Sample records for reach african american

  1. Adoption, reach, and implementation of a cancer education intervention in African American churches. (United States)

    Santos, Sherie Lou Zara; Tagai, Erin K; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Bowie, Janice; Haider, Muhiuddin; Slade, Jimmie; Wang, Min Qi; Holt, Cheryl L


    Use of technology is increasing in health promotion and has continued growth potential in intervention research. Guided by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework, this paper reports on the adoption, reach, and implementation of Project HEAL (Health through Early Awareness and Learning)-a community-based implementation trial of a cancer educational intervention in 14 African American churches. We compare adoption, reach, and implementation at the organizational and participant level for churches in which lay peer community health advisors (CHAs) were trained using traditional classroom didactic methods compared with a new online system. Fifteen churches were randomized to one of two study groups in which two CHAs per church were trained through either classroom ("Traditional"; n = 16 CHAs in 8 churches) or web-based ("Technology"; n = 14 CHAs in 7 churches) training methods. Once trained and certified, all CHAs conducted a series of three group educational workshops in their churches on cancer early detection (breast, prostate, and colorectal). Adoption, reach, and implementation were assessed using multiple data sources including church-level data, participant engagement in the workshops, and study staff observations of CHA performance. The project had a 41% overall adoption rate at the church level. In terms of reach, a total of 375 participants enrolled in Project HEAL-226 participants in the Traditional group (43% reach) and 149 in the Technology group (21% reach; p group (M = 64 days). Other implementation outcomes were comparable between both the Traditional and Technology groups (p > .05). Overall, the Project HEAL intervention had reasonable adoption, though reach could have been better. Implementation was strong across both study groups, suggesting the promise of using web-based methods to disseminate and implement evidence-based interventions in faith-based settings and other areas

  2. What are Hospice Providers in the Carolinas Doing to Reach African Americans in Their Service Area? (United States)

    Payne, Richard; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha N.


    Abstract Background: Experts and national organizations recommend that hospices work to increase service to African Americans, a group historically underrepresented in hospice. Objective: The study objective was to describe strategies among hospices in North and South Carolina to increase service to African Americans and identify hospice characteristics associated with these efforts. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey using investigator-developed scales to measure frequency of community education/outreach, directed marketing, efforts to recruit African American staff, cultural sensitivity training, and goals to increase service to African Americans. We used nonparametric Wilcoxon tests to compare mean scale scores by sample characteristics. Results: Of 118 eligible hospices, 79 (67%) completed the survey. Over 80% were at least somewhat concerned about the low proportion of African Americans they served, and 78.5% had set goals to increase service to African Americans. Most were engaged in community education/outreach, with 92.4% reporting outreach to churches, 76.0% to social services organizations, 40.5% to businesses, 35.4% to civic groups, and over half to health care providers; 48.0% reported directed marketing via newspaper and 40.5% via radio. The vast majority reported efforts to recruit African American staff, most often registered nurses (63.75%). Nearly 90% offered cultural sensitivity training to staff. The frequency of strategies to increase service to African Americans did not vary by hospice characteristics, such as profit status, size, or vertical integration, but was greater among hospices that had set goals to increase service to African Americans. Conclusions: Many hospices are engaged in efforts to increase service to African Americans. Future research should determine which strategies are most effective. PMID:26840854

  3. The VERB campaign's strategy for reaching African-American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian children and parents. (United States)

    Huhman, Marian; Berkowitz, Judy M; Wong, Faye L; Prosper, Erika; Gray, Michael; Prince, David; Yuen, Jeannie


    The VERB campaign promoted physical activity to U.S. children aged 9-13 years (tweens) by surrounding them with appealing messages that were associated with the VERB brand and tag line It's what you do! To maximize the impact of the campaign, VERB had a two-level strategy for its marketing. One level was designed to reach a general audience of tweens (i.e., most tweens who use mainstream media). The second level was designed specifically to reach four racial or ethnic audiences: African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians as an augmentation to the first level. This article focuses on VERB's market segmentation strategy and reports how messages for the general audience were adapted to reach specific racial or ethnic segments of the U.S. population. Findings are reported from qualitative studies conducted with tweens and the parents of tweens from these ethnic groups, and the marketing strategies used to reach each ethnic group and the results of evaluations of those strategies are also described.

  4. Immunizations and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  5. Obesity and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  6. Reach Out Churches: A Community-Based Participatory Research Pilot Trial to Assess the Feasibility of a Mobile Health Technology Intervention to Reduce Blood Pressure Among African Americans. (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Cowdery, Joan; Dome, Mackenzie; Bailey, Sarah; Baek, Jonggyu; Byrd, James Brian; Hartley, Sarah E; Valley, Staci C; Saberi, Sima; Wheeler, Natalie C; McDermott, Mollie; Hughes, Rebecca; Shanmugasundaram, Krithika; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Brown, Devin L


    Innovative strategies are needed to reduce the hypertension epidemic among African Americans. Reach Out was a faith-collaborative, mobile health, randomized, pilot intervention trial of four mobile health components to reduce high blood pressure (BP) compared to usual care. It was designed and tested within a community-based participatory research framework among African Americans recruited and randomized from churches in Flint, Michigan. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of the Reach Out processes. Feasibility was assessed by willingness to consent (acceptance of randomization), proportion of weeks participants texted their BP readings (intervention use), number lost to follow-up (retention), and responses to postintervention surveys and focus groups (acceptance of intervention). Of the 425 church members who underwent BP screening, 94 enrolled in the study and 73 (78%) completed the 6-month outcome assessment. Median age was 58 years, and 79% were women. Participants responded with their BPs on an average of 13.7 (SD = 10.7) weeks out of 26 weeks that the BP prompts were sent. All participants reported satisfaction with the intervention. Reach Out, a faith-collaborative, mobile health intervention was feasible. Further study of the efficacy of the intervention and additional mobile health strategies should be considered.

  7. 16 Extraordinary African Americans. (United States)

    Lobb, Nancy

    This collection for children tells the stories of 16 African Americans who helped make America what it is today. African Americans can take pride in the heritage of these contributors to society. Biographies are given for the following: (1) Sojourner Truth, preacher and abolitionist; (2) Frederick Douglass, abolitionist; (3) Harriet Tubman, leader…

  8. African American Suicide (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  9. African Americans and Glaucoma (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  10. African Anglo American

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.


    The South-African based Anglo-American Corp. dominates the mining industries of South Africa and Botswana and is very important in Namibia, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Most recently it has started prospecting in Tanzania once again. This article discusses the corporation's interests in Africa, gold, copper, diamonds, platinum, nickel and coal, and its interest in South American copper and various African metal industries. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. African-Americans and Alzheimer's (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  12. Narcolepsy in African Americans. (United States)

    Kawai, Makoto; O'Hara, Ruth; Einen, Mali; Lin, Ling; Mignot, Emmanuel


    Although narcolepsy affects 0.02-0.05% of individuals in various ethnic groups, clinical presentation in different ethnicities has never been fully characterized. Our goal was to study phenotypic expression across ethnicities in the United States. Cases of narcolepsy from 1992 to 2013 were identified from searches of the Stanford Center for Narcolepsy Research database. International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition diagnosis criteria for type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy were used for inclusion, but subjects were separated as with and without cataplexy for the purpose of data presentation. Information extracted included demographics, ethnicity and clinical data, HLA-DQB1*06:02, polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) data, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 level. 182 African-Americans, 839 Caucasians, 35 Asians, and 41 Latinos with narcolepsy. Sex ratio, PSG, and MSLT findings did not differ across ethnicities. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score was higher and age of onset of sleepiness earlier in African Americans compared with other ethnicities. HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity was higher in African Americans (91.0%) versus others (76.6% in Caucasians, 80.0% in Asians, and 65.0% in Latinos). CSF hypocretin-1 level, obtained in 222 patients, was more frequently low (≤ 110 pg/ml) in African Americans (93.9%) versus Caucasians (61.5%), Asians (85.7%) and Latinos (75.0%). In subjects with low CSF hypocretin-1, African Americans (28.3%) were 4.5 fold more likely to be without cataplexy when compared with Caucasians (8.1%). Narcolepsy in African Americans is characterized by earlier symptom onset, higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, higher HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity, and low cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level in the absence of cataplexy. In African Americans, more subjects without cataplexy have type 1 narcolepsy. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Self-reported discrimination and mental health status among African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos in the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative: the added dimension of immigration. (United States)

    Gee, Gilbert C; Ryan, Andrew; Laflamme, David J; Holt, Jeanie


    We examined whether self-reported racial discrimination was associated with mental health status and whether this association varied with race/ethnicity or immigration status. We performed secondary analysis of a community intervention conducted in 2002 and 2003 for the New Hampshire Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health 2010 Initiative, surveying African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos. We assessed mental health status with the Mental Component Summary (MCS12) of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12, and measured discrimination with questions related to respondents' ability to achieve goals, discomfort/anger at treatment by others, and access to quality health care. Self-reported discrimination was associated with a lower MCS12 score. Additionally, the strength of the association between self-reported health care discrimination and lower MCS12 score was strongest for African descendants, then Mexican Americans, then other Latinos. These patterns may be explained by differences in how long a respondent has lived in the United States. Furthermore, the association of health care discrimination with lower MCS12 was weaker for recent immigrants. Discrimination may be an important predictor of poor mental health status among Black and Latino immigrants. Previous findings of decreasing mental health status as immigrants acculturate might partly be related to experiences with racial discrimination.

  14. Mental Health and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  15. Healthy Eating and Harambee: curriculum development for a culturally-centered bio-medically oriented nutrition education program to reach African American women of childbearing age. (United States)

    Kannan, Srimathi; Sparks, Arlene V; Webster, J DeWitt; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Lumeng, Julie


    The purpose was to develop, implement and evaluate a peer-led nutrition curriculum Healthy Eating and Harambee that addresses established objectives of maternal and infant health and to shift the stage for African American women of childbearing age in Genesee County toward healthier dietary patterns using a socio-cultural and biomedical orientation. The PEN-3 model, which frames culture in the context of health promotion interventions, was integrated with the Transtheoretical Model to guide this 13-week pre-test/post-test curriculum. Materials developed included soul food plate visuals, a micronutrient availability worksheet, a fruit stand, and gardening kits. Learning activities included affirmations, stories, case-scenarios, point-of-purchase product recognition, church health teams, and community health fairs. We investigated health-promoting dietary behaviors (consumption of more fruits and vegetables (F&V), serving more F&V to their families, and moderating dietary sodium and fat intakes), and biomedical behaviors (self-monitoring blood pressure and exercising) across five stages of change. Session attendance and program satisfaction were assessed. N = 102 women participated (mean age = 27.5 years). A majority (77%) reported adopting at least one healthy eating behavior (moderating sodium, serving more F&V to their families), 23% adopted at least two such behaviors (reading food labels for sodium; using culinary herbs/spices; serving more F&V to their families), and 45% adopted both dietary (moderating sodium; eating more fruits) and biomedical behaviors. Participants and facilitators favorably evaluated the curriculum and suggested improvements. A multi-conceptual approach coupled with cultural and biomedical tailoring has potential to promote young African American women's movement to more advanced stages of change and improve self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable intake, dietary sodium moderation, and self-monitoring blood pressure and physical activity.

  16. African Americans and Multiple Sclerosis (United States)

    ... Council: AmericansandMS African Americans & Multiple Sclerosis GENER AL INFORMATION MS STOPS PEOPLE FROM MOVING. ... Judy, diagnosed in 1982 What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS), an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the ...

  17. African-American Sacred Music. (United States)

    Bailey, A. Peter


    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  18. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the ...

  19. Infant Mortality and African Americans (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > ... African Americans had over twice the sudden infant death syndrome mortality rate as non-Hispanic whites, in ...

  20. Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Regional East African Community Health (REACH) policy initiative aims to improve health and health equity in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda by facilitating the translation of health research into policy and practice. Once fully established, REACH will function as a bridge linking health researchers and policymakers.

  1. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown


    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union."

  2. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  3. African American Teaching and the Matriarchal Performance. (United States)

    Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

    This paper discusses the role of matriarchs in African-American culture, explaining that traditionally, African-American matriarchs arise from a combination of African norms and American social positions that naturally forces them to assume leadership conditions. The roles these women assume are a response to the desire to survive in a society…

  4. Hemicrania continua in African Americans. (United States)

    Wheeler, Steve D.


    OBJECTIVE: The first six cases of hemicrania continua and episodica in African Americans are reported, differences from previous accounts noted, and important diagnostic features described. BACKGROUND: Hemicrania continua is an indomethacin responsive chronic daily headache. Mild to moderate daily headache is strictly unilateral, constant but fluctuating. Superimposed severe headache attacks occur, last seconds to days, and are associated with ipsilateral orbital-nasal autonomic dysfunction. RESULTS: Severe headache attacks are usually pulsatile, occur one to four times daily, and last 40 minutes to three days. Daily unilateral background headache was typically of a pressure, sharp, dull or pulling quality. Ipsilateral orbital-nasal autonomic symptoms were noted in all. Serious concomitant medical illnesses, e.g. coronary artery disease, diabetes, and hypertension, were frequent in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of hemicrania continua and episodica in African Americans and the second in persons of African descent in the world's literature. Late age of onset, frequent serious medical illnesses, and family history of migraine differentiate this series from previous reports. The lack of reports in African Americans most likely reflects misdiagnosis rather than true prevalence. Thus, whenever any patient presents with chronic daily unilateral headache, ipsilateral autonomic symptoms should be assessed during severe headache attacks, and an indomethacin trial considered. PMID:12408695

  5. Teacher Education from an African American Perspective. (United States)

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    This paper focuses on African education and socialization processes and how these have evolved and spread through the African cultural diaspora to other parts of the world, before, during, and after the slave trade and the colonial period. The history of education on the African continent is explored, followed by African American education, and…

  6. Parsing the Gulf between Africans and African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashly Nsangou


    Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.

  7. African American and Black Caribbean Feelings of Closeness to Africans. (United States)

    Thornton, Michael C; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy


    African American and Black Caribbean relations dominate research on interactions across black ethnic divides. Using National Survey of American Life data, we explore a different aspect of black interethnic attitudes: how close these groups feel toward Africans. African Americans and Black Caribbeans were largely similar in their feelings of closeness to Africans. For Black Caribbeans, younger and male respondents, those reporting higher levels of financial strain, living in the northeast and persons who immigrated to the United States at least 11 years ago, report feeling especially close to Africans. Being male was the only significant correlate among African Americans. The findings are discussed in relation to how race, ethnicity and national origin shape personal identities within the U.S. and their significance for intergroup perceptions. These broader issues warrant further consideration in light of assertions that race as a defining feature of American life and intergroup relations is obsolete.

  8. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0566 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Henry T. Lynch, MD the African American community in Nebraska and Mississippi. Family history of prostate and other cancers is being recorded with the purpose of...W81XWH-11-1-0566 November 2015 Final 15Aug2011 - 14Aug2015 Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans Henry T. Lynch Nothing listed 36

  9. Accepting transitions: African Americans discuss end of life. (United States)

    Yancu, Cecile N; Farmer, Deborah F; Graves, Mara J; Rhinehardt, April; Leahman, Dee


    African Americans typically underuse hospice care; this study explores their end of life attitudes. An iterative focus group strategy generated qualitative data using 4 baseline groups and 1 confirmatory focus group recruited from predominantly African American churches. Each group consisted of 8 to 14 adults. Investigators analyzed data for dominant themes, representatives from baseline groups returned to discuss the results. A total of 43 African Americans (male: 8 [18.6]; female: 35 [81.4]) participated in initial discussions, with 10 returning for follow-up. The prevailing theme was transitions; with life to death dominating discourse; other themes included curative to palliative care and acceptance of death as inevitable. Among African Americans, outreach efforts may be strengthened by reframing the dying process as the product of many transitions and reaching out to faith-based communities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. African American college women's suicide buffers. (United States)

    Marion, Michelle S; Range, Lillian M


    African American women have lower suicide rates than other women and men in the United States They may possess suicide buffers including social support, religiosity, negative attitudes regarding suicide acceptability, and African American culture. To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious problem-solving style. The identification of these factors may help in the assessment, prevention, and intervention of suicide for African American women and other women and men.

  11. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans. (United States)

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B; Omar, Sabah A; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S; Smith, Michael W; Thera, Mahamadou A; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L; Williams, Scott M


    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (approximately 71%), European (approximately 13%), and other African (approximately 8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies.

  12. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek


    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  13. LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples


    GATES, GARY J.; Kastanis, Angel


    An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. For example, a quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland. The rep...

  14. African Americans and the Industrial Revolution. (United States)

    Trotter, Joe William, Jr.


    Briefly outlines the ways race and technology shaped: (1) the early enslavement of African Americans; (2) the work of bondsmen and women during the antebellum era; and (3) the increasing urbanization of the African American population during the industrial age. (CMK)

  15. Intimate partner violence in African American women. (United States)

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M


    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  16. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon


    Full Text Available The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are proclaiming their identity. Moreover, the paper presents the translation problems that emerge when attempting to transfer such a specific, even exotic, source culture into a target culture, like Slovene. The goal is to show to what extent contemporary African American poetry can successfully be translated into the Slovene language and to highlight the parts that inevitably remain lost in the translation process.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib eSohail


    Full Text Available Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  18. African-Americans and the Mobilization of Support for African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its activities and successes constitute an eloquent testimony to the continued existence of pragmatic racial pan-Africanism.1 Furthermore, they show that like other “hyphenated-Americans”, African-Americans are still very interested in developments in their “ancestral home”, and are willing to partake in shaping such ...

  19. African Magazines for American Libraries (United States)

    Berman, Sanford


    From the varied spectrum of African periodical publishing, a selection of particular interest - an annotated bibliography of English-language titles produced wholly (or mainly) by Africans in Africa. (Editor/JB)

  20. "African American": The Use of This Term in Library Literature and African American Literature. (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia Lynn

    The purpose of this comparative study was to determine to what degree the politically correct term, "African American" is being used in library literature and African American literature. Other terms examined were "Black,""Afro-American,""multicultural," and "cultural diversity." In addition, the…

  1. African American Women's Preparation for Childbirth From the Perspective of African American Health-Care Providers. (United States)

    Abbyad, Christine; Robertson, Trina Reed


    Preparation for birthing has focused primarily on Caucasian women. No studies have explored African American women's birth preparation. From the perceptions of 12 African American maternity health-care providers, this study elicited perceptions of the ways in which pregnant African American women prepare for childbirth. Focus group participants answered seven semistructured questions. Four themes emerged: connecting with nurturers, traversing an unresponsive system, the need to be strong, and childbirth classes not a priority. Recommendations for nurses and childbirth educators include: (a) self-awareness of attitudes toward African Americans, (b) empowering of clients for birthing, (c) recognition of the role that pregnant women's mothers play, (d) tailoring of childbirth classes for African American women, and (e) research on how racism influences pregnant African American women's preparation for birthing.

  2. Mellonee Burnim on African American Music. (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia Shehan


    Describes the role and influence of Mellonee Burnim on U.S. music education. Discusses the origins and impact of African American gospel music. Includes a list of selected resources and two lesson plans featuring gospel music. (CFR)

  3. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia in African Americans. (United States)

    Coombs, Catherine C; Falchi, Lorenzo; Weinberg, J Brice; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Lanasa, Mark C


    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the United States with almost 4390 attributable deaths per year. Epidemiologic data compiled by the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program identifies important differences in incidence and survival for African Americans with CLL. Although the incidence of CLL is lower among African Americans than among Caucasians (4.6 and 6.2 per 100 000 men, respectively), age-adjusted survival is inferior. African American patients with CLL are almost twice as likely to die from a CLL-related complication in the first 5 years after diagnosis as are Caucasian patients with CLL. The biologic basis for these observations is almost entirely unexplored, and a comprehensive clinical analysis of African American patients with CLL is lacking. This is the subject of the present review.

  4. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans (United States)


    hereditary prostate cancer syndrome. This will be possible through the recruitment of a total of 800 African Americans who have been diagnosed in Nebraska and Mississippi. Family history of prostate and other cancers is being recorded with the purpose of identifying any hereditary ...Omaha, their geographic area of most concentration in Nebraska. Information on prostate cancer predisposing genes in African Americans are partially

  5. Black versus Black: The Relationship among African, African American, and African Caribbean Persons. (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer V.; Cothran, Mary E.


    Surveyed people of African descent regarding relationships among African, African-American, and African-Caribbean persons, focusing on contact and friendship, travel to countries of the diaspora, cross-cultural communication, thoughts and stereotypes, and education. Most respondents had contacts with the other groups, but groups had preconceived…

  6. Far-Reaching Impacts of African Dust- A Calipso Perspective (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Prospero, Joseph; Omar, Ali; Remer, Lorraine; Winker, David; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; hide


    African dust can transport across the tropical Atlantic and reach the Amazon basin, exerting far-reaching impacts on climate in downwind regions. The transported dust influences the surface-atmosphere interactions and cloud and precipitation processes through perturbing the surface radiative budget and atmospheric radiative heating and acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. Dust also influences biogeochemical cycle and climate through providing nutrients vital to the productivity of ocean biomass and Amazon forests. Assessing these climate impacts relies on an accurate quantification of dust transport and deposition. Currently model simulations show extremely large diversity, which calls for a need of observational constraints. Kaufman et al. (2005) estimated from MODIS aerosol measurements that about 144 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic and 50 Tg of dust into the Amazon in 2001. This estimated dust import to Amazon is a factor of 3-4 higher than other observations and models. However, several studies have argued that the oversimplified characterization of dust vertical profile in the study would have introduced large uncertainty and very likely a high bias. In this study we quantify the trans-Atlantic dust transport and deposition by using 7 years (2007-2013) observations from CALIPSO lidar. CALIPSO acquires high-resolution aerosol extinction and depolarization profiles in both cloud-free and above-cloud conditions. The unique CALIPSO capability of profiling aerosols above clouds offers an unprecedented opportunity of examining uncertainties associated with the use of MODIS clear-sky data. Dust is separated from other types of aerosols using the depolarization measurements. We estimated that on the basis of 7-year average, 118142 Tg of dust is deposited into the tropical Atlantic and 3860 Tg of dust into the Amazon basin. Substantial interannual variations are observed during the period, with the maximum to minimum ratio of about 1

  7. Cultural Mistrust and Racism Reaction among African-American Students. (United States)

    Thompson, Chalmer E.; And Others


    Examined cultural mistrust and feelings concerning racism among African-Americans. Findings from 87 African-American and 70 Euro-American college students at predominantly Euro-American university suggest that African-American college students may report "paranoid" experiences that actually reflect normative, health reactions to racism. (Author/NB)

  8. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013. (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin


    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  9. African-American Youth at Risk. (United States)

    Hare, Bruce R.


    Uses a structural deterministic perspective to explain the overrepresentation of African-Americans in the lower levels of the American social system. Discusses the negative impact of racism, classism, and sexism on the Black family and the socialization of Black youth. Urges the formation of community coalitions to provide youth activities and to…

  10. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis


    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  11. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach (United States)

    Sapp, Marty


    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  12. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency (United States)

    Smith, Eva C.


    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  13. Trust in African Americans' Healthcare Experiences. (United States)

    Murray, Traci M


    The purpose of the study is to clarify the concept of trust, identify its defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences, and apply to the healthcare experiences of African Americans. For African Americans, mistrust in the healthcare system is the result of unequal treatment that began in slavery. Fear and negative experiences engender a reluctance to trust healthcare providers, which contributes to health disparities. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to clarify the concept of trust. The concept was applied to African Americans' healthcare experiences with discussion of opportunities for trust building. Data support for concept development was done using Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline, and online reference sources. Literature review was guided by using the keyword trust. Further contextual explication was done by adding a review of literature from sociology and history regarding the evolution of African American mistrust of the U.S. healthcare system. The defining attributes of trust are dependence, willingness, and met expectations. Antecedents to trust include a need requiring the help of another and prior knowledge or experience. The consequence of trust is an evaluation of the congruence between expected and actual behaviors of the trusted person or thing. Literature review of the African American culture adds a dynamic aspect for nurses to consider when developing relationships in minority communities. Trust is the willingness to enter a dependent relationship to have the needs addressed, and is maintained by met expectations. Rebuilding trusting relationships between providers and African American patients is a vital step toward reducing health disparities. Murray. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Three Generations, Three Wars: African American Veterans. (United States)

    Black, Helen K


    This article emerged from pilot research exploring experiences of war and suffering among African American veterans who served in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Men's experiences as soldiers reflected both racism and the social change that occurred in the Unites States while they served. We used techniques of narrative elicitation, conducting qualitative, ethnographic interviews with each of five veterans in his home. Interviews focused on unique and shared experiences as an African American man and a soldier. Three important themes emerged: (a) Expectations related to War--Although men viewed service to country as an expected part of life, they also expected equal treatment in war, which did not occur; (b) Suffering as an African American--Informants interpreted experiences of suffering in war as related to the lower status of African American servicemen; and (c) Perception of present identity--Each man was honed by the sum of his experiences, including those of combat, racism, and postwar opportunities and obstacles. From 40 to 70 years after the wars were fought, there are few scholarly narrative studies on African American veterans, despite the fact that Korean War Veterans are entering old-old age and few World War II Veterans are alive. The value of pilot research that offers narratives of unheard voices is significant; larger studies can interview more African American veterans to advance knowledge that might soon be lost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  15. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.


    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  16. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips


    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  17. Helping African American Males: The Cure. (United States)

    Gill, Walter


    Looks at the current plight of the African-American male, exploring the role of the dominant culture, mass media, and low self-esteem. Describes a possible cure, citing five areas for action, calling for year-round school in some urban areas, exploring Afrocentric curricula, and considering rites of passage programs. (JB)

  18. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator (United States)

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew


    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  19. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence (United States)

    Mazama, Ama


    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  20. HIV/AIDS among African Americans (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African Americans Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  1. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke (United States)

    ... need to do a marathon.” Learn more: Family History and Heart Disease, Stroke Make the Effort to Prevent Heart Disease with Life's Simple 7 ® Learn more about African-Americans and stroke at our Power To End Stroke ...

  2. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon (United States)


    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  3. Five Types of African-American Marriages. (United States)

    Allen, William D.; Olson, David H.


    Developed a marital typology based on a nonrandom, national sample of 415 African American couples who took the Enriching Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) marital assessment inventory. Five marriage types were labeled as vitalized; harmonious; traditional; conflicted; and devitalized. Results were similar to findings in…

  4. Violent Behaviors among African-American Adolescents. (United States)

    Garrett, Darhyl


    Explores the development of behaviors by using Erik Erikson's psychosocial developmental theory, with emphasis on adolescents. Examines factors, such as identity versus identity diffusion, that may be contributing to increasing acts of violence by African American adolescents. Other factors are examined that may contribute to increased violence.…

  5. Teaching about Technology and African American History. (United States)

    Sinclair, Bruce


    Advocates moving the teaching and studying of race and technology in U.S. history beyond biographical inventories of African-American achievement. Recommends extending the study to include issues of culture, racial assumptions, and representation. Briefly examines ways in which issues of labor, consumption, and cultural change can be integrated…

  6. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.


    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  7. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning (United States)

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea


    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  8. Black Lives Matter: Teaching African American Literature and the Struggle (United States)

    Gross, Jeffrey


    In theorizing how we should pedagogically approach African American literature, especially in courses for undergraduates, I argue that we have to move away from questions of what was or even what is African American literature and, instead, find ways to teach African American literature in both its historical contexts--artistic and political--and…

  9. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising. (United States)


    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  10. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males. (United States)

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.


    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  11. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.


    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  12. 75 FR 32075 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010 (United States)


    ... indelible contributions to our Nation and our world. Throughout our history, African-American music has...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8527 of May 28, 2010 African-American Music... inspires us daily, giving voice to the human spirit. For many, including the African- American community...

  13. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8930 of January 31, 2013 National African American History Month, 2013 By the... Nation's history, that dream has gone unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until 150... every color and creed. National African American History Month is a time to tell those stories of...

  14. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine


    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  15. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women (United States)

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.


