively, the well bore tapering that dictates hole size at TD and subsequent completion size. Successful mitigation of this tapering, whether through the entire well bore or through select zones, enables operators to gain access to previously unreachable reserves. Solid expandable systems have proven to be reliable and effective with over 1,000 installations in a myriad of conditions and environments worldwide. To date, over 115 of those applications have been in deep water environments. The current operating envelope for solid expandable systems include the deepest installation at {approx}28,750 ft (8,763 m) and the longest at 6,867 ft (2,083 m) in water depth over 3,150 ft (960 m). This record-length application consisted of an open hole liner installed and expanded in a single run. This paper will discuss the effectiveness of solid expandable systems in deep water operations and how the technology brings value to offshore projects especially when planned into the initial design. Case histories will be used to further illustrate the features, advantages, and benefits of expandable technology. In addition, this paper will examine the state of the solid expandable technology and its continuing evolution to provide even more drilling solutions. (author)

  14. Can Microfinance Reach the Poorest: Evidence from a Community-Managed Microfinance Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonborg, J. H.; Rasmussen, O. D.

    2014-01-01

    Reaching the poorest is an important objective in many development interventions, and microfinance is no exception. We review performance indicators for effectiveness of targeting described in the literature and suggest a new metric in order to account for extent and severity of poverty as well...

  15. Forum on Flexible Education. Reaching Nomadic Populations in Africa. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Alba

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the Forum on Flexible Education: Reaching Nomadic Populations in Africa, which was held in Garissa, Kenya, from 20-23 June 2006. The objectives of the Forum were to share experiences and best practices, create linkages and encourage collaboration in order to make education more accessible to nomadic communities.…

  16. A comparative survey of chemistry-driven in silico methods to identify hazardous substances under REACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nendza, M.; Gabbert, S.G.M.; Kühne, R.; Lombardo, A.; Roncaglioni, A.; Benfenati, E.; Benigi, R.; Bossa, C.; Strempel, S.; Scheringer, M.; Fernandez, A.; Rallo, R.; Giralt, F.; Dimitrov, S.; Mekenyan, O.; Bringezu, F.; Schüürmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an inventory of in silico screening tools to identify substance properties of concern under the European chemicals’ legislation REACH. The objective is to support the selection and implementation of appropriate tools as building blocks within integrated testing strategies (ITS).

  17. REACH, non-testing approaches and the urgent need for a change in mind set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.; Kroese, E.D.; Tielemans, E.L.J.P.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Leeuwen, C.J. van

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of REACH cannot be achieved under the current risk assessment approach. A change in mind set among all the relevant stakeholders is needed: risk assessment should move away from a labor-intensive and animal-consuming approach to intelligent and pragmatic testing, by combining exposure

  18. Taking OSCE examiner training on the road: reaching the masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Katharine; Smallwood, David; Collins, Margo; Sutherland, Ruth; Dodds, Agnes

    To ensure the rigour of objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) in assessing medical students, medical school educators must educate examiners with a view to standardising examiner assessment behaviour. Delivering OSCE examiner training is a necessary yet challenging part of the OSCE process. A novel approach to implementing training for current and potential OSCE examiners was trialled by delivering large-group education sessions at major teaching hospitals. The 'OSCE Roadshow' comprised a short training session delivered in the context of teaching hospital 'Grand Rounds' to current and potential OSCE examiners. The training was developed to educate clinicians about OSCE processes, clarify the examiners' role and required behaviours, and to review marking guides and mark allocation in an effort to standardise OSCE processes and encourage consistency in examiner marking behaviour. A short exercise allowed participants to practise marking a mock OSCE to investigate examiner marking behaviour after the training. OSCE Roadshows at four metropolitan and one rural teaching hospital were well received and well attended by 171 clinicians across six sessions. Unexpectedly, medical students also attended in large numbers ( n= 220). After training, participants' average scores for the mock OSCE clustered closely around the ideal score of 28 (out of 40), and the average scores did not differ according to the levels of clinical experience. The OSCE Roadshow demonstrated the potential of brief familiarisation training in reaching large numbers of current and potential OSCE examiners in a time and cost-effective manner to promote standardisation of OSCE processes.

  19. The final cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    Thursday 29th May, the cool-down of the final sector (sector 4-5) of LHC has begun, one week after the start of the cool-down of sector 1-2. It will take five weeks for the sectors to be cooled from room temperature to 5 K and a further two weeks to complete the cool down to 1.9 K and the commissioning of cryogenic instrumentation, as well as to fine tune the cryogenic plants and the cooling loops of cryostats.Nearly a year and half has passed since sector 7-8 was cooled for the first time in January 2007. For Laurent Tavian, AT/CRG Group Leader, reaching the final phase of the cool down is an important milestone, confirming the basic design of the cryogenic system and the ability to operate complete sectors. “All the sectors have to operate at the same time otherwise we cannot inject the beam into the machine. The stability and reliability of the cryogenic system and its utilities are now very important. That will be the new challenge for the coming months,” he explains. The status of the cool down of ...

  20. DANAERO MW: Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Niels; Bak, Christian; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    This report describes the results of the EUDP funded DANAERO MW II project carried out by DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø DTU) and the industrial partners, LM Wind Power, Vestas Wind Systems A/S and Siemens Wind Power. An overview of the data available from the project as well as the results from...... analysis of the data is given with the main objective to explore in detail the influence of atmospheric and wake turbulence on MW turbine performance, loading and stability. Finally, validation and demonstration of simulation codes are carried out....

  1. Action plans can interact to hinder or facilitate reach performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Lisa R; Wiediger, Matthew D; Taddese, Ezana F

    2015-11-01

    Executing a reach action can be delayed while retaining another action in working memory (WM) if the two action plans partly overlap rather than do not overlap. This delay (partial repetition cost) occurs when reach responses are under cognitive control. In this study, we investigated whether facilitation (a partial repetition benefit) occurs when reach responses are automatic. We also examined whether the hemisphere controlling the limb or selection of the preferred limb (based on a free-reach task) influences reach performance when the actions partly overlap. Left- and right-handers reached to different stimulus locations to the left and right of body midline with their ipsilateral hand while maintaining an action plan in WM that required the same or the different hand. The results showed a partial repetition benefit for spatially compatible reaches to left and right stimulus locations far from the body midline, but not for those near the body midline. Also, no partial repetition cost was found at any of the stimulus-reach locations. This indicates that automatic reach responses that partly overlap with an action plan maintained in WM are not delayed, but instead can be facilitated (partial repetition benefit). The roles of hemisphere and reach-hand preference in action control and the importance of the degree of feature overlap in obtaining a partial repetition benefit (and cost) are discussed.

  2. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  3. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  4. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Veron, P.

    1977-01-01

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

  5. Designing the Object Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Diane; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The Object Game is an exploratory design game and an experiment of developing a tangible object that can spark dialogue and retrospection between collaborative partners and act as a boundary object. The objective of this article is to show and elaborate on the development of the Object Game......, and to provide case examples of the game in action. The Object Game has two parts – Story-building and Co-rating of objects – with the aim of stimulating a collaborative reflection on knowledge sharing with different objects. In Story-building, the participants visualize their knowledge sharing process...... these facilitated knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange, knowledge generation, and knowledge integration. The participants collaborative reflected on their use of different objects for knowledge sharing and learn which objects have been effective (and which have not been effective) in their collaborative...

  6. Superluminal motion of extragalactic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Extragalactic objects with active nuclei are reviewed. Experimental data are obtained with the method of superfar radiointerferometry. The main peculiarities of the complex strUcture of Seyfert galaxies quasars and lacertae ob ects are considered: the distribution of radiobrightness, spectra, alteration of the density of radiation flux and the distance between the components of sources. The superluminal velocities of component divergence observed are explained by different reasons: fast motion of components considerable difference of the Hubble component or non-cosmologic nature of the red shift of objects, effect of echoreflection of radiation, gravitation lens, systematic alteration of the optical thickness of the object, synchronoUs radiation of electrons in the dipole magnetic field, as well as different kinematic illusions connected with the final time of signal propagation

  7. Integration of QSAR models for bioconcentration suitable for REACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gissi, Andrea; Nicolotti, Orazio; Carotti, Angelo; Gadaleta, Domenico; Lombardo, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models can be a valuable alternative method to replace or reduce animal test required by REACH. In particular, some endpoints such as bioconcentration factor (BCF) are easier to predict and many useful models have been already developed. In this paper we describe how to integrate two popular BCF models to obtain more reliable predictions. In particular, the herein presented integrated model relies on the predictions of two among the most used BCF models (CAESAR and Meylan), together with the Applicability Domain Index (ADI) provided by the software VEGA. Using a set of simple rules, the integrated model selects the most reliable and conservative predictions and discards possible outliers. In this way, for the prediction of the 851 compounds included in the ANTARES BCF dataset, the integrated model discloses a R 2 (coefficient of determination) of 0.80, a RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of 0.61 log units and a sensitivity of 76%, with a considerable improvement in respect to the CAESAR (R 2 = 0.63; RMSE = 0.84 log units; sensitivity 55%) and Meylan (R 2 = 0.66; RMSE = 0.77 log units; sensitivity 65%) without discarding too many predictions (118 out of 851). Importantly, considering solely the compounds within the new integrated ADI, the R 2 increased to 0.92, and the sensitivity to 85%, with a RMSE of 0.44 log units. Finally, the use of properly set safety thresholds applied for monitoring the so called “suspicious” compounds, which are those chemicals predicted in proximity of the border normally accepted to discern non-bioaccumulative from bioaccumulative substances, permitted to obtain an integrated model with sensitivity equal to 100%. - Highlights: • Applying two independent QSAR models for bioconcentration factor increases the prediction. • The concordance of the models is an important component of the integration. • The measurement of the applicability domain improves the prediction. • The use of a

  8. Reach/frequency for printed media: Personal probabilities or models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    2000-01-01

    The author evaluates two different ways of estimating reach and frequency of plans for printed media. The first assigns reading probabilities to groups of respondents and calculates reach and frequency by simulation. the second estimates parameters to a model for reach/frequency. It is concluded ...... and estiamtes from such models are shown to be closer to panel data. the problem, however, is to get valid input for such models from readership surveys. Means for this are discussed....

  9. Modulation of hand aperture during reaching in persons with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Victoria A; Hayes, Heather B; Buetefisch, Cathrin M; Wolf, Steven L; Trumbower, Randy D

    2015-03-01

    The intact neuromotor system prepares for object grasp by first opening the hand to an aperture that is scaled according to object size and then closing the hand around the object. After cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), hand function is significantly impaired, but the degree to which object-specific hand aperture scaling is affected remains unknown. Here, we hypothesized that persons with incomplete cervical SCI have a reduced maximum hand opening capacity but exhibit novel neuromuscular coordination strategies that permit object-specific hand aperture scaling during reaching. To test this hypothesis, we measured hand kinematics and surface electromyography from seven muscles of the hand and wrist during attempts at maximum hand opening as well as reaching for four balls of different diameters. Our results showed that persons with SCI exhibited significantly reduced maximum hand aperture compared to able-bodied (AB) controls. However, persons with SCI preserved the ability to scale peak hand aperture with ball size during reaching. Persons with SCI also used distinct muscle coordination patterns that included increased co-activity of flexors and extensors at the wrist and hand compared to AB controls. These results suggest that motor planning for aperture modulation is preserved even though execution is limited by constraints on hand opening capacity and altered muscle co-activity. Thus, persons with incomplete cervical SCI may benefit from rehabilitation aimed at increasing hand opening capacity and reducing flexor-extensor co-activity at the wrist and hand.

  10. REACH: an effective catalyst for scaling up priority nutrition interventions at the country level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brenda L; Ljungqvist, Björn

    2011-06-01

    Renewed Efforts Against Child Hunger (REACH) is the joint United Nations initiative to address Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 10, Target 3, i.e., to halve the proportion of underweight children under 5 years old by 2015. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) developed and tested a facilitation mechanism to act as a catalyst for scaling up multisectoral nutrition activities. The UN-REACH partners developed pilot projects in Mauritania and Lao PDR from 2008 to 2010 and deployed facilitators to improve nutrition governance and coordination. Review missions were conducted in February 2011 to assess the REACH approach and what it achieved. The UN review mission members reviewed documents, assessed policy and management indicators, conducted qualitative interviews, and discussed findings with key stakeholders, including the most senior UN nutrition directors from all agencies. Among other UN-REACH achievements, the Prime Minister of Mauritania agreed to preside over a new National Nutrition Development Council responsible for high-level decision-making and setting national policy objectives. REACH facilitated the completion of Lao's first national Nutrition Strategy and Plan of Action and formation of the multistakeholder Nutrition Task Force. During the REACH engagement, coordination, joint advocacy, situation analysis, policy development, and joint UN programming for nutrition were strengthened in Lao PDR and Mauritania. Improvements in the nutrition governance and management mechanisms in Mauritania and Lao PDR were observed during the period of REACH support through increased awareness of nutrition as a key development objective, establishment of governmental multisectoral coordinating mechanisms, improved government capacity, and new joint UN-government nutrition

  11. Battlefield Object Control via Internet Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    superiority is the best way to reach the goal of competition superiority. Using information technology (IT) in data processing, including computer hardware... technologies : Global Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), Battlefield Information Transmission System (BITS), and Intelligent...operational environment. Keywords: C4ISR Systems, Information Superiority, Battlefield Objects, Computer - Aided Prototyping System (CAPS), IP-based

  12. Virtual reality training improves turning capacity and functional reach in stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.N.; Masood, T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the added effects of virtual reality training on turning capacity, gait parameters and functional reach capacity of stroke patients compared to task oriented training alone. Methodology: A randomized control trial was conducted from February 2016 to July 2106 at Physical Rehabilitation Department Pakistan Railway Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Twenty stroke patients were selected through purposive sampling. The patients were randomly assigned through sealed envelope method into two groups; Task Oriented Training (TOT) and Virtual Reality Training (VRT) Group. The standardized tools were used for assessment. The TOT was provided for 4 days per week for 6 weeks while VRT group received additional exer-gaming training during sessions. Results: Significant improvement was observed in both groups regarding reaching forward, turning 360, gait pivot turn (p a 0.01) and FRT (p a 0.001). The two groups were statistically different from each other in terms of turning capacity, reaching forward, gait pivot turn and functional reach after 6 weeks of intervention (p a 0.05) Conclusion: Addition of virtual reality training further improves the significant improvement caused by task oriented training on turning capacity, reaching forward, gait pivot turn and functional reach in stroke patients. (author)

  13. Do children perceive postural constraints when estimating reach or action planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto; Lee, Sunghan

    2009-03-01

    Estimation of whether an object is reachable from a specific body position constitutes an important aspect in effective motor planning. Researchers who estimate reachability by way of motor imagery with adults consistently report the tendency to overestimate, with some evidence of a postural effect (postural stability hypothesis). This idea suggests that perceived reaching limits depend on an individual's perceived postural constraints. Based on previous work with adults, the authors expected a significant postural effect with the Reach 2 condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Furthermore, the authors hypothesized that the postural effect would be greater in younger children. They then tested these propositions among children aged 7, 9, and 11 years by asking them to estimate reach while seated (Reach 1) and in the more demanding posture of standing on 1 foot and leaning forward (Reach 2). Results indicated no age or condition difference, therefore providing no support for a postural effect. When the authors compared these data to a published report of adults, a developmental difference emerged. That is, adults recognize the perceived postural constraint of the standing position resulting in under- rather than overestimation, as displayed in the seated condition. Although preliminary, these observations suggest that estimates of reach (action planning) continue to be refined between late childhood and young adulthood.

  14. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  15. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  16. New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; DeNeale, Scott T [ORNL; Yeasmin, Dilruba [California State University, Fresno; Pasha, M. Fayzul K. [California State University, Fresno; Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

    2014-04-01

    The rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets related to topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics in the past decade have provided new opportunities for the refinement of hydropower resource potential from undeveloped stream-reaches. Through 2011 to 2013, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program to evaluate the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential for more than 3 million US streams. A methodology was designed that contains three main components: (1) identification of stream-reaches with high energy density, (2) topographical analysis of stream-reaches to estimate inundated surface area and reservoir storage, and (3) environmental attribution to spatially join information related to the natural ecological systems, social and cultural settings, policies, management, and legal constraints to stream-reaches of energy potential. An initial report on methodology (Hadjerioua et al., 2013) was later reviewed and revised based on the comments gathered from two peer review workshops. After implementing the assessment across the entire United States, major findings were summarized in this final report. The estimated NSD capacity and generation, including both higher-energy-density (>1 MW per reach) and lower-energy-density (<1 MW per reach) stream-reaches is 84.7 GW, around the same size as the existing US conventional hydropower nameplate capacity (79.5 GW; NHAAP, 2013). In terms of energy, the total undeveloped NSD generation is estimated to be 460 TWh/year, around 169% of average 2002 2011 net annual generation from existing conventional hydropower plants (272 TWh/year; EIA, 2013). Given the run-of-river assumption, NSD stream-reaches have higher capacity factors (53 71%), especially compared with conventional larger-storage peaking-operation projects that usually have capacity factors of around 30%. The highest potential is identified in the Pacific Northwest

  17. Should these potential CMR substances have been registered under REACH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Dybdahl, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    (Q)SAR models were applied to screen around 68,000 REACH pre-registered substances for CMR properties (carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction). Predictions from 14 relevant models were combined to reach overall calls for C, M and R. Combining predictions may reduce “noise” and increase...

  18. Taking OSCE examiner training on the road: reaching the masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Reid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To ensure the rigour of objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs in assessing medical students, medical school educators must educate examiners with a view to standardising examiner assessment behaviour. Delivering OSCE examiner training is a necessary yet challenging part of the OSCE process. A novel approach to implementing training for current and potential OSCE examiners was trialled by delivering large-group education sessions at major teaching hospitals. Methods: The ‘OSCE Roadshow’ comprised a short training session delivered in the context of teaching hospital ‘Grand Rounds’ to current and potential OSCE examiners. The training was developed to educate clinicians about OSCE processes, clarify the examiners’ role and required behaviours, and to review marking guides and mark allocation in an effort to standardise OSCE processes and encourage consistency in examiner marking behaviour. A short exercise allowed participants to practise marking a mock OSCE to investigate examiner marking behaviour after the training. Results: OSCE Roadshows at four metropolitan and one rural teaching hospital were well received and well attended by 171 clinicians across six sessions. Unexpectedly, medical students also attended in large numbers (n=220. After training, participants’ average scores for the mock OSCE clustered closely around the ideal score of 28 (out of 40, and the average scores did not differ according to the levels of clinical experience. Conclusion: The OSCE Roadshow demonstrated the potential of brief familiarisation training in reaching large numbers of current and potential OSCE examiners in a time and cost-effective manner to promote standardisation of OSCE processes.

  19. Object-oriented programming with gradual abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt; Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    We describe an experimental object-oriented programming language, ASL2, that supports program development by means of a series of abstraction steps. The language allows immediate object construction, and it is possible to use the constructed objects for concrete problem solving tasks. Classes...... restrictive. As a central mechanism, weakly classified objects are allowed to borrow methods from each other. ASL2 supports class generalization, as a counterpart to class specialization and inheritance in mainstream object-oriented programming languages. The final abstraction step discussed in this paper...

  20. CORRELATION OF LOW BACK PAIN WITH BODY MASS INDEX, FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST AMONG FEMALE NURSING PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameela .T .V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among health care workers the highest level of work related back injuries are more affected in nurses. There were many studies done to assess low back pain by using different tools. So this study aimed to identify the prevalence low back pain disability among female nursing professionals and the association between BMI, functional reach test and low back pain, so that a better tool can be used during the clinical examination for the betterment of the patient. The objective of the study is to identify the prevalence of low back pain disability, the association of Low Back Pain(LBP with BMI and functional reach test among female nursing professionals. Methods: A total of 256 subjects were assessed for disability due to back pain using OswestryLBP Disability Questionnaire and the prevalence of disability was determined. The sit and reach test, forward reach test and their BMI were calculated for those who had a disability score of 20 and above (n=87. Results: Data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation.The study result showed a significant correlation (p=0.03 of sit and reach test with low back pain disability scores. There was a negative correlationseen among BMI and LBP disability score forward reach test and LBP disability score, and BMI and no low back pain disability score. Conclusion: The prevalence of LBP disability among nursing professionals was 33.9%. This study suggest that sit and reach test can be used as an indicator of low back pain. Whereas BMI and forward reach test do not indicate low back pain.

  1. Objectivity And Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Magni, Sergio Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The relativity of morals has usually been taken as an argument against the objectivity of ethics. However, a more careful analysis can show that there are forms of moral objectivism which have relativistic implications, and that moral relativism can be compatible with the objectivity of ethics. Such an objectivity is not always in contrast to moral relativism and it is possible to be relativists without having to give up the claim of objectivity in ethics

  2. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging Web-based social media as a method of engaging people who experience auditory hallucinations and to evaluate their attitudes toward using social media platforms as a resource for Web-based support and technology-based treatment. Methods We used Facebook advertisements to recruit individuals who experience auditory hallucinations to complete an 18-item Web-based survey focused on issues related to auditory hallucinations and technology use in American adults. We systematically tested multiple elements of the advertisement and survey layout including image selection, survey pagination, question ordering, and advertising targeting strategy. Each element was evaluated sequentially and the most cost-effective strategy was implemented in the subsequent steps, eventually deriving an optimized approach. Three open-ended question responses were analyzed using conventional inductive content analysis. Coded responses were quantified into binary codes, and frequencies were then calculated. Results Recruitment netted N=264 total sample over a 6-week period. Ninety-seven participants fully completed all measures at a total cost of $8.14 per participant across testing phases. Systematic adjustments to advertisement design, survey layout, and targeting strategies improved data quality and cost efficiency. People were willing to provide information on what triggered their auditory hallucinations along with strategies they use to cope, as well as provide suggestions to others who experience

  3. Object Pragmatics and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to investigate the advent of language in the light of the appropriation of the cultural uses of the material objects related to material culture and the constitution of their public and shared meanings linked to their uses. First, we suggest that the Object Pragmatics paradigm offers a framework which allows us to take into account the uses of objects in daily life as a site of social conventions, communication and public and shared meanings. Second, we would like to underline the key role of the adult's mediations in the child's ability to evolve towards linguistic development. This contribution will discuss the notion of scenario involving primarily the object, as a possible semiotic tool to support the child's transition to language. We will finally illustrate that it is possible to take into consideration the mastery of conventional uses of the object in the child's ability to engage in a scenario and then to move towards communication and speech development. These issues will be addressed in the context of a research project which focuses on the observation of children interacting with an adult at 16, 20 and 24 months. These longitudinal data were collected by video in a semi-experimental triadic interaction design. The triadic interaction is considered as a relevant unit for the observation and analysis of the role of material culture in speech development, suggesting the existence of new mechanisms to be taken into account in addition to the interactive conditions largely mentioned in literature.

  4. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  5. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  6. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  7. Evaluating Regime Change of Sediment Transport in the Jingjiang River Reach, Yangtze River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The sediment regime in the Jingjiang river reach of the middle Yangtze River has been significantly changed from quasi-equilibrium to unsaturated since the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD. Vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration (SSC and sediment flux can be adopted to evaluate the sediment regime at the local and reach scale, respectively. However, the connection between the vertical concentration profiles and the hydrologic conditions of the sub-saturated channel has rarely been examined based on field data. Thus, vertical concentration data at three hydrological stations in the reach (Zhicheng, Shashi, and Jianli are collected. Analyses show that the near-bed concentration (within 10% of water depth from the riverbed may reach up to 15 times that of the vertical average concentration. By comparing the fractions of the suspended sediment and bed material before and after TGD operation, the geomorphic condition under which the distinct large near-bed concentrations occur have been examined. Based on daily discharge-sediment hydrographs, the reach scale sediment regime and availability of sediment sources are analyzed. In total, remarkable large near-bed concentrations may respond to the combination of wide grading suspended particles and bed material. Finally, several future challenges caused by the anomalous vertical concentration profiles in the unsaturated reach are discussed. This indicates that more detailed measurements or new measuring technologies may help us to provide accurate measurements, while a fractional dispersion equation may help us in describing. The present study aims to gain new insights into regime change of sediment suspension in the river reaches downstream of a very large reservoir.

