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Sample records for razorback suckers xyrauchen

  1. Sperm quality assessments for endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen Texanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Eilts, Bruce E.; Guitreau, Amy M.; Figiel, Chester R.; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O.; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) and computer-assisted sperm motion analysis (CASA) methods were developed and validated for use with endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus collected (n=64) during the 2006 spawning season. Sperm motility could be activated within osmolality ranges noted during milt collections (here 167–343 mOsm/kg). We hypothesized that sperm quality of milt collected into isoosmotic (302 mOsm/kg) or hyperosmotic (500 mOsm/kg) Hanks' balanced salt solution would not differ. Pre-freeze viabilities were similar between osmolalities (79%±6 (S.E.M.) and 76%±7); however, post-thaw values were greater in hyperosmotic buffer (27%±3 and 12%±2; P=0.0065), as was mitochondrial membrane potential (33%±4 and 13%±2; P=0.0048). Visual estimates of pre-freeze motility correlated with total (r=0.7589; range 23–82%) and progressive motility (r=0.7449) by CASA and were associated with greater viability (r=0.5985; Pr=-0.83; P=0.0116) and mitochondrial function (r=-0.91; P=0.0016). By FCM-based assessments of DNA integrity, whereby increased fluorochrome binding indicated more fragmentation, higher levels were negatively correlated with count (r=-0.77; Pr=-0.66; P=0.0004). Fragmentation was higher in isotonic buffer (P=0.0234). To increase reproductive capacity of natural populations, the strategy and protocols developed can serve as a template for use with other imperiled fish species, biomonitoring, and genome banking.

  2. Small nonnative fishes as predators of larval razorback suckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Mueller, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), an endangered big-river fish of the Colorado River basin, has demonstrated no sustainable recruitment in 4 decades, despite presence of spawning adults and larvae. Lack of adequate recruitment has been attributed to several factors, including predation by nonnative fishes. Substantial funding and effort has been expended on mechanically removing nonnative game fishes, typically targeting large predators. As a result, abundance of larger predators has declined, but the abundance of small nonnative fishes has increased in some areas. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine if small nonnative fishes would consume larval razorback suckers. We tested adults of three small species (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis; fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas) and juveniles of six larger species (common carp, Cyprinus carpio; yellow bullhead, Ameiurus natalis; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; bluegill, L. macrochirus). These nonnative fishes span a broad ecological range and are abundant within the historical range of the razorback sucker. All nine species fed on larval razorback suckers (total length, 9-16 mm). Our results suggest that predation by small nonnative fishes could be responsible for limiting recovery of this endangered species.

  3. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points could be included as recovery metrics with which to monitor seasonal trends and determine whether

  4. Toxicity of inorganic contaminants, individually and in environmental mixtures, to three endangered fishes (Colorado squawfish, bonytail, and razorback sucker)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two life stages of three federally-listed endangered fishes, Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius), bonytail (Gila elegans), and razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) were exposed to copper, selenate, selenite, and zinc individually, and to mixtures of nine inorganics in a reconstituted water that simulated the water quality of the middle Green River, Utah. The mixtures simulated environmental ratios of arsenate, boron, copper, molybdenum, selenate, selenite, uranium, vanadium, and zinc in two tributaries, Ashley Creek and Stewart Lake outlet, of the middle Green River. The rank order of toxicity of the individual inorganics, from most to least toxic, was: copper > zinc > selenite > selenate. Colorado squawfish larvae were more sensitive to all four inorganics and the two mixtures than the juveniles, whereas there was no consistent response between the two life stages for the other two species. There was no consistent difference in sensitivity to the inorganics among the three endangered fishes. Both mixtures exhibited either additive or greater than additive toxicity to these fishes. The primary toxic components in the mixtures, based on toxic units, were copper and zinc. Acute toxicity values were compared to measured environmental concentrations in the two tributaries to derive margins of uncertainty. Margins of uncertainty were low for both mixtures (9–22 for the Stewart Lake outlet mixture, and 12–32 for the Ashley Creek mixture), indicating that mixtures of inorganics derived from irrigation activities may pose a hazard to endangered fishes in the Green River.

  5. Irrigation drainwater effects on the endangered larval razorback sucker and bonytail in the middle Green River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) irrigation drainwater investigation of the middle Green River of Utah reported that concentrations of boron, selenium, and zinc in water, bottom sediment, and biological tissues were sufficiently elevated to be potentially harmful to fish and wildlife. The major focus of the DOI study was in the Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake area near Jensen, utah. The middle Green River provides sensitive habitat for the endangered Colorado squawfish, razorback sucker, and bonytail. The authors conducted two 90-day chronic toxicity studies, one with razorback sucker, and the other with bonytail. Swimup larvae were exposed in a reconstituted water simulating the middle Green River. The toxicant mixture simulated the environmental ratio and concentrations of inorganics reported in the DOI study for the mouth of Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outflow on the Green River, and was composed of arsenic, boron, copper, molybdenum, uranium, vanadium, selenate, selenite, and zinc. The mixture was tested at 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X where X was the average expected environmental concentration. Razorback suckers had reduced survival after 40 days exposure to the inorganic mixture at 16X and after 60 days at 8X; whereas growth was reduced after 30 days at 8X and after 60 days at 4X. Bonytail had reduced survival after 20 days exposure at 16X, whereas growth was reduced after 60 days at 8X. These studies show that at environmentally realistic concentrations, the inorganic mixture simulating Ashley Creek-Stewart Lake outfall adversely affects larval endangered fish

  6. Chronic toxicity and hazard assessment of an inorganic mixture simulating irrigation drainwater to razorback sucker and bonytail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Bullard, Fern A.; Little, Edward E.

    2000-01-01

    We conducted two 90 day chronic toxicity studies with two endangered fish, razorback sucker and bonytail. Swim-up larvae were exposed in a reconstituted water simulating the middle Green River. The toxicant mixture simulated the environmental ratio and concentrations of inorganics reported in a Department of the Interior study for the mouth of Ashley Creek on the Green River, and was composed of nine elements. The mixture was tested at 1X, 2X, 4X, 8X, and 16X where X was the measured environmental concentration (2 μg/L arsenic, 630 μg/L boron, 10 μg/L copper, 5 μg/L molybdenum, 51 μg/L selenate, 8 μg/L selenite, 33 μg/L uranium, 2 μg/L vanadium, and 20 μg/L zinc). Razorback sucker had reduced survival after 60 days exposure to the inorganic mixture at 8X, whereas growth was reduced after 30 and 60 days at 2X and after 90 days at 4X. Bonytail had reduced survival after 30 days exposure at 16X, whereas growth was reduced after 30, 60, and 90 days at 8X. Swimming performance of razorback sucker and bonytail were reduced after 60 and 90 days of exposure at 8X. Whole-body residues of copper, selenium, and zinc increased in a concentration-response manner and seemed to be regulated at 90 days of exposure at 4X and lower treatments for razorback sucker, and at 8X and lower for bonytail. Adverse effects occurred in fish with whole-body residues of copper, selenium, and zinc similar to those causing similar effects in other fish species. Comparison of adverse effect concentrations with measured environmental concentrations showed a high hazard to the two endangered fish. Irrigation activities may be a contributing factor to the decline of these endangered fishes in the middle Green River. 

  7. Sucker rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rylov, B M; Kostur, I N; Shcheigiy, B I; Sukhanov, V S

    1983-01-01

    As an addendum to A.s. USSR patent No 769087, this particular sucker rod utilizes a differential piston spring that has been attached outside the body of the auxiliary pump. The pump cylinder is attached to the intake line of the main pump. The lower part of the auxiliary pump is equipped with vertical slits, while the differential piston is equipped with a perforated pusher and support under the spring; it can also be shifted as necessary with respect to the vertical slits.

  8. Sucker rod motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzalov, N N; Radzhabov, N A

    1983-01-01

    The motor consists of rollers mounted on the wellmouth and connected by a flexible rink. Reciprocating mechanism is in the form of a horizontal non-mobile single-side operation cylinder, inside which a plunger and rod are mounted. The working housing of the hydrocylinder is connected to a gas-hydr aulic batter, and when running is connected via plunger to the high pressure source; running in reverse it is connected with a safety valve and automatic control unit. The unit is equipped with a reducer and a mechanical transformer consisting of screw and nut, and which is shutoff with a single-side lining. The plunger rod consists of an auger-like unit. The high pressure source is provided by the injection line of the sucker rod that has been equipped with a reverse valve.

  9. Population characteristics and the influence of discharge on Bluehead Sucker and Flannelmouth Sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Zachary B.; Breen, Matthew J.; Quist, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Rivers are among some of the most complex and important ecosystems in the world. Unfortunately, many fishes endemic to rivers have suffered declines in abundance and distribution suggesting that alterations to lotic environments have negatively influenced native fish populations. Of the 35 fishes native to the Colorado River basin (CRB), seven are considered either endangered, threatened, or species of special concern. As such, the conservation of fishes native to the CRB is a primary interest for natural resource management agencies. One of the major factors limiting the conservation and management of fishes endemic to the CRB is the lack of basic information on their ecology and population characteristics. We sought to describe the population dynamics and demographics of three populations of Bluehead Suckers (Catostomus discobolus) and Flannelmouth Suckers (C. latipinnis) in Utah. Additionally, we evaluated the potential influence of altered flow regimes on the recruitment and growth of Bluehead Suckers and Flannelmouth Suckers. Mortality of Bluehead Suckers and Flannelmouth Suckers from the Green, Strawberry, and White rivers was comparable to other populations. Growth of Bluehead Suckers and Flannelmouth Suckers was higher in the Green, Strawberry, and White rivers when compared to other populations in the CRB. Similarly, recruitment indices suggested that Bluehead Suckers and Flannelmouth Suckers in the Green, Strawberry, and White rivers had more stable recruitment than other populations in the CRB. Models relating growth and recruitment to hydrological indices provided little explanatory power. Notwithstanding, our results indicate that Bluehead Suckers and Flannelmouth Suckers in the Green, Strawberry, and White rivers represent fairly stable populations and provide baseline information that will be valuable for the effective management and conservation of the species.

  10. Initial verification and validation of RAZORBACK - A research reactor transient analysis code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talley, Darren G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the work and results of the initial verification and validation (V&V) of the beta release of the Razorback code. Razorback is a computer code designed to simulate the operation of a research reactor (such as the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR)) by a coupled numerical solution of the point reactor kinetics equations, the energy conservation equation for fuel element heat transfer, and the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for the water cooling of the fuel elements. This initial V&V effort was intended to confirm that the code work to-date shows good agreement between simulation and actual ACRR operations, indicating that the subsequent V&V effort for the official release of the code will be successful.

  11. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aditsania, Annisa, E-mail: annisaaditsania@gmail.com [Department of Computational Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi, E-mail: silvyarahmawati@gmail.com; Sukarno, Pudjo, E-mail: psukarno@gmail.com [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Soewono, Edy, E-mail: esoewono@math.itb.ac.id [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

  12. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aditsania, Annisa; Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi; Sukarno, Pudjo; Soewono, Edy

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research

  13. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on fish: Histologic comparison of a UVB-sensitive and a UVB-tolerant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V.S.; Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.; Ewing, M.S.; Kocan, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    Lahontan cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi were sensitive to simulated solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and exhibited grossly visible signs of sunburn upon exposure. Razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus, however, were tolerant to simulated solar UVB and showed no grossly visible signs of exposure. Cutthroat trout also had considerably less of an unidentified, possibly photoprotective, substance in the skin than did razorback suckers. In all attempt to characterize the cellular response to simulated solar UVB exposure in the skin of these two species, we examined sections from UVB-exposed fish by light and electron microscopy. Cutthroat trout showed grossly visible signs of sunburn by 48 h. Histologic observations included a sloughing of the mucous cells, necrosis and edema in the epidermis and dermis, and, in some cases, secondary fungal infections. Razorback suckers did not show any visible signs of sunburn during 72 h of experimental exposure. Histologic analyses revealed that cell necrosis had occurred, but the severe necrosis and sloughing noted in cutthroat trout was not observed. An increase in epidermal thickness, apparently due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of large PAS-negative cells, occurred in the razorback suckers. These cells contained a large central region of low electron density and appeared to be club cells. In some, extensive interdigitation of the electron-lucent cytoplasm with adjacent epithelial cell margins occurred. Near the surface of the epidermis these cells were larger and the interface with epithelial cells lacked complex interdigitation. These cells may contain the substance that appears to protect razorback suckers against UV-B radiation.

  14. Protector predominantly for pump sucker rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhetdinov, U.Z.; Prokopov, O.I.; Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Valishim, Yu.G.

    1982-01-01

    A protector is proposed which includes a cylindrical housing with connecting threaded sections on the ends and rim with spheres attached to the outer surface of the housing. In order to improve reliable operation of the protector by reducing wear of the rocking supports, the rim on the outer surface of the housing is installed at an angle to its axis with the possibility of movement of the sphere in the rim around the sucker rods with interaction of them with the pump-compressor pipes.

  15. RAZORBACK - A Research Reactor Transient Analysis Code Version 1.0 - Volume 3: Verification and Validation Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talley, Darren G.

    2017-04-01

    This report describes the work and results of the verification and validation (V&V) of the version 1.0 release of the Razorback code. Razorback is a computer code designed to simulate the operation of a research reactor (such as the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR)) by a coupled numerical solution of the point reactor kinetics equations, the energy conservation equation for fuel element heat transfer, the equation of motion for fuel element thermal expansion, and the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations for the water cooling of the fuel elements. This V&V effort was intended to confirm that the code shows good agreement between simulation and actual ACRR operations.

  16. Structure and mechanical properties of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, Francesca; Kovalev, Alexander; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2014-02-06

    In this study, we investigate the morphology and mechanical features of Octopus vulgaris suckers, which may serve as a model for the creation of a new generation of attachment devices. Octopus suckers attach to a wide range of substrates in wet conditions, including rough surfaces. This amazing feature is made possible by the sucker's tissues, which are pliable to the substrate profile. Previous studies have described a peculiar internal structure that plays a fundamental role in the attachment and detachment processes of the sucker. In this work, we present a mechanical characterization of the tissues involved in the attachment process, which was performed using microindentation tests. We evaluated the elasticity modulus and viscoelastic parameters of the natural tissues (E ∼ 10 kPa) and measured the mechanical properties of some artificial materials that have previously been used in soft robotics. Such a comparison of biological prototypes and artificial material that mimics octopus-sucker tissue is crucial for the design of innovative artificial suction cups for use in wet environments. We conclude that the properties of the common elastomers that are generally used in soft robotics are quite dissimilar to the properties of biological suckers.

  17. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Tramacere

    Full Text Available The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa. In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species.

  18. The morphology and adhesion mechanism of Octopus vulgaris suckers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, Francesca; Beccai, Lucia; Kuba, Michael; Gozzi, Alessandro; Bifone, Angelo; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The octopus sucker represents a fascinating natural system performing adhesion on different terrains and substrates. Octopuses use suckers to anchor the body to the substrate or to grasp, investigate and manipulate objects, just to mention a few of their functions. Our study focuses on the morphology and adhesion mechanism of suckers in Octopus vulgaris. We use three different techniques (MRI, ultrasonography, and histology) and a 3D reconstruction approach to contribute knowledge on both morphology and functionality of the sucker structure in O. vulgaris. The results of our investigation are two-fold. First, we observe some morphological differences with respect to the octopus species previously studied (i.e., Octopus joubini, Octopus maya, Octopus bimaculoides/bimaculatus and Eledone cirrosa). In particular, in O. vulgaris the acetabular chamber, that is a hollow spherical cavity in other octopuses, shows an ellipsoidal cavity which roof has an important protuberance with surface roughness. Second, based on our findings, we propose a hypothesis on the sucker adhesion mechanism in O. vulgaris. We hypothesize that the process of continuous adhesion is achieved by sealing the orifice between acetabulum and infundibulum portions via the acetabular protuberance. We suggest this to take place while the infundibular part achieves a completely flat shape; and, by sustaining adhesion through preservation of sucker configuration. In vivo ultrasonographic recordings support our proposed adhesion model by showing the sucker in action. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers innovative potential cues for developing bioinspired artificial adhesion systems. Furthermore, we think that it could possibly represent a useful approach in order to investigate any potential difference in the ecology and in the performance of adhesion by different species.

  19. Juvenile sucker cohort tracking data summary and assessment of monitoring program, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Hereford, Mark E.; Hoy, Marshal S.

    2016-09-22

    Populations of federally endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, are experiencing long-term declines in abundance. Upper Klamath Lake populations are decreasing because adult mortality, which is relatively low, is not being balanced by recruitment of young adult suckers into known adult spawning aggregations. Previous sampling for juvenile suckers indicated that most juvenile sucker mortality in Upper Klamath Lake likely occurs within the first year of life. The importance of juvenile sucker mortality to the dynamics of Clear Lake Reservoir populations is less clear, and factors other than juvenile mortality (such as access to spawning habitat) play a substantial role. For example, production of age-0 juvenile suckers, as determined by fin ray annuli and fin development, has not been detected since 2013 in Clear Lake Reservoir, whereas it is detected annually in Upper Klamath Lake.

  20. Sucker rod string design of the pumping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hua. L, C

    2015-01-01

    The existing design of sucker rod string mainly focuses on the simplifying assumptions that rod string was exposed to simple tension loading. And its goal was to have equal modified stress at the top of each taper. The improved rod design was to have the same degree of safety at each section, and it used a dynamic force distribution that was proportional along the whole string. Moreover, the available procedures did not provide the desired accuracy of its pertinent analysis, and the operators...

  1. Features of electric drive sucker rod pumps for oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizatullin, F. A.; Khakimyanov, M. I.; Khusainov, F. F.

    2018-01-01

    This article is about modes of operation of electric drives of downhole sucker rod pumps. Downhole oil production processes are very energy intensive. Oil fields contain many oil wells; many of them operate in inefficient modes with significant additional losses. Authors propose technical solutions to improve energy performance of a pump unit drives: counterweight balancing, reducing of electric motor power, replacing induction motors with permanent magnet motors, replacing balancer drives with chain drives, using of variable frequency drives.

  2. Colonial waterbird predation on Lost River and Shortnose suckers in the Upper Klamath Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Allen F.; Hewitt, David A.; Payton, Quinn; Cramer, Bradley M.; Collis, Ken; Roby, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated predation on Lost River Suckers Deltistes luxatus and Shortnose Suckers Chasmistes brevirostris by American white pelicans Pelecanus erythrorhynchos and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus nesting at mixed-species colonies in the Upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California during 2009–2014. Predation was evaluated by recovering (detecting) PIT tags from tagged fish on bird colonies and calculating minimum predation rates, as the percentage of available suckers consumed, adjusted for PIT tag detection probabilities but not deposition probabilities (i.e., probability an egested tag was deposited on- or off-colony). Results indicate that impacts of avian predation varied by sucker species, age-class (adult, juvenile), bird colony location, and year, demonstrating dynamic predator–prey interactions. Tagged suckers ranging in size from 72 to 730 mm were susceptible to cormorant or pelican predation; all but the largest Lost River Suckers were susceptible to bird predation. Minimum predation rate estimates ranged annually from <0.1% to 4.6% of the available PIT-tagged Lost River Suckers and from <0.1% to 4.2% of the available Shortnose Suckers, and predation rates were consistently higher on suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, than on suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. There was evidence that bird predation on juvenile suckers (species unknown) in Upper Klamath Lake was higher than on adult suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, where minimum predation rates ranged annually from 5.7% to 8.4% of available juveniles. Results suggest that avian predation is a factor limiting the recovery of populations of Lost River and Shortnose suckers, particularly juvenile suckers in Upper Klamath Lake and adult suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir. Additional research is needed to measure predator-specific PIT tag deposition probabilities (which, based on other published studies, could increase predation rates presented herein by a factor of roughly 2

  3. Determination of selenium in fish from designated critical habitat in the Gunnison River, Colorado, March through October, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents results for the summer 2012 sam-pling of muscle plugs from common carp (Cyprinus carpio), bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Colorado pikeminnow (Ptycho-cheilus lucius), and razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) inhabiting critical habitat in the Gunnison River in western Colorado. Total selenium in fish muscle plugs was determinedby instrumental neutron activation analysis. Total selenium concentrations (range and mean ± standard deviation) in micrograms per gram dry weight were 6.0 to 10.7, 8.8 ± 1.3 for common carp; 2.9 to 8.7, 5.6 ± 2.4 for Colorado pikemin-now; and 1.4 to 7.3, 3.4 ± 2.7 for razorback sucker. The selenium concentration for one bonytail chub sample was 0.8 micrograms per gram dry weight. Selenium concentrations in muscle plugs from 1 Colorado pikeminnow and 12 common carp exceeded the 8 micrograms per gram dry weight toxicity guideline for selenium in fish muscle tissue.

  4. Hazard assessment of inorganics to three endangered fish in the Green River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted with three life stages of Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheilus lucius), razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and bonytail (Gila elegans) in a reconstituted water quality simulating the middle part of the Green River of Utah. Tests were conducted with boron, lithium, selenate, selenite, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. The overall rank order of toxicity to all species and life stages combined from most to least toxic was vanadium = zinc > selenite > lithium = uranium > selenate > boron. There was no difference between the three species in their sensitivity to the seven inorganics based on a rank-order evaluation at the species level. Colorado squawfish were 2-5 times more sensitive to selenate and selenite at the swimup life stage than older stages, whereas razorback suckers displayed equal sensitivity among life stages. Bonytail exhibited equal sensitivity to selenite, but were five times more sensitive to selenate at the swimup life stage than the older stages. Comparison of 96-hr LC50 values with a limited number of environmental water concentrations in Ashley Creek, Utah, which receives irrigation drainwater, revealed moderate hazard ratios for boron, selenate, selenite, and zinc, low hazard ratios for uranium and vanadium, but unknown ratios for lithium. These inorganic contaminants in drainwaters may adversely affect endangered fish in the Green River.

  5. The quality of Metroxylon Sago sucker: morphology and uptake of manganese and iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Abdul Khalik Wood; Ramli Ishak

    2001-01-01

    Metroxylon sago or sagopalm is an important source of carbohydrate for the South East Asian countries, apart from rice. In Malaysia, wild sagopalm grows in Sarawak in its natural habitats, the coastal peat swamp. The quality of sucker growing vegetatively on sagopalm was studied at Sungai Talau experimental station, Dalat plantation and Oya/Mukah plantation in Sarawak. The coefficients of variability (C) and Index of similiarity (I) were calculated based on sucker morphology and uptake of manganese and iron, The matrix of hypothetical exact interpoint distances (Indices of Similarity and Dissimilarity) shows that sucker on matured sagopalm at Sungai Talam experimental station was a high quality, sucker on 5 years old sagopalm at Mukah sago plantation was approximately one-third as good, whereas sucker on 1.5 years old sagopalm at Oya/dalat sago plantation was of inferior quality. (Author)

  6. Musculoskeletal determinants of pelvic sucker function in Hawaiian stream gobiid fishes: interspecific comparisons and allometric scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2013-07-01

    Gobiid fishes possess a distinctive ventral sucker, formed from fusion of the pelvic fins. This sucker is used to adhere to a wide range of substrates including, in some species, the vertical cliffs of waterfalls that are climbed during upstream migrations. Previous studies of waterfall-climbing goby species have found that pressure differentials and adhesive forces generated by the sucker increase with positive allometry as fish grow in size, despite isometry or negative allometry of sucker area. To produce such scaling patterns for pressure differential and adhesive force, waterfall-climbing gobies might exhibit allometry for other muscular or skeletal components of the pelvic sucker that contribute to its adhesive function. In this study, we used anatomical dissections and modeling to evaluate the potential for allometric growth in the cross-sectional area, effective mechanical advantage (EMA), and force generating capacity of major protractor and retractor muscles of the pelvic sucker (m. protractor ischii and m. retractor ischii) that help to expand the sealed volume of the sucker to produce pressure differentials and adhesive force. We compared patterns for three Hawaiian gobiid species: a nonclimber (Stenogobius hawaiiensis), an ontogenetically limited climber (Awaous guamensis), and a proficient climber (Sicyopterus stimpsoni). Scaling patterns were relatively similar for all three species, typically exhibiting isometric or negatively allometric scaling for the muscles and lever systems examined. Although these scaling patterns do not help to explain the positive allometry of pressure differentials and adhesive force as climbing gobies grow, the best climber among the species we compared, S. stimpsoni, does exhibit the highest calculated estimates of EMA, muscular input force, and output force for pelvic sucker retraction at any body size, potentially facilitating its adhesive ability. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Inspiration, simulation and design for smart robot manipulators from the sucker actuation mechanism of cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Frank W; Setlur, Pradeep

    2007-12-01

    Octopus arms house 200-300 independently controlled suckers that can alternately afford an octopus fine manipulation of small objects and produce high adhesion forces on virtually any non-porous surface. Octopuses use their suckers to grasp, rotate and reposition soft objects (e.g., octopus eggs) without damaging them and to provide strong, reversible adhesion forces to anchor the octopus to hard substrates (e.g., rock) during wave surge. The biological 'design' of the sucker system is understood to be divided anatomically into three functional groups: the infundibulum that produces a surface seal that conforms to arbitrary surface geometry; the acetabulum that generates negative pressures for adhesion; and the extrinsic muscles that allow adhered surfaces to be rotated relative to the arm. The effector underlying these abilities is the muscular hydrostat. Guided by sensory input, the thousands of muscle fibers within the muscular hydrostats of the sucker act in coordination to provide stiffness or force when and where needed. The mechanical malleability of octopus suckers, the interdigitated arrangement of their muscle fibers and the flexible interconnections of its parts make direct studies of their control challenging. We developed a dynamic simulator (ABSAMS) that models the general functioning of muscular hydrostat systems built from assemblies of biologically constrained muscular hydrostat models. We report here on simulation studies of octopus-inspired and artificial suckers implemented in this system. These simulations reproduce aspects of octopus sucker performance and squid tentacle extension. Simulations run with these models using parameters from man-made actuators and materials can serve as tools for designing soft robotic implementations of man-made artificial suckers and soft manipulators.

  8. Experimental Investigation on the Morphology and Adhesion Mechanism of Leech Posterior Suckers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huashan Feng

    Full Text Available The posterior sucker of a leech represents a fascinating natural system that allows the leech to adhere to different terrains and substrates. However, the mechanism of adhesion and desorption has not yet to be elucidated. In order to better understand how the adhesion is performed, we analyzed the surface structure, adsorption movements, the muscles' distribution, physical characteristics, and the adsorption force of the leech posterior suckers by experimental investigation. Three conclusions can be drawn based on the obtained experimental results. First, the adhesion by the posterior sucker is wet adhesion, because the surface of the posterior sucker is smooth and the sealing can only be achieved on wet surfaces. Second, the deformation texture, consisting of soft collagen tissues and highly ductile epidermal tissues, plays a key role in adhering to rough surfaces. Finally, the adhesion and desorption is achieved by the synergetic operation of six muscle fibers working in different directions. Concrete saying, directional deformation of the collagen/epithermal interface driven by spatially-distributed muscle fibers facilitates the excretion of fluids in the sucker venter, thus allowing liquid sealing. Furthermore, we found that the adhesion strength is directly related to the size of the contact surface which is generated and affected by the sucker deformation. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers potential cues for developing innovative bio-inspired artificial adhesion systems.

  9. Colonial waterbird predation on Lost River and shortnose suckers based on recoveries of passive integrated transponder tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Allen; Payton, Quinn; Cramer, Bradley D.; Collis, Ken; Hewitt, David A.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated predation on Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris), both listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), from American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) nesting at mixed species colonies on Clear Lake Reservoir, CA and Upper Klamath Lake, OR during 2009-2014. Predation was evaluated by recovering passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags that were implanted in suckers, subsequently consumed by pelicans or cormorants, and deposited on the birds’ nesting colonies. Data from PIT tag recoveries were used to estimate predation rates (proportion of available tagged suckers consumed) by birds to evaluate the relative susceptibility of suckers to avian predation in Upper Klamath Basin. Data on the size of pelican and cormorant colonies (number of breeding adults) at Clear Lake and Upper Klamath Lake were also collected and reported in the context of predation on suckers.

  10. Development of steel head joints with fiberglass sucker rod on the base of contact stresses investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopey, B.V.; Kopey, L.B. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Technical Oil and Gas University (Ukraine); Maksymuk, A.V.; Shcherbyna, N.M. [National Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (Ukraine)

    1998-12-31

    The methods of calculation of contact stresses during cylinder shell tube - steel bandage interaction are presented. Tymoshenko`s generalized theory of shells serves as a basis for investigating steel head to fiberglass sucker rod joint strength. This theory allows to consider mechanical performance of composite materials. The problem is reduced to solving Fredholm integral equation of second degree. The numeric analysis is performed. Several joints of composite body with steel head are proposed. The full-size sucker rod fatigue tests are performed to determine the fatigue limit under the bending and axial cyclic loads in the medium of oil well fluids. (orig.)

  11. Tumours in white suckers from Lake Michigan tributaries: Pathology and prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki S.; Walsh, H.L.; Braham, R.P.; Hahn, C. M.; Mazik, P.; McIntyre, P.B.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and histopathology of neoplastic lesions were assessed in white suckerCatostomus commersonii captured at two Lake Michigan Areas of Concern (AOCs), the Sheboygan River and Milwaukee Estuary. Findings were compared to those observed at two non-AOC sites, the Root and Kewaunee rivers. At each site, approximately 200 adult suckers were collected during their spawning migration. Raised skin lesions were observed at all sites and included discrete white spots, mucoid plaques on the body surface and fins and large papillomatous lesions on lips and body. Microscopically, hyperplasia, papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma were documented. Liver neoplasms were also observed at all sites and included both hepatocellular and biliary tumours. Based on land use, the Kewaunee River was the site least impacted by human activities previously associated with fish tumours and had significantly fewer liver neoplasms when compared to the other sites. The proportion of white suckers with liver tumours followed the same patterns as the proportion of urban land use in the watershed: the Milwaukee Estuary had the highest prevalence, followed by the Root, Sheboygan and Kewaunee rivers. The overall skin neoplasm (papilloma and carcinoma) prevalence did not follow the same pattern, although the percentage of white suckers with squamous cell carcinoma exhibited a similar relationship to land use. Testicular tumours (seminoma) were observed at both AOC sites but not at the non-AOC sites. Both skin and liver tumours were significantly and positively associated with age but not sex.

  12. A method for designing fiberglass sucker-rod strings with API RP 11L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, J.W.; Laine, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using the API recommended practice for the design of sucker-rod pumping systems with fiberglass composite rod strings. The API method is useful for obtaining quick, approximate, preliminary design calculations. Equations for calculating all the composite material factors needed in the API calculations are given

  13. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  14. Robust technology and system for management of sucker rod pumping units in oil wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, T. A.; Rzayev, A. H.; Guluyev, G. A.; Alizada, T. A.; Rzayeva, N. E.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a technology for calculating the robust, normalized correlation functions of the signal from the force sensor on the rod string attached to the hanger of the sucker rod pumping unit. The robust normalized correlation functions are used to form sets of informative attribute combinations, each of which corresponds to a technical condition of the sucker rod pumping unit. We demonstrate how these sets can be used to solve identification and management problems in the oil production process in real time using inexpensive controllers. The results obtained from using the system on real objects are also presented in this paper. It was determined that the energy saved and prolonged overhaul period substantially increased the cost-effectiveness.

  15. Age, growth, and maturity of the longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus, of western Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1969-01-01

    Studies of age, growth, and maturity were based on 1760 fish collected in western Lake Superior in 1964-65. The body:scale relation was curvilinear and the curve had an intercept of 1.65 inches on the length axis. The weight increased as the 2.85 power of the length. Some fish formed an annulus before May 18 in 1965; all had completed annuli by late September. Longnose suckers grew 3.6 inches the 1st year, reached 12 inches in the 6th year, and 18 inches in the 11th year. Fish from Pikes Bay grew faster than those from Gull Island Shoal. Over 6 years were required for weight to reach 1 lb and nearly 10 years to reach 2 lb. Minimum length at maturity was 10.5 inches for males and 11.5 inches for females. The youngest mature male belonged to age-group IV and the youngest mature female to age-group V. All males were mature at 14.5-14.9 inches (age-group VIII) and all females at 15.0-15.4 inches (age-group IX). Finclipped longnose suckers returned to spawn in the Brule River in successive years. One fish returned to spawn in 4 successive years. Many of the fish were not recaptured until 2 or 3 years after marking. The time of the Brule River spawning migration depended more on water temperature than on length of day. The average water temperature during the peak of the spawning runs of 1958-64 was 55.4 F. Larval suckers apparently spend little time in the Brule River and adjacent streams and drift downstream to the lake soon after hatching. The number of eggs in the ovaries of eight suckers ranged from 14 to 35 thousand and averaged 24 thousand for fish 13.9-17.7 inches long.

  16. Microclonal Multiplication of wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.) from Shoot Tips and Root Sucker Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Michler, Charles H.; Jelaska, Sibila

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different combinations and concentrations of the growth regulators: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KIN), N6- (2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on axillary shoot multiplication rates for wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) shoot explants were determined. Apical shoot tips and axillary buds from juvenile trees (5-year old) and from root suckers of mature trees (55-year old) were us...

  17. Inter-annual variability in apparent relative production, survival, and growth of juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2001–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Martin, Barbara A.

    2017-06-15

    Executive SummaryPopulations of the once abundant Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) of the Upper Klamath Basin, decreased so substantially throughout the 20th century that they were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1988. Major landscape alterations, deterioration of water quality, and competition with and predation by exotic species are listed as primary causes of the decreases in populations. Upper Klamath Lake populations are decreasing because fish lost due to adult mortality, which is relatively low for adult Lost River suckers and variable for adult shortnose suckers, are not replaced by new young adult suckers recruiting into known adult spawning aggregations. Catch-at-age and size data indicate that most adult suckers presently in Upper Klamath Lake spawning populations were hatched around 1991. While, a lack of egg production and emigration of young fish (especially larvae) may contribute, catch-at-length and age data indicate high mortality during the first summer or winter of life may be the primary limitation to the recruitment of young adults. The causes of juvenile sucker mortality are unknown.We compiled and analyzed catch, length, age, and species data on juvenile suckers from Upper Klamath Lake from eight prior studies conducted from 2001 to 2015 to examine annual variation in apparent production, survival, and growth of young suckers. We used a combination of qualitative assessments, general linear models, and linear regression to make inferences about annual differences in juvenile sucker dynamics. The intent of this exercise is to provide information that can be compared to annual variability in environmental conditions with the hopes of understanding what drives juvenile sucker population dynamics.Age-0 Lost River suckers generally grew faster than age-0 shortnose suckers, but the difference in growth rates between the two species varied among years. This unsynchronized annual variation in

  18. Correlation of gene expression and contaminat concentrations in wild largescale suckers: a field-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Helena E.; Mehinto, Alvine C.; Yu, Fahong; Perry, Russell W.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Maule, Alec G.; Mesa, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    Toxic compounds such as organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants (PBDEs) have been detected in fish, birds, and aquatic mammals that live in the Columbia River or use food resources from within the river. We developed a custom microarray for largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and used it to investigate the molecular effects of contaminant exposure on wild fish in the Columbia River. Using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) we identified 72 probes representing 69 unique genes with expression patterns that correlated with hepatic tissue levels of OCs, PCBs, or PBDEs. These genes were involved in many biological processes previously shown to respond to contaminant exposure, including drug and lipid metabolism, apoptosis, cellular transport, oxidative stress, and cellular chaperone function. The relation between gene expression and contaminant concentration suggests that these genes may respond to environmental contaminant exposure and are promising candidates for further field and laboratory studies to develop biomarkers for monitoring exposure of wild fish to contaminant mixtures found in the Columbia River Basin. The array developed in this study could also be a useful tool for studies involving endangered sucker species and other sucker species used in contaminant research.

  19. Characterization of a novel hepadnavirus in the white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) from the Great Lakes Region of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Blazer, Vicki S.