    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  16. Mechanisms of Vowel Variation in African American English. (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster


    This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n = 16) lifelong residents of cities in eastern and western North Carolina produced heed,hid,heyd,head,had,hod,hawed,whod,hood,hoed,hide,howed,hoyd, and heard 3 times each in random order. Formant frequency, duration, and acoustic analyses were completed for the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, aɪ, aʊ, oɪ, ɝ/ produced in the listed words. African American English speakers show vowel variation. In the west, the African American English speakers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift and hod fronting of the African American Shift. In the east, neither the African American English speakers nor their White peers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift. The African American English speakers show limited participation in the African American Shift. The results provide evidence of regional and socio-ethnic variation in African American English in North Carolina.

  17. The myth of meritocracy and African American health. (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H


    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.

  18. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans. (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.

  19. Lift every voice: voices of African-American lesbian elders. (United States)

    Woody, Imani


    Old lesbians of African descent have experienced racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and ageism. This article explores the topics of aging, ageism, heterosexism, and minority stress among older African-American lesbians. The narratives and subsequent analysis offer significant contributions to the dialogue regarding Black aging lesbians in the aging and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities generally and in the African-American and African-American lesbian communities specifically.

  20. Differences in patterns of symptom attribution in diagnosing schizophrenia between African American and non-African American clinicians. (United States)

    Trierweiler, Steven J; Neighbors, Harold W; Munday, Cheryl; Thompson, Estina E; Jackson, James S; Binion, Victoria J


    The authors examined clinician race differences in symptom attribution patterns in diagnosing psychiatric inpatients from a low-income, African American community. Different decision models were applied to patients based on clinician race. African American clinicians diagnosed schizophrenia with higher odds than non-African American clinicians when they believed hallucinations were present and avoided that diagnosis with lower odds when they considered substance abuse issues. Non-African American clinicians usually related the attribution of negative symptoms to the diagnosis of schizophrenia while African American clinicians did not make this linkage. The study highlights the need for more detailed examination of cultural influences on diagnostic judgments. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. African-American caregivers’ breast health behavior


    Inoue, Megumi; Pickard, Joseph G.; Welch-Saleeby, Patricia; Johnson, Sharon


    This study utilizes a stress and coping framework which includes cognitive appraisal, personal and environmental resources, coping and stress to examine factors related to African-American caregivers’ breast cancer screenings, including mammograms, clinical examinations and self-examinations. Using data from the Black Rural and Urban Caregivers Mental Health and Functioning Study, we performed separate logistic regressions for each type of breast cancer screening. Results reveal that having a...



    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.


    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  3. Exploring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Risk Factors in Sexual Decision Making for African American Women (United States)

    Pimpleton, Asher M.


    Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…

  4. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schneck


    Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  5. Online Health Information and Low-Literacy African Americans (United States)

    Birru, Mehret S


    African Americans with low incomes and low literacy levels disproportionately suffer poor health outcomes from many preventable diseases. Low functional literacy and low health literacy impede millions of Americans from successfully accessing health information. These problems are compounded for African Americans by cultural insensitivity in health materials. The Internet could become a useful tool for providing accessible health information to low-literacy and low-income African Americans. Optimal health Web sites should include text written at low reading levels and appropriate cultural references. More research is needed to determine how African Americans with low literacy skills access, evaluate, prioritize, and value health information on the Internet. PMID:15471752

  6. African-American Academic Nurse Leader's Role in Persistence of African-American Baccalaureate Nursing Students (United States)

    Nelson, Kesha Marie


    African-American baccalaureate nursing students have a limited persistence to graduation. This constructivist grounded theory study was designed to generate a substantive theory, emerged from these data, that explained and provided insight the African-American academic nurse leader's role in the persistence to graduation of African-American…

  7. The landscape of recombination in African Americans (United States)

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.


    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  8. Can Faith and Hospice Coexist: Is the African American Church the Key to Increased Hospice Utilization for African Americans? (United States)

    Townsend, Apollo; March, Alice L; Kimball, Jan


    African Americans are twice as likely as Caucasian Americans to choose aggressive hospital treatment when death is imminent. Repeat hospitalizations are traumatic for patients and drain patient and health system resources. Hospice care is a specialized alternative that vastly improves patient quality of life at end-of-life. This study was conducted to determine if hospices partnering with African American churches to disseminate hospice education materials could increase utilization of hospice services by African Americans. Members of two African American churches (N = 34) participated in focus group discussions to elicit beliefs about hospice care. Focus group transcripts were coded and comments were grouped according to theme. Six themes were identified. Lack of knowledge about hospice services and spiritual beliefs emerged as the top two contributing factors for underutilization of hospice services. Study findings support partnerships between hospices and African American churches to provide hospice education to the African American community. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. 76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 (United States)


    ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The music of our...-American Music Appreciation Month, we honor the rich musical traditions of African-American musicians and...

  10. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union... tradition, and during African-American Music Appreciation Month, we pay special tribute to their...

  11. The college life experiences of African American women athletes. (United States)

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A


    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.

  12. KSC kicks off African-American History Month (United States)


    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  13. Perspectives from the historic African American medical institutions. (United States)

    Epps, C H


    The historically African American medical schools have been at the center of medical education for African American physicians in the United States since the Howard University College of Medicine opened in 1868. Although there were more than a dozen African American medical schools established during the next few decades, as propriety or church affiliated schools, only two survived the Flexner Report in 1910. Howard University (1868) and Meharry (1876) survived and trained generations of African Americans. These two schools educated approximately 85% of all African American physicians whereas the majority medical schools educated 15% for more than half of the twentieth century. As the result of a series of lawsuits filed by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, civil rights legislation and affirmative action programs, the numbers of the schools that now admitted African Americans increased and the total numbers of African American medical students increased when discrimination was prohibited in 1966. The percentage of African American medical students attending predominantly white institutions increased by 25% in 1948, by 47% in 1968, by 61% in 1983 and to 84% in 1990. Two additional predominantly African American medical schools were established: the Charles R. Drew Medical School, Los Angeles (affiliated with the University of California, Los Angeles) in 1966, and Morehouse Medical School, Atlanta, which admitted its first class in 1978. Recent court decisions prohibiting schools from considering race as factor in admission and the end of affirmative action programs have resulted in a drop in total minority enrollment. The historically African American medical schools, that admitted approximately 15% of the African American medical students during the era of affirmative action programs, will see this percentage decrease as the majority institutions admit fewer African American medical students and minority students. In the United States

  14. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation. (United States)

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A


    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  15. Bullying and victimization among African American adolescents: a literature review. (United States)

    Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J


    Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Teacher-Student Interactions and Academic Achievement of African American and African Immigrant Males (United States)

    Hussein, Hassen


    This quantitative survey questionnaires study compared the teacher-student interactions (TSI) and academic achievement of African-American and African immigrant undergraduate males. The academic achievement gap between different population groups provided the impetus for the study. While African Americans have been described as under-achievers in…

  17. African and African-American Voices on Educational Leadership: Counter Cultural Images and Narratives. (United States)

    Donelan, Richard W.


    Africentric ideas about leaders and leadership have remained part of the African Diaspora's cultural underpinnings over time. Slavery experiences predispose the African-American community to reject strong, natural leadership. This article and accompanying poem recount stories about the African-American experience and profile some true leaders.…

  18. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece


    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  19. Africans in the American Labor Market. (United States)

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan


    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.

  20. Cardiovascular Health in African Americans: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. (United States)

    Carnethon, Mercedes R; Pu, Jia; Howard, George; Albert, Michelle A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Bertoni, Alain G; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Palaniappan, Latha; Taylor, Herman A; Willis, Monte; Yancy, Clyde W


    Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian


    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  2. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity. (United States)

    Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon


    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  3. Stroke in Indigenous Africans, African Americans, and European Americans: Interplay of Racial and Geographic Factors. (United States)

    Owolabi, Mayowa; Sarfo, Fred; Howard, Virginia J; Irvin, Marguerite R; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Akinyemi, Rufus; Bennett, Aleena; Armstrong, Kevin; Tiwari, Hemant K; Akpalu, Albert; Wahab, Kolawole W; Owolabi, Lukman; Fawale, Bimbo; Komolafe, Morenikeji; Obiako, Reginald; Adebayo, Philip; Manly, Jennifer M; Ogbole, Godwin; Melikam, Ezinne; Laryea, Ruth; Saulson, Raelle; Jenkins, Carolyn; Arnett, Donna K; Lackland, Daniel T; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Howard, George


    The relative contributions of racial and geographic factors to higher risk of stroke in people of African ancestry have not been unraveled. We compared stroke type and contributions of vascular risk factors among indigenous Africans (IA), African Americans (AA), and European Americans (EA). SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) is a large multinational case-control study in West Africa-the ancestral home of 71% AA-whereas REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) is a cohort study including AA and EA in the United States. Using harmonized assessments and standard definitions, we compared data on stroke type and established risk factors for stroke in acute stroke cases aged ≥55 years in both studies. There were 811 IA, 452 AA, and 665 EA stroke subjects, with mean age of 68.0±9.3, 73.0±8.3, and 76.0±8.3 years, respectively ( P stroke was more frequent among IA (27%) compared with AA (8%) and EA (5.4%; P strokes were more prevalent in IA (47.1%), followed by AA (35.1%) and then EA (21.0%; P stroke in AA compared with IA, whereas racial factors may contribute to the higher proportion of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among stroke subjects of African ancestry. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Afrikaans, American and British Models for South African English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    larities in the social situations of Afrikaans, American English, and South Afri- can English. The treatment of ... African English and the new Dictionary of South African English on Historical Prin- ciples, capture the South .... interactional styles in the South African social psychology and cross-cultural communication literature ...

  5. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans. (United States)

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O


    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  6. Progressive strength training in sedentary, older African American women. (United States)

    Adams, K J; Swank, A M; Berning, J M; Sevene-Adams, P G; Barnard, K L; Shimp-Bowerman, J


    This study investigated effects of an 8-wk, low-frequency and low-volume, supervised, progressive strength training program emphasizing free weight, multijoint movements on the muscular power, strength, endurance, and flexibility of African American women 44 to 68 yr of age. Nineteen sedentary African American women were randomly assigned to a strength training (ST) only group (N = 12; mean age, 51 yr) or a nonexercise control (C) group (N = 7; mean age, 52 yr). Maximal power, strength, absolute endurance, and flexibility were assessed before and after training. Subjects trained 2 d x wk(-1) using free weight (barbells and dumbbells) and machine (plate loaded) exercises for two to three sets of 8 to 10 repetitions on both primary and assistance exercises. Upper body power (medicine ball put distance) significantly increased statistically (P = 0.002), but gains possibly lacked practical significance because of measurement variation. Lower body power (peak watts on bicycle) experienced a small, nonsignificant increase in the ST group. Significant increases (P = 0.000) in 1RM muscle strength occurred in the ST group (leg press, +99.8%; bench press, +34.4%). Absolute endurance significantly increased (P = 0.000) in the ST group (leg press repetitions to failure at 70% pretest 1RM, +221%; bench press repetitions to failure at 50% pretest 1RM, +112%). Significant flexibility gains occurred in the ST group (sit-and-reach test, +8.2%; P = 0.017). No significant changes occurred in power, strength, absolute endurance, or flexibility in the C group. This study demonstrates that 8 wk of low-frequency, supervised, progressive strength training emphasizing free weight, multijoint movements can safely cause significant gains in muscle strength, absolute endurance, and flexibility in older African American women.

  7. Culturally Competent Counseling for Religious and Spiritual African American Adolescents (United States)

    Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Day-Vines, Norma L.


    Religion and spirituality are deeply rooted in traditional African American culture. Data suggest that African American adolescents maintain higher baseline rates of religious activities and beliefs than their peers (Bachman, Johnston, & O'Malley, 2005; Smith, Faris, Denton, & Regnerus, 2003). Recognizing these data, this article examines…

  8. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 16 AA - Spirituality (United States)

    The sixteenth module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the importance of spirituality in the lived experience of most African Americans, and how they utilize spirituality and religion to cope with serious stressors such as life-threatening illness.

  9. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011 (United States)


    ... the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws... the Civil War,'' invites us to reflect on 150 years since the start of the Civil War and on the... to deliver fundamental civil and human rights to African Americans, but African Americans would not...

  10. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin


    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  11. Students' Comprehension of the representation of African American ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article was prompted by observations in tutorial lectures on African American Literature and reports on a subsequent pilot study. It explores students' responses to African American Vernacular (AAV) as used in the novel The Color Purple by Alice Walker. A questionnaire was used to explore students' comprehension of ...

  12. Engaging African American landowners in sustainable forest management (United States)

    John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Rory Fraser; Viniece Jennings; Amadou Diop


    The Sustainable Forestry and African American Land Retention Program is a comprehensive effort to address the long-standing problem of underparticipation of African Americans in forest management. We conducted rapid appraisal baseline research for pilot projects in this program in three Southern states using a carefully selected purposive sample to enhance our...

  13. African Americans' Access to Vocational Rehabilitation Services after Antidiscrimination Legislation (United States)

    Mwachofi, Ari K.


    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in African Americans' access to occasional rehabilitation (VR) services subsequent to landmark legislative and judicial antidiscrimination provisions of the mid-20th century. This study compared African American VR access before the antidiscrimination legislation in 1937 and after the legislation…

  14. Recent African American Migration Trends in the United States. (United States)

    Johnson, James H., Jr.


    Presents a geographical analysis of African American migration estimates compiled by the Census Bureau for the 1980-85 period. Argues that structural changes in employment opportunities and the housing affordability crisis in some of the nation's largest metropolitan areas are the dominant forces influencing current African American population…

  15. The Self-Transformations of African American Achievers. (United States)

    Hemmings, Annette


    Analyzes ethnographic case studies of three African-American student achievers attending desegregated urban high schools to determine the nature and consequences of the identity work of African-American youths in urban educational contexts. It describes their self-transformation through the use of contrasting strategies of self-negation,…

  16. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.


    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  17. Perceived Racism as a Predictor of Paranoia among African Americans (United States)

    Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott


    Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…

  18. A Lifeline to Science Careers for African-American Females. (United States)

    Adenika-Morrow, T. Jean


    Two reasons African American females do not pursue science careers are the need for immediate employment and lack of tools to negotiate the racism and sexism that undermine their aspirations for success. This article describes intervention strategies in an Afrocentric school and a medical magnet school that encourage African American girls to…

  19. Parental Attachments and Psychological Distress among African American College Students (United States)

    Love, Keisha McGhee


    African American college students attending predominately White institutions often encounter stressors that their Caucasian peers do not experience. Because of these unique stressors, African American students are more prone to experience psychological distress. Identifying factors that counteract psychological distress among these students is…

  20. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane


    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  1. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey


    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  2. Indigenous Systems within the African-American Community (United States)

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Rouson, Leon


    For the African-American family, life ain't been no crystal stair. The African-American family has trotted for over 400 years through a wilderness of racism, poverty, discrimination of all kinds, crossing seas of monsters and forests of demons. Yet, despite the numerous obstacles and attacks that society has mounted against it since slavery, the…

  3. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 (United States)


    ... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of... lasting freedom. Through every generation, music has reflected and renewed our national conversation...

  4. A Snapshot of African Americans in Higher Education. Mini Brief (United States)

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2010


    In recognition of national African-American History Month, the Institute for Higher Education Policy wishes to highlight the trends and present-day experiences of African-American college students. Recognizing that the society benefits tremendously from an educated citizenry, there must be a renewed commitment to ensuring educational opportunity,…

  5. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama (United States)

    Millward, Jessica


    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  6. African American History as Depicted in Recently Published Children's Books (United States)

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Astengo, Be; Lowery, Ruth McCoy; Masla, Diane; Russo, Roseanne; Savage, Debbie; Shelton, Nancy Rankie


    Exciting stories about African Americans in recently published historical fiction books for children concern Pea Island Life-Station, a private school for African American girls, a biracial slave, a black woman who homesteads for land in 1889, and an orphan who travels on his own to Flint, Michigan, during the Depression. Much of this history…

  7. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming


    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  8. The Spiritual Journey of African American Women in Higher Education. (United States)

    Southern, Vada


    Spirituality has been a major source of strength for African American women educators, who comprise a tiny fraction of college faculty and administrators. Spiritually connected people achieve self-realization by attaining oneness with humanity. Until African American women speak publicly about their spiritual experience, their contributions to…

  9. Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know (United States)

    ... Info Health Information Are You At Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know Are ... symptoms? Are African American men at risk for oral cancer? Yes, African American men are one of the ...

  10. Culturally specific dance to reduce obesity in African American women. (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A


    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women.

  11. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South. (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher


    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  12. A rural African American faith community's solutions to depression disparities. (United States)

    Bryant, Keneshia; Haynes, Tiffany; Kim Yeary, Karen Hye-Cheon; Greer-Williams, Nancy; Hartwig, Mary


    The aim of this study was to explore how a rural African American faith community would address depression within their congregations and the community as a whole. A qualitative, interpretive descriptive methodology was used. The sample included 24 participants representing pastors, parishioners interested in health, and African American men who had experienced symptoms of depression in a community in the Arkansas Delta. The primary data sources for this qualitative research study were focus groups. Participants identified three key players in the rural African American faith community who can combat depression: the Church, the Pastor/Clergy, and the Layperson. The roles of each were identified and recommendations for each to address depression disparities in rural African Americans. The recommendations can be used to develop faith-based interventions for depression targeting the African American faith community. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Parenting Needs of Urban, African American Fathers. (United States)

    Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L


    Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans. (United States)

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Auton, Adam; Nelson, Matthew R; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Williams, Scott; Froment, Alain; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Wambebe, Charles; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Bustamante, Carlos D


    Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale. To obtain a fine-scale genome-wide perspective of ancestry, we analyze Affymetrix GeneChip 500K genotype data from African Americans (n = 365) and individuals with ancestry from West Africa (n = 203 from 12 populations) and Europe (n = 400 from 42 countries). We find that population structure within the West African sample reflects primarily language and secondarily geographical distance, echoing the Bantu expansion. Among African Americans, analysis of genomic admixture by a principal component-based approach indicates that the median proportion of European ancestry is 18.5% (25th-75th percentiles: 11.6-27.7%), with very large variation among individuals. In the African-American sample as a whole, few autosomal regions showed exceptionally high or low mean African ancestry, but the X chromosome showed elevated levels of African ancestry, consistent with a sex-biased pattern of gene flow with an excess of European male and African female ancestry. We also find that genomic profiles of individual African Americans afford personalized ancestry reconstructions differentiating ancient vs. recent European and African ancestry. Finally, patterns of genetic similarity among inferred African segments of African-American genomes and genomes of contemporary African populations included in this study suggest African ancestry is most similar to non-Bantu Niger-Kordofanian-speaking populations, consistent with historical documents of the African Diaspora and trans-Atlantic slave trade.

  15. Marital Satisfaction Among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings From the National Survey of American Life*


    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.


    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women reported overall higher levels of marital satisfaction than African American women. The findings amply demonstrate the significance of ethnic diversi...

  16. Exploring the Link between Self-Construal and Distress among African American and Asian American College Students (United States)

    Christopher, Michael S.; Skillman, Gemma D.


    The authors investigated ethnicity, self-construal, and distress among African American and Asian American college students. African American students expressed more salient independent self-construals, whereas Asian American students expressed more salient interdependent self-construals. As hypothesized, among African American participants,…

  17. A Vignette: "You're American?" Attempts to Reach Muslim High School Students in Germany (United States)

    Dorfman, Dorinne


    This article presents a story of how an American teacher in Berlin tried to reach out to her Muslim high school students. She relates how her students were always gracious to her but when they found out she was an American, they tend to avoid talking to her. She explains that the reputation the United States has earned over the past three years…

  18. African and Arab American Achievement Motivation: Effects of Minority Membership. (United States)

    Kovach, Bernadette S.; Hillman, Stephen B.

    The association between ethnic group identification, attributional style, and the use of self-protective attributions with respect to self-esteem, academic achievement and motivation among ethnically diverse adolescents was examined. Participants in the study included 422 African American, 90 Arab American, and 194 European American high school…

  19. The African Impact in American Civilizations, 1500-1800 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of American history shows that Africans were involved in the development of the American continents.1 But the facts are not in an inclusive document. This article highlights their major contributions to the exploration of the Americas, American War of Independence, and the Civil War. Others are the development of ...

  20. Stroke risk factor profiles in African American women: an interim report from the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study. (United States)

    Worrall, Bradford B; Johnston, Karen C; Kongable, Gail; Hung, Elena; Richardson, DeJuran; Gorelick, Philip B


    If sex differences in stroke risk factor profiles exist among African Americans in the United States, prevention strategies will need to reflect those differences. African Americans and women have been underrepresented in stroke prevention studies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether medical and lifestyle factors differ among women and men who have enrolled in the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS). We performed a planned exploratory analysis of differences in baseline characteristics and risk factors between women and men enrolled in AAASPS, a double-blind, randomized, multicenter, controlled trial. Frequencies of vascular risk factors and related conditions, medical therapies, stroke subtypes, and vascular territories were compared between women and men by 1-way ANOVA and Fisher's exact test where appropriate. A total of 1087 African American patients (574 women, 513 men) enrolled between December 1995 and June 1999. Women had higher rates of hypertension, diabetes, family history of stroke, and no reported leisure exercise. Men had higher rates of smoking and heavy alcohol use. Few differences were noted in proportions of stroke subtype or proportions receiving preventive therapy. AAASPS represents the largest enrollment of African American women in a recurrent stroke prevention study. Our data suggest that African American women in a clinical trial differ from men in the frequency of key vascular risk factors. Although limited, these data provide an important first characterization of sex differences in African Americans with stroke.

  1. African American and European American Mothers’ Beliefs about Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart


    SYNOPSIS Objective Mothers’ beliefs about their children’s negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices were examined. Design Sixty-five African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children’s negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was less acceptable than European American mothers, and African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative social consequences for the display of negative emotions. African American mothers reported fewer supportive responses to children’s negative emotions than European Americans and more nonsupportive responses to children’s anger. African American mothers of boys also reported more nonsupportive responses to submissive negative emotions than African American mothers of girls. However, no differences were found by ethnicity or child gender in observed teaching about emotions. Group differences in mothers’ responses to negative emotions were explained, in part, by mothers’ beliefs about emotions. Conclusions Differences in beliefs and practices may reflect African American mothers’ efforts to protect their children from discrimination. PMID:22639552

  2. Differences in the tumor microenvironment between African-American and European-American breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damali N Martin

    Full Text Available African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity.Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-Americans was further investigated by examining the extent of vascularization and macrophage infiltration in an expanded set of 248 breast tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that microvessel density and macrophage infiltration is higher in tumors of African-Americans than in tumors of European-Americans. Lastly, using an in silico approach, we explored the potential of tailored treatment options for African-American patients based on their gene expression profile. This exploratory approach generated lists of therapeutics that may have specific antagonistic activity against tumors of African-American patients, e.g., sirolimus, resveratrol, and chlorpromazine in estrogen receptor-negative tumors.The gene expression profiles of breast tumors indicate that differences in tumor biology may exist between African-American and European-American patients beyond the knowledge of current markers. Notably, pathways

  3. Phyllodes tumors in African American women. (United States)

    Bumpers, Harvey L; Tadros, Talaat; Gabram-Mendola, Sheryl; Rizzo, Monica; Martin, Mersadies; Zaremba, Nicole; Okoli, Joel


    Phyllodes is a rare tumor accounting for less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. Studies defining clinical predictors of malignant phyllodes (MP) are rare and inconsistent. Furthermore, MP occurrence in African American (AA) women has never been analyzed. This study will delineate clinical and pathologic features in AA patients that may reasonably predict the probability of malignancy. A retrospective study of clinical records was carried out for 50 AA patients diagnosed with phyllodes tumors (PT) and treated between 1982 and 2012. Patients' charts were analyzed regarding demographics, pathology findings, and treatment. The diagnosis of benign disease was made in 40 (78%), borderline in 3 (6%), and malignancy in 7 (14%) patients; however, 1 patient (2%) had mixed phyllodes with ductal carcinoma in situ. The mean age was significantly different for patients with benign disease (33 years) compared with those with malignancy (54 years; P < .001). The average tumor size was twice as large (11.8 vs 4.1 cm; P = .029) and mitoses were higher with 50% of MPs having greater than 5 per 10 high power fields. Although rare, nodal metastasis, ulceration, and multicentric disease occurred only in MP. Among AA patients with phyllodes tumors, those with malignant tumors were older and had larger tumors and higher mitotic indices than those with benign disease. AA patients also displayed some of the more rare features of advanced disease and presented with malignancy near the highest reported frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alem Mehari

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence in United States (US adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs. However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA.To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system.We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO with wide range of BMI.Functional residual capacity (FRC and expiratory reserve volume (ERV decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV. However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC and residual volume (RV were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients.We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases.

  5. Development of a Faith-Based Stress Management Intervention in a Rural African American Community. (United States)

    Bryant, Keneshia; Moore, Todd; Willis, Nathaniel; Hadden, Kristie


    Faith-based mental health interventions developed and implemented using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach hold promise for reaching rural African Americans and addressing health disparities. To describe the development, challenges, and lessons learned from the Trinity Life Management, a faith-based stress management intervention in a rural African American faith community. The researchers used a CBPR approach by partnering with the African American faith community to develop a stress management intervention. Development strategies include working with key informants, focus groups, and a community advisory board (CAB). The community identified the key concepts that should be included in a stress management intervention. The faith-based "Trinity Life Management" stress management intervention was developed collaboratively by a CAB and an academic research team. The intervention includes stress management techniques that incorporate Biblical principles and information about the stress-distress-depression continuum.

  6. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life (United States)

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.


    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  7. African American adolescent perceptions of vulnerability and resilience to HIV. (United States)

    Glenn, Betty L; Wilson, Kathleen P


    HIV/AIDS is growing at a disproportional rate among African American adolescents. This trend has occurred despite the fact that 89% of schools have educational programs on HIV/AIDS. Barriers to effective HIV prevention may be related to a failure to develop educational programs based on the cultural competencies of vulnerable populations such as adolescents who are at risk for HIV. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore African American adolescent perceptions of vulnerability and resilience to HIV/AIDS within a cultural competency paradigm. A group of 8 adolescents at an African American church participated in a focus group to discuss vulnerability and resilience to HIV. To facilitate discussion, the adolescents developed collages from pictures in African American magazines. Content analysis was used to identify themes. The themes revealed were confidence, safe social activities, innocence, image, music/drug culture, and peer pressure.

  8. Portraits in Black: Establishing African American Identity through Nonfiction Books. (United States)

    Pugh, Sharon L; Garcia, Jesus


    Reviews 12 nonfiction books submitted for the Carter G. Woodson Book Award that deal with the experiences of African Americans. Argues that many benefits can be reaped from the use of culturally pluralistic tradebooks in the language arts classroom. (RS)

  9. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012 (United States)


    ... their communities to the artists whose harmonies and brush strokes captured hardships and aspirations... African American women are not limited to those recorded and retold in our history books. Their impact is...

  10. African-American Muslim women and health care. (United States)

    Rajaram, Shireen S; Rashidi, Anahita


    Muslims constitute a growing proportion of the African-American population. This paper explores the health practices, health behaviors, and code of ethics as informed by the Islamic religion within the context of African-American Muslim women's lives. An overview of the history of Islam in the world, and in the U.S., the main Islamic tenets, and the socio-cultural context of African-American Muslim women provides the broad framework for this paper. This information will be helpful in meeting the health needs of African-American Islamic women, within an outreach/community health promotion setting, within a clinical/hospital setting, or within a home care setting.

  11. African Music in an American Context. Mini-Module. (United States)

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    Insights are offered into how speech, melody, and rhythm dramatize the differences in the construction and interpretation of music for Africa and America. Intended for use in instructing American students about African music, the learning module relates music to traditional African culture and maintains that the music is at the same time…

  12. The English History of African American English. Language and Society Series; 28. (United States)

    Poplack, Shana, Ed.

    Essays on the history of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) include: an introduction to the evolution of AAVE within the African American diaspora (Shana Poplack); "Rephrasing the Copula: Contraction and Zero in Early African American English" (James A. Walker); "Reconstructing the Source of Early African American English…

  13. Factors Affecting African American Counselors' Job Satisfaction: A National Survey


    Jones, Cravor


    Factors Affecting African-American Counselors' Job Satisfaction: A National Study Cravor Jones (Abstract) The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that contributed to the job satisfaction of African American counselors (AAC). Although there are a variety of job satisfaction studies regarding mental health professionals, a literature review indicated research related to the job satisfaction of AACs was negligible. Knowing the factors that contribute to minorities' oc...