  8. Reaching for the Horizon: Enabling 21st Century Antarctic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan-Finnemore, M.; Kennicutt, M. C., II; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs' (COMNAP) Antarctic Roadmap Challenges(ARC) project translated the 80 highest priority Antarctic and Southern Ocean scientific questionsidentified by the community via the SCAR Antarctic Science Horizon Scan into the highest prioritytechnological, access, infrastructure and logistics needs to enable the necessary research to answer thequestions. A workshop assembled expert and experienced Antarctic scientists and National AntarcticProgram operators from around the globe to discern the highest priority technological needs includingthe current status of development and availability, where the technologies will be utilized in the Antarctic area, at what temporal scales and frequencies the technologies will be employed,and how broadly applicable the technologies are for answering the highest priority scientific questions.Secondly the logistics, access, and infrastructure requirements were defined that are necessary todeliver the science in terms of feasibility including cost and benefit as determined by expected scientific return on investment. Finally, based on consideration of the science objectives and the mix oftechnologies implications for configuring National Antarctic Program logistics capabilities andinfrastructure architecture over the next 20 years were determined. In particular those elements thatwere either of a complexity, requiring long term investments to achieve and/or having an associated cost that realistically can only (or best) be achieved by international coordination, planning and partnerships were identified. Major trends (changes) in logistics, access, and infrastructure requirements were identified that allow for long-term strategic alignment of international capabilities, resources and capacity. The outcomes of this project will be reported.

  9. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  10. An investigation of the neural circuits underlying reaching and reach-to-grasp movements: from planning to execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eBegliomini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests the existence of a sophisticated brain circuit specifically dedicated to reach-to-grasp planning and execution, both in human and non human primates (Castiello, 2005. Studies accomplished by means of neuroimaging techniques suggest the hypothesis of a dichotomy between a reach-to-grasp circuit, involving the intraparietal area (AIP, the dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv - Castiello and Begliomini, 2008; Filimon, 2010 and a reaching circuit involving the medial intraparietal area (mIP and the Superior Parieto-Occipital Cortex (SPOC (Culham et al., 2006. However, the time course characterizing the involvement of these regions during the planning and execution of these two types of movements has yet to be delineated. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study has been conducted, including reach-to grasp and reaching only movements, performed towards either a small or a large stimulus, and Finite Impulse Response model (FIR - Henson, 2003 was adopted to monitor activation patterns from stimulus onset for a time window of 10 seconds duration. Data analysis focused on brain regions belonging either to the reaching or to the grasping network, as suggested by Castiello & Begliomini (2008.Results suggest that reaching and grasping movements planning and execution might share a common brain network, providing further confirmation to the idea that the neural underpinnings of reaching and grasping may overlap in both spatial and temporal terms (Verhagen et al., 2013.

  11. Turning subjective into objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria João; Cardoso, Jaime; Amaral, Natália

    2007-01-01

    and consensus over the esthetic evaluation of conservative treatment for breast cancer. Breast 2005] of participants provided the same classification this would be considered a consensual evaluation for that case. For cases where such agreement was not reached, consensus was obtained using a nominal group...

  12. Integration of QSAR models for bioconcentration suitable for REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gissi, Andrea [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Dipartimento di Farmacia — Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Nicolotti, Orazio; Carotti, Angelo; Gadaleta, Domenico [Dipartimento di Farmacia — Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Lombardo, Anna [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Benfenati, Emilio, E-mail: benfenati@marionegri.it [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models can be a valuable alternative method to replace or reduce animal test required by REACH. In particular, some endpoints such as bioconcentration factor (BCF) are easier to predict and many useful models have been already developed. In this paper we describe how to integrate two popular BCF models to obtain more reliable predictions. In particular, the herein presented integrated model relies on the predictions of two among the most used BCF models (CAESAR and Meylan), together with the Applicability Domain Index (ADI) provided by the software VEGA. Using a set of simple rules, the integrated model selects the most reliable and conservative predictions and discards possible outliers. In this way, for the prediction of the 851 compounds included in the ANTARES BCF dataset, the integrated model discloses a R{sup 2} (coefficient of determination) of 0.80, a RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of 0.61 log units and a sensitivity of 76%, with a considerable improvement in respect to the CAESAR (R{sup 2} = 0.63; RMSE = 0.84 log units; sensitivity 55%) and Meylan (R{sup 2} = 0.66; RMSE = 0.77 log units; sensitivity 65%) without discarding too many predictions (118 out of 851). Importantly, considering solely the compounds within the new integrated ADI, the R{sup 2} increased to 0.92, and the sensitivity to 85%, with a RMSE of 0.44 log units. Finally, the use of properly set safety thresholds applied for monitoring the so called “suspicious” compounds, which are those chemicals predicted in proximity of the border normally accepted to discern non-bioaccumulative from bioaccumulative substances, permitted to obtain an integrated model with sensitivity equal to 100%. - Highlights: • Applying two independent QSAR models for bioconcentration factor increases the prediction. • The concordance of the models is an important component of the integration. • The measurement of the applicability domain improves the

  13. Proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, Aline Martins; Soares, Daniele de Almeida; Tudella, Eloisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior and grasping in 5-, 6-, and 7-month-old preterm infants. Nine low-risk preterm and 10 full-term infants participated. Both groups showed the predominance of unimanual reaching, an age-related increase in the frequency of vertical-oriented and open hand movement, and also an increase in successful grasping from 6 to 7 months. The frequency of open hand was higher in the preterm group at 6 months. Intrinsic restrictions imposed by prematurity did not seem to have impaired reaching performance of preterm infants throughout the months of age.

  14. Missing depth cues in virtual reality limit performance and quality of three dimensional reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerig, Nicolas; Mayo, Johnathan; Baur, Kilian; Wittmann, Frieder; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Goal-directed reaching for real-world objects by humans is enabled through visual depth cues. In virtual environments, the number and quality of available visual depth cues is limited, which may affect reaching performance and quality of reaching movements. We assessed three-dimensional reaching movements in five experimental groups each with ten healthy volunteers. Three groups used a two-dimensional computer screen and two groups used a head-mounted display. The first screen group received the typically recreated visual depth cues, such as aerial and linear perspective, occlusion, shadows, and texture gradients. The second screen group received an abstract minimal rendering lacking those. The third screen group received the cues of the first screen group and absolute depth cues enabled by retinal image size of a known object, which realized with visual renderings of the handheld device and a ghost handheld at the target location. The two head-mounted display groups received the same virtually recreated visual depth cues as the second or the third screen group respectively. Additionally, they could rely on stereopsis and motion parallax due to head-movements. All groups using the screen performed significantly worse than both groups using the head-mounted display in terms of completion time normalized by the straight-line distance to the target. Both groups using the head-mounted display achieved the optimal minimum in number of speed peaks and in hand path ratio, indicating that our subjects performed natural movements when using a head-mounted display. Virtually recreated visual depth cues had a minor impact on reaching performance. Only the screen group with rendered handhelds could outperform the other screen groups. Thus, if reaching performance in virtual environments is in the main scope of a study, we suggest applying a head-mounted display. Otherwise, when two-dimensional screens are used, achievable performance is likely limited by the reduced depth

  15. Peer Support for the Hardly Reached: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Rebeccah; Fisher, Edwin

    2016-07-01

    Health disparities are aggravated when prevention and care initiatives fail to reach those they are intended to help. Groups can be classified as hardly reached according to a variety of circumstances that fall into 3 domains: individual (e.g., psychological factors), demographic (e.g., socioeconomic status), and cultural-environmental (e.g., social network). Several reports have indicated that peer support is an effective means of reaching hardly reached individuals. However, no review has explored peer support effectiveness in relation to the circumstances associated with being hardly reached or across diverse health problems. To conduct a systematic review assessing the reach and effectiveness of peer support among hardly reached individuals, as well as peer support strategies used. Three systematic searches conducted in PubMed identified studies that evaluated peer support programs among hardly reached individuals. In aggregate, the searches covered articles published from 2000 to 2015. Eligible interventions provided ongoing support for complex health behaviors, including prioritization of hardly reached populations, assistance in applying behavior change plans, and social-emotional support directed toward disease management or quality of life. Studies were excluded if they addressed temporally isolated behaviors, were limited to protocol group classes, included peer support as the dependent variable, did not include statistical tests of significance, or incorporated comparison conditions that provided appreciable social support. We abstracted data regarding the primary health topic, categorizations of hardly reached groups, program reach, outcomes, and strategies employed. We conducted a 2-sample t test to determine whether reported strategies were related to reach. Forty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria, and these studies represented each of the 3 domains of circumstances assessed (individual, demographic, and cultural-environmental). Interventions

  16. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  17. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects...... interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced...... system, knowledge about its own embodiment as well as knowledge about geometric relationships such as rigid body motion. This prior knowledge allows the extraction of representations that are semantically richer compared to many other approaches....

  18. Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the understanding of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects is reviewed. The results of optical studies of the proper motions and alignments, variability, and polarization of HH objects and the results of spectroscopic studies are discussed. Ground-based infrared studies and far-infrared observations are reviewed. Findings on the properties of molecular clouds associated with HH objects, on gas flows associated with HH IR stars, on maser emission, and on radio continuum observations are considered. A history of proposed excitation mechanisms for HH objects is briefly presented, and the salient shock-wave calculations aimed at synthesizing the spectra of HH objects are summarized along with hypotheses that have been advanced about the origin of the objects. 141 references

  19. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  1. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k Watercourses (arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the ARC features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes are also...

  2. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k Waterbodies (polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the POLYGON waterbody features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes...

  3. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - North Coast [ds63

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The shapefile is based on habitat unit level data summarized at the stream reach level. The database represents salmonid stream habitat surveys from 645 streams of...

  4. LTRM Fish Sampling Strata, UMRS La Grange Reach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  5. LTRM Water Quality Sampling Strata, UMRS La Grange Reach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  6. Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    DeVoe, Jiva

    2011-01-01

    A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

  7. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  8. Reaching the Objectives of Sustainable Development on the Basis of the Creative Industries – A South and Eastern European Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Costică

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of the development gap of South and East European economy compared with the rest of the developed countries represent an important condition to achieve the goal of „healthy development“ of European Union. High level of competitiveness in West European industries as well as new policy of sustainable development causes a rethinking of strategy of individual countries. Creative industries may contribute to the efficient utilization of local resources and individual characteristics. Using the culture like an “engine” of regional development, in South and Eastern Europe, countries can generate many positive and lasting effects on these economies. This article presents the role and evolution of creative goods and industries in South and Eastern European countries, and aims to prefigure their impact on sustainable development of these regions. The involvement of these goods in international trade may improve or rehabilitate the position of different economies at European level.

  9. Can France Reach the Factor 4 Objective? An Assessment Based on a Stylised Energy-Economy Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriet, Fanny; Maggiar, Nicolas; Schubert, Katheline

    2016-01-01

    We build, calibrate and simulate a stylised energy-economy model designed to evaluate the level of carbon tax that would allow the French economy to reduce its CO_2 emissions by a factor of four over a forty-year horizon. We estimate the substitution possibilities between fossil energy and other factors for households and firms. We show that if energy-saving technical progress continues at its recent historical pace, the initial level of the carbon tax recommended by the Quinet report is totally inadequate

  10. The Cognition of Maximal Reach Distance in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Otsuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate whether the cognition of spatial distance in reaching movements was decreased in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and whether this cognition was associated with various symptoms of PD. Estimated and actual maximal reaching distances were measured in three directions in PD patients and healthy elderly volunteers. Differences between estimated and actual measurements were compared within each group. In the PD patients, the associations between “error in cognition” of reaching distance and “clinical findings” were also examined. The results showed that no differences were observed in any values regardless of dominance of hand and severity of symptoms. The differences between the estimated and actual measurements were negatively deviated in the PD patients, indicating that they tended to underestimate reaching distance. “Error in cognition” of reaching distance correlated with the items of posture in the motor section of the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. This suggests that, in PD patients, postural deviation and postural instability might affect the cognition of the distance from a target object.

  11. Gaze anchoring guides real but not pantomime reach-to-grasp: support for the action-perception theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Jessica R; Karl, Jenni M; Doan, Jon B; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2018-04-01

    Reach-to-grasp movements feature the integration of a reach directed by the extrinsic (location) features of a target and a grasp directed by the intrinsic (size, shape) features of a target. The action-perception theory suggests that integration and scaling of a reach-to-grasp movement, including its trajectory and the concurrent digit shaping, are features that depend upon online action pathways of the dorsal visuomotor stream. Scaling is much less accurate for a pantomime reach-to-grasp movement, a pretend reach with the target object absent. Thus, the action-perception theory proposes that pantomime movement is mediated by perceptual pathways of the ventral visuomotor stream. A distinguishing visual feature of a real reach-to-grasp movement is gaze anchoring, in which a participant visually fixates the target throughout the reach and disengages, often by blinking or looking away/averting the head, at about the time that the target is grasped. The present study examined whether gaze anchoring is associated with pantomime reaching. The eye and hand movements of participants were recorded as they reached for a ball of one of three sizes, located on a pedestal at arms' length, or pantomimed the same reach with the ball and pedestal absent. The kinematic measures for real reach-to-grasp movements were coupled to the location and size of the target, whereas the kinematic measures for pantomime reach-to-grasp, although grossly reflecting target features, were significantly altered. Gaze anchoring was also tightly coupled to the target for real reach-to-grasp movements, but there was no systematic focus for gaze, either in relation with the virtual target, the previous location of the target, or the participant's reaching hand, for pantomime reach-to-grasp. The presence of gaze anchoring during real vs. its absence in pantomime reach-to-grasp supports the action-perception theory that real, but not pantomime, reaches are online visuomotor actions and is discussed in

  12. Dominant object detection for autonomous vision-based surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, H.

    2010-01-01

    The deployment of visual surveillance and monitoring systems has reached massive proportions. Consequently, a need to automate the processes involved in retrieving useful information from surveillance videos, such as detecting and counting objects, and interpreting their individual and joint

  13. REACH: next step to a sound chemicals management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wielen, Arnold

    2007-12-01

    REACH is the new European Regulation for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on 1st June 2007 to streamline and improve the former legislative framework on new and on existing chemical substances of the European Union. Companies which manufacture or import more than 1 tonne of a substance per year will be required to register the substance at the new EU Chemicals Agency located in Helsinki. REACH places greater responsibility on industry to manage the risks that chemicals may pose to the health and the environment and to provide safety information that will be passed down the supply chain. In principle, REACH applies to all chemicals as such, as components in preparations and as used in articles. REACH is a radical step forward in the EU chemicals management. The onus will move from the authorities to industry. In addition, REACH will allow the further evaluation of substances where there are grounds for concern, foresees an authorisation system for the use of substances of very high concern and a system of restrictions, where applicable, for substances of concern. The Authorisation system will require companies to switch progressively to safer alternatives where a suitable alternative exists. Current use restrictions will remain under REACH system.

  14. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on the Hanford Reach, 1997-1999 Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Paul; Nugent, John; Price, William (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1999-02-15

    Pilot work conducted in 1997 to aid the development of the study for the 1998 Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on The Hanford Reach. The objectives of the 1997 work were to: (1) identify juvenile chinook production and rearing areas..., (2) identify sampling sites and develop the statistical parameters necessary to complete the study, (3) develop a study plan..., (4) conduct field sampling activities...

  15. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-06-14

    Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging Web-based social media as a method of engaging people who experience auditory hallucinations and to evaluate their attitudes toward using social media platforms as a resource for Web-based support and technology-based treatment. We used Facebook advertisements to recruit individuals who experience auditory hallucinations to complete an 18-item Web-based survey focused on issues related to auditory hallucinations and technology use in American adults. We systematically tested multiple elements of the advertisement and survey layout including image selection, survey pagination, question ordering, and advertising targeting strategy. Each element was evaluated sequentially and the most cost-effective strategy was implemented in the subsequent steps, eventually deriving an optimized approach. Three open-ended question responses were analyzed using conventional inductive content analysis. Coded responses were quantified into binary codes, and frequencies were then calculated. Recruitment netted N=264 total sample over a 6-week period. Ninety-seven participants fully completed all measures at a total cost of $8.14 per participant across testing phases. Systematic adjustments to advertisement design, survey layout, and targeting strategies improved data quality and cost efficiency. People were willing to provide information on what triggered their auditory hallucinations along with strategies they use to cope, as well as provide suggestions to others who experience auditory hallucinations. Women, people

  16. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...... are covered from the point of view of program analysis, program transformation, computational complexity, etc....

  17. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  18. Object permanence in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A

    2009-03-01

    Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.

  19. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  20. Gamifying Video Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, Concetto; Palazzo, Simone; Giordano, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    Video object segmentation can be considered as one of the most challenging computer vision problems. Indeed, so far, no existing solution is able to effectively deal with the peculiarities of real-world videos, especially in cases of articulated motion and object occlusions; limitations that appear more evident when we compare the performance of automated methods with the human one. However, manually segmenting objects in videos is largely impractical as it requires a lot of time and concentration. To address this problem, in this paper we propose an interactive video object segmentation method, which exploits, on one hand, the capability of humans to identify correctly objects in visual scenes, and on the other hand, the collective human brainpower to solve challenging and large-scale tasks. In particular, our method relies on a game with a purpose to collect human inputs on object locations, followed by an accurate segmentation phase achieved by optimizing an energy function encoding spatial and temporal constraints between object regions as well as human-provided location priors. Performance analysis carried out on complex video benchmarks, and exploiting data provided by over 60 users, demonstrated that our method shows a better trade-off between annotation times and segmentation accuracy than interactive video annotation and automated video object segmentation approaches.

  1. Objects of Desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Describes learning objects, also known as granules, chunks, or information nuggets, and likens them to help screens. Discusses concerns about how they can go wrong: (1) faulty pretest questions; (2) missing links in the learning object chain; (3) poor frames of reference; and (4) lack of customization. (JOW)

  2. Per Object statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    of a specific class in turn, and uses as pair of PPO stages to derive the statistics and then assign them to the objects' Object Variables. It may be that this could all be done in some other, simply way, but several other ways that were tried did not succeed. The procedure ouptut has been tested against...

  3. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  4. Stability of multihypernuclear objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rather, Asloob A.; Usmani, A.A.; Patra, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    In present work, we analyze the stability of multi-hypernuclear objects having higher content of strangeness. The aim of this work is to test the stability of such objects which might be produced in heavy-ion reactions. Studies of such type of systems might have great implication to nuclear-astrophysics

  5. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...

  6. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei; Keyser, John

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many

  7. Object oriented programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

  8. Investigation on multi-objective performance optimization algorithm application of fan based on response surface method and entropy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Kexin; Liu, Yang

    2017-12-01

    A multi-objective performance optimization method is proposed, and the problem that single structural parameters of small fan balance the optimization between the static characteristics and the aerodynamic noise is solved. In this method, three structural parameters are selected as the optimization variables. Besides, the static pressure efficiency and the aerodynamic noise of the fan are regarded as the multi-objective performance. Furthermore, the response surface method and the entropy method are used to establish the optimization function between the optimization variables and the multi-objective performances. Finally, the optimized model is found when the optimization function reaches its maximum value. Experimental data shows that the optimized model not only enhances the static characteristics of the fan but also obviously reduces the noise. The results of the study will provide some reference for the optimization of multi-objective performance of other types of rotating machinery.

  9. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  10. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  11. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  12. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  13. mHealth in the Wild: Using Novel Data to Examine the Reach, Use, and Impact of PTSD Coach

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Jason E; Jaworski, Beth K; Kuhn, Eric; Makin-Byrd, Kerry N; Ramsey, Kelly M; Hoffman, Julia E

    2015-01-01

    Background A majority of Americans (58%) now use smartphones, making it possible for mobile mental health apps to reach large numbers of those who are living with untreated, or under-treated, mental health symptoms. Although early trials suggest positive effects for mobile health (mHealth) interventions, little is known about the potential public health impact of mobile mental health apps. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize reach, use, and impact of ?PTSD Coach?, a free, ...

  14. An Inverse Optimal Control Approach to Explain Human Arm Reaching Control Based on Multiple Internal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ozgur S; Zhou, Zhehua; Glasauer, Stefan; Wollherr, Dirk

    2018-04-03

    Human motor control is highly efficient in generating accurate and appropriate motor behavior for a multitude of tasks. This paper examines how kinematic and dynamic properties of the musculoskeletal system are controlled to achieve such efficiency. Even though recent studies have shown that the human motor control relies on multiple models, how the central nervous system (CNS) controls this combination is not fully addressed. In this study, we utilize an Inverse Optimal Control (IOC) framework in order to find the combination of those internal models and how this combination changes for different reaching tasks. We conducted an experiment where participants executed a comprehensive set of free-space reaching motions. The results show that there is a trade-off between kinematics and dynamics based controllers depending on the reaching task. In addition, this trade-off depends on the initial and final arm configurations, which in turn affect the musculoskeletal load to be controlled. Given this insight, we further provide a discomfort metric to demonstrate its influence on the contribution of different inverse internal models. This formulation together with our analysis not only support the multiple internal models (MIMs) hypothesis but also suggest a hierarchical framework for the control of human reaching motions by the CNS.

  15. Delays in using chromatic and luminance information to correct rapid reaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Adam; Wade, Alex; Ma-Wyatt, Anna

    2011-09-07

    People can use feedback to make online corrections to movements but only if there is sufficient time to integrate the new information and make the correction. A key variable in this process is therefore the speed at which the new information about the target location is coded. Conduction velocities for chromatic signals are lower than for achromatic signals so it may take longer to correct reaches to chromatic stimuli. In addition to this delay, the sensorimotor system may prefer achromatic information over the chromatic information as delayed information may be less valuable when movements are made under time pressure. A down-weighting of chromatic information may result in additional latencies for chromatically directed reaches. In our study, participants made online corrections to reaches to achromatic, (L-M)-cone, and S-cone stimuli. Our chromatic stimuli were carefully adjusted to minimize stimulation of achromatic pathways, and we equated stimuli both in terms of detection thresholds and also by their estimated neural responses. Similar stimuli were used throughout the subjective adjustments and final reaching experiment. Using this paradigm, we found that responses to achromatic stimuli were only slightly faster than responses to (L-M)-cone and S-cone stimuli. We conclude that the sensorimotor system treats chromatic and achromatic information similarly and that the delayed chromatic responses primarily reflect early conduction delays.

  16. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...

  17. [The REACH legislation: the consumer and environment protection perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundert-Remy, Ursula

    2008-12-01

    REACH has been initiated with the aim of improving existing legislation. In order to assist in the interpretation of the REACH legislation, guidance documents have been developed, which have only lately become available. According to the REACH annexes and supported by guidance documents, waiving of test requirements will be possible, thus, opening the possibility that under REACH no new (eco)toxicological data will be required. Concerning products, a guidance document was released in April 2008 stating that the substance concentration threshold of 0.1 % (w/w) applies to the article as produced or imported and it does not relate to the homogeneous materials or parts of an article, but relates to the article as such (i.e., as produced or imported). Hence, notification will not be required for many products containing chemicals with properties which place them on the candidate list for authorization. In summary, it is at present not foreseeable whether the expected benefit of the REACH legislation will materialise for the environment and for the health of consumers and at the work place.