    2015-01-01

    The white sucker Catostomus commersonii is a freshwater teleost often utilized as a resident sentinel. Here, we sequenced the full genome of a hepatitis B-like virus that infects white suckers from the Great Lakes Region of the USA. Dideoxysequencing confirmed the white sucker hepatitis B virus (WSHBV) has a circular genome (3542 bp) with the prototypical codon organization of hepadnaviruses. Electron microscopy demonstrated that complete virions of approximately 40 nm were present in the plasma of infected fish. Compared to avi- and orthohepadnaviruses, sequence conservation of the core, polymerase and surface proteins was low and ranged from 16-27% at the amino acid level. An X protein homologue common to the orthohepadnaviruses was not present. The WSHBV genome included an atypical, presumptively non-coding region absent in previously described hepadnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed WSHBV as distinct from previously documented hepadnaviruses. The level of divergence in protein sequences between WSHBV other hepadnaviruses, and the identification of an HBV-like sequence in an African cichlid provide evidence that a novel genus of the family Hepadnaviridae may need to be established that includes these hepatitis B-like viruses in fishes. Viral transcription was observed in 9.5% (16 of 169) of white suckers evaluated. The prevalence of hepatic tumors in these fish was 4.9%, of which only 2.4% were positive for both virus and hepatic tumors. These results are not sufficient to draw inferences regarding the association of WSHBV and carcinogenesis in white sucker.

  20. Spring and Summer Spatial Distribution of Endangered Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Relation to Environmental Variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2007 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Anderson, Greer O.

    2009-01-01

    Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year, and age-1 and older subadult suckers are rare. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. A lack of optimal rearing habitat may exacerbate juvenile sucker mortality or restrict juvenile growth or development. In 2007, we continued research on juvenile sucker habitat use begun by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2001. Age-0 catch rates in 2006 were more than an order of magnitude greater than in previous years, which prompted us to refocus our research from age-0 suckers to age-1 sucker distributions and habitat use. We took a two-phased approach to our research in 2007 that included preliminary spring sampling and intense summer sampling components. Spring sampling was a pilot study designed to gather baseline data on the distribution of age-1 suckers as they emerge from winter in shoreline environments throughout Upper Klamath Lake (Chapter 1). Whereas, summer sampling was designed to quantitatively estimate the influence of environmental variables on age-0 and age-1 sucker distribution throughout Upper Klamath Lake, while accounting for imperfect detection (Chapter 2). In addition to these two components, we began a project to evaluate passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag loss and the effects of PIT tags on mortality of age-1 Lost River suckers (Chapter 3). The spring pilot study built the foundation for future research

  1. Self-recognition mechanism between skin and suckers prevents octopus arms from interfering with each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Nir; Levy, Guy; Grasso, Frank W; Hochner, Binyamin

    2014-06-02

    Controlling movements of flexible arms is a challenging task for the octopus because of the virtually infinite number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) [1, 2]. Octopuses simplify this control by using stereotypical motion patterns that reduce the DOFs, in the control space, to a workable few [2]. These movements are triggered by the brain and are generated by motor programs embedded in the peripheral neuromuscular system of the arm [3-5]. The hundreds of suckers along each arm have a tendency to stick to almost any object they contact [6-9]. The existence of this reflex could pose significant problems with unplanned interactions between the arms if not appropriately managed. This problem is likely to be accentuated because it is accepted that octopuses are "not aware of their arms" [10-14]. Here we report of a self-recognition mechanism that has a novel role in motor control, restraining the arms from interfering with each other. We show that the suckers of amputated arms never attach to octopus skin because a chemical in the skin inhibits the attachment reflex of the suckers. The peripheral mechanism appears to be overridden by central control because, in contrast to amputated arms, behaving octopuses sometime grab amputated arms. Surprisingly, octopuses seem to identify their own amputated arms, as they treat arms of other octopuses like food more often than their own. This self-recognition mechanism is a novel peripheral component in the embodied organization of the adaptive interactions between the octopus's brain, body, and environment [15, 16]. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health and condition of endangered young-of-the-year Lost River and Shortnose suckers relative to water quality in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Conway, Carla M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Hoy, Marshal S.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Ostberg, Carl O.

    2017-10-19

    Most mortality of endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, occurs within the first year of life. Juvenile suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, survive longer and may even recruit to the spawning populations. In a previous (2013–2014) study, the health and condition of juvenile suckers and the dynamics of water quality between Upper Klamath Lake and Clear Lake Reservoir were compared. That study found that apparent signs of stress or exposure to irritants, such as peribiliary cuffing in liver tissue and mild inflammation and necrosis in gill tissues, were present in suckers from both lakes and were unlikely to be clues to the cause of differential mortality between lakes. Seasonal trends in energy storage as glycogen and triglycerides were also similar between lakes, indicating prey limitation was not a likely factor in differential mortality. To better understand the relationship between juvenile sucker health and water quality, we examined suckers collected in 2014–2015 from Upper Klamath Lake, where water quality can be dynamic and, at times, extreme.While there were notable differences in water quality and fish health between years, we were not able to identify any specific water-quality-related causes for differential fish condition. Water quality was generally better in 2014 than in 2015. When considered together afflictions and abnormalities generally indicated healthier suckers in 2014 than 2015. Low dissolved-oxygen events (water temperatures were warmer, particularly in July and September; and concentrations of microcystin in both large and small fractions of samples were lower in 2014 than in 2015. Total and therefore also un-ionized ammonia were low in 2014–2015 relative to concentrations known to affect suckers. Petechial hemorrhages of the skin, attached Lernaea spp. and eosinophilic hyaline droplets in the kidney tubules were less prevalent in 2014 than in

  3. Juvenile Lost River and shortnose sucker year class strength, survival, and growth in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California—2016 Monitoring Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Hoy, Marshal S.

    2018-04-20

    Executive SummaryThe largest populations of federally endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) exist in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California. Upper Klamath Lake populations are decreasing because adult mortality, which is relatively low, is not being balanced by recruitment of young adult suckers into known spawning aggregations. Most Upper Klamath Lake juvenile sucker mortality appears to occur within the first year of life. Annual production of juvenile suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir appears to be highly variable and may not occur at all in very dry years. However, juvenile sucker survival is much higher in Clear Lake, with non-trivial numbers of suckers surviving to join spawning aggregations. Long-term monitoring of juvenile sucker populations is needed to (1) determine if there are annual and species-specific differences in production, survival, and growth, (2) to identify the season (summer or winter) in which most mortality occurs, and (3) to help identify potential causes of high juvenile sucker mortality, particularly in Upper Klamath Lake.We initiated an annual juvenile sucker monitoring program in 2015 to track cohorts in 3 months (June, August, and September) annually in Upper Klamath Lake and Clear Lake Reservoir. We tracked annual variability in age-0 sucker apparent production, juvenile sucker apparent survival, and apparent growth. Using genetic markers, we were able to classify suckers as one of three taxa: shortnose or Klamath largescale suckers, Lost River, or suckers with genetic markers of both species (Intermediate Prob[LRS]). Using catch data, we generated taxa-specific indices of year class strength, August–September apparent survival, and overwinter apparent survival. We also examined prevalence and severity of afflictions such as parasites, wounds, and deformities.Indices of year class strength in Upper Klamath Lake were similar for shortnose suckers in 2015

  4. Passive restoration augments active restoration in deforested landscapes: the role of root suckering adjacent to planted stands of Acacia koa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Justin T. Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Active forest restoration in Hawaii’s Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge has produced a network of Acacia koa tree corridors and islands in deforested grasslands. Passive restoration by root suckering has potential to expand tree cover and close gaps between planted stands. This study documents rates of encroachment into grassland, clonal...

  5. Characterization of a Novel Hepadnavirus in the White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii) from the Great Lakes Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Cornman, Robert S; Conway, Carla M; Winton, James R; Blazer, Vicki S

    2015-12-01

    The white sucker Catostomus commersonii is a freshwater teleost often utilized as a resident sentinel. Here, we sequenced the full genome of a hepatitis B-like virus that infects white suckers from the Great Lakes Region of the United States. Dideoxy sequencing confirmed that the white sucker hepatitis B virus (WSHBV) has a circular genome (3,542 bp) with the prototypical codon organization of hepadnaviruses. Electron microscopy demonstrated that complete virions of approximately 40 nm were present in the plasma of infected fish. Compared to avi- and orthohepadnaviruses, sequence conservation of the core, polymerase, and surface proteins was low and ranged from 16 to 27% at the amino acid level. An X protein homologue common to the orthohepadnaviruses was not present. The WSHBV genome included an atypical, presumptively noncoding region absent in previously described hepadnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed WSHBV as distinct from previously documented hepadnaviruses. The level of divergence in protein sequences between WSHBV and other hepadnaviruses and the identification of an HBV-like sequence in an African cichlid provide evidence that a novel genus of the family Hepadnaviridae may need to be established that includes these hepatitis B-like viruses in fishes. Viral transcription was observed in 9.5% (16 of 169) of white suckers evaluated. The prevalence of hepatic tumors in these fish was 4.9%, and only 2.4% of fish were positive for both virus and hepatic tumors. These results are not sufficient to draw inferences regarding the association of WSHBV and carcinogenesis in white sucker. We report the first full-length genome of a hepadnavirus from fishes. Phylogenetic analysis of this genome indicates divergence from genomes of previously described hepadnaviruses from mammalian and avian hosts and supports the creation of a novel genus. The discovery of this novel virus may better our understanding of the evolutionary history of hepatitis B-like viruses of

  6. Chemical and Ecological Health of White Sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cherie V.; Weyers, Holly S.; Blazer, Vicki; Freeman, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded threshold or chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  7. Chemical and ecological health of white sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003?04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.V.; Weyers, H.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Freeman, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded thresholdor chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  8. Propolis and Herba Epimedii extracts enhance the non-specific immune response and disease resistance of Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guobin; Gong, Shiyuan; Yu, Denghang; Yuan, Hanwen

    2009-03-01

    The effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulated from propolis and Herba Epimedii extracts at the ratio of 3:1 (w/w) on non-specific immune response of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing 0 (control), 0.1%, 0.5% or 1.0% TCM extracts for five weeks. The respiratory burst and phagocytic activities of blood leukocytes, lysozyme and natural haemolytic complement activities in plasma were measured weekly. After five weeks of feeding, fish were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded. Results of this study showed that feeding Chinese sucker with different dosage of TCM extracts stimulated respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis of phagocytic cells in blood and lysozyme activity in plasma. They had no effect on plasma natural haemolytic complement activity. All dosage of treated groups showed reduced mortality following A. hydrophila infection. Feed containing 0.5% TCM extracts was the most effective with the mortality of the fish significantly reduced by 35% compared to the control. The results indicate that propolis and Herba Epimedii extracts in combination enhances the non-specific immune response and disease resistance of Chinese sucker against A. hydrophila.

  9. White sucker Catostomus commersonii respond to conspecific and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus alarm cues but not potential predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordbro, Ethan J.; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies proposed the use of chemosensory alarm cues to control the distribution of invasive sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes and necessitate the evaluation of sea lamprey chemosensory alarm cues on valuable sympatric species such as white sucker. In two laboratory experiments, 10 replicate groups (10 animals each) of migratory white suckers were exposed to deionized water (control), conspecific whole-body extract, heterospecific whole-body extract (sea lamprey) and two potential predator cues (2-phenylethylamine HCl (PEA HCl) and human saliva) during the day, and exposed to the first four of the above cues at night. White suckers avoided the conspecific and the sea lamprey whole-body extract both during the day and at night to the same extent. Human saliva did not induce avoidance during the day. PEA HCl did not induce avoidance at a higher concentration during the day, or at night at the minimum concentration that was previously shown to induce maximum avoidance by sea lamprey under laboratory conditions. Our findings suggest that human saliva and PEA HCl may be potential species-specific predator cues for sea lamprey.

  10. Enrichment in the Sucker and Weaner Phase Altered the Performance of Pigs in Three Behavioural Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Cameron; Hebart, Michelle; Cronin, Greg M

    2018-05-14

    We tested the hypothesis that provision of enrichment in the form of enrichment blocks during the sucker and weaner phases would affect the behaviour of pigs. We measured the performance of pigs in an open field/novel object test, a maze test, an executive function test and the cortisol response of the pigs after exposure to an open field test. The provision of enrichment blocks altered the behaviour of the pigs in all three tests and these changes suggest an increased willingness to explore and possibly an increased ability to learn. The behavioural tests highlighted that young pigs have the capacity to learn complex tasks. Our findings support the notion that the benefits of enrichment cannot be evaluated by measuring the interactions the animal has with the enrichments in the home pen and it may simply be beneficial to live in a more complex environment. We have highlighted that the early rearing environment is important and that the management and husbandry at an early age can have long-term implications for pigs. The enrichment we used in this study was very simple, an enrichment block, and we provide evidence suggesting the provision of enrichment effected pig behavioural responses. Even the simplest of enrichments may have benefits for the welfare and development of young pigs and there is merit in developing enrichment devices that are suitable for use in pig production.

  11. Model for Sucker-Rod Pumping Unit Operating Modes Analysis Based on SimMechanics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyuzev, A. M.; Bubnov, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article provides basic information about the process of a sucker-rod pumping unit (SRPU) model developing by means of SimMechanics library in the MATLAB Simulink environment. The model is designed for the development of a pump productivity optimal management algorithms, sensorless diagnostics of the plunger pump and pumpjack, acquisition of the dynamometer card and determination of a dynamic fluid level in the well, normalization of the faulty unit operation before troubleshooting is performed by staff as well as equilibrium ratio determining by energy indicators and outputting of manual balancing recommendations to achieve optimal power consumption efficiency. Particular attention is given to the application of various blocks from SimMechanics library to take into account the pumpjack construction principal characteristic and to obtain an adequate model. The article explains in depth the developed tools features for collecting and analysis of simulated mechanism data. The conclusions were drawn about practical implementation possibility of the SRPU modelling results and areas for further development of investigation.

  12. Matching watershed and otolith chemistry to establish natal origin of an endangered desert lake sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Deanna D.; Budy, Phaedra; Crowl, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Stream habitat restoration and supplemental stocking of hatchery-reared fish have increasingly become key components of recovery plans for imperiled freshwater fish; however, determining when to discontinue stocking efforts, prioritizing restoration areas, and evaluating restoration success present a conservation challenge. In this study, we demonstrate that otolith microchemistry is an effective tool for establishing natal origin of the June Sucker Chasmistes liorus, an imperiled potamodromous fish. This approach allows us to determine whether a fish is of wild or hatchery origin in order to assess whether habitat restoration enhances recruitment and to further identify areas of critical habitat. Our specific objectives were to (1) quantify and characterize chemical variation among three main spawning tributaries; (2) understand the relationship between otolith microchemistry and tributary chemistry; and (3) develop and validate a classification model to identify stream origin using otolith microchemistry data. We quantified molar ratios of Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, and Mg:Ca for water and otolith chemistry from three main tributaries to Utah Lake, Utah, during the summer of 2013. Water chemistry (loge transformed Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, and Mg:Ca ratios) differed significantly across all three spawning tributaries. We determined that Ba:Ca and Sr:Ca ratios were the most important variables driving our classification models, and we observed a strong linear relationship between water and otolith values for Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca but not for Mg:Ca. Classification models derived from otolith element : Ca signatures accurately sorted individuals to their experimental tributary of origin (classification tree: 89% accuracy; random forest model: 91% accuracy) and determined wild versus hatchery origin with 100% accuracy. Overall, this study aids in evaluating the effectiveness of restoration, tracking progress toward recovery, and prioritizing future restoration plans for fishes of conservation

  13. Hazard evaluation of inorganics, singly and in mixtures, to Flannelmouth Sucker Catostomus latipinnis in the San Juan River, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    Larval flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) were exposed to arsenate, boron, copper, molybdenum, selenate, selenite, uranium, vanadium, and zinc singly, and to five mixtures of five to nine inorganics. The exposures were conducted in reconstituted water representative of the San Juan River near Shiprock, New Mexico. The mixtures simulated environmental ratios reported for sites along the San Juan River (San Juan River backwater, Fruitland marsh, Hogback East Drain, Mancos River, and McElmo Creek). The rank order of the individual inorganics, from most to least toxic, was: copper > zinc > vanadium > selenite > selenate > arsenate > uranium > boron > molybdenum. All five mixtures exhibited additive toxicity to flannelmouth sucker. In a limited number of tests, 44-day-old and 13-day-old larvae exhibited no difference in sensitivity to three mixtures. Copper was the major toxic component in four mixtures (San Juan backwater, Hogback East Drain, Mancos River, and McElmo Creek), whereas zinc was the major toxic component in the Fruitland marsh mixture, which did not contain copper. The Hogback East Drain was the most toxic mixture tested. Comparison of 96-h LC50values with reported environmental water concentrations from the San Juan River revealed low hazard ratios for arsenic, boron, molybdenum, selenate, selenite, uranium, and vanadium, moderate hazard ratios for zinc and the Fruitland marsh mixture, and high hazard ratios for copper at three sites and four environmental mixtures representing a San Juan backwater, Hogback East Drain, Mancos River, and McElmo Creek. The high hazard ratios suggest that inorganic contaminants could adversely affect larval flannelmouth sucker in the San Juan River at four sites receiving elevated inorganics.

  14. Study of the mechanical metallic coating properties on the steel used on sucker rods; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas de revetimentos mtalicos aplicados sobre o aco utilizado em hastes de bombeio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.O.; Cavalcanti, E.B.; Cruz, M.C.P.; Souza, L.P. [Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa. Lab. de Energia e Materiais; Araujo, P.M.M. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Nucleo de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: paubaumma@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The mechanical properties of the steel carbon alloy coating with NiCr 80/20, NiCr 20/80, 95 MXC, aluminum and cupper had been studied about hardness and modulus of elasticity of coating. A time that the sucker rods will be submitted the efforts stress, is important that the applied coverings are not more rigid of what the steel carbon, because has problems of deformations in the material applied on the sucker rods. One observed that the coverings are less rigid than the steel carbon used on the sucker rods, presenting small modulus of elasticity to the ones of the sucker rods. This property is interesting for being to the sucker rods submitted the efforts stress and compression when in operation in the oil. With regard to the hardness, it was verified that the cupper and aluminum coating are less hard than the steel carbon, therefore more degradation to the consuming for abrasion. (author)

  15. Distribution, Health, and Development of Larval and Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in the Williamson River Delta Restoration Project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2008 Annual Data Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Ottinger, Christopher; Brown, Daniel T.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Robertson, Laura; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined; they have been extirpated from several lakes, and may no longer reproduce in others. Poor recruitment into the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species, and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable rearing habitat. Within Upper Klamath Lake, a lack of marshes also may allow larval suckers to be swept from suitable rearing areas downstream into the seasonally anoxic waters of the Keno Reservoir. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) flooded about 3,600 acres to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana Unit) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Unit) a year later, to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat for suckers, and improve water quality. In collaboration with TNC, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University, we began a long-term collaborative research and monitoring program in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. Our approach includes two equally important aspects. One component is to describe habitat use and colonization processes by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fish species. The second is to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report contains a summary of the first year of data collected as a part of this monitoring effort.

  16. Cost cutting by adjusting crank counterbalanced sucker rod pumping units; Einstellung der Gegengewichte von Tiefenpumpenantrieben mit dynamischem Momentausgleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, M. [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik und Konstruktionslehre; Kessler, F. [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik und Konstruktionslehre

    1995-04-01

    Oil production by means of sucker rod pumping units is the oldest and most frequently used method. Adjusting the counterweight to reduce the torque at the gearbox is still a significant problem. Depending on the procedure, counterbalancing produces various costs due to the manhours necessary. Because the often-used procedures are very time-consuming, in the past a precise positioning of the counterweight is often put aside. This, however, can lead to the risk of much higher costs as a result of gearbox damage. Providing a simple and time-saving method of adjusting the counterweight is therefore of greatest importance to all users. In this article a PC-program is developed, which is easy to handle and needs no expensive hardware. Compared to other methods, the here decribed program reduces the costs for the correct adjustment of the counterweight on average by around 60%. Finally, very simple steps to reduce costs, while running sucker rod pumping units are explained. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Einstellung der Gegengewichte zaehlt zu den kostenintensivsten Arbeiten an konventionellen Tiefpumpenantrieben. Die derzeit am haeufigsten verwendeten messtechnischen Methoden wie die Motorstrom-Methode oder die Drehzahl-Methode sind sehr zeitraubend. Die rechnerischen Verfahren stellen im allgemeinen hohe Anforderungen an das Personal und an die verwendete Hardware. In diesem Beitrag wird ein PC-Programm vorgestellt, das besonders einfach zu bedienen ist und keine teuren Geraete erfordert. Gegenueber den messtechnischen Methoden koennen durch die Verwendung dieses Programmes die Kosten fuer eine Gegengewichtseinstellung um durchschnittlich 60% gesenkt werden. Abschliessend werden einfache, in der Praxis leicht realisierbare Massnahmen zur Kostenreduktion beim Betrieb von Tiefpumpenantrieben vorgestellt. (orig.)

  17. Effects of Chiloquin Dam on spawning distribution and larval emigration of Lost River, shortnose, and Klamath largescale suckers in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Barbara A.; Hewitt, David A.; Ellsworth, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Chiloquin Dam was constructed in 1914 on the Sprague River near the town of Chiloquin, Oregon. The dam was identified as a barrier that potentially inhibited or prevented the upstream spawning migrations and other movements of endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatusChasmistes brevirostris) suckers, as well as other fish species. In 2002, the Bureau of Reclamation led a working group that examined several alternatives to improve fish passage at Chiloquin Dam. Ultimately it was decided that dam removal was the best alternative and the dam was removed in the summer of 2008. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a long-term study on the spawning ecology of Lost River, shortnose, and Klamath largescale suckers (Catostomus snyderi) in the Sprague and lower Williamson Rivers from 2004 to 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate shifts in spawning distribution following the removal of Chiloquin Dam. Radio telemetry was used in conjunction with larval production data and detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) to evaluate whether dam removal resulted in increased utilization of spawning habitat farther upstream in the Sprague River. Increased densities of drifting larvae were observed at a site in the lower Williamson River after the dam was removed, but no substantial changes occurred upstream of the former dam site. Adult spawning migrations primarily were influenced by water temperature and did not change with the removal of the dam. Emigration of larvae consistently occurred about 3-4 weeks after adults migrated into a section of river. Detections of PIT-tagged fish showed increases in the numbers of all three suckers that migrated upstream of the dam site following removal, but the increases for Lost River and shortnose suckers were relatively small compared to the total number of fish that made a spawning migration in a given season. Increases for Klamath largescale suckers were more substantial. Post-dam removal monitoring

  18. Host specificity of Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere) (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the marlin sucker Remora osteochir (Cuvier) in the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ju-shey; Collete, Bruce B; Madinabeitia, Ione

    2006-10-01

    Three species of remoras--Remora brachyptera (Lowe), Remora osteochir (Cuvier), and Remora remora (Linnaeus)--were collected from 4 species of billfishes--Istiophorus platypterus (Shaw), Makaira nigricans Lacepéde, Tetrapturus albidus Poey, and Tetrapturus pfluegeri Robins and de Sylva--on board a Japanese long-liner Shoyo Maru during her cruise in 2002 across the Atlantic. However, only the marlin sucker (R. osteochir) was found to carry a parasitic copepod, Lepeophtheirus crassus (Wilson and Bere, 1936). Although 12 species of parasitic copepods have been reported from billfishes around the world ocean, none of them is L. crassus. Thus, L. crassus is considered a parasite specific to the marlin sucker.

  19. Predicting the impact of a northern pike (Esox lucius) invasion on endangered June sucker (Chasmistes liorus) and sport fishes in Utah Lake, UT

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species introductions are associated with negative economic and environmental impacts, including reductions in native species populations. Successful invasive species populations often grow rapidly and a new food web equilibrium is established. Invasive, predatory northern pike (Esox lucius; hereafter pike) were detected in 2010 in Utah Lake, UT, a highly-degraded ecosystem home to the endemic, endangered June sucker (Chasmistes liorus). Here we test whether pike predation could hind...

  20. Like a glove: do the dimensions of male adanal suckers and tritonymphal female docking papillae correlate in the Proctophyllodidae (Astigmata: Analgoidea)?

    OpenAIRE

    Byers , K.A.; Proctor , H.C.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Precopulatory guarding of tritonymphal females by adult males is common in feather mites (Acari: Astigmata). Within the Proctophyllodidae (Astigmata: Analgoidea), some genera possess morphological features in both sexes that have been suggested to enhance male attachment. One such structure in tritonymphal females is the development of a pair of fleshy lobe-like docking papillae, while males possess a pair of ventral adanal suckers that are proposed to fit over top of ...

  1. Particle-tracking investigation of the retention of sucker larvae emerging from spawning grounds in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tamara M.; Wherry, Susan A.; Simon, David C.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    This study had two objectives: (1) to use the results of an individual-based particle-tracking model of larval sucker dispersal through the Williamson River delta and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, to interpret field data collected throughout Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, and (2) to use the model to investigate the retention of sucker larvae in the system as a function of Williamson River flow, wind, and lake elevation. This is a follow-up study to work reported in Wood and others (2014) in which the hydrodynamic model of Upper Klamath Lake was combined with an individual-based, particle-tracking model of larval fish entering the lake from spawning areas in the Williamson River. In the previous study, the performance of the model was evaluated through comparison with field data comprising larval sucker distribution collected in 2009 by The Nature Conservancy, Oregon State University (OSU), and the U.S. Geological Survey, primarily from the (at that time) recently reconnected Williamson River Delta and along the eastern shoreline of Upper Klamath Lake, surrounding the old river mouth. The previous study demonstrated that the validation of the model with field data was moderately successful and that the model was useful for describing the broad patterns of larval dispersal from the river, at least in the areas surrounding the river channel immediately downstream of the spawning areas and along the shoreline where larvae enter the lake. In this study, field data collected by OSU throughout the main body of Upper Klamath Lake, and not just around the Williamson River Delta, were compared to model simulation results. Because the field data were collected throughout the lake, it was necessary to include in the simulations larvae spawned at eastern shoreline springs that were not included in the earlier studies. A complicating factor was that the OSU collected data throughout the main body of the lake in 2011 and 2012, after the end of several years of larval drift

  2. Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, G.; Little, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction

  3. Bioaccumulation of the pharmaceutical 17α-ethinylestradiol in shorthead redhorse suckers (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) from the St. Clair River, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ansari, Ahmed M.; Saleem, Ammar; Kimpe, Linda E.; Sherry, Jim P.; McMaster, Mark E.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Blais, Jules M.

    2010-01-01

    17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen prescribed as a contraceptive, was measured in Shorthead Redhorse Suckers (ShRHSs) (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) collected near a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the St. Clair River (Ontario, Canada). We detected EE2 in 50% of the fish samples caught near the WWTP (Stag Island), which averaged 1.6 ± 0.6 ng/g (wet weight) in males and 1.43 ± 0.96 ng/g in females. No EE2 was detected in the samples from the reference site (Port Lambton) which was 26 km further downstream of the Stag Island site. Only males from Stag Island had VTG induction, suggesting the Corunna WWTP effluent as a likely source of environmental estrogen. EE2 concentrations were correlated with total body lipid content (R 2 = 0.512, p 15 N (R 2 = 0.436, p < 0.05, n = 10), suggesting higher EE2 exposures in carnivores. Our data support the hypothesis of EE2 bioaccumulation in wild fish. - Ethinylestradiol accumulation in wild fish.

  4. Assessing genetic diversity of wild and hatchery samples of the Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) by the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayun; Wu, Bo; Hou, Feixia; Chen, Yongbai; Li, Chong; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    To restore the natural populations of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), a hatchery release program has been underway for nearly 10 years. Using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region, we assessed the genetic diversity and genetic structure among samples collected from three sites of the wild population as well as from three hatcheries. The haplotype diversity of the wild samples (h = 0.899-0.975) was significantly higher than that of the hatchery ones (h = 0.296-0.666), but the nucleotide diversity was almost identical between them (π = 0.0170-0.0280). Relatively high gene flow was detected between the hatchery and wild samples. Analysis of effective population size indicated that M. asiaticus living in the Yangtze River has been expanding following a bottleneck in the recent past. Our results suggest the hatchery release programs for M. asiaticus have not reduced the genetic diversity, but have influenced the genetic structure of the species in the upper Yangtze River.

  5. Water Quality, Macroinvertebrates, and Fisheries in Tailwaters and Related Streams. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    more rapidly available source of energy and protein below the dam than that normally present in unregulated streams. Benthic diversity was lowest at...robusta; bluehead sucker, Pantosteus delphinus; and humpback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus) in Dinosaur National Monument were con- ducted from May 1964 to...duced successfully in Dinosaur National Monument every year since impoundment. During years of high summer discharge from the dam resultant lower water

  6. A portrait of a sucker using landscape genetics: how colonization and life history undermine the idealized dendritic metapopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Sarah J; McCracken, Gregory R; Keefe, Donald; Perry, Robert; Ruzzante, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    Dendritic metapopulations have been attributed unique properties by in silico studies, including an elevated genetic diversity relative to a panmictic population of equal total size. These predictions have not been rigorously tested in nature, nor has there been full consideration of the interacting effects among contemporary landscape features, colonization history and life history traits of the target species. We tested for the effects of dendritic structure as well as the relative importance of life history, environmental barriers and historical colonization on the neutral genetic structure of a longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) metapopulation in the Kogaluk watershed of northern Labrador, Canada. Samples were collected from eight lakes, genotyped with 17 microsatellites, and aged using opercula. Lakes varied in differentiation, historical and contemporary connectivity, and life history traits. Isolation by distance was detected only by removing two highly genetically differentiated lakes, suggesting a lack of migration-drift equilibrium and the lingering influence of historical factors on genetic structure. Bayesian analyses supported colonization via the Kogaluk's headwaters. The historical concentration of genetic diversity in headwaters inferred by this result was supported by high historical and contemporary effective sizes of the headwater lake, T-Bone. Alternatively, reduced allelic richness in headwaters confirmed the dendritic structure's influence on gene flow, but this did not translate to an elevated metapopulation effective size. A lack of equilibrium and upstream migration may have dampened the effects of dendritic structure. We suggest that interacting historical and contemporary factors prevent the achievement of the idealized traits of a dendritic metapopulation in nature. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional case studies of a diverse family of non-game fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Bunt, Christopher M.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Pearson, Micheal P.; Cooperman, Michael S.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2005-01-01

    Catostomid fishes are a diverse family of 76+ freshwater species that are distributed across North America in many different habitats. This group of fish is facing a variety of impacts and conservation issues that are somewhat unique relative to more economically valuable and heavily managed fish species. Here, we present a brief series of case studies to highlight the threats such as migration barriers, flow regulation, environmental contamination, habitat degradation, exploitation and impacts from introduced (non-native) species that are facing catostomids in different regions. Collectively, the case studies reveal that individual species usually are not threatened by a single, isolated factor. Instead, species in general face numerous stressors that threaten multiple stages of their life history. Several factors have retarded sucker conservation including widespread inabilities of field workers to distinguish some species, lack of basic natural history and ecological knowledge of life history, and the misconception that suckers are tolerant of degraded conditions and are of little social or ecological value. Without a specific constituent group lobbying for conservation of non-game fishes, all such species, including members of the catostomid family, will continue to face serious risks because of neglect, ignorance, and misunderstanding. We suggest that conservation strategies should incorporate research and education/outreach components. Other conservation strategies that would be effective for protecting suckers include freshwater protected areas for critical habitat, restoration of degraded habitat, and design of catostomid-friendly fish bypass facilities. We believe that the plight of the catostomids is representative of the threats facing many other non-game freshwater fishes with diverse life-history strategies globally.

  8. Transforming growth factor-β1 expression in endangered age-0 shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) from Upper Klamath Lake, OR relative to histopathology, meristic, spatial, and temporal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Christopher A; Densmore, Christine L; Robertson, Laura S; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; VanderKooi, Scott P

    2016-02-01

    During July-September of 2008, 2009, and 2010 endangered age-0 juvenile shortnose suckers were sampled from Upper Klamath Lake, OR in a health evaluation that included the measurement of transforming growth factor - beta (TGF-β) expression in spleen in combination with a histopathology assessment. This analysis was performed to determine if the expression of this immuno-regulator could be used as a component of a larger health evaluation intended to identify potential risk-factors that may help to explain why very few of these fish survive to age-1. Potential associations between TGF-β1 expression, histopathological findings, meristic data as well as temporal and spatial data were evaluated using analysis-of-variance. In this analysis, the absence or presence of opercula deformity and hepatic cell necrosis were identified as significant factors in accounting for the variance in TGF-β1 expression observed in age-0 shortnose suckers (n = 122, squared multiple R = 0.989). Location of sample collection and the absence or presence of anchor worms (Lernaea spp.) were identified as significant cofactors. The actual mechanisms involved with these relationships have yet to be determined. The strength, however, of our findings support the concept of using TGF-β1 expression as part of a broader fish health assessment and suggests the potential for using additional immunologic measures in future studies. Specifically, our results indicate that the measure of TGF-β1 expression in age-0 shortnose sucker health assessments can facilitate the process of identifying disease risks that are associated with the documented lack of recruitment into the adult population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Replacement of fish oil with soybean oil in diets for juvenile Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus): effects on liver lipid peroxidation and biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deng-Hang; Chang, Jia-Zhi; Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the replacement of fish oil (FO) by soybean oil (SO) on growth performance, liver lipid peroxidation, and biochemical composition in juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Fish (13.7 ± 0.2 g) in triplicate were fed five experimental diets in which 0% (FO as control), 40% (SO40), 60% (SO60), 80% (SO40), and 100% (SO100) FO were replaced by SO. The body weight gain of fish fed SO40, SO60, or SO80 diet was similar to FO group, but diets that have 100% soybean oil as dietary lipid significantly reduced fish growth (P fish liver fed diets that contained SO, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the ratio n-3/n-6 were significantly reduced by the inclusion of dietary SO (P fish. However, diet containing 100% SO as dietary lipid could reduce growth performance. Thus, we recommended that 40-80% SO can be used as dietary lipid to replace FO for juvenile Chinese sucker.