  14. Donation Intentions for Cancer Genetics Research Among African Americans


    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Weathers, Benita; Barg, Frances K; Troxel, Andrea B.; Shea, Judy A.; Bowen, Deborah; Guerra, Carmen E.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes


    Aims: Scientific agencies rely on individuals to donate their DNA to support research on chronic conditions that disproportionately affect African Americans; however, donation is variable in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, health care variables, and cultural values having significant independent associations with intentions to donate blood or saliva samples for cancer genetics research among African American adults. Method: Cross-se...

  15. Hypertension in African Americans: evaluation and treatment issues. (United States)

    Kailani, S H; Wright, J T


    The evaluation and treatment of hypertension in the African-American patient with an elevated blood pressure presents a diagnostic challenge. We are less able to rely on young age and resistance to treatment as indications for more extensive evaluation of secondary causes of hypertension; thus, greater reliance on history, physical examination, and clinical judgment is required if we are to identify potentially treatable causes. The treatment of hypertension in the African-American patient also presents a therapeutic challenge. Thiazide diuretics remain the drugs of first choice for treating hypertension in the African-American hypertensive. The calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are attractive alternatives to thiazides in patients uncontrolled by or intolerant of thiazides or who have specific indications for these agents (eg, angina, severe diastolic dysfunction). Beta-blockers should not be denied to African-American hypertensives if indications for their use exist. Although beta-blockers may be less effective as monotherapy, 50% of African-American hypertensives can be so controlled. Resistance to beta-blockers may be eliminated by administering them with a diuretic. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), like CCBs, are well tolerated, but also lack long-term primary prevention data. As is the case with beta-blockers, ACEIs are less effective in African-American hypertensives when used as monotherapy. ACEIs have particular value in therapy for African-American hypertensives with concomitant congestive heart failure and may protect against progression of diabetic nephropathy. Finally, all hypertensives, especially African-American hypertensives, should have access to treatment prior to the development of end organ damage. The cost of early intervention is minimal compared with the economic consequences of neglect.

  16. Adherence treatment factors in hypertensive African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie N Fongwa


    Full Text Available Marie N Fongwa1, Lorraines S Evangelista1, Ron D Hays2, David S Martins3, David Elashoff4, Marie J Cowan1, Donald E Morisky51University of California Los Angeles School of Nursing, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3To Help Everyone Clinic Inc. Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4University of California Los Angeles Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 5University of California Los Angeles School of Public Health, CA, USABackground: Hypertension among African American women is of epidemic proportions. Nonadherence to treatment contributes to uncontrolled blood pressure in this population. Factors associated with adherence to treatment in African American women are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with adherence to hypertension treatment in African American women.Methods: Five audio-taped focus groups were conducted with hypertensive African American women, 35 years and older receiving treatment for hypertension from an inner-city free clinic. All transcripts from the tapes were analyzed for content describing adherence to treatment factors.Findings: Factors associated with adherence to treatment in hypertensive African American women were in three main categories including: beliefs about hypertension, facilitators of adherence to treatment, and barriers to adherence to treatment.Implications: The study supports the need for education on managing hypertension and medication side effects, early screening for depression in hypertensive African Americans, development of culturally sensitive hypertension educational material, and formation of support groups for promoting adherence to treatment among African American women with hypertension.Keywords: adherence, African American, hypertension treatment factors

  17. Efficacy of the Young Women's CoOp: An HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention for Substance-Using African-American Female Adolescents in the South (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Browne, Felicia A.; Zule, William A.; Novak, Scott P.; Doherty, Irene A.; Kline, Tracy L.; Carry, Monique G.; Raiford, Jerris L.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.


    HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk-reduction interventions are needed to address the complex risk behaviors among African-American female adolescents in disadvantaged communities in North Carolina. In a two-group randomized trial, we reached 237 sexually active, substance-using African-American female adolescents, to test a…

  18. Advancing breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A


    Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable.

  19. Advancing Breast Cancer Survivorship among African American Women (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S.; Smith, Selina A.


    Purpose Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. Methods This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Results For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. Conclusions There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  20. Outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis. (United States)

    Contreras, G; Lenz, O; Pardo, V; Borja, E; Cely, C; Iqbal, K; Nahar, N; de La Cuesta, C; Hurtado, A; Fornoni, A; Beltran-Garcia, L; Asif, A; Young, L; Diego, J; Zachariah, M; Smith-Norwood, B


    Poor outcomes have been reported in African Americans and Hispanics compared to Caucasians with lupus nephritis. The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to identify independent predictors of outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics with lupus nephritis. In total, 93 African Americans, 100 Hispanics, and 20 Caucasians with a mean age of 28 +/- 13 years and an annual household income of 32.9 +/- 17.3 (in 1000 US dollars) were studied. World Health Organization (WHO) lupus nephritis classes II, III, IV, and V were seen in 9, 13, 52, and 26%, respectively. Important baseline differences were higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in African Americans compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (107 +/- 19, 102 +/- 15, and 99 +/- 13 mmHg, P lower hematocrit compared to Hispanics and Caucasians (29 +/- 5, and 31 +/- 6, and 32 +/- 7%, P lower annual household income (30.8 +/- 14.9, 33.1 +/- 15.9, and 42.2 +/- 29.3 in 1000 US dollars; P Lower prevalence of WHO class IV was seen in Caucasians (30%) compared to Hispanics (57%, P = 0.03) and African Americans (51%, P = 0.09). Development of doubling creatinine or end-stage renal disease was higher in African Americans and Hispanics than in Caucasians (31, 18, and 10%; P Hispanics with lupus nephritis, and outcomes in these groups are worse than in Caucasians.

  1. Racial Identity Development and Psychological Coping Strategies of Undergraduate and Graduate African American Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bridges


    Full Text Available African American men face many socio-cultural, academic, and negative stressors that generate stress experiences and identity conflicts. These stressors, in turn, may lead to psychological pressures that negatively affect relationships that African American men have with African American women, children, other African American men, and the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that racial identity has on the development of psychological healthy coping strategies among African American males at a predominantly White university in the southeastern United States. The goal of the study was to see what factors helped young African American men at this institution succeed academically.

  2. Racism, Invisibility, and the Alienation of the African American in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the Marxist concepts of alienation and estrangement in the reading of Ellison's Invisible Man, it argues that Ellison's fundamental project in this novel is to show how the skin colour of the African American makes him invisible and alienates him from the socioeconomic and socio-political structures of the American ...

  3. Stress, Marital Satisfaction, and Psychological Distress among African Americans (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chae, David H.


    This study examines relationships among financial strain, unfair treatment, and martial satisfaction among African Americans. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, findings indicated that social stressors that occur inside of the home (i.e., financial strain) as well as those experienced outside of the home (i.e., unfair treatment)…

  4. The Amistad Research Center: Documenting the African American Experience. (United States)

    Chepesiuk, Ron


    Describes the Amistad Research Center housed at Tulane University which is a repository of primary documents on African-American history. Topics addressed include the development and growth of the collection; inclusion of the American Missionary Association archives; sources of support; civil rights; and collecting for the future. (LRW)

  5. Financial strain and cancer risk behaviors among African Americans. (United States)

    Advani, Pragati S; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Nguyen, Nga T; Fisher, Felicia D; Savoy, Elaine J; Cuevas, Adolfo G; Wetter, David W; McNeill, Lorna H


    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse consequences of behavioral risk factors for cancer relative to other ethnic groups. Recent studies have assessed how financial strain might uniquely contribute to engagement in modifiable behavioral risk factors for cancer, but not among African Americans. The current study examined associations between financial strain and modifiable cancer risk factors (smoking, at-risk alcohol use, overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, and multiple risk factors) among 1,278 African American adults (age, 46.5 ± 12.6 years; 77% female) and explored potential mediators (stress and depressive symptoms) of those associations. Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between financial strain and cancer risk factors. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, partner status, income, educational level, and employment status. Analyses involving overweight/obesity status additionally controlled for fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. Nonparametric bootstrapping procedures were used to assess mediation. Greater financial strain was associated with greater odds of insufficient physical activity (P risk factors (P financial strain with physical inactivity and multiple risk factors, respectively. Future interventions aimed at reducing cancer disparities should focus on African Americans experiencing higher financial strain while addressing their stress and depressive symptoms. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess the temporal and causal relations between financial strain and modifiable behavioral cancer risk factors among African Americans. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Nursing's role in racism and African American women's health. (United States)

    Eliason, M J


    African American women's health has been neglected in the nursing and other health care literature, in spite of evidence that they are among the most vulnerable populations in the United States today. In this article, I highlight the health disparities between African American and European American women, discuss possible reasons for the disparities, and propose that nursing as a profession has been complicit in perpetuating the racism of health care and society. Although the focus is on nursing research and practice, it is likely that other health care disciplines perpetuate racism in similar ways.

  7. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter (United States)

    Stewart, April E.


    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  8. Contagious Anxiety: Anxious European Americans Can Transmit Their Physiological Reactivity to African Americans. (United States)

    West, Tessa V; Koslov, Katrina; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Major, Brenda; Mendes, Wendy Berry


    During interracial encounters, well-intentioned European Americans sometimes engage in subtle displays of anxiety, which can be interpreted as signs of racial bias by African American partners. In the present research, same-race and cross-race stranger dyads ( N = 123) engaged in getting-acquainted tasks, during which measures of sympathetic nervous system responses (preejection period, PEP) and heart rate variability were continuously collected. PEP scores showed that African American partners had stronger physiological linkage to European American partners who evidenced greater anxiety-greater cortisol reactivity, behavioral tension, and self-reported discomfort-which suggests greater physiological responsiveness to momentary changes in partners' affective states when those partners were anxious. European Americans showed physiological linkage to African American and European American partners, but linkage did not vary as a function of their partner's anxiety. Using physiological linkage offers a novel approach to understanding how affective responses unfold during dynamic intergroup interactions.

  9. Parental bonding and anxiety: differences between African American and European American college students. (United States)

    Carter, M M; Sbrocco, T; Lewis, E L; Friedman, E K


    Empirical evidence suggests that early home environments characterized by low care and high overprotection are positively associated with the adult expression of anxiety. While available evidence supports this position for European Americans, there has been no examination of the relationship between perceived parental rearing practices and anxiety among African Americans despite the theoretical assertion that African American parenting environments may be characterized as somewhat more overprotective than European Americans. This study investigated the relationship between maternal rearing patterns and trait and state measures of anxiety and depression among a sample of 59 African American and 55 European American college students. Results indicated that both groups reported similar levels of anxiety, depression, perceived care, and perceived overprotection. European Americans exhibited the typical pattern of a negative relationship between anxiety, depression, and care and a positive relationship between anxiety and overprotection. African Americans evidenced a similar negative relationship between anxiety, depression, and care, but no relationship between anxiety, depression, and overprotection. Furthermore, specific aspects of ethnic identity (i.e., ethnic achievement, ethnic behaviors) were found to be negatively associated with measures of trait anxiety among African Americans but not European Americans.

  10. Crossing Cultures in Marriage: Implications for Counseling African American/African Couples (United States)

    Durodoye, Beth A.; Coker, Angela D.


    A wealth of literature exists regarding intermarriage between White and ethnic minority couples. Noticeably lacking, however, is information considering within-group diversity amongst Black couples. This paper will focus on cultural dynamics that may operate with African American and African couples residing in the United States. Through an…

  11. Germline Genetic Variants and Lung Cancer Survival in African Americans. (United States)

    Jones, Carissa C; Bush, William S; Crawford, Dana C; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Schwartz, Ann G; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret R; Blot, William J; Chanock, Stephen J; Grogan, Eric L; Aldrich, Melinda C


    Background: African Americans have the highest lung cancer mortality in the United States. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of germline variants influencing lung cancer survival have not yet been conducted with African Americans. We examined five previously reported GWAS catalog variants and explored additional genome-wide associations among African American lung cancer cases. Methods: Incident non-small cell lung cancer cases ( N = 286) in the Southern Community Cohort Study were genotyped on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall mortality. Two independent African American studies ( N = 316 and 298) were used for replication. Results: One previously reported variant, rs1878022 on 12q23.3, was significantly associated with mortality (HR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54-0.92). Replication findings were in the same direction, although attenuated (HR = 0.87 and 0.94). Meta-analysis had a HR of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.71-0.97). Analysis of common variants identified an association between chromosome 6q21.33 and mortality (HR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.66). Conclusions: We identified an association between rs1878022 in CMKLR1 and lung cancer survival. However, our results in African Americans have a different direction of effect compared with a prior study in European Americans, suggesting a different genetic architecture or presence of gene-environment interactions. We also identified variants on chromosome 6 within the gene-rich HLA region, which has been previously implicated in lung cancer risk and survival. Impact: We found evidence that inherited genetic risk factors influence lung cancer survival in African Americans. Replication in additional populations is necessary to confirm potential genetic differences in lung cancer survival across populations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1288-95. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Cultural Variations in Parenting: Perceptions of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American Parents. (United States)

    Julian, Teresa W.; And Others


    Examined cultural variations in parenting attitudes, behavior, and involvement of mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Findings from Caucasian (n=2,642), African-American (n=469), Hispanic-American (n=357), and Asian-American (n=49) parents revealed that, as group, ethnic parents indicated greater general emphasis on children exerting…

  13. Gender-Based Salary Differences in African American Senior Student Affairs Officers. (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.


    Study examined representation and salary differences related to gender for African American Senior Student Affairs Officers (SSAOs). Data from a national survey revealed gender and institutional size significantly affect mean SSAO salary for African American respondents. African American women SSAOs make significantly less than African American…

  14. Community-based breast cancer intervention program for older African American women in beauty salons. (United States)

    Forte, D A


    African American women are at high risk for morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. African American women ages 50 and older have been a difficult group to reach through conventional breast cancer intervention programs. Cultural and health beliefs that differ from mainstream society are reported to be factors contributing to the low rates of breast screening among this group. In addition to these attitudinal factors, older African American women are disproportionately represented among uninsured and under-insured Americans. As a result, cost becomes a barrier to mammography screening for many of these women. This project proposes to increase breast cancer screening awareness and provide a referral or free breast screening, or both, for African American women ages 50 and older. This information will be offered in the culturally familiar setting of local beauty salons. The culturally sensitive educational pamphlets developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and video developed by the NCI-funded project, Cancer Prevention Research Unit, will be used to promote mammography, clinical breast examinations, and breast self-examination. Providers staffing a mobile mammography van provided by Dr. Anitha Mitchell of the Association of Black Women Physicians through a grant from the Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, will perform mammograms for women on site during scheduled intervals. A followup telephone survey will be conducted.

  15. Recruitment of Rural African Americans for Research Projects: Lessons Learned. (United States)

    Williams, Ishan C; Utz, Sharon W; Jones, Randy; Hinton, Ivora; Steeves, Richard; Alexander, Gina


    Recruiting rural African Americans for research presents special problems because of cultural differences, the view of researchers as cultural "outsiders", and transportation problems. This paper reports successful strategies in recruiting rural African American adults with type 2 diabetes for research studies. The researchers tested recruitment strategies commonly used in research, such as flyers, advertisements in local newspapers and radio stations. The researchers also encouraged referrals from medical professionals. When recruitment goals were not met, the researchers modified strategies. Twenty-two rural African American participants were recruited and randomly assigned to culturally-tailored Group or Individual Diabetes Self Management Education (DSME). The latter included storytelling and an interactive learning approach. The key recruitment strategies involved spending time in the community, visits to churches, and flyers to key leaders in the Black community. Enrolling rural African Americans required cultural competence, careful planning, and time in the community. Recruiting for clinical research is challenging and more difficult when targeting minority members in rural settings. Research in diabetes care is needed with rural African Americans because of high rates of diabetes, and limited health care access for this population. Effective recruitment and retention strategies are needed to test interventions to reduce health disparities.

  16. Sojourner syndrome and health disparities in African American women. (United States)

    Lekan, Deborah


    Despite improvements in many aspects of health, African American women experience early onset of disease and disability and increased mortality because of health disparities. African American women experience stress and health disadvantages because of the interaction and multiplicative effects of race, gender, class, and age. Sojourner Syndrome is an illustrative and symbolic representation that describes the multiple roles and social identities of African American women on the basis of historical referents and adaptive behaviors that fostered survival and resilience under oppressive circumstances. Adaptive behaviors also precipitated health risks due to chronic active coping. Weathering describes the cumulative health impact of persistent stress and chronic active coping that contributes to early health deterioration and increased morbidity, disability, and mortality in African American women. An emancipatory knowing nursing perspective provides a viewpoint from which to examine social injustices that create conditions for the excessive health burdens experienced by African American women and to frame nursing actions that create opportunities to promote health and eliminate health disparities.

  17. Medical Mistrust and Colorectal Cancer Screening Among African Americans. (United States)

    Adams, Leslie B; Richmond, Jennifer; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Powell, Wizdom


    Despite well-documented benefits of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, African Americans are less likely to be screened and have higher CRC incidence and mortality than Whites. Emerging evidence suggests medical mistrust may influence CRC screening disparities among African Americans. The goal of this systematic review was to summarize evidence investigating associations between medical mistrust and CRC screening among African Americans, and variations in these associations by gender, CRC screening type, and level of mistrust. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database, and EMBASE were searched for English-language articles published from January 2000 to November 2016. 27 articles were included for this review (15 quantitative, 11 qualitative and 1 mixed methods study). The majority of quantitative studies linked higher mistrust scores with lower rates of CRC screening among African Americans. Most studies examined mistrust at the physician level, but few quantitative studies analyzed mistrust at an organizational level (i.e. healthcare systems, insurance, etc.). Quantitative differences in mistrust and CRC screening by gender were mixed, but qualitative studies highlighted fear of experimentation and intrusiveness of screening methods as unique themes among African American men. Limitations include heterogeneity in mistrust and CRC measures, and possible publication bias. Future studies should address methodological challenges found in this review, such as limited use of validated and reliable mistrust measures, examination of CRC screening outcomes beyond beliefs and intent, and a more thorough analysis of gender roles in the cancer screening process.

  18. A Survey of Contemporary African American Poetry, Drama, & Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly Fernandes


    Full Text Available Analysis of literature indicates that varying viewpoints about different elements which define contemporary African American Literature has been identified. Majority of the scholarly works on African American writing are built on foundation of culture, political oppression and the need to express their true needs. This paper explores the current trends in contemporary African American Literature by examining tenets in poetry, fiction and drama.  Through the ages African American poetry, novels and drama can be considered to a chronicle documenting the struggles of a race which has been debated, debased and their humanity violated to the fight against oppression, social and political empowerment. From the views of this paper it can be concluded that the African American writing is not simply a reflection of the chain of events that took place but was a factor in change. Most of the writers and the works which have been highlighted in this essay have shown one primary theme: the use of literature as the means to voice their anger about social and economic repression. Keywords: s

  19. Postexercise insulin action in African-American women. (United States)

    Hasson, Rebecca E; Freedson, Patty S; Braun, Barry


    African Americans are more insulin resistant than Caucasians. A single bout of moderate-intensity exercise reduces insulin resistance in sedentary Caucasian individuals. The impact of a single bout of exercise on insulin resistance has never been studied in African Americans. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the impact of a single bout of exercise on insulin resistance in African-American women. Insulin resistance was assessed in 10 sedentary, over-weight or obese African-American women during a sedentary and exercise condition over a two-day period. During the sedentary condition, participants fasted overnight and sat quietly in the laboratory for 75 minutes. During the exercise condition, participants completed 75 minutes of brisk walking on a treadmill. Ninety minutes following each condition, participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Three-and-a-half hours later, subjects consumed a standardized meal [meal tolerance test (MTT)]. The insulin response to the OGTT was 18% lower (p=0.046), and insulin sensitivity was 18% higher (p=0.042) in the exercise condition compared to the sedentary condition. There were no differences between conditions following the MTT. These results indicate that overweight/obese, sedentary, insulin resistant African-American women had a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity from 75 minutes of brisk walking.

  20. Dementia Incidence Declined in African Americans, but not in Yoruba (United States)

    Gao, Sujuan; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Hall, Kathleen S.; Baiyewu, Olesegun; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Murrell, Jill R.; Gureje, Oye; Hake, Ann M.; Hendrie, Hugh C


    Background To compare dementia incidence of African American and Yoruba cohorts age 70 or older enrolled in 1992 and 2001. Methods African Americans residing in Indianapolis and Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria without dementia were enrolled in 1992 and 2001 and evaluated every two to three years until 2009. The cohorts consist of 1440 African Americans, 1774 Yoruba in 1992 and 1835 African Americans and 1895 Yoruba in the 2001 cohorts age 70 or older. Results In African Americans, dementia and AD incidence rates were significantly lower in 2001 than 1992 for all age groups except the oldest group. The overall standardized annual dementia incidence rates were 3.6% (95% CI: 3.2–4.1%) in the1992 cohort and 1.4% (95% CI: 1.2–1.7%) in the 2001 cohort. There was no significant difference in dementia or AD incidence between the Yoruba cohorts. Conclusions Future research is needed to explore the reasons for the differential changes in incidence rates in these two populations. PMID:26218444

  1. Cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women. (United States)

    Spurlock, Wanda Raby; Cullins, Leah S


    Despite significant advances in science, medicine, and technology African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer than Caucasian women. There is a growing body of literature that describes strategies to improve breast cancer screening among African American women. However, data suggest that African American women, compared to Caucasian women, are less likely to participate in regular breast cancer screening. The belief that a diagnosis of cancer will result in death has been identified as a potential barrier to cancer screening in African American population groups. However, research examining the degree to which perceptions of fatalism influence breast cancer screening in culturally and ethnically diverse population groups is scant. This repot describes the outcomes of a study undertaken to examine relationships between perceptions of cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women. Findings support the postulation that fatalism negatively influences health promoting practices such as breast cancer screening. However, contrary to prior research findings age was observed to be inversely associated with cancer fatalism.

  2. Unheard Voices: African American Fathers Speak about their Parenting Practices. (United States)

    Doyle, Otima; Clark, Trenette T; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; Nebbitt, Von E; Goldston, David B; Estroff, Sue E; Magan, Ifrah


    Researchers have called for qualitative investigations into African American fathers' parenting practices that consider their social context and identify specific practices. Such investigations can inform the way we conceptualize African American fathers' parenting practices, which can in turn contribute to prevention interventions with at-risk youth. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews about parenting with 30 self-identified, African American, biological fathers of pre-adolescent sons at-risk for developing aggressive behaviors, depressive symptoms, or both. Fathers provided descriptions of their parenting practices, which were at times influenced by their environmental context, fathers' residential status, and masculine ideologies. Our systematic analysis revealed four related themes that emerged from the data: managing emotions, encouragement, discipline, and monitoring. Of particular note, fathers in the current sample emphasized the importance of teaching their sons to manage difficult emotions, largely utilized language consistent with male ideologies (i.e., encouragement rather than love or nurturance), and engaged in high levels of monitoring and discipline in response to perceived environmental challenges and the developmental needs of their sons. The findings provide deeper insight into the parenting practices of African American fathers who are largely understudied, and often misunderstood. Further, these findings highlight considerations that may have important implications for father-focused prevention interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families.

  3. The Diabetic Health of African American Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Carthron


    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. Design Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. Methods To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. Results Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure ( t = −3.42, P = 0.001 and diastolic pressure ( t = −3.790, P = 0.000 and urine protein ( W = 294.00, P = 0.000 were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. Conclusion Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women.

  4. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson


    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  5. Hispanic Americans and African Americans with multiple sclerosis have more severe disease course than Caucasian Americans. (United States)

    Ventura, Rachel E; Antezana, Ariel O; Bacon, Tamar; Kister, Ilya


    Whether disease course in Hispanic Americans (HA) with multiple sclerosis (MS) is different from Caucasian Americans (CA) or African Americans (AA) is unknown. We compared MS severity in the three main ethnic populations in our tertiary MS clinics using disease duration-adjusted rank score of disability: Patient-Derived Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (P-MSSS). The age- and gender-adjusted P-MSSS was significantly higher in HA (3.9 ± 2.6) and AA (4.5 ± 3.0) compared to CA (3.4 ± 2.6; p < 0.0001 for both). Adjusting for insurance did not change these results. These findings suggest that HA, as AA, have more rapid disability accumulation than CA.

  6. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents. (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.


    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  7. Psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among African American youth. (United States)

    Vidourek, Rebecca A; King, Keith A; Montgomery, LaTrice


    This study examines the psychosocial determinants of marijuana use among youth. A total of 7,488 African American middle and high school students from 133 metropolitan private and public schools completed a survey assessing psychosocial factors associated with annual marijuana use. The PRIDE survey, a nationally recognized survey on substance use, was used to assess the frequency of marijuana use and the influence of psychosocial factors on marijuana use among African American students. Results indicated that 18.5% of African American youth used marijuana in the past year. Males were significantly more likely than females to report using marijuana. Engaging in risky behaviors, such as getting in trouble at school and with police and attending a party with alcohol and other drugs, were significantly correlated with annual marijuana use. Conversely, having multiple parent, teacher, and school protective factors reduced annual marijuana use in this population. Such findings may assist prevention specialists in developing interventions to reduce and prevent marijuana use.

  8. African American fathers and incarceration: paternal involvement and child outcomes. (United States)

    Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia


    Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated.

  9. Inez Beverly Prosser and the education of African Americans. (United States)

    Benjamin, Ludy T; Henry, Keisha D; McMahon, Lance R


    Inez Beverly Prosser (ca. 1895-1934) was arguably the first African American woman to earn a doctorate in psychology. Her dissertation, completed in 1933, examined personality differences in black children attending either voluntarily segregated or integrated schools and concluded that black children were better served in segregated schools. This research was one of several studies in the 1920s and 1930s that was part of the debate on segregated schools as maintained in the United States under the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). This article examines the life and career of Prosser in the context of educational barriers and opportunities for African Americans in the early part of the twentieth century and explores the arguments that pitted African Americans against one another in determining how best to educate black children, arguments that eventually led to the desegregation decision of Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. African American Women’s Perceptions and Experiences about Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia S Obeng


    Full Text Available There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore how African American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N=20, 10 in each group were conducted with African American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as WIC provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population.

  11. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women. (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae


    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.

  12. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s (United States)

    Angela Lumpkin


    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  13. School and Peer Influences on the Academic Outcomes of African American Adolescents (United States)

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J.; Jones, Brittni D.


    Little scholarship explores how adolescents’ beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N=307, Mage=16.84) and girls (N=305, Mage=16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404

  14. Major depressive disorder in the African American population. (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Milapkumar; Barker, Narviar C; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta


    Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood. It can become chronic or recurrent and lead to substantial impairment in an individual's ability to function. At this level, it is identified as major depressive disorder (MDD). Depression and MDD occur across all racial and ethnic groups. Although many depressed patients are treated in primary care, depression in these settings has been underdetected and undertreated. African Americans, especially, who suffer from depression are frequently underdiagnosed and inadequately managed in primary care due to patient, physician, and treatment setting factors. Patient factors include being poor, uninsured, restrictive insurance policies, biological-genetic vulnerability, nonresponsiveness to traditional pharmacological interventions, and stigma (i.e., attitudes and perceptions of mental illness). Physician factors include diagnosis and assessment, physician characteristics, physician bias, and culture; and treatment setting factors include systemic variables such as lack of or poor access to health care, racism, environment, and patient management. African Americans are less likely to receive proper diagnosis and treatment, more likely to have depression for long periods of time, and more likely to suffer greater disability from depression. Understanding patient, physician, and treatment setting factors as contributing barriers that impede effective diagnosis and treatment of depression and MDD in African Americans is critical to effective patient management and discovery. Greater African American participation in clinical research trials also is needed to effectively improve, diagnose, and treat depression in African Americans. This article examines depression among African Americans in the context of gender, culture, and psychosocial determinants, and their engagement in clinical trials.