  18. Effects of accuracy constraints on reach-to-grasp movements in cerebellar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, M K; Shimansky, Y; Stelmach, G E; Bracha, V; Bloedel, J R

    2000-11-01

    Reach-to-grasp movements of patients with pathology restricted to the cerebellum were compared with those of normal controls. Two types of paradigms with different accuracy constraints were used to examine whether cerebellar impairment disrupts the stereotypic relationship between arm transport and grip aperture and whether the variability of this relationship is altered when greater accuracy is required. The movements were made to either a vertical dowel or to a cross bar of a small cross. All subjects were asked to reach for either target at a fast but comfortable speed, grasp the object between the index finger and thumb, and lift it a short distance off the table. In terms of the relationship between arm transport and grip aperture, the control subjects showed a high consistency in grip aperture and wrist velocity profiles from trial to trial for movements to both the dowel and the cross. The relationship between the maximum velocity of the wrist and the time at which grip aperture was maximal during the reach was highly consistent throughout the experiment. In contrast, the time of maximum grip aperture and maximum wrist velocity of the cerebellar patients was quite variable from trial to trial, and the relationship of these measurements also varied considerably. These abnormalities were present regardless of the accuracy requirement. In addition, the cerebellar patients required a significantly longer time to grasp and lift the objects than the control subjects. Furthermore, the patients exhibited a greater grip aperture during reach than the controls. These data indicate that the cerebellum contributes substantially to the coordination of movements required to perform reach-to-grasp movements. Specifically, the cerebellum is critical for executing this behavior with a consistent, well-timed relationship between the transport and grasp components. This contribution is apparent even when accuracy demands are minimal.

  19. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  20. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  1. Registration of Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Tedd, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Space objects are subject to registration in order to allocate "jurisdiction and control" over those objects in the sovereign-free environment of outer space. This approach is similar to the registration of ships in view of the high sea and for aircrafts with respect to the international airspace. Registration is one of the basic principles of space law, starting with UN General Assembly Resolution 1721 B (XVI) of December 20, 1961, followed by Resolution 1962 (XVIII) of December 13, 1963, then formulated in Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and as specified in the Registration Convention of 1975. Registration of space objects can be seen today as a principle of customary international law, relevant for each spacefaring state. Registration is divided into a national and an international level. The State Party establishes a national registry for its space objects, and those registrations have to be communicated via diplomatic channel to the UN Register of space objects. This UN Register is handled by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and is an open source of information for space objects worldwide. Registration is linked to the so-called launching state of the relevant space object. There might be more than one launching state for the specific launch event, but only one state actor can register a specific space object. The state of registry gains "jurisdiction and control" over the space object and therefore no double registration is permissible. Based on the established UN Space Law, registration practice was subject to some adaptions due to technical developments and legal challenges. After the privatization of the major international satellite organizations, a number of non-registrations had to be faced. The state actors reacted with the UN Registration Practice Resolution of 2007 as elaborated in the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS, the Committee for the Peaceful Use of Outer Space. In this context an UNOOSA Registration Information

  2. Restricting Factors at Modification of Parameters of Associative Engineering Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, László

    Advancements in product development have reached full integration of engineering activities and processes in product lifecycle management (PLM) systems. PLM systems are based on high-level modeling, simulation and data management. Despite significant development of modeling in PLM systems, a strong demand was recognized for improved decision assistance in product development. Decision assistance can be improved by application of methods from the area of computer intelligence. In order for a product development company to stay competitive, it is important for its modeling system to be relied on local even personal knowledge. The authors analyzed current PLM systems for shortcomings and possibilities for extended intelligence at decision-making during product development. They propose methods in order to increase suitability of current modeling systems to accommodate knowledge based IT at definition of sets of parameters of modeled objects and in the management of frequent changes of modeled objects. In the center of the proposed methodology, constrained parameters act as restricting factors at definition and modification of parameters of associative engineering objects. Paper starts with an outlook to modeling in current engineering systems and preliminary results by the authors. Following this, groups of essential information as handled by he proposed modeling are summarized and procedures for processing of that groups of information are detailed. Next, management of chains of changes along chains of associa-tive product objects and a new style of decision assistance in modeling systems are explained. Changes are created or verified by behavior analysis. Finally, behavior analysis, human intent combination, product data view creation, and change management are discussed as the proposed integrated and coordinated methodology for enhanced support of decision-making in product development.

  3. Analysis of kinematically redundant reaching movements using the equilibrium-point hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, P; Shiratori, T; Olivato, P; Duarte, M

    2001-03-01

    Six subjects performed a planar reaching arm movement to a target while unpredictable perturbations were applied to the endpoint; the perturbations consisted of pulling springs having different stiffness. Two conditions were applied; in the first, subjects had to reach for the target despite the perturbation, in the second condition, the subjects were asked to not correct the motion as a perturbation was applied. We analyzed the kinematics profiles of the three arm segments and, by means of inverse dynamics, calculated the joint torques. The framework of the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, the lambda model, allowed the reconstruction of the control variables, the "equilibrium trajectories", in the "do not correct" condition for the wrist and the elbow joints as well as for the end point final position, while for the other condition, the reconstruction was less reliable. The findings support and extend to a multiple-joint planar movement, the paradigm of the EP hypothesis along with the "do not correct" instruction.

  4. Voting based object boundary reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qi; Zhang, Like; Ma, Jingsheng

    2005-07-01

    A voting-based object boundary reconstruction approach is proposed in this paper. Morphological technique was adopted in many applications for video object extraction to reconstruct the missing pixels. However, when the missing areas become large, the morphological processing cannot bring us good results. Recently, Tensor voting has attracted people"s attention, and it can be used for boundary estimation on curves or irregular trajectories. However, the complexity of saliency tensor creation limits its applications in real-time systems. An alternative approach based on tensor voting is introduced in this paper. Rather than creating saliency tensors, we use a "2-pass" method for orientation estimation. For the first pass, Sobel d*etector is applied on a coarse boundary image to get the gradient map. In the second pass, each pixel puts decreasing weights based on its gradient information, and the direction with maximum weights sum is selected as the correct orientation of the pixel. After the orientation map is obtained, pixels begin linking edges or intersections along their direction. The approach is applied to various video surveillance clips under different conditions, and the experimental results demonstrate significant improvement on the final extracted objects accuracy.

  5. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  6. REACH-related substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten; Markussen, Helene

    are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study and an investigation of the actual......The accomplishment of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... fulfil one or more of the criteria (e.g. CMR, EDS) for the REACH Annex XIV candidate list (authorisation). The paper presents the results of the mapping of chemical candidates and the first results of the actual substitutions. Keywords: REACH, chemicals, substitution, printing industry....

  7. CODAS object monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, M.R.; Rainford, M.

    2001-01-01

    The primary Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) of JET is based on a TCP/IP network of more than 150 computers. The CODAS computers provide the JET machine control and data acquisition for over 70,000 digital and analog signals. The Object Monitoring Service (OMS) is used by applications for monitoring objects for presentation to the JET machine operators and for the operation of individual software components (such as valve state, access control, mimic definition changes and internal data distribution). Each server typically handles connections from around 60 clients monitoring upwards of 2000 objects. Some servers have over 150 clients and 5000 objects. Acquisition libraries are dynamically linked into a running server as required either to acquire data values for objects or to forward requests to other OMS servers. A mechanism involving dynamic linking allows new libraries to be integrated without stopping or changing running software. OMS provides a very reliable and highly successful 'data-type independent' means of monitoring many different objects. It allows applications to take advantage of new data sources, without the need to change existing code

  8. Composite Coiled Tubing for Extended Reach in Horizontal Oil Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Conventional steel coiled tubing cannot reach along the entire length of very long horizontal oil wells. A lighter and more buoyant coiled tube is made possible using composite materials. The high stiffness to weight ratio of fiber reinforced polymers, coupled with a lower coefficient of friction......, has the potential of greatly extending the reach in horizontal oil wells. This study shows how to design composite coiled tubing and gives a comprehensive discussion about the most influential parameters. Several solutions, using glass-fiber and carbon are considered. Finite element models are used...

  9. Telerobotic operation of structurally flexible, long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    As a part of the Department of Energy's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, long-reach manipulators are being considered for the retrieval of waste from large storage tanks. Long-reach manipulators may have characteristics significantly different from those of typical industrial robots because of the flexibility of long links needed to cover the large workspace. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, control algorithms employing various types of shaping filters were investigated. A new approach that uses embedded simulation was developed and compared with others. In the new approach, generation of joint trajectories considering link flexibility was also investigated

  10. Random clustering ferns for multimodal object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Villamizar Vergel, Michael Alejandro; Garrell Zulueta, Anais; Sanfeliu Cortés, Alberto; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    The final publication is available at link.springer.com We propose an efficient and robust method for the recognition of objects exhibiting multiple intra-class modes, where each one is associated with a particular object appearance. The proposed method, called random clustering ferns, combines synergically a single and real-time classifier, based on the boosted assembling of extremely randomized trees (ferns), with an unsupervised and probabilistic approach in order to recognize efficient...

  11. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in member States, implementing organizations, academia and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles

  12. Small target detection using objectness and saliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naiwen; Xiao, Yang; Fang, Zhiwen; Yang, Jian; Wang, Li; Li, Tao

    2017-10-01

    We are motived by the need for generic object detection algorithm which achieves high recall for small targets in complex scenes with acceptable computational efficiency. We propose a novel object detection algorithm, which has high localization quality with acceptable computational cost. Firstly, we obtain the objectness map as in BING[1] and use NMS to get the top N points. Then, k-means algorithm is used to cluster them into K classes according to their location. We set the center points of the K classes as seed points. For each seed point, an object potential region is extracted. Finally, a fast salient object detection algorithm[2] is applied to the object potential regions to highlight objectlike pixels, and a series of efficient post-processing operations are proposed to locate the targets. Our method runs at 5 FPS on 1000*1000 images, and significantly outperforms previous methods on small targets in cluttered background.

  13. Probability modeling of high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed, the upper reaches of Heihe River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanling; Li, Zhanjie; Li, Chengcheng

    2014-05-01

    Probability modeling of hydrological extremes is one of the major research areas in hydrological science. Most basins in humid and semi-humid south and east of China are concerned for probability modeling analysis of high flow extremes. While, for the inland river basin which occupies about 35% of the country area, there is a limited presence of such studies partly due to the limited data availability and a relatively low mean annual flow. The objective of this study is to carry out probability modeling of high flow extremes in the upper reach of Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in China, by using the peak over threshold (POT) method and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD), in which the selection of threshold and inherent assumptions for POT series are elaborated in details. For comparison, other widely used probability distributions including generalized extreme value (GEV), Lognormal, Log-logistic and Gamma are employed as well. Maximum likelihood estimate is used for parameter estimations. Daily flow data at Yingluoxia station from 1978 to 2008 are used. Results show that, synthesizing the approaches of mean excess plot, stability features of model parameters, return level plot and the inherent independence assumption of POT series, an optimum threshold of 340m3/s is finally determined for high flow extremes in Yingluoxia watershed. The resulting POT series is proved to be stationary and independent based on Mann-Kendall test, Pettitt test and autocorrelation test. In terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test and several graphical diagnostics such as quantile and cumulative density function plots, GPD provides the best fit to high flow extremes in the study area. The estimated high flows for long return periods demonstrate that, as the return period increasing, the return level estimates are probably more uncertain. The frequency of high flow extremes exhibits a very slight but not significant decreasing trend from 1978 to

  14. Objects of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald David Hoffman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexist-ing physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have defi-nite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are com-pendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a conscious agent. We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  15. Constraints on arm selection processes when reaching: degrees of freedom and joint amplitudes interact to influence limb selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wondae; Buchanan, John; Gabbard, Carl

    2011-01-01

    With an interest in identifying the variables that constrain arm choice when reaching, the authors had 11 right-handed participants perform free-choice and assigned-limb reaches at 9 object positions. The right arm was freely selected 100% of the time when reaching to positions at 30° and 40° into right hemispace. However, the left arm was freely selected to reach to positions at -30° and -40° in left hemispace 85% of the time. A comparison between free- and assigned-limb reaching kinematics revealed that free limb selection when reaching to the farthest positions was constrained by joint amplitude requirements and the time devoted to limb deceleration. Differences between free- and assigned-arm reaches were not evident when reaching to the midline and positions of ±10°, even though the right arm was freely selected most often for these positions. Different factors contribute to limb selection as a function of distance into a specific hemispace.

  16. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  17. The consummatory origins of visually guided reaching in human infants: a dynamic integration of whole-body and upper-limb movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroud, Afra; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2012-06-01

    Reaching-to-eat (skilled reaching) is a natural behaviour that involves reaching for, grasping and withdrawing a target to be placed into the mouth for eating. It is an action performed daily by adults and is among the first complex behaviours to develop in infants. During development, visually guided reaching becomes increasingly refined to the point that grasping of small objects with precision grips of the digits occurs at about one year of age. Integration of the hand, upper-limbs, and whole body are required for successful reaching, but the ontogeny of this integration has not been described. The present longitudinal study used Laban Movement Analysis, a behavioural descriptive method, to investigate the developmental progression of the use and integration of axial, proximal, and distal movements performed during visually guided reaching. Four infants (from 7 to 40 weeks age) were presented with graspable objects (toys or food items). The first prereaching stage was associated with activation of mouth, limb, and hand movements to a visually presented target. Next, reaching attempts consisted of first, the advancement of the head with an opening mouth and then with the head, trunk and opening mouth. Eventually, the axial movements gave way to the refined action of one upper-limb supported by axial adjustments. These findings are discussed in relation to the biological objective of reaching, the evolutionary origins of reaching, and the decomposition of reaching after neurological injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in radionuclide concentrations in Hanford Reach fish, 1982 through 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.

    1994-06-01

    Environmental monitoring has been conducted at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeast Washington State since 1945. Fish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, which borders the Site, are monitored annually. The two objectives of this report were (1) to evaluate trends in the concentrations of radionuclides [e.g., 90 Sr and 137 Cs] in two species of Columbia River fish [smallmouth bass and mountain whitefish] sampled from the Hanford Reach from 1982 through 1992; and (2) to determine the impact of Hanford Site releases on these two species and carp and fall chinook salmon collected during this time frame. The evaluation found gradual reductions of 137 Cs in bass muscle and 90 Sr in bass and whitefish carcass from 1982 through 1992. Concentrations of 90 Sr in bass and whitefish followed the pattern established by reported Hanford Site releases from 1982 through 1992 and was supported by significant regression analyses comparing annual releases to sample concentration. Because data for carp have been collected only since 1990, the data base was inadequate for determining trends. Moreover, fall chinook salmon were only sampled once in this 11-year period. Concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in fish samples collected from distant background locations exceeded concentrations in Hanford Reach fish. Estimates of the dose from consumption of Hanford Reach fish were less than 0.001 times the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and the US Department of Energy guideline of 100 mrem/yr

  19. Decision theory, motor planning, and visual memory: deciding where to reach when memory errors are costly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Rachel A; Sims, Chris R

    2016-06-01

    Limitations in visual working memory (VWM) have been extensively studied in psychophysical tasks, but not well understood in terms of how these memory limits translate to performance in more natural domains. For example, in reaching to grasp an object based on a spatial memory representation, overshooting the intended target may be more costly than undershooting, such as when reaching for a cup of hot coffee. The current body of literature lacks a detailed account of how the costs or consequences of memory error influence what we encode in visual memory and how we act on the basis of remembered information. Here, we study how externally imposed monetary costs influence behavior in a motor decision task that involves reach planning based on recalled information from VWM. We approach this from a decision theoretic perspective, viewing decisions of where to aim in relation to the utility of their outcomes given the uncertainty of memory representations. Our results indicate that subjects accounted for the uncertainty in their visual memory, showing a significant difference in their reach planning when monetary costs were imposed for memory errors. However, our findings indicate that subjects memory representations per se were not biased by the imposed costs, but rather subjects adopted a near-optimal post-mnemonic decision strategy in their motor planning.

  20. Temporal-spatial parameters of the upper limb during a Reach & Grasp Cycle for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Erin E; Ladd, Amy L; Lamont, Lauren E; Rose, Jessica

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize normal temporal-spatial patterns during the Reach & Grasp Cycle and to identify upper limb motor deficits in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The Reach & Grasp Cycle encompasses six sequential tasks: reach, grasp cylinder, transport to self (T(1)), transport back to table (T(2)), release cylinder, and return to initial position. Three-dimensional motion data were recorded from 25 typically developing children (11 males, 14 females; ages 5-18 years) and 12 children with hemiplegic CP (2 males, 10 females; ages 5-17 years). Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation for the control group ranged from 0 to 0.19, indicating good repeatability of all parameters. The mean duration of the Cycle for children with CP was nearly twice as long as controls, 9.5±4.3s versus 5.1±1.2s (U=37.0, P=.002), partly due to prolonged grasp and release durations. Peak hand velocity occurred at approximately 40% of each phase and was greater during the transport (T(1), T(2)) than non-transport phases (reach, return) in controls (PGrasp Cycle (rho=.957, PGrasp Cycle for quantitative evaluation of upper limb motor deficits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. NORMAL VALUES AND FACTORS AFFECTING FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST IN SAUDI ARABIA SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A. Emara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most critical feature of motor development is the ability to balance the body in sitting or standing. Impaired balance limits a child’s ability to recover from unexpected threats to stability. The functional reach test (FRT defines the maximal distance an individual is able to reach forward beyond arm’s length in a standing position without loss of balance, taking a step, or touching the wall. The Purpose of this study was to establish the normal values for FRT in Saudi Arabia school children with typical development and to study the correlation of anthropometric measures with FRT values. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Almadinah Almonawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 280 children without disabilities aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected. Functional reach was assessed by having subjects extend their arms to 90 degrees and reach as far forward as they could without taking a step. Reach distance was recorded by noting the beginning and final position of the subject's extended arm parallel to a yard stick attached to the wall. Three successive trials of FRT were performed and the mean of the three trials was calculated. Pearson product moment correlation was used to examine the association of FR to age, and anthropometric measures. Results: Normal mean values of FR ranged from 24.2cm to 33.95cm. Age, height and weight significantly correlate with FRT. Conclusion: The FRT is a feasible test to examine the balance of 6-12 year-old children. FRT may be useful for detecting balance impairment, change in balance performance over time.

  2. Reaching the Unreached - Special Emphasis on the Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an overview of the existing communication component in the Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI) training in Zambia and critically analyses the need for a humane touch in the communication process so as to reach the target audience effectively. Interpersonal Communication (IPC) in Zambia has ...

  3. Recognition for reaching the most vulnerable populations in Burkina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Recognition for reaching the most vulnerable populations in Burkina Faso. 07 novembre 2016. An IDRC supported project was recognized for its efforts to improve health service provision and the monitoring of pregnant women, new mothers, children, and people living with HIV in Burkina Faso's Nouna district. Dr Maurice ...

  4. Reaching an understanding innovations in how we view reading assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Sabatini, John; O'Reilly, Tenaha

    2012-01-01

    Reaching an Understanding: Innovations in How We View Reading Assessment builds upon the editors previous book Measuring Up: Advances in How We Assess Reading Ability by representing some early attempts to apply theory to help guide the development of new assessments and measurement models.

  5. Nanshan Aluminum Reached Strategic Cooperation with CSR Corporation Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As a key supplier of aluminum profiles and aluminum plate,sheet and trip products for CSR Corporation Limited,Nanshan Aluminum will join hands with CSR Corporation Limited to reach strategic cooperation.On January 5,Nanshan Aluminum signed strategic cooperation agreement with CSR Sifang Locomotive&Rolling; Stock Co.,Ltd,both

  6. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  7. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, IBM; Stremmelaar, EF; Touwen, BCL

    1999-01-01

    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment

  8. Evaluation of the Implementation of the Reaching Every District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    ABSTRACT. Background: In 2003, the Government of Zambia in collaboration with implementing partners in immunisation introduced the Reaching Every District. (RED) strategy to improve immunization coverage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the. RED strategy in Lusaka district. Methods: A ...

  9. Reach for the Stars: Visions for Literacy Coaching Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFord, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This brief by the Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse is about reaching for the stars--stories of vision and commitment from educators in small and large schools. Everyone knows of people who are held up as "visionaries" throughout history: Leonardo Da Vinci, Mahatma Gandhi, Jules Verne, Thomas Edison, Susan Anthony, or John Dewey, to name a few. The…

  10. Advanced reach tool (ART) : Development of the mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Tongeren, M. van; Cherrie, J.W.; Tischer, M.; Schneider, T.; Schinkel, J.; Kromhout, H.; Warren, N.; Goede, H.; Tielemans, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the mechanistic model within a collaborative project, referred to as the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) project, to develop a tool to model inhalation exposure for workers sharing similar operational conditions across different industries and locations in Europe.

  11. Reaching the Summit: Deaf Adults as Essential Partners in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne-Firl, Bridgetta

    2016-01-01

    How do we reach the summit in terms of supporting the best transition possible for each young deaf or hard of hearing individual in the United States? Should professionals who are hearing work alone to succeed with deaf and hard of hearing students? No matter how good the intention, if we want deaf and hard of hearing students to transition from…

  12. Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B

    1998-08-01

    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm.

  13. How infants' reaches reveal principles of sensorimotor decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineva, Evelina; Schöner, Gregor

    2018-01-01

    In Piaget's classical A-not-B-task, infants repeatedly make a sensorimotor decision to reach to one of two cued targets. Perseverative errors are induced by switching the cue from A to B, while spontaneous errors are unsolicited reaches to B when only A is cued. We argue that theoretical accounts of sensorimotor decision-making fail to address how motor decisions leave a memory trace that may impact future sensorimotor decisions. Instead, in extant neural models, perseveration is caused solely by the history of stimulation. We present a neural dynamic model of sensorimotor decision-making within the framework of Dynamic Field Theory, in which a dynamic instability amplifies fluctuations in neural activation into macroscopic, stable neural activation states that leave memory traces. The model predicts perseveration, but also a tendency to repeat spontaneous errors. To test the account, we pool data from several A-not-B experiments. A conditional probabilities analysis accounts quantitatively how motor decisions depend on the history of reaching. The results provide evidence for the interdependence among subsequent reaching decisions that is explained by the model, showing that by amplifying small differences in activation and affecting learning, decisions have consequences beyond the individual behavioural act.

  14. Advanced REACH tool: A Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNally, K.; Warren, N.; Fransman, W.; Entink, R.K.; Schinkel, J.; Van Tongeren, M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Kromhout, H.; Schneider, T.; Tielemans, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate

  15. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P.

    1996-01-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  16. Challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenges of extension workers in reaching rural women farmers in Enugu State Nigeria. Questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample size of 52 extension workers. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean statistic, chart and factor analysis. Results revealed that training and visit ...

  17. Quality, Reach, and Impact of Open Scholarly Publishing in Latin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Quality, Reach, and Impact of Open Scholarly Publishing in Latin America. Better understanding Open Access of scholarly research will help determine how it contributes to the greater circulation of knowledge and disseminating research in Latin America. Open Access (defined as unrestricted access to articles published in ...

  18. The Internet and the Global Reach of EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuner, Christopher Barth

    and learning; international negotiation; coercion and conditionality; and blocking recognition of third country legal measures. The EU’s actions in exercising its global reach implicate important normative issues, such as distinguishing between the furtherance of core EU legal values and the advancement...

  19. [Medicine and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K

    2007-01-01

    Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.

  20. Media, journalism, objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the text around the themes: Media and Journalism, are confronted two directions of opinions: humanism and elitism. Humanism believes that media and journalism must be metaphysically objective: able to tell the truth regardless of time, place and terms of events. Another approach, elitism, is connected with Hegel's philosophy of history. Hegel's conceptual apparatus includes: Idea, History dialectic, 'cunning mind,' self- development and self-realization. In this context, media and journalism are considered as organic unity, an inseparable part of some dialectical totality. More specifically media and journalism can be objective only if they defend concrete ideological assumptions of society to which they belong. Any other understanding of these two concepts is non-objective, mere moralizing and / or demagoguery.