  10. Status and trends of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2017-07-21

    Executive SummaryData from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (LRS; Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (SNS; Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout sucker spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during the spawning season in spring 2015 were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish were examined to provide corroborating evidence of recruitment. Separate analyses were done for each species and also for each subpopulation of LRS. Shortnose suckers and one subpopulation of LRS migrate into tributary rivers to spawn, whereas the other LRS subpopulation spawns at groundwater upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. Characteristics of the spawning migrations in 2015, such as the effects of temperature on the timing of the migrations, were similar to past years.Capture-recapture analyses for the LRS subpopulation that spawns at the shoreline areas included encounter histories for 13,617 individuals, and analyses for the subpopulation that spawns in the rivers included 39,321 encounter histories. With a few exceptions, the survival of males and females in both subpopulations was high (greater than or equal to 0.86) between 1999 and 2013. Survival was notably lower for males from the rivers

  11. Status and trends of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2018-04-24

    Executive SummaryData from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (LRS; Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (SNS; Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout sucker spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during the spawning season in spring 2016 were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics.Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish were examined to provide corroborating evidence of recruitment. Model estimates of survival and recruitment were used to derive estimates of changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations through 2015. Separate analyses were done for each species and also for each subpopulation of LRS. Shortnose suckers and one subpopulation of LRS migrate into tributary rivers to spawn, whereas the other LRS subpopulation spawns at groundwater upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake.Capture-recapture analyses indicated that with a few exceptions, the survival of males and females in both Lost River sucker subpopulations was high (greater than 0.88) from 1999 to 2015. Survival was notably lower for males from the river in 2000, 2006, and 2012, and for the shoreline areas in 2002. From 2001 to 2015, the abundance of males in the lakeshore spawning subpopulation decreased by at least 64

  12. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and short nose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout sucker spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during spring 2012 were used to describe the spawning migrations in that year and also were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish were examined to provide corroborating evidence of recruitment. Model estimates of survival and recruitment were used to derive estimates of changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations in 2011. Separate analyses were conducted for each species and also for each subpopulation of Lost River suckers (LRS). Shortnose suckers (SNS) and one subpopulation of LRS migrate into tributary rivers to spawn, whereas the other LRS subpopulation spawns at groundwater upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. In 2012, we captured, tagged, and released 749 LRS at four lakeshore spawning areas and recaptured an additional 969 individuals that had been tagged in previous years. Across all four areas, the remote antennas detected 6,578 individual LRS during the spawning season. Spawning activity peaked in April and most individuals were encountered at Cinder Flats and

  13. Suckers for Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Heidi Helene

    2001-01-01

    Introduces an inquiry-based program on leeches that features five components: (1) engagement; (2) exploration; (3) explanation; (4) evaluation; and (5) extension/elaboration. Investigates the anatomy and environmental conditions of leeches. (YDS)

  14. Sediment Dynamics Affecting the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker in the Highly-modified Santa Ana River and Inset Channel, Southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, J. T.; Wright, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the sediment dynamics of the low-flow channel of the Santa Ana River that is formed by wastewater discharges and contains some of the last remaining habitat of the Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae). The Santa Ana River is a highly-modified river draining the San Bernardino Mountains and Inland Empire metropolitan area east of Los Angeles. Home to over 4 million people, the watershed provides habitat for the federally-threatened Santa Ana Sucker, which presently reside within the mainstem Santa Ana River in a reach supported by year-round constant discharges from water treatment plants. The nearly constant low-flow wastewater discharges and infrequent runoff events create a small, approximately 8 m wide, inset channel within the approximately 300 m wide mainstem channel that is typically dry except for large flood flows. The sediment dynamics within the inset channel are characterized by constantly evolving bed substrate and sediment transport rates, and occasional channel avulsions. The sediment dynamics have large influence on the Sucker, which rely on coarse-substrate (gravel and cobble) for their food production. In WY 2013 through the present, we investigated the sediment dynamics of the inset channel using repeat bathymetric and substrate surveys, bedload sampling, and discharge measurements. We found two distinct phases of the inset channel behavior: 1. 'Reset' flows, where sediment-laden mainstem discharges from upstream runoff events result in sand deposition in the inset channel or avulse the inset channel onto previously dry riverbed; and 2. 'Winnowing' flows, whereby the sand within the inset channel is removed by clear-water low flows from the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Thus, in contrast to many regulated rivers where high flows are required to flush fine sediments from the bed (for example, downstream from dams), in the Santa Ana River the low flows from wastewater treatment plants serve as the flushing

  15. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.; Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d 7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d 7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d 0 ) on d 14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first

  16. Contaminants of legacy and emerging concern in largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Alvarez, David A.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Waite, Ian R.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Torres, Leticia; Patino, Reynaldo; Mesa, Matthew G.; Grove, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We investigated occurrence, transport pathways, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010, foodweb sampling at three sites along a gradient of contaminant exposure near Skamania (Washington), Columbia City (Oregon) and Longview (Washington) included water (via passive samplers), bed sediment, invertebrate biomass residing in sediment, a resident fish species (largescale suckers [Catostomus macrocheilus]), and eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus). This paper primarily reports fish tissue concentrations. In 2009, composites of fish brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues revealed that overall contaminant concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples from all three sites ranged from contaminants in the environment lead to bioaccumulation and potential negative effects in multiple levels of the foodweb.

  17. Mitochondrial population structure and post-glacial dispersal of longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus in Labrador, Canada: evidence for multiple refugial origins and limited ongoing gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, B L; Perry, R; Keefe, D; Barker, O; Marshall, H D

    2016-08-01

    Two hundred and eighty-seven longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus were collected from 14 lakes in Labrador, 52 from three lakes in Ontario, 43 from two lakes in British Columbia and 32 from a lake in Yukon; a total of 414 in all. The resulting 34 haplotypes (20 in Labrador) contained moderate haplotypic diversity (h = 0·657) and relatively low nucleotide diversity (π = 3·730 × 10(-3) . Mean ϕST (0·453, P network revealed one major and two minor clades within Labrador that were assigned to the Atlantic, Beringian and Mississippian refugia, respectively, with tests of neutrality and mismatch distribution indicative of a recent population expansion in Labrador, dated between c. 3500 and 8300 years ago. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Health status of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) collected along an organic contaminant gradient in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia; Nilsen, Elena B.; Grove, Robert A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    The health of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) in the lower Columbia River (USA) was evaluated using morphometric and histopathological approaches, and its association with organic contaminants accumulated in liver was evaluated in males. Fish were sampled from three sites along a contaminant gradient In 2009, body length and mass, condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and hematocrit were measured in males and females; liver and gonad tissue were collected from males for histological analyses; and organ composites were analyzed for contaminant content in males. In 2010, additional data were collected for males and females, including external fish condition assessment, histopathologies of spleen, kidney and gill and, for males, liver contaminant content. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that biological traits in males, but not females, differed among sites in 2009 and 2010. Discriminant function analysis indicated that site-related differences among male populations were relatively small in 2009, but in 2010, when more variables were analyzed, males differed among sites in regards to kidney, spleen, and liver histopathologies and gill parasites. Kidney tubular hyperplasia, liver and spleen macrophage aggregations, and gill parasites were generally more severe in the downstream sites compared to the reference location. The contaminant content of male livers was also generally higher downstream, and the legacy pesticide hexachlorobenzene and flame retardants BDE-47 and BDE-154 were the primary drivers for site discrimination. However, bivariate correlations between biological variables and liver contaminants retained in the discriminant models failed to reveal associations between the two variable sets. In conclusion, whereas certain non-reproductive biological traits and liver contaminant contents of male Largescale Sucker differed according to an upstream-downstream gradient in the lower Columbia River, results from this study did not reveal

  19. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet-to-blood relation explained an

  20. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, M. S.; Hashem, A. L.S.; Azamel, A. A. [Department of Animal Physiology, Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center, Cairo (Egypt); Farghaly, H. A.M., [Biological Applications Department, Radioisotopes Applications Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Inshas (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76{+-}0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d{sub 7} post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d{sub 7} post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d{sub 0}) on d{sub 14} post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by

  1. Using Digital 3D Scanning to Create “Artifictions” of the Passenger Pigeon and Harelip Sucker, Two Extinct Species in Eastern North America: The Future Examines the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Manzano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Virtual Curation Laboratory at Virginia Commonwealth University created 3D representations of digital morphological models, termed “artifictions,” of several bone elements from two extinct animals, the passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius Linnaeus Columbidae and the harelip sucker (Moxostoma lacerum Jordan and Brayton Catostomidae. Procuring recent comparative reference skeletons these species is extremely difficult. The creation of artifictions, 3D printed replicas of skeletal remains, aims to help researchers become familiar with the bones of harelip sucker and passenger pigeon to facilitate morphological identification of remains of these species within archaeological assemblages. Here, we discuss the two species, the techniques used to create digital topological models of individual skeletal elements, and the obstacles encountered regarding 3D printed artifictions in zooarchaeology.

  2. Study for prevention of sucker rods failures though NiCr coating; Estudo para prevencao de falhas de hastes de bombeio de petroleo atraves de aplicacao de revestimento NiCr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Brunno S.L. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Araujo, Paulo M.M. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Figueiredo, Renan T.; Cavalcanti, Eliane B. [Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of common materials, as carbon steel, in sucker rods motivated by its low cost, in mature oil wells located on Sergipe, Alagoas, Bahia and Rio Grande do Norte states, which are subjected to tractive-compressive-abrasive like combined loads, added to aggressive environment (oil production in the presence of water, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, salinity, etc..), leads to the materials drastic degeneration and even its rupture. The substitution of common materials by those which have better resistance o failure is, therefore, limited by high cost. A much cheaper alternative is to modify the surface of common materials used in the subsurface equipment, by applying a protective coating in order to assure the system's performance, durability or better economic viability. In the present work it was studied the use of thermal sprayed NiCr coating in sucker rods. It was studied three thermal spray processes: flame spray, arc spray and HVOF (high velocity oxy fuel). (author)

  3. The role of water on the structure and mechanical properties of a thermoplastic natural block co-polymer from squid sucker ring teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, Clément; Bertinetti, Luca; Schuetz, Roman; Salinas-Zavala, Cesar Ca; Weaver, James C; Fratzl, Peter; Miserez, Ali; Masic, Admir

    2016-09-02

    Hard biological polymers exhibiting a truly thermoplastic behavior that can maintain their structural properties after processing are extremely rare and highly desirable for use in advanced technological applications such as 3D-printing, biodegradable plastics and robust composites. One exception are the thermoplastic proteins that comprise the sucker ring teeth (SRT) of the Humboldt jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas). In this work, we explore the mechanical properties of reconstituted SRT proteins and demonstrate that the material can be re-shaped by simple processing in water and at relatively low temperature (below 100 °C). The post-processed material maintains a high modulus in the GPa range, both in the dry and the wet states. When transitioning from low to high humidity, the material properties change from brittle to ductile with an increase in plastic deformation, where water acts as a plasticizer. Using synchrotron x-ray scattering tools, we found that water mostly influences nano scale structure, whereas at the molecular level, the protein structure remains largely unaffected. Furthermore, through simultaneous in situ x-ray scattering and mechanical tests, we show that the supramolecular network of the reconstituted SRT material exhibits a progressive alignment along the strain direction, which is attributed to chain alignment of the amorphous domains of SRT proteins. The high modulus in both dry and wet states, combined with their efficient thermal processing characteristics, make the SRT proteins promising substitutes for applications traditionally reserved for petroleum-based thermoplastics.

  4. Assessing reproductive and endocrine parameters in male largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) along a contaminant gradient in the lower Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Olivier, H.M.; Draugelis-Dale, R. O.; Eilts, B.E.; Torres, L.; Patiño, R.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Goodbred, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are stable, bioaccumulative, and widely found in the environment, wildlife, and the human population. To explore the hypothesis that reproduction in male fish is associated with environmental exposures in the lower Columbia River (LCR), reproductive and endocrine parameters were studied in male resident, non-anadromous largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) (LSS) in the same habitats as anadromous salmonids having conservation status. Testes, thyroid tissue and plasma collected in 2010 from Longview (LV), Columbia City (CC), and Skamania (SK; reference) were studied. Sperm morphologies and thyrocyte heights were measured by light microscopy, sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis, sperm adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with luciferase, and plasma vitellogenin (VTG), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) by immunoassay. Sperm apoptosis, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and reproductive stage were measured by flow cytometry. Sperm quality parameters (except counts) and VTG were significantly different among sites, with correlations between VTG and 7 sperm parameters. Thyrocyte heights, T4, T3, gonadosomatic index and Fulton's condition factor differed among sites, but not significantly. Sperm quality was significantly lower and VTG higher where liver contaminants and water estrogen equivalents were highest (LV site). Total PCBs (specifically PCB-138, -146, -151, -170, -174, -177, -180, -183, -187, -194, and -206) and total PBDEs (specifically BDE-47, -100, -153, and -154) were negatively correlated with sperm motility. PCB-206 and BDE-154 were positively correlated with DNA fragmentation, and pentachloroanisole and VTG were positively correlated with sperm apoptosis and negatively correlated with ATP. BDE-99 was positively correlated

  5. Preliminary Study of the Effect of the Proposed Long Lake Valley Project Operation on the Transport of Larval Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tamara M.

    2009-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model of Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, was used to explore the effects of the operation of proposed offstream storage at Long Lake Valley on transport of larval suckers through the Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes system during May and June, when larval fish leave spawning sites in the Williamson River and springs along the eastern shoreline and become entrained in lake currents. A range in hydrologic conditions was considered, including historically high and low outflows and inflows, lake elevations, and the operation of pumps between Upper Klamath Lake and storage in Long Lake Valley. Two wind-forcing scenarios were considered: one dominated by moderate prevailing winds and another dominated by a strong reversal of winds from the prevailing direction. On the basis of 24 model simulations that used all combinations of hydrology and wind forcing, as well as With Project and No Action scenarios, it was determined that the biggest effect of project operations on larval transport was the result of alterations in project management of the elevation in Upper Klamath Lake and the outflow at the Link River and A Canal, rather than the result of pumping operations. This was because, during the spring time period of interest, the amount of water pumped between Upper Klamath Lake and Long Lake Valley was generally small. The dominant effect was that an increase in lake elevation would result in more larvae in the Williamson River delta and in Agency Lake, an effect that was enhanced under conditions of wind reversal. A decrease in lake elevation accompanied by an increase in the outflow at the Link River had the opposite effect on larval concentration and residence time.

  6. Automation of the procedures for changing course and balancing in sucker-rod pumping units; Automacao dos procedimentos de mudanca de curso e balanceamento em unidades de bombeio mecanico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintaes, Filipe de O.; Souza, Leonardo F.; Salazar, Andres O.; Maitelli, Andre L.; Fontes, Francisco de Assis O. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica; Karbage, Elias; Costa, Rutacio de O. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The main advantages of the use of the method of artificial lift of Sucker-rod Pumping are: operation simplicity, it can be used until the end of the productive life of a well starting from normal conditions, capacity of pump can be modified in function of the changes of behavior of the well and usually presents a smaller cost for production along the productive life of the well. Even having the smallest cost for production, these units need maintenance procedures periodically. Two important procedures very used at Sucker-rod Pumping are the adjusts for balancing of the unit and the change of course, however, these procedures presents great operational problems. This work presents an automation project for the accomplishment of the procedures of balancing and change of course. Among some of the advantages of this new system, we have: stop of the unit at any position without damages to the reducer; reduction of the consumption of energy in direct transmission; possibility of integration with a supervisory system; reduction of operation costs and maintenance and facility of maintenance. By this automation, the productions stops will be reduced and with possibility of the elimination of the technicians' intervention. At this way, the risks and the operation costs and maintenance will be reduced. (author)

  7. Investigations of the Effects of Synthetic Chemicals on the Endocrine System of Common Carp in Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Leiker, Thomas A.; Orsak, Erik

    2006-01-01

    in Las Vegas Wash and Bay environments include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (including DDT and DDE), and 'emerging contaminants' such as fragrances/musks, flame retardants, triclosan and its breakdown products, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals (Bevans and others, 1996; Boyd and Furlong, 2002; Leiker and others, in press). Many of these compounds are able to interact with the endocrine system of animals and potentially cause reproductive impacts. The National Park Service (NPS) manages Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) with about 8 million yearly visitors including 500,000 anglers drawn to its world-class recreational fishery. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) provides management for the federally designated, endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and for more than 180 species of migratory birds that utilize LMNRA surface waters. These multiple uses of surface water in the area demonstrate their vital importance to the LMNRA as well as the need to maintain the quality of water at levels that are adequate for these uses.

  8. Crescimento e teores de clorofila em mudas de bananeira em função da supressão do pseudocaule, de doses de nitrogênio e de boro Growth and chlorophyll content of banana suckers in function of pseudostem suppression and doses of nitrogen and boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Esfrain Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a influência da eliminação da gema apical do rizoma e de doses de nitrogênio e boro, sobre a produção e o crescimento de mudas de bananeira. O experimento foi realizado no Centro de Formação de Tecnólogos da UFPB. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro blocos e nove plantas matrizes por parcela, sendo duas plantas úteis. Os fatores avaliados foram doses de N (0 a 240 g/planta e de B (0 a 2,2 g/planta combinados com a matriz experimental Composto Central de Box, originando nove combinações, arranjados fatorialmente com e sem eliminação da gema apical da planta matriz. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. A supressão do pseudocaule da planta principal, com a eliminação da gema apical do rizoma aumentou o número de perfilhos, com maior crescimento, exceto do diâmetro do rizoma, o qual diminuiu. Os teores foliares de clorofila total e de B também foram diminuídos, nos perfilhos das bananeiras amputadas. Para a produção de mudas da bananeira ‘Pacovan’, recomenda-se a supressão do pseudocaule da planta principal, com eliminação da gema apical do rizoma e aplicação do N.The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of the removal in the pseudostem with elimination of the meristem apical of the rhizome and doses of nitrogen and boron, about the production and growth of banana suckers. The experiment was carried out at Centro de Formação de Tecnólogos - UFPB, State of Paraíba. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four replications and nine mother plants for experimental unit, being two useful plants. The evaluated valued factors were doses of N (0 to 240 g plant-1 and of B (0 to 240 g plant-1 combined in agreement with the experimental matrix ‘Central Composite’, originating nine combinations, which were arranged factorially with suppression and without suppression of the pseudostem of the mother

  9. Avaliação do ciclo e produção da planta-filha em função do manejo da planta-mãe em diferentes épocas do ano em bananeira Prata-Anã Evaluation of cycle and production of sucker plant in function of mother plant management in banana tree 'Prata Anã´

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Egídio Flori

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito do manejo da planta-mãe e da época de seleção das plantas-filha de bananeira 'Prata-Anã´ (Musa spp. na produção e no período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha. Utilizou-se um bananal comercial com cinco anos de idade, plantado no espaçamento de 3,5 m x 2,0 m. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Os tratamentos nas parcelas foram: manejo 1 (M1 - família conduzida sem a planta-mãe, a qual foi retirada logo após a sua floração; manejo 2 (M2 - família conduzida com planta-mãe (manejo convencional. As subparcelas corresponderam a doze épocas de seleção das plantas-filha, selecionadas no estádio de chifrão, iniciando em fev./02 e finalizando em jan./03. As características avaliadas foram: a período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha (período em dias entre a data de seleção da planta-filha e a sua colheita; b massa do cacho das plantas-filha. Diante dos resultados obtidos concluiu-se: o manejo da planta-mãe não influenciou a massa do cacho da planta-filha; o manejo da planta-mãe alterou o período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha, sendo esse menor naquelas conduzidas sem a planta-mãe (M1; a época de seleção influenciou a massa do cacho e o período de desenvolvimento da planta-filha.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of managing banana mother plants and time of selection of sucker on their productive characteristics, using the cultivar 'Prata Anã´ (Musa spp. genomic group AAB. The crop was planted in March 1997, spaced by 3.5 m x 2.0 m. An experimental area of 2.1 hectares was demarcated in February 2002. A split-plot design was used incorporating a completely random design with three replications. The plots consisted of five plants submitted to two managements: M1 - hill managed without the mother plant, which was removed right after flowering; M2 - hill managed with the mother

  10. Native Fish Sanctuary Project - Sanctuary Development Phase, 2007 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gordon A.

    2007-01-01

    Notable progress was made in 2007 toward the development of native fish facilities in the Lower Colorado River Basin. More than a dozen facilities are, or soon will be, online to benefit native fish. When this study began in 2005 no self-supporting communities of either bonytail or razorback sucker existed. Razorback suckers were removed from Rock Tank in 1997 and the communities at High Levee Pond had been compromised by largemouth bass in 2004. This project reversed that trend with the establishment of the Davis Cove native fish community in 2005. Bonytail and razorback sucker successfully produced young in Davis Cove in 2006. Bonytail successfully produced young in Parker Dam Pond in 2007, representing the first successful sanctuary established solely for bonytail. This past year, Three Fingers Lake received 135 large razorback suckers, and Federal and State agencies have agreed to develop a cooperative management approach dedicating a portion of that lake toward grow-out and (or) the establishment of another sanctuary. Two ponds at River's Edge Golf Course in Needles, California, were renovated in June and soon will be stocked with bonytail. Similar activities are taking place at Mohave Community College, Cerbat Cliffs Golf Course, Cibola High Levee Pond, Office Cove, Emerald Canyon Golf Course, and Bulkhead Cove. Recruitment can be expected as fish become sexually mature at these facilities. Flood-plain facilities have the potential to support 6,000 adult razorback suckers and nearly 20,000 bonytail if native fish management is aggressively pursued. This sanctuary project has assisted agencies in developing 15 native fish communities by identifying specific resource objectives for those sites, listing and prioritizing research opportunities and needs, and strategizing on management approaches through the use of resource-management plans. Such documents have been developed for Davis Cove, Cibola High Levee Pond, Parker Dam Pond, and Three Fingers Lake. We

  11. Produção de mudas do tipo rebentão, utilizando coroas de três cultivares de abacaxi inoculadas com fungos micorrízicos Production of seedlings type suckers, using crowns of three cultivars of pineapple inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    alternativa para a produção de mudas de abacaxizeiro, sendo mais eficiente na cultivar 'Smooth Cayenne', que produziu 26 mudas em coroas cultivadas até 420 dias após o plantio.One of the main obstacles to the development of pineapple cultivation in Brazil has been the absence of seedlings in both quantity and quality, to spread. Among the alternatives, the obtaining of seedlings is verified starting from the sprouting from crowns of fruits, which are normally discarded by the consumer. Furthermore, the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can be an alternative for improving the production of seedlings, since these fungi can shorten the time of seedlings of various fruit. In that sense, the objective of this work was to evaluate the production of seedlings type suckers, using the method of destruction of the apical meristem of the crown of the pineapple plants inoculated with FMAs. For such, we used the randomized complete block design, factorial 3x3, with three cultivars of pineapple ('Smooth Cayenne', 'Pérola' and 'Jupí' and three microbiological treatments (no inoculation, Glomus etunicatum and a mixture of Glomus clarum and Gigaspora margarita, with four replications. The first emissions were recorded at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting for cultivar Smooth, 'Pérola' and 'Jupí', respectively. The pineapple tree 'Smooth Cayenne' produced 80 to 69% seedlings more than the cultivars 'Pérola' and 'Jupí', respectively. In microbiological treatments there was a significant difference for the suckers issued, in which the mixed treatment was the most prevalent issue when compared with treatment with G. etunicatum. Nutritional assessments in the crowns, inoculation with the mixed treatment promoted an increase of 85 and 66% for P, 22 and 13% for N and 6 and 19% for K, compared to treatments G. etunicatum and control respectively. It is concluded that the production of suckers from crown whose principal gem was beheaded is an alternative for the production of pineapple

  12. Effect of Media Culture on Growth and Sucker Pandanus Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali salehi sardoei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One factor that is of great importance to the cultivation of flowers and ornamental plants, is the media. Planting plants in containers as an important component of the nursery technology has grown. Compared with farm volume, growth media used for each plant greatly reduce plant growth that largely influence by the physical and chemical properties of growth media used. Therefore, good management of potted plants bed will cause the plants have good quality. A good growth media with optimal physical and biological properties, relatively inexpensive, stable and style enough to work should be available. The Burgers showed that composted green waste can be used as substrates for soilless cultivation and improve the water-holding capacity of soil. The garden has a range of materials including hardwood and softwood bark, leaves, soil, waste, sewage sludge and coconut (cocopeat that has been used as a seed bed. According to the economic issues and increasing moisture storage, palm peat substrates are primary material that can be prepared as a good growth medium for the producing's presented level Country. Peat moss is not applicable to all plants because of high cost and poor absorption characteristics like low pH and low water holding capacity . This study was conducted to investigate the possibility of replacing peat moss palm waste and the effect of it on growth characteristics were studied. Materials and Methods: The experimental design was completely randomized design with four replications of eight treatments. The compressed unit (block was supplied and commercial cocopeat was used because of reducing the cost of transportation. Before applying this material, the amount of water was added for opening up and voluminous and become it completely uniform.. In treatments containing sand + perlite, these four types volume ratio of 1:1 and mixed with sand + perlite were used. First, wooden cuttings of pandanus in a bed of sand rooted in the greenhouse, then the rooted cuttings were transferred to pots with a diameter of 17cm. The pots were filled with the examined material. After planting in pots in a greenhouse with temperature of 20-25°C in winter and 30-35°C in summer were kept on planting plans. The indicators of growth including stem diameter, stem length and lateral shoot number, leaf area and chlorophyll index were measured. Analysis was performed on data using SPSS 16. Comparisons were made using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range tests. Differences were considered to be significant at P < 0.05. Results and Discussion: Vegetative characteristics of pandanus plants were significantly different from each other. Results showed that the mean media of cococheps and 50% peat palm + 25% sand + 25% perlite had the highest leaf area with 413.97 and 378.69cm2 respectively and non-significant difference was showed. Means followed by same letter are not significantly different at P

  13. Photoactivated toxicity of PAH to endangered fishes and standard laboratory test species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckler, D.R.; Mount, D.R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been detected in water and sediment from the San Juan River Basin, located in the Four Corners area of the southwestern US. In addition to possessing extensive oil and gas deposits, the San Juan contains several threatened or endangered fish species such as Colorado squawfish and razorback suckers. Proposed expansion of oil and gas development in the basin has sparked concerns that potential increases in PAH loading may jeopardize these and other native fishes. In response, the authors conducted laboratory exposures of threatened and endangered species to various PAH both with and without accompanying exposure to UV light. As predicted from the literature, exposure to UV light caused a marked photo-activated toxicity response in all species; however, the sensitivity to PAH both with and without UV exposure varied among species and lifestages. Supplemental studies were conducted to evaluate the physiological mechanisms for variation in sensitivity between species and lifestage

  14. 75 FR 38441 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Santa Ana Sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ...) point sources of pollution including the Santa Ana Regional Interceptor line; (5) recreational... source pollution and off-highway vehicle recreation comprise the remaining approximate 10 percent of post... (98 ha) 0 ac (0 ha) 947 ac (383 ha) 1,189 ac (481 ha) Creeks Subunit 3B: Gold, Delta, and Stone Los...

  15. Improving crack counterbalanced sucker rod pump units; Ueberlegungen zum dynamischen Drehmomentenausgleich von Tiefpumpenantrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, F. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria). Inst. fuer Konstruktionslehre

    1997-02-01

    Counterbalancing the torque at the gearbox, resulting from the load at the polished rod and the geometry of the unit, is still a significant design and operational problem. In this article well known crank-counterbalanced units are briefly described and a new unit, with an additional crank counterbalance system, is introduced. The counterweights on the cranks always create a sinusoidal torque distribution over one cycle. Applying the arithmetic method of non linear regression to the torque distribution, which results from the load at the polished rod, a most closely matching sinussoidal curve can be calculated. This curve shows the optimum phase angle and counterweight torque value and therefore a quick adjustment of the counterweights can be made. With the same arithmetic method, phase angle and counterweight value of the additional crank counterbalance is established. A comparison between a conventional unit and one with an additional counterbalancesystem has shown, that in the second case, the acting gearbox torque is up to 50% lower than in the first case. This allows the use of smaller gearbox and prime mover. From the technical point of view the additional counterbalance system is an excellent development enabling the acting-gearbox torque to be reduced. System set-up requires only a simple computer program and careful operator implementation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Ausgleich des zyklisch schwankenden Antriebsdrehmomentes stellt fuer die Auslegung und den Betrieb von Tiefpumpenantrieben ein zentrales Problem dar. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden einleitend die bekannten Antriebsbauarten mit dynamischem Drehmomentenausgleich beschrieben und eine neue Bauart mit zusaetzlichem Ausgleich vorgestellt. Die Lasten am Pferdekopf verursachen an der Kurbel (Getriebeausgang) ein Drehmoment, das als Bruttodrehmoment bezeichnet wird. Das Ausgleichsdrehmoment zur Verringerung des Bruttodrehmomentes ist jenes Moment an der Kurbel, das durch die rotierenden Ausgleichsgewichte entsteht und stets einen sinusfoermigen Verlauf hat. Die Anwendung des mathematischen Verfahrens der nichtlinearen Regression auf die Bruttodrehmomentenkurve ergibt eine bestmoegliche Anpassung einer Sinuskurve an dieselbe. Damit ist die Phasenverschiebung und die Groesse des optimalen Ausgleichsdrehmomentes gegeben (mit negativem Vorzeichen) und eine rasche Einstellung der Ausgleichsmassen auf den Kurbelarmen ist moeglich (ueblicher Ausgleich=Ausgleich I). Mit derselben mathematischen Methode sind auch die Massen sowie die Phasenverschiebung eines zusaetzlichen Ausgleiches einstellbar (Ausgleich 2). Der Vergleich der beiden Ausgleichssysteme ergab, dass mit einem Ausgleich 1 und 2 gegenueber nur einem Ausgleich 1 die maximalen Nettodrehmomente an der Kurbel bis zu 50% verringert werden koennen. Dadurch erlaubt ein Ausgleichssystem 1 und 2 die Verwendung kleinerer Antriebsmotoren und Getriebe gegenueber nur einem Ausgleich 1. Vom technischen Standpunkt aus betrachtet ist ein zusaetzlicher Ausgleich 2 eine ausgezeichnete Moeglichkeit den Drehmomentenausgleich an der Kurbel zu verbessern. Die erforderlichen Einstellarbeiten setzen jedoch die Verwendung eines kleinen Rechnerprogrammes sowie groessere Sorgfalt des Durchfuehrenden voraus. (orig.)

  16. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (chiroptera: myzopodidae) endemic to madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...

  17. 75 FR 77961 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Santa Ana Sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... excessive amounts of water to supply its exceptionally high growth rates (Bell 1997, p. 104) and could crowd..., and increased water temperature from the short-term loss of canopy shading (USFS 2009, p. 5). Post... integrated water system that contains and provides the appropriate quantity of coarse substrates such as...

  18. Restoration of contaminated ecosystems: adaptive management in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida; Larson, Diane L.; Stauber, Jenny; Stahl, Ralph; Isanhart, John; McAbee, Kevin T.; Walsh, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Three case studies illustrate how adaptive management (AM) has been used in ecological restorations that involve contaminants. Contaminants addressed include mercury, selenium, and contaminants and physical disturbances delivered to streams by urban stormwater runoff. All three cases emphasize the importance of broad stakeholder input early and consistently throughout decision analysis for AM. Risk of contaminant exposure provided input to the decision analyses (e.g. selenium exposure to endangered razorback suckers, Stewart Lake; multiple contaminants in urban stormwater runoff, Melbourne) and was balanced with the protection of resources critical for a desired future state (e.g. preservation old growth trees, South River). Monitoring also played a critical role in the ability to conduct the decision analyses necessary for AM plans. For example, newer technologies in the Melbourne case provided a testable situation where contaminant concentrations and flow disturbance were reduced to support a return to good ecological condition. In at least one case (Stewart Lake), long-term monitoring data are being used to document the potential effects of climate change on a restoration trajectory. Decision analysis formalized the process by which stakeholders arrived at the priorities for the sites, which together constituted the desired future condition towards which each restoration is aimed. Alternative models were developed that described in mechanistic terms how restoration can influence the system towards the desired future condition. Including known and anticipated effects of future climate scenarios in these models will make them robust to the long-term exposure and effects of contaminants in restored ecosystems.

  19. Phloem-specific expression of the lectin gene from Allium sativum confers resistance to the sap-sucker Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Vani, Kalasamudramu; Kaul, Tanushri; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2014-05-01

    Rice production is severely hampered by insect pests. Garlic lectin gene (ASAL) holds great promise in conferring protection against chewing (lepidopteran) and sap-sucking (homopteran) insect pests. We have developed transgenic rice lines resistant to sap-sucking brown hopper (Nilaparvata lugens) by ectopic expression of ASAL in their phloem tissues. Molecular analyses of T0 lines confirmed stable integration of transgene. T1 lines (NP 1-2, 4-3, 11-6 & 17-7) showed active transcription and translation of ASAL transgene. ELISA revealed ASAL expression was as high as 0.95% of total soluble protein. Insect bioassays on T2 homozygous lines (NP 18 & 32) revealed significant reduction (~74-83%) in survival rate, development and fecundity of brown hoppers in comparison to wild type. Transgenics exhibited enhanced resistance (1-2 score) against brown hoppers, minimal plant damage and no growth penalty or phenotypic abnormalities.

  20. 78 FR 22556 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Recovery Plan for Lost River Sucker and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ..., such that both species remain in danger of extinction. Habitat loss, including restricted access to... from entrainment in water management structures, were cited as causes for declines in populations prior..., negatively impacts adult survival rates, and although the specific causes are currently unknown, juvenile...

  1. 75 FR 5279 - Sucker Creek Channel and Floodplain Restoration Project (Phase II), Rogue River-Siskiyou National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ..., care of USDA Forest Service, Medford Interagency Office, 3040 Biddle Road, Medford, Oregon 97504; FAX... banks and existing near-bank large riparian trees will used to buttress the instream wood and create stability. Depending on site conditions, boulders may also be used to anchor the logs in place and tree tips...

  2. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ''may affect'' the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA)

  3. Application of sediment characteristics and transport conditions to resource management in selected main-stem reaches of the Upper Colorado River, Colorado and Utah, 1965-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.; Elliott, John G.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    The Colorado River Basin provides habitat for 14 native fish, including 4 endangered species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973. These endangered fish species once thrived in the Colorado River system, but water-resource development, including the building of numerous diversion dams and several large reservoirs, and the introduction of non-native fish, resulted in large reductions in the numbers and range of the four species through loss of habitat and stream function. Understanding how stream conditions and habitat change in response to alterations in streamflow is important for water administrators and wildlife managers and can be determined from an understanding of sediment transport. Characterization of the processes that are controlling sediment transport is an important first step in identifying flow regimes needed for restored channel morphology and the sustained recovery of endangered fishes within these river systems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Colorado River Endangered Fish Recovery Program, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Argonne National Laboratory, Western Area Power Administration, and Wyoming State Engineer’s Office, began a study in 2004 to characterize sediment transport at selected locations on the Colorado, Gunnison, and Green Rivers to begin addressing gaps in existing datasets and conceptual models of the river systems. This report identifies and characterizes the relation between streamflow (magnitude and timing) and sediment transport and presents the findings through discussions of (1) suspended-sediment transport, (2) incipient motion of streambed material, and (3) a case study of sediment-transport conditions for a reach of the Green River identified as a razorback sucker spawning habitat (See report for full abstract).

  4. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  5. 78 FR 37840 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... activities to capture, seine, electrofish, PIT tag, collect vouchers, and preserve larvae) the Razorback... vouchers) the conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio), longhorn fairy shrimp (Branchinecta longiantenna), Riverside fairy shrimp (Streptocephalus woottoni), San Diego fairy shrimp (Branchinecta...

  6. A synoptic review of Promonobothrium Mackiewicz, 1968 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of suckers (Catostomidae) in North America, with description of two new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oros, Mikuláš; Brabec, Jan; Kuchta, Roman; Choudhury, A.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 63, 23 March (2016), č. článku 008. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Eucestoda * Nearctic Region * comparative morphology * fish * identification key * molecular phylogeny * new species * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016

  7. Finding Team Mates who are not prone to Sucker and Free-Rider effects: The Protestant Work Ethic as a Moderator of Motivation Losses in Group Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Abele (Susanne); M. Diehl (Michael)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the contribution of a personality variable in motivation losses in group performance. Differences in the endorsement of the ‘Protestant Work Ethic’ can account for variance in motivation losses in group work. Male student scores on the Mirels- Garrett Protestant Work

  8. Airborne radiometric anomalies caused by late kinematic granite rocks in the Molson Lake-Red Sucker Lake area, east-central Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.; Schledewitz, D.C.P.; Soonawala, N.M.

    1982-01-01

    Geological mapping with simultaneous ground gamma ray spectrometer surveys in an area with a chain of airborne radiometric anomalies of greater than 2 ppm eU indicate uranium enrichment in late kinematic pink leucogranitic rocks including granites, alaskites, and syenites which form dykes, stocks and small plutons in a batholithic tonalite - granodiorite complex. Field geolocial evidence suggests that the potassium-rich rocks were formed by hydrothermal solutions and that at least some of them are metasomatic replacement bodies. Results of geophysical grid survey over a pronounced anomaly indicate that it is caused by a significant volume of leucogranitic rocks with an unusually high background concentration of uranium averaging 25 ppm eU. The uranium seems to be associated with hematite which coats mineral grains and fills small fractures

  9. Floodplain lakes and alluviation cycles of the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmon, D.; Felger, T. J.; Howard, K. A.