  15. Homocysteine levels and dementia risk in Yoruba and African Americans. (United States)

    Hendrie, Hugh C; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Lane, Kathleen A; Purnell, Christianna; Gao, Sujuan; Hake, Ann; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Gureje, Oye; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Murrell, Jill; Deeg, Mark A; Hall, Kathleen


    High levels of homocysteine have been associated with increased risk for dementia although results have been inconsistent. There are no reported studies from the developing world including Africa. In this longitudinal study of two community-dwelling cohorts of elderly Yoruba and African Americans, levels of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate were measured from blood samples taken in 2001. These levels were compared in two groups, participants who developed incident dementia in the follow-up until 2009 (59 Yoruba and 101 African Americans) and participants who were diagnosed as cognitively normal or in the good performance category at their last follow-up (760 Yoruba and 811 African Americans). Homocysteine levels were divided into quartiles for each site. After adjusting for age, education, possession of ApoE, smoking, and time of enrollment the higher quartiles of homocysteine were associated with a non-significant increase in dementia risk in the Yoruba (homocysteine quartile 4 vs. 1 OR: 2.19, 95% CI 0.95-5.07, p = 0.066). For the African Americans, there was a similar but non-significant relationship between higher homocysteine levels and dementia risk. There were no significant relationships between levels of vitamin B12 and folate and incident dementia in either site although folate levels were lower and vitamin B12 levers were higher in the Yoruba than in the African Americans. Increased homocysteine levels were associated with a similar but non-significant increase in dementia risk for both Yoruba and African Americans despite significant differences in folate levels between the two sites.

  16. Genetic divergence among African and American cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The arithmetic complement of Jaccard, obtained with 151 RAPD molecular markers showed that African cultivars Albar BC853 and STAM 42 were the most similar, while the most dissimilar combinations were TAMCOT Sphinx and ISA 205 followed by TAMCOT Sphinx vs ALBAR BC853 and TAMCOT Sphinx vs REMU 40 ...

  17. Breastfeeding among low income, African-American women: power, beliefs and decision making. (United States)

    Bentley, Margaret E; Dee, Deborah L; Jensen, Joan L


    Breastfeeding rates among African-American women lag behind all other ethnic groups. National data show that only 45% of African-American women reported ever breastfeeding compared to 66 and 68% of Hispanic and white women, respectively. Of African-American women who do choose to breastfeed, duration is short, with many discontinuing in the first days after birth. This report applies a social ecological framework to breastfeeding to investigate macrolevel-microlevel linkages. We posit that macrolevel factors, such as the media, aggressive marketing of breastmilk substitutes, welfare reform, hospital policy and breastfeeding legislation, interact with microlevel factors to influence a woman's decision to breastfeed. These microlevel factors include features of the community, neighborhoods, workplaces that support or discourage breastfeeding, social and personal networks and cultural norms and individual beliefs about breastfeeding. The report discusses how power operates at each level to influence women's choices and also emphasizes the value of ethnographic data in breastfeeding studies. Through a case study of a sample of low income, African-American women living in Baltimore, MD, where breastfeeding role models are few, beliefs that discourage breastfeeding are many, and where everyday life is full of danger and fear, it is understandable that breastfeeding is not considered practical. The narrative data provide important information that can be used to enhance intervention efforts. To reach the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding goals requires a shift in cultural norms and structures at all levels that will support breastfeeding for all women.

  18. Family, friends, and 12-month PTSD among African Americans. (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Levine, Debra Siegel; Himle, Joseph A


    Despite a growing literature on the influence of social support on mental health, little is known about the relationship between social support and specific psychiatric disorders for African Americans, such as PTSD. This study investigated the relationship between social support, negative interaction with family and 12-month PTSD among African Americans. Analyses were based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (n = 3315). Social support variables included emotional support from family, frequency of contact with family and friends, subjective closeness with family and friends, and negative interactions with family. Results indicated that emotional support from family is negatively associated with 12-month PTSD while negative interaction with family is predictive of 12-month PTSD. Additionally, a significant interaction indicated that high levels of subjective closeness to friends could offset the impact of negative family interactions on 12-month PTSD. Overall, study results converged with previously established findings indicating that emotional support from family is associated with 12-month PTSD, while, negative interaction with family is associated with increased risk of 12-month PTSD. The findings are discussed in relation to prior research on the unique association between social support and mental health among African Americans.

  19. African American Women and Obesity Through the Prism of Race. (United States)

    Knox-Kazimierczuk, Francoise; Geller, Karly; Sellers, Sherrill; Taliaferro Baszile, Denise; Smith-Shockley, Meredith


    There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between race and body mass index (BMI) for African American women. Previously collected data from the National Survey of American Life Self-Administered Questionnaire, 2001-2003 (NSAL-SAQ) was analyzed for this study. The NSAL-SAQ dedicated a section to the exploration of group and personal identity, along with having anthropometric data and health habit questions to be able to conduct analyses for associations between the racial identity dimensions and obesity. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the constructs of racial identity on BMI comparing standardized coefficients (β) and R(2)adj values. Results indicated participants ascribing more to the stereotype of "Blacks giving up easily" (β = 0.527, p = .000) showed an increased BMI. Additionally, the negative stereotype of "Blacks being violent" (β = 0.663, p = .000) and "Blacks being lazy" (β = 0.506, p = .001) was associated with an increased BMI. Based on these finds high negative racial regard is associated with increased weight. This study contributes uniquely to the scientific literature, focusing on the construct of racial identity and obesity in African American women.

  20. Androgen Receptor Mutations and Polymorphisms in African American Prostate Cancer


    Koochekpour, Shahriar; Buckles, Erick; Shourideh, Mojgan; Hu, SiYi; Chandra, Dhyan; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Attwood, Kristopher


    The Androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the normal development of the prostate gland, in prostate carcinogenesis, and in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to advanced metastatic disease. African American (AA) men with PCa present with higher tumor volume, more advanced tumor stage, and higher Gleason score. This could be in part related to the AR expression or activity in the prostate tissue of AA men, or to unique mutations or polymorphisms of the AR. In Caucasian Americans...

  1. CDC Vital Signs–African American Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  2. The American Colonization Society's West African Enterprise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... social moderates and abolitionists, albeit for distinctly different reasons. ... Liberia's political and economic leadership derived from American settlers was seemingly destroyed in a 1980 military uprising by tribal soldiers trained by the U.S .

  3. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.


    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  4. Parenting within Cultural Context: Comparisons between African-American and Asian-American Parents (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen


    Using the sub-samples drawn from the National Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten (ECLS-K) database, this study examines similarities and differences between African-American and Asian-American parents in their parenting practice (i.e., parental involvement at home, expectations of child, emotional expressiveness, school involvement,…

  5. Factors that Influence Career Choice among Native American and African American High School Students (United States)

    Bennett-Smith, Keisha K.


    There is a need for research in the area of career choice of minority students in the United States. This descriptive study examined the factors that may influence Native American and African American high school students' career choices. These factors include such variables as parental educational level, family composition, and potential grade…

  6. Child Depressive Symptoms, Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences between African American and European American Youth (United States)

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Pryor, Erin M.; Grossman, Elizabeth R. B.


    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child samples, we explored the relationships among child and adolescent depressive symptoms, spanking, and emotional support offered to youth. We present cross-sectional and change models for both African Americans and European Americans. Findings showed that regardless of race,…

  7. Constructivism and Career Decision Self-Efficacy for Asian Americans and African Americans (United States)

    Grier-Reed, Tabitha; Ganuza, Zoila M.


    Career development that adequately addresses the needs of multicultural students is important. The authors explored whether a constructivist career course might be a viable mechanism for improving career decision self-efficacy for 81 Asian American and African American college students. Results indicated significant increases in all 5 elements of…

  8. Parental Influences on Career Development Perceived by African American and Mexican American College Students. (United States)

    Fisher, Teresa A.; Padmawidjaja, Inna


    Study examines parental factors that influence career development among African American and Mexican American college students. Analysis of student interviews reveals that parents are influential in the following career domains: encouragement, educational expectations, critical life events, vicarious learning, and work identity. Career development…

  9. Descriptive Study of Educated African American Women Successful at Weight-Loss Maintenance Through Lifestyle Changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnes, Ann Smith; Kimbro, Rachel T


    .... There is limited data on African Americans who have achieved successful long-term weight loss maintenance.To identify a large sample of African American adults who intentionally achieved clinically significant weight loss of 10...

  10. Cycling in the African American Community : safety training guidelines and findings. (United States)


    This report is a program users manual for the Cycling in the African American Community (CAAC) safety training intervention. The CAAC safety training intervention was designed to nudge more African Americans, who are often beginning cyclists...

  11. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.


    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  12. Group Counseling for African American Elementary Students: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Steen, Sam


    This article describes a group counseling intervention promoting academic achievement and ethnic identity development for twenty fifth grade African American elementary students. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scores of students participating in the treatment group improved significantly over those in the control group. Implications…

  13. "Brown," Political Economy, and the Scientific Education of African Americans (United States)

    Tate, William F., IV


    The goals of this chapter are threefold. The first goal is to examine the scientific attainment of African Americans in the post-"Brown" era. The term scientific attainment is used here to describe more broadly mathematics and scientific achievement as measured in trend studies, academic coursework, and degrees. A second, related goal is…

  14. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.


    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  15. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement (United States)

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl


    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  16. African American Male Student-Athletes: Identity and Academic Performance (United States)

    O'Brien, Kathryn Mary


    The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…

  17. Constructing Academic Inadequacy: African American Athletes' Stories of Schooling. (United States)

    Benson, Kirsten F.


    This qualitative study interviewed eight academically "at risk" African American athletes at a southeastern university with a major revenue-producing football program. Analysis suggested that the athletes' marginal academic performance was constructed in a system of interrelated practices engaged in by all the significant members of the academic…

  18. African American Head Start Parent Involvement in Drug Prevention. (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rado, Mary


    Reports a study that examined African American parents' perceptions of their involvement with their Head Start children in an alcohol, tobacco, and other drug prevention program. The results provide information on barriers to and benefits of participation, cues to action, perceived threat, and contributing background variables. (SM)

  19. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar


    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  20. African American Women's Self Esteem Workshop: Yalom Meets Karenga. (United States)

    Hayes, Denise; Murry, Sherri

    Yalom's group theory and Karenga's Afrocentric paradigm are integrated in a workshop for African American women via the topical themes of each workshop session, the developmental approach from a semistructured group to a process-oriented group, and the process of training a practicum student. A six-week, semi-structured self-esteem workshop was…

  1. Behavioural Precursors and HIV Testing Behaviour among African American Women (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami


    Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…

  2. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren


    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  3. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy


    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  4. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.


    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  5. Allostatic Load and Health Status of African Americans and Whites (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A.; Kim-Dorner, Su Jong; Remaley, Alan T.; Poth, Merrily


    Objectives: To compare health risks in 84 healthy African American and 45 white men and women after calculating allostatic load (AL) from biologic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures. Methods: Participants (18-45 years) ranging in weight from normal to obese and without hypertension or diabetes. Fitness, body fat, CRP, mood, social support,…

  6. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.


    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  7. African-American Fathers: Perceptions of Two Generations. (United States)

    Strom, Robert D.; Amukamara, Humphrey; Strom, Shirley K.; Beckert, Troy E.; Moore, Elsie G.; Strom, Paris S.; Griswold, Dianne L.


    Examines how African-American fathers of 10-14-year-olds view their assets and limitations as parents, and how children see the parental performance of their fathers. Independent variables entering the greatest effect on how both generations perceived parental success were: amount of time father and child spent together; having an adult at home…

  8. Neighborhood Matters: Racial Socialization of African American Children (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh


    Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…

  9. The African American Presence in Reading Intervention Experiments (United States)

    Lindo, Endia J.


    This study examined what proportion of reading intervention experiments published in a sample of prominent, peer-reviewed education research journals evaluated the impact of the reading intervention on African American students. The last 10 years of articles from the "Reading Research Quarterly" and the "Journal of Educational Psychology" and all…

  10. Immersion and Identity: Experiences of an African American Preschool Child (United States)

    McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman


    This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…

  11. Biculturalism and Academic Achievement of African American High School Students (United States)

    Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.


    Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…

  12. Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls (United States)

    Shen, Bo


    This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…

  13. Coping skills among African-American breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Davis, Cindy; Rust, Connie; Darby, Kathleen


    Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer, particularly African-American women, face multiple barriers to survival. Although research exists regarding the unique barriers faced by African-American breast cancer survivors, there has been little research into the various coping needs or coping strategies used among African-American women. The purpose of this article is to provide information from an exploratory study of data investigating the coping skills of 30 African-American women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. Quantitative data was collected via a self-report questionnaire based on the pretest of the Breast Cancer Survivors Toolbox. The study sample was evaluated to determine overall coping skills followed by an analysis of individual categories of coping skills (e.g., communication, information seeking, negotiating, social support systems, cultural norms). Although limited by the non-random sampling technique and self-report, the results of the study support the need for further research regarding the use of interventions and strategies tailored to improve coping skills used by this population.

  14. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices. (United States)

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams


    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. New role perspective of African American women in Terry Mcmillan's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of studies on female-authored African American literary works have focused on female writers' creative responses to male-authored representations of the tensions of racism, internal crisis of man-woman relationships and the challenges of empowering the black female character. Little attention has been paid to ...

  16. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen


    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  17. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.


    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  18. David Haynes: Chronicler of the African American Middle Class. (United States)

    Barron, Ronald


    Profiles writer David Haynes, and discusses his four novels (an award-winning young adult book and three novels for the adult market). Concludes that Haynes' success as a novelist is due to his characters, a healthy dose of humor, and his realistic depiction of a wide range of African American characters without resorting to sensationalism or…

  19. African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries (United States)

    Epps, Sharon K.


    Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…

  20. African American Homeschooling and the Quest for a Quality Education (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey


    Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…

  1. Reasons for African American Student Attrition from School Psychology Programs (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.


    This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…

  2. The Role of Religiosity in African American Preadolescent Aggression (United States)

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.


    This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…

  3. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Recommend ...

  4. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited (United States)

    Talpade, Medha


    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  5. "African Americans Have This Slang": Grammar, Dialect, and Racism. (United States)

    Paley, Karen Surman

    The "Ebonics Resolution" was passed by the Oakland, California, school board in 1996. The proposal called for "imparting instruction to African-American students for the combined purposes of maintaining legitimacy and richness of such language...and to facilitate their acquisition and mastery of English language skills." The…

  6. Teaching and Learning African American History in a Multiracial Classroom (United States)

    Chikkatur, Anita


    The author explores the challenges of teaching and learning African American history, a history fraught with uncomfortable implications about contemporary race relations and race-based inequalities. Drawing on various theories of anti-oppressive education, and using data from an ethnographic study conducted in one history classroom, the author…

  7. Meetings with Elaine, an African and Native American Woman (United States)

    O'Donnell, Melanie Merola


    The author, a Caucasian doctoral student of clinical psychology, examined her ongoing interaction with Elaine, an adult woman of African and Native American descent. Incidents of learning during the interaction process are reviewed and qualitative and quantitative assessments are provided to examine the effectiveness of such interactions in a…

  8. Intergroup Differences and Their Impact on African American Teachers. (United States)

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Madsen, Jean A.


    Examined how intergroup differences within suburban schools affected African American teachers' experiences. Organizational culture strongly influenced how whites treated their minority counterparts. Because the majority established norms, minorities were expected to comply with uniform sets of rules and regulations. Intergroup conflict arose…

  9. A Motivational Intervention for African American Boys Labeled as Aggressive (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia


    A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…

  10. Family Influences on the Career Development of African American Children (United States)

    Love, Elaine Roundtree


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how families influence the career education and career awareness of African American students in grades K-3. Existing literature indicated that scholars have focused their attention on the career education of college level students and counselors working with students in high schools; however, research…

  11. Successful African American Women School Leaders in Florida (United States)

    Waldron-Asuncion, Alma


    The focus of this basic qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of Floridian African American women in secondary educational leadership positions. Using critical race theory and Black feminist standpoint theory as a theoretical framework, this narrative analysis serves to increase the understanding of leadership styles among a…

  12. African American Male College Athletes' Narratives on Education and Racism (United States)

    Singer, John N.


    This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…

  13. Teaching African American Learners to Read: Perspectives and Practices (United States)

    Hammond, Bill, Ed.; Hoover, Mary Eleanor Rhodes, Ed.; McPhail, Irving Pressley, Ed.


    This collection of original and previously published articles fills a critical need for professional literature that documents successful research-based practices and programs that teach African American children to read. Thoughtful commentary on historic and current issues, discussion of research-based best practices, and examples of culturally…

  14. Substance Abuse: Implications for Counseling African American Men. (United States)

    Wade, Jay C.


    Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…

  15. Relationship of pain and ancestry in African American women. (United States)

    Robbins, J A; Qi, L; Garcia, L; Younger, J W; Seldin, M F


    African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Exactly, 11,239 self-identified African American post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, "Pain Construct" measurements and covariate information. They answered five questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache and urinary. They also answered two questions which were used to derive a "Pain Construct", a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1-100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighbourhood socio-economic status, education and depression. In the unadjusted model of the five specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [β = -0.132, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -099 to -0.164; r = -0.075, 95% CI -0.056 to -0.093] and the adjusted models (β = -0.069 95% CI = -0.04 to -0.10). Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain, although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  16. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth


    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  17. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and Africans: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M


    .... In 2002 the scope of the study was expanded to include African-Americans and African migrants in the United States so as to investigate the role of dietary nutrients associated with increased prostate cancer risk (fatty acids...

  18. Association of Substance Use Disorders With Childhood Trauma but not African Genetic Heritage in an African American Cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuan, Nicole P; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, Lynn R; Yuan, Qiaoping; Shen, Pei-Hong; Goldman, David; Roy, Alec


    ... to environmental risk factors, including poverty and trauma. Method: The authors used 186 ancestry-informative markers to measure African ancestry in 407 addicts and 457 comparison subjects self-identified as African Americans...

  19. Understanding Facilitators and Barriers to the Selection of Dietetics as a major by African American students.


    Felton, Teena M


    Understanding Facilitators And Barriers To The Selection of Dietetics As A Major By African-American Students Teena M. Felton (ABSTRACT) Less than 5% of registered dietitians are African-American individuals. Little has been done to investigate reasons for the paucity of African-American professionals in the dietetics field. The specific aim of this study was, therefore, to explore facilitators and barriers to the selection of dietetics as a major by African-American students. ...

  20. Identification of Four Novel Loci in Asthma in European American and African American Populations. (United States)

    Almoguera, Berta; Vazquez, Lyam; Mentch, Frank; Connolly, John; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Sundaresan, Agnes S; Peissig, Peggy L; Linneman, James G; McCarty, Catherine A; Crosslin, David; Carrell, David S; Lingren, Todd; Namjou-Khales, Bahram; Harley, John B; Larson, Eric; Jarvik, Gail P; Brilliant, Murray; Williams, Marc S; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Hysinger, Erik B; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Hakonarson, Hakon


    Despite significant advances in knowledge of the genetic architecture of asthma, specific contributors to the variability in the burden between populations remain uncovered. To identify additional genetic susceptibility factors of asthma in European American and African American populations. A phenotyping algorithm mining electronic medical records was developed and validated to recruit cases with asthma and control subjects from the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics network. Genome-wide association analyses were performed in pediatric and adult asthma cases and control subjects with European American and African American ancestry followed by metaanalysis. Nominally significant results were reanalyzed conditioning on allergy status. The validation of the algorithm yielded an average of 95.8% positive predictive values for both cases and control subjects. The algorithm accrued 21,644 subjects (65.83% European American and 34.17% African American). We identified four novel population-specific associations with asthma after metaanalyses: loci 6p21.31, 9p21.2, and 10q21.3 in the European American population, and the PTGES gene in African Americans. TEK at 9p21.2, which encodes TIE2, has been shown to be involved in remodeling the airway wall in asthma, and the association remained significant after conditioning by allergy. PTGES, which encodes the prostaglandin E synthase, has also been linked to asthma, where deficient prostaglandin E2 synthesis has been associated with airway remodeling. This study adds to understanding of the genetic architecture of asthma in European Americans and African Americans and reinforces the need to study populations of diverse ethnic backgrounds to identify shared and unique genetic predictors of asthma.

  1. Condom use and concurrent partnering among heterosexually active, African American men: a qualitative report. (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Williams, Kim; Bond, Keosha T; Henny, Kirk; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Lucy, Debbie; Koblin, Beryl A


    African Americans are overrepresented among heterosexual cases of HIV/AIDS in the USA. Inconsistent condom use and concurrent partnering are two sexual behaviors driving the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the African American community. To inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use among African American heterosexual men, we conducted formative research, including 61 structured interviews, 5 focus groups with 25 men, and 30 in-depth qualitative interviews between July and December 2009. We used a grounded theoretical approach and categorizing strategies to code and analyze the qualitative data. Results around condom use confirmed earlier findings among heterosexual men in general: condoms diminish pleasure, interfere with erection, and symbolize infidelity. Although valued by some as a form of disease prevention and pregnancy prevention, condoms are often used only with specific types of female partners, such as new or casual partners, or due to visual risk assessment. Sex partner concurrency was described as normative and ascribed to men's "natural" desire to engage in a variety of sexual activities or their high sex drive, with little recognition of the role it plays in the heterosexual HIV epidemic. Fatherhood emerged among many men as a crucial life event and compelling motivation for reducing sexual risk behavior. Based on these results, we conclude that existing HIV prevention efforts to improve attitudes towards and motivate use of condoms either have not reached or have not been successful with African American heterosexual men. In designing behavioral interventions to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use, addressing negative attitudes towards condoms and partner risk assessment is critical, as is integrating novel motivational approaches related to identity as fathers and men in the African American community.

  2. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  3. Successful African American women in science: A narrative inquiry (United States)

    Petty, Cailisha L.

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.

  4. Examining the Writing of Adolescent African American English Speakers: Suggestions for Assessment and Intervention (United States)

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.


    This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…

  5. Social and Cultural Factors Influence African American Men's Medical Help Seeking (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie


    Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…

  6. The Influence of Racism and Sexism in the Career Development of African American Women. (United States)

    Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.


    Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…

  7. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar


    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  8. African Americans Majoring in Science at Predominantly White Universities (A Review of the Literature) (United States)

    Green, Andre; Glasson, George


    One of the most significant problems facing science education is the under-representation of African Americans in science related fields (Young, 2005). African American constitute a little more than 12% of the United States population. However, as recently as 1999 African Americans only comprised only 3.4% of persons working in science and…

  9. The Politics of Public Discourse: Discourse, Identity and African-Americans in Science Education (United States)

    Brown, Bryan A.


    This review examines twenty years of research (1985-2005) on African-American students in science education. This analysis identified three types of research studies on African-Americans. First, a series of studies provided status reports of African-American students' performance in science. Second, a series of studies highlighted cultural…

  10. Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Offspring of African American Mothers with Depression (United States)

    Boyd, Rhonda C.; Diamond, Guy S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.


    Extensive research demonstrates the negative impact of maternal depression on their offspring. Unfortunately, few studies have been explored in African American families. This study examined emotional and behavioral functioning among children of African American mothers with depression. African American mothers (n = 63), with a past year diagnosis…

  11. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline


    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  12. The African American Women's Summit: A Student Affairs Professional Development Program (United States)

    West, Nicole M.


    The African American Women's Summit (AAWS) is a professional development program in the United States created by and for African American women in student affairs. This article reviews the evolution and structure of the AAWS. A discussion, grounded in Black feminist thought, is included relative to the impact of the AAWS on African American women…

  13. Cultural Perspectives and Thinking: The African American Thinker in the Classroom. (United States)

    Hunt, Steve

    Educators who neglect to adapt teaching strategies to different cognitive styles may be placing some students at risk. A literature review suggests that elements of African American culture heavily influence African American students' communicative and cognitive styles. Research indicates that African American cultural values are organized around…

  14. "Eyes in the back of Your Head": Moral Themes in African American Narratives of Racial Conflict. (United States)

    Ward, Janie Victoria


    Analyzes African-Americans narratives of interracial conflict. Concludes that issues of power and authority are imbedded in interracial interpersonal relationships. Explores themes of justice and care in the psychological development of African Americans and in the transmission of race-related morals and values in African-American culture. (DK)

  15. "Brother Where Art Thou?" African American Male Instructors' Perceptions of the Counselor Education Profession (United States)

    Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.

  16. The Meaning of African American College Women's Experiences Attending a Predominantly White Institution: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge


    Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…

  17. Symbols of menarche identified by African American females. (United States)

    Hawthorne, Dorothy J


    This study was conducted to identify and describe symbolic themes of menarche. The qualitative case study design was used with a purposive sample of 30 participants (15 mothers and their 15 daughters) in answering 2 questions: (a) How do 9- and 10-year-old African American girls view the meaning of their menarcheal flow?, and (b) How do African American mothers view the meaning of menarche? Data were collected through interviews 2 to 5 days after completion of menarche. A cross-case comparison analysis of the interviews revealed 4 themes: (a) vaginal bleeding, (b) sexual maturation, (c) premenarcheal sexual activity, and (d) sexual payback to fathers. With the exception of the latter all themes were supported in earlier studies of Euro-American girls. These findings indicate the need for further research addressing self-concept at menarche, impact of menarche on family relationships, and views of fathers about sexual payback as a symbol of menarche.

  18. Extended family and friendship support and suicidality among African Americans. (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Lincoln, Karen D; Mitchell, Uchechi A


    This study examined the relationship between informal social support from extended family and friends and suicidality among African Americans. Logistic regression analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3263). Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with extended family and friends and negative family interaction were examined in relation to lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to family and frequency of contact with friends were negatively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to friends and negative family interaction were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Significant interactions between social support and negative interaction showed that social support buffers against the harmful effects of negative interaction on suicidality. Findings are discussed in relation to the functions of positive and negative social ties in suicidality.

  19. Psychosocial Keys to African American Achievement? Examining the Relationship between Achievement and Psychosocial Variables in High Achieving African Americans (United States)

    Dixson, Dante D.; Roberson, Cyrell C. B.; Worrell, Frank C.


    Grit, growth mindset, ethnic identity, and other group orientation are four psychosocial variables that have been associated with academic achievement in adolescent populations. In a sample of 105 high achieving African American high school students (cumulative grade point average [GPA] > 3.0), we examined whether these four psychosocial…

  20. Admixture mapping of lung cancer in 1812 African-Americans. (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Bock, Cathryn H; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chen, Wei; Cote, Michele L; Artis, Amanda S; Van Dyke, Alison L; Land, Susan J; Harris, Curtis C; Pine, Sharon R; Spitz, Margaret R; Amos, Christopher I; Levin, Albert M; McKeigue, Paul M


    Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the best example of a cancer with undisputed evidence of environmental risk. However, a genetic contribution to lung cancer has also been demonstrated by studies of familial aggregation, family-based linkage, candidate gene studies and most recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The African-American population has been underrepresented in these genetic studies and has patterns of cigarette use and linkage disequilibrium that differ from patterns in other populations. Therefore, studies in African-Americans can provide complementary data to localize lung cancer susceptibility genes and explore smoking dependence-related genes. We used admixture mapping to further characterize genetic risk of lung cancer in a series of 837 African-American lung cancer cases and 975 African-American controls genotyped at 1344 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Both case-only and case-control analyses were conducted using ADMIXMAP adjusted for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, family history of lung cancer, history of emphysema and study site. In case-only analyses, excess European ancestry was observed over a wide region on chromosome 1 with the largest excess seen at rs6587361 for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Z-score = -4.33; P = 1.5 × 10⁻⁵) and for women with NSCLC (Z-score = -4.82; P = 1.4 × 10⁻⁶). Excess African ancestry was also observed on chromosome 3q with a peak Z-score of 3.33 (P = 0.0009) at rs181696 among ever smokers with NSCLC. These results add to the findings from the GWAS in Caucasian populations and suggest novel regions of interest.