  1. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  2. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  3. Quantum objective realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednorz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether quantum measurements reflect some underlying objective reality has no generally accepted answer. We show that a description of such reality is possible under natural conditions such as linearity and causality, although in terms of moments and cumulants of finite order and without relativistic invariance. The proposed construction of observations’ probability distribution originates from weak, noninvasive measurements, with detection error replaced by some external finite noise. The noise allows us to construct microscopic objective reality, but remains dynamically decoupled and hence unobservable at the macroscopic level. (paper)

  4. Learning Objects Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blåbjerg, Niels Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsæt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnået med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netværk af interessenter som giver os...... sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept både omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstød og input har vi forfulgt ønsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni...

  5. Amplified Erosion above Waterfalls and Oversteepened Bedrock Reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviv, I.; Enzel, Y.; Whipple, K. X.; Zilberman, E.; Stone, J.; Matmon, A.; Fifield, K. L.

    2005-12-01

    Although waterfalls are abundant along steep bedrock channels, none of the conventional erosion laws can predict incision at the lip of a waterfall where flow is non-uniform and bed slope can be vertical. Considering the expected increase in flow velocity and shear stress at the lip of a vertical waterfall we determine erosion amplification at a waterfall lip as: Elip/Enormal= (1+0.4/Fr2)3n, where Fr is the Froude number and n ranges between 0.5-1.7. This amplification expression suggests that erosion at the lip could be as much as 2-5 times higher than normally expected in a setting with identical hydraulic geometry. It also demonstrates that a freefall is expected to amplify upstream incision rates even when the flow approaching the waterfall is highly supercritical. Utilizing this erosion amplification expression in numerical simulations in conjunction with a standard detachment-limited incision model we demonstrate its impact on reach-scale morphology above waterfalls. These simulations indicate that amplified erosion at the lip of a waterfall can trigger the formation of an oversteepened reach whose length is longer than the flow acceleration zone, provided incision velocity (Vi) at the edge of the flow acceleration zone is higher than the retreat velocity of the waterfall face. Such an oversteepened reach is expected to be more pronounced when Vi increases with increasing slope. The simulations also suggest that oversteepening can eventually lead to quasi steady-state gradients upstream from a waterfall provided Vi decreases with increasing slope. Flow acceleration above waterfalls can thus account, at least partially, for oversteepened bedrock reaches that are prevalent above waterfalls. Such reaches have been reported for the escarpments of southeast Australia, western Dead Sea, and at Niagara Falls. Using the cosmogenic isotope 36Cl we demonstrate that Vi upstream of a waterfall at the Dead Sea western escarpment is high enough for freefall

  6. Bimanual reach to grasp movements after cervical spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Britten

    Full Text Available Injury to the cervical spinal cord results in bilateral deficits in arm/hand function reducing functional independence and quality of life. To date little research has been undertaken to investigate control strategies of arm/hand movements following cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI. This study aimed to investigate unimanual and bimanual coordination in patients with acute cSCI using 3D kinematic analysis as they performed naturalistic reach to grasp actions with one hand, or with both hands together (symmetrical task, and compare this to the movement patterns of uninjured younger and older adults. Eighteen adults with a cSCI (mean 61.61 years with lesions at C4-C8, with an American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA grade B to D and 16 uninjured younger adults (mean 23.68 years and sixteen uninjured older adults (mean 70.92 years were recruited. Participants with a cSCI produced reach-to-grasp actions which took longer, were slower, and had longer deceleration phases than uninjured participants. These differences were exacerbated during bimanual reach-to-grasp tasks. Maximal grasp aperture was no different between groups, but reached earlier by people with cSCI. Participants with a cSCI were less synchronous than younger and older adults but all groups used the deceleration phase for error correction to end the movement in a synchronous fashion. Overall, this study suggests that after cSCI a level of bimanual coordination is retained. While there seems to be a greater reliance on feedback to produce both the reach to grasp, we observed minimal disruption of the more impaired limb on the less impaired limb. This suggests that bimanual movements should be integrated into therapy.

  7. Ontogeny of object permanence in a non-storing corvid species, the jackdaw (Corvus monedula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujfalussy, Dorottya Júlia; Miklósi, Ádám; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ontogeny of object permanence in a non-caching corvid species, the jackdaw (Corvus monedula). Jackdaws are often presented as typical examples of non-storing corvids, as they cache either very little or not at all. We used Uzgiris and Hunt's Scale 1 tasks to determine the age at which the certain stages set in and the final stage of this capacity that is reached. Our results show that the lack of food-storing behaviour is not associated with inferior object permanence abilities in the jackdaw, as our subjects (N = 19) have reached stage 5 competence (to follow successive visible displacements) at the average age of 61 days post-hatch and showed some evidence of stage 6 competence (to follow advanced invisible displacements) at 81 days post-hatch and thereafter. As we appreciate that object permanence abilities have a very wide ecological significance, our positive results are probably the consequence of other, more fundamental ecological pressures, such as nest-hole reproduction or prey-predator interactions.

  8. In pursuit of the objects of designing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1997-01-01

    ’) as too extravagant, I then consider the question of what kind of entity such objects of designing might be, and finally propose an answer in terms of which the nature of designing might be explained in what seems a philosophically plausible way. The paper reports on work in progress, and so cannot...

  9. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  10. Technical objectives of inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Schneider, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The various technical objectives of inspection are discussed in a very general manner. The discussion includes how the inspection function is related to the assumed threat, the various degrees of assurance and reliance on criteria, and the hierarchy of assurance which is obtained from the various types or levels of inspection

  11. Testing object Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we provide a unit testing approach for multi-purposes object-oriented programming languages in the style of Java and C#. Our approach includes the definition of a test specification language which results from extending the programming language with new designated specification

  12. Boundary-Object Trimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Udsen, Flemming Witt

    2014-01-01

    implementation, which also coupled the work of medical secretaries more tightly to that of other staff, and led to task drift among professions. Medical secretaries have been relatively invisible to health informatics and CSCW, and we propose the term ‘boundary-object trimming’ to foreground and conceptualize...

  13. The Object of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bean, Jonathan; Figueiredo, Bernardo; Pico Larsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    The paper outlines a methodological approach for investigating how consumers create brand meaning using the material resources companies provide. The approach draws from Material Engagement Theory—to discuss the role of consumers in creating patterns of meaning by engaging with objects. It also e...

  14. Robust video object cosegmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Li, Xuelong; Porikli, Fatih

    2015-10-01

    With ever-increasing volumes of video data, automatic extraction of salient object regions became even more significant for visual analytic solutions. This surge has also opened up opportunities for taking advantage of collective cues encapsulated in multiple videos in a cooperative manner. However, it also brings up major challenges, such as handling of drastic appearance, motion pattern, and pose variations, of foreground objects as well as indiscriminate backgrounds. Here, we present a cosegmentation framework to discover and segment out common object regions across multiple frames and multiple videos in a joint fashion. We incorporate three types of cues, i.e., intraframe saliency, interframe consistency, and across-video similarity into an energy optimization framework that does not make restrictive assumptions on foreground appearance and motion model, and does not require objects to be visible in all frames. We also introduce a spatio-temporal scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow descriptor to integrate across-video correspondence from the conventional SIFT-flow into interframe motion flow from optical flow. This novel spatio-temporal SIFT flow generates reliable estimations of common foregrounds over the entire video data set. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a new extensive data set (ViCoSeg).

  15. River reach classification for the Greater Mekong Region at high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet Dallaire, C.; Lehner, B.

    2014-12-01

    River classifications have been used in river health and ecological assessments as coarse proxies to represent aquatic biodiversity when comprehensive biological and/or species data is unavailable. Currently there are no river classifications or biological data available in a consistent format for the extent of the Greater Mekong Region (GMR; including the Irrawaddy, the Salween, the Chao Praya, the Mekong and the Red River basins). The current project proposes a new river habitat classification for the region, facilitated by the HydroSHEDS (HYDROlogical SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales) database at 500m pixel resolution. The classification project is based on the Global River Classification framework relying on the creation of multiple sub-classifications based on different disciplines. The resulting classes from the sub-classification are later combined into final classes to create a holistic river reach classification. For the GMR, a final habitat classification was created based on three sub-classifications: a hydrological sub-classification based only on discharge indices (river size and flow variability); a physio-climatic sub-classification based on large scale indices of climate and elevation (biomes, ecoregions and elevation); and a geomorphological sub-classification based on local morphology (presence of floodplains, reach gradient and sand transport). Key variables and thresholds were identified in collaboration with local experts to ensure that regional knowledge was included. The final classification is composed 54 unique final classes based on 3 sub-classifications with less than 15 classes each. The resulting classifications are driven by abiotic variables and do not include biological data, but they represent a state-of-the art product based on best available data (mostly global data). The most common river habitat type is the "dry broadleaf, low gradient, very small river". These classifications could be applied in a wide range of

  16. Translating the REACH Caregiver Intervention for Use by Area Agency on Aging Personnel: the REACH OUT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Louis D.; Collins, Irene B.; Schmid, Bettina; Wharton, Tracy; McCallum, Debra; DeCoster, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to translate the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II intervention for use in 4 Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs). A secondary aim was to examine possible moderators of treatment outcome. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental pre-post treatment design with no…

  17. Redesigning Schools to Reach Every Student with Excellent Teachers: Change Management--Key Theories to Consider when Extending Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sharon Kebschull

    2012-01-01

    As schools, their teachers, and outside facilitators redesign jobs and incorporate technology to extend the reach of excellent teachers to more students and develop an Opportunity Culture for all, choosing the right school models is just one part of the task. The human experience--and experience in education--says that even perfect design will not…

  18. Perceiver as polar planimeter: Direct perception of jumping, reaching, and jump-reaching affordances for the self and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brandon J; Hawkins, Matthew M; Nalepka, Patrick

    2017-03-30

    Runeson (Scandanavian Journal of Psychology 18:172-179, 1977) suggested that the polar planimeter might serve as an informative model system of perceptual mechanism. The key aspect of the polar planimeter is that it registers a higher order property of the environment without computational mediation on the basis of lower order properties, detecting task-specific information only. This aspect was posited as a hypothesis for the perception of jumping and reaching affordances for the self and another person. The findings supported this hypothesis. The perception of reaching while jumping significantly differed from an additive combination of jump-without-reaching and reach-without-jumping perception. The results are consistent with Gibson's (The senses considered as perceptual systems, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA; Gibson, The senses considered as perceptual systems, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, 1966; The ecological approach to visual perception, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA; Gibson, The ecological approach to visual perception, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA, 1979) theory of information-that aspects of the environment are specified by patterns in energetic media.

  19. Simulation of Columbia River Floods in the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Serkowski, John A.; Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2017-01-30

    Columbia River water elevations and flows in the Hanford Reach affect the environment and facilities along the shoreline, including movement of contaminants in groundwater, fish habitat, and infrastructure subject to flooding. This report describes the hydraulic simulation of hypothetical flood flows using the best available topographic and bathymetric data for the Hanford Reach and the Modular Aquatic Simulation System in 1 Dimension (MASS1) hydrodynamic model. The MASS1 model of the Hanford Reach was previously calibrated to field measurements of water surface elevations. The current model setup can be used for other studies of flow, water levels, and temperature in the Reach. The existing MASS1 channel geometry and roughness and other model configuration inputs for the Hanford Reach were used for this study, and previous calibration and validation results for the model are reprinted here for reference. The flood flows for this study were simulated by setting constant flow rates obtained from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers, and a constant water level at McNary Dam, and then running the model to steady state. The discharge levels simulated were all low-probability events; for example, a 100-year flood is one that would occur on average every 100 years, or put another way, in any given year there is a 1% chance that a discharge of that level or higher will occur. The simulated floods and their corresponding Columbia River discharges were 100-year (445,000 cfs), 500-year (520,000 cfs), and the USACE-defined Standard Project Flood (960,000 cfs). The resulting water levels from the steady-state floods can be viewed as “worst case” outcomes for the respective discharge levels. The MASS1 output for water surface elevations was converted to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 and projected across the channel and land surface to enable mapping of the floodplain for each scenario. Floodplain maps show that for

  20. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain

  1. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we......REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported...... present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo...

  2. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  3. Key design requirements for long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

    1993-09-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional kinematic, and performance requirements an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented

  4. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented

  5. Advanced Reactor Fuels Irradiation Experiment Design Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean; Hayes, Steven Lowe; Dempsey, Douglas; Harp, Jason Michael

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the objectives of the current irradiation testing activities being undertaken by the Advanced Fuels Campaign relative to supporting the development and demonstration of innovative design features for metallic fuels in order to realize reliable performance to ultra-high burnups. The AFC-3 and AFC-4 test series are nearing completion; the experiments in this test series that have been completed or are in progress are reviewed and the objectives and test matrices for the final experiments in these two series are defined. The objectives, testing strategy, and test parameters associated with a future AFC test series, AFC-5, are documented. Finally, the future intersections and/or synergies of the AFC irradiation testing program with those of the TREAT transient testing program, emerging needs of proposed Versatile Test Reactor concepts, and the Joint Fuel Cycle Study program’s Integrated Recycle Test are discussed.

  6. Advanced Reactor Fuels Irradiation Experiment Design Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hayes, Steven Lowe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dempsey, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes the objectives of the current irradiation testing activities being undertaken by the Advanced Fuels Campaign relative to supporting the development and demonstration of innovative design features for metallic fuels in order to realize reliable performance to ultra-high burnups. The AFC-3 and AFC-4 test series are nearing completion; the experiments in this test series that have been completed or are in progress are reviewed and the objectives and test matrices for the final experiments in these two series are defined. The objectives, testing strategy, and test parameters associated with a future AFC test series, AFC-5, are documented. Finally, the future intersections and/or synergies of the AFC irradiation testing program with those of the TREAT transient testing program, emerging needs of proposed Versatile Test Reactor concepts, and the Joint Fuel Cycle Study program’s Integrated Recycle Test are discussed.

  7. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  8. The processing of visual and auditory information for reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Welsh, Timothy N; Tremblay, Luc

    2016-09-01

    Presenting target and non-target information in different modalities influences target localization if the non-target is within the spatiotemporal limits of perceptual integration. When using auditory and visual stimuli, the influence of a visual non-target on auditory target localization is greater than the reverse. It is not known, however, whether or how such perceptual effects extend to goal-directed behaviours. To gain insight into how audio-visual stimuli are integrated for motor tasks, the kinematics of reaching movements towards visual or auditory targets with or without a non-target in the other modality were examined. When present, the simultaneously presented non-target could be spatially coincident, to the left, or to the right of the target. Results revealed that auditory non-targets did not influence reaching trajectories towards a visual target, whereas visual non-targets influenced trajectories towards an auditory target. Interestingly, the biases induced by visual non-targets were present early in the trajectory and persisted until movement end. Subsequent experimentation indicated that the magnitude of the biases was equivalent whether participants performed a perceptual or motor task, whereas variability was greater for the motor versus the perceptual tasks. We propose that visually induced trajectory biases were driven by the perceived mislocation of the auditory target, which in turn affected both the movement plan and subsequent control of the movement. Such findings provide further evidence of the dominant role visual information processing plays in encoding spatial locations as well as planning and executing reaching action, even when reaching towards auditory targets.

  9. Taking family planning services to hard-to-reach populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, P

    1996-01-01

    Interviews were conducted in 1995 among 100 US family planning program personnel who serve hard-to-reach populations, such as drug abusers, prisoners, the disabled, homeless persons, and non-English speaking minorities. Findings indicate that a range of services is available for hard-to-reach groups. Most family planning agencies focus on drug abusers because of the severity of HIV infections and the availability of funding. This article describes the activities of various agencies in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts that serve substance abuse centers with family planning services. One recommendation for a service provider is to present services in an environment where it is safe to talk about a person's needs. One other program offered personal greetings upon arrival and the continuity of having a familiar face to oversee all reproductive and health needs. Programs for prisoners ranged from basic sex education classes to comprehensive reproductive health care. Some prisons offered individual counseling. Some programs were presented in juvenile offender facilities. Outreach to the homeless involved services at homeless shelters, outreach workers who recruited women into traditional family planning clinics, and establishment of nontraditional sites for the homeless and other hard-to-reach persons. One provider's suggestion was to offer services where high-risk women already go for other services. Most services to the disabled target the developmentally disabled rather than the physically disabled. Experience has shown that many professionals working with the disabled do not recognize their clients' sexual needs. Other hard-to-reach groups include women in housing projects and shelters for battered women, welfare applicants, and sex workers. Key to service provision is creating trust, overcoming language and cultural differences, and subsidizing the cost of care.

  10. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  11. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  12. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  13. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  14. Documentation of Cultural Heritage Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Grobovšek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The first and important phase of documentation of cultural heritage objects is to understand which objects need to be documented. The entire documentation process is determined by the characteristics and scope of the cultural heritage object. The next question to be considered is the expected outcome of the documentation process and the purpose for which it will be used. These two essential guidelines determine each stage of the documentation workflow: the choice of the most appropriate data capturing technology and data processing method, how detailed should the documentation be, what problems may occur, what the expected outcome is, what it will be used for, and the plan for storing data and results. Cultural heritage objects require diverse data capturing and data processing methods. It is important that even the first stages of raw data capturing are oriented towards the applicability of results. The selection of the appropriate working method can facilitate the data processing and the preparation of final documentation. Documentation of paintings requires different data capturing method than documentation of buildings or building areas. The purpose of documentation can also be the preservation of the contemporary cultural heritage to posterity or the basis for future projects and activities on threatened objects. Documentation procedures should be adapted to our needs and capabilities. Captured and unprocessed data are lost unless accompanied by additional analyses and interpretations. Information on tools, procedures and outcomes must be included into documentation. A thorough analysis of unprocessed but accessible documentation, if adequately stored and accompanied by additional information, enables us to gather useful data. In this way it is possible to upgrade the existing documentation and to avoid data duplication or unintentional misleading of users. The documentation should be archived safely and in a way to meet

  15. Different strategy of hand choice after learning of constant and incremental dynamical perturbation in arm reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie eHabagishi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, we encounter situations where we must quickly decide which hand to use for a motor action. Here, we investigated whether the hand chosen for a motor action varied over a short timescale (i.e., hours with changes in arm dynamics. Participants performed a reaching task in which they moved a specified hand to reach a target on a virtual reality display. During the task, a resistive viscous force field was abruptly applied to only the dominant hand. To evaluate changes in hand choice caused by this perturbation, participants performed an interleaved choice test in which they could freely choose either hand for reaching. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of temporal changes on arm dynamics and hand choice, we exposed the same participants to another condition in which the force field was introduced gradually. When the abrupt force was applied, use of the perturbed hand significantly decreased and not changed during the training. In contrast, when the incremental force was applied, use of the perturbed hand gradually decreased as force increased. Surprisingly, even though the final amount of force was identical between the two conditions, hand choice was significantly biased toward the unperturbed hand in the gradual condition. These results suggest that time-varying changes in arm dynamics may have a greater influence on hand choice than the amplitude of the resistant force itself.

  16. International reach of tobacco marketing among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Cohen, Joanna E

    2013-10-01

    Prosmoking messages, delivered through marketing and the media, can reach very young children and influence attitudes and behaviors around smoking. This study examined the reach of tobacco marketing to 5 and 6 year olds in 6 low- and middle-income countries. Researchers worked one-on-one with 5 and 6 year olds in Brazil, China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Russia (N = 2423). The children were asked to match logos with pictures of products, including 8 logos for cigarette brands. Analyses examined, overall and by country, whether gender, age, location, household use of tobacco, and knowledge of media characters were associated with awareness of cigarette brand logos. Additional analyses considered the relationship between cigarette brand logo awareness and intentions to smoke. Overall, 68% of 5 and 6 year olds could identify at least 1 cigarette brand logo, ranging from 50% in Russia to 86% in China. Across countries, being slightly older and having someone in the household who used tobacco, were significantly associated with greater odds of being able to identify at least 1 cigarette brand logo. The majority of young children from low- and middle-income countries are familiar with cigarette brands. This study's findings suggest that more effective measures are needed to restrict the reach of tobacco marketing.

  17. The German REACH Congress 2016: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihlen, Antonia; Jepsen, Dirk; Broschinski, Lutz; Luch, Andreas; Schulte, Agnes

    2018-03-01

    In October 2016, the German REACH Congress was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. Here, the associated improvement made in the fields of consumer protection and the progress in and experiences gained from the implementation of the authorisation procedure were discussed. Several speakers from EU institutions, German authorities, industry, and civil society organisations were invited to present their views. There was a shared consensus that REACH contributes to the advancement of consumer protection against chemical risks, mainly because more and higher quality information on substance-related hazards and potential exposures becomes available. In addition, risk management measures, particularly regarding restrictions on uses, scale down consumer exposures to chemicals. Opportunities for improvements identified at the congress include the quality of registration dossiers and the management of and communication on substances of very high concern (SVHC) that may be present in consumer articles. Although regarded as being in an early implementation phase, the authorisation process was generally found to be operational and progressing well. Criticism was expressed with regard to the consistency of authorisation decisions and the costs and uncertainties related to authorisation applications. Consumer protection legislation consists of several legal provisions which are interlinked. The congress participants agreed that REACH is an important element of this legal framework as it enhances and complements other legal provisions.

  18. Do older adults perceive postural constraints for reach estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Recent evidence indicates that older persons have difficulty mentally representing intended movements. Furthermore, in an estimation of reach paradigm using motor imagery, a form of mental representation, older persons significantly overestimated their ability compared with young adults. The authors tested the notion that older adults may also have difficulty perceiving the postural constraints associated with reach estimation. The authors compared young (Mage = 22 years) and older (Mage = 67) adults on reach estimation while seated and in a more postural demanding standing and leaning forward position. The expectation was a significant postural effect with the standing condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Whereas there was no difference between groups in the seated condition (both overestimated), older adults underestimated whereas the younger group once again overestimated in the standing condition. From one perspective, these results show that older adults do perceive postural constraints in light of their own physical capabilities. That is, that group perceived greater postural demands with the standing posture and elected to program a more conservative strategy, resulting in underestimation.

  19. Distractor interference during a choice limb reaching task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ray

    Full Text Available According to action-centered models of attention, the patterns of distractor interference that emerge in selective reaching tasks are related to the time and effort required to resolve a race for activation between competing target and non-target response producing processes. Previous studies have only used unimanual aiming tasks and, as such, only examined the effects of competition that occurs within a limb. The results of studies using unimanual aiming movements often reveal an "ipsilateral effect"--distractors on the same side of space as the effector cause greater interference than distractors on the opposite side of space. The cost of the competition when response selection is between the limbs has yet to be addressed. Participants in the present study executed reaching movements to 1 of 4 (2 left, 2 right possible target locations with and without a distractor. Participants made ipsilateral reaches (left hand to left targets, right hand to right targets. In contrast to studies using unimanual aiming movements, a "contralateral effect" was observed; distractors affording responses for the other hand (in contralateral space caused more interference than distractors affording responses for the same hand. The findings from the present research demonstrate that when certain portions of response planning must be resolved prior to response initiation, distractors that code for that dimension cause the greatest interference.

  20. Development of microgravity, full body functional reach envelope using 3-D computer graphic models and virtual reality technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    In microgravity conditions mobility is greatly enhanced and body stability is difficult to achieve. Because of these difficulties, optimum placement and accessibility of objects and controls can be critical to required tasks on board shuttle flights or on the proposed space station. Anthropometric measurement of the maximum reach of occupants of a microgravity environment provide knowledge about maximum functional placement for tasking situations. Calculations for a full body, functional reach envelope for microgravity environments are imperative. To this end, three dimensional computer modeled human figures, providing a method of anthropometric measurement, were used to locate the data points that define the full body, functional reach envelope. Virtual reality technology was utilized to enable an occupant of the microgravity environment to experience movement within the reach envelope while immersed in a simulated microgravity environment.