    2007-05-01

    The broad valleys along the lower Colorado River contain numerous bodies of still water that provide critical habitat for bird, fish, and other species. This chain of floodplain lakes is an important part of the Pacific Flyway - the major north-south route of travel for migratory birds in the western Hemisphere - and is also used by many resident bird species. In addition, isolated floodplain lakes may provide the only viable habitat for endangered native fish such as the razorback sucker, vulnerable to predation by introduced species in the main stem of the Colorado River. Floodplain lakes typically occupy former channel courses of the river and formed as a result of river meandering or avulsion. Persistent fluvial sediment deposition (aggradation) creates conditions that favor rapid formation and destruction of floodplain lakes, while long term river downcutting (degradation) inhibits their formation and evolution. New radiocarbon dates from wood recovered from drill cores near Topock, AZ indicate that the river aggraded an average of 3 mm/yr in the middle and late Holocene. Aggradational conditions before Hoover Dam was built were associated with rapid channel shifting and frequent lake formation. Lakes had short life spans due to rapid infilling with fine-grained sediment during turbid floods on the unregulated Colorado River. The building of dams and of armored banks had a major impact on floodplain lakes, not only by drowning large portions of the valley beneath reservoirs, but by preventing new lake formation in some areas and accelerating it in others. GIS analyses of three sets of historical maps show that both the number and total area of isolated (i.e., not linked to the main channel by a surface water connection) lakes in the lower Colorado River valley increased between 1902 and the 1950s, and then decreased though the 1970s. River bed degradation below dams inhibits channel shifting and floodplain lake formation, and the capture of fines behind the

  10. 77 FR 30526 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... Transplant. NC910011 Drexel Sucker Alcohols, Cx--Cxx. Plucker Concentrate. OH080002 Tree-Age Emamectin benzoate. OR100006 Dual Magnum S-Metolachlor. Herbicide. SC910006 Drexel Sucker Alcohols, Cx--Cxx. Plucker...

  11. On the agronomy and botany of salak (Salacca zalacca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashari, S.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Salak, Salacca zalacca, Palmae, dioecious, haustorium, simple leaf, compound leaf, sucker, phyllotaxis, seedling, inflorescence, fruit, hand pollination, farm yard manure, fertilizer, shading, walking palm.


    Salak is a dioecious, suckering

  12. Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; Wayne D. Shepperd; John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    There are basically two approaches to regenerating aspen stands-sexual reproduction using seed, or vegetative regeneration by root suckering. In the West, root suckering is the most practical method. The advantage of having an existing, well established root system capable of producing numerous root suckers easily outweighs natural or artificial reforestation in the...

  13. Scanning electron microscopy of Clinostomum metacercaria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Biology ... At the ventral side, the rims of the oral and ventral suckers had minor differences, while their floor showed great variation in topography: the floor of the oral sucker had longitudinal wrinkles with nodule-like structures and their upper margins had minute sensory papillae, while the ventral sucker ...

  14. Detection of irradiated meats by hydrocarbon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Miyakawa, Hiroyuki; Fujinuma, Kenji; Ozawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    Meats, for example, lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey were irradiated by gamma ray, and the amounts of hydrocarbons formed from fatty acids were measured. Since C 20:0 was found from wild duck and turkey. C 1-18:1 was recommended for internal standard. Good correlation was found between the amount of hydrocarbons and the doses of gamma irradiation. This study shows that such hydrocarbons induced after radiation procedure as C 1,7-16:2 , C 8-17:1 , C 1-14:1 , and C 15:0 may make it possible to detect irradiated lamb, razorback, wild duck and turkey. (author)

  15. Performance and scaling of a novel locomotor structure: adhesive capacity of climbing gobiid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2012-11-15

    Many species of gobiid fishes adhere to surfaces using a sucker formed from fusion of the pelvic fins. Juveniles of many amphidromous species use this pelvic sucker to scale waterfalls during migrations to upstream habitats after an oceanic larval phase. However, adults may still use suckers to re-scale waterfalls if displaced. If attachment force is proportional to sucker area and if growth of the sucker is isometric, then increases in the forces that climbing fish must resist might outpace adhesive capacity, causing climbing performance to decline through ontogeny. To test for such trends, we measured pressure differentials and adhesive suction forces generated by the pelvic sucker across wide size ranges in six goby species, including climbing and non-climbing taxa. Suction was achieved via two distinct growth strategies: (1) small suckers with isometric (or negatively allometric) scaling among climbing gobies and (2) large suckers with positively allometric growth in non-climbing gobies. Species using the first strategy show a high baseline of adhesive capacity that may aid climbing performance throughout ontogeny, with pressure differentials and suction forces much greater than expected if adhesion were a passive function of sucker area. In contrast, large suckers possessed by non-climbing species may help compensate for reduced pressure differentials, thereby producing suction sufficient to support body weight. Climbing Sicyopterus species also use oral suckers during climbing waterfalls, and these exhibited scaling patterns similar to those for pelvic suckers. However, oral suction force was considerably lower than that for pelvic suckers, reducing the ability for these fish to attach to substrates by the oral sucker alone.

  16. Identification and expression profiles of nine glutathione S-transferase genes from the important rice phloem sap-sucker and virus vector Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Wu; Li, Xi-Wang; Quan, Yin-Hua; Cheng, Jiaan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Gurr, Geoff; Zhu, Zeng-Rong

    2012-09-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) have received considerable attention in insects for their roles in insecticide resistance. Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) is a serious rice pest. L. striatellus outbreaks occur frequently throughout eastern Asia. A key problem in controlling this pest is its rapid adaptation to numerous insecticides. In this research, nine cDNAs encoding GSTs in L. striatellus were cloned and characterised. The cloned GSTs of L. striatellus belonged to six cytosolic classes and a microsomal subgroup. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of each of the six insecticides, DDT, chlorpyrifos, fipronil, imidacloprid, buprofezin and beta-cypermethrin, quickly induced (6 h) up-expression of LsGSTe1. The expression of LsGSTs2 was increased by chlorpyrifos, fipronil and beta-cypermethrin. Furthermore, exposure of L. striatellus to fipronil, imidacloprid, buprofezin and beta-cypermethrin increased the expression of the LsGSTm gene after 24 or 48 h. This work is the first identification of GST genes from different GST groups in Auchenorrhyncha species and their induction characteristics with insecticide types and time. The elevated expression of GST genes induced by insecticides might be related to the enhanced tolerance of this insect to insecticides and xenobiotics. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. 75 FR 15632 - Proposed Amendment to and Establishment of Restricted Areas and Other Special Use Airspace...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Razorback Range supports training in low to medium altitudes, the lateral boundary of the range's existing restricted area is inadequate for training at medium to high altitudes. The restricted areas R-2402B and R... altitude weapons delivery. Thus, aircrew training that is essential for combat readiness today is limited...

  18. Neuroethology: self-recognition helps octopuses avoid entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Robyn J; Walters, Edgar T

    2014-06-02

    How an octopus performs complex movements of its eight sucker-studded arms without entanglement has been a mystery. A new study has found that self-recognition of the octopus's skin by its suckers inhibits reflexive grasping of its own arms, simplifying the mechanisms needed to generate intricate arm behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of osmotic stress on in vitro propagation of Musa sp. (Malbhog ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study demonstrates up to 36% reduced microbial contamination in aseptic culture establishment and subsequent micropropagation due to osmotic stress induction in the banana suckers. Osmotic stress was induced by keeping the freshly collected suckers in shade and measuring fresh weight at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 ...

  20. 77 FR 73739 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lost River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... sucker and shortnose sucker under the Act. For more information on the biology and ecology of the Lost... conservation biology principles. We received responses from two of the peer reviewers. We reviewed all comments... microgram ([micro]g) per liter (L). The peer reviewer stated that this is the World Health Organization...

  1. 76 FR 76337 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lost River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... information on the Lost River sucker's and shortnose sucker's biology and habitat, population abundance and... consumed chironomid larvae as well as micro-crustaceans (amphipods, copepods, cladocerans, and ostracods... information above, we identify an abundant food base, including a broad array of chironomids, micro...

  2. Sprout growth of some hardwoods following clearcutting in the Dapgok District of the Seoul National University Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.K.; Kim, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Stewartia koreana and Styrax japonica produced the best growth of coppice shoots and suckers, while Carpinus laxiflora produced none. Lindera erythrocarpa, Euonymus sachalinensis. Cornus controversa, Prunus sargentii and Fraxinus rhynchophylla showed good short growth after felling and good seedling emergence. Growth of shoots and suckers was better on fertile than on poor sites.

  3. A new trematode (Digenea: Mesotretidae) from the horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-You; Yu, Yan; Peng, Wen-Feng

    2009-06-01

    A new species of Mesotretes (Trematoda: Mesotretidae) parasitizing the small intestine of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was obtained by the examination of 48 bats collected from 4 localities in Henan Province, China, from August 2003 to January 2005. This species, Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp., is similar to Mesotretes orientalis and Mesotretes hangzhouensis, but mainly differs from them in the ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker, and the distance of the intestinal bifurcation from anterior edge of acetabulum, as well as from the former in the extension of the vitellarium. Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp. differs from Mesotretes peregrinus chiefly in the shape of the testes and the distribution of cuticular spines. The ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker in this species also differs from that of M. peregrinus.

  4. HAEMATOLOGICAL INDICES AND ENZYMATIC BIOMAKER OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    haematological characteristics of S. melanotheron in this study. ... provide a useful tool in monitoring the condition and state of health of fish by ..... peroxidation in gonads of white suckers exposed to pulp and paper mill effluents as well as.

  5. Materials science: How to suck like an octopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilker, Jonathan J.

    2017-06-01

    Rubber sheets that reversibly bind and release substrates have been made by copying a subtlety in the shape of octopus suckers. The findings reveal how macro-scale biological structures can influence function. See Letter p.396

  6. In a review of the paralarval development of chiroteuthid and related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    chiroteuthid and related squid from Hawaiian waters,. Young (1991) ... survey of cephalopods in Hawaiian waters. Although it had characteristics that indicated a relationship with .... surface that bears up to eight irregular series of suckers.

  7. Effect of different combinations of 6-benzyl amino purine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SNAP CUSTOMER

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... dissemination of new plant materials throughout the world, uniformity of shoots, ... Woramit Agricultural research center. Sword suckers of ... Surface sterilization was done under laminar airflow cabinet with 70% ethyl alcohol, ...

  8. Myxocyprinus asiaticus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Identification of novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the endangered. Chinese sucker ... gered freshwater fish in China and the only representative of the family ... listed as second class national protected species and vulnera- ble in the ...

  9. Morphological and molecular identification of fungi associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eneke

    Macro-propagation technology, which has the potential to produce 50-60 shoots per sucker ... Isolates were characterized using cultural, micro-morphological and ... The technology requires little .... and the colour tint on the surface was white,.

  10. THE FEATURES OF TRAVELER WITH VACUUM AND SUCTION EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Moroz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of real mechanical system of the bridge crane with vacuum-sucker equipment is made and the design scheme for the mathematical model of dynamic processes created on the basis of the analysis is offered.

  11. Design and Optimal Research of a Non-Contact Adjustable Magnetic Adhesion Mechanism for a Wall-Climbing Welding Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wall-climbing welding robots (WCWRs can replace workers in manufacturing and maintaining large unstructured equipment, such as ships. The adhesion mechanism is the key component of WCWRs. As it is directly related to the robot's ability in relation to adsorbing, moving flexibly and obstacle-passing. In this paper, a novel non-contact adjustably magnetic adhesion mechanism is proposed. The magnet suckers are mounted under the robot's axils and the sucker and wall are in non-contact. In order to pass obstacles, the sucker and the wheel unit can be pulled up and pushed down by a lifting mechanism. The magnetic adhesion force can be adjusted by changing the height of the gap between the sucker and the wall by the lifting mechanism. In order to increase the adhesion force, the value of the sucker's magnetic energy density (MED is maximized by optimizing the magnet sucker's structure parameters with a finite element method. Experiments prove that the magnetic adhesion mechanism has enough adhesion force and that the WCWR can complete wall-climbing work within a large unstructured environment.

  12. Octopus-like suction cups: from natural to artificial solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, F; Follador, M; Pugno, N M; Mazzolai, B

    2015-05-13

    Octopus suckers are able to attach to all nonporous surfaces and generate a very strong attachment force. The well-known attachment features of this animal result from the softness of the sucker tissues and the surface morphology of the portion of the sucker that is in contact with objects or substrates. Unlike artificial suction cups, octopus suckers are characterized by a series of radial grooves that increase the area subjected to pressure reduction during attachment. In this study, we constructed artificial suction cups with different surface geometries and tested their attachment performances using a pull-off setup. First, smooth suction cups were obtained for casting; then, sucker surfaces were engraved with a laser cutter. As expected, for all the tested cases, the engraving treatment enhanced the attachment performance of the elastomeric suction cups compared with that of the smooth versions. Moreover, the results indicated that the surface geometry with the best attachment performance was the geometry most similar to octopus sucker morphology. The results obtained in this work can be utilized to design artificial suction cups with higher wet attachment performance.

  13. A comparative analysis of genetic variation in rootstocks and scions of old olive trees – a window into the history of olive cultivation practices and past genetic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Past clonal propagation of olive trees is intimately linked to grafting. However, evidence on grafting in ancient trees is scarce, and not much is known about the source of plant material used for rootstocks. Here, the Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) marker technique was used to study genetic diversity of rootstocks and scions in ancient olive trees from the Levant and its implications for past cultivation of olives. Leaf samples were collected from tree canopies (scions) and shoots growing from the trunk base (suckers). A total of 310 trees were sampled in 32 groves and analyzed with 14 SSR markers. Results In 82.7% of the trees in which both scion and suckers could be genotyped, these were genetically different, and thus suckers were interpreted to represent the rootstock of grafted trees. Genetic diversity values were much higher among suckers than among scions, and 194 and 87 multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) were found in the two sample groups, respectively. Only five private alleles were found among scions, but 125 among suckers. A frequency analysis revealed a bimodal distribution of genetic distance among MLGs, indicating the presence of somatic mutations within clones. When assuming that MLGs differing by one mutation are identical, scion and sucker MLGs were grouped in 20 and 147 multi-locus lineages (MLLs). The majority of scions (90.0%) belonged to a single common MLL, whereas 50.5% of the suckers were single-sample MLLs. However, one MLL was specific to suckers and found in 63 (22.6%) of the samples. Conclusions Our results provide strong evidence that the majority of olive trees in the study are grafted, that the large majority of scions belong to a single ancient cultivar containing somatic mutations, and that the widespread occurrence of one sucker genotype may imply rootstock selection. For the majority of grafted trees it seems likely that saplings were used as rootstocks; their genetic diversity probably is best explained as the result of a

  14. A comparative analysis of genetic variation in rootstocks and scions of old olive trees - a window into the history of olive cultivation practices and past genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazani, Oz; Westberg, Erik; Hanin, Nir; Dag, Arnon; Kerem, Zohar; Tugendhaft, Yizhar; Hmidat, Mohammed; Hijawi, Thameen; Kadereit, Joachim W

    2014-05-28

    Past clonal propagation of olive trees is intimately linked to grafting. However, evidence on grafting in ancient trees is scarce, and not much is known about the source of plant material used for rootstocks. Here, the Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) marker technique was used to study genetic diversity of rootstocks and scions in ancient olive trees from the Levant and its implications for past cultivation of olives. Leaf samples were collected from tree canopies (scions) and shoots growing from the trunk base (suckers). A total of 310 trees were sampled in 32 groves and analyzed with 14 SSR markers. In 82.7% of the trees in which both scion and suckers could be genotyped, these were genetically different, and thus suckers were interpreted to represent the rootstock of grafted trees. Genetic diversity values were much higher among suckers than among scions, and 194 and 87 multi-locus genotypes (MLGs) were found in the two sample groups, respectively. Only five private alleles were found among scions, but 125 among suckers. A frequency analysis revealed a bimodal distribution of genetic distance among MLGs, indicating the presence of somatic mutations within clones. When assuming that MLGs differing by one mutation are identical, scion and sucker MLGs were grouped in 20 and 147 multi-locus lineages (MLLs). The majority of scions (90.0%) belonged to a single common MLL, whereas 50.5% of the suckers were single-sample MLLs. However, one MLL was specific to suckers and found in 63 (22.6%) of the samples. Our results provide strong evidence that the majority of olive trees in the study are grafted, that the large majority of scions belong to a single ancient cultivar containing somatic mutations, and that the widespread occurrence of one sucker genotype may imply rootstock selection. For the majority of grafted trees it seems likely that saplings were used as rootstocks; their genetic diversity probably is best explained as the result of a long history of sexual

  15. Reproductive health indicators of fishes from Pennsylvania watersheds: association with chemicals of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A J; Iwanowicz, L R; Alvarez, D A; Brightbill, R A; Smith, G; Foreman, W T; Manning, R

    2014-10-01

    Fishes were collected at 16 sites within the three major river drainages (Delaware, Susquehanna, and Ohio) of Pennsylvania. Three species were evaluated for biomarkers of estrogenic/antiandrogenic exposure, including plasma vitellogenin and testicular oocytes in male fishes. Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, white sucker Catostomus commersonii, and redhorse sucker Moxostoma species were collected in the summer, a period of low flow and low reproductive activity. Smallmouth bass were the only species in which testicular oocytes were observed; however, measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin were found in male bass and white sucker. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes ranged from 10 to 100%, with the highest prevalence and severity in bass collected in the Susquehanna drainage. The percentage of males with plasma vitellogenin ranged from 0 to 100% in both bass and sucker. Biological findings were compared with chemical analyses of discrete water samples collected at the time of fish collections. Estrone concentrations correlated with testicular oocytes prevalence and severity and with the percentage of male bass with vitellogenin. No correlations were noted with the percentage of male sucker with vitellogenin and water chemical concentrations. The prevalence and severity of testicular oocytes in bass also correlated with the percent of agricultural land use in the watershed above a site. Two sites within the Susquehanna drainage and one in the Delaware were immediately downstream of wastewater treatment plants to compare results with upstream fish. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes was not consistently higher downstream; however, severity did tend to increase downstream.

  16. Suckermouth armored catfish resolve the paradox of simultaneous respiration and suction attachment: a kinematic study of Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerinckx, Tom; Herrel, Anthony; Adriaens, Dominique

    2011-03-01

    Suckermouth armored catfishes (Loricariidae) use their suckermouth for inspiration, feeding, and attachment to substrates. The sucker consists of a pre-valvular cavity, formed by a modified lip disc, and is separated from the larger post-valvular buccal cavity by a muscular oral valve. The combination of respiration and suction attachment seems paradoxal, as a properly functioning suction device would need a sucker without leakage (yet inspiration must occur via the sucker), and continuous subambient pressure in the sucker cavity (even during expiratory mouth floor elevation). In the loricariid Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus, the anatomy of the suckermouth structures was examined, and a kinematic analysis was performed to acquire insights into how respiration and attachment are combined. High-speed external and X-ray recordings show that suckermouth attachment influences respiratory parameters such as decreasing excursion amplitudes of mouth floor elements, and the way water enters the mouth via furrows in the lip disc. Respiration, however, continues during attachment and is not blocked. Our data show that the muscular oral valve actively separates the post-valvular buccal cavity from the pre-valvular sucker cavity. Volume changes of this pre-valvular cavity are opposite to those of the post-valvular cavity and assure sucker function even during expiration. These volume changes are caused by movements of the lower lip, the lower jaws, and the oral valve. The lateral inflow furrow openings, controlled by the maxillary barbels, can occur unilaterally. Morphological and kinematic data also show that the opercle is anatomically and functionally decoupled from the gill opening. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  17. Passage of north temperate fish through the Cowan Dam Denil fishway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christense, B.

    1994-01-01

    Fish passage through a standard Denil fishway under low tailwater conditions was studied at Cowan Dam in Saskatchewan in 1990. In 1991 and 1992, fish passage through an experimental two-level Denil fishway was studied at the same location under similar flow conditions. Six species of fish used the Cowan Dam Denil fishway in 1990: northern pike, walleye, white sucker, longnose sucker, cisco, and lake whitefish. Tag returns suggest that most fish that congregate below Cowan Dam in the spring originate in Lac Ile-a-la-Crosse 150-200 km downstream. Northern pike waited until spawning had been completed before ascending the fishway. Only 12.1% of the pike congregated below the dam are estimated to have ascended the fishway. During 1990 and 1991, the number of pike ascending the fishway appeared to decline as water velocities in the standard and two-level Denil fishways increased. Mean pike length also declined over the period of fish movement, and as water velocities in the standard Denil declined. Walleye did not appear to have any difficulty ascending the standard Denil in 1990, but they did appear to have difficulty ascending the two-level Denil in 1991. Only 29% of the white suckers that ascended the fishway did so prior to spawning. According to recaptures of tagged fish, 58.8% of white suckers present in the tailwater pool ascended the standard Denil in 1990. White suckers also appeared to be able to ascend the two-level Denil without difficulty. Of the longnose suckers, 98% ascended the fishway prior to spawning in 1990, and appeared to ascend both the standard and two-level fishways without obvious delay or difficulty. Only small numbers of cisco and lake whitefish utilized the standard Denil fishway in 1990. 68 refs., 56 figs., 24 tabs

  18. Landscape dynamics of aspen and conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale L. Bartos

    2001-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is widely dispersed across the landscape of North America. Seventy-five percent of the aspen in the western United States occurs in the states of Colorado (50%) and Utah (25%). Reproduction in aspen is primarily by asexual means, e.g., root sprouts that are generally referred to as suckers. An aspen clone consists of numerous...

  19. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-28

    manufacturing soap , soft drinks, candy, a few plastics products, canned meats, reinforced concrete, olive oil. furniture, cooking oil, milk and dairy products...of mango, citrus, fig, Christ’s- thorn. grape, pomegranate, and guava . as well as date palm suckers. JPRS-NEA-89-057 28 August 1989 SOUTH ASIA 65

  20. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  1. 75 FR 10866 - Notice of a Project Waiver of Section 1605 (Buy American Requirement) of the American Recovery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...) with respect to certain water quality treatment and monitoring equipment that will be used in a project... Act (Buy American provision) with respect to certain water quality treatment and monitoring equipment... temperatures for culture of June sucker. The recirculation system requires water treatment and water quality...

  2. Proliferation and Shoot Recovery among the East African Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of East African highland banana (EA-AAA banana) (Musa spp.) is limited by scarcity of planting materials, attributable to their low natural proliferation ability. Under natural field conditions, the EA-AAA bananas greatly differ in suckering ability. In vitro micropropagation has been adopted as an alternative means ...

  3. Research for the development of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) cultivation in Sarawak, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.S.

    1995-01-01

    General introduction (Chapter 1)

    This chapter contains an overview of knowledge with respect to the cultivation of the true sago palm (Metroxylon sagu). The palm flowers once and forms suckers or tillers. Seedlings grow into a rosette stage of leaves

  4. Pulluterina karachiensis sp.n. (Cestoda: Anaplocephalidae) from the Wild Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin

    OpenAIRE

    GHAZI, Rafia Rehana

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Pulluterina karachiensis, is described from the common pigeon Columba livia Gmelin in Karachi. The new species is characterized by possessing small suckers; a longer neck; fewer testes, smaller in size, and the comparatively smaller size of ova. This is the second species of the genus from Pakistan and third in the literature.

  5. Repurposing an Old Game for an International World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Tipton Murff, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    The game SO LONG SUCKER was designed in the United States in 1964 with the aim of showing how potentially unethical behavior necessary for winning was inherent in the game’s incentive structure. Sessions with East Asian participants, however, led to very different game dynamics in which

  6. Vegetative regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  7. Groupwork as a Form of Assessment: Common Problems and Recommended Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the literature on the use of groupwork as a form of assessment in tertiary institutions. It outlines the considerable advantages of groupwork but also its systemic associated problems. In discussing the problems, the paper considers issues such as "free riding" and the "sucker effect", issues associated with ethnic mix…

  8. Organic Contaminant Levels in Three Fish Species Downchannel from the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Fresquez, P.R.; Beveridge, J.W.

    1999-06-01

    The LANL contribution, if any, to organic contaminant levels in the common carp, the channel catfish, and the white sucker in the Rio Grande appear to be small; however, low sample sizes, high variation, and potential interaction of species effect with location treatment effect require additional sampling and analysis.

  9. Effect of thidiazuron on in vivo shoot proliferation of popular banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-09-30

    Sep 30, 2014 ... Mzuzu underscore the need for further studies to determine alternative best cytokine-based growth regulators. Key words: Thidiazuron, in vivo proliferation, Sucker growth, Banana. INTRODUCTION. In vivo macropropagation is an alternative technique for mass production of banana planting materials.

  10. Comparative morphophysiological and yield characteristics of musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that crop cycle did not significantly influenced height of the tallest sucker at harvest of the paint crop, black sigatoka disease responses and the fruit weight. All phonological and yield traits were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the environment evaluation. Similarly, genotype, genome groups and their ...

  11. Etiological and epidemiological studies on the red leaf disease of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseased plants from the field had reduced root systems and had Neosartorya fischeri. Nematodes of the genera Aphelenchus, ... Plants grown from symptomatic suckers in a plant house with diffuse light intensity (7,440 lm m-2) and at 29 oC, recovered from RLD within 6 months. These plants, however, reddened when ...

  12. Performance of Public and Non-Public Organisations in the Dissemination of Cooking Bananas in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshiunza, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the performance of public (POs and non-public (NPOs organisations in the dissemination of cooking bananas in Southeast Nigeria. Cooking bananas were introduced in the area as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease on plantains. Eight POs and 4 NPOs carried out the dissemination exercise. In all, about 55, 000 cooking banana suckers were distributed in about 700 villages to about 30, 000 farmers. NPOs out-performed POs in the dissemination exercise ; they accounted for about 90 % of suckers distributed, as well as about 80 % of villages and 99 % of farmers reached with the crop. Without the involvement and the efforts of the NPOs, the majority of the farmers and villages would not have obtained the crop. Unfortunately, the distribution of suckers by NPOs was limited to villages within the areas where they carry out their main activities, i. e. oil exploration/exploitation. As a resuit, more than 80 % of suckers distributed in the region were concentrated in the states of Bayelsa and Rivers. For a more even distribution of the newly developed hybrid plantains a key recommendation of the study is the involvement in the dissemination exercise of as many church and village groups as possible, especially in areas where NPOs do not operate.

  13. A revision of the haploporinae nicoll, 1914 (digenea: haploporidae) from mullets (mugilidae): two new haploporine genera and a key to the genera of the subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Gibson, David I; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2009-03-01

    Two new haploporine genera are established for parasites of mullets. Ragaia n. g. is erected for R. lizae n. sp. from Liza ramado in the Ebro Delta on the Mediterranean Coast of Spain. This new genus is distinguished by the unique combination of the following characters: a strongly muscular ventral sucker which is twice as large as the oral sucker; a large, muscular hermaphroditic sac similar in length to the ventral sucker; a saccular, thick-walled internal seminal vesicle which is larger than the external seminal vesicle; and the ovary and vitellarium located rather close to the posterior extremity. Pseudodicrogaster n. g. is erected to accommodate Dicrogaster japonica Machida, 1996, as P. japonica (Machida, 1996) n. comb., a parasite of Mugil cephalus L. off Fukaura, Japan. This genus is recognised on the basis of: the tubular condition of both the internal and external seminal vesicles, the latter being much shorter than the former; the sucker ratio; the massive pyriform hermaphroditic sac; the location of the testis; and the presence of two eye-spots in developed miracidia. A key to the nine recognised genera of the Haploporinae is presented.

  14. 76 FR 6490 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... permit to take (trap, seine, capture, handle, fin clip, release, collect, transport, and captive breed... requests a permit to take (capture, handle, collect, transport, and kill) the Lost River sucker (Deltistes... Service, invite the public to comment on the following applications to conduct certain activities with...

  15. In vitro multiplication of banana (Musa sp.) cv. Grand Naine | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A micropropagation method is described for banana (Musa Spp.) Cv. Grand Naine. Suckers were surface sterilized with HgCl2 (0.1%) for 6 min which gave minimum contamination with maximum culture establishment. Of various treatment combinations, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium + BAP 4.00 mg/l with IAA 2.00 ...

  16. Food habits of Bald Eagles breeding in the Arizona desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    Of 1814 foraging attempts, prey captures, or nest deliveries by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in 14 Arizona breeding areas during 1983-1985, 1471 observations were identifiable to at least class: fish (76%), mammal (18%), bird (4%), and reptile/amphibian (2%). Forty-five species were recorded: catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), suckers (...

  17. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    absence of any lateral suckers at the anterior end. But in the absence of greater details of structure, it is not possible to assign any definite specific position to this trematode. Neodiplosioint in tyiense Patwardhan, i935. Body 2.82 mm. long, divided into two unequal regions. Forebody flattened and measures 62 mm. x 1.23 ...

  18. Prisoner's Dilemma and other Games that Animals Play

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    But we just showed that one's optimal strategy was to defect. Would you ... The important thing is that you have to play ... the game in various facets of life, be it in business or otherwise. What you do ... who are too trusting often get 'suckered'.

  19. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Protected Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-22

    purple- spined hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus engelmanii var. purpureus), the Siler pin- cushion cactus (Pediocactus sileri), and the dwarf bear poppy...WHITE RIVER SPINE DACE K WHITE RIVER DESERT SUCKER L WHITE RIVER SPRINGFISH M PAHRANAGAT ROUNDTAIL CHUB* N PAHRUMP KILLIFISH" O MOAPA DACE* P LAHONTAN

  20. Using agronomic tools to improve pineapple quality and its uniformity in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Ananas comosus; Benin; cultural practices; fruit quality; hapas; heterogeneity; planting material; slips; suckers; supply chain; variation in quality; variation within crop; vigour.

    Poor average quality and uniformity in quality have become major issues

  1. Toxicity of aluminium to pinapple ( Ananas comosus ) grown on acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The younger leaves of Al-stressed plants were small curled along the margin and frequently Chlorotic. The effect was less pronounced in Queen than in smooth Cayenne. Leaf analysis of Pineapple suckers showed reduction in Ca and P and increased AI value for plants exposed to excess of soluble AI. When the ...

  2. A new species of Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura) from a bony fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new species is characterized by the unique shape of the antennule, antenna and maxilla. In addition, huge scales are present on the mouth tube and smaller scales are present on the base of the mouth tube. A row of small spines is present inside the sucker rim of the maxillule. A round dimpled structure occurs ventral ...

  3. Title: Effect of abiotic stress on reduction of microbial contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TERI

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of osmotic stress on in vitro propagation of. Musa sp. ... In vitro propagation of banana preferably use sword sucker as explant source where microbial contamination poses a great problem in ... micropropagation. Endo-bacterial contamination is one of the major problems ...

  4. Banana and coconut in-vitro cultures for induced mutations studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, E.V. de; Ubalde, E.M.; Rosario, A.G. del

    1976-01-01

    Explants obtained from shoot tips of developing suckers of banana were found to be suitable materials for plantlet formation in vitro. Subculture of the shoots formed from the original explant can lead to regeneration of numerous shoots from a single sucker. The technique can be a practical method of propagation. Though a more rapid rate of multiplication is still to be desired the present rate is much faster than the maximum rate of sucker production obtained under natural conditions. The conditions which favor shoot formation were the addition of benzyladenine, the use of dextrose at 2% instead of 4%, and the use of either Murashige and Skoog or of Vacin and Went salt solution. Viable explants can be obtained from suckers irradiated up to 10 Kr. Survival and shoot formation are sometimes not adversely affected by irradiation. Chlorosis and reduction in plantlet size and unusual seedling characters were among the features observed in plantlets regenerated from irradiated tissues. Proliferations derived from the cotyledonary sheath in coconut embryos could be successfully subcultured. The initial and subsequent proliferations may appear as nodular growths. In continuous subculture a nodular growth may change over to a large mass with smooth surface. Cellular characteristics of the two types of growth are markedly different. (author)

  5. Allozyme and microsatellite data reveal small clone size and high genetic diversity in aspen in the southern Cascade Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer DeWoody; Thomas H. Rickman; Bobette E. Jones; Valerie D. Hipkins

    2009-01-01

    The most widely distributed tree in North America, quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides, Michx.), reproduces sexually via seed and clonally via suckers. The size of aspen clones varies geographically, generally smaller in the east and large in the arid Intermountain West. In order to describe clone size and genetic structure of aspen in the southern Cascade...

  6. New morphological data on Opecoeloides pedicathedrae Travassos, Freitas & Buhrnheim, 1966 (Digenea: Opecoelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice M. M. Fernandes

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available New morphological data on the ventral sucker of Opecoeloides pedicathedrae with ten papilliform processes, original figures and measurementes, are reported.São apresentados na presente nota, novos dados morfológicos sobre o acetábulo de Opecoeloides pedicathedrae com dez estruturas papiliformes ao invés de seis previamente descritas, figuras originais e medidas.

  7. 78 FR 5369 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Zuni Bluehead...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... sucker habitat include water withdrawal, sedimentation, impoundments, housing development, wildfire, and... and/or water depth. Reduced stream velocities result in increased sedimentation, while overall loss of... conversion of large portions of flowing streams to intermittent streams or dewatered channels, thus...

  8. Control of lethal browning by using ascorbic acid on shoot tip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of ascorbic acid during explants preparation and the effect of different concentrations of ascorbic acid in controlling lethal browning and survival of the explants in local banana cv. Mzuzu banana were investigated. The explants were taken from young suckers. The shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog's ...

  9. Polystomoides bourgati (Monogenea: Polystomatidae) infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the testes of the specimens recovered from Ossisa and Abeokuta were ovoid to round in shape, those in parasites recovered from turtles purchased from Sapele were lobed and laterally elongated. Two of the parasite specimens recovered from turtles purchased in Ossisa had seven haptoral suckers. This is the first ...

  10. Analytical Solution to the Pneumatic Transient Rod System at ACRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, Brandon Michael

    2016-01-01

    The ACRR pulse is pneumatically driven by nitrogen in a system of pipes, valves and hoses up to the connection of the pneumatic system and mechanical linkages of the transient rod (TR). The main components of the TR pneumatic system are the regulator, accumulator, solenoid valve and piston-cylinder assembly. The purpose of this analysis is to analyze the flow of nitrogen through the TR pneumatic system in order to develop a motion profile of the piston during the pulse and be able to predict the pressure distributions inside both the cylinder and accumulators. The predicted pressure distributions will be validated against pressure transducer data, while the motion profile will be compared to proximity switch data. By predicting the motion of the piston, pulse timing will be determined and provided to the engineers/operators for verification. The motion profile will provide an acceleration distribution to be used in Razorback to more accurately predict reactivity insertion into the system.

  11. Analytical Solution to the Pneumatic Transient Rod System at ACRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Brandon Michael [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The ACRR pulse is pneumatically driven by nitrogen in a system of pipes, valves and hoses up to the connection of the pneumatic system and mechanical linkages of the transient rod (TR). The main components of the TR pneumatic system are the regulator, accumulator, solenoid valve and piston-cylinder assembly. The purpose of this analysis is to analyze the flow of nitrogen through the TR pneumatic system in order to develop a motion profile of the piston during the pulse and be able to predict the pressure distributions inside both the cylinder and accumulators. The predicted pressure distributions will be validated against pressure transducer data, while the motion profile will be compared to proximity switch data. By predicting the motion of the piston, pulse timing will be determined and provided to the engineers/operators for verification. The motion profile will provide an acceleration distribution to be used in Razorback to more accurately predict reactivity insertion into the system.