  1. Exercise, Health, and Falls Risks among Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kosma


    Full Text Available Background of Study: Although exercise has many benefits, older African American (AA women are less active than older Caucasian women and older AA men. Balance and muscle-strengthening activities are typically recommended for decreased falls, whereas the role of aerobic training alone on falls prevention is controversial. Objective: This was a mixed methods phronetic (pragmatic study – without an intervention – including quantitative data (falls risks and qualitative data on exercise behavior and its importance to health and falls prevention; therefore, the studied phenomenon was thoroughly and pragmatically investigated. The first purpose of the study was to examine differences in falls risks based on exercise type (aerobics vs. combination of aerobics, muscle training, and balance activities and exercise level (active people vs. somewhat active people. Secondly, participants’ exercise values were examined in relation to their health, falls-risk prevention, exercise behavior, and falls risks. Method: Interviews and falls risk assessments were conducted among 12 older AA women in an inner-city community center. Results: ANCOVA and ANOVA showed that the aerobics group performed better in Dynamic Gait Index (DGI and Timed Up and Go than the combination group (d =0.85, -0.97; the latter surpassed the former in Functional Reach (d = 2.27. The active group (met the 150 minutes/week exercise recommendation performed better in DGI and Six-Minute Walk than the somewhat active group (d =0.62.,50; the latter outperformed the former in balance-eyes open (d = -0.52. Emerging themes about lifestyle values included: a reasons for health conditions and staying healthy and b falls prevention. Conclusion: Exercise programs for fall risk reduction should include not only muscle strengthening and balance activities, but also aerobic exercises. Meeting minimum exercise recommendations is key to falls risk reduction. Beyond healthy diet, the role of exercise

  2. The perception of optimal profile in African Americans versus white Americans as assessed by orthodontists and the lay public. (United States)

    Hall, D; Taylor, R W; Jacobson, A; Sadowsky, P L; Bartolucci, A


    This study was designed to assess the perceived optimal profiles of African Americans versus white Americans. A survey was conducted using profile silhouettes of 30 African American and 30 white patients, ranging in age from 7 to 17 years. Twenty white orthodontists, 18 African American orthodontists, 20 white laypersons, and 20 African American laypersons evaluated the profiles. The preference of each rater for each of the 60 profiles was scored on an attached visual analog scale. Eighteen cephalometric variables were measured for each profile, and statistical analyses were performed on the profiles that had a mean rating of 60 or greater from an analog scale of 0 to 100. The results show the following 6 cephalometric variables were significant: Z-angle, skeletal convexity at A-point, upper lip prominence, lower lip prominence, nasomental angle, and mentolabial sulcus. All raters preferred the African American sample to have a greater profile convexity than they preferred for the white sample. The raters preferred the African American sample with upper and lower lips that were more prominent compared with the white sample. However, only the choice of the African American orthodontists for the African American sample was significantly different for this parameter. The white orthodontists gave the highest mean scores for the profile chosen, whereas the African American laypersons gave the lowest scores.

  3. Alcohol-related consequences in African American and European American college students. (United States)

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew; Dennhardt, Ashley A


    Approximately 50% of college students report a heavy drinking episode in the past 2 weeks. This pattern of heavy episodic drinking places them at risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. In addition, important ethnic differences exist between European American and African American college students in terms of drinking. European American college students report consuming more alcohol than African American college students, but little research exists on the differences in types and rates of problems. The current study sought to examine the differences in problems among 451 African American and European American college students using a comprehensive measure of alcohol-related problems. The effect of gender was also examined as research has found consistent gender differences in drinking. European American students experienced more problems overall and greater levels of social/interpersonal problems and risky behaviors even after controlling for drinking level. In addition, women reported significantly greater levels of problems in all domains except physical dependence, risky behaviors, and self-perception when drinking was controlled for.

  4. Genomic regions associated with susceptibility to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma in African Americans: The cross BETRNet admixture study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqing Sun

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC are far more prevalent in European Americans than in African Americans. Hypothesizing that this racial disparity in prevalence might represent a genetic susceptibility, we used an admixture mapping approach to interrogate disease association with genomic differences between European and African ancestry.Formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples were identified from 54 African Americans with BE or EAC through review of surgical pathology databases at participating Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet institutions. DNA was extracted from normal tissue, and genotyped on the Illumina OmniQuad SNP chip. Case-only admixture mapping analysis was performed on the data from both all 54 cases and also on a subset of 28 cases with high genotyping quality. Haplotype phases were inferred with Beagle 3.3.2, and local African and European ancestries were inferred with SABER plus. Disease association was tested by estimating and testing excess European ancestry and contrasting it to excess African ancestry.Both datasets, the 54 cases and the 28 cases, identified two admixture regions. An association of excess European ancestry on chromosome 11p reached a 5% genome-wide significance threshold, corresponding to -log10(P = 4.28. A second peak on chromosome 8q reached -log10(P = 2.73. The converse analysis examining excess African ancestry found no genetic regions with significant excess African ancestry associated with BE and EAC. On average, the regions on chromosomes 8q and 11p showed excess European ancestry of 15% and 20%, respectively.Chromosomal regions on 11p15 and 8q22-24 are associated with excess European ancestry in African Americans with BE and EAC. Because GWAS have not reported any variants in these two regions, low frequency and/or rare disease associated variants that confer susceptibility to developing BE and EAC may be driving the observed European ancestry

  5. A comparison of type 2 diabetes risk allele load between African Americans and European Americans. (United States)

    Keaton, Jacob M; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Palmer, Nicholette D; Freedman, Barry I; Langefeld, Carl D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Bowden, Donald W


    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is greater in populations of African descent compared to European-descent populations. Genetic risk factors may underlie the disparity in disease prevalence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >60 common genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk in populations of European, Asian, African and Hispanic descent. These studies have not comprehensively examined population differences in cumulative risk allele load. To investigate the relationship between risk allele load and T2D risk, 46 T2D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 43 loci from GWAS in European, Asian, and African-derived populations were genotyped in 1,990 African Americans (n = 963 T2D cases, n = 1,027 controls) and 1,644 European Americans (n = 719 T2D cases, n = 925 controls) ascertained and recruited using a common protocol in the southeast United States. A genetic risk score (GRS) was constructed from the cumulative risk alleles for each individual. In African American subjects, risk allele frequencies ranged from 0.024 to 0.964. Risk alleles from 26 SNPs demonstrated directional consistency with previous studies, and 3 SNPs from ADAMTS9, TCF7L2, and ZFAND6 showed nominal evidence of association (p European American subjects, risk allele frequencies ranged from 0.084 to 0.996. Risk alleles from 36 SNPs demonstrated directional consistency, and 10 SNPs from BCL11A, PSMD6, ADAMTS9, ZFAND3, ANK1, CDKN2A/B, TCF7L2, PRC1, FTO, and BCAR1 showed evidence of association (p European American individuals carried 38-65 (50.9 ± 4.4) risk alleles. African Americans have a significantly greater burden of 2.8 risk alleles (p = 3.97 × 10(-89)) compared to European Americans. However, GRS modeling showed that cumulative risk allele load was associated with risk of T2D in European Americans, but only marginally in African Americans. This result suggests that there are ethnic-specific differences in genetic architecture underlying T2D, and that these

  6. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth. (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M


    This study explored trajectories of African American youths' academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths' academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem.

  7. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents. (United States)

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L


    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.

  8. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals. (United States)

    Ledet, Richard


    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  9. The sociocultural context of emotion socialization in African American families. (United States)

    Labella, Madelyn H


    The current paper systematically reviews empirical research on parental emotion socialization in African American families, addressing gaps in a literature that has historically focused on White middle class samples. Of the 1210 studies screened, 329 were inspected, 280 were excluded, and 49 were included. Studies addressed emotion-related beliefs and attitudes, emotion expressiveness, discussion of emotion, and responses to children's emotion. Mixed findings are interpreted in light of sociocultural factors. An emerging body of research suggests that the celebration and restriction of children's emotions coexist closely in African American families, perhaps reflecting the joint influence of traditional Afro-cultural values and the historical context of slavery and discrimination. Methodological issues are identified and future directions for research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Midlife development and menopause in African American and Caucasian women. (United States)

    Sampselle, Carolyn M; Harris, Vanessa; Harlow, Sioban D; Sowers, MaryFran


    Little is known about factors that enhance midlife women's well-being and even less about whether these factors differ for African Americans and Caucasians. We conducted focus groups with 30 women, grouped by ethnicity and menopausal status. Women identified midlife as a time of opportunity for self-development. Pre/perimenopausal women expressed more fears about severe emotional changes than did their postmenopausal counterparts. These fears were in sharp contrast to the women's descriptions of enhanced self-esteem. Caucasian women were primarily concerned about menopause as a harbinger of physical aging and the ensuing disadvantage of divergence from society's ideal of a youthful appearance, while African American women viewed menopause as a normal, even welcome, part of life. A language of emancipation and awareness of gender bias were prominent in the women's stories regardless of menopausal status or race. Further study should assess the role that feminist insights may play in the well-being of midlife women.

  11. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels


    Full Text Available

    Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  12. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels


    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  13. Gender, personal networks, and drug use among rural African Americans. (United States)

    Goldbarg, Rosalyn Negrón; Brown, Emma J

    One of the main unifying concepts of research examining gender variations in drug use behavior is the social network. Yet, research specifically focusing on how the social networks of these groups differ by gender is limited. Few studies have investigated the social networks of rural African Americans who use drugs. In this study, we compared the personal networks of 20 rural African-American men and women addicted to cocaine using social network analysis (SNA) methods. The data do not support strong assertions about gender differences in the personal networks of the study sample. However, the results of the study suggest that men tend to have more drug users in their networks than women, as well as less structurally cohesive networks. Women tend to include more men in their personal networks than men included women. Implications of the research results for network-based drug prevention intervention as well as the value of SNA methods for drug use research are discussed.

  14. Reasons for African American student attrition from school psychology programs. (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L; Truscott, Stephen D


    This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what factors contributed to participants' attrition. Findings indicate that misalignment between participants' career aims and the practice of school psychology (as presented in the programs they left) contributed to attrition. Poor relationships with school psychology faculty and program cohort peers also played a role in participants' decisions to leave school psychology programs. Results offer a unique lens into racial issues in school psychology. Recommendations for faculty and others interested in preventing African Americans' attrition from school psychology graduate education are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural health and the politics of African American masculinity. (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M


    This commentary describes ways in which notions of African American men's "health" attained by individual choice-embedded in the notion that African American men should visit doctors or engage in fewer risky behaviors-are at times in tension with larger cultural, economic, and political notions of "health." It argues that efforts to improve the health of Black men must take structural factors into account, and failure to do so circumvents even well-intentioned efforts to improve health outcomes. Using historical examples, the article shows how attempts to identify and intervene into what are now called social determinants of health are strengthened by addressing on-the-ground diagnostic disparities and also the structural violence and racism embedded within definitions of illness and health. And, that, as such, we need to monitor structural barriers to health that exist in institutions ostensibly set up to incarcerate or contain Black men and in institutions ostensibly set up to help them.

  16. Social Support, Traumatic Events, and Depressive Symptoms Among African Americans


    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph


    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among stress, social support, negative interaction, and mental health in a sample of African American men and women between ages 18 and 54 (N = 591) from the National Comorbidity Study. The study findings indicated that social support decreased the number of depressive symptoms, did not mitigate the effects of stress, and was reduced in response to financial strain. Financial strain and traumatic events were associated with in...

  17. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  18. Lumbar spine listhesis in older African American women. (United States)

    Vogt, Molly T; Rubin, David A; Palermo, Lisa; Christianson, Lisa; Kang, James D; Nevitt, Michael C; Cauley, Jane A


    Degenerative changes in the lumbar spine may result in a loss of spinal stability and subluxation of one vertebra relative to another. Cadaveric studies and clinical case series have suggested that listhesis may be much more common in African Americans than in whites. To determine the prevalence of lumbar spine listhesis (anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis) among African American women aged 65 years and older and the relationship of listhesis to low back pain, physical function and quality of life. Cross-sectional study. A total of 481 African American women aged 65 years and older who were enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. These women were recruited from population-based listings in Baltimore, MD, Minneapolis, MN, Pittsburgh, PA, and Portland, OR. Not applicable. Lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine were digitized, and listhesis (anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis) was assessed at spinal levels L3-L4, L4-L5 and L5-S1. Usable data were obtained for 470 women. Listhesis was defined as present when the subluxation (antero or retro) was 3 mm or more. The overall prevalence of anterolisthesis was 58.3% and varied by spinal level (13.2% at L3-L4, 36.5% at L4-L5 and 29.6% at L5-S1). The prevalence increased with age but was lower among oophorectomized women and those currently on estrogen replacement therapy. Anterolisthesis was not associated (p>.05) with disc height nor was it related to back function. Retrolisthesis occurred in 4% of women and was associated with decreased disc height and an increased prevalence of spinal problems and walking problems. The prevalence of anterolisthesis among older African American women living in the community was two to three times greater than that found in white women of a similar age. This condition was not related to an increased frequency of back problems nor did it adversely affect general physical function. Retrolisthesis was relatively rare but was associated with decreased back function.

  19. An investigation of African American and European American students' perception of teaching behavior. (United States)

    Cauley, Bridget; Immekus, Jason C; Pössel, Patrick


    Teaching behaviors are associated with a range of student academic and mental health outcomes. Substantial academic, school disciplinary, and mental health disparities across African American and European American students suggest that diverse students may view and interpret teaching behaviors differently. The Teaching Behavior Questionnaire measures students' perceptions of teaching behaviors. The purpose of the current study was to examine the scale's factor structure among European American high school students using exploratory factor analysis and, subsequently, cross-validate using confirmatory factor analysis based on African American student data. Results supported reconceptualizing the scale according to a three-factor model in both groups. Implications related to the interpretation and use of scores are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The experiences of African American graduate students: A cultural transition (United States)

    Joseph, Joretta

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) have long been an intellectual resource for the African American community. HBCUs have provided and continue to provide an educational pathway for many Black students, particularly women who seek graduate and advanced degrees. However, despite the overwhelmingly positive presence of HBCU in the African American community, the academic training of students who graduate from HBCUs may be perceived as insufficient by predominantly White graduate institutions (PWIs). As a result, African American students who are not well integrated into their respective departmental communities and cultures at PW/is are likely to leave graduate school. Thus the continuing loss of talented people, potential research, role models for society, and the next generation of African American students in the fields of math, engineering, and the sciences (STEM) create a segregated and limited university environment. Studies in the field that attempt to provide insight in to experiences of underrepresented students are ultimately beneficial. However, often such studies do not address the process of adapting to the culture of a predominantly white institution (PWI), particularly within white and male dominated fields such as mathematics and the sciences. Research has also indicated that the first two years at a predominantly white graduate institution is the crucial transitional period for students of color, and it is this transitional moment in time that is the focus of this study. I consider how students make the transition from HBCU to majority institutions, and what impact this transition has on their persistence and commitment to their discipline. The limited amount of research that does address the experiences of minority doctoral students in math and science is usually coupled with the experiences of women. However, race and gender are not linear or additive. It cannot be assumed that the same factors that effect the under representation

  1. The "invisible caregiver": multicaregiving among diabetic African-American grandmothers. (United States)

    Carthron, Dana L; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A


    To explore the multicaregiving roles African-American grandmothers assume while self-managing their diabetes. This longitudinal, qualitative pilot study explored the challenges of self-managing diabetes among six African-American caregiving grandmothers. Data were collected at 5 times points across 18 months. Content analysis, guided by the Adaptive Leadership framework, was conducted using data matrices to facilitate within-case and cross-case analyses. Although participants initially stated they cared only for grandchildren, all had additional caregiving responsibilities. Four themes emerged which illustrated how African-American caregiving grandmothers put the care of dependent children, extended family and community before themselves. Using the Adaptive Leadership framework, technical and adaptive challenges arising from multicaregiving were described as barriers to diabetes self-management. When assisting these women to self-manage their diabetes, clinicians must assess challenges arising from multicaregiving. This might require developing collaborative work relationships with the client to develop meaningful and attainable goals. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Postterm delivery among African Americans, Mexican Americans and Whites in Chicago. (United States)

    Collins, J W; Schulte, N F; George, L; Drolet, A


    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of individual-level and community-level risk factors on the postterm delivery rates of infants born to African-American, Mexican-American, and non-Latino White mothers; and to compare postterm delivery rates between these ethnic groups. This is a population-based study. We performed stratified and multivariate logistic regression analyses on a linked dataset of 1992-1995 Illinois vital records, 1990 United States Census income data, and 1995 Chicago Department of Public Health information. Communities with one or more high-risk characteristics (low median family income or high rates of unemployment, homicide or lead poisoning) were classified as impoverished. In Chicago, African Americans (N = 85,978) had a postterm rate of 4.3/1,000 and Mexican Americans (N = 47,266) had a postterm rate of 3.6/1,000, compared to 2.3/1,000 for non-Latino Whites (N = 48,601); relative risk (ninety-five percent confidence interval) = 1.9 (1.5-2.3) and 1.6 (1.2-2.0), respectively. Maternal age, education, marital status, parity, and prenatal care usage were associated with ethnic group-specific postterm delivery rates. In a multivariate logistic regression model for non-impoverished mothers, the adjusted odds ratios of postterm delivery for African Americans and Mexican Americans were 1.0 (0.5-3.2) and 1.0 (0.6-1.7), respectively. We conclude that African Americans and Mexican Americans have greater postterm delivery rates than do Whites; however, commonly cited individual and community-level risk factors account for most of the disparity.

  3. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents. (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael


    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Drinking to Cope among African-American College Students: An Assessment of Episode-specific Motives


    O’Hara, Ross E.; Boynton, Marcella H.; Scott, Denise; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard; Williams, Carla; Covault, Jonathan


    Despite evidence that African Americans are disproportionately affected by drinking to cope relative to European Americans, African-American college students’ drinking motives remain understudied. Additionally, most research has only examined between-person differences in drinking to cope as a predictor of alcohol use, ignoring within-person variability. In the current daily diary study of 462 African-American undergraduates from a historically Black university, associations between episode-s...

  5. Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: A national study. (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T


    A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.

  6. Examining African American and white outdoor recreation participation after demographic standardization on selected characteristics (United States)

    James E. Christensen; John F. Dwyer


    The "marginality" explanation of differences between the outdoor recreation participation of African Americans and Whites was evaluated using demographic standardization of age, income, and education for a sample of African American and White Illinois residents. After standardization, African America/White differences in outdoor recreation participation were...

  7. A Qualitative Study of African American Women in Engineering Technology Programs in Community Colleges (United States)

    Blakley, Jacquelyn


    This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…

  8. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.


    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  9. Playing spades: The rich resources of African American young men (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear

  10. Reading, Interpreting, and Teaching African American History: Examining How African American History Influences the Curricular and Pedagogical Decisions of Preservice Teachers (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel


    African American history and how it is taught in classroom spaces have been a point of contention with activists, historians, and educators for decades. In it current form, African American history narratives often are ambiguous and truncated, leaving students with a disjointed construction about U.S. history. Additionally, the pedagogical…

  11. Engaging All Americans: Innovative Strategies for Reaching the Public with Climate and Environmental Information (United States)

    Espinoza, S.


    From extensive drought and heat waves to floods, tornadoes and Superstorm Sandy, extreme weather and climate events provide teachable moments to help communities prepare for and respond to related environmental, economic and health impacts. The National Environmental Education Foundation ( works with the American Meteorological Society, the media and other trusted messengers to provide weather, climate and environmental information to the public in accessible and widely used formats, whether via TV, radio or social media. NEEF will provide an overview of innovative partnerships and projects that are engaging Americans in understanding and using climate and environmental information to make the best choices in their daily lives and improve the health of their communities, including: Assessing knowledge, attitudes and behaviors: NEEF will share results from its national survey research and targeted focus groups on current attitudes and practices relating to our nation's environment. Simplifying and amplifying key messages: NEEF provides a national network of more than 350 meteorologists, radio broadcasters and journalists with the science-based information and resources they need to present climate and environmental topics to their viewers on-air, online and in community outreach. Engaging television viewers in citizen science: Eyes on Central PA, a pilot project of NEEF, Project Noah and WTAJ-TV, harnesses Project Noah's citizen science platform to collect and display photos of wildlife from WTAJ-TV viewers. NEEF and WTAJ provide regular blogs and on-air stories that highlight viewers' photos and link them to local weather conditions and climate trends. Expanding the conversation: NEEF's multimedia strategy in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. is reaching Spanish-speaking audiences with climate and environmental information through regular radio and television broadcasts. We are also exploring ways to reach other non-traditional audiences, including faith

  12. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.

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    Nicholette D Palmer

    Full Text Available African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071, were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05. Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8. SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9, OR (95% CI = 0.75 (0.67-0.84 is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217 were associated with T2DM (P<0.05 and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5 in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.

  13. Associations between food insecurity and the severity of psychological distress among African-Americans. (United States)

    Allen, Nickolas L; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B


    Little research exists on the association between food insecurity and mild to moderate psychological distress (MPD) among Black/African-Americans. In this study, we assess the relationship between food insecurity with and without hunger to that of both MPD and serious psychological distress (SPD) among this population. 2009 and 2011/2012 adult public-use data from African-American respondents of the California Health Interview Survey were utilized for this study (n = 4003). Descriptive statistics were utilized to identify prevalence of psychological distress among sociodemographic and mental-health associated variables. Bivariate analyses were conducted between these variables and psychological distress using survey-weighted chi-square analyses. To evaluate the association between psychological distress, our primary exposure variable of food security, and other variables, we utilized survey-weighted multinomial logistic regression. Prevalence of mild to MPD was higher among those reporting food insecurity while SPD was highest for those with food insecurity and hunger. Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrate that while MPD was significantly associated with food insecurity, Black/African-Americans with food insecurity and hunger displayed over sixfold odds of higher serious psychological distress, as compared to those living at or above 200% federal poverty level. Our findings add to this growing segment of the literature on psychological distress and food insecurity. Further focus should be placed on improving the efficacy and reach of both formal and informal food support networks to improve the collective health and well-being of poor Black/African-American communities.

  14. Fostering African-American Improvement in Total Health (FAITH!): An Application of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7™ among Midwestern African-Americans. (United States)

    Brewer, LaPrincess C; Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Dean, Patrick; Lackore, Kandace; Jenkins, Sarah; Hayes, Sharonne N


    African-Americans have a strikingly low prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health metrics of the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 (LS7). This study was conducted to assess the impact of a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention intervention on the knowledge and achievement of cardiovascular health metrics among a marginalized African-American community. Adult congregants (n = 37, 70 % women) from three African-American churches in Rochester, MN, participated in the Fostering African-American Improvement in Total Health (FAITH!) program, a theory-based, culturally-tailored, 16-week education series incorporating the American Heart Association's LS7 framework. Feasibility testing included assessments of participant recruitment, program attendance, and retention. We classified participants according to definitions of ideal, intermediate, and poor cardiovascular health based on cardiac risk factors and health behaviors and calculated an LS7 score (range 0 to 14) at baseline and post-intervention. Knowledge of cardiac risk factors was assessed by questionnaire. Main outcome measures were changes in cardiovascular health knowledge and cardiovascular health components related to LS7 from baseline to post-intervention. Psychosocial measures included socioeconomic status, outlook on life, self-reported health, self-efficacy, and family support. Thirty-six out of 37 recruited participants completed the entire program including health assessments. Participants attended 63.5 % of the education series and attendance at each session was, on average, 62 % of those enrolled. There was a statistically significant improvement in cardiovascular health knowledge (p FAITH! program is a feasible, community intervention promoting ideal cardiovascular health that has the potential to improve cardiovascular health literacy and LS7 among African-Americans.

  15. Coronary angiographic findings in African-American and white patients from a single institution. (United States)

    Liao, Y; Ghali, J K; Berzins, L; Cooper, R S


    No data exist comparing clinical and angiographic findings in large numbers of contemporary African-American and white patients from the same hospital. Limited angiographic data on African Americans were obtained from hospitals serving predominantly minority patients, making the valid African-American:white comparisons difficult. The study included 2,624 consecutive white and 1,793 African-American patients who had angiography for diagnostic evaluation of presumed coronary artery disease at the Louisiana State University Medical Center in Shreveport between 1990 and 1997. Compared to whites of the same sex, a greater proportion of African-American patients had a history of hypertension, stroke, and heart failure. African Americans also had significantly higher systemic and left ventricular pressure, lower ejection fraction, greater echocardiographic left ventricular mass index, and more concentric hypertrophy. The overall proportion of patients with normal or minimal stenosis of coronary artery (whites for both men and women. This difference was predominately found in men aged > or = 55 years or older. Except among older men, African-American patients with coronary heart disease had a similar distribution of 1-, 2-, 3-vessel disease and mean stenosis score compared to whites. In conclusion, a higher frequency of normal coronaries and less frequent coronary stenosis were found in older African-American men. The African-American:white differences in angiographic findings were minimal in younger men and in women. However, African Americans had worse clinical profiles than whites.

  16. Expressions of anxiety in African Americans: ethnography and the epidemiological catchment area studies. (United States)

    Heurtin-Roberts, S; Snowden, L; Miller, L


    High levels of anxiety have long been reported for African Americans. Recent analyses of Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) data have failed to support this, although contemporary ethnographies have discussed important African American folk idioms of anxiety. This study compares ethnographically reported symptoms of anxiety in African Americans to those reported in the ECA data. A multivariate analysis of female African American and European American differences in comparable ECA and ethnographic symptoms was performed. Significant differences were found not in ethnicity but in education levels. Alternative interpretations are discussed. Methodological problems are discussed highlighting limitations of both household survey research, such as the ECA project, and ethnography.

  17. Romantic Relationships among Unmarried African Americans and Caribbean Blacks: Findings from the National Survey of American Life (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.


    This study investigated the correlates of relationship satisfaction, marriage expectations, and relationship longevity among unmarried African American and Black Caribbean (Caribbean Black) adults who are in a romantic relationship. The study used data from the National Survey of American Life, a national representative sample of African Americans…

  18. Lay Theories of Suicide: An Examination of Culturally Relevant Suicide Beliefs and Attributions Among African Americans and European Americans


    Walker, Rheeda L.; Lester, David; Joe, Sean


    The purpose of this study was to examine African Americans’ lay beliefs and attributions toward suicide. The Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, Life Ownership Orientation Questionnaire, Stigma Questionnaire, and Suicide Ideation Questionnaire were administered to 251 undergraduate college students. Beliefs about stigma associated with suicide were comparable across ethnic groups. However, African American college students were significantly less likely than European American college students wer...

  19. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt


    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  20. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College (United States)

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah


    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  1. Ancestry-informative markers for African Americans based on the Affymetrix Pan-African genotyping array

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    Xu Zhang


    Full Text Available Genetic admixture has been utilized as a tool for identifying loci associated with complex traits and diseases in recently admixed populations such as African Americans. In particular, admixture mapping is an efficient approach to identifying genetic basis for those complex diseases with substantial racial or ethnic disparities. Though current advances in admixture mapping algorithms may utilize the entire panel of SNPs, providing ancestry-informative markers (AIMs that can differentiate parental populations and estimate ancestry proportions in an admixed population may particularly benefit admixture mapping in studies of limited samples, help identify unsuitable individuals (e.g., through genotyping the most informative ancestry markers before starting large genome-wide association studies (GWAS, or guide larger scale targeted deep re-sequencing for determining specific disease-causing variants. Defining panels of AIMs based on commercial, high-throughput genotyping platforms will facilitate the utilization of these platforms for simultaneous admixture mapping of complex traits and diseases, in addition to conventional GWAS. Here, we describe AIMs detected based on the Shannon Information Content (SIC or Fst for African Americans with genome-wide coverage that were selected from ∼2.3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs covered by the Affymetrix Axiom Pan-African array, a newly developed genotyping platform optimized for individuals of African ancestry.

  2. Variation in Vowel Duration Among Southern African American English Speakers. (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen


    Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. In this study, we examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the 2 groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Vowels produced by females were significantly longer than vowels produced by males for both AAE and WAE. African American speakers should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers.