  1. Fashion, Bodies, and Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Fourny

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay is based on the assumption that the body has undergone a process of fragmentation that started with "modern" art and commodity fetishism that is being amplified today by an increasingly fetishistic high fashion industry itself relayed by music videos and a gigantic pornography industry. This article begins with a discussion of fetishism and objectification as they appear in high fashion shows where underwear becomes wear (turning the inside into the outside, thus expanding (or dissolving the traditional notion of pornography because they are both reported in comparable terms by mainstream magazines such as Femmes and less conventional publications such as Penthouse . A comparable phenomenon takes place in the novels of Hervé Guibert where internal organs (that is the inside become literary characters (as "outside" through medical imagery. Finally, an issue of the French New Look magazine is analyzed because it features a high fashion collection next to a pictorial/essay on Issei Sagawa, a.k.a. "the Japanese Cannibal." Here again, the objectification of the dismembered body is taken a step further both by designer Jean-Paul Gaultier and Sagawa. It thus appears that the human body is nowadays being totally invested by commodity fetishism, rendering gender difference obsolete and opening a new space that so far has no name, and announces the final merging of high fashion, literature, pornography, and music videos.

  2. Why and how to make a REACH registration of combustion ash; Moejligheter vid REACH-registrering av energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevgren, Linnea; Wik, Ola

    2009-10-15

    The new chemical regulation, REACH (1997/2006/EC), Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals, took effect the 1st of June 2007. The background to this report was the introduction of REACH and the difficulties to understand the implications for ash. The most important consequence of REACH is that all chemical substances that are manufactured, handled and used above one tonne per annum per legal entity shall be registered according to this regulation. The registration includes specifying the chemical, physical, toxicity and ecotoxicity properties of the substance and risk assessing the identified areas of use. The report describes the use of ash in connection to the waste legislation and its planned end-of-waste-criteria, the chemical legislation and the Construction Products Directive. The target audience of this report is companies producing ashes and having a use or seeing a use for its ash. The report describes how to make a REACH registration of ash independent if a company did or did not pre-register ash during 2008. It describes how to change from one ash registration into another if the pre-registration was done for one type of ash but the company changes opinion during the sameness check, i.e. changing SIEF (Appendix A). Taking part in REACH registration projects during 2009-2010 can be advantageous since knowledge and financing are shared. Ash can be REACH registered also in the future but it is important to know that the registration have to be done prior the production and marketing starts. If ash is consider to be a waste the handling is covered by the community and national waste legislation. In Sweden ashes are by and large being regarded as waste, and recycling is risk assessed and permits are given case by case. End-of-waste criteria for different waste material are being elaborated within the EU. Such criteria will among other details cover chemical safety. When a material fulfils the end-of-waste criteria such material

  3. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuur, Edward [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Luo, Yiqi [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This final grant report is a continuation of the final grant report submitted for DE-SC0006982 as the Principle Investigator (Schuur) relocated from the University of Florida to Northern Arizona University. This report summarizes the original project goals, as well as includes new project activities that were completed in the final period of the project.

  4. Many-objective thermodynamic optimization of Stirling heat engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Vivek; Savsani, Vimal; Mudgal, Anurag

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous investigation of many-objective (four-objective) thermodynamic optimization of a Stirling heat engine. Many-objective optimization problem is formed by considering maximization of thermal efficiency, power output, ecological function and exergy efficiency. Multi-objective heat transfer search (MOHTS) algorithm is proposed and applied to obtain a set of Pareto-optimal points. Many objective optimization results form a solution in a four dimensional hyper objective space and for visualization it is represented on a two dimension objective space. Thus, results of four-objective optimization are represented by six Pareto fronts in two dimension objective space. These six Pareto fronts are compared with their corresponding two-objective Pareto fronts. Quantitative assessment of the obtained Pareto solutions is reported in terms of spread and the spacing measures. Different decision making approaches such as LINMAP, TOPSIS and fuzzy are used to select a final optimal solution from Pareto optimal set of many-objective optimization. Finally, to reveal the level of conflict between these objectives, distribution of each decision variable in their allowable range is also shown in two dimensional objective spaces. - Highlights: • Many-objective (i.e. four objective) optimization of Stirling engine is investigated. • MOHTS algorithm is introduced and applied to obtain a set of Pareto points. • Comparative results of many-objective and multi-objectives are presented. • Relationship of design variables in many-objective optimization are obtained. • Optimum solution is selected by using decision making approaches.

  5. Access to expert stroke care with telemedicine: REACH MUSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Swanson Kazley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and rtPA can significantly reduce the long-term impact of acute ischemic stroke (AIS if given within 3 hours of symptom onset. South Carolina is located in the stroke belt and has a high rate of stroke and stroke mortality. Many small rural SC hospitals do not maintain the expertise needed to treat AIS patients with rtPA. MUSC is an academic medical center using REACH MUSC telemedicine to deliver stroke care to 15 hospitals in the state, increasing the likelihood of timely treatment with rtPA. The purpose of this study is to determine the increase in access to rtPA through the use of telemedicine for AIS in the general population and in specific segments of the population based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality.We used a retrospective cross-sectional design examining Census data from 2000 and Geographic Information Systems (GIS analysis to identify South Carolina residents that live within 30 or 60 minutes of a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC site. We include all South Carolina citizens in our analysis and specifically examine the population’s age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality. Our sample includes 4,012,012 South Carolinians. The main measure is access to expert stroke care at a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC hospital within 30 or 60 minutes. We find that without REACH MUSC, only 38% of the population has potential access to expert stroke care in SC within sixty minutes given that most PSCs will maintain expert stroke coverage. REACH MUSC allows 76% of the population to be within sixty minutes of expert stroke care, and 43% of the population to be within 30 minute drive time of expert stroke care. These increases in access are especially significant for groups that have faced disparities in care and high rates of AIS. The use of telemedicine can

  6. Detection, Location and Grasping Objects Using a Stereo Sensor on UAV in Outdoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ramon Soria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a vision system for the autonomous grasping of objects with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in real time. Giving UAVs the capability to manipulate objects vastly extends their applications, as they are capable of accessing places that are difficult to reach or even unreachable for human beings. This work is focused on the grasping of known objects based on feature models. The system runs in an on-board computer on a UAV equipped with a stereo camera and a robotic arm. The algorithm learns a feature-based model in an offline stage, then it is used online for detection of the targeted object and estimation of its position. This feature-based model was proved to be robust to both occlusions and the presence of outliers. The use of stereo cameras improves the learning stage, providing 3D information and helping to filter features in the online stage. An experimental system was derived using a rotary-wing UAV and a small manipulator for final proof of concept. The robotic arm is designed with three degrees of freedom and is lightweight due to payload limitations of the UAV. The system has been validated with different objects, both indoors and outdoors.

  7. An Evaluation of "Reach Out Central": An Online Gaming Program for Supporting the Mental Health of Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandley, Kerrie; Austin, David; Klein, Britt; Kyrios, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an evaluation of Reach Out Central (ROC), an online gaming program designed to support the mental health of people aged 16-25. The evaluation sought to determine the benefit of playing ROC on alcohol use, use of coping strategies, psychological distress, resilience and satisfaction with life. Changes in…

  8. Cross-validation and refinement of the Stoffenmanager as a first tier exposure assessment tool for REACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, J.; Fransman, W.; Heussen, H.; Kromhout, H.; Marquart, H.; Tielemans, E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: For regulatory risk assessment under REACH a tiered approach is proposed in which the first tier models should provide a conservative exposure estimate that can discriminate between scenarios which are of concern and those which are not. The Stoffenmanager is mentioned as a first tier

  9. Cross-validation and refinement of the Stoffenmanager as a first tier exposure assessment tool for REACH.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, J.; Fransman, W.; Heussen, H.; Kromhout, H.; Marquart, H.; Tielemans, E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For regulatory risk assessment under REACH a tiered approach is proposed in which the first tier models should provide a conservative exposure estimate that can discriminate between scenarios which are of concern and those which are not. The Stoffenmanager is mentioned as a first tier

  10. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FINAL FINALweb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    such common items as diet, medicines or physical exercise. Considered ... (b) Tolerance: The drug user needs an increased dose to reach effects of similar intensity as ... evolved from this approach is known as person-centered therapy.

  11. Just News 20 Final

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    the McKinsey Global Institute pegged the potential global economic value of open ... open data in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Using case studies from 14 ... sanitation investments were not reaching vulnerable communities. Working with ...

  12. Is there any difference between Back Saver Sit-Reach Test and Modified Back Saver Sit-Reach Test in estimating hamstring flexibility among the primary school children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhoomita Gadhiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modified back saver sit-and-reach test (MBSSRT has more advantages over Back saver sit-and-reach test (BSSRT in measuring hamstring flexibility among middle school children and adolescents. However, whether MBSSRT can be used instead of the other among the primary school going children is not yet clear. Objective : To estimate the association between BSSRT and MBSSRT for measuring hamstring flexibility. Procedure : One hundred and forty-one healthy children (5-12 years were selected from the primary school identified by the cluster sampling method for this cross-sectional study. The subjects were asked to perform three trials of BSSRT and MBSSRT (both leg in randomized order. Average was used for data analysis. The association between the two tests was established by Spearman Rank Correlation test. Results: The correlation between BSSRT and MBSSRT for right lower limb ranged from 0.43 to 0.77 with mean correlation of ρ = 0.66 (P < 0.01 and for left lower limb ranged from 0.46 to 0.78 with mean correlation of ρ = 0.68 (P < 0.01. Conclusion: MBSSRT can be used alternatively instead of BSSRT to measure hamstring flexibility among the primary school children.

  13. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  14. Numerical Analysis Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael

    1997-08-01

    The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.

  15. The Language of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The Danish amateur scholar Christian Jürgensen Thomsen has often been described as a founder of modern “scientific” archaeology. Thomsen's innovation, this essay argues, reflects developments within neighboring fields, such as philology and history. He reacted against historians who limited....... The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences...

  16. Remote viewing of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motin, J.D.; Reformatsky, I.A.; Sinitsyn, P.R.; Ivanov, N.M.; Ivanov, B.I.; Malakhov, I.K.

    1979-01-01

    An object in a nuclear power plant is viewed through a radiation-proof shield by means of an entrance lens, optic fibre bundle and exit lens. The optic fibre bundle being heated to ensure thermostabilization of its light conducting properties in the presence of ionising radiation. Heating is by an electric heating coil. Alternatively, heating may be by argon itself heated by an electric heating element, a coating of resistive heating material, or absorption of neutrons in the material of the fibres or a coating therefor. Viewing may be on a CRT screen. (author)

  17. Part Objects and Their Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects...

  18. Object-Based Benefits without Object-Based Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, George Angelo; Fougnie, Daryl; Cormiea, Sarah M

    2012-01-01

    The organization of visual information into objects strongly influences visual memory: Displays with objects defined by two features (e.g. color, orientation) are easier to remember than displays with twice as many objects defined by one feature (Olson & Jiang, 2002). Existing theories suggest that this ‘object-benefit’ is based on object-based limitations in working memory: because a limited number of objects can be stored, packaging features together so that fewer objects have to be remembe...

  19. Improving regulatory effectiveness in Federal/State siting actions. Success factor evaluation panel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggard, J.

    1977-06-01

    An independent appraisal of the factors that determine efficiency in reaching environmental decisions with respect to nuclear facilities was addressed. The Panel recommended to substitute 'effectiveness' for 'efficiency.' Thus, an effective decision is: 'A timely final decision, that provides for necessary change, consistent with societal objectives and law, and which is equitable and practical, and is based upon fully and candidly expressed premises utilizing a commonly available data base.' The measurement criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the environmental decision making process are: timely decision, final decision, provision for change, consistency with societal goals and law, equitable, practical, fully and candidly expressed premises, commonly available data base, and public confidence. The Panel evaluated the 8 policies proposed by NRC staff as essential to licensing reform: national fuels policy, regional review, early disclosure, State role, technical assistance to State, role of utilities, radiation health and safety, and modification of the Atomic Energy Act. The five NRC scenarios were evaluated in terms of regulatory effectiveness

  20. Restoring Maximum Vertical Browsing Reach in Sauropod Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gregory S

    2017-10-01

    The ongoing controversy centered on neck posture and function in sauropod dinosaurs is misplaced for a number of reasons. Because of an absence of pertinent data it is not possible to accurately restore the posture and range of motion in long necked fossil animals, only gross approximations are possible. The existence of a single "neutral posture" in animals with long, slender necks may not exist, and its relationship to feeding habits is weak. Restorations of neutral osteological neck posture based on seemingly detailed diagrams of cervical articulations are not reliable because the pictures are not sufficiently accurate due to a combination of illustration errors, and distortion of the fossil cervicals. This is all the more true because fossil cervical series lack the critical inter-centra cartilage. Maximum vertical reach is more readily restorable and biologically informative for long necked herbivores. Modest extension of 10° between each caudal cervical allowed high shouldered sauropods to raise the cranial portion of their necks to vertical postures that allowed them to reach floral resources far higher than seen in the tallest mammals. This hypothesis is supported by the dorsally extended articulation of the only known co-fused sauropod cervicals. Many sauropods appear to have been well adapted for rearing in order to boost vertical reach, some possessed retroverted pelves that may have allowed them to walk slowly while bipedal. A combination of improved high browsing abilities and sexual selection probably explains the unusually long necks of tall ungulates and super tall sauropods. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1802-1825, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Automated diagnostics scoping study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.; Lash, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the Automated Diagnostics Scoping Study was to investigate the needs for diagnostics in building operation and to examine some of the current technologies in automated diagnostics that can address these needs. The study was conducted in two parts. In the needs analysis, the authors interviewed facility managers and engineers at five building sites. In the technology survey, they collected published information on automated diagnostic technologies in commercial and military applications as well as on technologies currently under research. The following describe key areas that the authors identify for the research, development, and deployment of automated diagnostic technologies: tools and techniques to aid diagnosis during building commissioning, especially those that address issues arising from integrating building systems and diagnosing multiple simultaneous faults; technologies to aid diagnosis for systems and components that are unmonitored or unalarmed; automated capabilities to assist cause-and-effect exploration during diagnosis; inexpensive, reliable sensors, especially those that expand the current range of sensory input; technologies that aid predictive diagnosis through trend analysis; integration of simulation and optimization tools with building automation systems to optimize control strategies and energy performance; integration of diagnostic, control, and preventive maintenance technologies. By relating existing technologies to perceived and actual needs, the authors reached some conclusions about the opportunities for automated diagnostics in building operation. Some of a building operator`s needs can be satisfied by off-the-shelf hardware and software. Other needs are not so easily satisfied, suggesting directions for future research. Their conclusions and suggestions are offered in the final section of this study.

  2. Vestibular feedback maintains reaching accuracy during body movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Reaching movements can be perturbed by vestibular input, but the function of this response is unclear.Here, we applied galvanic vestibular stimulation concurrently with real body movement while subjects maintained arm position either fixed in space or fixed with respect to their body.During the fixed‐in‐space conditions, galvanic vestibular stimulation caused large changes in arm trajectory consistent with a compensatory response to maintain upper‐limb accuracy in the face of body movement.Galvanic vestibular stimulation responses were absent during the body‐fixed task, demonstrating task dependency in vestibular control of the upper limb.The results suggest that the function of vestibular‐evoked arm movements is to maintain the accuracy of the upper limb during unpredictable body movement, but only when reaching in an earth‐fixed reference frame. Abstract When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism that could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should operate only when the arm is being controlled in an earth‐fixed rather than a body‐fixed reference frame. In the latter case, compensation would be unnecessary and even deleterious. To test this hypothesis, subjects were gently rotated in a chair while being asked to maintain their outstretched arm pointing towards either earth‐fixed or body‐fixed memorized targets. Galvanic vestibular stimulation was applied concurrently during rotation to isolate the influence of vestibular input, uncontaminated by inertial factors. During the earth‐fixed task, galvanic vestibular stimulation produced large polarity‐dependent corrections in arm

  3. Optical fiber reach extended FMCW radar for remote respiratory tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Wireless monitoring of human vital signs such as breathing rate is a nonintrusive alternative to contemporary solutions relying on physical contact. To ease the installment, fiber optical transmission is used to extend the reach from the transmitter and receiver circuitry to the antenna subsystem....... In this paper, a frequency modulated carrier wave radar, operating at 25.7–26.6 GHz and utilizing optical fiber extension, was experimentally demonstrated to accurately recover the breathing rate of a human placed 1 m away from the radar antennas....

  4. Family (oikos Evangelism for reaching forward caste Hindus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DW Fowlkes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article acknowledges the need for Church Planting Movements among the unreached peoples of India. Of particular concern to this study is the application of Church Planting Movement strategy to forward caste Hindus of India. It is shown that evangelizing households (family or �oikos� evangelism is a New Testament strategy and the most appropriate strategy for reaching forward caste Hindus. It is concluded that Christian disciples remaining within Hindu culture and familial systems hold the potential for the most indigenous approach to evangelizing forward caste Hindus.

  5. THE REACH OF TWITTER AS A POLITICAL TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa González Mendoza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The massive growth of Internet and all the possibilities that it offers, have made us beings of instant gratification. The need to know, to be informed, and to communicate at all times, stands above many other things, and rules our daily life. Tools like Twitter provide the citizen a way in which they can express their ideas, either to be heard or to make a change even in the political atmosphere. This article searches to determine the influence and the reach of Twitter in the political activism of a country.

  6. Interaction torque contributes to planar reaching at slow speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshi Fumihiko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How the central nervous system (CNS organizes the joint dynamics for multi-joint movement is a complex problem, because of the passive interaction among segmental movements. Previous studies have demonstrated that the CNS predictively compensates for interaction torque (INT which is arising from the movement of the adjacent joints. However, most of these studies have mainly examined quick movements, presumably because the current belief is that the effects of INT are not significant at slow speeds. The functional contribution of INT for multijoint movements performed in various speeds is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of INT to a planer reaching in a wide range of motion speeds for healthy subjects. Methods Subjects performed reaching movements toward five targets under three different speed conditions. Joint position data were recorded using a 3-D motion analysis device (50 Hz. Torque components, muscle torque (MUS, interaction torque (INT, gravity torque (G, and net torque (NET were calculated by solving the dynamic equations for the shoulder and elbow. NET at a joint which produces the joint kinematics will be an algebraic sum of torque components; NET = MUS - G - INT. Dynamic muscle torque (DMUS = MUS-G was also calculated. Contributions of INT impulse and DMUS impulse to NET impulse were examined. Results The relative contribution of INT to NET was not dependent on speed for both joints at every target. INT was additive (same direction to DMUS at the shoulder joint, while in the elbow DMUS counteracted (opposed to INT. The trajectory of reach was linear and two-joint movements were coordinated with a specific combination at each target, regardless of motion speed. However, DMUS at the elbow was opposed to the direction of elbow movement, and its magnitude varied from trial to trial in order to compensate for the variability of INT. Conclusion Interaction torque was important at

  7. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean (NatureWorks); Tom Schechinger (IronHorse Farms, Mat); Stuart Birrell (Iowa State); Jill Euken (Wallace Foundation & Iowa State)

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  8. Hyporheic invertebrate assemblages at reach scale in a Neotropical stream in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, R; Messana, G; Di Lorenzo, T

    2015-11-01

    In the Neotropical Region, information concerning hyporheic communities is virtually non-existent. We carried out a sampling survey in the hyporheic zone of the Tijuca River, in the Tijuca National Park, located in the urban area of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Biological samples from the hyporheic zone were collected in three different stream reaches, in June 2012. The main objectives were: 1) to describe the structure of invertebrate assemblages in the hyporheic zone of a neotropical stream; 2) to apply a reach-scale approach in order to investigate spatial patterns of the hyporheic assemblages in relation to hydrology, depth and microhabitat typology. A total of 1460 individuals were collected and identified in 31 taxa belonging to Nematoda, Annelida, Crustacea, Hydrachnidia and Insecta. The class Insecta dominated the upper layer of the hyporheic zone. Copepods were the most abundant taxon among crustaceans and occurred mostly in the upwelling areas of the reaches. The results of this study represent one of the few contributions so far about hyporheic invertebrate assemblages of the Neotropical Region.

  9. Learning to control a brain-machine interface for reaching and grasping by primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Reaching and grasping in primates depend on the coordination of neural activity in large frontoparietal ensembles. Here we demonstrate that primates can learn to reach and grasp virtual objects by controlling a robot arm through a closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMIc that uses multiple mathematical models to extract several motor parameters (i.e., hand position, velocity, gripping force, and the EMGs of multiple arm muscles from the electrical activity of frontoparietal neuronal ensembles. As single neurons typically contribute to the encoding of several motor parameters, we observed that high BMIc accuracy required recording from large neuronal ensembles. Continuous BMIc operation by monkeys led to significant improvements in both model predictions and behavioral performance. Using visual feedback, monkeys succeeded in producing robot reach-and-grasp movements even when their arms did not move. Learning to operate the BMIc was paralleled by functional reorganization in multiple cortical areas, suggesting that the dynamic properties of the BMIc were incorporated into motor and sensory cortical representations.

  10. Review of Meeting Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Chung, H.-K.

    2011-01-01

    This is the 21st meeting of the International Atomic and Molecular Data Centres Network. The traditional DCN meeting objectives are: to exchange information about activities in the Centres and review progress; to coordinate work in the Centres; to assess priorities in data evaluation and data production; to make plans for specific evaluations; and to evaluate and revise procedures for collection and exchange of bibliographical and numerical data. All of these are objectives for the present meeting too. In addition to the presentations from DCN and prospective DCN members we have two participants from outside the field of fusion data: Dr N. Mason will tell us about coordination of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre and Dr S. Simakov will describe the manner in which nuclear structure and cross-section database development is coordinated by our colleagues in the Nuclear Data Section. In the discussions on Thursday and Friday there are two topics that need special attention this year: the future of our bibliographical data compilation and ways in which we can strengthen data evaluation activities, all with emphasis on collision processes and plasma-material interaction. The first 3 Data Centre Network meetings were held in 1977, 1980 and 1982 and the reports of those meetings make interesting reading and can still provide inspiration for the present meeting. I show some excerpts in the presentation. In 1977 the emphasis was on the coordination of the bibliographical database, AMBDAS, and a collision data index, CIAMDA, as the initial activities of the Network and of the newly formed IAEA A+M Data Unit. In 1980 the central topic of discussion at the meeting shifted to the numerical database and to data evaluation. The Network recommended that numerical data be reviewed by a selected group of scientists and that no unevaluated numerical A+M collision data should be distributed by the IAEA. The report of the meeting in 1982 shows that the bibliographical

  11. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this symposium was to discuss the sorts of evidence of molecular alterations in DNA which can be used to study causation of the stochastic effects of importance in radiation protection. Specifically, the aim was to address the following: what sort of indications might show whether a cancer was caused by radiation; whether there is a radiogenic signature to distinguish damage caused by ionizing radiation; whether bio-markers might be available for susceptibility, for exposure, for biological consequences. Despite a number of epidemiological studies (referred to), there is no clear, credible, defensible answer as to whether low-level radiation increases the risk of cancer. A new ethical question is, what rules should be in place for identifying and protecting genetically sensitive individuals. 1 tab

  12. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    The author defined the objectives of the symposium as follows: to present and examine the recent evidence associating clusters of leukemia with sources of ionizing radiation; to examine the statistical basis for the analysis of clustering; to examine the underlying assumptions in epidemiological studies that clusters must have an environmental cause; to examine the extent to which we can take into account the biological causes of non-randomness in populations, particularly those of geographic and genetic origin; to evaluate the relative merits of different kinds of epidemiological studies for yielding significant information concerning clustering; to consider the potential utility of combining the results from existing studies, and whether new epidemiological studies might be helpful; to consider what other directions, including application of the technologies of molecular biology, are likely to help clarify the underlying mechanisms or causes

  13. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Karim

    2015-01-01

    After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which 'infiltrated' livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa.