  12. 印度殖盘吸虫神经系统的乙酰胆碱酯酶定位观察%Localization of Acetylcholinesterase in the Nervous System of Cotylophoron indicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩; 张威; 朱燃; 诸葛洪祥

    2011-01-01

    The nervous system of Cotylophoron indicum was studied by using acetylcholine esterase histochemical staining techniques. Cranial ganglia and transverse commissure situate at dorso-lateral body between oral sucker and genital sucker. From the cranial ganglia four pairs of nerves proceed cephalad and connect with nerve network of the oral sucker.The posterior nerve cords from the cranial ganglia consist of 3 pairs and the ventral ones are the stoutest and longest nerves. A few branches from the 3 pairs of nerve cords connect to ventral sucker. There is a developed nerve network distributed in its genital sucker. The nerve fibers on body surface in pairs and parallel are diagonal and cross to form a nerve network on body surface. Three kinds of neurocytes distribute at the prosomal region. Results show that the nervous system structure of C. indicum is consistent with the essential features of Digenea, but more special and complicated around genital sucker.%采用乙酰胆碱酯酶组织化学方法对印度殖盘吸虫进行染色,观察并描绘其神经结构.结果 显示,该吸虫脑神经节与神经连合位于口吸盘和生殖吸盘之间、虫体的背侧.脑神经节向前发出4对神经干,与口吸盘内神经网相连;向后发出3对神经干,其中腹主神经干最粗大,3对神经干在虫体后端各分出几条神经分支进人腹吸盘.生殖吸盘上分布有发达的神经网.虫体表面神经纤维成对并行,斜行交叉,构成表面神经网.分布于前体部的神经细胞分为3种类型.说明印度殖盘吸虫神经结构符合复殖类吸虫的基本特征,其生殖吸盘内具有独特、复杂的神经结构.

  13. Detection of DNA methylation changes in micropropagated banana plants using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Echeverria, S; Herrera-Valencia, V A.; Kay, A -J.

    2001-07-01

    The extent of DNA methylation polymorphisms was evaluated in micropropagated banana (Musa AAA cv. 'Grand Naine') derived from either the vegetative apex of the sucker or the floral apex of the male inflorescence using the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) technique. In all, 465 fragments, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers were amplified using eight combinations of primers. A total of 107 sites (23%) were found to be methylated at cytosine in the genome of micropropagated banana plants. In plants micropropagated from the male inflorescence explant 14 (3%) DNA methylation events were polymorphic, while plants micropropagated from the sucker explant produced 8 (1.7%) polymorphisms. No DNA methylation polymorphisms were detected in conventionally propagated banana plants. These results demonstrated the usefulness of MSAP to detect DNA methylation events in micropropagated banana plants and indicate that DNA methylation polymorphisms are associated with micropropagation.

  14. Creation of artificial spawning grounds downstream of the Riviere-des-Prairies Spillway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdon, R.

    1991-01-01

    The creation of artificial spawning grounds is often considered a valuable means of mitigating impact on fish populations. In 1985, following reconstruction of the Riviere-des-Prairies spillway, granular material from the access road was used to create a new spawning area for resident fish. This 0.5 hectare spawning bed was used over the following years by walleye, sauger, longnose and white suckers, and lake sturgeon for reproduction. It was also used as a fry habitat by sturgeon and sucker. Since the reproductive success of the fish depends largely on stable flow conditions, the quality of the habitat is strongly related to the spillway flow regime. Operating procedures compatible with power generation can optimize the spawning success of desirable fish species. Details are presented of site design, construction, fish monitoring, and spillway operation. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  15. PNRI mutant variety: sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2011-01-01

    Sansevieria 'Sword of Ibe,' registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2008 Or-66, is a chlorophyll mutant of Sansevieria trifasciata 'Moonshine' developed by treating its suckers or shoots arising from a rhizome with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical in growth habit and vigor to Sansevieria 'Moonshine,' also known as Moonglow. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color and flowering were altered by gamma irradiation without changing the other characteristics of the plant. Propagation is true-to-type by separation of sucker and top cutting. The plant is recommended for use as landscaping material and as pot plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves may be harvested as cut foliage for Japanese flower arrangements. (author)

  16. Discovery of Maritrema jebuensis n. sp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the Asian Shore Crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ok-Sik; Lee, Hye-Jung; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Seung-Ha; Park, Il-Yong; Oh, Sang-Ah; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

    2010-12-01

    Maritrema spp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) are parasites of birds, but have not been found in the Republic of Korea. In this study, metacercariae of Maritrema sp. were discovered in the Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, caught in the mud-flats of Jebu-do, Hwasung-gun, Gyeonggi-do, and the adult flukes were confirmed by experimental infection into mice. Based on the symmetric ribbon-like vitellarium, adult flukes of Maritrema sp. were identified, but did not belong to previously described species in terms of the following morphologic characteristics: ceca reaching to the lateral wall at the anterior border of the ovary; ventral sucker larger than oral sucker; a prominent metraterm; and vitellarium forming a complete ring. Hence, we named this microphallid M. jebuensis n. sp. after the island where the second intermediate hosts were collected. From this study, it has been shown that Maritrema sp. is distributed in Korea and transmitted by the Asian shore crab, H. sanguineus.

  17. New Records of Remora brachyptera and R. osteochir (Perciformes: Echeneidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung, Se Hun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Remora brachyptera and R. osteochir, belonging to the family Echeneidae were collected for the first time off Jeju Island, Korea, in July and August 2013 and off Ganggu-myeon, Yeongdeok-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do in June 2014. Remora brachyptera is characterized by a sucker with 16 pairs of disc laminae and a dorsal fin that originates anterior of the origin of the anal fin. Remora osteochir is characterized by a sucker with 18 pairs of disc laminae and a sucking disc that extends beyond the posterior end of the pectoral fin. New Korean names proposed for the species are "Meo-ri-ppal-pan-i" for R. brachyptera and "Ppyeo-dae-ppal-pan-i" for R. osteochir.

  18. An autoradiographic study on the distribution of 14C-glycine in clonorchis sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Song, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To study an aspect of protein metabolism in chinese liverfluke, Clonorchis sinensis, an autoradiographic study was performed. A batch of 25 ml erlenmeyer flasks, each flask containing 10 worms of C. sinensis and 10 ml of Tyrode medium with 2.5 μCi/ml of 14 C-glycine, was incubated for 1 hour in Dubnoff metabolic shaking incubator at 37 0 C. Those worms were processed for microautoradiography immediately after the incubation, and following results were obtained from the autoradiographs. The densities of black silver grains derived from 14 C-glycine were the most apparent in the subparenchymal cells, intestinal epithelium, vitelline gland cells, ovary and the wall of the seminal vesicle. Moderate grade of densities were observed in the tegument, oral sucker, pharynx, intestinal content and in the testes. The reticular tissue, ventral sucker, uterus with eggs, seminal receptacle and the content of seminal vesicle showed trace amount of silver grains. (author)

  19. Simultaneous separate exploitation of two formations by a single well in npu ocytyabrskneft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmanov, G R; Kashapov, M T

    1970-01-01

    In order to produce 2 formations with a single well, various double completions are used. One procedure uses 2 parallel 2-in. tubing strings separated by packers. In some cases, production flows in both strings; in other cases, one formation flows while the other is pumped, while sometimes both formations are pumped. Among the main advantages of such completions are that paraffin can readily be scraped from tubing, while the main disadvantage is that 2 sets of equipment are used, 2 tubing strings, pump units, etc. This problem was solved by using one tubing string and mounting 2 pumps on one sucker rod string. Part of the sucker rod string in this arrangement is hollow. A schematic diagram and description of this equipment are given. The method has been successfully tested in the field.

  20. Fish resource data from the Snare River, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, E.F.; Chang-Kue, K.T.J.; MacDonald, G.

    1994-01-01

    An extensive fish sampling and tagging program was conducted on the Snare River, Northwest Territories, in order to collect baseline data on the fish populations in sections of the river altered by hydroelectric projects. Fish populations were sampled from May to July 1977 in five sections of the river that were influenced by development of hydropower at three dams currently on line; 530 tagged fish were also released. The biweekly catch composition in experimental gill nets for each study area and the catch per gill net mesh size are presented for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake cisco (Coregonus artedi), northern pike (Esox lucius), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus). Age-specific data on length, weight, age, sex, and maturity are also included. 7 refs., 12 figs., 42 tabs

  1. Egg deposition by lithophilic-spawning fishes in the Detroit and Saint Clair Rivers, 2005–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Carson G.; Craig, Jaquelyn M.; Roseman, Edward F.; Fischer, Jason L.; Manny, Bruce A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    2017-03-14

    A long-term, multiseason, fish egg sampling program conducted annually on the Detroit (2005–14) and Saint Clair (2010–14) Rivers was summarized to identify where productive fish spawning habitat currently exists. Egg mats were placed on the river bottom during the spring and fall at historic spawning areas and candidate fish spawning habitat restoration sites throughout both rivers. Widespread evidence was found of lithophilic spawning by numerous native fish species, including walleye (Sander vitreus), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), suckers (Catostomidae spp.), and trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus). Walleye, lake whitefish, and suckers spp. spawned in nearly every region of each river in all years on both reef and nonreef substrates. Lake sturgeon eggs were collected almost exclusively over constructed reefs. Catch-per-unit effort of walleye, lake whitefish, and sucker eggs was much greater in the Detroit River than in the Saint Clair River, while Saint Clair River sites supported the greatest collections of lake sturgeon eggs. Collections during this study of lake sturgeon eggs on man-made spawning reefs suggest that artificial reefs may be an effective tool for restoring fish populations in the Detroit and Saint Clair Rivers; however, the quick response of lake sturgeon to spawn on newly constructed reefs and the fact that walleye, lake whitefish, and sucker eggs were often collected over substrate with little interstitial space to protect eggs from siltation and predators suggests that lack of suitable spawning habitat may continue to limit reproduction of lithophilic-spawning fish species in the Saint Clair-Detroit River System.

  2. Analysis of Three Cobble Ring Sites at Abiquiu Reservoir, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    included cutthroat trout, channel catfish, various suckers and chubs, and crayfish. The Rio Chama probably was too cold for most edible turtles. 9 3.0...expectations for aggregated specialized big game hunters would be use of local settings in areas of maximum diversity and abundance of edible plants...to be the first man ever to carry a line of cutlery samples west of the Mississippi River (Ferguson 1974:47). This artifact thus postdates 1840

  3. A new species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Mediterranean mullet (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoug, Douniazed; Rima, Mohamed; Boutiba, Zitouni; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, Ana

    2014-02-01

    A new hemiurid digenean, Saturnius gibsoni n. sp., is described from the stomach lining of Mugil cephalus L. off Oran, Mediterranean coast of Algeria. Characteristic morphological features of the new species include small size of the body which is comprised of six pseudosegments, small ventral sucker, weakly developed mound-shaped flange at the level of the ventral sucker, and eggs being large in relation to the size of the body. Saturnius gibsoni n. sp. resembles S. minutus Blasco-Costa, Pankov, Gibson, Balbuena, Raga, Sarabeev & Kostadinova, 2006 and two unidentified Saturnius spp. in the small size of the body and most metrical features. However, in spite of the presence of five transverse septa resulting in six pseudosegments and the range overlap of some metrical features, the ventral sucker in S. minutus is much larger, the ventral sucker muscular flange is more prominent, the last pseudosegment is narrower in relation to body width and more rounded, and the eggs are smaller (mean 21 × 10 vs 25 × 12 μm). Furthermore, the partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene region (domains D1-D3; 1,195 nt) obtained from two isolates of S. gibsoni n. sp. differed by 11 nt (0.9%) from that of S. minutus. Both unidentified forms of Saturnius are clearly distinguishable from S. gibsoni n. sp. by the presence of six stout, transverse muscular septa, forming seven pseudosegments (vs five septa forming six pseudosegments). Bayesian inference analysis of partial 28S rDNA sequences based on a total of 15 species from the families Hemiuridae and Lecithasteridae depicted the Bunocotylinae Dollfus, 1950 as a strongly supported basal clade, with Bunocotyle progenetica (Markowski, 1936) as the closest sister taxon to Saturnius spp.

  4. An occupancy-based quantification of the highly imperiled status of desert fishes of the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra; Conner, Mary M; Salant, Nira L; Macfarlane, William W

    2015-08-01

    Desert fishes are some of the most imperiled vertebrates worldwide due to their low economic worth and because they compete with humans for water. An ecological complex of fishes, 2 suckers (Catostomus latipinnis, Catostomus discobolus) and a chub (Gila robusta) (collectively managed as the so-called three species) are endemic to the U.S. Colorado River Basin, are affected by multiple stressors, and have allegedly declined dramatically. We built a series of occupancy models to determine relationships between trends in occupancy, local extinction, and local colonization rates, identify potential limiting factors, and evaluate the suitability of managing the 3 species collectively. For a historical period (1889-2011), top performing models (AICc) included a positive time trend in local extinction probability and a negative trend in local colonization probability. As flood frequency decreased post-development local extinction probability increased. By the end of the time series, 47% (95% CI 34-61) and 15% (95% CI 6-33) of sites remained occupied by the suckers and the chub, respectively, and models with the 2 species of sucker as one group and the chub as the other performed best. For a contemporary period (2001-2011), top performing (based on AICc ) models included peak annual discharge. As peak discharge increased, local extinction probability decreased and local colonization probability increased. For the contemporary period, results of models that split all 3 species into separate groups were similar to results of models that combined the 2 suckers but not the chub. Collectively, these results confirmed that declines in these fishes were strongly associated with water development and that relative to their historic distribution all 3 species have declined dramatically. Further, the chub was distinct in that it declined the most dramatically and therefore may need to be managed separately. Our modeling approach may be useful in other situations in which targeted

  5. Observations on the seasonal distribution of native fish in a 10-kilometer reach of San Bernardino Creek, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. O. Minckley

    2013-01-01

    San Bernardino Creek is a northern tributary of the Río Yaqui that originates in the United States and crosses the International Border just east of Douglas, Arizona/Agua Prieta, Sonora and immediately south of San Bernardino/Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge. Six of eight Río Yaqui native fishes occur in this reach:four minnows, a sucker, and a poeciliid....

  6. Influence of weight and type of planting material on fruit quality and its heterogeneity in pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Cultural practices can affect the quality of pineapple fruits and its variation. The objectives of this study were to investigate (a) effects of weight class and type of planting material on fruit quality, heterogeneity in quality and proportion and yield of fruits meeting European export standards, and (b) the improvement in quality, proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards when flowering was induced at optimum time. Experiments were conducted in Benin with cvs Sugarloaf (a Perola type) and Smooth Cayenne. In cv. Sugarloaf, experimental factors were weight class of planting material (light, mixed, heavy) and time of flowering induction (farmers', optimum) (Experiment 1). In cv. Smooth Cayenne an additional experimental factor was the type of planting material (hapas, ground suckers, a mixture of the two) (Experiment 2). Fruits from heavy planting material had higher infructescence and fruit weights, longer infructescences, shorter crowns, and smaller crown: infructescence length than fruits from light planting material. The type of planting material in Experiment 2 did not significantly affect fruit quality except crown length: fruits from hapas had shorter crowns than those from ground suckers. Crops from heavy planting material had a higher proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards than those from other weight classes in Experiment 1 only; also the type of planting material in Experiment 2 did not affect these variates. Heterogeneity in fruit quality was usually not reduced by selecting only light or heavy planting material instead of mixing weights; incidentally the coefficient of variation was significantly reduced in fruits from heavy slips only. Heterogeneity was also not reduced by not mixing hapas and ground suckers. Flowering induction at optimum time increased the proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards in fruits from light and mixed slip weights and in those from the mixture of heavy hapas plus ground suckers.

  7. Rapid Vegetative Propagation Method for Carob

    OpenAIRE

    Hamide GUBBUK; Esma GUNES; Tomas AYALA-SILVA; Sezai ERCISLI

    2011-01-01

    Most of fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygocity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and are among the most difficult to propagate fruit species. In the study, air-layering propagation method was investigated first time to compare wild and cultivated (�Sisam�) carob types. In the experiment, one year old carob limbs were air-layered on coco peat medium by wrapping with...

  8. The surface topography of Callorhynchocotyle callorhynchi (Manter, 1955) (Monogenea: Hexabothriidae), a parasite of the holocephalan fish Callorhinchus capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Reed, Cecile; Gibson, David I

    2015-09-01

    A scanning electron microscopical study, incorporating some transmission electron microscopical observations, was undertaken on the surface topography of the gill parasite Callorhynchocotyle callorhynchi (Manter, 1955) (Monogenea: Hexabothriidae) from the Cape elephant fish Callorhinchus capensis (Holocephali) off the western coast of South Africa. The study revealed the presence of several new characteristics for this species. These include the presence of regularly distributed, knob-shaped projections on the surface of the haptor, haptoral appendix and sucker peduncles measuring 0.2 μm and in concentrations of approximately 100 per 10 μm(2) and the existence of a ridge which bisects each sucker lumen, forming two different loculi. We also report, for the first time for any monogenean, the presence of 'true spines'; these occur on the luminal surface of the haptoral suckers and have all of the characteristics of the tegumental spines of digeneans, i.e. they are situated within the distal syncytial tegumental cytoplasm, rest on the basal plasma membrane, have a uniform structure and are covered apically by the tegumental surface plasma membrane. These spines are simple, straight and single-pointed. Under the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), within an area of 20 μm in diameter, 23 such spines were counted, but their concentration and arrangement varies in different regions of the sucker. At their base, they measure about 1.5 μm in width and reach approximately 2 μm in height above the general level of the tegument, but transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements of an entire spine indicate that they may reach 3 μm in total length. The presence of spines, possessing similar morphological characteristics in both basal polyopisthocotylean monogeneans and digeneans, represents another characteristic which may prove useful in understanding the evolutionary relationships within the Neodermata.

  9. Comportement des plants issus de différents modes de propagation du coïx (Coïx lacryma-Jobi L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naku Mbumba, MD.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of propagating material on growth and production of Job's tears plants. It was found from this work that Job's tears plants grown from different propagation methods have different growth characteristics. Seedlings develop more uniformly from season to season, are more drought resistant and less susceptible to stem borers, than plants propagated by vegetative means. namely suckers and cuttings. Furthermore, seed production is higher with seedlings than with vegetatively propagated plants, while the reverse is true for forage production.

  10. Human Adaptation Along the Columbia River 4700 - 1600 BP. A Report of Test Excavation at River Mile 590, North Central Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    drove their herds through te lands. Indian agents were forced to make on-the-spot adjudications and hostile feelings abounded on both sides (Oliphant...chubs/suckers) occur frequently in low numbers; bison, pronghorn, muskrat, beaver, porcupine and snakes are rare. Modified Bone. The amount of modified...Group Descriptions L. Turtle, deer and either porcupine or muskrat present, either deer or turtle predominant M. Salmon and deer are predominant elements

  11. Plastics control paraffin buildup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-01

    Paraffin buildup in producing oil wells has been virtually eliminated by the use of plastic-coated sucker rods. The payout of the plasticing process is generally reached in less than a year, and the paraffin buildup may be inhibited for 10 yr or longer. Most of the plants applying plastic coatings to sucker rods are now fully automated, though a few still offer the hand-sprayed coating that some operators prefer. The several steps involved are described. The ideal plastic for the job is resistant to chemicals at high and low temperatures, flexible, has good adhesion, abrasion resistance, impact resistance, and a smooth glossy finish. The phenol aldehyde and epoxy resins presently offered by the industry fulfill these specifications very well; the multicoating and multibaking techniques improve their performance. Due to wide variations in the severity of the paraffin problem from one oil field to another, there is no general rule to estimate the possible savings from using plastic-coated sucker rods. The process, however, does appear to do a remarkable job in controlling paraffin buildup wherever it is a problem in producing oil by pump.

  12. Spread of Cooking Bananas (Musa spp., genome ABB in a Traditional Plantain-Growing Area in Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezedinma, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the level and rate of spread of cooking bananas (Musa spp., ABB genome to determine their success among the farmers. They were introduced in Southeastern Nigeria in the mid-1980s by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA as an interim measure to reduce the incidence of black sigatoka disease on plantains. Data were collected, using a structured questionnaire, from 285 randomly selected farmers in 76 villages. Results of the study indicate that about 60% of the respondents have given out suckers to other fellow-farmers. On average, every "diffuser" distributed 8 cooking banana suckers to 5 new fellow-farmers. Primary and secondary diffusions accounted for 59% and 61% respectively; while inter-village diffusion accounted for about 50% of the movement of the suckers. The study also found that the demand for the crop has been increasing since its introduction in the region. These results indicate a high level of diffusion of the crop considering its newness in the region and that it is well accepted. They also suggest that the crop has the potential of supplementing plantain in food and income generation for the farmers in the region.

  13. Influence of smoke and ethylene on the fruiting of the pineapple (Ananas sativus Shult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, A G

    1932-01-01

    The use of smoke to force pineapple plants into fruit production is a practical development. No controlled experimental work has been reported of this practice. For this reason it seemed desirable to determine the influence of smoke under controlled conditions. In considering the cause of flowering of the pineapple plant following the treatment of smoke, the primary hypothesis raised was that smoke forces the pineapple plant out of a dormant condition. However it was recognized that some constituents of smoke probably ethylene might effect metabolic changes even though the plants were not in a dormant condition, which changes might conduce to floral development. Both slips and suckers are completely developed plants. The roots at the time of planting are very short. The fact that new leaf development is retarded four to six weeks after planting suggests that slips and suckers are in a state of dormancy. It seemed probable that the use of ethylene on these might bring about an immediate resumption on growth with a consequent shortening of the time for flower production. There also remained the possibility as was realized, of a more pronounced effect of ethylene on fruit production. Accordingly an experiment was devised in which both slips and suckers were exposed to ethylene previous to planting. Such a method, if it proved successful, would obviously be a cheaper and more practical method than the use of smoke under field conditions.

  14. Identification, immunolocalization, and characterization analyses of an exopeptidase of papain superfamily, (cathepsin C) from Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; He, Lei; Xu, Yanquan; Chen, Xueqing; Huang, Yan; Ren, Mengyu; Liang, Chi; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Lu, Gang; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-10-01

    Cathepsin C is an important exopeptidase of papain superfamily and plays a number of great important roles during the parasitic life cycle. The amino acid sequence of cathepsin C from Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) showed 54, 53, and 49% identities to that of Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Homo sapiens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing the sequences of papain superfamily of C. sinensis demonstrated that cathepsin C and cathepsin Bs came from a common ancestry. Cathepsin C of C. sinensis (Cscathepsin C) was identified as an excretory/secretory product by Western blot analysis. The results of transcriptional level and translational level of Cscathepsin C at metacercaria stage were higher than that at adult worms. Immunolocalization analysis indicated that Cscathepsin C was specifically distributed in the suckers (oral sucker and ventral sucker), eggs, vitellarium, intestines, and testis of adult worms. In the metacercaria, it was mainly detected on the cyst wall and excretory bladder. Combining with the results mentioned above, it implies that Cscathepsin C may be an essential proteolytic enzyme for proteins digestion of hosts, nutrition assimilation, and immune invasion of C. sinensis. Furthermore, it may be a potential diagnostic antigen and drug target against C. sinensis infection.

  15. Underwater running device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Matsuo, Takashiro; Yoshida, Yoji

    1996-01-01

    An underwater running device for an underwater inspection device for detecting inner surfaces of a reactor or a water vessel has an outer frame and an inner frame, and both of them are connected slidably by an air cylinder and connected rotatably by a shaft. The outer frame has four outer frame legs, and each of the outer frame legs is equipped with a sucker at the top end. The inner frame has four inner frame legs each equipped with a sucker at the top end. The outer frame legs and the inner frame legs are each connected with the outer frame and the inner frame by the air cylinder. The outer and the inner frame legs can be elevated or lowered (or extended or contracted) by the air cylinder. The sucker is connected with a jet pump-type negative pressure generator. The device can run and move by repeating attraction and releasing of the outer frame legs and the inner frame legs alternately while maintaining the posture of the inspection device stably. (I.N.)

  16. Population status, demography and habitat preferences of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda Blume in Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmoko, Didik; Burgman, Mark A.; Guhardja, Edi; Mogea, Johanis P.; Walujo, Eko B.; Setiadi, Dede

    2005-09-01

    Population status and demography of a population of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda in a peat swamp ecosystem of Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra (one of the largest remaining populations) was documented at 16 different sites, covering a wide range of forest and habitat types, vegetation associations, and population sizes. Population sizes were dominated by suckers comprising 89% of the total population. Individuals with stem heights between 0 and 4 m (47.5%), stem diameters between 4 and 10 cm (82.0%), and leaf scar numbers between 0 and 60 (69.2%) dominated. Ages of individuals were estimated and used to fit a curvilinear relationship between age and stem height. Wild plants reach reproductive maturity within 25-30 years, or when they have stem heights in excess of 2.0 m, or when they have 15-25 leaf scars. They can survive more than 80 years. Cultivated plants appear to reproduce earlier and produce more seeds than wild plants. Individual growth was plant size-dependent with the adult stage being the most productive. Higher mortality was experienced by suckers, especially in continuously waterlogged conditions and locations with dense canopies. Sucker growth was faster than seedling growth, an adaptation that may allow the species to cope with periodically waterlogged conditions. Population abundances varied with habitat types; well-drained areas were the most suitable habitat. To conserve the most important remaining populations of the lipstick palm, it is crucial to protect well-drained sites in Kerumutan Reserve.

  17. Evaluation of selected nursery traits in combination rootstocks and variety for Asian pear trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Nečas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the nursery traits of rootstocks and varieties is an important tool for optimisation of the fruit orchard plants final growing. The present experiment evaluated the standard and progressive rootstocks for the pear trees in combination with the Asian varieties of P. pyrifolia Nakai. a P. ussuriensis Maxim. in comparison with the control variety ‘Conference’ P. communis L. The evaluation was focused on such properties as affinity, growth of the tree propagated by budding, thickness of the root crown at the rootstock and the root suckering. Their interactions were tested statistically. The highest values of affinity within the nursery were achieved with the following rootstocks: ‘BET’ (96.6%, ‘FOX 11’ (95.5 %, and ‘MA’ (94.4 %. ‘Hosui’ was identified as the variety with the greatest growing capacity, with an average gain of 1238.2 mm. The most supported variety growth was exhibited by the ‘FOX 11’ rootstock, with an average gain of the trees propagated by budding of 1388.8 mm. The growth intensity itself was demonstrated most in the thickness of the root crown of the ‘BET’ (P. betulifolia rootstock, namely 15.8 mm. The rootstock that exhibited the strongest root suckering was also ‘BET’ with 6.2 suckers per rootstock. The identified differences between the varieties and rootstocks were confirmed as statistically significant or even highly statistically significant.

  18. New circumscription of freshwater fish parasites Monobothrium diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium mackiewicz, 1968 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) using morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Choudhury, Anindo; Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Two genera of caryophyllidean cestodes, Monobothrium Diesing, 1863 and Promonobothrium Mackiewicz, 1968 , from cypriniform fishes (cyprinids and suckers) in the Holarctic Region, are revised using morphological and molecular evidence. Monobothrium, which includes morphologically distinct species that occur in European cyprinids (Cyprinidae) and North American suckers (Catostomidae), is separated into 3 genera. Monobothrium becomes monotypic and is represented by its type species, Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922 , which occurs in European tench, Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae). Monobothrium auriculatum Kulakovskaya, 1961 from Leuciscus danilevskii (Cyprinidae) in the Ukraine, is tentatively transferred to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 as Caryophyllaeus auriculatus ( Kulakovskaya, 1961 ) n. comb. because it possesses morphological characteristics considered to be typical of Caryophyllaeus but which are absent in Monobothrium (shape of the scolex, presence of a seminal receptacle, short neck, and absence of a large, muscular papilla surrounding the large gonopores). The 5 remaining Monobothrium species from suckers in North America are transferred to Promonobothrium based on shared morphological features and molecular data. Species of Promonobothrium differ from M. wageneri by having an external seminal vesicle (absent in M. wageneri), the absence of postovarian vitelline follicles in North American species (present in M. wageneri), and a scolex that is digitiform papillate, loculopapillate, or loculotruncate, i.e., equipped with weak loculi and a terminal introvert (vs. claviform, bluntly ended, with 6 weak, shallow, longitudinal grooves in M. wageneri). Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes ssr- and lsrDNA placed Promonobothrium minytremi within a clade of 3 of the 5 North American Monobothrium species. The position of M. wageneri, although distinct from the remaining Monobothrium species, is unresolved within the Caryophyllidea. This study further

  19. Incore inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogisu, Tatsuki; Taguchi, Kosei.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can inspect surfaces of equipments in reactor water in a nuclear reactor in a state of atmospheric air. Namely, an inspection device is movable forwardly and backwardly in a water-proof vessel. An annular sucker with pleats is disposed to the outer side of a lid of the water-proof vessel. A television camera for an under water monitoring is disposed to the inner side of the lid of the water-proof vessel by way of a partitioning wall with lid. Transferring screws are disposed at the back and on the side of the water-proof vessel. In the device having such a constitution, (1) the inside of the water-proof vessel is at first made water-tight by closing the partitioning wall with lid, (2) the back and the side screws are operated by the guide of the underwater monitoring television camera, to transfer the water-proof vessel to the surface of the reactor core to be inspected, (3) the annular sucker with pleats is urged on the surface to be inspected by the back screw, to fix the water-proof vessel, (4) reactor water in a space of the annular sucker with pleats is discharged and replaced with air, and (5) the lid of the partition wall with lid is opened and the inspection device is disposed at a position of the underwater monitoring television camera, to inspect the surface to be inspected in a state of atmospheric air. (I.S.)

  20. A revision of the haploporinae nicoll, 1914 (digenea: haploporidae) from mullets (mugilidae): Dicrogaster Looss, 1902 and Forticulcita overstreet, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Raga, Juan Antonio; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2009-03-01

    The status of the nominal species of Dicrogaster is re-assessed by means of a comparative morphological study based on newly collected material from the western Mediterranean and a critical evaluation of the published data. D. perpusilla Looss, 1902 (type-species) and D. contracta Looss, 1902 are redescribed on the basis of new material from Liza spp. D. fragilis Fernández Bargiela, 1987 is considered a junior synonym of D. fastigata Thatcher & Sparks, 1958 and D. maryutensis Al-Bassel, 1990 is considered to be nomen nudum. A key to the recognised species of Dicrogaster is presented. A new species of Forticulcita Overstreet, 1982 is described from Mugil cephalus L. in the Spanish Mediterranean and differentiated from the type-species, F. glabra Overstreet, 1982, and the recently described F. mugilis Hassanine, 2007 by its significantly smaller body size and most of its metrical data. The new species, F. gibsoni n. sp., is characterised by a narrow 'neck' region anterior to the genital pore and a long striated 'tail' region in the hindbody which is devoid of organs, such that the bulk of the uterus is restricted to the anterior half of the hindbody and the testis is located more anteriorly. F. gibsoni differs from F. glabra in having a longer forebody, smaller sucker width ratio and larger eggs, and from F. mugilis in having a smaller sucker width ratio, a hermaphroditic sac much longer than the ventral sucker and smaller eggs. The three Mediterranean forms, D. perpusilla, D. contracta and F. gibsoni are further distinguished by multivariate analyses. Keys to the species of both genera are presented.

  1. The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Clonorchis sinensis: New Assembly, Reannotation and Analysis of the Genome and Characterization of Tissue Transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Hailiang; Chen, Yangyi; Guo, Lei; Luo, Fang; Sun, Jiufeng; Mao, Qiang; Liang, Pei; Xie, Zhizhi; Zhou, Chenhui; Tian, Yanli; Lv, Xiaoli; Huang, Lisi; Zhou, Juanjuan; Hu, Yue; Li, Ran; Zhang, Fan; Lei, Huali; Li, Wenfang; Hu, Xuchu; Liang, Chi; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

    2013-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis), an important food-borne parasite that inhabits the intrahepatic bile duct and causes clonorchiasis, is of interest to both the public health field and the scientific research community. To learn more about the migration, parasitism and pathogenesis of C. sinensis at the molecular level, the present study developed an upgraded genomic assembly and annotation by sequencing paired-end and mate-paired libraries. We also performed transcriptome sequence analyses on multiple C. sinensis tissues (sucker, muscle, ovary and testis). Genes encoding molecules involved in responses to stimuli and muscle-related development were abundantly expressed in the oral sucker. Compared with other species, genes encoding molecules that facilitate the recognition and transport of cholesterol were observed in high copy numbers in the genome and were highly expressed in the oral sucker. Genes encoding transporters for fatty acids, glucose, amino acids and oxygen were also highly expressed, along with other molecules involved in metabolizing these substrates. All genes involved in energy metabolism pathways, including the β-oxidation of fatty acids, the citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and fumarate reduction, were expressed in the adults. Finally, we also provide valuable insights into the mechanism underlying the process of pathogenesis by characterizing the secretome of C. sinensis. The characterization and elaborate analysis of the upgraded genome and the tissue transcriptomes not only form a detailed and fundamental C. sinensis resource but also provide novel insights into the physiology and pathogenesis of C. sinensis. We anticipate that this work will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis. PMID:23382950

  2. The carcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis: new assembly, reannotation and analysis of the genome and characterization of tissue transcriptomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis, an important food-borne parasite that inhabits the intrahepatic bile duct and causes clonorchiasis, is of interest to both the public health field and the scientific research community. To learn more about the migration, parasitism and pathogenesis of C. sinensis at the molecular level, the present study developed an upgraded genomic assembly and annotation by sequencing paired-end and mate-paired libraries. We also performed transcriptome sequence analyses on multiple C. sinensis tissues (sucker, muscle, ovary and testis. Genes encoding molecules involved in responses to stimuli and muscle-related development were abundantly expressed in the oral sucker. Compared with other species, genes encoding molecules that facilitate the recognition and transport of cholesterol were observed in high copy numbers in the genome and were highly expressed in the oral sucker. Genes encoding transporters for fatty acids, glucose, amino acids and oxygen were also highly expressed, along with other molecules involved in metabolizing these substrates. All genes involved in energy metabolism pathways, including the β-oxidation of fatty acids, the citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and fumarate reduction, were expressed in the adults. Finally, we also provide valuable insights into the mechanism underlying the process of pathogenesis by characterizing the secretome of C. sinensis. The characterization and elaborate analysis of the upgraded genome and the tissue transcriptomes not only form a detailed and fundamental C. sinensis resource but also provide novel insights into the physiology and pathogenesis of C. sinensis. We anticipate that this work will aid the development of innovative strategies for the prevention and control of clonorchiasis.

  3. Direct Effects Of Chronic Gamma Radiation On Musa Acuminata Var. Berangan, A Local Malaysia Banana Cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimum Tahir; Azhar Mohamad; Rozeita Laboh; Umikalsum Mohd Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Musa acuminata var. Berangan, is a popular variety of our local banana known as Pisang Berangan. The variety is a triploid banana, use mainly for dessert and has a great value for commodity fruit crops. However, production of PisangBerangan has been threatened by diseases such as Fusarium wilt, black sigatoka, Fusarium wilt, burrowing nematodes and viral diseases like Banana streak virus, Banana bunch top virus and Banana bract mosaic virus. The scenario becoming worst as Musa has a narrow genetic background for breeding and/or selection program. The banana breeding program of edible bananas is hampered by high sterility, and very limited amounts of seeds. Mutation induction via chronic gamma radiation is an alternative ways in creating more variants for selections towards a better quality and disease tolerance. A total number of 75 samples at nursery stage (1 month) were exposed to chronic gamma radiation in Gamma Greenhouse at Malaysian Nuclear Agency for 28 weeks. The samples were accordingly arranged with distance ranging from 1 m to 15 m from gamma source (Cesium-137). Plant height and new buds were used as measurement parameters in evaluating the direct effects of the chronic gamma radiation. Results showed effective dose of chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan was 20 Gy. Number of new emerging sucker was ranging from 1-3 pieces with the highest at ring-4 and ring-5. Plant height was observed ranging from 22.1 to 110.5 cm. Effects of chronic radiation were observed after 3-4 months in the GGH. The samples revealed as striking leaves, short inter node and new emergence of suckers. The objective of this work is to get a dose response for chronic gamma radiation in Pisang Berangan. As for selection of potential mutant variants, new emerging suckers were tissue cultured in segregating chimeras and to get required numbers of samples for further field evaluation. (author)

  4. Artyfechinostomum malayanum: Metacercariae Encysted in Pila sp. Snails Purchased from Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Sinuon, Muth; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2017-06-01

    The metacercariae of Artyfechinostomum malayanum (Leiper, 1911) Mendheim, 1943 were discovered in Pila sp. snails purchased from a market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. They were isolated from the snails using the artificial digestion technique and were orally fed to 2 hamsters, 1 rat, and 2 mice to obtain the adult flukes. The metacercariae were round, 145-165 μm in diameter, having a cyst wall of 6-10 μm in thickness, a head collar and collar spines, and characteristic features of excretory granules. Adult flukes were recovered in the small intestines of the animals at days 14 and 32 post infection and were morphologically observed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. They were plump or elongated, ventrally curved, 6.0-8.1 × 1.6-2.0 mm in size, and characterized by the head collar bearing 43 collar spines, including 5 end group ones on each side, a long cirrus sac extending beyond the posterior margin of the ventral sucker, a submedian ovary, and 2 deeply lobed testes. Eggs in uteri were operculate, ovoid to ellipsoid, and 120-135 × 68-75 μm in size. In scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent with collar spines looking like horns. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the ventral surface between the head collar and ventral sucker. Sensory papillae were distributed mainly on the tegument around suckers. By this study, it has been first confirmed that the life cycle of A. malayanum exists in Cambodia.