  3. Police contacts and stress among African American college students. (United States)

    Landers, Amber J; Rollock, David; Rolfes, Charity B; Moore, Demietrice L


    Attitudes toward police rarely are studied in investigations of race-related stress among communities of color. African American undergraduates (66 women, 35 men) rated the frequency and stressfulness of 83 general, college-related, race-related, and police-related events. Although respondents described police contacts as stressful, multivariate analyses of variance indicated that mean stress scores for nonpolice items were higher than for police items. Men reported significantly greater stressfulness of police contacts, and women reported slightly greater stressfulness of nonpolice situations. Further analyses confirmed significant differences in police contact stress scores as a function of the type of contacts (benign vs. malignant), gender of respondent (men greater than women), and frequency of contact. Limited differences were observed as a function of immediacy of contact (personal, witnessed, contacts of a loved one, or loved one telling of another person's contact) and individual differences in ethnic identity. No differences were observed as a function of general affective intensity. Results suggest that the stress associated with police contact is specific and distinct from other elements of African American life in this college student sample and thus underscores the need for research on the effects of such stress in less advantaged, community-based populations. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  4. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

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    Janna Volkov


    Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.

  5. Am I an African or an American? Duboisian Double consciousness in A Raisin in the Sun

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    Tayebeh Nowrouzi


    Full Text Available A Raisin in the Sun is the story that examines the problem of identity and lack of a true self consciousness among the members of an African American family. In this work, Hansberry is mainly referring to the psychological state in which African Americans are seeking whether they are Africans or Americans. In their constant search of identity, they finally comprehend that their identity is neither African nor American but African American, a merged identity. They, thus, must endeavor to reconcile the dual parts of their identity to which Dubois referred as double consciousness. Following Dubois’ theory of double consciousness, this study undertakes to locate African American identity in connection to Africa and America. It, furthermore, demonstrates that their identity cannot be defined solely in regards to Africa or America even if they tried so. Their identity is a merged one, and there is no escape from it.

  6. Testicular cancer among African American college men: knowledge, perceived risk, and perceptions of cancer fatalism. (United States)

    Powe, Barbara D; Ross, Louie; Wilkerson, Donoria; Brooks, Patrice; Cooper, Dexter


    African American men present at later stages of testicular cancer and have higher mortality rates than Caucasian men. Lack of awareness, beliefs, and access to care may influence this disparity. Guided by the Powe fatalism model, this comparative study assessed knowledge of testicular cancer, perceived risk, and cancer fatalism among African American and Caucasian men who attended selected colleges and universities. Data were collected using the Powe Fatalism Inventory, the Testicular Cancer Knowledge Survey, and the Perceived Cancer Risk Survey. The majority (n = 190) of men were African American (70%), and the remainder were Caucasian. African American men were significantly younger than Caucasian men. African American men also had lower testicular cancer knowledge scores, higher perceptions of cancer fatalism, and lower perceived risk for the disease. Rates of testicular cancer screening were low for all the men. Research should focus on further understanding the relationship between cancer fatalism and health-promoting behaviors among African American men.

  7. Hepatic iron in African Americans who underwent liver biopsy. (United States)

    Barton, James C; Bertoli, Luigi F; Alford, Thomas J; Barton, J Clayborn; Edwards, Corwin Q


    Primary iron overload in African Americans has been reported predominantly from autopsy studies. We characterized hepatic iron phenotypes in 83 African Americans who underwent liver biopsy during the interval 1990 to 1995. We tabulated pathology report form data, iron grades in hepatocytes (0-4) and Kupffer cells (0-3) and abnormal liver histology. Increased iron was defined as hepatocyte or Kupffer iron grades ≥ 2, respectively. Heavy iron was defined as hepatocyte iron grade 3 or 4. Primary iron overload was defined as the presence of grade 3 or 4 hepatocellular iron in the absence of evidence of chronic alcohol effect, viral hepatitis, steatosis, unexplained inflammation, chronic erythrocyte transfusion or chronic ingestion of iron supplements. There were 37 men and 46 women (mean age: 53 ± 15 [SD] years). We observed heavy ethanol consumption, 12.0%; viral hepatitis, 26.5%; steatosis without heavy ethanol consumption, 43.4%; inflammation, 45.6%; fibrosis, 26.2% and bridging fibrosis/cirrhosis, 29.4%. Logistic regression on bridging fibrosis/cirrhosis revealed positive associations with heavy ethanol consumption (P = 0.0410) and viral hepatitis (P = 0.0044). The 22 patients (26.5%) with increased iron had greater mean age, proportion of men and heavy ethanol consumption. Five patients had heavy iron staining, among whom were 3 women (mean age: 54 years) with primary iron overload. Two of the 3 women had cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. Among 83 adult African Americans who underwent liver biopsy, 3.6% had hepatic iron phenotypes consistent with primary iron overload.

  8. Atrial Fibrillation and Colonic Neoplasia in African Americans.

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    Mehdi Nouraie

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF share several risk factors including increasing age and obesity. However, the association between CRC and AF has not been thoroughly examined, especially in African Americans. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of AF and its risk factors in colorectal neoplasia in an African American.We reviewed records of 527 African American patients diagnosed with CRC and 1008 patients diagnosed with benign colonic lesions at Howard University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. A control group of 731 hospitalized patients without any cancer or colonic lesion were randomly selected from the same time and age range, excluding patients who had diagnosis of both CRC and/or adenoma. The presence or absence of AF was based upon ICD-9 code documentation. The prevalence of AF in these three groups was compared by multivariate logistic regression.The prevalence of AF was highest among CRC patients (10% followed by adenoma patients (7.2% then the control group (5.4%, P for trend = 0.002. In the three groups of participants, older age (P<0.008 and heart failure (P<0.001 were significantly associated with higher risk of AF. After adjusting for these risk factors, CRC (OR: 1.4(95%CI:0.9-2.2, P = 0.2 and adenoma (OR: 1.1(95%CI:0.7-1.6, P = 0.7 were not significantly associated AF compared to control group.AF is highly prevalent among CRC patients; 1 in 10 patients had AF in our study. The predictors of AF in CRC was similar to that in adenoma and other patients after adjustment for potential confounders suggesting that the increased AF risk in CRC is explained by higher prevalence of AF risk factors.

  9. Keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in young African American women. (United States)

    Harmon, Quaker E; Laughlin, Shannon K; Baird, Donna D


    Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF), is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic) scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid) and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number) and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3%) and fibroids (23.3%) were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 0.7 (0.5-1.1)] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

  10. Introduction to Exporting American Dreams: Thurgood Marshall's African Journey

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    Mary L. Dudziak


    Full Text Available Thurgood Marshall became a living icon of civil rights when he argued Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court in 1954. Six years later, he was at a crossroads. A rising generation of activists were making sit-ins and demonstrations rather than lawsuits the hallmark of the civil rights movement. What role, he wondered, could he now play? When in 1960 Kenyan independence leaders asked him to help write their constitution, Marshall threw himself into their cause. Here was a new arena in which law might serve as the tool with which to forge a just society. In Exporting American Dreams, Mary Dudziak recounts with poignancy and power the untold story of Marshall's journey to Africa. African Americans were enslaved when the U.S. constitution was written. In Kenya, Marshall could become something that had not existed in his own country: a black man helping to found a nation. He became friends with Kenyan leaders Tom Mboya and Jomo Kenyatta, serving as advisor to the Kenyans, who needed to demonstrate to Great Britain and to the world that they would treat minority races (whites and Asians fairly once Africans took power. He crafted a bill of rights, aiding constitutional negotiations that helped enable peaceful regime change, rather than violent resistance. Marshall's involvement with Kenya's foundation affirmed his faith in law, while also forcing him to understand how the struggle for justice could be compromised by the imperatives of sovereignty. Marshall's beliefs were most sorely tested later in the decade when he became a Supreme Court Justice, even as American cities erupted in flames and civil rights progress stalled. Kenya's first attempt at democracy faltered, but Marshall's African journey remained a cherished memory of a time and a place when all things seemed possible.

  11. Quality of Life and Outcomes in African Americans with CKD (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J.; Wang, Xuelei; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H.; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W.; Norris, Keith C.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Greene, Tom; Lash, James P.


    Low health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been associated with increased risk for hospitalization and death in ESRD. However, the relationship of HRQOL with outcomes in predialysis CKD is not well understood. We evaluated the association between HRQOL and renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in 1091 African Americans with hypertensive CKD enrolled in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial and cohort studies. Outcomes included CKD progression (doubling of serum creatinine/ESRD), CV events/CV death, and a composite of CKD progression or death from any cause (CKD progression/death). We assessed HRQOL, including mental health composite (MHC) and physical health composite (PHC), using the Short Form-36 survey. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between outcomes and five-point decrements in MHC and PHC scores using measurements at baseline, at the most recent annual visit (time-varying), or averaged from baseline to the most recent visit (cumulative). During approximately 10 years of follow-up, lower mean PHC score was associated with increased risk of CV events/CV death and CKD progression/death across all analytic approaches, but only time-varying and cumulative decrements were associated with CKD progression. Similarly, lower mean MHC score was associated with increased risk of CV events/CV death regardless of analytic approach, while only time-varying and cumulative decrements in mean MHC score was associated with CKD progression and CKD progression or death. In conclusion, lower HRQOL is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. PMID:24700865

  12. Keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in young African American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaker E Harmon

    Full Text Available Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women.The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests.Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring.Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

  13. Atrial Fibrillation and Colonic Neoplasia in African Americans. (United States)

    Nouraie, Mehdi; Kansal, Vandana; Belfonte, Cassius; Ghazvini, Mohammad; Haidari, Tahmineh; Shahnazi, Anahita; Brim, Hassan; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Ashktorab, Hassan


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF) share several risk factors including increasing age and obesity. However, the association between CRC and AF has not been thoroughly examined, especially in African Americans. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of AF and its risk factors in colorectal neoplasia in an African American. We reviewed records of 527 African American patients diagnosed with CRC and 1008 patients diagnosed with benign colonic lesions at Howard University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. A control group of 731 hospitalized patients without any cancer or colonic lesion were randomly selected from the same time and age range, excluding patients who had diagnosis of both CRC and/or adenoma. The presence or absence of AF was based upon ICD-9 code documentation. The prevalence of AF in these three groups was compared by multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of AF was highest among CRC patients (10%) followed by adenoma patients (7.2%) then the control group (5.4%, P for trend = 0.002). In the three groups of participants, older age (PCRC (OR: 1.4(95%CI):0.9-2.2, P = 0.2) and adenoma (OR: 1.1(95%CI):0.7-1.6, P = 0.7) were not significantly associated AF compared to control group. AF is highly prevalent among CRC patients; 1 in 10 patients had AF in our study. The predictors of AF in CRC was similar to that in adenoma and other patients after adjustment for potential confounders suggesting that the increased AF risk in CRC is explained by higher prevalence of AF risk factors.

  14. Intuitive Eating Practices Among African-American Women Living With Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study


    Willig, Amanda L.; Richardson, Brittany S.; Agne, April; Cherrington, Andrea


    Intuitive Eating programs that improve self-efficacy and dietary habits could enhance glycemic control in African-American women with type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate how current eating practices and beliefs of African-American women living with diabetes aligned with intuitive eating concepts. African-American women with type 2 diabetes referred for diabetes education class in 2009–2012 were recruited for a qualitative study using focus groups for data collection. Ve...

  15. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth. (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda


    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Exploring resiliency factors of older African American Katrina survivors. (United States)

    Thomas, Cecilia L


    Through this qualitative study the author explores the resiliency processes demonstrated by older African American Hurricane Katrina survivors who relocated in the aftermath of the storm and were consequently faced with difficult challenges. In-depth interviews were used to assess the multidimensional characteristics of resiliency that enabled these older adults to deal with adversity. These findings highlight distinct processes reflecting resiliency: (a) Trusting in a higher power, and the importance of (b) living in the present, (c) activating resources, (d) creating community, and (e) doing for others. The author concludes this study with suggestions on how these findings may inform social work practice with older adults.

  17. Breast cancer fear in African American breast cancer survivors. (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M; Thomas, Sheila; Parker, Veronica; Mayo, Rachel; Wetsel, Margaret Ann


    The purpose of this study was to describe breast cancer fear according to phase of survivorship, determine whether breast cancer fear levels differed among survivorship phases, and determine the relationship between fear and age in African-American breast cancer survivors. The study utilized secondary data analysis from the study, Inner Resources as Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in AABCS. A new subscale entitled, "Breast Cancer Fear" was adapted from the Psychological Well Being Subscale by Ferrell and Grant. There was no significant difference between fear and phase of survivorship. There was a significant positive relationship between age and fear.

  18. Religion, kinship and health behaviors of African American women. (United States)

    Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen; Walker, Jenelle R


    A positive relationship exists between functional health and religion. We present an empirical definition of religion and describe the key elements of religious behavior, building a model that can be used to explore the presumed relationship between religion and health. Semi-structured interactive interviews were conducted with 22 participants over a 6-month period. Head Start programs and churches located in the inner city of a large metropolitan area. Twenty-two African American women were aged from 21 to 45. We focus on social relationships and propose that prophet-created religions mimic kinship relationships and encourage kinship-like cooperation between members.

  19. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women (United States)


    Sample of Midlife Women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2007. 33(3): p. 269-277. 36. Bellisle , F ., et al., The Eating Inventory and Body Adiposity...higher education ( F (1,96) = 6.10, p = 0.015). As expected, African American women had significantly higher mean BMI, ( F (1,96) = 7.94, p = 0.006) and...11 body fat percentage, ( F (1,96) = 7.27, p = 0.008) than Caucasian women. Participants reported minimal symptoms of depression assessed by the Beck

  20. Mammography Screening Among African-American Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lipkus, Issac


    Comparisons were made between African-American women with and without a family history of breast cancer with respect to mammography screening, attitudes towards mammography screening and perceptions...

  1. Mental health screening of African American adolescents and facilitated access to care. (United States)

    Husky, Mathilde M; Kanter, Deborah A; McGuire, Leslie; Olfson, Mark


    This study retrospectively reviews de-identified records from school-based mental health screening in a predominantly African American community. We compare participation rates, screening results, referrals to services and access to care of white and African American adolescents. Among those offered screening, 20.1% of white students (n = 297), and 28.8% of African American students (n = 499) were screened (χ(2) = 32.47, df = 1, P screening in school settings in predominantly African American communities.

  2. Reaching every child with rotavirus vaccine: Report from the 10th African rotavirus symposium held in Bamako, Mali. (United States)

    Sow, Samba O; Steele, A Duncan; Mwenda, Jason M; Armah, George E; Neuzil, Kathleen M


    The Center for Vaccine Development - Mali (CVD - Mali), the World Health Organization's regional office in Africa (WHO/AFRO), and the CVD at the University of Maryland School of Medicine hosted the 10th African Rotavirus Symposium in Bamako, Mali on 1-2 June 2016. The symposium is coordinated by WHO/AFRO, the Regional Rotavirus Reference Laboratories, and the African Rotavirus Network (ARN), with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The event brings together leading rotavirus researchers, scientists, and policy-makers from across Africa and the world. Over 150 participants, from 31 countries, including 27 in Africa, joined forces to address the theme "Reaching Every Child in Africa with Rotavirus Vaccines." This symposium, the first in francophone Africa, occurred at an unprecedented time when 33 African countries had introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. The symposium concluded with a Call to Action to introduce rotavirus vaccines in the 21 remaining African countries, to increase access in countries with existing vaccination programs, and to continue surveillance and research on rotavirus and other diarrheal diseases. Copyright © 2017.

  3. Creating developmentally auspicious school environments for African American boys. (United States)

    Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F


    African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys.

  4. Genetic ancestry-smoking interactions and lung function in African Americans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda C Aldrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 African Americans participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC Study initiated in 1997. We also examined an ongoing prospective cohort initiated in 1985 of 1,223 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults (CARDIA Study. Pulmonary function and tobacco smoking exposure were measured at baseline and repeatedly over the follow-up period. Individual genetic ancestry proportions were estimated using ancestry informative markers selected to distinguish European and West African ancestry. African Americans with a high proportion of African ancestry had lower baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁ per pack-year of smoking (-5.7 ml FEV₁/ smoking pack-year compared with smokers with lower African ancestry (-4.6 ml in FEV₁/ smoking pack-year (interaction P value  = 0.17. Longitudinal analyses revealed a suggestive interaction between smoking, and African ancestry on the rate of FEV(1 decline in Health ABC and independently replicated in CARDIA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: African American individuals with a high proportion of African ancestry are at greater risk for losing lung function while smoking.

  5. The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States. (United States)

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L


    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Depressive Symptomatology and College Persistence among African American College Students. (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type.

  7. Provider communication effects medication adherence in hypertensive African Americans (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Chaplin, William F.; Allegrante, John P.; Fernandez, Senaida; Diaz-Gloster, Marleny; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga


    Objective To evaluate the effect of patients’ perceptions of providers’ communication on medication adherence in hypertensive African Americans. Methods Cross-sectional study of 439 patients with poorly-controlled hypertension followed in community-based healthcare practices in the New York metropolitan area. Patients’ rating of their providers’ communication was assessed with a perceived communication style questionnaire,while medication adherence was assessed with the Morisky self-report measure. Results Majority of participants were female, low-income, and had high school level educations, with mean age of 58 years. Fifty-five percent reported being nonadherent with their medications; and 51% rated their provider’s communication to be non-collaborative. In multivariate analysis adjusted for patient demographics and covariates (depressive symptoms, provider degree), communication rated as collaborative was associated with better medication adherence (β = -.11, p = .03). Other significant correlates of medication adherence independent of perceived communication were age (β = .13, p = .02) and depressive symptoms (β = -.18, p = .001). Conclusion Provider communication rated as more collaborative was associated with better adherence to antihypertensive medications in a sample of low-income hypertensive African-American patients. Practice Implications The quality of patient-provider communication is a potentially modifiable element of the medical relationship that may affect health outcomes in this high-risk patient population. PMID:19013740

  8. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women. (United States)

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A


    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  9. Risk and protective factors for urban African-American youth. (United States)

    Li, Susan Tinsley; Nussbaum, Karin M; Richards, Maryse H


    The present study investigated risk and resilience processes in a sample of urban African-American youth. Risk and protective factors were assessed across ecological levels including individual, family and community. Both externalizing and internalizing symptomatology were included as measures of child adjustment. Youth and parental reports as well as various methods, such as the Experience Sampling Method, were used to capture the daily experiences of the adolescents from different perspectives. Poverty, hassles, and exposure to violence predicted higher rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Individual and family protective variables emerged as powerful sources of resilience. An inner sense of confidence and helpful family support were associated with reductions in the deleterious effects of community poverty. Two main patterns, protective-stabilizing and overwhelming-risk, seemed to characterize most of the risk by protective factor interactions. The present findings are important for understanding the complex experiences of urban youth and furthering the literature on sources of risk and protection for African-Americans.

  10. Sexual communication intervention for African American mothers & daughters. (United States)

    Aronowitz, Teri; Ogunlade, Ijeoma Julie; Nwosu, Chizoba; Gona, Philimon N


    African American girls ages 13-19 comprised nearly 3 out of 4 new cases of HIV in 2009. The goal of this study was to deliver a theoretically-driven intervention to test the feasibility for recruitment and retention of mother-daughter dyads. Twenty mother-daughter dyads were recruited from a community health center between February-April 2014. Comparisons were made between pre- and post-intervention scores using percent change. Twelve dyads (60%) completed the intervention. There were no demographic differences between completers and noncompleters. Notable post-intervention percent increases in scores were observed in the domains: Sexual knowledge (15%), confidence to talk (23.2%); and openness of sexual communication (26.4%). Our small-sized study showed promise in the intervention. Increasing sexual communication between African American mothers and daughters is likely to be sustainable over time and across relationships, and thus have a greater impact on HIV-prevention behaviors later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.


    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  12. Promoting the interest of African American teenage girls in science: What can we learn from an exemplary African American science teacher? (United States)

    McMath, Cynthia Stewart

    This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.

  13. The Declaration of Independence: To What Extent Did It Have Meaning for African Americans. Lesson Plan. (United States)

    Pyne, John; Sesso, Gloria


    Presents a high school history lesson based on the National Standards for United States History. Considers the effect of the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence on free and enslaved African Americans. (CFR)

  14. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and Africans: A Case-Control Study (United States)


    ns ɘ.001 Table 5: Pattern of consumption of ice cream, yogurt , salad dressing & mayonnaise in the past three months by ethnic subgroup...Food Item African- Americans African Migrants African Nigerians Total 947 p-value Ice Cream/ Yogurt Regular Low fat Fat...phospholipids and cholesterol esters reflects medium-term (weeks to months) dietary intake (32). Because blood drawing is more acceptable to study

  15. Development and validation of a diabetes self-management instrument for older African-Americans. (United States)

    McCaskill, Gina M; Bolland, Kathleen A; Burgio, Kathryn L; Leeper, James


    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new diabetes self-management instrument for older African-Americans 65 years of age and older. The Self-Care Utility Geriatric African-American Rating (SUGAAR) was developed using the American Diabetes Association's standards for the management of type 2 diabetes in older adults and cognitive interviews with older African-Americans. The instrument underwent extensive review by a panel of experts, two rounds of cognitive interviews, and a pilot test before it was administered in an interview format to 125 community-dwelling older African-Americans. The instrument demonstrated content validity and significant, but modest, convergent validity with items from an established diabetes self-management instrument. Social workers and health care professionals can use the SUGARR to assess diabetes self-management and to identify areas for education and support for older African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.

  16. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith


    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.

  17. MMPI-A performance of African and Mexican American adolescent first-time offenders. (United States)

    Gómez, F C; Johnson, R; Davis, Q; Velásquez, R J


    54 African and Mexican American adolescent first-time offenders were examined with the MMPI-A to evaluate ethnic differences. Multivariate analyses by ethnicity and MMPI-A scales (validity, clinical, content, and supplementary scales) were not significant; however, there was a significant univariate difference where African American adolescents scored significantly higher on the Repression scale than the Mexican American group. A greater percentage of within-normal-limits profiles were African American (50%) than Mexican American (25%). Research and clinical implications for using the MMPI-A with these groups are discussed.

  18. VKORC1 polymorphisms, haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose among African-Americans and European-Americans. (United States)

    Limdi, Nita A; Beasley, T Mark; Crowley, Michael R; Goldstein, Joyce A; Rieder, Mark J; Flockhart, David A; Arnett, Donna K; Acton, Ronald T; Liu, Nianjun


    Although the influence of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on warfarin response has been studied, variability in dose explained by CYP2C9 and VKORC1 is lower among African-Americans compared with European-Americans. This has lead investigators to hypothesize that assessment of VKORC1 haplotypes may help capture a greater proportion of the variability in dose for this under-represented group. However, the inadequate representation of African-Americans and the assessment of a few VKORC1 polymorphisms have hindered this effort. To determine if VKORC1 haplotypes or haplotype groups explain a higher variability in warfarin dose, we comprehensively assessed VKORC1 polymorphisms in 273 African-Americans and 302 European-Americans. The influence of VKORC1 polymorphisms, race-specific haplotypes and haplotype groups on warfarin dose was evaluated in race-stratified multivariable analyses after accounting for CYP2C9 (*2, *3, *5, *6 and *11) and clinical covariates. VKORC1 explained 18% (30% with CYP2C9) variability in warfarin dose among European-Americans and 5% (8% with CYP2C9) among African-Americans. Four common haplotypes in European-Americans and twelve in African-Americans were identified. In each race VKORC1 haplotypes emerged into two groups: low-dose (Group A) and high-dose (Group B). African-Americans had a lower frequency of Group A haplotype (10.6%) compared with European-Americans (35%, p haplotype or haplotype groups was similar to that of a single informative polymorphism. Our findings support the use of CYP2C9, VKORC1 polymorphisms (rs9934438 or rs9923231) and clinical covariates to predict warfarin dose in both African- and European-Americans. A uniform set of common polymorphisms in CYP2C9 and VKORC1, and limited clinical covariates can be used to improve warfarin dose prediction for a racially diverse population.

  19. Exploring Leadership through Spiritual Practices and African Moral Virtues: Portraits of African American Women Principals in Urban Settings (United States)

    Smith, Sharon Irene


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the influences of spirituality on decisions made by African American women principals at the elementary school level in schools where children of color and poverty exist in significant numbers and to gain an understanding of how African moral virtues were evidenced in the day to day professional…

  20. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction. (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.


    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  1. Differential response to targeted recruitment strategies to fitness promotion research by African-American women of varying body mass index. (United States)

    Yancey, A K; Miles, O L; McCarthy, W J; Sandoval, G; Hill, J; Leslie, J J; Harrison, G G


    To assess patterns of recruitment into a community-based NCI-funded physical activity and dietary lifestyle change program targeting African-American women. Acquisition of a convenience sample to be screened for participation in a randomized, controlled prevention intervention. African-American-owned and -operated health club located in an area of Los Angeles in which African Americans are concentrated. 893 African-American women. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES: Social networking/word-of-mouth, staff presentations, mass and targeted media, and physician referral. Completion of screening questionnaire indicating a desire to enroll in the study. Screening questionnaire domains included self-reported height and weight, recent participation in organized weight loss programs, ability to walk one mile unassisted, current medication use, smoking status, personal medical history of cancer, sociodemographic variables, and recruitment source. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics distinguished between respondents obtained through different recruitment strategies. In particular, women with a higher body mass index (BMI) were more likely than those with lower BMIs (P = .014) to be recruited through more personalized methods (eg, social networking). Culturally tailored recruitment strategies are critical in securing the participation of members of "hard-to-reach" populations, who are both under-represented in health promotion research and at high risk for chronic diseases.

  2. Neighborhood effects on use of African-American Vernacular English. (United States)

    Rickford, John R; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Gou, Ray Yun; Greene, Rebecca; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Sanchez-Ordoñez, Andres E; Sciandra, Matthew; Thomas, Ewart; Ludwig, Jens


    African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is systematic, rooted in history, and important as an identity marker and expressive resource for its speakers. In these respects, it resembles other vernacular or nonstandard varieties, like Cockney or Appalachian English. But like them, AAVE can trigger discrimination in the workplace, housing market, and schools. Understanding what shapes the relative use of AAVE vs. Standard American English (SAE) is important for policy and scientific reasons. This work presents, to our knowledge, the first experimental estimates of the effects of moving into lower-poverty neighborhoods on AAVE use. We use data on non-Hispanic African-American youth (n = 629) from a large-scale, randomized residential mobility experiment called Moving to Opportunity (MTO), which enrolled a sample of mostly minority families originally living in distressed public housing. Audio recordings of the youth were transcribed and coded for the use of five grammatical and five phonological AAVE features to construct a measure of the proportion of possible instances, or tokens, in which speakers use AAVE rather than SAE speech features. Random assignment to receive a housing voucher to move into a lower-poverty area (the intention-to-treat effect) led youth to live in neighborhoods (census tracts) with an 11 percentage point lower poverty rate on average over the next 10-15 y and reduced the share of AAVE tokens by ∼3 percentage points compared with the MTO control group youth. The MTO effect on AAVE use equals approximately half of the difference in AAVE frequency observed between youth whose parents have a high school diploma and those whose parents do not.

  3. Perceptions of communication choice and usage among African American hearing parents: Afrocentric cultural implications for African American deaf and hard of hearing children. (United States)

    Borum, Valerie


    In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families.

  4. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W


    ... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...

  5. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W


    .... The War Department's recruitment, assessment, and induction practices in its preparation for the Great War are explored, and the impact of Jim Crow practices on the process of African American troop...

  6. Emotion socialization and ethnicity: an examination of practices and outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. (United States)

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel


    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.

  7. Clinical characteristics of African Americans vs Caucasian Americans with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Cree, B A C; Khan, O; Bourdette, D; Goodin, D S; Cohen, J A; Marrie, R A; Glidden, D; Weinstock-Guttman, B; Reich, D; Patterson, N; Haines, J L; Pericak-Vance, M; DeLoa, C; Oksenberg, J R; Hauser, S L


    African American (AA) individuals are thought to develop multiple sclerosis (MS) less frequently than Caucasian American (CA) individuals. To compare the clinical characteristics of AA and CA patients with MS. The clinical features of MS were compared in a large retrospective cohort of AA (n = 375) and CA (n = 427) subjects. The proportion of women to men was similar in AA and CA subjects (81% [AA] vs 77% [CA]; p = 0.122). There were no differences in the proportions of subjects with relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive, primary progressive, and progressive relapsing MS. The median time to diagnosis was 1 year after symptom onset in AA subjects and 2 years after symptom onset in CA subjects (p = 0.0013). The age at onset was approximately 2.5 years later in AA than CA subjects (33.7 vs 31.1 years; p = 0.0001). AA subjects presented with multisite signs and symptoms at disease onset more often than CA subjects (p = 0.018). Clinical involvement restricted to the optic nerves and spinal cord (opticospinal MS) occurred in 16.8% of AA patients compared with 7.9% of CA patients (p older age at onset in AAs (p multiple sclerosis (MS) in Caucasian Americans, African American patients with MS have a greater likelihood of developing opticospinal MS and transverse myelitis and have a more aggressive disease course.