  14. Record reach : ExxonMobil extends its own world record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.

    2008-06-15

    Extended reach drilling (ERD) records are now regularly being broken by ExxonMobil Corporation's Sakhalin project on Russia's east coast. In 2008, an oil well on the coast established a new record by achieving a measured depth of 11,680 meters. The well was punched out by a Texas-based drilling company using the world's largest land-based drilling rig. The use of ERD has reduced the capital and operating costs of the project in addition to reducing its environmental impacts. ERD has been used to drill onshore beneath the seafloor and has eliminated the need for additional offshore structure and pipelines. The horizontal reach of the wells has improved productivity while also avoiding disturbing whale migrations in the region. The rig features a 1.5 million pound load capacity, 3000 horsepower draw-works. The top-drive drilling systems were used to transmit real time data to external locations for further evaluation. Oil and gas is also produced from a gravity-based offshore platform. It was concluded that longer wellbore are now being developed by the corporation in order to drill under the Beaufort Sea. 2 figs.

  15. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiong; Zhan Jinbiao; Chen Xinhong; Zheng Shu

    2006-01-01

    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum

  16. Recovery of Three Arctic Stream Reaches From Experimental Nutrient Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A. C.; Benstead, J. P.; Deegan, L. A.; Peterson, B. J.; Bowden, W. B.; Huryn, A. D.; Slavik, K.; Hershey, A. E.

    2005-05-01

    We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient (N+P and P only) enrichment in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (USA). Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2 to 13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass and C:P ratio of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of enrichment duration. Bryophyte cover, which increased greatly after long-term enrichment (>8 years), recovered to reference levels only after 7 years, when a storm scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. Persistence of bryophytes slowed recovery rates of insect taxa that had either been positively (e.g., Ephemerella, most chironomid taxa) or negatively (e.g., Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer and its consequence for benthic habitat. Growth of Arctic grayling (adults and young-of-year), the top predator, returned to reference rates within two years. Recovery of these Arctic stream ecosystems from nutrient enrichment was consequently controlled largely by interactions between duration of enrichment and physical disturbance, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by bryophytes.

  17. Google Hangouts: Leveraging Social Media to Reach the Education Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Summers, Frank; McCallister, Dan; Ryer, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that educator professional development is most effective when it is sustained and/or when a follow-on component is included to support the learning process. In order to create more comprehensive learning experiences for our workshop participants, the education team at the Space Telescope Science Institute is working collaboratively with scientific staff and other experts to create a follow-on component for our professional development program. The new component utilizes video conferencing platforms, such as Google's Hangouts On Air, to provide educators with content updates and extended learning opportunities in between in-person professional development experiences. The goal is to enhance our professional development program in a cost-effective way while reaching a greater cross-section of educators. Video broadcasts go live on Google+, YouTube, and our website - thus providing access to any user with a web browser. Additionally, the broadcasts are automatically recorded and archived for future viewing on our YouTube channel. This provides educators with anywhere, anytime training that best suits their needs and schedules. This poster will highlight our new Hangouts for educators as well as our cross-departmental efforts to expand the reach of our Hubble Hangouts for the public through a targeted recruitment strategy.

  18. Adaptation to delayed force perturbations in reaching movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Levy

    Full Text Available Adaptation to deterministic force perturbations during reaching movements was extensively studied in the last few decades. Here, we use this methodology to explore the ability of the brain to adapt to a delayed velocity-dependent force field. Two groups of subjects preformed a standard reaching experiment under a velocity dependent force field. The force was either immediately proportional to the current velocity (Control or lagged it by 50 ms (Test. The results demonstrate clear adaptation to the delayed force perturbations. Deviations from a straight line during catch trials were shifted in time compared to post-adaptation to a non-delayed velocity dependent field (Control, indicating expectation to the delayed force field. Adaptation to force fields is considered to be a process in which the motor system predicts the forces to be expected based on the state that a limb will assume in response to motor commands. This study demonstrates for the first time that the temporal window of this prediction needs not to be fixed. This is relevant to the ability of the adaptive mechanisms to compensate for variability in the transmission of information across the sensory-motor system.

  19. Context Matters: Team and Organizational Factors Associated with Reach of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies for PTSD in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Nina A; Rosen, Craig S; Bernardy, Nancy C; Cook, Joan M; Orazem, Robert J; Chard, Kathleen M; Mohr, David C; Kehle-Forbes, Shannon M; Eftekhari, Afsoon; Crowley, Jill; Ruzek, Josef I; Smith, Brandy N; Schnurr, Paula P

    2017-11-01

    Evidence-based psychotherapies for PTSD are often underused. The objective of this mixed-method study was to identify organizational and clinic factors that promote high levels of reach of evidence-based psychotherapies for PTSD 10 years into their dissemination throughout the Veterans Health Administration. We conducted 96 individual interviews with staff from ten outpatient PTSD teams at nine sites that differed in reach of evidence-based psychotherapies for PTSD. Major themes associated with reach included clinic mission, clinic leader and staff engagement, clinic operations, staff perceptions, and the practice environment. Strategies to improve reach of evidence-based psychotherapies should attend to organizational and team-level factors.

  20. Robust Object Tracking Using Valid Fragments Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Bo; Tian, Peng; Luo, Gang

    Local features are widely used in visual tracking to improve robustness in cases of partial occlusion, deformation and rotation. This paper proposes a local fragment-based object tracking algorithm. Unlike many existing fragment-based algorithms that allocate the weights to each fragment, this method firstly defines discrimination and uniqueness for local fragment, and builds an automatic pre-selection of useful fragments for tracking. Then, a Harris-SIFT filter is used to choose the current valid fragments, excluding occluded or highly deformed fragments. Based on those valid fragments, fragment-based color histogram provides a structured and effective description for the object. Finally, the object is tracked using a valid fragment template combining the displacement constraint and similarity of each valid fragment. The object template is updated by fusing feature similarity and valid fragments, which is scale-adaptive and robust to partial occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and robust in challenging scenarios.

  1. Swing damped movement of suspended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Transportation of large objects such as nuclear waste shipping casks using overhead cranes can induce pendular motion of the object. Residual oscillation from transportation typically must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. By properly programming the acceleration of the transporting device (e.g., crane) an oscillation damped transport and swing free stop are obtainable. This report reviews the theory associated with formulating such oscillation damped trajectories for a simply suspended object (e.g., simple pendulum). In addition, the use of force servo damping to eliminate initial oscillation of simply suspended objects is discussed. This is often needed to provide a well defined initial state for the system prior to executing an oscillation damped move. Also included are descriptions of experiments using a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot and results from these experiments. Finally, sources of error resulting in small residual oscillations are identified and possible solutions presented

  2. ROME (Request Object Management Environment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M.; Good, J. C.; Berriman, G. B.

    2005-12-01

    Most current astronomical archive services are based on an HTML/ CGI architecture where users submit HTML forms via a browser and CGI programs operating under a web server process the requests. Most services return an HTML result page with URL links to the result files or, for longer jobs, return a message indicating that email will be sent when the job is done. This paradigm has a few serious shortcomings. First, it is all too common for something to go wrong and for the user to never hear about the job again. Second, for long and complicated jobs there is often important intermediate information that would allow the user to adjust the processing. Finally, unless some sort of custom queueing mechanism is used, background jobs are started immediately upon receiving the CGI request. When there are many such requests the server machine can easily be overloaded and either slow to a crawl or crash. Request Object Management Environment (ROME) is a collection of middleware components being developed under the National Virtual Observatory Project to provide mechanism for managing long jobs such as computationally intensive statistical analysis requests or the generation of large scale mosaic images. Written as EJB objects within the open-source JBoss applications server, ROME receives processing requests via a servelet interface, stores them in a DBMS using JDBC, distributes the processing (via queuing mechanisms) across multiple machines and environments (including Grid resources), manages realtime messages from the processing modules, and ensures proper user notification. The request processing modules are identical in structure to standard CGI-programs -- though they can optionally implement status messaging -- and can be written in any language. ROME will persist these jobs across failures of processing modules, network outages, and even downtime of ROME and the DBMS, restarting them as necessary.

  3. Influence of patient related factors on number of mesenchymal stromal cells reached after in vitro culture expansion for clinical treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Kaur, Kamal Preet; Mathiasen, Anders Bruun

    2017-01-01

    of autologous stromal cells reached after in vitro culture expansion for clinical therapy. METHODS: Culture expansion data from 111 patients with IHD treated with autologous stromal cells in three clinical trials were used. We correlated the final cell count after two passages of cultivation with different...... correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction and number of MSCs was found (r = -0.287, p = .017). CONCLUSIONS: Patient related factors such as BMI, hypertension and gender may influence the number of MSCs reached after in vitro culture expansion....... patient factors. RESULTS: There was a significant relation between body mass index (BMI) and the number of adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) reached after culture expansion and for all patients included into the three studies (r = 0.375, p = .019 and r = 0.200, p = .036, respectively). Moreover...

  4. Useful properties of spinal circuits for learning and performing planar reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsianos, George A.; Goodner, Jared; Loeb, Gerald E.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. We developed a detailed model of the spinal circuitry plus musculoskeletal system (SC + MS) for the primate arm and investigated its role in sensorimotor control, learning and storing of movement repertoires. Approach. Recently developed models of spinal circuit connectivity, neurons and muscle force/energetics were integrated and in some cases refined to construct the most comprehensive model of the SC + MS to date. The SC + MS’s potential contributions to center-out reaching movement were assessed by employing an extremely simple model of the brain that issued only step commands. Main results. The SC + MS was able to generate physiological muscle dynamics underlying reaching across different directions, distances, speeds, and even in the midst of strong dynamic perturbations (i.e. viscous curl field). For each task, there were many different combinations of brain inputs that generated physiological performance. Natural patterns of recruitment and low metabolic cost emerged for about half of the learning trials when a purely kinematic cost function was used and for all of the trials when an estimate of metabolic energy consumption was added to the cost function. Solutions for different tasks could be interpolated to generate intermediate movement and the range over which interpolation was successful was consistent with experimental reports. Significance. This is the first demonstration that a realistic model of the SC + MS is capable of generating the required dynamics of center-out reaching. The interpolability observed is important for the feasibility of storing motor programs in memory rather than computing them from internal models of the musculoskeletal plant. Successful interpolation of command programs required them to have similar muscle recruitment patterns, which are thought by many to arise from hard-wired muscle synergies rather than learned as in our model system. These properties of the SC + MS along with its tendency to generate

  5. Noninvasive Electroencephalogram Based Control of a Robotic Arm for Reach and Grasp Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Shuying; Bekyo, Angeliki; Olsoe, Jaron; Baxter, Bryan; He, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies aim to provide a bridge between the human brain and external devices. Prior research using non-invasive BCI to control virtual objects, such as computer cursors and virtual helicopters, and real-world objects, such as wheelchairs and quadcopters, has demonstrated the promise of BCI technologies. However, controlling a robotic arm to complete reach-and-grasp tasks efficiently using non-invasive BCI has yet to be shown. In this study, we found that a group of 13 human subjects could willingly modulate brain activity to control a robotic arm with high accuracy for performing tasks requiring multiple degrees of freedom by combination of two sequential low dimensional controls. Subjects were able to effectively control reaching of the robotic arm through modulation of their brain rhythms within the span of only a few training sessions and maintained the ability to control the robotic arm over multiple months. Our results demonstrate the viability of human operation of prosthetic limbs using non-invasive BCI technology. PMID:27966546

  6. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  7. Automatic Recognition of Object Names in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, C.; Lesteven, S.; Derriere, S.; Oberto, A.

    2008-08-01

    SIMBAD is a database of astronomical objects that provides (among other things) their bibliographic references in a large number of journals. Currently, these references have to be entered manually by librarians who read each paper. To cope with the increasing number of papers, CDS develops a tool to assist the librarians in their work, taking advantage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects, which keeps track of object acronyms and of their origin. The program searches for object names directly in PDF documents by comparing the words with all the formats stored in the Dictionary of Nomenclature. It also searches for variable star names based on constellation names and for a large list of usual names such as Aldebaran or the Crab. Object names found in the documents often correspond to several astronomical objects. The system retrieves all possible matches, displays them with their object type given by SIMBAD, and lets the librarian make the final choice. The bibliographic reference can then be automatically added to the object identifiers in the database. Besides, the systematic usage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature, which is updated manually, permitted to automatically check it and to detect errors and inconsistencies. Last but not least, the program collects some additional information such as the position of the object names in the document (in the title, subtitle, abstract, table, figure caption...) and their number of occurrences. In the future, this will permit to calculate the 'weight' of an object in a reference and to provide SIMBAD users with an important new information, which will help them to find the most relevant papers in the object reference list.

  8. Bearing and Range Estimation Algorithm for Buried Object in Underwater Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Han

    2009-01-01

    (DOA of objects and objects-sensors distances, is used in MUSIC algorithm instead of classical model. The influence of the depth of buried objects is discussed. Finally, the numerical results are given in the case of buried cylindrical shells.

  9. Reaching the global target to reduce stunting: an investment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Meera; Kakietek, Jakub; D'Alimonte, Mary R; Rogers, Hilary E; Eberwein, Julia Dayton; Akuoku, Jon Kweku; Pereira, Audrey; Soe-Lin, Shan; Hecht, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Childhood stunting, being short for one's age, has life-long consequences for health, human capital and economic growth. Being stunted in early childhood is associated with slower cognitive development, reduced schooling attainment and adult incomes decreased by 5-53%. The World Health Assembly has endorsed global nutrition targets including one to reduce the number of stunted children under five by 40% by 2025. The target has been included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG target 2.2). This paper estimates the cost of achieving this target and develops scenarios for generating the necessary financing. We focus on a key intervention package for stunting (KIPS) with strong evidence of effectiveness. Annual scale-up costs for the period of 2016-25 were estimated for a sample of 37 high burden countries and extrapolated to all low and middle income countries. The Lives Saved Tool was used to model the impact of the scale-up on stunting prevalence. We analysed data on KIPS budget allocations and expenditure by governments, donors and households to derive a global baseline financing estimate. We modelled two financing scenarios, a 'business as usual', which extends the current trends in domestic and international financing for nutrition through 2025, and another that proposes increases in financing from all sources under a set of burden-sharing rules. The 10-year financial need to scale up KIPS is US$49.5 billion. Under 'business as usual', this financial need is not met and the global stunting target is not reached. To reach the target, current financing will have to increase from US$2.6 billion to US$7.4 billion a year on average. Reaching the stunting target is feasible but will require large coordinated investments in KIPS and a supportive enabling environment. The example of HIV scale-up over 2001-11 is instructive in identifying the factors that could drive such a global response to childhood stunting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University

  10. Transparency of chemical risk assessment data under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingre-Khans, Ellen; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Beronius, Anna; Rudén, Christina

    2016-12-08

    The REACH regulation requires EU manufacturers and importers of substances to register information on the hazard and risk of their substances with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Risk management of the substances is based on the provided information. It is known that conclusions on hazard and risk are influenced by expert judgements as well as potential conflict of interests. Thus, it is important that hazard and risk assessments are transparent and can be evaluated by a third party. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the transparency, i.e. the accessibility and comprehensibility, of information on substances registered under REACH. Data on repeated dose toxicity and hazard assessment conclusions were extracted for 60 substances from the REACH registration database available on the ECHA website. The data were compiled in a database for systematically evaluating the transparency of information related to the conclusions on hazard or risk. In addition, chemical safety reports (CSR) were requested from ECHA for five substances. The transparency of information on the hazard and risk of substances was found to be limited for several reasons. First, certain information was removed due to confidentiality and certain fields were not published because they could contain confidential information although the information had not been claimed confidential. Also, the extent to which registrants reported information varied, and the presentation of some data and certain terminology required further clarification. In addition, the data source for the majority of the key and supporting studies could not be identified due to confidentiality. Since registrants are only required to summarise studies, it cannot be verified whether all relevant information from non-public industry reports have been reported. Lastly, certain information related to the hazard and risk assessment were only reported in the CSR which is only available upon request; a time-consuming and work

  11. Final amplifier design and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, E.A.; Hanson, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The final amplifier for the Mercury KrF excimer facility is being designed. The design exercise involves extensive modeling to predict amplifier performance. Models of the pulsed-power system, including a Child-Langmuir diode with closure, electron-beam energy deposition, KrF laser kinetics, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), a time-dependent laser extraction in the presence of ASE are presented as a design package. The design exercise indicates that the energy objective of Phase I -- 100 joules -- will be met

  12. Conceptual Modeling of Events as Information Objects and Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    as a totality of an information object and a change agent. When an event is modeled as an information object it is comparable to an entity that exists only at a specific point in time. It has attributes and can be used for querying and specification of constraints. When an event is modeled as a change agent...... it is comparable to an executable transaction schema. Finally, we briefly compare our approach to object-oriented approaches based on encapsulated objects....

  13. Data quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberer, F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or open-quotes betterclose quotes data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used

  14. Data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used.

  15. Towards a Post-2012 Climate Change Regime. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, K.; Hoehne, N.; Torvanger, A.; Janzic, R.

    2005-01-01

    It is broadly recognised that the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the result of years of intensive international negotiations, is only the first step in combating human-induced climate change. Further action is necessary to reach the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC, i.e. 'stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system'. The key issue is how to share this action between all global regions and Parties to the UNFCCC. Annex I Parties have committed themselves to reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the first commitment period 2008 to 2012 by around five per cent compared to 1990 levels. The Kyoto mechanisms, emissions trading, Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism, play a very important role. Currently, valuable experience is being gathered with the implementation of these mechanisms. Preparations for the second commitment period have begun, but there is much uncertainty as to how the process will unfold and what a final agreement could entail. This study is set-up as support material for the European Commission on Further Action in the UNFCCC Post-2012 process. Its objective is to: (1) analyze relevant country groupings and possibilities for future regimes; (2) collect and assess available approaches to future commitments; and (3) to come with concrete proposals for a future regime and the associated negotiation process

  16. Reaching out to the hard to reach: using a science centre model to deliver public engagement with research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagen, M.; Allton, C.; Bryan, W. A.; O'Leary, M.

    2017-12-01

    Science communication is at an all-time high but public faith in expertise is low. However, within this climate of suspicion, research scientists remain a publicly trusted expert group. While there is both academic and public appetite for Public Engagement with Research (PER), there are barriers to reaching a wide range of publics. Attempts to connect the public with research often end up targeting the `already engaged'; the hard-to-reach remain just that. Engaging scientific curiosity in a wider demographic is crucial to promote scientific curiosity, itself known to profoundly counter the politically motivated reasoning that threatens informed debate around contemporary environmental issues. This requires the creation of opportunities for the public to engage with research in places in which they feel they belong. We report here on an 8 month pilot of a science centre model for PER. Oriel Science (www.orielscience.co.uk) is a research-led science exhibition in Swansea city centre delivering Swansea University's PER and run by academics and student ambassadors. Oriel Science (Oriel is Gallery in Welsh) received 16,000 visitors in 8 months, 40% of whom had no previous interaction with the university or its research and >40% of whom came from socio-economically deprived areas. We report on the public engagement leadership we enabled, working with 18 research groups over 8 months and our achievements in giving a broad range of publics the most direct access to participate in contemporary science.

  17. Rapid Automatic Motor Encoding of Competing Reach Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Gallivan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, prior to implementing one of them. Central to this interpretation is the idea that competing viewed targets, prior to selection, are rapidly and automatically transformed into corresponding motor representations. Here, by applying target-specific, gradual visuomotor rotations and dissociating, unbeknownst to participants, the visual direction of potential targets from the direction of the movements required to reach the same targets, we provide direct evidence for this provocative idea. Our results offer strong empirical support for theories suggesting that competing action options are automatically represented in terms of the movements required to attain them. The rapid motor encoding of potential targets may support the fast optimization of motor costs under conditions of target uncertainty and allow the motor system to inform decisions about target selection.

  18. The long reach of Alzheimer's disease: patients, practice, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Julie P W

    2014-04-01

    The impact of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias reaches well beyond the health care needs of the person with dementia. As dementia inexorably progresses, the patient becomes increasingly dependent on others for basic daily care and routine tasks, a physically safe environment, and protection from exploitation or abuse. Addressing the diverse medical and social care needs of the burgeoning US population with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias requires the adoption of a broad-based policy framework and agenda that explicitly acknowledge the complex and unique needs of people with dementia and the impacts of dementia on caregivers and society at large. Public policies related to social service providers, agencies that provide appropriate housing, financial and legal services, and law enforcement must complement other policies focused on prevention and risk reduction, effective treatment development, and efficient health care delivery.

  19. Naturalness reach of the large hadron collider in minimal supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allanach, B.C.; Hetherington, J.P.J.; Parker, M.A.; Webber, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    We re-analyse the prospects of discovering supersymmetry at the LHC, in order to re-express coverage in terms of a fine-tuning parameter and to extend the analysis to scalar masses (m 0 ) above 2 TeV. We use minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) unification assumptions for the SUSY breaking parameters. Such high values of m 0 have recently been found to have a focus point, leading to relatively low fine-tuning. In addition, improvements in the simulations since the last study mean that this region no longer lacks radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. The best fine tuning reach is found in a mono-leptonic channel, where for μ>0, A 0 =0 and tan β=10 (corresponding to the focus point), all points in mSUGRA with m 0 0 , mSUGRA does not evade detection provided the gaugino mass parameter M 1/2 < 460 GeV. (author)

  20. Undoing Racism Through Genesee County's REACH Infant Mortality Reduction Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Carty, Denise C; Turbeville, Ashley R; French-Turner, Tonya M; Brownlee, Shannon

    2015-01-01

    Genesee County Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Program (REACH) is a Community-Based Public Health partnership for reducing African American infant mortality rates that hosts the Undoing Racism Workshop (URW). Assess the URW's effectiveness in promoting an understanding of racism, institutional racism, and how issues related to race/ethnicity can affect maternal and infant health. Recent URW participants (n=84) completed brief preassessment and postassessment forms; participants (n=101) also completed an on-line, long-term assessment (LTA). URWs promoted understanding of racism and institutional racism, although they were less effective in addressing racism as related to maternal and infant health. The URWs were most effective in the domains related to their standard content. Additional effort is necessary to customize URWs when utilized for activities beyond their original purpose of community mobilization.

  1. Phase I Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xijia [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Fetvedt, Jeremy [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Dimmig, Walker [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2017-10-15

    This Final Scientific Report addresses the accomplishments achieved during Phase I of DE- FE0023985, Coal Syngas Combustor Development for Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles. The primary objective of the project was to develop a coal syngas-fueled combustor design for use with high-pressure, high-temperature, oxy-fuel, supercritical CO2 power cycles, with particular focus given to the conditions required by the Allam Cycle. The primary goals, from the Statement of Project Objectives, were to develop: (1) a conceptual design of a syngas-fueled combustor-turbine block for a 300MWe high-pressure, oxy-fuel, sCO2 power plant; (2) the preliminary design of a 5MWt test combustor; and (3) the definition of a combustor test program. Accomplishments for each of these goals are discussed in this report.