  5. Spinicauda sumatrana sp. nov. (Nematoda: Heterakidae) from Ludeking's Crested Dragon, Lophocalotes ludekingi (Agamidae), from the Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Harvey, Michael B

    2017-09-26

    Spinicauda sumatrana sp. nov. is described from the large intestine of Ludeking's Crested Dragon, Lophocalotes ludekingi (Agamidae) from the Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra. The new species is assigned to Spinicauda based on the presence of off-set lips in both male and female and a ventrally directed sucker combined with the absence of caudal alae in males. It is the 17th species assigned to the genus and differs from all congeners in the combination of spicule length, presence of a gubernaculum, presence of a tail filament and fourteen pairs of caudal papillae.

  6. Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen-Sarma, P K; Thakur, M L

    1983-12-01

    In India, about sixty odd species of insects have so far been recorded to be associated with Eucalyptus. Important pests are some xylophagous insects, sap suckers, defoliators and termites. Of these, stem and root borer, Celostrna scabrator Fabr, and some species of termites have been recognised as key pests, whereas Apogonia coriaces Waterhouse, Mimeta mundissima Walker (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Brachytrypus portenosus Lichtenstein and Gymmogryllus humeralis Walker (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) are likely to become potential pests in Eucalyptus nurseries. In this paper available information on insect pests of Eucalyptus, their bioecology and control measures have been presented.

  7. A new species of Limnoderetrema (Trematoda, Digenea from the freshwater Atherinid fish Basilichthys australis Eigenmann, 1927 from the south of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Torres

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Limnoderetrema tolosai sp. n. (Trematoda, Digenea within an autochthonous freshwater fish, the silverside Basilichthys autralis Eigenmann, 1927, from Lakes Riñihue and Ranco in Southern Chile is described. The species is distinguished from Limnoderetrema minutum (Manter, 1954 by the presence of one spine in the cirrus and cecal bifurcation nearer to ventral sucker than to pharinx. It is proposed Limnoderetrema macrophallus (Szidat & Nani, 1951 n. comb. (originally Steganoderma. Limnoderetrema tolosai differs from L. macrophallus since it cirrus has a distal spine and by its vitelline follicles distribution. It seems that Limnoderetrema spp. of South America are highly specific unlike L. minutum of New Zealand.

  8. Study on toxicity mutation of crown-vetch induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Huying; Yu Hongbin; Ma Jianzong

    1992-01-01

    The suckers of Germany crown-vetch were irradiated by 60 Co gamma ray and fast neutron. The toxicity mutation frequency and genetic stability of crown-vetch were studied. The various toxicity mutants were found in M 1 . Most of the toxicity mutants was unstable in M 2 , Stable mutant was very few (about 2.0-12.9%). β-nitropropionic acid in the low toxicity mutants selected was 31.7-39.8 mg/g. Genetic characteristics of low toxicity mutants were stable in M 3 -M 5

  9. New tentacled leech Ceratobdella quadricornuta n. g., n. sp. (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae) parasitic on the starry skate Raja georgiana Norman from the Scotia Sea, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utevsky, Andrei; Gordeev, Ilya

    2015-07-01

    A new fish leech Ceratobdella quadricornuta n. g., n. sp. (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae), a parasite of the Antarctic skate Raja georgiana Norman (Rajiformes: Rajidae) collected between the Falkland Islands and South Georgia Island in the Scotia Sea, is described and compared with related genera. Ceratobdella quadricornuta is characterised by an uncommon appearance of its anterior sucker bearing four well-developed tentacles and a unique combination of features of the reproductive and digestive systems: crop and intestine equally developed, posterior crop caeca separated; accessory glands, conductive tissue and external copulatory area lacking; common part of ejaculatory ducts (common atrium) voluminous and muscular, male copulatory bursa short, small ovisacs opening into female copulatory bursa (vagina).

  10. Who needs a superhero? New trends in action and adventure movies

    OpenAIRE

    Mancelos, João de

    2014-01-01

    Is it a bird? Is it a plane? No, it’s (yet) another superhero who escapes from the drawing board to conquer de big screen. In recent years, movies like Iron Man 2 (2010), Thor (2010), Green Lantern (2011), Sucker Punch (2011) or The Dark Knight Rises (2012) have fascinated both comic and movie fans alike. Due to their popularity, a new wave of muscled and fierce heroes is coming, with X-Men: Days of the Future Past (2014), or The Fantastic Four (2015). The aim of this paper is to analyze the ...

  11. Neoparaseuratum travasssosi, n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Quimperiidae, a new parasite from thorny catfish Pterododas granulosus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moravec

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new nematode genus and species. Neoparaseuratum travassosi n. g., n. sp., is described from the intestine of the freshwater thorny catfish, Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, from the Paraná River, Brazil. This seuratoid nematode species represents a new genus of the family Quimperiidae, being characterized mainly by the presence of numerous narrow longitudinal bands of inflated cuticle extending along the cephalic region of the body, small deirids, postoesophageal position of the excretory pore, relatively short (0.159-0.303 mm, equal spicules and a gubernaculum, the absence of caudal alae and preanal sucker in the male, and by some other features.

  12. [Muscular system of the Microphallus pygmaeus metacercaria (Trematoda: microphallidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenko, D Iu

    2010-01-01

    The musculature of body wall, attachment organs (oral and ventral suckers), and internal organs (alimentary tract, excretory bladder, and ducts of reproductive system) of the Microphallus pygmaeus metacercaria are described. An unusual arrangement of longitude and diagonal muscles was found in the hind part of the metacercaria body. Longitude fibers of dorsal and lateral body surfaces are bow-shaped and bend round the excretory pore along its ventral margin. An additional group of diagonal fibers is situated in the hind part of ventral body surface.

  13. Reddies River Lake, Yadkin River Basin, Reddies River, North Carolina. General Design Memorandum. Phase I. Plan Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    and suckers. The North Carolina Office of Fisheries and Wildlife Resources stocka adult trout in the upper reaches, which would be above Reddies...youi if we learn of any significant prnpnrty near the proposed projec-t. As you knw, this doon not include Dr. Joffrn L.. Con’s review of 4 possible...4 *** V.V ’S A - C, A, ~ / C. 4. . .~- ~ * C’- 5’ S&W ~ S -. - efl ~ *5 *~ C. - DoW#Es~mf AM ’CA CA ta.i a ’C * I’ *,. .. *-- - I -.. ’p.-. -I fCC

  14. Aspects of the morphology of the juvenile life stages of Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon Avenant-Oldewage, 2013 (Monogenea: Diplozoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè; Milne, Simon John

    2014-06-01

    There are eight life stages in the life-cycle of Diplozoon paradoxum and limited knowledge of the life-cycle for other diplozoid genera exists. The aim of this study was to record the number of life-stages of Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon obtained from, Labeobarbus aeneus and Labeobarbus kimberlyensis, in the Vaal Dam from 2005 to 2007. Six larval life stages and one adult stage of P. ichtyoxanthon were identified from specimens collected in vitro and in situ. In vitro, eggs hatched after 21 days at 18°C. Eggs collected during winter were significantly larger than those laid during spring or summer. Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon oncomiracidia have peripheral eyes with pink pigmentation, a tubular anterior bladder-like structure, bicuspid basal pharynx valve and a branched digestive caecum and residual shell material or vitellaria in the caecum. Immature reproductive tissue connected to the ventral sucker and dorsal papillae were noted for the first time in diporpa. Large nervous ganglia and innervation of muscle were observed around the ventral sucker.

  15. Scyphophyllidium uruguayense n. sp. (Eucestoda: Tetraphyllidea) in Mustelus mento (Cope, 1877) (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes: Triakidae) from La Paloma, Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D R; Marques, F; Perroni, C; Sidagis, C

    1999-06-01

    A new species of Scyphophyllidium inhabits Mustelus mento near La Paloma, Uruguay. It resembles Scyphophyllidium giganteum from the Atlantic Ocean and specimens identified as S. giganteum from California by having anapolytic strobilae 155-258 mm long, 250-300 craspedote proglottids, scoleces 1.2-1.4 mm wide, necks 34-41 mm long, immature and mature proglottids wider than long, gravid proglottids wider than long to longer than wide, genital pores averaging 28% of proglottid length from the anterior end, relatively flat ovaries with digitiform lobes reaching the lateralmost extent of the testicular field, vitellaria in 2 fields converging toward the proglottid midline, straight and short cirrus sacs, and postvaginal vas deferens. The bothridia of the new species have accessory bothridial suckers that are smaller than those of California specimens; European specimens reportedly lack accessory bothridial suckers. The new species possesses a uterine duct that joins the uterus at the level of the genital atrium and ventral osmoregulatory ducts medial rather than lateral to the dorsal ducts, an arrangement described for Californian but not European specimens. It differs from both European and Californian specimens by having longer cirri, more testes per proglottid, prominent scales covering the neck, and vaginae and uterine ducts coiled immediately preovarially. Pithophorus, Marsupiobothrium, and Scyphophyllidium may form a clade.

  16. Growth, production and quality of pineapple in response to herbicide use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Carvalho Brant Maia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In pineapple fields, weed competition is exacerbated by the fact that the crop is small and has a very slow vegetative development. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of herbicides on growth, yield and quality of pineapple, cultivar 'Pérola'. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with four treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of weeding by hoe and the herbicides diuron; fluazifop-p-butyl and atrazine + S-metolachlor applied in post-emergence. The characteristics evaluated monthly during the vegetative stage were stem diameter, D-leaf length, number of leaves, number of emitted leaves and percentage of natural floral induction. In the reproductive phase, evaluations were made of average fruit weight (g with and without crown, fruits length and diameter, number of slip, slip-sucker and sucker type seedlings, determination of soluble solids and pH in the pulp. There was no effect of herbicide treatment on the vegetative growth characteristics. Stem diameter increased until 330 days after planting, showing a decrease after this period. The D-leaf grew over time in all treatments, although phytotoxicity symptoms were observed after the first application of herbicides. The traits evaluated on the reproductive phase showed no significant differences in response to treatments. Therefore, the use of diuron fluazifop-p-butyl and atrazine + S-metolachlor did not affect growth, yield and fruit quality of pineapple, cultivar 'Pérola'.

  17. Resistance selection on banana CV. Ambon Kuning Against Fusarium Wilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarto, Ismiyarti; Meldia, Yeni; Jumjunidang

    1998-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to study the occurrence of mutation on irradiated plantlets and their resistance of plants of banana cv. Ambon Kuning against Fusarium wilt. Plantlets of banana cv. Ambon Kuning sized 5 cm were exposed to gamma rays at the doses 5 - 35 Gy intervals, then were subcultured for obtained M 1 V 5 plantlets. More over, the planlets were acclimatized and were planted in the field was already infected by Fasarium (f).culbense (FOC). The result indicated that irradiated plantlets of the doses 20 - 35 Gy were not able to survive up to 6 months after exposing to gamma rays. Abnormalities of M 1 V 5 plantlets originated from irradiated plantlets at the doses 10 and 15 Gy were shown on rossette plantlets with rigid and dark green leaves, and the formation of smooth mass morphologically shaped like calculus. The appearance of plant height and number of suckers of suckers of M 1 V 5 plants in the field was quite various. The number of survival plants after 8 moths planting was 8, 7, 15, and 28, respectively originated from untreated plants and irradiated plantlets at the doses 5, 10, and 15 Gy. After one year planting , only 2 plants were able to survive from irradiated plantlet at the dose 15 Gy. The plants could produce 27 plantlets obtained from culturing their shoot tips. Further study of these plantlets was needed in order create the stability of their resistance to FOC. (author)

  18. THE GENETIC POTENCY OF PLANTAIN AGUNG SEMERU VARIETY FROM LUMAJANG REGENCY EAST JAVA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E.R. Prahardini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Lumajang regency is one of the banana production centre in East Java having high- diversity of banana germ plasm. There are 33 cultivars of banana germ plasm in the regency, consist of eaten ripe and plantain. One of uniqe plantain used as the symbol of Lumajang regency is plantain Agung Semeru variety, the local superior variety of this regency. This variety can grow well at 450 – 650 m above sea level. The uniqueness of banana Agung Semeru variety can be seen by the number of sucker per cluster (only 1 – 2 suckers per cluster, the size of the finger (33 – 36 cm long and 19 cm around and the number of hand per bunch (only 1 – 2 hand per bunch. Other characteristics of the variety are the thickness of fruit skin, the long period of fruit storage (3 – 4 weeks after harvesting and the sweetness of fruit flesh. Even though the skin changes from yellow to black, the flesh still can be consumed, because it doesn’t become soft. This variety also resistant to the Sigatoka disease compared to other plantain cultivars.

  19. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae).

  20. Biochemical indices of hop resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum and Fusarium sambucinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Piotrowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents of total phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and peroxidase activity as well as monophenols to polyphenols ratio were studies in the suckers of the hops as indices of resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum and Fusarium sambucinum. The suckers of hop taken in the early spring from the healthy and infected plots were used in the experiments. As a research material were included cv. 'Northern Brewer' - a wilt tolerant variety, two wild susceptible varieties - cv. 'Lubelski' and cv. 'Brewers Gold', four breeding clones and one male plant. It was found that, 'Northern Brewer' contains more total phenolic compounds, rnonophenols and chlorogenic acid, and in particular considerably higher peroxidase activity as compared to cv. 'Lubelski'. Taking into consideration the contents of these compounds, in the majority of cases, the new breeding clones were similar to the mother variety 'Northern Brewer'. It seems resonable to assume, that the new clones should be more wilt tolerant than varieties and populations cultivated in our country.

  1. N-nitrosodiethanolamine: analysis, formation in tobacco products and carcinogenicity in Syrian golden hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D.; Brunnemann, K.D.; Rivenson, A.; Hecht, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical GC-TEA method has been developed for the quantitative determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. US smoking and chewing tobaccos and experimental cigarette tobaccos contained between 80 and 420 micrograms/kg of NDELA. Two snuff samples contained 3200 and 6800 micrograms/kg of NDELA. NDELA in mainstream smoke of US cigarettes amounted to 10 - 68 ng per cigarette. Evidence was presented which incriminates diethanolamine as a major precursor for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Diethanolamine is used as a solubilizing agent for maleic hydrazide, the major sucker-growth inhibitor for US tobacco crops. NDELA was bioassayed in Syrian golden hamsters by skin painting, swabbing of the oral cavity and by subcutaneous injection. Independently of the form of application, NDELA at the higher dose (500 mg/kg) induced carcinomas of the nasal cavity, papillomas of the trachea and tumours of the larynx in some animals. NDELA uptake through the oral cavity in hamsters is presumably greater than through the skin, judging by the higher tumour yield induced by painting of the oral cavity, compared to skin painting. Studies with 14C-labeled NDELA are currently underway to document this observation quantitiatively. The present analytical data for NDELA in tobacco and tobacco smoke, together with the carcinogenicity data reported here and elsewhere, strongly suggest a review of the use of maleic hydrazide-diethanolamine as sucker-growth inhibitor in the cultivation of tobacco and other crops.

  2. Saturnius minutus n. sp. and S. dimitrovi n. sp. (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Mugil cephalus L. (Teleostei: Mugilidae), with a multivariate morphological analysis of the Mediterranean species of Saturnius Manter, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, I; Pankov, P; Gibson, D I; Balbuena, J A; Raga, J A; Sarabeev, V L; Kostadinova, A

    2006-09-01

    Three species of the bunocotyline genus Saturnius Manter, 1969 are described from the stomach lining of mugilid fishes of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Two of the species are new: S. minutus n. sp. occurs in Mugil cephalus off the Mediterranean coast of Spain; and S. dimitrovi n. sp., a parasite of M. cephalus off the Bulgarian Black Sea coast and the Spanish Mediterranean coast, was originally described as S. papernai by Dimitrov et al. (1998). In addition, S. papernai Overstreet, 1977 is redescribed from M. cephalus off the Spanish Mediterranean coast and from Liza aurata and L. saliens off the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The three species are distinguished morphometrically using univariate and multivariate analyses. These results were verified using Linear Discriminant Analysis which correctly allocated all specimens to their species designations based on morphology (i.e. 100% successful classification rate) and assigned almost all specimens to the correct population (locality). The following variables were selected for optimal separation between samples: the length of the forebody, ventral sucker and posterior testis, the length and width of the posteriormost pseudosegment, and the width of the muscular flange at ventral sucker level.

  3. Redescription of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) from its Type Host and Locality in Venezuela, and of Austrodiplostomum mordax from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Núñez, Margarita Ostrowski

    2017-10-01

    Austrodiplostomum compactum from Nannopterum brasilianus, and its metacercaria from Geophagus sp. and Oreochromis mossambicus captured (1979) at its type locality, Valencia Lake, Venezuela, by the author, are redescribed. The adult is characterized by its large body size, and an oral sucker smaller than the pharynx. The metacercaria has a similar body size as the adult, and the small genital primordia occupy 4.1-7.3% of body length. Experimental infections in chickens with metacercariae of Diplostomulum mordax from brains of Odonthestes bonariensis, captured (2015) at Dique Paso de las Piedras, near Bahia Blanca City, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, resulted in 10 adults 5 days postexposure. These adults correspond to Austrodiplostomum mordax as described from N. brasilianus at Lacombe Lagoon, Buenos Aires Province, and differ from A. compactum in their smaller body size, and an oral sucker larger than the pharynx. The metacercaria has a similar body size as the adult and differs mainly in that the larger genital primordia occupy 11.6-13.8% of body length. The status of earlier published Austrodiplostomum species in the American continent is discussed in view of available morphological and molecular data. A lectotype of A. mordax is here designated, and Austrodiplostomum ostrowskiae is considered as a new synonym of A. compactum.

  4. Spatial distribution and interaction of four species of the catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède with bottom of Rio São Francisco, Canindé do São Francisco, Sergipe, Brazil (Pisces, Loricariidae, Hypostominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Garavello

    Full Text Available The large catfishes, genus Hypostomus Lacépède, are common species in almost all freshwater environments of South America. The behavior of specimens from the species Hypostomus alatus, Hypostomus francisci, Hypostomus cf. wuchereri, and Hypostomus sp., from the region downstream from the Xingó Hydroelectric Power Dam, located in Canindé do São Francisco on the Rio São Francisco, were observed. Morphological characters collected from preserved specimens were also studied in the laboratory, in order to shed light on interactions between those fishes and the river bottom. In addition, the formulation of Gatz (1979 was applied to better explain the environmental interactions of Hypostomus species. This study revealed that the fishes utilize their suckers, through a mouth equipped with an oral disk, as well as the pectoral, pelvic, and caudal fins areas, to interact with the rocky river-bottom. The comb-toothed inferior mouth of the Hypostomus showed itself able to grasp green algae on the river bottom. With the help of the oral disk and sucker mouth, which anchor the fishes, in conjunction with the arched design of pectoral and pelvic fin spines, they are also able to remain upright while exploring this substratum. In addition, their large, concave caudal-fin is associated with fast locomotion over short distances. This combination of characteristics allow these fish to live on the bottom of large South American rivers.

  5. A new anoplocephalid (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from Gallotia atlantica (Reptilia, Lacertidae) in the Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; Abreu-Acosta, Néstor; Casanova, Juan Carlos; Ribas, Alexis; Valladares, Basilio

    2009-06-01

    A new species of anoplocephalid cestode is described from Gallotia atlantica (Reptilia, Lacertidae) on the Canary Islands, Spain. Oochoristica feliui n. sp. belongs to the group of Oochoristica spp. having circular suckers and fewer than 25 testes in a single cluster: O. lygosomae Burt, 1933; O. lygosomatis Skinker, 1935; O. elongata Dupouy et Kechemir, 1973; O. jonnesi Bursey, McAllister and Freed, 1997; O. junkea Johri, 1950; O. macallisteri Bursey and Goldberg, 1996; O. novaezelandae Schmidt and Allison, 1985; O. parvogenitalis Dupouy and Kechemir, 1973; and O. sobolevi (Spasskii, 1948) Spaskii, 1951. Oochoristica feliui n. sp. differs from these species in a variety of characters such as the number of proglottids, size of the scolex and suckers, presence of a neck, size and shape of the ovary (divided into 5-6 lobules), ovoid shape of the vitelline gland, a spined cirrus, size of eggs, oncosphere and oncosphere hooks, and the presence of 2 osmoregulatory canals. Gallotia spp. are endemic to the Canary Islands. This is the first report of an adult cestode species in this lizard.

  6. Summer food habits and trophic overlap of roundtail chub and creek chub in Muddy Creek, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, M.C.; Bower, M.R.; Hubert, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Native fishes of the Upper Colorado River Basin have experienced substantial declines in abundance and distribution, and are extirpated from most of Wyoming. Muddy Creek, in south-central Wyoming (Little Snake River watershed), contains sympatric populations of native roundtail chub (Gila robusta), bluehead sucker, (Catostomus discobolus), and flannelmouth sucker (C. tatipinnis), and represents an area of high conservation concern because it is the only area known to have sympatric populations of all 3 species in Wyoming. However, introduced creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) are abundant and might have a negative influence on native fishes. We assessed summer food habits of roundtail chub and creek chub to provide information on the ecology of each species and obtain insight on potential trophic overlap. Roundtail chub and creek chub seemed to be opportunistic generalists that consumed a diverse array of food items. Stomach contents of both species were dominated by plant material, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and Fishes, but also included gastropods and mussels. Stomach contents were similar between species, indicating high trophic, overlap. No length-related patterns in diet were observed for either species. These results suggest that creek chubs have the potential to adversely influence the roundtail chub population through competition for food and the native fish assemblage through predation.

  7. Direct tissue blot immunoassay for detection of Xylella fastidiosa in olive trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled DJELOUAH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA technique has been compared with ELISA and PCR for detection of Xylella fastidiosa in olive trees from Apulia (southern Italy. Fresh cross-sections of young twigs and leaf petioles were printed onto nitrocellulose membranes and analyzed in the laboratory. Analyses of a first group of 61 samples gave similar efficiency for the three diagnostic techniques for detection the bacterium (24 positive and 36 negative samples, except for a single sample which was positive only with DTBIA and PCR. Similar results were obtained by separately analyzing suckers and twigs collected from different sectors of tree canopies of a second group of 20 olive trees (ten symptomatic and ten symptomless. In this second test the three diagnostic techniques confirmed the irregular distribution of the bacterium in the tree canopies and erratic detectability of the pathogen in the young suckers. It is therefore necessary to analyse composite samples per tree which should be prepared with twigs collected from different sides of the canopy. The efficiency comparable to ELISA and PCR, combined with the advantages of easier handling, speed and cost, make DTBIA a valid alternative to ELISA in large-scale surveys for occurrence of X. fastidiosa. Moreover, the printing of membranes directly in the field prevents infections spreading to Xylella-free areas, through movement of plant material with pathogen vectors for laboratory testing.

  8. A new species of pouched octopus, Cistopus Gray, 1849 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from the southwest coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, Vijayamma; Norman, Mark D; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2015-12-16

    Octopuses of the genus Cistopus Gray, 1849 are commercially valuable catches in the cephalopod fisheries of India. The primary and unique diagnostic character of this genus is the possession of eight small mucous pouches embedded in the oral faces of the webs between the bases of each arm. Historically only a single species of Cistopus, C. indicus, had been reported from Indian waters. In reviewing the octopod fauna off the Kerala coast, we have detected three species of Cistopus, of which one is described here as a new species. Cistopus platinoidus sp. nov. is distinct from Cistopus species described to date (C. indicus, C. taiwanicus and C. chinensis) on the basis of sucker counts, the number and position of enlarged suckers in males, and presence/absence of a calamus. Our studies of catch composition of Kerala octopod fisheries indicate a higher diversity of target species than previously suspected, including a number of undescribed species. Taxonomic resolution and collation of biological and distributional data are required for effective monitoring and management of these valuable fisheries.

  9. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B

    2014-09-25

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms.

  10. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy investigation of the Octopus Vulgaris arm structures for the design of an octopus-like arm artefact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnocci, Antonio; Cianchetti, Matteo; Mazzolai, Barbara; Sebastiani, Luca; Laschi, Cecilia

    2015-12-01

    Octopus vulgaris is a cephalopod of the Octopodidae family. It has four pairs of arms and two rows of suckers which perform many functions, including bending and elongation. For this reason the octopus was chosen as model to develop a new generation of soft-body robots. In order to explain some of the fine structures of the octopus arm in relation to its specific ability, we examined the external and internal structures of O. vulgaris arms in a frozen-hydrated state using cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The arms showed skin with a very complex design that is useful to elongation, and a pore pattern distribution on their surface which is functional to cutaneous oxygen uptake. The analysis of freeze-fractured frozen-hydrated arm samples allowed us to describe the developmental differences in the relative proportion of the areas of axial nerve cord, intrinsic and extrinsic musculature, in relation to the growth of the arms and of the increase in functional capability. In the suckers, we analyzed the shedding mechanisms in the outer part of the infundibulum and described the outer and inner characteristics of the denticles, showing in detail their pore system, which is fundamental for their ability to explore the environment. These results are discussed by considering their possible application in the design of new octopus-like artefacts, which will be able to take advantage of some of these ultrastructure characteristics and achieve advanced bioinspired functionalities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B

    2014-01-01

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms. (paper)

  12. Two new species of Nomimoscolex (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea, Monticelliidae from Gymnotus carapo (Pisces: Gymnotiformes in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertierra Alicia A Gil de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nomimoscolex guillermoi n. sp. and N. dechambrieri n. sp. are described from the gymnotiform fish Gymnotus carapo from Argentina. The new species are placed into Nomimoscolex based on the cortical position of the vitelline follicles, and medullary position of the testes, ovary, and uterus. Both species were compared to the 13 species considered valid in the genus. The combination of features distinguishing N. guillermoi from N. dechambrieri is (1 the position of the vagina to cirrus pouch (anterior or posterior vs always anterior respectively, (2 the total number of testes (41-85 vs 108-130 respectively, (3 the distribution of the vitelline follicles (arranged in dorso-lateral and ventro-lateral bands vs lateral bands respectively, (4 the length of the uteroduct (ending 58% vs 35% from posterior margin of mature proglottis respectively, and (5 the presence of gland cells in the scolex (unicellular glands in the apical region and the external margin of suckers vs the presence of unicellular glands in the apex and other grouped in a cluster medially to the suckers respectively.

  13. Gradients in Catostomid assemblages along a reservoir cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Keretz, Kevin R.; Gilliland, Chelsea R.

    2017-01-01

    Serial impoundment of major rivers leads to alterations of natural flow dynamics and disrupts longitudinal connectivity. Catostomid fishes (suckers, family Catostomidae) are typically found in riverine or backwater habitats yet are able to persist in impounded river systems. To the detriment of conservation, there is limited information about distribution of catostomid fishes in impounded rivers. We examined the longitudinal distribution of catostomid fishes over 23 reservoirs of the Tennessee River reservoir cascade, encompassing approximately 1600 km. Our goal was to develop a basin-scale perspective to guide conservation efforts. Catostomid species composition and assemblage structure changed longitudinally along the reservoir cascade. Catostomid species biodiversity was greatest in reservoirs lower in the cascade. Assemblage composition shifted from dominance by spotted sucker Minytrema melanops and buffalos Ictiobus spp. in the lower reservoirs to carpsuckers Carpiodes spp. midway through the cascade and redhorses Moxostoma spp. in the upper reservoirs. Most species did not extend the length of the cascade, and some species were rare, found in low numbers and in few reservoirs. The observed gradients in catostomid assemblages suggest the need for basin-scale conservation measures focusing on three broad areas: (1) conservation and management of the up-lake riverine reaches of the lower reservoirs, (2) maintenance of the access to quality habitat in tributaries to the upper reservoirs and (3) reintroductions into currently unoccupied habitat within species' historic distributions

  14. Living in fast-flowing water: morphology of the gastromyzophorous tadpole of the bufonid Rhinella quechua (R. veraguensis group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, R; Lavilla, E O; Vera Candioti, M F; Camacho, T

    2009-12-01

    We describe the bufonid gastromyzophorous tadpoles of Rhinella quechua from montane forest streams in Bolivia. Specimens were cleared and stained, and the external morphology, buccopharyngeal structures, and the musculoskeletal system were studied. These tadpoles show a combination of some traits common in Rhinella larvae (e.g., emarginate oral disc with large ventral gap in the marginal papillae, labial tooth row formula 2/3, prenarial ridge, two infralabial papillae, quadratoorbital commissure present, larval otic process absent, mm. mandibulolabialis superior, interhyoideus posterior, and diaphragmatopraecordialis absent, m. subarcualis rectus I composed of three slips), some traits apparently exclusive for the described species of the R. veraguensis group (e.g., second anterior labial tooth row complete, lingual papillae absent, adrostral cartilages present), and some traits that are shared with other gastromyzophorous tadpoles (e.g., enlarged oral disc, short and wide articular process of the palatoquadrate, several muscles inserting on the abdominal sucker). In the context of the substantial taxonomic and nomenclatural changes that the former genus Bufo has undergone, and despite the conspicuous morphological differences related to the presence of an abdominal sucker, the larval morphology of R. quechua supports including it in the genus Rhinella and placing it close to species of the R. veraguensis assemblage. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1985: Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Douglas E.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1985 to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. To estimate consumption of juvenile salmonids we used the composition of the natural diet of predators and in the laboratory determined rate of gastric evacuation by predators. Salmonids were the single most important food item for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 11.6% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1985 which was about twice that found in previous years. Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in 1985 was similar to 1983 and 1984 with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), northern squawfish, largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch at main channel stations and crappies (Pomoxis spp.) and largescale sucker dominating at backwater stations. Preliminary results of beach seine efficiency studies suggest that seine efficiency varied significantly among prey species and between substrate types in 1985. Results of digestion rate experiments indicate that gastric evacuation in northern squawfish can be predicted using water temperature, prey weight, predator weight and time. 19 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Paramphistomum cervi: surface topography of the tegument of adult fluke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyarachun, Busaba; Sobhon, Prasert; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Anupunpisit, Vipavee; Anuracpreeda, Panat

    2010-06-01

    Adult Paramphistomum cervi or rumen fluke are pear-shaped, slightly concave ventrally and convex dorsally. The worm measures about 5-13 mm in length and 2-5 mm in width across the mid-section. As observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the tegumental surface in all part of the body, appears highly corrugated with transverse folds alternating with grooves and is spineless. At high magnification, the surface of the fold is composed of microfolds or ridges separated by microgrooves or pits. Corrugations and invaginations of the ventral surface are also more extensive than on the dorsal surface of the body. Both anterior and posterior suckers have thick rims covered with transverse folds without spine. The genital pore is situated at the anterior third of the body. There are two types of sensory papillae on the surface: type 1 is bulbous in shape, measuring 10-15 microm in diameter at the base with nipple-like tips, and type 2 has a similar shape and size and also a short cilia on top. These sensory papillae usually occur in large clusters, each having between 5 and 20 units depending on the region of the body. Clusters of papillae on the ventral surface and around the anterior suckers tend to be more numerous and larger in size. The dorsal surface of the body has the least number of papillae. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tones, P.I.

    1982-02-01

    The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

  18. Sustaining Biodiversity and Income against Climate Change through Food Value Chain System by the Small-Holder Farmers in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadu Charles Livinus Anija

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and sustainable income are very necessary in ecosystem stability. The food value chain (FVC introduced in Nigeria to transform agriculture is commendable because through the system farmers receive various incentives as highly subsidized inputs from government and loans of low interest rates from designated Agricultural Banks and Central Bank. However, the system encourages specialization in the production of the reference crops but intercropping and mixed cropping systems practiced by most small-holder farmers because of its inherent advantages is de-emphasized or completely abandoned. This paper presents the results of two surveys of sole pepper and maize growers in 2015 and 2016 respectively as affected by sudden stoppage of rainfall in Nsukka area. The analyses showed that on the average > 70 % of the pepper farmers lost ≈ 65 % of their pepper fields while ≈ 57 % of the maize fields were lost. For a substitute intercropping system, plantain yield data from plantain plus moringa intercrop trials carried out in 2014 and 2015 were analyzed and projected to incorporate a food crop within inter-alleys. The mean plantain yields from the trials were 20 kg plant-1 for fresh bunch and 7 suckers stand-1. Based on a 6 m x 5 m (≈330 plants ha-1 spacing and the 2016 prices of bunches and suckers, these yields translated to a minimum net income per annum of N 1 320 000.00 (N 330 000.00 from bunches and N 990 000.00 from 6 suckers (net stand-1. Proceeds from the food crop, moringa seed and leaf extracts used as liquid fertilizer took care of the cost of other inputs and cultural practices. The inter-row spacing of 6 m allows mechanical cultivation of any food crop by the farmer. This system was considered a reliable insurance against climate change and pest insurgence and can be adopted by farmers in the entire southern Nigeria because both plantain and moringa can do very well in the subregion.

  19. Studies on the effects of application of different foliar fertilizer materials, crop residue and inter cropping on Banana plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yusuf Munim [Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-12-31

    Five separate experiments were conducted at university of Khartoum demonstration farm during 1993 to 1995 under both orchard and nursery conditions to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different fertilizers, use of crop residue and intercropping on banana (dwarf cavendish). In the first experiment, the effects of foliar application of different concentrations of potassium solution (38%) were studied. The results indicated that application of all concentrations resulted in greater increases in overall growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the second experiment, the effects of three different foliar fertilizers, namely, compound cryst, fetrilon comb-2 and x-garden were investigated. The results revealed that all fertilizers gave greater values of all growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the third experiment, the effect of four different fertilizer materials containing different combinations of NPK on growth parameters and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers grown under nursery conditions was evaluated. The results revealed that all fertilizer materials gave greater increases of growth parameters over the control as well as higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents. In the fourth experiment, the effect of different concentrations of N{sub 19}, P{sub 19}, K{sub 19} fertilizers on growth characteristics and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana

  20. Chemical composition of virgin olive oils from the Chemlali cultivar with regard to the method of the olive tree propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerfel, M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time a discrimination study based on the antioxidant compounds, oxidative stability and volatile compounds of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali using two methods of olive tree propagation (suckers and cuttings. There were significant differences between the oils from the two methods. Olive oil samples obtained from the fruits of trees from suckers had a higher content of oleic acid (63.8%, higher contents of chlorophyll and carotenoids (3.01 mg/ kg and 1.9 mg/kg respectively, a higher content of (E-2 hexenal (66.1% and a higher content in total phenols (890 mg/kg. Interestingly, more stable oil was obtained from the olives from suckers compared to the olives from cuttings. These results can be used to discriminate and to characterize the Chemlali olive oils from each origin of olive tree.