  8. Breastfeeding associated with higher lung function in African American youths with asthma. (United States)

    Oh, Sam S; Du, Randal; Zeiger, Andrew M; McGarry, Meghan E; Hu, Donglei; Thakur, Neeta; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Galanter, Joshua M; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine Keiko; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A; Ford, Jean G; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Williams, Keoki; Kumar, Rajesh; Burchard, Esteban G


    In the United States, Puerto Ricans and African Americans have lower prevalence of breastfeeding and worse clinical outcomes for asthma compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We hypothesize that the history of breastfeeding is associated with increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) % predicted and reduced asthma exacerbations in Latino and African American youths with asthma. As part of the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) Study and the Study of African Americans, asthma, Genes & Environments (SAGE II), we conducted case-only analyses in children and adolescents aged 8-21 years with asthma from four different racial/ethnic groups: African Americans (n = 426), Mexican Americans (n = 424), mixed/other Latinos (n = 255), and Puerto Ricans (n = 629). We investigated the association between any breastfeeding in infancy and FEV1% predicted using multivariable linear regression; Poisson regression was used to determine the association between breastfeeding and asthma exacerbations. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in African Americans (59.4%) and Puerto Ricans (54.9%) compared to Mexican Americans (76.2%) and mixed/other Latinos (66.9%; p asthma exacerbations (p = 0.03) in African Americans only. Breastfeeding was associated with higher FEV1% predicted in asthma and reduced number of asthma exacerbations in African American youths, calling attention to continued support for breastfeeding.

  9. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students. (United States)

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G


    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.

  10. Micronutrient Intake Is Inadequate for a Sample of Pregnant African-American Women. (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; Stewart, Patricia A; Ossip, Deborah J; Block, Robert C; Wixom, Nellie; Fernandez, I Diana


    Micronutrient intake is critical for fetal development and positive pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about the adequacy of micronutrient intake in pregnant African-American women. To describe nutrient sufficiency and top food groups contributing to dietary intake of select micronutrients in low-income pregnant African-American women and determine whether micronutrient intake varies with early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or gestational weight gain. Secondary analysis of data collected in a cohort study of pregnant African-American women. A total of 93 women aged 18 to 36 years, pregnant, with early pregnancy BMIs ≥18.5 and women with dietary intakes below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin D, folate, iron, calcium, and choline throughout pregnancy. Top food groups from which women derived these micronutrients was also determined. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and percentages. Percent of women reaching EAR or AI was calculated. The χ 2 test was used to assess micronutrient intake differences based on early pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain. A large percentage of pregnant women did not achieve the EAR or AI from dietary sources alone; EAR for folate (66%), vitamin D (100%), iron (89%), and AI for choline (100%). Mean micronutrient intake varied throughout pregnancy. Top food sources included reduced-fat milk, eggs, and mixed egg dishes, pasta dishes, and ready-to-eat cereal. The majority of study participants had dietary micronutrient intake levels below EAR/AI throughout pregnancy. Findings suggest that practitioners should evaluate dietary adequacy in women to avoid deficits in micronutrient intake during pregnancy. Top food sources of these micronutrients can be considered when assisting women in improving dietary intake. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An engineering journey: A transcendental phenomenological study of African-American female engineers' persistence (United States)

    Somerville-Midgette, Kristy Nicole

    This transcendental phenomenological research study examined the perspectives and lived experiences of African-American female engineers related to the factors that led to their persistence to enter, persist through, and remain in the field. The study was guided by four research questions: (a) How do K-12 experiences shape African-American female engineers' decisions to enter the STEM field? (b) What persistence factors motivated African-American female engineers to enter the engineering profession? (c) What are the factors that shape African-American female engineers' persistence to progress through postsecondary engineering programs? (d) How do professional experiences shape African-American female engineers' persistence in the field? Cognitive interviewing techniques were used to validate data collection instruments. Interviews, focus groups, and timelines were used to collect data aimed at capturing the essence of the phenomenon of African-American engineers' persistence. The data was analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) phenomenological data analysis methods. The findings indicated that early academic experiences and achievement shaped participants' decision to enter the engineering field. Environmental factors, intrinsic motivation, support systems motivated participants to persist through postsecondary programs and to enter the engineering field. Further research is needed to examine the early academic experiences that encourage African-American females to enter engineering. In addition, research is needed to examine the barriers that lead to attrition of African-American females in engineering.

  12. Spelling in African American Children: The Case of Final Consonant Devoicing (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo


    This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…

  13. The Impact of High School on the Leadership Development of African American Male Scholar-Athletes (United States)

    Fuller, Rhema; Harrison, C. Keith; Bukstein, Scott; Martin, Brandon E.; Lawerence, Malia; Parks, Cliff


    The purpose of this article is to examine how the high school setting assisted the leadership development of African American males. Additionally, we explored how the leadership developed in high school was applied in the post-high school setting. We utilized purposeful sampling to identify and recruit African American male scholar-athletes (N =…

  14. Teaching Third Grade African American Children in Culturally Responsive Ways: Is Anybody Listening? (United States)

    Piper, Annetra Patrece


    African American and other students of color have continued to score lower than White students in many classrooms and on achievement tests in every subject, especially in reading. The purpose of this study was to explore if there is a relationship between a teacher's cultural responsiveness and their third grade African American students'…

  15. Are CRIS Cluster Patterns Differentially Associated with African American Enculturation and Social Distance? (United States)

    Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Vandiver, Beverly J.


    The authors examined whether Black racial identity cluster patterns, using Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores, were differentially associated with preference for African American culture and social distance from various cultural groups. African American college students (N = 351) completed the CRIS, an enculturation scale, and a social…

  16. The Mercantile Business Coalition: A Narrative Analysis of a Learning Organization in an African American Community (United States)

    Harrell, Alma S.


    "A race that is solely dependent upon another for its economic existences sooner or later dies," this quote by Marcus Garvey highlighted the need for African American communities to think about the importance of economic development. This message was also heard by African Americans as early as the 1700s. Not only was the message about…

  17. Exploration of Culturally Proficient Mental Health Assessment and Treatment Practices of Black/African American Clients (United States)

    Glover, Tina Marie


    Changing trends within the mental health system treatment practices demand exploration of the cultural context of assessment and treatment of Black/African Americans. Culturally competent assessments include a realistic integration of historical context. Clinicians counseling Black/African Americans must be prepared to assess and address PTSD,…

  18. Career Commitment and African American Women in Undergraduate STEM Majors: The Role of Science (United States)

    Jenkins, Felysha L.


    Despite the odds, African American women are achieving some success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). However, a dearth of empirical evidence exists on the mechanisms that contribute to their persistence. This study contributes to understanding how African American women are successful in obtaining baccalaureate degrees…

  19. The Perceived Undergraduate Classroom Experiences of African American Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) (United States)

    Holmes, Kimberly Monique


    The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore African-American women's perceptions of undergraduate STEM classroom experiences, and the ways in which those experiences have supported or hindered their persistence in physics majors. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African-American women perceive the climate and…

  20. Racial Identity Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents (United States)

    Bonvillain, Jocelyn Freeman; Honora, Detris


    The purpose of the present study was to explore the extent to which racial identity attitudes and self-esteem could predict academic performance for African American middle school students. A total of 175 African American adolescents in 7th grade attending one of two urban schools participated in the study. The Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM)…

  1. Investigating the Representation of African American Student Affairs Administrators: A Preliminary Study. (United States)

    Flowers, Lamont A.


    Study applied the theory of representative bureaucracy to examine the representation of African American student affairs administrators in postsecondary institutions. Results showed African American student affairs administrators were underrepresented among student affairs administrators. Also, survey data showed that the percentage of African…

  2. Social Messages, Social Context, and Sexual Health: Voices of Urban African American Youth (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann


    Objective: To describe aspects of the social context that low-income, urban African American young women articulate as having influenced social messages they received during adolescence about pregnancy timing and childbearing. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 20 African American young women ages 18-22. Results: Findings clustered…

  3. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs (United States)

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi


    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  4. Improving Writing of At Risk Students with a Focus on the African American Male. (United States)

    Cason, Nancy; And Others


    An action research project designed and evaluated the effectiveness of an instructional strategy to improve the writing of all secondary students (particularly African-American males) in the Webster Groves, Missouri school district. The first year was devoted to an intensive study of African American culture and literature. A list of six…

  5. An Exploration of the Effects of Skin Tone on African American Life Experiences. (United States)

    Breland, Alfiee M.; Collins, Wanda; Damico, Karen Lowenstein; Steward, Robbie; King, Jennifer

    This study surveys African Americans to assess perceptions of and life experiences with the issue of skin tone. Thirty-seven African American adults agreed to complete a survey packet and participate in a semi-structured focus group discussion. Participants completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Skin…

  6. Girls Behaving Badly? Race, Gender, and Subjective Evaluation in the Discipline of African American Girls (United States)

    Morris, Edward W.; Perry, Brea L.


    School disciplinary processes are an important mechanism of inequality in education. Most prior research in this area focuses on the significantly higher rates of punishment among African American boys, but in this article, we turn our attention to the discipline of African American girls. Using advanced multilevel models and a longitudinal data…

  7. Supporting African American Student Success through Prophetic Activism: New Possibilities for Public School-Church Partnerships (United States)

    Jordan, Diedria H.; Wilson, Camille M.


    This article describes how African American students' success can be improved via the increased support of Black churches and their partnerships with public schools. Findings and implications from a comparative case study of two North Carolina churches that strive to educationally assist African American public school students are detailed. Both…

  8. "Used Goods": Former African American College Student-Athletes' Perception of Exploitation by Division I Universities (United States)

    Beamon, Krystal K.


    Collegiate sports have opened many doors for African American males. However, serious involvement in athletics has hampered the development of the group in several areas such as academic and occupational achievement. It has been alleged that universities exploit athletes, especially African American male athletes in football and basketball. This…

  9. Career Path Processes as Perceived by African American Female School Principals (United States)

    Leathers, Sonja


    This study sought to improve our understanding of factors that influence the career paths of African American female school principals in North Carolina. Three pertinent research questions were addressed in this study: (1) What formative experiences influence the career path decisions of African American females who want to become school…

  10. The Role of African-American Musicians in the Integration of the United States Navy (United States)

    Drane, Gregory


    The service of blacks in the U.S. military can be traced back to the Revolutionary War. However, up to the end of World War I, African Americans in military branches were relegated to cooking and cleaning duties. As the United States prepared to enter World War II, pressure to admit African Americans into full service in the military increased due…

  11. Third Grade African American Boys Respond to Representations of Race, Class and Gender in Children's Literature (United States)

    Alberti, Joseph Michael


    African American students are often at odds with their education. Instead of being viewed as a place that can offer help, support, and a catalyst for social change, school is viewed by many African American boys as a place that does not recognize or understand their own lives, and where their knowledge and understandings of the world are not…

  12. Emerging from the Pipeline: African American Students, Socioeconomic Status, and College Experiences and Outcomes (United States)

    Walpole, MaryBeth


    This study focuses on how social class affects the college experiences and outcomes for African American students in 4-year colleges and universities. Using a national, longitudinal data base, the findings indicate that low SES African American students have less contact with faculty, study less, are less involved with student organizations, work…

  13. Examining Instructional Practices, Intellectual Challenge, and Supports for African American Student Writers (United States)

    Alston, Chandra L.


    The debate surrounding how best to support African American student writers continues today as the gap between achievement scores persists. This qualitative analysis documents the classroom structures and instructional practices of two English Language Arts teachers working in a predominately African American public middle school, whose students…

  14. An Examination of School Attitude and Self-Esteem among African-American Elementary School Students (United States)

    Foster, Esau, II


    The focus of this research investigation was to examine school attitudes and self-esteem among 48 African-American elementary school children. Based on achievement data on standardized testing, administered by a school district located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, African-American children were stratified in order to…

  15. Hypertensive chronic kidney disease in African Americans: Strategies for improving care (United States)



    African Americans have a disproportionate burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which tends to have an earlier onset and a more rapid progression in this population. Many of the factors responsible for the rapid progression of CKD in African Americans are detectable by screening and are modifiable with prompt therapy. PMID:23027732

  16. Learning Other People's History: Pre-Service Teachers' Developing African American Historical Knowledge (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel


    Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post interpretations…

  17. Educational Differences in Marital Dissolution: Comparison of White and African American Women (United States)

    Kim, Jeounghee


    Although the trend of marital dissolution has diverged by education in recent decades, literature was not clear about whether African Americans experienced a significant educational difference in marital dissolution. This study hypothesized that educational differences within the African American community have emerged and that the growth in this…

  18. Impact of Science Tutoring on African Americans' Science Scores on the High School Students' Graduation Examination (United States)

    Davis, Edward


    This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate…

  19. Family Matters: Familial Support and Science Identity Formation for African American Female STEM Majors (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn


    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…

  20. Perceptions of Stereotype Vulnerability, Belonging and Campus Climate by African Americans Attending a Predominately White Institution (United States)

    Thompson, Loren Wright


    The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…

  1. Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School (United States)

    Wasserberg, Martin J.


    This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…

  2. Meeting the Learning Needs of African American Youth in the Library (United States)

    Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.


    The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Promote Smoking Cessation among African American Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial (United States)

    Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.


    Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…

  4. The Structure of Vocational Interests for African-American College Students. (United States)

    Swanson, Jane L.


    The Strong Interest Inventory was completed by 189 female and 168 male African-American college students (20 percent response). Correlations among the General Occupational Theme scales supported the potential applicability of Holland's theory to African Americans, but highlighted gender differences. (SK)

  5. Faith-Based Mental Health Interventions with African Americans: A Review (United States)

    Hays, Krystal; Aranda, Maria P.


    Faith-based interventions have emerged culturally sensitive way to address mental health issues among African Americans. This systematic review explores the scope and efficacy of faith-based mental health intervention outcomes among African Americans. Extracted data included the study population, setting, study design, intervention, adaptations,…

  6. Effective Strategies for Academic Success among African American Male Student Athletes from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds (United States)

    Smith, Marisha R.


    The purpose of this study was to identify contributing factors for academic success among African American male student athletes from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Life narrative analysis was used in this qualitative study. The researcher conducted in-depth individual interviews with 7 African American males who attended college on athletic…

  7. What African American College Students Perceive as Contributive Factors in Their Academic Success? (United States)

    Ransom, Brandi S.


    This study explored what African American college students perceives as contributing to their Academic success. This study moved to determine what factors significantly influence or impact how African American college students advance in their academic journey, which was hypothesized as an important component related to academic success and degree…

  8. Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints (United States)

    Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza


    African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

  9. The Impact of CHAMPS on the Exclusionary Discipline Incidents of African-American Boys (United States)

    Russell-Smith, Saundra


    African-American boys who receive exclusionary discipline (i.e. in- or out-of-school suspensions) are overrepresented at the elementary (kindergarten through fifth grade) level. Although African-American boys comprised only 15% of the population of this school, they accounted for 70% of the exclusionary discipline incidents. This…

  10. Cradle to third life: An autobiography of an African-American science educator (United States)

    Caruthers-Jackson, Sarah

    This inquiry used reflective autobiographical research to reveal my beliefs, values, and practices of science teaching by using participatory action research with two students of my science tutoring organization. Also, I conducted an ethnographic inquiry using African-American teachers to understand how my early schooling experiences influenced my beliefs, values, and science practices. I collected data for this inquiry from three African-American teachers through interview-conversation that were videotaped and audiotaped. In addition, I audiotaped two African-American students' tutoring practices along with students' and researcher's journals. The findings indicate that African-American teachers during the school years 1942-1954 used families, churches, and communities to secure teaching resources to provide equal education for their African-American students who received limited resources from the board of education. Also indicated was how African-American teachers instilled in their African-American students a level of motivation that remained with some African-American students for their future endeavors. This researcher's beliefs/values similar to those of her segregated teachers emerged from this action research. Researcher's additional beliefs/values arose out of emerging technologies in teaching science. However, I, as the researcher, believe that the origin of my beliefs/values occurred during those segregated, public school experiences at Monitor Schools during the school years 1942-1954.

  11. Calling Out the Elephant: An Examination of African American Male Achievement in Community Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Bush


    Full Text Available This mixed method study examines the effects of community college institutional factors on the academic achievement of African American males and their perceptions of their college experience. We found that African American men in comparison to other ethnic and gender sub-groups (for both the California community college system and at Inland Community College are disproportionately underachieving in all segments of the academic outcomes measured. African American men throughout California’s community college system (including Inland Community College are the lowest performing subgroup when one considers: percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. The analysis of African American men’s perceptions of their college experience suggest that African American men have greater amounts of dissatisfaction and do not engage with the various segments of the college when compared to the other subgroups in the study. African American males were more likely not to meet with faculty members or have contact with them outside of the classroom. More importantly, faculty interaction predicted if African American male students persisted, transferred, and maintained a higher grade point average at the case study institution. The variables associated with campus climate predicted if African American male students transferred, had higher grade point averages, and graduated at higher rates from the case institution.

  12. Rationales for Support That African American Grandmothers Provide to Their Children Who Are Parenting Adolescents (United States)

    Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen


    African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…

  13. Recommendations for Working with African American Parents of Primary School Children in Low-Resourced Schools (United States)

    Mehta, Sejal; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Goodman, Rachael


    The purpose of this paper is to provide a strength-based discussion of the relationship between parenting values of low-income African Americans and the academic performance of their school-aged children. Using resilience theory as a framework (Seccombe, 2002), the authors suggest that African American parents in low-resourced communities have…

  14. Womanist Spirituality as a Response to the Racism-Sexism Double Bind in African American Women (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.


    Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…

  15. Fifty Years after Brown: The Benefits and Tradeoffs for African American Educators and Students (United States)

    Lyons, James E.; Chesley, Joanne


    The benefits and tradeoffs for African American professional educators and students resulting from the profound Brown v. Board of Education decision are discussed. Results show that the vast majority of respondents believed that Brown had benefited both African American educators and students.

  16. The role of Anthropometric and Nutritional Factors on Breast Cancer Risk in African American Women (United States)

    Chandran, Urmila; Hirshfield, Kim M.; Bandera, Elisa V.


    Objective While the role of nutrition, physical activity, and body size on breast cancer risk has been extensively investigated, most of these studies were conducted in Caucasian populations. However, there are well known differences in tumor biology and the prevalence of these factors between African American and Caucasian women. The objective of this paper was to conduct a review on the role of dietary factors, anthropometry, and physical activity on breast cancer risk in African American women. Design Twenty-six research articles that presented risk estimates on these factors in African American women and five articles involving non-US Black women were included in this review. Setting Racial disparities in the impact of anthropometric and nutritional factors on breast cancer risk Subjects African American and non-US Black women Results Based on the few studies that presented findings in African American women, an inverse association with physical activity was found for pre and postmenopausal African American women, while the association for anthropometric and other dietary factors, such as alcohol, was unclear. Studies assessing the effect by molecular subtypes in African American women were too few and based on sample sizes too small to provide definitive conclusions. Conclusions The effect of certain nutrition and lifestyle factors on breast cancer in African American is not starkly distinct from those observed in White women. However, there is an enormous need for further research on this minority group to obtain more confirmatory findings. PMID:22122844

  17. Mental Health Service Use by African American Women: Exploration of Subpopulation Differences. (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Hughes, Tonda L.


    Examines patterns of use of mental health services by African American lesbians and heterosexual women. Despite evidence of emotional distress, few African American lesbians or heterosexual women were currently in treatment. Results are consistent with other research on heterosexual women but differ from other reports on lesbian women. Discusses…

  18. Race-Related Stress, Quality of Life Indicators, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly African Americans. (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.


    Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…

  19. Constructions of Provider Role Identity among African American Men: An Exploratory Study. (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.


    A study was designed to gain an understanding of the role of provider in the identity of African American males. Interviews were conducted with seven African American males at a western university. Participants equated being a man with the provider role and education was seen as the best way to ensure opportunities. Exploratory findings provide…

  20. A Campus-Community Partnership to Disseminate Health Internet Technology Resources among African Americans (United States)

    Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy


    The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…

  1. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J


    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wid...

  2. Sisters in the Struggle: African American Female Graduate Students Coping with Racism and Racism-Related (United States)

    Foster, Kelsie


    This study examined if coping was predictive of perceived racism and racism related stress of African American female graduate students. Participants were 217 African American female graduate students attending Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and…

  3. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle


    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

  4. Antihypertensive medications and diastolic dysfunction progression in an African American population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Prendergast*


    Conclusions: Our study showed use of Calcium channel blockers to have a protective effect against progression of diastolic dysfunction in this African American cohort. Identifying factors that can mediate disease progression is particularly important for hypertensive African Americans, who have significantly higher rates of developing disease complications such as diastolic heart failure.

  5. Minority-Related Stressors and Coping Processes among African American College Students (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Chwalisz, Kathleen


    This study is an investigation of stress and coping among African American students at a predominantly White college/university (PWCU) and a Historically Black College/University (HBCU) and their relationship to academic performance. Participants were 203 African American students (101 from a mid-size predominantly White midwestern state…

  6. A weight loss intervention for African American breast cancer survivors, 2006. (United States)

    Stolley, Melinda R; Sharp, Lisa K; Oh, April; Schiffer, Linda


    Breast cancer survival rates are lower for African American women than for white women. Obesity, high-fat diets, and lack of regular physical activity increase risk for breast cancer recurrence, comorbid conditions, and premature death. Eighty-two percent of African American women are overweight or obese, partly because of unhealthy eating and exercise patterns. Although successful weight loss and lifestyle interventions for breast cancer survivors are documented, none has considered the needs of African American breast cancer survivors. This study assessed the feasibility and impact of Moving Forward, a culturally tailored weight loss program for African American breast cancer survivors. The study used a pre-post design with a convenience sample of 23 African American breast cancer survivors. The 6-month intervention was theory-based and incorporated qualitative data from focus groups with the targeted community, urban African American breast cancer survivors. Data on weight, body mass index (BMI), diet, physical activity, social support, and quality of life were collected at baseline and at 6 months. After the intervention, we noted significant differences in weight, BMI, dietary fat intake, vegetable consumption, vigorous physical activity, and social support. This is the first published report of Moving Forward, a weight loss intervention designed for African American breast cancer survivors. Although a randomized trial is needed to establish efficacy, the positive results of this intervention suggest that this weight loss intervention may be feasible for African American breast cancer survivors. Lifestyle interventions may reduce the disparities in breast cancer mortality rates.

  7. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women (United States)

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.


    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  8. Food Serving Size Knowledge in African American Women and the Relationship with Body Mass Index (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Elston, Elizabeth; Hubbard, Stacy; Carson, Kristin


    Objective: To examine serving size knowledge in African Americans and how it is related to body mass index (BMI). Design: Serving size knowledge of food commonly consumed by African Americans was assessed by asking the subjects to select the amount of food considered to be a single serving size by the United States Department of Agriculture and…

  9. Suicide acceptability in African- and white Americans : The role of religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S; Lewis, G

    Rates of suicidal behavior are lower among African- than white Americans. We analyzed the association of suicide acceptability with religious, sociodemographic, and emotional variables in representative samples of African-and white Americans (1990). Adjusted for ethnic response bias, the former were

  10. Self-Esteem Enhancing Reasons for Having Sex and the Sexual Behaviors of African American Adolescents (United States)

    Robinson, Melissa L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta


    A sample of 146 African American adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates participated in the Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), a longitudinal study of adolescent HIV risk exposure. The current study examined self-reported reasons why African American adolescents may participate in…

  11. Parental Involvement Promotes Rural African American Youths Self-Pride and Sexual Self-Concepts (United States)

    McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby


    This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…

  12. Engaging African American Fathers in Behavioral Parent Training: To Adapt or Not Adapt


    Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.


    The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers.

  13. Long-Term Effects of the Strong African American Families Program on Youths' Alcohol Use (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C.


    Objective:This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and…

  14. Jumping through Hoops: College Choice Experiences of African American Male Community College Club Basketball Players (United States)

    Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta


    This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…

  15. African American Families on Autism Diagnosis and Treatment: The Influence of Culture (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna


    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…

  16. Acculturation Style and Alcohol Use among African American College Students: An Exploration of Potential Moderators (United States)

    Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L.


    This study examined whether a relationship exists between acculturation and alcohol use among African American college students and if the relationship varies by religiosity and gender. Most researchers use unidimensional African American acculturation measures that cannot capture the construct's complexity; this study is the first to use a…

  17. Parental Characteristics, Ecological Factors, and the Academic Achievement of African American Males (United States)

    Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl


    Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…

  18. African Americans among Degree Recipients in Physics and Geoscience. Focus On (United States)

    Czujko, Roman; Nicholson, Starr


    Physics and geoscience consistently rank near the bottom among all disciplines in their ability to attract and retain African American students. Before delving into these trends, it is important to establish a context for discussing the data and their implications. African Americans comprise 12.4% of the U.S. population, but their representation…

  19. An Interdisciplinary Outreach Model of African American Recruitment for Alzheimer's Disease Research (United States)

    Williams, Monique M.; Meisel, Marie M.; Williams, James; Morris, John C.


    Purpose: The African American Outreach Satellite (Satellite) provides educational outreach to facilitate African American recruitment for longitudinal studies at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). This descriptive article characterizes the Satellite's recruitment methods, plan for community engagement, results of…

  20. Understanding Parenting Stress among Young, Low-Income, African-American, First-Time Mothers (United States)

    Chang, Yiting; Fine, Mark A.; Ispa, Jean; Thornburg, Kathy R.; Sharp, Elizabeth; Wolfenstein, Miriam


    The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model that examined the extent to which cognitive readiness to parent, perceived difficult child temperament, observed parenting behaviors, and positive coping styles predicted parenting stress among young, low-income, first-time, African-American mothers. One hundred and twenty African-American,…

  1. Perceived Fatherhood Roles and Parenting Behaviors among African American Teen Fathers (United States)

    Paschal, Angelia M.; Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K.; Hsiao, Tracy


    Despite the growing body of research on the topic of adolescent parenthood, few studies have examined the perceptions and lived experiences of African American teen fathers. The primary aim of this study was to examine how this group defines and performs the father role. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 African American fathers aged 14…

  2. African American Students' Graphic Understanding of the Derivative: Critical Case Studies (United States)

    Stringer, Eddy W., III.


    Data suggests that a significant loss of African American students from STEM majors occur between their freshmen and sophomore year. This attrition corresponds to the time period when students encounter the calculus sequence. For this reason, calculus persists as a serious barrier preventing African American students from entering STEM fields.…

  3. Underdevelopment in the U.S. Labor Market: The Case of African American Female Workers. (United States)

    Ajanaku, Femi I.; And Others


    The work experience of the African-American woman is often overlooked. In this article, the development/underdevelopment model, usually applied to the depressed situation of the Third World, is used to assess the dynamics of race, class, and gender for African-American females in the labor market. (SLD)

  4. African-American Youth Perceptions of Alcohol Advertisements: A Preliminary Analysis. (United States)

    More, Timothy; Taylor, David; Turner, Dion


    Examines motivational factors associated with malt liquor consumption in African American youth. (Malt liquor is directly marketed to African-American youth.) Over 90% of respondents consumed alcohol in the past. Students viewed malt liquor commercials as being more associated with sex and power than were beer commercials. (MMU)

  5. 3 CFR 8389 - Proclamation 8389 of June 2, 2009. African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2009 (United States)


    ... Music Appreciation Month, 2009 8389 Proclamation 8389 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8389 of June 2, 2009 Proc. 8389 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2009By the President of the... sounds. They have enriched American music and captured the diversity of our Nation. During African...

  6. Child-Centered Group Play Therapy with African American Boys at the Elementary School Level (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Parker, Max


    African American boys face numerous challenges in society within the United States, including prejudice, discrimination, racism, economic hardship, limited access to support services, educational biases, and community violence. According to Pierce (1988), the psychic assault of subtle racism against African American boys erode their…

  7. Critical Race Theory: A Counternarrative of African American Male Medical Students Attending Predominately White Medical Schools (United States)

    Morgan, Adrienne L.