  2. Visuo-proprioceptive interactions during adaptation of the human reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Timothy; Scheidt, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    We examined whether visual and proprioceptive estimates of transient (midreach) target capture errors contribute to motor adaptation according to the probabilistic rules of information integration used for perception. Healthy adult humans grasped and moved a robotic handle between targets in the horizontal plane while the robot generated springlike loads that varied unpredictably from trial to trial. For some trials, a visual cursor faithfully tracked hand motion. In others, the handle's position was locked and subjects viewed motion of a point-mass cursor driven by hand forces. In yet other trials, cursor feedback was dissociated from hand motion or altogether eliminated. We used time- and frequency-domain analyses to characterize how sensorimotor memories influence performance on subsequent reaches. When the senses were used separately, subjects were better at rejecting physical disturbances applied to the hand than virtual disturbances applied to the cursor. In part, this observation reflected differences in how participants used sensorimotor memories to adapt to perturbations when performance feedback was limited to only proprioceptive or visual information channels. When both vision and proprioception were available to guide movement, subjects processed memories in a manner indistinguishable from the vision-only condition, regardless of whether the cursor tracked the hand faithfully or whether we experimentally dissociated motions of the hand and cursor. This was true even though, on average, perceptual uncertainty in the proprioceptive estimation of movement extent exceeded that of visual estimation by just 47%. In contrast to perceptual tasks wherein vision and proprioception both contribute to an optimal estimate of limb state, our findings support a switched-input, multisensory model of predictive load compensation wherein visual feedback of transient performance errors overwhelmingly dominates proprioception in determining adaptive reach performance.

  3. Not beyond Our Reach: Collaboration in Special Collection Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekydtspotter, Lori; Williams, Cherry

    2014-01-01

    Based on a three-year collaboration with elementary school instructors, this paper discusses a creative approach to introducing younger students to the historical aspects and unique structure of the medieval book as a physical object. Through incremental activities, students learn to contextualize primary sources in both original and digital…

  4. A comparison of techniques for multi-display reaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nacenta, M.A.; Aliakseyeu, D.; Subramanian, S.; Gutwin, C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in multi-user collaboration have seen a proliferation of interaction techniques for moving digital objects from one device to another. However, little is known about how these techniques work in realistic situations, or how they compare to one another. We conducted a study to compare

  5. Project Author: Visionary Training with Far Reaching Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In the 1980s a government initiative was made to meet the need for instructional designers for the emerging Technology Based Training needs of industry and commerce. The course achieved its objectives but also sparked the development of current UK e-learning because the course developed people who were skilled at adaptability and flexibility with…

  6. Reaching ultra low phosphorus concentrations by filtration techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherrenberg, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This research deals with tertiary treatment techniques used for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. The main objective of this research is to obtain ultra low total phosphorus (<0.15 mg total phosphorus/L) concentrations by coagulation, flocculation and

  7. DIMEC - Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Final report of the research project DIMEC - Danish InfoMechatronic Control supported by the Danish Technical Research Council, STVF.......Final report of the research project DIMEC - Danish InfoMechatronic Control supported by the Danish Technical Research Council, STVF....

  8. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, Alan H. [Fusion Theory and Computation Inc., Kingston, WA (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Final technical report on DE-SC0016106. This is the final technical report for a portion of the multi-institutional CEMM project. This report is centered around 3 publications and a seminar presentation, which have been submitted to E-Link.

  9. Information Filtering via Clustering Coefficients of User-Object Bipartite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Leng, Rui; Shi, Kerui; Liu, Jian-Guo

    The clustering coefficient of user-object bipartite networks is presented to evaluate the overlap percentage of neighbors rating lists, which could be used to measure interest correlations among neighbor sets. The collaborative filtering (CF) information filtering algorithm evaluates a given user's interests in terms of his/her friends' opinions, which has become one of the most successful technologies for recommender systems. In this paper, different from the object clustering coefficient, users' clustering coefficients of user-object bipartite networks are introduced to improve the user similarity measurement. Numerical results for MovieLens and Netflix data sets show that users' clustering effects could enhance the algorithm performance. For MovieLens data set, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, can be improved by 12.0% and the diversity could be improved by 18.2% and reach 0.649 when the recommendation list equals to 50. For Netflix data set, the accuracy could be improved by 14.5% at the optimal case and the popularity could be reduced by 13.4% comparing with the standard CF algorithm. Finally, we investigate the sparsity effect on the performance. This work indicates the user clustering coefficients is an effective factor to measure the user similarity, meanwhile statistical properties of user-object bipartite networks should be investigated to estimate users' tastes.

  10. Normative data of Modified Functional Reach Test in younger and middle-aged North Eastern Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The modified functional reach test (MFRT is the objective measure for dynamic sitting balance. It quantifies sitting balance in two directions: Forward and lateral reach. So, the purpose of the study was to 1 provide clinical reference value and 2 examine the factors that may influence the anthropometrics measures. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 apparently healthy subjects participated in this descriptive study. All subjects were divided in two groups: Younger (20-39 yr and middle-aged (40-59 yr. After anthropometric measurement, all subjects performed test by reaching forward and lateral with a closed fist while sitting. MFRT was taken with 3 trials with 15 sec break in between. Results: The mean score of the forward and lateral reach of right and left in group 1 was higher compared to group 2. The normative value of forward reach in group 1 was 34.05 ± 9.03 cm; for lateral reach right and left, it was 18.2 ± 5.26 cm and 17.32 ± 5.21 cm, respectively. For group 2, normative values for forward reach, lateral right and left were 25.18 ± 5.71 cm, 14.02 ± 3.98 cm and 13.53 ± 4.25 cm, respectively. There was no significant correlation of forward and lateral reach measures with the anthropometric characteristics in both the groups, except trunk length and BMI in group 1, which was significantly correlated ( P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study provides clinical reference value for younger and middle age group subjects while anthropometrics do not affect performance except trunk length and BMI in younger age group.

  11. Workshop objectives and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim of the Workshop was to create a platform in order to better understand different approaches to managing uncertainty in post-closure safety cases and regulatory approaches in different national waste management programmes. The principal objectives of the Workshop were to: - To identify common elements in different approaches for managing uncertainty. - To facilitate information exchange and to promote discussion on different technical approaches to the management and characterisation of uncertainty and on the role of risk. - To explore the merits of alternative approaches to risk-informed decision making. - To identify the potential for further developments of methods or strategies to support the management of uncertainties. The workshop was organised into plenary sessions and working group discussions: The first plenary session focused on establishing a framework for understanding the management of uncertainties and the use of risk. It comprised oral presentations drawing on a range of experience from both active participants in the development and assessment of safety cases and keynotes presentations by external participants involved in risk management in other sectors. The working group discussions covered three technical themes: Risk management and decision making. Regulatory requirements and review of uncertainty and risk in safety cases. Practical approaches and tools for the management of uncertainties and the assignment of probabilities, the use of expert judgements, and the presentation of information on uncertainties and risk were examined. The aim of the working groups was to develop an understanding of the specific issues, and to identify any further activities that will support the development and/or evaluation of safety cases. The round up plenary session brought together information and conclusions from each of the working groups. Common elements in the different approaches to treating uncertainty and risk were identified, along with

  12. Two-phase strategy of neural control for planar reaching movements: I. XY coordination variability and its relation to end-point variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Shimansky, Yury P

    2013-03-01

    A quantitative model of optimal transport-aperture coordination (TAC) during reach-to-grasp movements has been developed in our previous studies. The utilization of that model for data analysis allowed, for the first time, to examine the phase dependence of the precision demand specified by the CNS for neurocomputational information processing during an ongoing movement. It was shown that the CNS utilizes a two-phase strategy for movement control. That strategy consists of reducing the precision demand for neural computations during the initial phase, which decreases the cost of information processing at the expense of lower extent of control optimality. To successfully grasp the target object, the CNS increases precision demand during the final phase, resulting in higher extent of control optimality. In the present study, we generalized the model of optimal TAC to a model of optimal coordination between X and Y components of point-to-point planar movements (XYC). We investigated whether the CNS uses the two-phase control strategy for controlling those movements, and how the strategy parameters depend on the prescribed movement speed, movement amplitude and the size of the target area. The results indeed revealed a substantial similarity between the CNS's regulation of TAC and XYC. First, the variability of XYC within individual trials was minimal, meaning that execution noise during the movement was insignificant. Second, the inter-trial variability of XYC was considerable during the majority of the movement time, meaning that the precision demand for information processing was lowered, which is characteristic for the initial phase. That variability significantly decreased, indicating higher extent of control optimality, during the shorter final movement phase. The final phase was the longest (shortest) under the most (least) challenging combination of speed and accuracy requirements, fully consistent with the concept of the two-phase control strategy. This paper

  13. Effects of Selected Object Characteristics on Object Permanence Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingle, Kathleen M.; Lingle, John H.

    A study was conducted to investigate the degree to which both object familiarity and motivational factors influence infants' search behavior in an object permanence test. Infants' search behavior for an unfamiliar test object was compared with search behavior for (a) an experientially familiar object that each infant had played with daily for a…

  14. From creation to consumption: objects and commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Bautista López

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objects, persons and ideas are all merely merchandise in a world that is highly industrialised and utterly superficial. Consumer societies produce a profusion of merchandise. In strictly economic terms, merchandise is whatever has an exchange-value, in  a world where objects are valued for their utility. So goods are whatever is useful, where use can be measured in monetary terms. This perspective impoverishes social relations. People relate only insofar as their value dictates, and that value is merely utilitarian. Moreover, this commercialisation reaches up to impoverish society as a whole. All this is the result of a long process of objectification which, seeing the world as the exchange of goods, ends up treating people just like any other tradable commodity. This article takes a critical look at the processes involved, and proposes an explanation in terms of the social construction of 'utility''.

  15. PAM4 based symmetrical 112-Gbps long-reach TWDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liyu; Gao, Fan; Zhang, Minming; Fu, Songnian; Deng, Lei; Choi, Michael; Chang, Donald; Lei, Gordon K. P.; Liu, Deming

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate cost effective symmetrical 112-Gbps long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON) over 70-km standard signal mode fiber (SSMF), based on pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)-4. Four 10G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs) at C-band are used for achieving 4 × 28-Gbps downstream transmission, while two 18G-class DMLs at O-band are used to realize 2 × 56-Gbps upstream transmission, without any optical amplification in optical distributed network (ODN). Both dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) for downstream signal and praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (PDFA) for upstream signal are equipped at optical line terminal (OLT). Meanwhile, sparse Volterra filter (SVF) equalizer is proposed to mitigate the transmission impairments with substantial reduction of computation complexity. Finally, we can successfully provide a loss budget of 33 dB per downstream wavelength channel, indicating of 64 optical network units (ONUs) with more than 1.25 Gbps per ONU.

  16. REACHING OUT TO INTERESTED PARTIES: NEW APPROACHES FOR A NATIONAL LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, S.L.K.

    2001-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multi-disciplinary research facility that experienced several environmental incidents, resulting in an immediate and intense reaction from community members, activist groups, elected officials and regulators. A new management firm with a strong commitment to environmental stewardship, open communication, and cultural change, assumed management of BNL in March 1998, and immediately began to develop an IS0 14001 Environmental Management System that emphasized community outreach. This paper describes how BSA reengineered their external communications program to regain the trust of their stakeholders. The underlying goal was to ''inform and involve.'' A Community Involvement Plan was developed to solicit input from interested parties and use it in Laboratory decision-making processes. A Community Advisory Committee was formed to provide direct input to the Laboratory Director. A formal channel for two-way communication with elected officials and regulators was created. Finally, BNL utilized a previously untapped yet invaluable resource to reach out to the community: their employees

  17. Extended imposex monitoring in N Atlantic Spain confirms punctual attainment of European environmental objectives for TBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, José M; Carro, Belén; Albaina, Naiara; Barreiro, Rodolfo; Rial, Diego; Bellas, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Legislation in the European Union (EU) aimed at reaching by 2015 a Good Ecological Status in regard to tributyltin (TBT, the biocide used in traditional antifouling paints). With a view to check such an achievement in N Atlantic Spain, baseline monitoring of gastropod imposex (the recommended assessment tool) was extended up to that date. In Galicia (the Western part of the study area) the use of the rock snail Nucella lapillus since 1996 had shown this environmental objective to be met as soon as 2009, but new surveys reveal no further improvement thereafter. As for the Eastern Cantabrian coast, imposex levels in the mud snail Nassarius reticulatus progressively declined from 2006 to 2015, when records finally complied with expectations. Both data sets are confronted and discussed in relation to the diverse environmental factors that may be determining the distribution of gastropods in these regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Concave omnidirectional imaging device for cylindrical object based on catadioptric panoramic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Wu, Yumei; Wen, Peizhi

    2018-03-01

    To obtain information on the outer surface of a cylinder object, we propose a catadioptric panoramic imaging system based on the principle of uniform spatial resolution for vertical scenes. First, the influence of the projection-equation coefficients on the spatial resolution and astigmatism of the panoramic system are discussed, respectively. Through parameter optimization, we obtain the appropriate coefficients for the projection equation, and so the imaging quality of the entire imaging system can reach an optimum value. Finally, the system projection equation is calibrated, and an undistorted rectangular panoramic image is obtained using the cylindrical-surface projection expansion method. The proposed 360-deg panoramic-imaging device overcomes the shortcomings of existing surface panoramic-imaging methods, and it has the advantages of low cost, simple structure, high imaging quality, and small distortion, etc. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. In silico models for predicting ready biodegradability under REACH: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Fabiola; Lombardo, Anna; Manganaro, Alberto; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-10-01

    REACH (Registration Evaluation Authorization and restriction of Chemicals) legislation is a new European law which aims to raise the human protection level and environmental health. Under REACH all chemicals manufactured or imported for more than one ton per year must be evaluated for their ready biodegradability. Ready biodegradability is also used as a screening test for persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) substances. REACH encourages the use of non-testing methods such as QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) models in order to save money and time and to reduce the number of animals used for scientific purposes. Some QSAR models are available for predicting ready biodegradability. We used a dataset of 722 compounds to test four models: VEGA, TOPKAT, BIOWIN 5 and 6 and START and compared their performance on the basis of the following parameters: accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC). Performance was analyzed from different points of view. The first calculation was done on the whole dataset and VEGA and TOPKAT gave the best accuracy (88% and 87% respectively). Then we considered the compounds inside and outside the training set: BIOWIN 6 and 5 gave the best results for accuracy (81%) outside training set. Another analysis examined the applicability domain (AD). VEGA had the highest value for compounds inside the AD for all the parameters taken into account. Finally, compounds outside the training set and in the AD of the models were considered to assess predictive ability. VEGA gave the best accuracy results (99%) for this group of chemicals. Generally, START model gave poor results. Since BIOWIN, TOPKAT and VEGA models performed well, they may be used to predict ready biodegradability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dream aim reached: 1300 operational district heating supply connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handl, K H

    1988-11-01

    Only four years after the beginning of operation of the first consumer station at Klingnau on October 19, 1984, the Regional District Heating Supply in the Lower Aare Valley (Refuna) can already show 1295 operational district heating connections. There are almost 300 more than one year ago and about 20% more than originally foreseen during this short construction time. As in recent years, the number of consumers has significantly increased during a 'connection boom' in the first autumn weeks. The total heat supply power amounts to 51500 kilowatts. This is 70% of the power foreseen in the final stage. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A Laboratory Experiment on the Evolution of a Sand Gravel Reach Under a Lack of Sediment Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, C.; Chavarrias, V.; Ferrara, V.; Blom, A.

    2014-12-01

    A flume experiment was conducted to examine the evolution of a sand-gravel reach under a lack of sediment supply. The experimental data are used to validate a numerical sand-gravel model. A bed composed of a bi-modal sediment mixture is installed with a uniform slope and an imposed gradual fining pattern. Initially, the sand fraction gradually increases in streamwise direction until the bed is fully composed of sand. The water discharge and downstream water level were constant, and the sediment feed rate was equal to zero. The experiment was dominated by bed load, partial transport, and a subcritical flow regime was imposed. The flow rate was such that only sand was mobile (partial transport), which led to a coarsening over the upstream reach and a gradual reduction of the sediment transport rate during the experiment. New equipment was used to measure the evolution of the grain size distribution of the bed surface during the experiment over the entire flume using image analysis. In the upstream reach we observed a gradual coarsening over time and the formation of an armour layer, which resulted in a more abrupt transition in grain size of the bed surface. Bed degradation increased in streamwise direction. This is due to the initial streamwise increase in the availability of sand in the bed. The different volume fraction content of sand in the bed allowed for the gravel to sink more in the downstream part of the upstream reach. The sand reach suffered from a larger degradation. Finally, we see one reach dominated by sand, small bedforms, and a small bed slope, and a gravel reach dominated by a larger bed slope.

  2. Monitoring Space Radiation Hazards with the Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercially Hosted (REACH) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, J. E.; Guild, T. B.; Crain, W.; Crain, S.; Holker, D.; Quintana, S.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Kelly, M. A.; Barnes, R. J.; Sotirelis, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercial Hosting (REACH) project uses radiation dosimeters on a commercial satellite constellation in low Earth orbit to provide unprecedented spatial and time sampling of space weather radiation hazards. The spatial and time scales of natural space radiation environments coupled with constraints for the hosting accommodation drove the instrumentation requirements and the plan for the final orbital constellation. The project has delivered a total of thirty two radiation dosimeter instruments for launch with each instrument containing two dosimeters with different passive shielding and electronic thresholds to address proton-induced single-event effects, vehicle charging, and total ionizing dose. There are two REACH instruments currently operating with four more planned for launch by the time of the 2017 meeting. Our aim is to field a long-lived system of highly-capable radiation detectors to monitor the hazards of single-event effects, total ionizing dose, and spacecraft charging with maximized spatial coverage and with minimal time latency. We combined a robust detection technology with a commercial satellite hosting to produce a new demonstration for satellite situational awareness and for other engineering and science applications.

  3. Nueva política europea en productos químicos. REACH New European policy on chemical products. REACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En febrero de 2001, la Comisión Europea publicó el Libro Blanco relativo a la estrategia para la futura política en materia de sustancias y preparados químicos, que se fundamenta en una revisión del sistema comunitario actual de regulación de las sustancias y preparados químicos. Como consecuencia, el 29 de octubre de 2003, la Comisión adoptó la propuesta de Reglamento sobre registro, evaluación, autorización y restricción de las sustancias químicas (REACH. Mediante esta propuesta, además de crearse la Agencia Europea de Sustancias Químicas, se establece el sistema REACH que consta de los siguientes elementos:Registro, que exige a la industria que facilite información sobre sus sustancias con el objeto de conseguir una utilización segura de las mismas.Evaluación, que garantiza que la industria cumple sus obligaciones y evita que se realicen ensayos innecesarios.Autorización de sustancias con propiedades extremadamente preocupantes (CMR, PBT, disruptores endocrinos, etc. para unos usos particulares.Restricción, como red de seguridad para la reducción de riesgos que no hayan sido abordados en las etapas anteriores.Este sistema de recogida de información en varias fases permitirá conocer y reducir los riesgos derivados del uso de unas 30.000 sustancias químicas que se producen/importan en la Unión Europea en cantidad superior a una tonelada/año. La información, una vez validada, se almacenará en una base de datos y podrá utilizarse para el establecimiento de un vínculo causal entre los factores medioambientales y los efectos negativos sobre la salud derivados de la producción y utilización de los productos químicos.In February 2001 the European Commission issued a White Paper on a “Strategy for a future Chemicals Policy” based on a review of the current European Union system for regulating the dangerous substances and preparations. As a result, on 29 October 2003, the Commission endorsed a Proposal for a

  4. Predicting the flammable region reach of propane vapor clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Vílchez Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Villafañe, Diana; Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Liquified gas fuels are widely used around the world, and the growth of LNG and LPG consumption continues to increase. However, using these fuels can lead to accidents if they are released to the environment. Consequently, the challenge to control and predict such hazards has become an objective in emergency planning and risk analysis. In a previous article the “Dispersion Safety Factor” (DSF) was proposed, defined as the ratio between the distance at which the lower flammability limit concen...

  5. How do we reach the girls and women who are the hardest to reach? Inequitable opportunities in reproductive and maternal health care services in armed conflict and forced displacement settings in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Rivillas

    Full Text Available This paper assesses inequalities in access to reproductive and maternal health services among females affected by forced displacement and sexual and gender-based violence in conflict settings in Colombia. This was accomplished through the following approaches: first, we assessed the gaps and gradients in three selected reproductive and maternal health care services. Second, we analyzed the patterns of inequalities in reproductive and maternal health care services and changes over time. And finally, we identified challenges and strategies for reaching girls and women who are the hardest to reach in conflict settings, in order to accelerate progress towards universal health coverage and to contribute to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals of good health and well-being and gender equality by 2030.Three types of data were required: data about health outcomes (relating to rates of females affected by conflict, information about reproductive and maternal health care services to provide a social dimension to unmask inequalities (unmet needs in family planning, antenatal care and skilled births attendance; and data on the female population. Data sources used include the National Information System for Social Protection, the National Registry of Victims, the National Administrative Department of Statistics, and Demographic Health Survey at three specific time points: 2005, 2010 and 2015. We estimated the slope index of inequality to express absolute inequality (gaps and the concentration index to expresses relative inequality (gradients, and to understand whether inequality was eliminated over time.Our findings show that even though absolute health care service-related inequalities dropped over time, relative inequalities worsened or remain unchanged. All summary measures still indicated the existence of inequalities as well as common patterns. Our findings suggest that there is a pattern of marginal exclusion and incremental patterns of inequality

  6. How do we reach the girls and women who are the hardest to reach? Inequitable opportunities in reproductive and maternal health care services in armed conflict and forced displacement settings in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivillas, Juan Carlos; Devia Rodriguez, Raul; Song, Gloria; Martel, Andréanne

    2018-01-01

    This paper assesses inequalities in access to reproductive and maternal health services among females affected by forced displacement and sexual and gender-based violence in conflict settings in Colombia. This was accomplished through the following approaches: first, we assessed the gaps and gradients in three selected reproductive and maternal health care services. Second, we analyzed the patterns of inequalities in reproductive and maternal health care services and changes over time. And finally, we identified challenges and strategies for reaching girls and women who are the hardest to reach in conflict settings, in order to accelerate progress towards universal health coverage and to contribute to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals of good health and well-being and gender equality by 2030. Three types of data were required: data about health outcomes (relating to rates of females affected by conflict), information about reproductive and maternal health care services to provide a social dimension to unmask inequalities (unmet needs in family planning, antenatal care and skilled births attendance); and data on the female population. Data sources used include the National Information System for Social Protection, the National Registry of Victims, the National Administrative Department of Statistics, and Demographic Health Survey at three specific time points: 2005, 2010 and 2015. We estimated the slope index of inequality to express absolute inequality (gaps) and the concentration index to expresses relative inequality (gradients), and to understand whether inequality was eliminated over time. Our findings show that even though absolute health care service-related inequalities dropped over time, relative inequalities worsened or remain unchanged. All summary measures still indicated the existence of inequalities as well as common patterns. Our findings suggest that there is a pattern of marginal exclusion and incremental patterns of inequality in the

  7. Attention and reach-to-grasp movements in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cathy; Bharmal, Aamir; Kiss, Zelma H; Suchowersky, Oksana; Haffenden, Angela M

    2010-08-01

    The role of attention in grasping movements directed at common objects has not been examined in Parkinson's disease (PD), though these movements are critical to activities of daily living. Our primary objective was to determine whether patients with PD demonstrate automaticity in grasping movements directed toward common objects. Automaticity is assumed when tasks can be performed with little or no interference from concurrent tasks. Grasping performance in three patient groups (newly diagnosed, moderate, and advanced/surgically treated PD) on and off of their medication or deep brain stimulation was compared to performance in an age-matched control group. Automaticity was demonstrated by the absence of a decrement in grasping performance when attention was consumed by a concurrent spatial-visualization task. Only the control group and newly diagnosed PD group demonstrated automaticity in their grasping movements. The moderate and advanced PD groups did not demonstrate automaticity. Furthermore, the well-known effects of pharmacotherapy and surgical intervention on movement speed and muscle activation patterns did not appear to reduce the impact of attention-demanding tasks on grasping movements in those with moderate to advanced PD. By the moderate stage of PD, grasping is an attention-demanding process; this change is not ameliorated by dopaminergic or surgical treatments. These findings have important implications for activities of daily living, as devoting attention to the simplest of daily tasks would interfere with complex activities and potentially exacerbate fatigue.