    En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez un estudio de discriminación basado en compuestos antioxidantes, estabilidad oxidativa y compuestos volátiles de muestras de aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de frutos de la principal variedad de aceitunas tunecinas (Chemlali a partir de dos métodos de propagación del olivo (chupones y estaquillas herbáceas. Se han encontrado diferencias significativas entre los aceites obtenidos por los dos métodos. Las muestras de aceites de oliva obtenidas de frutos de árboles de chupones tenían una mayor proporción de ácido oleico (63,8%, un mayor contenido de clorofila y de carotenoides (3,01 mg/kg y 1,9 mg/kg, respectivamente, un mayor contenido de (E-2 hexenal (66,1% y un mayor contenido en fenoles totales (890 mg/kg. Curiosamente, el aceite más estable se ha obtenido de las aceitunas de árboles de chupones, en comparación con las aceitunas de árboles de estaquillas herbáceas. Estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para discriminar y caracterizar los aceites de oliva Chamlali según el origen del olivo.

  1. Studies on the effects of application of different foliar fertilizer materials, crop residue and inter cropping on Banana plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Yusuf Munim

    1996-01-01

    Five separate experiments were conducted at university of Khartoum demonstration farm during 1993 to 1995 under both orchard and nursery conditions to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different fertilizers, use of crop residue and intercropping on banana (dwarf cavendish). In the first experiment, the effects of foliar application of different concentrations of potassium solution (38%) were studied. The results indicated that application of all concentrations resulted in greater increases in overall growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the second experiment, the effects of three different foliar fertilizers, namely, compound cryst, fetrilon comb-2 and x-garden were investigated. The results revealed that all fertilizers gave greater values of all growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the third experiment, the effect of four different fertilizer materials containing different combinations of NPK on growth parameters and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers grown under nursery conditions was evaluated. The results revealed that all fertilizer materials gave greater increases of growth parameters over the control as well as higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents. In the fourth experiment, the effect of different concentrations of N 19 , P 19 , K 19 fertilizers on growth characteristics and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers was

  2. Sarcoptic mange in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Shin, Nam-Shik; Shin, Taekyun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2008-12-01

    Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei was diagnosed from four wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) accidentally captured and presented to the Animal Health Center in Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Korea. Diagnosis was done by microscopic and histologic examination from skin lesions. Sarcoptes scabiei was the only species detected from the lesions and characterized by dorsoventrally flattened and round bodies, sucker-like pulvilli borne on long nonjointed pretarsi, triangular scales and spinelike setae on the dorsum, and three epimeres that are chitinous extensions of the coxae of the legs. In addition, infiltration of mast cells in the dermis was associated with infestation of the burrowing mite. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs in Korea. Because heavy infestation with S. scabiei was found in all of the captured wild raccoon dogs, further work is necessary to develop prophylactic interventions to prevent the spread of sarcoptic mange in free-living raccoon dogs in Korea.

  3. Accelerating the design of biomimetic materials by integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Paul A; Hoon, Shawn; Seow, Yiqi; Raida, Manfred; Masic, Admir; Wong, Fong T; Ho, Vincent H B; Kong, Kiat Whye; Demirel, Melik C; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Amini, Shahrouz; Tay, Gavin Z; Ding, Dawei; Miserez, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Efforts to engineer new materials inspired by biological structures are hampered by the lack of genomic data from many model organisms studied in biomimetic research. Here we show that biomimetic engineering can be accelerated by integrating high-throughput RNA-seq with proteomics and advanced materials characterization. This approach can be applied to a broad range of systems, as we illustrate by investigating diverse high-performance biological materials involved in embryo protection, adhesion and predation. In one example, we rapidly engineer recombinant squid sucker ring teeth proteins into a range of structural and functional materials, including nanopatterned surfaces and photo-cross-linked films that exceed the mechanical properties of most natural and synthetic polymers. Integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science facilitates the molecular characterization of natural materials and the effective translation of their molecular designs into a wide range of bio-inspired materials.

  4. Mirror-image duplication of the primary axis and heart in Xenopus embryos by the overexpression of Msx-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Solursh, M

    1995-10-01

    The Msx-1 gene (formerly known as Hox-7) is a member of a discrete subclass of homeobox-containing genes. Examination of the expression pattern of Msx-1 in murine and avian embryos suggests that this gene may be involved in the regionalization of the medio-lateral axis during earlier development. We have examined the possible functions of Xenopus Msx-1 during early Xenopus embryonic development by overexpression of the Msx-1 gene. Overexpression of Msx-1 causes a left-right mirror-image duplication of primary axial structures, including notochord, neural tube, somites, suckers, and foregut. The embryonic developing heart is also mirror-image duplicated, including looping directions and polarity. These results indicate that Msx-1 may be involved in the mesoderm formation as well as left-right patterning in the early Xenopus embryonic development.

  5. Application of phase-contrast X-ray microtomography to study the internal structures of Rhodium prolixus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Andre P. de; Soares, Jose; Barroso, Regina C.; Braz, Delson; Cardoso, Simone C.; Garcia, Eloi S.; Azambuja, Patricia; Gonzalez, Marcelo S.

    2011-01-01

    The PhC-SR-μCT is a nondestructive technique that allows the microanatomical investigations and 3D images reconstructions within a short time. This technique performed in blood sucker, Rhodnius prolixus - one of the most important primary vectors of of Trypanosoma cruzi, ethiologic agent of Chagas' disease in Latin America and also the most well-know studied insect in terms of both physiology and vector-parasite interactions. However, little is known about the development and structure of its internal organs. The aim of this work is to provide a non-invasive option for studying the internal structures of the main vector of Chagas' disease, which should help to answer important questions concerning anatomy, development, structure and plasticity of insect in general. Three-dimensional rendering images can provide a detailed knowledge of the interior of the insect, which is crucial for a better understanding of its function and evolution. (author)

  6. Entrainment of ichthyoplankton and larval fishes during cooling water withdrawal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Plantonic fish eggs and larvae are entrained into the Savannah River Plant (SRP) pumping system as Savannah River water is withdrawn for cooling purposes. The American shad contributed 96% of the planktonic fish eggs collected in the Savannah River. Eggs were rare in plankton samples from the intake canals and were assumed to have settled to the bottom as current velocity was reduced in the canal entrance. An estimated 72 million fish eggs were transported past the intake canals. Assuming ''worst case conditions,'' 6.8 million eggs (9.5%) could have been lost due to entrainment. Blueback herring comprised nearly one-half of the 216 million fish larvae susceptible to impact. Spotted sucker and black crappie were also common among the 22 species of fish larvae collected. An estimated 19.6 million (9.1%) fish larvae could have been entrained under ''worst case conditions''

  7. The first outbreak of Taenia ovis infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wangui; He, Wei; Guo, Xiaola; Liu, Quanyuan; Gao, Shengzhi; Zhan, Fang; Liu, Xu; Pan, Yonghong; Luo, Xuenong; Zheng, Yadong

    2016-10-01

    Infection of Taenia ovis metacestodes in sheep or goats causes great economic losses due to condemnation of carcasses. T. ovis infection is not formally recorded in China to date. In October, 2015, T. ovis infection occurred in Jingtai County, China, and 113 of 192 sheep from one farm were infected. Cysts resided in the cardiac and skeletal muscle, and evaginated metacestodes had four suckers and scolex armed with approximately 23 hooks. Using cox1 and nad1 as molecular markers, the sample was further identified and the results showed that the cox1 and nad1 nucleotide sequences of the sample shared 99% identity with that of T. ovis and 75%-91.3% with those of other Taenia species. Taken together, these results confirm the first occurrence of T. ovis in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormalities in the WFU strain of Taenia crassiceps (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) following years of propagation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Vega, L; García-Prieto, L; Zurabian, R

    2016-09-01

    Asexually proliferating Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) metacestodes isolated within past decades have been successfully sub-cultured under experimental conditions using Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 mice. However, during their development, morphological irregularities of scolex structures have been reported in two of the three strains of this cestode species maintained in mice - ORF and KBS. The main goal of this work is to describe the abnormalities observed in a sample of 118 cysticerci of the third T. crassiceps strain used at present - WFU. Morphological abnormalities were detected in 39.8% of the evaginated scoleces; they consisted of supernumerary suckers (n= 2), duplicated (n= 2) or absent rostellum (n= 1), as well as absent or aberrant (n= 29) hooks, which were significantly shorter when compared to the large and short hook lengths referred to in the literature.

  9. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediments in the lower Snake River basin, Idaho and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, Terry R.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the lower Snake River Basin. Whole-body composite samples of suckers and carp from seven sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds; liver samples were analyzed for trace elements. Fillets from selected sportfish were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Bed-sediment samples from three sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Twelve different organochlorine compounds were detected in 14 fish-tissue samples. All fish-tissue samples contained DDT or its metabolites. Concentrations of total DDT ranged from 11 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in fillets of yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 3,633 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Total DDT concentrations in whole-body samples of sucker and carp from the Snake River at C.J. Strike Reservoir, Snake River at Swan Falls, Snake River at Nyssa, and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded criteria established for the protection of fish-eating wildlife. Total PCB concentrations in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River also exceeded fish-eating wildlife criteria. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in whole-body samples, in general, were larger than concentrations in sportfish fillets. However, concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in fillets of channel catfish from the Snake River at Nyssa and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River, and concentrations of total DDT in fillets of smallmouth bass and white crappie from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded a cancer risk screening value of 10-6 established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment were smaller than concentrations in fish tissue. Concentrations of p,p'DDE, the only compound detected

  10. First record of Stibarobdella moorei (Annelida, Hirudinea, Piscicolidae a marine leech parasitizing Octopus bimaculatus (Mollusca: Octopodidae from the Mexican Pacific coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Peraza D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the parasitic marine leech Stibarobdella moorei (Oka, 1910 (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae along the northwest Mexican Pacific coast is described for the first time. This ectoparasite was collected from the skin of the Octopus bimaculatus (Verril, 1983 (Mollusca: Octopodidae. Stibarobdella loricata (Hardig, 1924 is synonymized with S. moorei as this species resembles other species of the genus based on tubercle patterns and the presence of papillae and a marginal fringe on the oral sucker. The present finding throws new light on the biodiversity and host preference of the ectoparasite and suggests a successful migration to unusual host. The coast of the Pacific Ocean, particularly in the Bay of Los Angeles, Baja California, Mexico is a new geographical distribution area for S. moorei, and O. bimaculatus is a new host reported for this leech. The morphology of this ectoparasite is briefly described.

  11. Supplementary studies of Pleurogenoides medians (Digenea: Lecithodendriidae infecting the Marsh frog Rana Ridibunda (Amphibia: Ranidae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rewaida Abdel-Gaber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurogenoides medians, a digenean lecithodendriid trematode, parasitize numerous aquatic vertebrate species including frogs, freshwater fish, urodeles and anurans. In the present study, a total of 190 out of 300 (63.33% marsh frogs Rana Ridibunda were found to be infected with this digenean parasite. The highest percentage of infection was recorded in winter reaching 93.33%, and the lowest value was recorded to be 6.66% during summer. Prevalence and intensity of infection were positively correlated with the host size. Host sex showed no effect in this respect. Morphological studies based on light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the adult worms characterized by small body size measured 1.980–2.430 (2.205 ± 0.1 mm long and 0.870–1.20 (9.87 ± 0.01 mm wide with spines of similar size distributed all over the body surface; oral sucker is sub-terminal and measured 0.180–0.230 (0.203 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.120–0.180 (0.150 ± 0.01 mm wide; ventral sucker is smaller than the oral sucker, post-ovarian located at 1/3 level from the anterior end and measured 0.080–0.102 (0.090 ± 0.001 mm long and 0.100–0140 (0.120 ± 0.001 mm wide; two symmetrical testes were located near the cecal termination on both sides of the ventral sucker, measured 0.153–0.193 (0.176 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.160–0.192 (0.175 ± 0.01 mm wide; pre-acetabular ovary was present and measured 0.130–0.150 (0.140 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.100–0.130 (0.120 ± 0.01 mm wide; vitellaria are extra-caecal and extended from the level of the pharynx to a level slightly beyond the ovary. By comparing the recovered parasite with different species of the same genus from different hosts having different localities, it was found that the present species morphometrically more or less different from the comparable species and the only similar species was P. medians described previously from the common toad Bufo bufo by having all similar

  12. A bacterial disease of yellow perch (Peres flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.J.; Nordstrom, P.R.; Bailey, J.E.; Heaton, J.H.

    1960-01-01

    On May 26, 1959, two of the authors' investigated a fish kill at Dailey Lake, Park County, Montana. They observed about a half-dozen live, weakly swimming yellow perch (Perca flavescens), in addition to thousand of dead perch along the shoreline. It was learned from local residents that mortalities had begun to appear some 2 weeks earlier. At that time the time the authorities had diagnosed the condition as a winterkill, since ice had only recently disappeared from the lake. Although a number of other species inhabit Dailey Lake, including rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brown trout (S. trutta), kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka), black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus), rainbow x cutthroat hybrids, only one other species was represented in the kill. This consisted of one black crappie.

  13. Phase contrast X-ray synchrotron imaging for assessing external and internal morphology of Rhodnius prolixus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Andre P. de, E-mail: apalmeid@gmail.com [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nuclear Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Soares, Jose [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Meneses, Anderson A.M. [Radiological Sciences Laboratory, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Federal University of Western Para (Brazil); Cardoso, Simone C. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Braz, Delson [Nuclear Engineering Program, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Garcia, Eloi S. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Physiology of Insects, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ (Brazil); Gonzalez, Marcelo S. [Department of General Biology, Federal University Fluminense (Brazil); Azambuja, Patricia [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Physiology of Insects, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ (Brazil); Barroso, Regina C. [Physics Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    PhC-SR-{mu}CT is a nondestructive technique that allows the microanatomical investigations and 3D images reconstructions. This technique is performed in blood sucker, Rhodnius prolixus-one of the most important insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, ethiologic agent of Chagas' disease in Latin America-was able to provide excellent information about the microanatomy of the thorax and head allowing a new tool for further studies of development and physiology of triatomine by a non-invasive method of observation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this work we used SR-PhC-{mu}CT to study the microanatomy of R. prolixus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate SR-PhC-{mu}CT to the 3D reconstruction of internal structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We get information about the tissues responsible for the development of the insect.

  14. How do octopuses use their arms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J A

    1998-09-01

    A taxonomy of the movement patterns of the 8 flexible arms of octopuses is constructed. Components consist of movements of the arm itself, the ventral suckers and their stalks, as well as the relative position of arms and the skin web between them. Within 1 arm, combinations of components result in a variety of behaviors. At the level of all arms, 1 group of behaviors is described as postures, on the basis of the spread of all arms and the web to make a 2-dimensional surface whose position differs in the 3rd dimension. Another group of arm behaviors is actions, more or less coordinated and involving several to all arms. Arm control appears to be based on radial symmetry, relative equipotentiality of all arms, relative independence of each arm, and separability of components within the arm. The types and coordination of arm behaviors are discussed with relationship to biomechanical limits, muscle structures, and neuronal programming.

  15. Arvustused / Jan Berkovitch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berkovitch, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Municipal Waste "The Art Of Partying", Fueled By Fire "Spread The Fire", Apocryphal Voice "Stilltrapped", Amorphis "Silent Waters", As I Lay Dying "An Ocean Between Us", Baroness "Red Album", Behemoth "The Apostasy", Beherit "H418ov21.C / Electric Doom Synthesis", Cephalic Carnage "Xenosapien", Beneath The Massacre "Mechanics Of Dysfunction", Crionics "Neuthrone", Depressed Mode "Ghosts Of Devotion", Down "III - Over The Under", Drudkh "Estrangement", Einstürzende Neubauten "Alles Wieder Offen", Entombed "Serpent Saints - The Ten Amendments", Fall Of The Leafe "Aerolithe", Helena Nova "Vaenlasega voodis", King Diamond "Give Me Your Soul... Please!", Manes "How The World Came To An End", Must Missa "Martyr Of Wrath", Mustasch "Latest Version Of Truth", Nile "Ithyphallic", Pig Destroyer "Phantom Limb", Reverend Bizarre "Ill: So Long Suckers", Terhen "Eyes Unfolded", Throne Of Katarsis "An Eternal Dark Horizon", Tulus "Biography Obscene", Turbonegro "Retox", Weedeater "God Luck and Good Speed", Vreid "I Krig

  16. Cadherin genes and evolutionary novelties in the octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z Yan; Ragsdale, Clifton W

    2017-09-01

    All animals with large brains must have molecular mechanisms to regulate neuronal process outgrowth and prevent neurite self-entanglement. In vertebrates, two major gene families implicated in these mechanisms are the clustered protocadherins and the atypical cadherins. However, the molecular mechanisms utilized in complex invertebrate brains, such as those of the cephalopods, remain largely unknown. Recently, we identified protocadherins and atypical cadherins in the octopus. The octopus protocadherin expansion shares features with the mammalian clustered protocadherins, including enrichment in neural tissues, clustered head-to-tail orientations in the genome, and a large first exon encoding all cadherin domains. Other octopus cadherins, including a newly-identified cadherin with 77 extracellular cadherin domains, are elevated in the suckers, a striking cephalopod novelty. Future study of these octopus genes may yield insights into the general functions of protocadherins in neural wiring and cadherin-related proteins in complex morphogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  18. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  19. Use of pultruded reinforced plastics in energy generation and energy related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R.

    Applications of pultrusion-formed fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) in the wind, oil, and coal derived energy industries are reviewed. FRP is noted to be a viable alternative to wood, aluminum, and steel for reasons of availability, price, and weight. Attention is given to the development of FRP wind turbine blades for the DOE 8 kW low cost, high reliability wind turbine program. The blades feature a NACA 23112 profile with a 15 in. chord on the system which was tested at Rocky Flats, CO. Fabricating the blades involved a plus and minus 45 deg roving orientation, a heavy fiber-glass nose piece to assure blade strength, and a separately manufactured foam core. Additional uses for FRP products have been found in the structural members of coal stack scrubbers using a vinyl ester resin in a fire retardant formulation, and as low cost, light weight sucker rods for deep well oil drilling.

  20. Application of phase-contrast X-ray microtomography to study the internal structures of Rhodium prolixus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Andre P. de; Soares, Jose; Barroso, Regina C. [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Institute; Braz, Delson, E-mail: delson@lin.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Program; Cardoso, Simone C., E-mail: simone@if.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Institute; Garcia, Eloi S.; Azambuja, Patricia [Oswaldo Cruz Institute (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. of Biochemistry and Physiology of Insects; Gonzalez, Marcelo S. [Federal University Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. of General Biology

    2011-07-01

    The PhC-SR-{mu}CT is a nondestructive technique that allows the microanatomical investigations and 3D images reconstructions within a short time. This technique performed in blood sucker, Rhodnius prolixus - one of the most important primary vectors of of Trypanosoma cruzi, ethiologic agent of Chagas' disease in Latin America and also the most well-know studied insect in terms of both physiology and vector-parasite interactions. However, little is known about the development and structure of its internal organs. The aim of this work is to provide a non-invasive option for studying the internal structures of the main vector of Chagas' disease, which should help to answer important questions concerning anatomy, development, structure and plasticity of insect in general. Three-dimensional rendering images can provide a detailed knowledge of the interior of the insect, which is crucial for a better understanding of its function and evolution. (author)

  1. SYNERGY EFFECTS IN WORK TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca C. ZOLTAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s organization increasingly utilizes all kind of teams in order to surpass their competitors through flexibility, adaptability and innovation, features which are seen to characterize the teams. For this purpose, the concept of synergy in teams’ activity is often mentioned as the prime reason for which collective work is considered to be superior comparative with individual work. But what exactly does it mean? The present paper aims to shed some light on the concept of synergy in work teams and its positive effects, namely, the social consequences of collective work such as social compensation, social indispensability, social comparison, social identity, but also its negative effects, such as free-riding, social loafing and sucker effect. These are important group phenomena that managers should be aware of because they have a major impact on team performance, and consequently, on organization performance.

  2. A new species of Polystomoides ward, 1917 (Monogenea: polystomatidae) from freshwater chelonians (Testudines: chelidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Novelli, Iara A; Sousa, Bernadete M; de SouzaLima, Sueli

    2008-06-01

    This report describes the first occurrence of Polystomoides brasiliensis n. sp. (Monogenea: Polystomatidae), a new monogenean species in the buccal and pharyngeal cavities of the freshwater turtles in Brazil. Live monogeneans were collected from Hydromedusa maximiliani and Phrynops geoffroanus at the Mariano Procópio Museum's lake, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Polystomoides brasiliensis differs from all other species of this genus in having 8-9 genital spines, except for Polystomoides uruguayensis, which has 8-10 genital spines. However, the new species differs morphometrically from P. uruguayensis in the greater size of the outer and inner hamuli, as well as having a testis that is proportionally greater than the pharynx and oral sucker. The current study is the first report of monogeneans in chelonians of Brazil, and the first record of helminths in H. maximiliani.

  3. Hollow rods for the oil producing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalimova, L M; Elyasheva, M A

    1970-01-01

    Hollow sucker rods have several advantages over conventional ones. The hollow rods actuate the well pump and at the same time conduct produced fluids to surface. When paraffin deposition occurs, it can be minimized by injecting steam, hot oil or hot water into the hollow rod. Other chemicals, such as demulsifiers, scale inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, etc., can also be placed in the well through the hollow rods. This reduces cost of preventive treatments, reduces number of workovers, increases oil production, and reduces cost of oil. Because the internal area of the rod is small, the passing liquids have a high velocity and thereby carry sand and dirt out of the well. This reduces pump wear between the piston and the plunger. Specifications of hollow rods, their operating characteristics, and results obtained with such rods under various circumstances are described.

  4. Contaminants of emerging concern presence and adverse effects in fish: A case study in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Thomas, Linnea M.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Randolph, Eric C.; Choy, Steven J.; Alvarez, David; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Lee, Kathy E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2018-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are a valuable natural resource that is affected by contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including sex steroid hormones, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, and new generation pesticides. However, little is known about the fate and biological effects of CECs in tributaries to the Great Lakes. In the current study, 16 sites on three rivers in the Great Lakes basin (Fox, Cuyahoga, and Raquette Rivers) were assessed for CEC presence using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and grab water samplers. Biological activity was assessed through a combination of in vitro bioassays (focused on estrogenic activity) and in vivo assays with larval fathead minnows. In addition, resident sunfish, largemouth bass, and white suckers were assessed for changes in

  5. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. [/sup 14/C]NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned

  6. By-product mutualism and the ambiguous effects of harsher environments - A game-theoretic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Kris; Hoyer, Britta

    2016-03-21

    We construct two-player two-strategy game-theoretic models of by-product mutualism, where our focus lies on the way in which the probability of cooperation among players is affected by the degree of adversity facing the players. In our first model, cooperation consists of the production of a public good, and adversity is linked to the degree of complementarity of the players׳ efforts in producing the public good. In our second model, cooperation consists of the defense of a public, and/or a private good with by-product benefits, and adversity is measured by the number of random attacks (e.g., by a predator) facing the players. In both of these models, our analysis confirms the existence of the so-called boomerang effect, which states that in a harsh environment, the individual player has few incentives to unilaterally defect in a situation of joint cooperation. Focusing on such an effect in isolation leads to the "common-enemy" hypothesis that a larger degree of adversity increases the probability of cooperation. Yet, we also find that a sucker effect may simultaneously exist, which says that in a harsh environment, the individual player has few incentives to unilaterally cooperate in a situation of joint defection. Looked at in isolation, the sucker effect leads to the competing hypothesis that a larger degree of adversity decreases the probability of cooperation. Our analysis predicts circumstances in which the "common enemy" hypothesis prevails, and circumstances in which the competing hypothesis prevails. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  8. Population trends, bend use relative to available habitat and within-river-bend habitat use of eight indicator species of Missouri and Lower Kansas River benthic fishes: 15 years after baseline assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Yang, Wen-Hsi; Arab, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A baseline assessment of the Missouri River fish community and species-specific habitat use patterns conducted from 1996 to 1998 provided the first comprehensive analysis of Missouri River benthic fish population trends and habitat use in the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone rivers, exclusive of reservoirs, and provided the foundation for the present Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP). Data used in such studies are frequently zero inflated. To address this issue, the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model was applied. This follow-up study is based on PSPAP data collected up to 15 years later along with new understanding of how habitat characteristics among and within bends affect habitat use of fish species targeted by PSPAP, including pallid sturgeon. This work demonstrated that a large-scale, large-river, PSPAP-type monitoring program can be an effective tool for assessing population trends and habitat usage of large-river fish species. Using multiple gears, PSPAP was effective in monitoring shovelnose and pallid sturgeons, sicklefin, shoal and sturgeon chubs, sand shiner, blue sucker and sauger. For all species, the relationship between environmental variables and relative abundance differed, somewhat, among river segments suggesting the importance of the overall conditions of Upper and Middle Missouri River and Lower Missouri and Kansas rivers on the habitat usage patterns exhibited. Shoal and sicklefin chubs exhibited many similar habitat usage patterns; blue sucker and shovelnose sturgeon also shared similar responses. For pallid sturgeon, the primary focus of PSPAP, relative abundance tended to increase in Upper and Middle Missouri River paralleling stocking efforts, whereas no evidence of an increasing relative abundance was found in the Lower Missouri River despite stocking.

  9. Emendation and new species of Hapalorhynchus Stunkard, 1922 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea) from musk turtles (Kinosternidae: Sternotherus) in Alabama and Florida rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jackson R; Halanych, Kenneth M; Arias, Cova R; Folt, Brian; Goessling, Jeffrey M; Bullard, Stephen A

    2017-12-01

    Hapalorhynchus Stunkard, 1922 is emended based on morphological study of existing museum specimens (type and voucher specimens) and newly-collected specimens infecting musk turtles (Testudines: Kinosternidae: Sternotherus spp.) from rivers in Alabama and Florida (USA). Hapalorhynchus conecuhensis n. sp. is described from an innominate musk turtle, Sternotherus cf. minor, (type host) from Blue Spring (31°5'27.64″N, 86°30'53.21″W; Pensacola Bay Basin, Alabama) and the loggerhead musk turtle, Sternotherus minor (Agassiz, 1857) from the Wacissa River (30°20'24.73″N, 83°59'27.56″W; Apalachee Bay Basin, Florida). It differs from congeners by lacking a body constriction at level of the ventral sucker, paired anterior caeca, and a transverse ovary as well as by having a small ventral sucker, proportionally short posterior caeca, nearly equally-sized anterior and posterior testes, a small cirrus sac, and a uterus extending dorsal to the ovary and the anterior testis. Specimens of Hapalorhynchus reelfooti Byrd, 1939 infected loggerhead musk turtles, stripe-necked musk turtles (Sternotherus peltifer Smith and Glass, 1947), Eastern musk turtles (Sternotherus odoratus [Latreille in Sonnini and Latreille, 1801]), and S. cf. minor. Those of Hapalorhynchus cf. stunkardi infected S. minor and S. odoratus. Sternothorus minor, S. peltifer, and S. cf. minor plus S. minor and S. odoratus are new host records for H. reelfooti and H. cf. stunkardi, respectively. This is the first report of an infected musk turtle from the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers (Mobile-Tensaw River Basin), Pensacola Bay Basin, or Apalachee Bay Basin. Sequence analysis of the large subunit rDNA (28S) showed a strongly-supported clade for Hapalorhynchus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of the Haplosplanchnata Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray and Littlewood, 2003, with a description of Schikhobalotrema huffmani n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Daniel C; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2017-09-26

    We describe Schikhobalotrema huffmani n. sp. from Tylosurus crocodilus (Péron and Leseur) (Belonidae) collected off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia and Tylosurus gavialoides (Castelnau) collected from Moreton Bay, Queensland. Schikhobalotrema huffmani n. sp., along with Schikhobalotrema ablennis (Abdul-Salam and Khalil, 1987) Madhavi, 2005, Schikhobalotrema acutum (Linton, 1910) Skrjabin and Guschanskaja, 1955 and Schikhobalotrema adacutum (Manter, 1937) Skrjabin and Guschanskaja, 1955 are distinguished from all other species of Schikhobalotrema Skrjabin and Guschanskaja, 1955 in having ventral suckers which bear lateral lobes and have longitudinal apertures. Schikhobalotrema huffmani n. sp. differs from S. ablennis in having an obvious post-vitelline region and a longer forebody. From S. acutum, S. huffmani n. sp. differs in having a prostatic bulb smaller than the pharynx and more anterior testis. From S. adacutum, S. huffmani n. sp. differs in having more prominent ventral sucker lobes, a conspicuous prostatic bulb and a longer forebody. We also report the first Australian record of Haplosplanchnus pachysomus (Eysenhardt, 1829) Looss, 1902, from Mugil cephalus Linnaeus (Mugilidae) collected in Moreton Bay. Molecular sequence data (ITS2, 18S and 28S rDNA) were generated for Schikhobalotrema huffmani n. sp., H. pachysomus and archived specimens of Hymenocotta mulli Manter, 1961. The new 18S and 28S molecular data were combined with published data of five other haplosplanchnid taxa to expand the phylogeny for the Haplosplanchnata. Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses recovered identical tree topology and demonstrated the Haplosplanchnata as a well-supported monophyletic group. However, relationships at and below the subfamily level remain poorly resolved.

  11. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Nash

    Full Text Available Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG, and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  12. Loss of dendritic connectivity in southern California's urban riverscape facilitates decline of an endemic freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan Q; Backlin, Adam R; Galst-Cavalcante, Carey; O'Brien, John W; Fisher, Robert N

    2018-01-01

    Life history adaptations and spatial configuration of metapopulation networks allow certain species to persist in extreme fluctuating environments, yet long-term stability within these systems relies on the maintenance of linkage habitat. Degradation of such linkages in urban riverscapes can disrupt this dynamic in aquatic species, leading to increased extinction debt in local populations experiencing environment-related demographic flux. We used microsatellites and mtDNA to examine the effects of collapsed network structure in the endemic Santa Ana sucker Catostomus santaanae of southern California, a threatened species affected by natural flood-drought cycles, "boom-and-bust" demography, hybridization and presumed artificial transplantation. Our results show a predominance of drift-mediated processes in shaping population structure and that reverse mechanisms for counterbalancing the genetic effects of these phenomena have dissipated with the collapse of dendritic connectivity. We use approximate Bayesian models to support two cases of artificial transplantation and provide evidence that one of the invaded systems better represents the historic processes that maintained genetic variation within watersheds than any remaining drainages where C. santaanae is considered native. We further show that a stable dry gap in the northern range is preventing genetic dilution of pure C. santaanae persisting upstream of a hybrid assemblage involving a non-native sucker and that local accumulation of genetic variation in the same drainage is influenced by position within the network. This work has important implications for declining species that have historically relied on dendritic metapopulation networks to maintain source-sink dynamics in phasic environments, but no longer possess this capacity in urban-converted landscapes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Habituation of adult sea lamprey repeatedly exposed to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Brown, Grant E.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is an unforgiving selective pressure affecting the life history, morphology and behaviour of prey organisms. Selection should favour organisms that have the ability to correctly assess the information content of alarm cues. This study investigated whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus habituate to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker Catostomus commersoniiextract), predator cues (Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl)) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract and human saliva) after they were pre-exposed 4 times or 8 times, respectively, to a given stimulus the previous night. Consistent with our prediction, adult sea lamprey maintained an avoidance response to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a predator cue presented at high relative concentration (PEA HCl) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract plus human saliva), irrespective of previous exposure level. As expected, adult sea lamprey habituated to a sympatric heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker extract) and a predator cue presented at lower relative concentration (human saliva). Adult sea lamprey did not show any avoidance of the Northern water snake washing and the Amazon sailfin catfish extract (heterospecific control). This study suggests that conspecific damage-released alarm cues and PEA HCl present the best options as natural repellents in an integrated management program aimed at controlling the abundance of sea lamprey in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  14. Tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides lineatus in Chinese Snakes and Their Adults Recovered from Experimental Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Kim, Tong-Soo; Kong, Yoon; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2013-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of Mesocestoides lineatus tetrathyridia collected from Chinese snakes and their adults recovered from experimental animals were studied. The tetrathyridia were detected mainly in the mesentery of 2 snake species, Agkistrodon saxatilis (25%) and Elaphe schrenckii (20%). They were 1.73 by 1.02 mm in average size and had an invaginated scolex with 4 suckers. Adult tapeworms were recovered from 2 hamsters and 1 dog, which were orally infected with 5-10 larvae each. Adults from hamsters were about 32 cm long and those from a dog were about 58 cm long. The scolex was 0.56 mm in average width with 4 suckers of 0.17 by 0.15 mm in average size. Mature proglottids measured 0.29 by 0.91 mm (av.). Ovaries and vitellaria bilobed and located in the posterior portion of proglottids. The cirrus sac was oval-shaped and located median. Testes were follicular, distributed in both lateral fields of proglottids, and 41-52 in number per proglottid. Gravid proglottids were 1.84 by 1.39 mm (av.) with a characteristic paruterine organ. Eggs were 35 by 27 µm in average size with a hexacanth embryo. These morphological characteristics of adult worms were identical with those of M. lineatus reported previously. Therefore, it has been confirmed that the tetrathyridia detected in 2 species of Chinese snakes are the metacestodes of M. lineatus, and 2 snake species, A. saxatilis and E. schrenckii, play the role of intermediate hosts. PMID:24327778

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of two types of choline acetyltransferase in neurons and sensory cells of the octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Yuko; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Kimura, Shin; D'Este, Loredana; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Cholinergic structures in the arm of the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris were studied by immunohistochemistry using specific antisera for two types (common and peripheral) of acetylcholine synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT): antiserum raised against the rat common type ChAT (cChAT), which is cross-reactive with molluscan cChAT, and antiserum raised against the rat peripheral type ChAT (pChAT), which has been used to delineate peripheral cholinergic structures in vertebrates, but not previously in invertebrates. Western blot analysis of octopus extracts revealed a single pChAT-positive band, suggesting that pChAT antiserum is cross-reactive with an octopus counterpart of rat pChAT. In immunohistochemistry, only neuronal structures of the octopus arm were stained by cChAT and pChAT antisera, although the pattern of distribution clearly differed between the two antisera. cChAT-positive varicose nerve fibers were observed in both the cerebrobrachial tract and neuropil of the axial nerve cord, while pChAT-positive varicose fibers were detected only in the neuropil of the axial nerve cord. After epitope retrieval, pChAT-positive neuronal cells and their processes became visible in all ganglia of the arm, including the axial and intramuscular nerve cords, and in ganglia of suckers. Moreover, pChAT-positive structures also became detectable in nerve fibers connecting the different ganglia, in smooth nerve fibers among muscle layers and dermal connective tissues, and in sensory cells of the suckers. These results suggest that the octopus arm has two types of cholinergic nerves: cChAT-positive nerves from brain ganglia and pChAT-positive nerves that are intrinsic to the arm.

  16. Loss of dendritic connectivity in southern California's urban riverscape facilitates decline of an endemic freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Backlin, Adam R.; Galst-Cavalcante, Carey; O'Brien, John W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2018-01-01

    Life history adaptations and spatial configuration of metapopulation networks allow certain species to persist in extreme fluctuating environments, yet long-term stability within these systems relies on the maintenance of linkage habitat. Degradation of such linkages in urban riverscapes can disrupt this dynamic in aquatic species, leading to increased extinction debt in local populations experiencing environment-related demographic flux. We used microsatellites and mtDNA to examine the effects of collapsed network structure in the endemic Santa Ana sucker Catostomus santaanae of southern California, a threatened species affected by natural flood-drought cycles, ‘boom-and-bust’ demography, hybridization, and presumed artificial transplantation. Our results show a predominance of drift-mediated processes in shaping population structure, and that reverse mechanisms for counterbalancing the genetic effects of these phenomena have dissipated with the collapse of dendritic connectivity. We use approximate Bayesian models to support two cases of artificial transplantation, and provide evidence that one of the invaded systems better represents the historic processes that maintained genetic variation within watersheds than any remaining drainages where C. santaanae is considered native. We further show that a stable dry gap in the northern range is preventing genetic dilution of pure C. santaanae persisting upstream of a hybrid assemblage involving a non-native sucker, and that local accumulation of genetic variation in the same drainage is influenced by position within the network. This work has important implications for declining species that have historically relied on dendritic metapopulation networks to maintain source-sink dynamics in phasic environments, but no longer possess this capacity in urban-converted landscapes.