    The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…

  8. Making Connections with the Past: (Un)Masking African American History at a Neighborhood Community Center (United States)

    Stiler, Gary; Allen, Lisa


    The Carver Community Center in Evansville, Indiana, uses an academic enrichment program to support neighborhood students. The curriculum involves children in learning about African-American literary traditions and folk art. The Center's work is based on the premise that African-American children need to encounter the reality of history as in…

  9. African American History and Culture in Museums: Strategic Crossroads and New Opportunities (July 16, 2004) (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2005


    On July 16, 2004, the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) convened a day-long forum of leaders in the African American museum community, as well as leaders in the museum community at large, to explore the evolving role of African American museums, their contributions, and their challenges. This report provides a synthesis of the July…

  10. Keeping Current. African American History Month--More than Book Reports! (United States)

    O'Neal, Anita J.


    Mention the observance of African American History Month and the name Carter G. Woodson immediately comes to mind. Woodson, an educator, publisher, and historian, initiated the "Negro History Week" observance in 1926. Known as the "Father of Black History," Woodson believed that it was important for African Americans to know their history in…

  11. What's up with This Leadership Thing? Voices of African American Male College Undergraduates (United States)

    Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Boyd, Barry L.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.; Peck-Parrott, Kelli


    This study investigates the perceptions of leadership of African American undergraduate males who attend a predominately-White institution in the Southwest after participation in a leadership development program. Research concerning African American undergraduate males in education has been from a deficit-orientated narrative and focused primarily…

  12. Perceived Racism and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African American College Students (United States)

    Hill, LaBarron K.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Hughes, Joel W.


    Experiences with racial discrimination may contribute to stress-induced blood pressure (BP) elevations among African Americans. It was reported that perceived racism was associated with ambulatory BP (ABP) during waking hours. This study examined perceived racism and ABP among 40 African American college students, who completed an ABP assessment…

  13. Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S.


    This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

  14. Taking Boys out of the Hood: Exile as a Parenting Strategy for African American Male Youth (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Van Brakle, Mischelle; St. Vil, Christopher


    Research indicates that inner-city neighborhood effects are correlated with school dropout, substance abuse, crime, violence, homicide, HIV risk related behaviors, and incarceration for adolescent African American males. Parents of adolescent African American males face many challenges as they try to keep their children safe in high-risk…

  15. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls (United States)

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.


    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  16. Incorporating Spirituality and Religion into the Treatment of African American Clients (United States)

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy


    This article discusses the process of incorporating spirituality and religion into the treatment of African American clients. It addresses religious diversity within the African American community. The roles of spirituality and religion as survival and coping mechanisms for overcoming racism, adversity, and loss are emphasized. The cases presented…

  17. Mentoring 101: Advancing African-American Women Faculty and Doctoral Student Success in Predominantly White Institutions (United States)

    Grant, Cosette M.; Ghee, Sarah


    This article is purposed with operationalizing the concept of mentoring as a nuanced approach and attempt to thwart the upward trajectories of African-American women in predominantly White institutions (PWIs). We struggled as African-American women to balance and decipher the various facets inherent in our respective roles--professor and doctoral…

  18. Motivational and Judgment Predictors of African American Academic Achievement at PWIs and HBCUs (United States)

    Reeder, Matthew C.; Schmitt, Neal


    In this study we investigated whether African American students at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) differ from African American students at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in academic motivation and judgment, and whether type of academic institution (HBCU, PWI) moderates relationships between these differences and…

  19. When Aspiration Meets Opportunity: Examining Transitional Experiences of African American Males in College Readiness Programs (United States)

    Baber, Lorenzo DuBois


    The lack of postsecondary success for African American males has garnered significant attention from academic scholars and public policy leaders. While this scholarship provides a strong portrait on issues related to African American males, there are still significant gaps to be addressed. Most notably, current research tends to focus on students…

  20. Precious African American memories, post-racial dreams & the American nation. (United States)

    Martin, Waldo E


    This interdisciplinary essay explores a fundamental paradox at the heart of American race relations since the 1960s: "the changing same." The more things change; the more they remain the same. Combining historical and social-scientific evidence with autobiographical reflections, this discussion critically probes the paradoxical decline and persistence of two dimensions of our enduring racial quagmire: racial inequality and white supremacy. The essay argues that these powerful and interrelated elements of America's continuing racial dilemma demand a massive democratic movement to alleviate both at once. This wide-ranging struggle to realize the promise of American democracy requires more than just a revitalized African American Freedom Struggle that is both intraracial and interracial. Progress toward resolving the seemingly intractable problem of racial inequality in the United States demands far more than intensified efforts to alleviate economic inequality; it requires alleviating white supremacy as well.

  1. European American and African American Mothers' Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to their Children's Academic and Social-Emotional Competence. (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Perry, Nicole B; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D; Marcovitch, Stuart


    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers' responses to their children's negative emotions and teachers' reports of children's academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European American and African American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European American, 63 African American) reported on their responses to their 5-year-old children's negative emotions and 150 kindergarten teachers reported on these children's current academic standing and skillfulness with peers. Problem-focused responses to children's negative emotions, which have traditionally been considered a supportive response, were positively associated with children's school competence for European American children, but expressive encouragement, another response considered supportive, was negatively associated with children's competence for African American children. The findings highlight the need to examine parental socialization practices from a culturally-specific lens.

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of imputation performance in African Americans. (United States)

    Chanda, Pritam; Yuhki, Naoya; Li, Man; Bader, Joel S; Hartz, Alex; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kao, W H Linda; Arking, Dan E


    Imputation of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to a larger known reference panel of SNPs has become a standard and an essential part of genome-wide association studies. However, little is known about the behavior of imputation in African Americans with respect to the different imputation algorithms, the reference population(s) and the reference SNP panels used. Genome-wide SNP data (Affymetrix 6.0) from 3207 African American samples in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) was used to systematically evaluate imputation quality and yield. Imputation was performed with the imputation algorithms MACH, IMPUTE and BEAGLE using several combinations of three reference panels of HapMap III (ASW, YRI and CEU) and 1000 Genomes Project (pilot 1 YRI June 2010 release, EUR and AFR August 2010 and June 2011 releases) panels with SNP data on chromosomes 18, 20 and 22. About 10% of the directly genotyped SNPs from each chromosome were masked, and SNPs common between the reference panels were used for evaluating the imputation quality using two statistical metrics-concordance accuracy and Cohen's kappa (κ) coefficient. The dependencies of these metrics on the minor allele frequencies (MAF) and specific genotype categories (minor allele homozygotes, heterozygotes and major allele homozygotes) were thoroughly investigated to determine the best panel and method for imputation in African Americans. In addition, the power to detect imputed SNPs associated with simulated phenotypes was studied using the mean genotype of each masked SNP in the imputed data. Our results indicate that the genotype concordances after stratification into each genotype category and Cohen's κ coefficient are considerably better equipped to differentiate imputation performance compared with the traditionally used total concordance statistic, and both statistics improved with increasing MAF irrespective of the imputation method. We also find that both MACH and IMPUTE

  3. Anatomical Description of Zygomatic Foramina in African American Skulls. (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Chundury, Rao V; Blandford, Alexander D; Perry, Julian D


    The zygomaticofacial/temporal/orbital nerve is a terminal branch of the zygomatic nerve and exits the orbit through zygomatic foramina. The nomenclature in the literature varies with some studies identifying all 3 foramina on the malar surface of the zygoma, while others describe each along different aspects of the zygoma. In this study, foramen on the malar surface of the zygoma is termed zygomatic foramen, and the authors describe anatomical variations in the position and number of these foramina in an African American population. Sixty-two African American skulls from the Hamann-Todd collection of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History were studied. The primary outcome was the number of zygomatic foramina on the malar surface of the zygomatic bone. Secondary outcomes included the location of foramina relative to the orbital rim and the frontozygomatic suture. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe measurements. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze measurements between left and right hemicrania. The average number of foramina was 1.98 ± 0.93. More foramina were found on the right (2.13 ± 0.98) when compared with the left (1.68 ± 0.79; p = 0.001). The average distance between the lateral-most and medial-most foramina was 9.7 ± 5.0 mm. The distance from the orbital rim to the lateral foramen was 8.4 ± 4.2 mm, and distance from the orbital rim to the medial foramen was 7.7 ± 2.1 mm. The frontozygomatic suture was 22.9 ± 3.9 mm from the lateral foramen and 27.9 ± 3.6 mm from the medial foramen. The locations of the foramina in relation to the frontozygomatic suture and orbital rim were consistent with other populations. However, in this African American population, more zygomatic foramina were noted compared with previously published results in Korean, Indian, Brazilian, and West Anatolian populations. Surgeons should be cognizant of zygomatic foramina in this population to reduce potential neurovascular complications.

  4. Caveolin-1 deficiency may predispose African Americans to systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease. (United States)

    Reese, Charles; Perry, Beth; Heywood, Jonathan; Bonner, Michael; Visconti, Richard P; Lee, Rebecca; Hatfield, Corey M; Silver, Richard M; Hoffman, Stanley; Tourkina, Elena


    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the leading cause of death in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Although SSc-related ILD is more common and severe in African Americans than in Caucasians, little is known about factors underlying this significant health disparity. The aim of this study was to examine the role that low expression of caveolin-1 might play in susceptibility to ILD among African Americans. Assays of monocyte migration toward stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) were performed using monocytes from Caucasian and African American healthy donors and patients with SSc. For fibrocyte differentiation studies, total peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated on fibronectin-coated plates. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Monocytes from healthy African American donors and those from patients with SSc had low caveolin-1 levels, enhanced migration toward the CXCR4 ligand SDF-1, and enhanced differentiation to fibrocytes. Enhanced migration and differentiation of monocytes from African Americans and patients with SSc appeared to be attributable to the lack of caveolin-1, because restoring caveolin-1 function using a caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide inhibited these processes. Although they differed from monocytes from Caucasians, monocytes from both African Americans and patients with SSc were not identical, because SSc monocytes showed major increases from baseline in ERK, JNK, p38, and Smad2/3 activation, while monocytes from African Americans showed only limited ERK activation and no activation of JNK, p38, or Smad2/3. In contrast, SDF-1 exposure caused no additional ERK activation in SSc monocytes but did cause significant additional activation in monocytes from African Americans. African Americans may be predisposed to SSc-related ILD due to low baseline caveolin-1 levels in their monocytes, potentially affecting signaling, migration, and fibrocyte differentiation. The monocytes of

  5. Parents' Differential Treatment of Adolescent Siblings in African American Families. (United States)

    Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M


    Research on European and European American families suggests that parents' differential treatment of siblings has negative implications for youths' adjustment, but few studies have explored these dynamics in minority samples. This study examined parents' differential acceptance and conflict in a sample of mothers, fathers, and two adolescent siblings in 179 African American families who were interviewed on three annual occasions. In an effort to replicate findings from European and European American samples, we assessed the longitudinal associations between differential treatment and adolescent adjustment and tested three sibling characteristics (birth order, gender, and dyad gender composition) as potential moderators of these linkages. To illuminate the sociocultural context of differential treatment and its implications, we also explored parents' cultural socialization practices and experiences of financial stress as potential moderators of these links. Multilevel models revealed that, controlling for average parent-child relationship qualities, decreases in parental acceptance and increases in parent-youth conflict over time-relative to the sibling-were associated with increases in youths' risky behavior and depressive symptoms. Links between differential treatment and adjustment were not evident, however, when mothers engaged in high levels of cultural socialization and in families under high financial stress. The discussion highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in family dynamics. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  6. Problems in Translating Musical Elements in African American Poetry after 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kočan


    Full Text Available In most cases, African American poetry eschews traditional literary norms. Contemporary African American poets tend to ignore grammatical rules, use unusual typography on many occasions, include much of their cultural heritage in their poetry, and interweave musical elements into literary genres. The influence of such musical genres as jazz, blues, soul, and gospel, together with the dilemmas that occur for the translator, will be shown to great extent, since music, like black speech, is a major part of African American culture and literature. The translator will have to maintain the specific African American rhythm, blues adaptations and the improvisational language under the jazz impact. The paper presents the problems in translating post-1950 African American poetry into Slovene, and asks to what extent can one successfully transfer the musical elements within this poetry for the target culture? Inevitably, it will identify a share of elements that are lost in translation.

  7. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer? (United States)

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M


    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  8. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity. (United States)

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne


    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  9. African-American lesbian identity management and identity development in the context of family and community. (United States)

    Miller, Shannon J


    Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.

  10. Smoking Cessation Intervention Preferences Among Urban African Americans: A Mixed Methods Approach. (United States)

    Baker, Cathy J; Palmer, Sheena D; Lee, Chia-Wen Vianne


    African Americans suffer disproportionately from smoking-related morbidity and mortality and make more quit attempts but report less success in quitting. Smokers tend to identify more strongly with African American culture. Qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit perceptions toward smoking and intervention content. Seventy-one African American smokers recruited from community locations participated. The majority stated they would not use any cessation aids if trying to quit smoking, despite the availability of free nicotine replacement. Acculturative stress scores were significantly higher in younger participants and those with higher income. Higher African American acculturation did not predict smoking cessation intervention preference. Family and social relationships were cited as both reasons for wanting to quit and reasons for continuing to smoke. Based on these findings, interventions for urban African Americans should address household members continuing to smoke, social/family connections, stress management, and cultural identification in urban areas. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Obesity-Associated Hypertension: the Upcoming Phenotype in African-American Women. (United States)

    Samson, Rohan; Qi, Andrea; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Oparil, Suzanne


    The present obesity epidemic particularly affects African-American women. Whether the obesity epidemic will alter the hypertension phenotype in African-American women is entertained. The prevalence of morbid obesity is steadily increasing in African-American women, who are prone to developing hypertension (HTN) even in the absence of obesity. The obesity-associated hypertension phenotype is characterized by marked sympathetic nervous system activation and resistance/refractoriness to antihypertensive therapy. Weight loss achieved through lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy has a modest and rarely sustained antihypertensive effect. In contrast, bariatric surgery has a sustained antihypertensive effect, as evidenced by normalization of hypertension or lessening of antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of HTN and its obesity-associated phenotype is likely to increase in African-American women over the next decades. Obese African-American women may be increasingly referred for bariatric surgery when hypertension remains uncontrolled despite lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy for weight loss and blood pressure (BP) control.

  12. The relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. (United States)

    Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann


    In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.

  13. Does race still matter in nursing? The narratives of African-American nursing faculty members. (United States)

    Beard, Kenya V; Julion, Wrenetha A

    The rise in undergraduate enrollment of African-American students has not translated into more African-American faculty members, although they could mentor minority students and promote an ethos that encourages their academic success. Discrimination against African-American faculty members continues, which could lessen their presence. This study explored the narratives of 23 African-American faculty members to determine if race still matters in nursing. A narrative approach grounded in social constructionism and critical race theory was used to illustrate the journey of African-American faculty into and throughout academia and to reveal factors related to decisions to enter and remain in academia. Most of the participants stated that they faced racial discrimination that tested their resilience and reinforced their commitment to the academy. Intentional actions and open discourse could strengthen institutional commitments to racial diversity and facilitate the recruitment and retention of racially diverse nursing faculties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychological and Neuropsychological Predictors of Non-Compliance to Mammography Screening Among High-Risk African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steele, Sharon L; Lewis-Jack, Ometha


    The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. national figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...

  15. Psychological and Neuropsychological Predictors of Non-Compliance to Mammography Screening Among High-Risk African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steele, Sharon


    The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. National figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...

  16. Changing perceptions of cycling in the African American community to encourage participation in a sport that promotes health in adults. (United States)


    This study introduces two interventions designed to influence perceptions of cycling among African : Americans. Results from the 2001 National Household Transportation Survey reveal that African Americans : cycle at two-thirds the rate of White and H...

  17. Cultural knowledge and local vulnerability in African American communities (United States)

    Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael


    Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.

  18. Qualitative Examination of African American Women's Perspectives about Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Holden


    Full Text Available Gaining greater understanding about the various psychosocial, socio-cultural, and environmental factors that may influence experiences of depression among African American women (AAW helps elucidate how this mental illness impacts the lives of this population. Sixty-three adult AAW comprised the study’s convenience sample.  Specifically, focus group cohorts inclusive of women from an academic institution, a primary healthcare clinic, and an urban community setting were conducted.  Results indicated six (6 dominant common themes as issues that may increase risk for depression among diverse AAW.  Similarities and differences about perspectives that contributed to depression were delineated among the three cohorts of AAW.  These results are important for mental/behavioral health researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals that are engaged in the design and implementation of culturally centered and gender-specific prevention and intervention strategies targeted to AAW at risk for depression.  

  19. Development of an empirical typology of African American family functioning. (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B


    This study empirically identified types of African American families. Adolescents (N = 111) were assessed on family functioning. With cluster analytic methods, 3 types of families were identified. The cohesive-authoritative type was above average on parental education and income, averaged about 2 children, exhibited a high quality of family functioning and high self-esteem in adolescents. The conflictive-authoritarian type had average parental education and income, an average of 2.7 children, exhibited controlling and rigid discipline, and placed a high emphasis on achievement. The defensive-neglectful type was predominately headed by single mothers with below average education and income and averaged about 3 children. Such families displayed chaotic family processes, and adolescents tended to suffer from low self-esteem. The typology exhibited good reliability. The implications of the typology are discussed.

  20. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults. (United States)

    Hall, Naomi M; Lee, Anna K; Witherspoon, Daphne D


    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students' experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed.

  1. Family protective factors among urban African American youth. (United States)

    McCabe, K M; Clark, R; Barnett, D


    Examined the relations among family protective factors, stressful events, and behavioral adjustment of 64 African American 6th graders. The youths reported on family stressors, father-figure involvement, and kin support. Their primary caregivers reported on parenting, father-figure involvement, and family stressors. Teachers reported on child social skill deficits, acting out, and shy or anxious behavior. Based on regression analyses, stress exposure associated positively with child social skill deficits, acting out, and shy or anxious behavior. Parental warmth was associated negatively with shy or anxious behavior. Parental use of corporal punishment was associated positively with child acting out. For youth exposed to high numbers of family stressors, parental demandingness was associated negatively with child acting out and kin support was associated negatively with acting out and shy or anxious behavior, suggesting that these family factors partially shield children from the negative effects of stress.

  2. Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members. (United States)

    Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A


    Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''

  3. Survival Strategies for African American Astronomers and Astrophysicists (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.


    The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of `astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.

  4. An examination of Euro-American and African-American differences in social physique anxiety among college women. (United States)

    Jordan, Eleanor H; Smisson, Cassandra P; Burke, Kevin L; Joyner, A Barry; Czech, Daniel R


    Many studies have examined sex differences in social physique anxiety; however, few researchers have examined possible perceptual differences in such anxiety based on ethnicity. The present purpose was to examine social physique anxiety among college-age women of Euro-American and African-American descent. Participants (N = 91) from physical activity classes at a university located in the southeastern United States completed the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. The participants were 67 Euro-Americans and 24 African Americans. An independent t test yielded a significant difference (p =.01) between groups on Eklund's scale, which supports the hypothesis.

  5. Gambling and sexual behaviors in African-American adolescents. (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Lee, Grace P; Kim, June H; Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Storr, Carla L


    Late adolescence represents a developmental risk period when many youth become involved in multiple forms of high-risk behaviors with adverse consequences. This study assessed the degree to which two such behaviors, adolescent sexual behaviors and gambling, were associated in a community-based sample with a large African-American presence. Data are derived from a cohort study. This study focuses on 427 African-American participants with complete information on gambling and sexual behaviors by age 18 (72% of original cohort). Gambling involvement and related problems were based on responses to the South Oaks Gambling Screen - Revised for Adolescents. Several questions assessed sexual behaviors, including age of initiation. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for demographics, intervention status, impulsivity, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and alcohol and illegal drug use. Almost half of the sample (49%, n=211) had gambled at least once before age 18. More gamblers than non-gamblers had initiated sexual intercourse by age 18 (aOR: 2.29 [1.16, 4.52]). Among those who had initiated sexual activity, more gamblers than non-gamblers with high impulsivity levels at age 13 (vs. low impulsivity levels) had become pregnant or had impregnated someone. Among those who had initiated sexual activity by age 18, more male gamblers had impregnated someone by age 18 as compared to female gamblers becoming pregnant. Gambling and sexual behaviors often co-occur among adolescents. Such findings prompt the need for the inclusion of gambling, an often overlooked risky behavior, in behavioral prevention/intervention programs targeting adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Beauty is in the soul of the beholder: psychological implications of beauty and African American women. (United States)

    Hall, C C


    The criteria for beauty in the United States are primarily based on Caucasian European American, middle-class standards. African American women tend to vary greatly from these criteria. Though very few studies have been conducted on the body image of Black women in the United States, historically, the physical images portrayed of African American women in the United States have not been positive. Mental health practitioners must understand how these negative images may affect the body image and self-esteem of African American women. Therapeutic and community interventions are discussed.

  7. I too, am America: a review of research on systemic lupus erythematosus in African-Americans (United States)

    Williams, Edith M; Bruner, Larisa; Adkins, Alyssa; Vrana, Caroline; Logan, Ayaba; Kamen, Diane; Oates, James C


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disorder that can cause significant morbidity and mortality. A large body of evidence has shown that African-Americans experience the disease more severely than other racial-ethnic groups. Relevant literature for the years 2000 to August 2015 were obtained from systematic searches of PubMed, Scopus, and the EBSCOHost platform that includes MEDLINE, CINAHL, etc. to evaluate research focused on SLE in African-Americans. Thirty-six of the 1502 articles were classified according to their level of evidence. The systematic review of the literature reported a wide range of adverse outcomes in African-American SLE patients and risk factors observed in other mono and multi-ethnic investigations. Studies limited to African-Americans with SLE identified novel methods for more precise ascertainment of risk and observed novel findings that hadn't been previously reported in African-Americans with SLE. Both environmental and genetic studies included in this review have highlighted unique African-American populations in an attempt to isolate risk attributable to African ancestry and observed increased genetic influence on overall disease in this cohort. The review also revealed emerging research in areas of quality of life, race-tailored interventions, and self-management. This review reemphasizes the importance of additional studies to better elucidate the natural history of SLE in African-Americans and optimize therapeutic strategies for those who are identified as being at high risk. PMID:27651918

  8. Meal patterns and food choices of young African American men: understanding eating within the context of daily life


    Savoca, Margaret R.; Flint, Tara L.; Morton, Tiffany B.; Johnson, Lakeisha T.; Bell, Nancy M.; Aronson, Robert E.; Wallace, Debra C.


    Although young African-American males are at particularly high risk of developing hypertension at an early age, dietary interventions that have successfully reduced blood pressure among African-American adults have not been translated into programs for this group. Life contexts such as school enrollment, competitive athletics, and employment influence the daily activities and meal patterns of African-American males. This study explored the activities of young African-American males to identif...

  9. Selected African American First-Time Teenage Mothers' Perceptions of Nurse Caring Behaviors During The Postpartum Period


    Danita Renae Potter; Esther H. Condon; Arlene J. Montgomery; Toni Sims Muhammad; Zina T. McGee


    The purpose of this study was to explore and describe African American teen mothers’ perceptions of nurse caring behaviors during the postpartum period in a rural southern state. African Americans have unique cultural needs; thus, it is critical for the science of nursing to explore and describe African American teenage mothers’ perceptions of nurse caring behaviors during the postpartum period. By exploring and describing African American first-time teenage mothers’ perceptions of nurse cari...

  10. Advancing understanding of the sustainability of lay health advisor (LHA) programs for African-American women in community settings. (United States)

    Shelton, Rachel C; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Dunston, Sheba King; Jandorf, Lina; Erwin, Deborah O


    Lay health advisor (LHA) programs have made strong contributions towards the elimination of health disparities and are increasingly being implemented to promote health and prevent disease. Developed in collaboration with African-American survivors, the National Witness Project (NWP) is an evidence-based, community-led LHA program that improves cancer screening among African-American women. NWP has been successfully disseminated, replicated, and implemented nationally in over 40 sites in 22 states in diverse community settings, reaching over 15,000 women annually. We sought to advance understanding of barriers and facilitators to the long-term implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings from the viewpoint of the LHAs, as well as the broader impact of the program on African-American communities and LHAs. In the context of a mixed-methods study, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted among 76 African-American LHAs at eight NWP sites at baseline and 12-18 months later, between 2010 and 2013. Qualitative data provides insight into inner and outer contextual factors (e.g., community partnerships, site leadership, funding), implementation processes (e.g., training), as well as characteristics of the intervention (e.g., perceived need and fit in African-American community) and LHAs (e.g., motivations, burnout) that are perceived to impact the continued implementation and sustainability of NWP. Factors at the contextual levels and related to motivations of LHAs are critical to the sustainability of LHA programs. We discuss how findings are used to inform (1) the development of the LHA Sustainability Framework and (2) strategies to support the continued implementation and sustainability of evidence-based LHA interventions in community settings.

  11. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers (United States)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  12. The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States. (United States)

    Gardiner, Phillip S


    Today, over 70% of African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes, compared with 30% of White smokers. This unique social phenomenon was principally occasioned by the tobacco industry's masterful manipulation of the burgeoning Black, urban, segregated, consumer market in the 1960s. Through the use of television and other advertising media, coupled with culturally tailored images and messages, the tobacco industry "African Americanized" menthol cigarettes. The tobacco industry successfully positioned mentholated products, especially Kool, as young, hip, new, and healthy. During the time that menthols were gaining a large market share in the African American community, the tobacco industry donated funds to African American organizations hoping to blunt the attack on their products. Many of the findings in this article are drawn from the tobacco industry documents disclosed following the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. After a short review of the origins and growth of menthols, this article examines some key social factors that, when considered together, led to disproportionate use of mentholated cigarettes by African Americans compared with other Americans. Unfortunately, the long-term impact of the industry's practice in this community may be partly responsible for the disproportionately high tobacco-related disease and mortality among African Americans generally and African American males particularly.

  13. A preliminary study investigating the factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females (United States)

    Ray, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level

  14. African - American Influence on American Government‘s Foreign Trade, Investment and Aid Policies toward Africa: Continuing Challenges


    James OKORO; Richard INGWE; Uno IJIM-AGBOR


    This paper is timely because it critically examines the influence of African-Americans on U.S. trade, foreign direct investment and aid toward the Sub-Saharan African Countries in the late 1970s, a dimension that has been largely overlooked in foreign policy analysis, despite its critical significance. In fact, African-American influence in U.S. trade, foreign direct investment and aid policy toward Africa is an aspect that has so far received scanty attention regarding their ancestral homela...

  15. "Fool Me Once, Shame on You; Fool Me Twice, Shame on Me": African American Students' Reclamation of Smartness as Resistance (United States)

    Twyman Hoff, Pamela


    In African American culture competing value systems shape the definition and value of smartness. This article will explore African American "sayins" as a tool to transmit the counter-hegemonic cultural value of smartness. "Sayins," a facet of the African American oral tradition, are drawn from the deep structures of African…

  16. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David


    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  17. A Mobile Device Based Intervention to Reduce the Influence of Smoking Cues Among African American Cigarette Smokers (United States)


    A MOBILE DEVICE-BASED INTERVENTION TO REDUCE THE INFLUENCE OF SMOKING CUES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN CIGARETTE SMOKERS by...of Smoking Cues among African American Cigarette Smokers is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the...Reduce the Influence of Smoking Cues among African American Cigarette Smokers Cendrine Robinson, M.S., 2014 Thesis directed by: Dr. Andrew

  18. The Impact of Ethnic Identity Stage Development on the Intercultural Sensitivity of African-American Students during Study Abroad (United States)

    Dinani, Thandiwe T.


    African-American students represent 12% of the 14 million students enrolled in higher education institutions (National Center for Education Statistics, 2013). However, African-American students participate in study-abroad programs at a much lower percentage; African-American students represent 5% of the total number of students who study abroad…

  19. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.


    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…

  20. "Sisters of Nia": A Social Justice Advocacy Intervention for School Counselors in Their Work with Adolescent African American Females (United States)

    Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.


    Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…