  8. Streamflow investigations on a reach of Hobble Creek near Springville, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.

    2017-07-27

    The Central Utah Water Conservancy District (CUWCD) is proposing to deliver supplemental flow to Hobble Creek from Strawberry Reservoir through the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline. A substantial portion of the supplemental water is intended to benefit June Sucker recovery and other fish and wildlife along Hobble Creek. The objective of this study was to determine gains or losses of water in a section of Hobble Creek between the Island Dam and the Swenson Dam (the primary study reach) during different seasons and flow conditions.Paired measurements of flow in Hobble Creek were made during June to November 2016, at sites bracketing the primary study reach from site HC3 to HC6. These measurements showed increased streamflow in this reach that ranged from 6.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to 9.3 ft3/s. During August and November, two sets of measurements were made at several locations along the study reach to document baseline conditions, and then an additional amount of water (a pulse of about 9–10 ft3/s) from Strawberry Reservoir through the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline, was added to the reach. During the August 23 measurements, the average change at the upstream site (HC3) relative to the pulse was 9.3 ft3/s, and the average change at the downstream site (HC6) was about 8.4 ft3/s, leaving about 0.9 ft3/s of the additional water unaccounted for at site HC6. However, there was no significant difference between the net streamflow volume at sites HC3 and HC6 associated with the pulse that would indicate water was being lost. During the November 7–9 streamflow measurements, the average change in discharge at site HC3 relative to an increase in flow from the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline (the pulse) was 9.6 ft3/s, and the average change at site HC6 was about 9.8 ft3/s. On the basis of these measurements it appears that the entire amount of the pulse added to the stream at site HC3 was accounted for at site HC6. Additionally, there was no

  9. Climate Resilience: Outreach and Engagement with Hard to Reach Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baja, K.

    2017-12-01

    Baltimore faces a unique combination of shocks and stresses that cut across social, economic, and environmental sectors. Like many postindustrial cities, Baltimore has experienced a decline in its population - resulting in a lower tax base. These trends have had deleterious effects on the city's ability to attend to much needed infrastructure improvements and human services. Furthermore, Baltimore has an unfortunate history of deliberate racial segregation that is directly responsible for many of the economic and social challenges the City faces today. In addition to considerable social and economic issues, the city is already experiencing negative impacts from climate change. Baltimore is vulnerable to many natural hazards including heavy precipitation, sea level rise, storm surge, and extreme heat. Impacts from hazards and the capacity to adapt to them is not equal across all populations. Low-income residents and communities of color are most vulnerable and lack access to the resources to effectively plan, react and recover. They are also less likely to engage in government processes or input sessions, either due to distrust or ineffective outreach efforts by government employees and partners. This session is focused on sharing best practices and lessons learned from Baltimore's approach to community outreach and engagement as well as its focus on power shifting and relationship building with hard-to-reach communities. Reducing neighborhood vulnerability and strengthening the fabric that holds systems together requires a large number of diverse stakeholders coordinated around resiliency efforts. With the history of deliberate segregation and current disparities it remains critical to build trust, shift power from government to residents, and focus on relationship building. Baltimore City utilized this approach in planning, implementation and evaluation of resiliency work. This session will highlight two plan development processes, several projects, and innovative

  10. Tracking in Object Action Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Herzog, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    the space of the object affordances, i.e., the space of possible actions that are applied on a given object. This way, 3D body tracking reduces to action tracking in the object (and context) primed parameter space of the object affordances. This reduces the high-dimensional joint-space to a low...

  11. Object grammars and random generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dutour

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new systematic approach for the uniform random generation of combinatorial objects. The method is based on the notion of object grammars which give recursive descriptions of objects and generalize context-freegrammars. The application of particular valuations to these grammars leads to enumeration and random generation of objects according to non algebraic parameters.

  12. Visual object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  13. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    Typically, objects are monolithic entities with a fixed interface. To increase the flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct. An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects. It may also be used...... for a special kind of method invocation involving multiple objects in a dynamic lookup process. With support for feature access and late-bound method calls object sets are similar to ordinary objects, only more flexible. The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of its type...

  14. The electromagnetic rocket gun - a means to reach ultrahigh velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1983-01-01

    A novel kind of electromagnetic launcher for the acceleration of multigram-size macroparticles, up to velocities required for impact fusion, is proposed. The novel launcher concept combines the efficiency of a gun with the much higher velocities attainable by a rocket. In the proposed concept a rocket-like projectile is launched inside a gun barrel, drawing its energy from a travelling magnetic wave. The travelling magnetic wave heats and ionizes the exhaust jet of the rocket. As a result, the projectile i propelled both by the recoil from the jet and the magnetic pressure of the travelling magnetic wave. In comparison to magnetic linear accelerators, accelerating either superconducting or ferromagnetic projectiles, the proposed concept has several important advantages. First, the exhaust jet is much longer than the rocket-like projectile and which permits a much longer switching time to turn on the travelling magnetic wave. Second, the proposed concept does not require superconducting projectiles, or projectiles made from expensive ferromagnetic material. Third, unlike in railgun accelerators, the projectile can be kept away from the wall, and thereby can reach much larger velocities. (orig.)

  15. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffery W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  16. Milestone reached for the Big Wheels of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Sandro Palestini

    The assembly and integration of the Big Wheels sectors of the Muon Spectrometer is reaching its conclusion, with only a few sectors of Wheel TGC-A-3 remaining on the assembly stations in building 180. The six trigger chambers (TGCs) wheels and two precision chambers wheels (MDTs) contain in total 104 sectors, which were assembled, equipped with detectors and fully tested over a period of two years. The few remaining Big Wheel sectors still stored in building 180 Most of the sectors left building 180 over the last twelve months, and form the six Wheels currently installed in the ATLAS detector. The remaining two will be installed before the end of the summer. The commitment of the personnel from the many teams who contributed to different parts of the project was essential to its success. In particular, teams coming from countries of different traditions and languages, such as China, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, Russia and USA contributed and collaborated very effectively to the timely completion of the p...

  17. The dipoles reach the half-way mark

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With the positioning of the 616th magnet, installation of the LHC dipoles has reached the half-way mark. Only half the dipoles remain to be installed! The 616th dipole out of a total of 1232 was installed at 3 a.m on Wednesday 12 July. Night and day, the tunnel is the setting for a never-ending series of carefully choreographed installation operations. At a rate of around twenty per week, there has been a steady underground flow of dipole magnets, each measuring 15 metres in length and weighing 34 tonnes. 'In order to recover the accumulated delays, installation is proceeding three times faster than planned', confides Claude Hauviller, who is supervising LHC installation. Four dipoles can be transported underground at the same time. It is a real challenge, which the 65-man team responsible for this difficult task faces on a daily basis. This is because there is very little space in the tunnel and there are no passing places for the magnet transport vehicles. The room for manoeuvre can sometimes be measured ...

  18. East-West European economic integration: Difficult to reach target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ermo, V.; Manca, S.

    1993-01-01

    The energy sector of Western Europe is now undergoing a slow growth period due largely to the socio-economic upheavals of East and West German unification and the political-economic restructuring of the countries making up Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. This paper evidences this fact by tabling and commenting on 1991-1992 coal, petroleum, natural gas and electric power production/consumption/export statistical data representing energy sector activities in the former COMECON member countries. The poor performance of these countries can be attributed to the effects of energy market liberalization, the restructuring of utility assets, limited production capacities and inflation. It is estimated that the adjustment time to reach economic parity with Western nations will be long but that the waiting period could be shortened through the implementation of technology transfer and financial cooperation programs with the more prosperous countries capable of providing the investment capital and know-how needed for the restructuring of production systems and resource development

  19. How Physics World reaches out in a digital age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    Physics World is an award-winning international magazine that exists in print and digital formats. Exploiting the opportunities available with digital publishing and apps, our output has expanded hugely in recent years to include technology-linked focus issues, regional special reports on the likes of China, India, Mexico and Brazil, plus audio, video and interactive material too. This growth in content - and new media for presenting physics - reflects wider changes in communication. People increasingly want to access content in a manner and time of their choosing, seeking out information presented in a way that suits them and their needs. That can be challenging for physics communicators because it means tailoring your message to different audiences and the medium they are using. But it's exciting too as you can reach out to many more people into physics - and in many different ways - than was possible in the past. This talk outlines some principles of good communication, including telling a good story, bearing the reader, viewer or listener in mind, using appropriate media, keeping up with social media, and exploiting the power of video. But with new forms of communication constantly emerging, it's worth remembering there is no one ``right answer''.

  20. Parametric design studies of long-reach manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Hamel, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    A number of different approaches have been studied for remediation of waste storage tanks at various sites. One of the most promising approaches is the use of a high-capacity, long-reach manipulation (LRM) system with a variety of end effectors for dislodging the waste. LRMs may have characteristics significantly different from those of industrial robots due to the long links needed to cover the large workspace. Because link lengths are much greater than their diameters, link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. LRMs will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, a design approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics considering link flexibility is presented with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. This paper addresses key design issues for LRM-based waste retrieval systems. It discusses the effects of parameters such as payload capacity, storage tanks size, and access port diameter on manipulator structural design. The estimated weight, fundamental natural frequency, and static deflection of the manipulator have been calculated for various parameter conditions

  1. Sure start: voices of the 'hard-to-reach'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C; Gibson, A; Spencer, N; Stuttaford, M

    2008-07-01

    This research aimed to look in depth at the factors affecting the ability of four Sure Start local programmes, based in a multicultural Midlands city, to engage with 'hard-to-reach' populations. A variety of research strategies and methods were employed. Geographical information systems, participatory research methods and interviews were used in order to understand the extent of the challenge, and hear first hand, why parents may not get involved with Sure Start. The mapping exercise involved collation and mapping of postcode data with respect to boundaries and potential and actual users of Sure Start services. This made possible the identification of any geographical patterning in the distribution of service users and non-users. Participatory research methods were used with parents, enabling them to conduct short interviews within their own communities and make sense of the data collected. Interviews were also conducted with 70 parents across the city, recruited through local schools. The results indicate that parental decisions regarding Sure Start are the product of a complex interaction between numerous factors which may act as either barriers or facilitators to service utilization. The results suggest that a multi-method approach to data collection is useful and appropriate in gaining access to those parents who are non-users of the Sure Start services and enabling their voices to be heard. These findings offer some explanations and insight into the apparent ambivalent attitudes of some families toward Sure Start services. Implications for future practice are discussed.

  2. Real-time well condition monitoring in extended reach wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucs, R.; Spoerker, H.F. [OMV Austria Exploration and Production GmbH, Gaenserndorf (Austria); Thonhauser, G. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    2008-10-23

    Ever rising daily operating cost for offshore operations make the risk of running into drilling problems due to torque and drag developments in extended reach applications a growing concern. One option to reduce cost related to torque and drag problems can be to monitor torque and drag trends in real time without additional workload on the platform drilling team. To evaluate observed torque or drag trends it is necessary to automatically recognize operations and to have a 'standard value' to compare the measurements to. The presented systematic approach features both options - fully automated operations recognition and real time analysis. Trends can be discussed between rig- and shore-based teams, and decisions can be based on up to date information. Since the system is focused on visualization of real-time torque and drag trends, instead of highly complex and repeated simulations, calculation time is reduced by comparing the real-time rig data against predictions imported from a commercial drilling engineering application. The system allows reacting to emerging stuck pipe situations or developing cuttings beds long before the situations become severe enough to result in substantial lost time. The ability to compare real-time data with historical data from the same or other wells makes the system a valuable tool in supporting a learning organization. The system has been developed in a joint research initiative for field application on the development of an offshore heavy oil field in New Zealand. (orig.)

  3. Muscle synergy extraction during arm reaching movements at different speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzevari, Vahid Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun; Boostani, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Muscle synergy is the activation of a group of muscles that contribute to a particular movement. The goal of the present study is to examine the hypothesis that human reaching movements at different speeds share similar muscle synergies and to investigate the kinesiology basis and innervation of muscles. Electromyographic activity from six muscles of the upper limb and shoulder girdle were recorded during three movements at different speeds, i.e. slow, moderate and fast. The effect of window length on the RMS signal of the EMG was analyzed and then EMG envelope signals were decomposed using non-negative matrix factorization. For each of the ten subjects, three synergies were extracted which accounted for at least 99% of the VAF. For each movement, the muscle synergies and muscle activation coefficients of all participants were clustered in to three partitions. Investigation showed a high similarity and dependency of cluster members due to the cosine similarity and mutual information in muscle synergy clustering. For further verification, the EMG envelope signals for all subjects were reconstructed. The results indicated a lower reconstruction error using the center of the muscle synergy clusters in comparison with the average of the activation coefficients, which confirms the current research's hypothesis.

  4. Flow model for open-channel reach or network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffranek, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Formulation of a one-dimensional model for simulating unsteady flow in a single open-channel reach or in a network of interconnected channels is presented. The model is both general and flexible in that it can be used to simulate a wide range of flow conditions for various channel configurations. It is based on a four-point (box), implicit, finite-difference approximation of the governing nonlinear flow equations with user-definable weighting coefficients to permit varying the solution scheme from box-centered to fully forward. Unique transformation equations are formulated that permit correlation of the unknowns at the extremities of the channels, thereby reducing coefficient matrix and execution time requirements. Discharges and water-surface elevations computed at intermediate locations within a channel are determined following solution of the transformation equations. The matrix of transformation and boundary-condition equations is solved by Gauss elimination using maximum pivot strategy. Two diverse applications of the model are presented to illustrate its broad utility. (USGS)

  5. Reaching for the true overlay in advanced nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Chiew-seng; Hamieh, Bassem; Felix, Nelson; Gaudiello, John

    2017-03-01

    Traditionally, the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) of overlay metrology focuses on dynamic precision, toolinduced-shift, and matching, while rarely examining inaccuracy. However, some researchers have recently shown that measurement inaccuracy can still be large despite optimized small TMU. Moreover, this inaccuracy can consume a significant portion of the overlay budget in the advanced nodes. In addition to qualifying the overlay error of inline wafers, overlay metrology is also used for improving on-product overlay as it provides corrective feedback to the lithography scanner. The accuracy of the correction terms as a result depends directly upon the measurement accuracy. As such, enhanced overlay accuracy will improve the overlay performance of reworked wafers, or subsequently exposed wafers. We have previously shown that a segmented Blossom target is more prone to asymmetry-induced inaccuracy than a nonsegmented target is [1]. Since target segmentation is inevitable for SADP and SAQP patterning processes, their resulting overlay performance leaves a lot to be desired. In our quest to reach for the true overlay, this paper reports our investigations on accuracy enhancement techniques for image-based targets, such as redundancy and self-calibration, and on the use of simulation-optimized scatterometry-based targets.

  6. Naturalness Reach of the Large Hadron Collider in Minimal Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, B.C.; Parker, Michael Andrew; Webber, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    We re-analyse the prospects of discovering supersymmetry at the LHC, in order to re-express coverage in terms of a fine-tuning parameter and to extend the analysis to scalar masses (m_0) above 2 TeV. We use minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) unification assumptions for the SUSY breaking parameters. Such high values of m_0 have recently been found to have a focus point, leading to relatively low fine-tuning. In addition, improvements in the simulations since the last study mean that this region no longer lacks radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. The best fine tuning reach is found in a mono-leptonic channel, where for mu>0, A_0=0 and tan beta=10 (corresponding to the focus point), all points in mSUGRA with m_0 < 4000 GeV, with a fine tuning measure up to 300 (570) are covered by the search, where the definition of fine-tuning excludes (includes) the contribution from the top Yukawa coupling. Even for arbitrarily high m_0, mSUGRA does not evade detection provided the gaugino mass parameter M_{1/2} < 460 G...

  7. Over one million followers reached in CERN TweetUp

    CERN Multimedia

    Katherine Chapman

    2012-01-01

    More than a million followers were reached on Twitter during CERN’s first ever “TweetUp”. On 25 July, 5 lucky Twitter followers, or "Tweeps" as they are known, visited CERN to take part in events held on the same day with the STS-134 astronauts. The Tweetup gave the online community a chance to ask questions and explore areas of CERN through the eyes of the tweeps, prompting over 1,000 tweets and re-tweets between them in 24 hours.   Loic Bommersbach, Lucy McKenna, Astrid Chantelauze (KIT), Nick Howes, Angeliki Kanellopoulou, Maud Ali-Cherif (ESA), Julien Harrod (ESA), Katherine Chapman (CERN), and Simon Bierwald outside the CERN Control Centre. Five winners of a competition announced on Twitter were invited to come to CERN and spend a day behind the scenes, taking part in events organised to celebrate the AMS experiment that was launched in May 2011. The aim was to give tweeps the opportunity to explore CERN and share their experiences, allowi...

  8. Electromyographic activity of beating and reaching during simulated boardsailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, M; Cunningham, P; Dyson, R J; Hurrion, P D

    1996-04-01

    This study examined the responses of six competitive boardsailors (three males, three females) during laboratory-based simulation tasks while the electromyographic activity of up to 13 muscles was recorded. A sailboard, mounted in a steel frame and resting on a waterbed, allowed simulation of roll and pitch movements. Wind force was simulated by attaching the boom to a weight stack with a hydraulically controlled buffered release phase. The progression of the simulation test was controlled by the sailor copying movements on an edited video of each subject boardsailing on the open water. Analysis of individual pumping movements for mean peak percentage of maximal enveloped voluntary contraction (%MEVC) in 'beating' and 'reaching' showed that muscular activity in the arm (flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis and biceps brachii) was greatest (66-94% MEVC), with considerable activity (58-75% MEVC) in the deltoid and trapezius shoulder muscles, but much less activity in the leg muscles (16-40% MEVC). For the combined upper and lower body muscles there was a significant difference (P reflecting the current dynamic nature of the sport.

  9. Can impurities from soil-contaminated coffees reach the cup?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagliaferro, F.S.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Joacir De Franca, E.; Bode, P.

    2007-01-01

    Depending on the harvest conditions, coffee beans can be contaminated by soil when dropped to the ground. It is well known that agricultural soils act as sinks for agrochemicals applied to the crops. While coffee is brewed, substances present in the roasted and ground coffee beans are extracted by hot water, emphasizing the need to assess the possible transfer of impurities from the soil to the beverage. Soil-contaminated samples of roasted coffee beans were split into 2 groups according to the treatments: (a) washed and ground and (b) only ground. Brewing was performed in a household espresso machine for both coffees. The resulting beverage was freeze-dried and the elemental composition determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of the terrigenous elements Fe, La, Sc, Sm and Th in the freeze-dried non-washed coffee beverages were, at least, 2 times higher than in the washed samples. These elements are tracers of the soil, indicating that the impurities from the soil reached the beverage. (author)

  10. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... in visual long-term memory. In the thesis it is described how this simple model can account for a wide range of findings on category-specificity in both patients with brain damage and normal subjects. Finally, two hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of the model's components - and how activation...

  11. An objective approach to determining criteria weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić R. Milićević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an objective approach to determining criteria weights that can be successfully used in multiple criteria models. The methods of entropy, CRITIC and FANMA are presented in this paper as well as a possible combination of the methods of objective and subjective approaches. Although based on different theoretical settings, and therefore with different algorithms of realization, all methods have a decision matrix as a starting point. An objective approach to determining the weight of criteria eliminates the negative impacts of a decision maker on criteria weights as well as on the final solution of multicriteria problems. The main aim of this paper is to systematize description procedures as a kind of help when encountering a problem of determining the criteria weights for solving multicriteria tasks. A possibility of the method application is shown in a numerical example.

  12. Object-oriented programming for the biosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechert, W; Joksch, B; Wittig, R; Hartbrich, A; Höner, T; Möllney, M

    1995-10-01

    The development of software systems for the biosciences is always closely connected to experimental practice. Programs must be able to handle the inherent complexity and heterogeneous structure of biological systems in combination with the measuring equipment. Moreover, a high degree of flexibility is required to treat rapidly changing experimental conditions. Object-oriented methodology seems to be well suited for this purpose. It enables an evolutionary approach to software development that still maintains a high degree of modularity. This paper presents experience with object-oriented technology gathered during several years of programming in the fields of bioprocess development and metabolic engineering. It concentrates on the aspects of experimental support, data analysis, interaction and visualization. Several examples are presented and discussed in the general context of the experimental cycle of knowledge acquisition, thus pointing out the benefits and problems of object-oriented technology in the specific application field of the biosciences. Finally, some strategies for future development are described.

  13. Final focus nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-01-01

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number

  14. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  15. WMO Marine Final Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Final reports of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Commission for Marine Meteorology, Commission for Synoptic Meteorology, and Commission for Basic...

  16. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  17. Final focus nomenclature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R.

    1986-08-08

    The formal names and common names for all devices in the final focus system of the SLC are listed. The formal names consist of a device type designator, microprocessor designator, and a four-digit unit number. (LEW)

  18. Detecting objects in radiographs for homeland security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Lakshman; Snyder, Hans

    2005-05-01

    We present a general scheme for segmenting a radiographic image into polygons that correspond to visual features. This decomposition provides a vectorized representation that is a high-level description of the image. The polygons correspond to objects or object parts present in the image. This characterization of radiographs allows the direct application of several shape recognition algorithms to identify objects. In this paper we describe the use of constrained Delaunay triangulations as a uniform foundational tool to achieve multiple visual tasks, namely image segmentation, shape decomposition, and parts-based shape matching. Shape decomposition yields parts that serve as tokens representing local shape characteristics. Parts-based shape matching enables the recognition of objects in the presence of occlusions, which commonly occur in radiographs. The polygonal representation of image features affords the efficient design and application of sophisticated geometric filtering methods to detect large-scale structural properties of objects in images. Finally, the representation of radiographs via polygons results in significant reduction of image file sizes and permits the scalable graphical representation of images, along with annotations of detected objects, in the SVG (scalable vector graphics) format that is proposed by the world wide web consortium (W3C). This is a textual representation that can be compressed and encrypted for efficient and secure transmission of information over wireless channels and on the Internet. In particular, our methods described here provide an algorithmic framework for developing image analysis tools for screening cargo at ports of entry for homeland security.

  19. Data breaches. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  20. Object width modulates object-based attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Joseph C; Neppi-Modona, Marco; Strother, Lars; Behrmann, Marlene; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-04-24

    Visual input typically includes a myriad of objects, some of which are selected for further processing. While these objects vary in shape and size, most evidence supporting object-based guidance of attention is drawn from paradigms employing two identical objects. Importantly, object size is a readily perceived stimulus dimension, and whether it modulates the distribution of attention remains an open question. Across four experiments, the size of the objects in the display was manipulated in a modified version of the two-rectangle paradigm. In Experiment 1, two identical parallel rectangles of two sizes (thin or thick) were presented. Experiments 2-4 employed identical trapezoids (each having a thin and thick end), inverted in orientation. In the experiments, one end of an object was cued and participants performed either a T/L discrimination or a simple target-detection task. Combined results show that, in addition to the standard object-based attentional advantage, there was a further attentional benefit for processing information contained in the thick versus thin end of objects. Additionally, eye-tracking measures demonstrated increased saccade precision towards thick object ends, suggesting that Fitts's Law may play a role in object-based attentional shifts. Taken together, these results suggest that object-based attentional selection is modulated by object width.