  17. Assessing three fish species ecological status in Colorado River, Grand Canyon based on physical habitat and population models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weiwei; Chen, Yuansheng

    2018-04-01

    Colorado River is a unique ecosystem and provides important ecological services such as habitat for fish species as well as water power energy supplies. River management for this ecosystem requires assessment and decision support tools for fish which involves protecting, restoring as well as forecasting of future conditions. In this paper, a habitat and population model was developed and used to determine the levels of fish habitat suitability and population density in Colorado River between Lees Ferry and Lake Mead. The short term target fish populations are also predicted based on native fish recovery strategy. This model has been developed by combining hydrodynamics, heat transfer and sediment transport models with a habitat suitability index model and then coupling with habitat model into life stage population model. The fish were divided into four life stages according to the fish length. Three most abundant and typical native and non-native fish were selected as target species, which are rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown trout (Salmo trutta) and flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis). Flow velocity, water depth, water temperature and substrates were used as the suitability indicators in habitat model and overall suitability index (OSI) as well as weight usable area (WUA) was used as an indicator in population model. A comparison was made between simulated fish population alteration and surveyed fish number fluctuation during 2000 to 2009. The application of this habitat and population model indicates that this model can be accurate present habitat situation and targets fish population dynamics of in the study areas. The analysis also indicates the flannelmouth sucker population will steadily increase while the rainbow trout will decrease based on the native fish recovery scheme. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. RESPONSE OF SELECTED LOCAL PLANTAIN CULTIVARS TO PIBS (PLANTS ISSUS DE BOURGEONS SECONDAIRES TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloved Mensah DZOMEKU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One major constraint to plantain production has been inadequate healthy planting materials at the time of planting. Several technologies for multiplying healthy planting materials exist but could not meet farmers’ demand. A study was conducted to assess the performance of various landraces plantain to plants issus de bourgeons secondaires (PIBS technique. Five cultivars of Musa sapientum (Apantu (False Horn, Asamienu (True Horn, Oniaba (intermediate French plantain and FHIA-21 (tetraploid hybrid plantain were tested to determine their response to the PIBS technique. Sword suckers of each cultivar with weight of between 0.2-0.5 kg were prepared and buried in fine sawdust in a humidity chamber built using transparent polyethylene sheets. Results at harvest showed that removal of rooted sprouts started three weeks after planting and every week thereafter for eight weeks. The intermediate French plantain cultivar (Oniaba produced the least average number (about 20 of healthy planting. Apantu (False Horn produced an average of about 75 healthy planting materials. The hybrid FHIA-21 on the other hand generated an average of about 85 healthy planting materials. Asamienu (True Horn produced the highest healthy seedlings of about 90 healthy planting materials. The results revealed that the leaf scar carries a primary bud at the intersection of each leaf sheath and several eyes along the entire length of the leaf sheath which could not have developed into suckers. However, with this technique the eyes could be activated to sprout as healthy planting materials. The technique proved as an efficient method of multiplying healthy planting materials for plantain and could thus be recommended for adoption not only by peasant farmers but also to others who could become commercial seed producers. But there will be a need for certification guidelines for seed growing systems.

  19. Potential population and assemblage influences of non-native trout on native nongame fish in Nebraska headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Schainost, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Non-native trout are currently stocked to support recreational fisheries in headwater streams throughout Nebraska. The influence of non-native trout introductions on native fish populations and their role in structuring fish assemblages in these systems is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if the size structure or relative abundance of native fish differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout, (ii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs in the presence and absence of non-native trout and (iii) if native fish-assemblage structure differs across a gradient in abundances of non-native trout. Longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae were larger in the presence of brown trout Salmo trutta and smaller in the presence of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss compared to sites without trout. There was also a greater proportion of larger white suckers Catostomus commersonii in the presence of brown trout. Creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas size structures were similar in the presence and absence of trout. Relative abundances of longnose dace, white sucker, creek chub and fathead minnow were similar in the presence and absence of trout, but there was greater distinction in native fish-assemblage structure between sites with trout compared to sites without trout as trout abundances increased. These results suggest increased risk to native fish assemblages in sites with high abundances of trout. However, more research is needed to determine the role of non-native trout in structuring native fish assemblages in streams, and the mechanisms through which introduced trout may influence native fish populations.

  20. Recovery of ovary size, follicle cell apoptosis, and HSP70 expression in fish exposed to bleached pulp mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janz, D. M.; Weber, L. P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); McMaster, M. E.; Munkittrrick, K. R. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada); Van Der Kraak, G. [Guelph Univ., Dept. of Zoology, ON (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    Apoptosis of granulosa cells that provide hormonal support for the oocyte is the normal mechanism by which atresia ( reduced ovarian size, decreased fecundity, delayed sexual maturation, alterations in plasma sex steroid levels, etc) occurs in mammals, birds and possibly fish. The objective of this study is to determine ovarian cell apoptosis, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and heat shock protein (HSP70) expression during the growth stage of ovarian development in white sucker fish in order to compare samples of fish collected upstream and downstream of a bleached kraft pulp mill in Ontario. Fish for the study were collected in two different years, before and after the pulp mill undertook a number of improvements to eliminate the release of process chemicals. Results showed a 3.4-fold increase in ovarian cell apoptosis in growing white sucker collected four km downstream of the bleached kraft pulp mill in 1996 (before the improvements) compared to fish collected from upstream sources. The elevated ovarian cell apoptosis was associated with significant reduction in gonadosomatic index in fish collected downstream. There were no differences in ovarian cell apoptosis or gonadosomatic index between fish collected upstream and four km downstream of the mill in September 1998 (after the improvements.) Based on the results, it may be concluded that chronic stimulation of ovarian cell apoptosis by certain components of bleached kraft pulp mill effluents represents an important cellular mechanism for reducing the size of ovaries and other related reproductive responses in female fish exposed to these effluents. Although the specific effluent components are not known, the improvements undertaken between 1996 and 1998 resulted in significant enough recovery of these responses to justify the belief in a cause-effect relationship. 32 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  1. A new species of Oochoristica (Cyclophyllidea: Linstowiidae) from non-native Mediterranean geckos, Hemidactylus turcicus (Sauria: Gekkonidae), from Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R

    2017-06-01

    A new species of cyclophyllidean tapeworm, Oochoristica harschi sp. nov. is described from 2 of 18 (11%) non-native Mediterranean geckos (Hemidactylus turcicus) collected in June 2016 from Tom Green County, Texas, USA The new species has few characteristics in common with 17 species of Oochoristica previously described from Nearctic reptiles. Of this group, O. harschi is most similar to O. macallisteri Bursey and Goldberg, 1996 from the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana from Arizona and California, USA, in number of testes, 14-20 vs. 12-20. However, O. harschi has oval suckers and a long neck compared to the circular suckers and absent neck in O. macallisteri. On comparison with other species of Oochoristica, it was found O. chinensis Jensen, Schmidt and Kuntz, 1983 from the Sino-Japanese realm, O. iguanae Bursey and Goldberg, 1996 from the Neotropical realm, and O. maccoyi Bursey and Goldberg, 1966 from the Panamanian realm were most similar to the new species. However, O. harschi can be differentiated by possessing a much longer neck and a shorter cirrus pouch. It can be further differentiated from O. chinensis by possessing an ovoid vs. an irregular vitellarium, from O. iguanae by having a smaller strobilus (65 vs. 110 mm) as well as an ovoid vs. a triangular vitellarium, and from O. maccoyi by having significantly more proglottids (145 vs. 89) and a longer strobilus (65 vs. 20 mm). The new species is the fifth species of Oochoristica reported from non-native H. turcicus and the 18th species described from the Nearctic region.

  2. Insight into the genetic components of community genetics: QTL mapping of insect association in a fast-growing forest tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer DeWoody

    Full Text Available Identifying genetic sequences underlying insect associations on forest trees will improve the understanding of community genetics on a broad scale. We tested for genomic regions associated with insects in hybrid poplar using quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses conducted on data from a common garden experiment. The F2 offspring of a hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides cross were assessed for seven categories of insect leaf damage at two time points, June and August. Positive and negative correlations were detected among damage categories and between sampling times. For example, sap suckers on leaves in June were positively correlated with sap suckers on leaves (P<0.001 but negatively correlated with skeletonizer damage (P<0.01 in August. The seven forms of leaf damage were used as a proxy for seven functional groups of insect species. Significant variation in insect association occurred among the hybrid offspring, including transgressive segregation of susceptibility to damage. NMDS analyses revealed significant variation and modest broad-sense heritability in insect community structure among genets. QTL analyses identified 14 genomic regions across 9 linkage groups that correlated with insect association. We used three genomics tools to test for putative mechanisms underlying the QTL. First, shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathway genes co-located to 9 of the 13 QTL tested, consistent with the role of phenolic glycosides as defensive compounds. Second, two insect association QTL corresponded to genomic hotspots for leaf trait QTL as identified in previous studies, indicating that, in addition to biochemical attributes, leaf morphology may influence insect preference. Third, network analyses identified categories of gene models over-represented in QTL for certain damage types, providing direction for future functional studies. These results provide insight into the genetic components involved in insect community structure in a fast

  3. Resposta à adubação com uréia, cloreto de potássio e ácido bórico em mudas abacaxizeiro'Smooth Cayenne' Response to fertilization with urea, potassium chloride and boric acid in the 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimário Inácio Coelho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Mudas do abacaxizeiro (Ananas comosus L., cultivar Smooth Cayenne, obtidas por seccionamento de caule, foram submetidas à adubação foliar com soluções em diferentes concentrações de uréia, KCl e H3BO3. O delineamento utilizado foi fatorial fracionado do tipo (1/55³, com três tipos de adubo e cinco concentrações, num total de 25 tratamentos, que consistiram de combinações de concentrações de 0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10 g L-1 de uréia e KCl, e 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,0 g L-1 de H3BO3. Os tratamentos foram iniciados nove semanas após o plantio das seções do caule, com 26 pulverizações semanais para a uréia e KCl e 4 pulverizações mensais para o H3BO3. Verificou-se crescimento linear positivo para as características: altura das brotações, número de folhas, área foliar, massa seca e fresca das mudas, em resposta a níveis crescentes de uréia. Não foi observado efeito do KCl e H3BO3 para nenhuma das características de crescimento avaliadas. As mudas adubadas com 10 g L-1 de uréia atingiram altura de 40 cm e massa fresca de 242 g no 9º mês após o plantio das seções.Suckers of the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus L., Smooth Cayenne cv., obtained by stem sectioning, were submitted to leaf fertilization with solutions at different concentrations of urea, KCl and H3BO3. The fractionated factorial design of the type (1/55³ was used, with three fertilizer types and five concentrations, totalizing 25 treatments that consisted of combination of concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10 g L-1 of urea and KCl, as well as 0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 g L-1 of H3BO3. The treatments began nine weeks after planting the stem sections. Twenty six sprays of urea and KCl were weekly applied as well as four monthly sprays of H3BO3. Positive linear growth was verified for the following characteristics: sprouting heights, leaf numbers, leaf area, dry and fresh matter of the suckers in response to increasing urea levels. No effect of KCl and H3BO3

  4. Revision of the Megaperidae Manter, 1934 n. comb. (Syn. Apocreadiidae Skrjabin, 1942) including a reorganization of the Schistorchiinae Yamaguti, 1942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blend, Charles K; Karar, Yasser F M; Dronen, Norman O

    2017-11-28

    Modified and/or new keys to the four subfamilies now recognized within the Megaperidae Manter, 1934 n. comb. (Syn. Apocreadiidae Skrjabin, 1942) as well as the genera within each subfamily are presented. Two new genera, Paraschistorchis n. gen. and Plesioschistorchis n. gen., both within the Schistorchiinae Yamaguti, 1942, are erected and keys are provided to the species considered in both new genera-distinguished by possessing caeca that end either in separate ani or blindly. Plesioschistorchis callyodontis (Yamaguti, 1942) n. comb. and Plesioschistorchis haridis (Nagaty, 1957) n. comb. are re-described from new material collected from the common parrotfish, Scarus psittacus Forsskål (Perciformes: Scaridae), inhabiting the Red Sea off Egypt; S. psittacus represents a new host record for both species. The taxonomic status of Schistorchis sensu stricto Lühe, 1906 is examined and revised, a key to the four species we consider in this genus offered, and the monotypic genus Megacreadium Nagaty, 1956 declared a junior synonym of Schistorchis. Members of Schistorchis sensu stricto possess a unique "complex" (i.e. highly cellular/glandular) instead of "simple" (i.e. entirely muscular) type of oral sucker that is quite large in relation to body size; an elongate, somewhat sub-rectangular-shaped body; 5+ testes arranged in at least two rows; caeca that open via separate ani; a long post-testicular region; a median genital pore either at the anterior margin of or just anterior to the ventral sucker; and species of Schistorchis sensu stricto parasitize the intestine of marine fish within the Order Tetraodontiformes Berg. With the revision of this genus, we re-describe Schistorchis carneus Lühe, 1906 from the lower and mid-intestine of the white-spotted puffer, Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus) (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae), collected in the Red Sea off Egypt. Finally, a plea is made for further study of the Megaperidae n. comb. focusing, in particular, on the following

  5. Intraspecific variation in adult Uvitellina iraquensis Dronen, Ali & Al-Amura, 2013 (Cyclocoelidae: Haematotrephinae) from two collection sites of white-tailed lapwing, Vanellus leucurus (Lichtenstein) (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae), in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronen, Norman O; Al-Kassar, Nothiala R; Ali, Atheer H; Abdulhameed, Mohanad F; Abdullah, Basim H; Al-Mayah, Sabeeh H

    2017-03-09

    A total of 19 white-tailed lapwing, Vanellus leucurus, were collected from Huwazah Marsh, north-eastern Basrah Province, Iraq from February to March and in October, 2011 (collection site #1) and 60 V. leucurus were collected from Al-Hammar Marshes, Thi-Qar Province, southern Iraq from July to November, 2012 (collection site #2), and examined for cyclocoelids. Nineteen Uvitellina iraquensis Dronen, Ali & Al-Amura, 2013 from site #1 and 17 specimens from site #2 were fixed with minimal compression for comparisons of morphological characteristics, measurements, morphometric percentages and morphometric ratios commonly used to distinguish species of cyclocoelids. An additional five adult specimens from site #1 were fixed without compression for comparisons. Specimens from site # 1 (n=24) represented only fully-developed, non-senescing adults, while those from site #2 (n=17) could be divided into fully-developed (non-senescing) adults (n=8); younger (smaller, less developed) adults (n=5) and senescing adults (n=4). The following characteristics were relatively consistent, and appeared to be valuable in identifying groups of similar species and distinguishing species in Uvitellina: the presence or absence of the oral sucker; the oral sucker/pharynx width ratio; the posterior extent of the cirrus sac relative to the intestinal bifurcation; the position of the genital pore relative to the pharynx; the position of the testes in the body; the length of the intertesticular space; the length of the posttesticular space; the lateral disposition of the uterine loops; the presence of a posteriorly-directed, tail-like extension off the posterior confluence of the vitelline fields; the posterior extent of the uterine loops relative to the gonads; and the size of fully-developed eggs. It may be beneficial to calculate the percentage that measurements represent relative to the body length to provide insight into the relationship of the size of a structure to increased size of the

  6. Importance of phoresy in the transmission of Acarina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, F

    2007-06-01

    Dispersal capacity plays a central role in the radiation of animals, facilitating the exploitation of habitats variously distributed in space or in time or both. Many living species are unable to leave a host, crawl around, and find a new host, so they must rely on external factors to be transmitted. Biotical factors may be important in passive transport and the process, by means of which an animal is passively transported by a selected carrier of different species, is known as "phoresy". Phoresy is a phenomenon in which one animal (the phoretic) seeks out and attaches to an animal of another species, with which it does not share any phase of the life cycle, for dispersal, during which time the phoretic animal becomes quiescent, stopping feeding and development. Activity starts again beginning with detachment, induced by stimuli originating from its carrier or the microhabitat. The adaptive traits of phoresy may be categorized as follow: host surface, quiescence, recognition of signals to abandon the carrier and, if needed, synchronization with the host life cycle. Phoresy is exploited by many Arthropods. In Acarina, there are basically four main types of phoresy. First, there is a type in which adult females are the only forms becoming phoretic and attachment is by means of chelicerae, palpal hooks and ambulacral claws, which grasp a seta or a fold of the integument of carrier-host. The second type is represented by mites, in which deutonymphs are phoretic; there is generally no cheliceral or sucker attachment in this group, mites instead hanging on by their ambulacral claws. The third type is similar to the second in that deutonymphs are phoretic; however, in this case, attachment to the host is by means of an anal pedicel formed by a substance, extruded through the anus, which hardens upon coming in contact with air and literally glues the mite to its host. In the fourth type there is a very highly modified deutonymph stage, called hypope, which only occurs at

  7. Two new species and a new phyllobothriid cestode genus from sharks of the genus Negaprion Whitley (Carcharhiniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, T R; Workman, R E

    2013-05-01

    Alexandercestus n. g. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) is erected for two cestode species found parasitising the two known species of lemon sharks (Carcharhiniformes: Negaprion spp.). This new genus differs from all other phyllobothriid genera except for Hemipristicola Cutmore, Theiss, Bennett & Cribb, 2011, Marsupiobothrium Yamaguti, 1952, Nandocestus Reyda, 2008, Orectolobicestus Ruhnke, Caira & Carpenter 2006, Orygmatobothrium Diesing, 1863, Paraorygmatobothrium Ruhnke, 1994 and Phyllobothrium van Beneden, 1849 in possessing uniloculate bothridia with an apical sucker and neck scutes. Alexandercestus differs from Orectolobicestus and Nandocestus in lacking marginal loculi on the bothridia, from Paraorygmatobothrium in possessing uninterrupted vitelline follicles at the level of the ovary and from Phyllobothrium in being euapolytic as opposed to anapolytic and in lacking posteriorly bifid bothridia. The new genus lacks the central accessory bothridial organ seen in specimens of Orygmatobothrium, and lacks the central bothridial accessory sucker of specimens of Marsupiobothrium. Alexandercestus spp. compare most favourably with specimens of Hemipristicola, especially with respect to aspects of proglottid morphology, but differ in possessing aristate gladiate spinitriches rather than serrate gladiate spinitriches on the proximal bothridial surface. In addition, the bothridia of Alexandercestus spp. are comparatively more fleshy and foliose than those in specimens of Hemipristicola. Two new species of Alexandercestus n. g. are described, Alexandercestus gibsoni n. sp. from Negaprion acutidens, collected from off northern Australia and the Marshall Islands, and Alexandercestus manteri n. sp. from N. brevirostris, collected off the islands of Bimini and the Florida Keys. The two new species differ in total length and vitelline follicle distribution. Bayesian inference and parsimony analysis of the D1-D3 region of the large nuclear ribosomal DNA of 17 published and seven

  8. A multi-metric assessment of environmental contaminant exposure and effects in an urbanized reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen B.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Baumann, Paul C.; DeWeese, Lawrence R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Coyle, James J.; Smith, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The Charles River Project provided an opportunity to simultaneously deploy a combination of biomonitoring techniques routinely used by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program, the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, and the Contaminant Biology Program at an urban site suspected to be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition to these standardized methods, additional techniques were used to further elucidate contaminant exposure and potential impacts of exposure on biota. The purpose of the study was to generate a comprehensive, multi-metric data set to support assessment of contaminant exposure and effects at the site. Furthermore, the data set could be assessed to determine the relative performance of the standardized method suites typically used by the National Water Quality Assessment Program and the Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends Project, as well as the additional biomonitoring methods used in the study to demonstrate ecological effects of contaminant exposure. The Contaminant Effects Workgroup, an advisory committee of the U.S. Geological Survey/Contaminant Biology Program, identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the contaminant class of greatest concern in urban streams of all sizes. The reach of the Charles River near Watertown, Massachusetts, was selected as the site for this study based on the suspected presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination and the presence of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). All of these fish have extensive contaminant-exposure profiles related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other environmental contaminants. This project represented a collaboration of universities, Department of the Interior bureaus including multiple components of the USGS (Biological Resources Discipline and Water Resources Discipline Science Centers, the

  9. Effects of Triclabendazole and Al bendazole on treatment of Fascioliasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawoad, M.A.F.; Amin, M.M.; Elnashar, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    decrease in liver damage. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy of whole worm revealed extensive swelling and blebbing of the tegument on ventral surface. Some tegumental loss had occurred in the oral region of the fluke. The oral sucker of Fasciola hepatica became wide and the ventral sucker became also wide and eroded. The obtained results revealed that the TCBZ and ABZ are both effective in getting rid of Fasciola hepatica infection. However, TCBZ tended to has more anthelmintic effect than ABZ. Additionally, TCBZ has an ameliorative effect on liver, it also decreased liver fluke egg counts more than that induced by ABZ

  10. Assessment of load of beam-balanced pumping units by electric motor power indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. И. Шишлянников

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental studies on the loading of beam-balanced pumping units (BP of sucker rod- pumping equipment (SRPE are presented. It is noted that the key factor that has the most significant effect causing the SRPE failure is the balance of the beam pumping unit, which determines the amount of specific energy consumption for the rise of reservoir fluid and the level of dynamic loads on the machine units. The urgency of using software-recording systems for estimating the loading of units of oil field pumping installations is substantiated. The principle of operation and design of the «AKD-SK» software recording system is described. The prospects of using this method for controlling the performance parameters and evaluating the technical state of the sicker rod-pumping units is proved on the basis of an analysis of the magnitude and nature of the changes in the loads of drive motors determined by the registration of the instantaneous values of the consumed power. The main provisions of the methodology for analyzing the watt-meters of drive motors of the sucker rod-pumping units are outlined. The nature of the manifestation of the main defects of submersible pumps and beam-balanced pumping units is described. The results of pilot-industrial tests of the beam-balanced pumping units equipped with advanced permanent magnet motors and intelligent control stations are presented. It is proved that the use of permanent magnet motors allows to reduce the specific energy consumption for the rise of reservoir fluid, which increases the efficiency of the SRPE.However, the presence of transient processes and generator operating modes of the permanent magnet motors results in the occurrence of significant dynamic loads, which, due to the rigid fixing of the rotor of magnet motor on the reducer shaft, negatively affect the life of the gearbox bearings. It has been shown that the lack of its own bearings in the tested motors causes a high probability

  11. Morphological selection in an extreme flow environment: body shape and waterfall-climbing success in the Hawaiian stream fish Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blob, Richard W; Bridges, William C; Ptacek, Margaret B; Maie, Takashi; Cediel, Roberto A; Bertolas, Morgan M; Julius, Matthew L; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2008-12-01

    Flow characteristics are a prominent factor determining body shapes in aquatic organisms, and correlations between body shape and ambient flow regimes have been established for many fish species. In this study, we investigated the potential for a brief period of extreme flow to exert selection on the body shape of juvenile climbing Hawaiian gobiid fishes. Because of an amphidromous life history, juvenile gobies that complete an oceanic larval phase return to freshwater habitats, where they become adults. Returning juveniles often must scale waterfalls (typically with the use of a ventral sucker) in order to reach the habitats they will use as adults, thereby exposing these animals to brief periods of extreme velocities of flow. Hydrodynamic theory predicts that bodies with larger suckers and with lower heights that reduce drag would have improved climbing success and, thus, be well suited to meet the demands of the flows in waterfalls. To test the potential for the flow environment of waterfalls to impose selection that could contribute to differences in body shape between islands, we subjected juvenile Sicyopterus stimpsoni to climbing trials up artificial waterfalls (∼100 body lengths) and measured differences in body shape between successful and unsuccessful climbers. Waterfalls appear to represent a significant selective barrier to these fishes, as nearly 30% failed our climbing test. However, the effects of selection on morphology were not straightforward, as significant differences in shape between successful and unsuccessful climbers did not always match hydrodynamic predictions. In both selection experiments and in adult fish collected from habitats with different prevailing conditions of flow (the islands of Hawai'i versus Kaua'i), lower head heights were associated with exposure to high-flow regimes, as predicted by hydrodynamic theory. Thus, a premium appears to be placed on the reduction of drag via head morphology throughout the ontogeny of this

  12. Evolution of cooperation through adaptive interaction in a spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiuhui; Liu, Xuesong; Bao, Honglin; Su, Yu; He, Mingfeng

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of adaptive interaction on the evolution of cooperation in a spatial prisoner's dilemma game. The connections of players are co-evolutionary with cooperation; whether adjacent players can play the prisoner's dilemma game is associated with the strategies they took in the preceding round. If a player defected in the preceding round, his neighbors will refuse to play the prisoner's dilemma game with him in accordance with a certain probability distribution. We use the disconnecting strength to represent this probability. We discuss the evolution of cooperation with different values of temptation to defect, sucker's payoff and disconnecting strength. The simulation results show that cooperation can be significantly enhanced through increasing the value of the disconnecting strength. In addition, the increase in disconnecting strength can improve the cooperators' ability to resist the increase in temptation and the decrease in reward. We study the parameter ranges for three different evolutionary results: cooperators extinction, defectors extinction, cooperator and defector co-existence. Meanwhile, we recruited volunteers and designed a human behavioral experiment to verify the theoretical simulation results. The punishment of disconnection has a positive effect on cooperation. A higher disconnecting strength will enhance cooperation more significantly. Our research findings reveal some significant insights into efficient mechanisms of the evolution of cooperation.

  13. Bioaccumulation of selenium from coal fly ash and associated environmental hazards in a freshwater fish community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, J.; Giesy, J.; Brown, R.; Herdt, T.; Dawson, G.

    1995-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Se by fish from Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake, Michigan, which receive inputs of Se from a coal fly-ash disposal facility, was studied to assess potential hazards of Se toxicity to fish and wildlife. Se concentrations in fish from sites receiving Se inputs from fly ash disposal ponds were significantly greater than concentrations in fish from upstream sites, which were near normal background concentrations. Se bioaccumulation differed substantially among fish species, especially in the most contaminated site, where whole-body Se concentrations for the five species analyzed ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 microg/g (wet wt.). The top predator in the community, northern pike (Esox lucius), had Se concentrations less than those in likely prey species. Among lower-order consumers, Se concentrations were greater in limnetic species (spottail shiner, Notropis hudsonius, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens), than in benthic species (white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris). Se concentrations in tissues of fish from the lower Pigeon River and Pigeon Lake approached, but did not exceed lowest observable effect concentrations (LOAECs) for Se in tissues of sensitive fish species. However, Se concentrations in several fish species exceeded LOAECs for dietary Se exposure of sensitive species of birds and mammals, suggesting that consumption of fish in these areas may pose a hazard to piscivorous wildlife

  14. Sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Ogata, Munetsugu

    2005-06-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in three freshly dead free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The dogs presented with an alopecic pruritic skin disease, with signs of alopecia on the ears, muzzle, around the eyes, elbow, thigh and the neck, and hyperpigmented and crusted skin lesions, which had a severe malodour. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Histopathology of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and fungal elements, which were subsequently identified as Acremonium sp., Alternaria sp. and an unknown fungus. Mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the tortoise-like Sarcoptes scabiei with four long bristles, suckers and blade-like claws on legs 1 and 2, cuticular spines, prominent body striations and a terminal anus. SEM also revealed an adult female mite digging a tunnel with the head wedged into the very end of the closed burrow. Tunnels filled with eggshells, corneocyte debris and faecal pellets were also observed.

  15. A study on autonomous maintenance robot, 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Toshio; Hosokai, Hidemi; Shimasaka, Naoki; Kaneshige, Masanori; Iwasaki, Shinnosuke.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the new mechanism of a new maintenance robot, Mark IV, following the previous reports on pipeline inspection and maintenance robots of Mark I, II, and III. The Mark IV has a mechanism capable of inspecting surfaces of storage tanks as well as pipeline outer surfaces, which is another capability of the maintenance robots, different from the previous ones. The main features of Mark IV are as follows, (i) The robot has a multijoint structure, so that it has better adaptability to the curvartures of pipelines and storage tanks. (ii) The joint of the robot has SMA actuators to make the robot lighter in weight. Some actuator shape characteristics are also examined for the robot structure and control. (iii) The robot has suckers at both ends so that the robot can climb up along the wall from the ground. (iv) A robot with the inch worm mechanisms has many functional motions, such that it can pass over flanges and T-joints, and transfer to adjacent pipelines with a wider range of pipe diameters. (v) A control method is given for the mobile motion control. Thus, the functional level of the maintenance robot has been greatly improved by the introduction of the Mark IV robot. (author)

  16. Developing a predation index and evaluating ways to reduce salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigro, A.A.

    1990-12-01

    We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and physical and biological variables, examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries; determine the economic feasibility of developing bounty and commercial fisheries for northern squawfish, assist ODFW with evaluating the economic feasibility of recreational fisheries for northern squawfish and assess the economic feasibility of utilizing northern squawfish, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and suckers (Castostomus spp) in multispecies fisheries; evaluate commercial technology of various fishing methods for harvesting northern squawfish in Columbia River reservoirs and field test the effectiveness of selected harvesting systems, holding facilities and transportation systems; and modify the existing Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM) to include processes necessary to evaluate effects of removing northern squawfish on their population size structure and abundance, document the ecological processes, mathematical equations and computer (FORTRAN) programming of the revised version of CREM and conduct systematic analyses of various predator removal scenarios, using revised CREM to generate the simulations. Individual reports are indexed separately

  17. Morfologia externa de espécimes adultos de Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934 (Digenea: Eucotylidae External morphology of the adults specimens of Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934(Diginea; Eucotylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange V.P.B. Brandolini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Espécimes adultos de Paratanaisia bragai foram coletados de ductos renais de Columba livia infectados naturalmente, fixados em glutaraldeído 2,5% e processados para microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram identificados dois tipos distintos de escamas, escamas bífidas e simples, dispostas em fileiras transversais no tegumento das faces dorsal e ventral do corpo. Também mostrando em detalhes a ventosa oral subterminal, bem desenvolvida e acetábulo de tamanho reduzido, localizado no terço médio do corpo, circundado por pequenas protuberâncias e quatro papilas dispostas regularmente na sua margem.Adult specimens of Paratanaisia bragai collected from renal ducts of Columba livia naturally infected, were fixed in glutaraldehyde 2.5% and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Two distinct types of scales had been identified, bifid and simple scales, disposed in transversal rows, on the tegument of dorsal and ventral face of the body. Also show in details the oral sucker subterminal, well developed and acetabulum of size reduced, located in third medium of the body, surrounded for small protuberance and four papillae on its edge.

  18. A new cryptogonimid (Digenea) from the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), in several localities of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2008-12-01

    Oligogonotylus mayae n.sp. is described from the intestine of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) in Ría Lagartos, Ría Celestún, and Estero Progreso, Yucatán State. This is the second species described for Oligogonotylus Watson, 1976, the other being O.manteri Watson, 1976. The new species is readily distinguished from O. manteri by the anterior extension of the vitelline follicles. In O. Manteri, Vitelline follicles are found entirely in the hindbody, extending posteriorly to mid-testicular level. Vitelline follicles in the new species extend from teh anterior margin of posterior testis to the region between the bentral sucker and the pharynx. comparison of approximately 1,850 bases of ribosomal DNA (ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S, and 28S), and 400 bases of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) strongly supports the status of O. mayae as a new species, as compared to O. manteri collected from cichlids in other localities of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala.

  19. Learning to Cooperate: The Evolution of Social Rewards in Repeated Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dridi, Slimane; Akçay, Erol

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the behavioral and psychological mechanisms underlying social behaviors is one of the major goals of social evolutionary theory. In particular, a persistent question about animal cooperation is to what extent it is supported by other-regarding preferences-the motivation to increase the welfare of others. In many situations, animals adjust their behaviors through learning by responding to the rewards they experience as a consequence of their actions. Therefore, we may ask whether learning in social situations can be driven by evolved other-regarding rewards. Here we develop a mathematical model in order to ask whether the mere act of cooperating with a social partner will evolve to be inherently rewarding. Individuals interact repeatedly in pairs and adjust their behaviors through reinforcement learning. We assume that individuals associate with each game outcome an internal reward value. These perceived rewards are genetically evolving traits. We find that conditionally cooperative rewards that value mutual cooperation positively but the sucker's outcome negatively tend to be evolutionarily stable. Purely other-regarding rewards can evolve only under special parameter combinations. On the other hand, selfish rewards that always lead to pure defection are also evolutionarily successful. These findings are consistent with empirical observations showing that humans tend to display conditionally cooperative behavior and also exhibit a diversity of preferences. Our model also demonstrates the need to further integrate multiple levels of biological causation of behavior.

  20. Radionuclide and Heavy Metal Concentrations in Fish from the Confluences of Major Canyons That Cross Los Alamos National Laboratory Lands with the Rio Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraig, D.H.; Naranjo, L. Jr.; Mullen, M.A.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    Bottom-feeding fish--catfish, suckers, and carp--that were collected from the confluences of some of the major canyons that cross LANL lands with the Rio Grande (RG) exhibited similar radionuclide (with the exception of 90 Sr), and nonradionuclide concentrations to fish collected upstream of any potential LANL contamination sources. Strontium-90 concentrations in fish from LANL canyons/RG may be associated with LANL operations; however, the concentrations of 90 Sr in fish decrease to background concentrations further downstream of LANL at CR. And, based on the most conservative assumptions (a 95% source term and maximum consumption rate), LANL operations do not result in significant doses to the general public from consuming fish along the length of the RG as it passes through the eastern edge of LANL lands to CR. Moreover, since over 85% of the doses were a result of 90 Sr detected in the muscle plus bone portions of the fish and most of the 90 Sr is associated with the bone, the doses to people that consume only the edible portions of the fish (muscle only), would be significantly lower

  1. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M.; Simons, Nadja K.; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H. O.; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2015-03-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience.

  2. Concentration trends for lead and calcium-normalized lead in fish fillets from the Big River, a mining-contaminated stream in southeastern Missouri USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; McKee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005–2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005–2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  3. Laurel forest recovery during 20 years in an abandoned firebreak in Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón Arévalo, José; Dolores Peraza, María; Álvarez, Carlos; Bermúdez, Alfredo; Domingo Delgado, Juan; Gallardo, Antonio; María Fernández-Palacios, José

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the recovery of the structure and species composition of a laurel forest in an abandoned firebreak in the Rural Park of Anaga, Tenerife (Canary Islands). We statistically compared values of species richness, density and biovolume between 23 plots in the firebreak and six control plots in natural forest near the firebreak. We evaluated changes in species composition with detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) based on densities and biovolume. Biovolume is increasing significantly along the successional gradient (from 1990 to 2004) but remains less than the values in control plots. Stem densities were significantly lower in control plots than in 2004 plots. Species richness was significantly higher in control plots than in 2004 plots (although there were no differences in values obtained between the first sampling period 6 years after abandonment, and the second sampling 20 years after abandonment). Changes in species richness are significant, but all species present in control plots are also found in the firebreak plots. DCA based on biovolume significantly discriminated control plots from firebreak plots in 1990 (for axis I). Results suggest recovery to a laurel forest is occurring, although more time will be required to reach control plot density and biovolume values. The low intensity of disturbance and a well-conserved forest adjacent to the firebreak favour the recovery of species inside the firebreak. We advise eliminating suckers from all small trees (leaving the bigger stems) to accelerate succession to a vegetation structure similar to that found surrounding the firebreak.

  4. Fish Scale Evidence for Rapid Post Glacial Colonization of an Atlantic Coastal Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, R. A.; Peteet, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    Fish scales from the sediment of Allamuchy Pond, New Jersey, USA, indicate that fishes were present in the pond within 400 years of the time of the first deposition of organic material, at approximately 12,600 yrs BP. The earliest of the scales, from a white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, appears in sediment dated 12,260 +/- 220 yrs BP. Presence of scales in sediment deposited before I 0,000 yrs BP indicates that Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, sunfish, Lepomis sp., and yellow perch, Perca flavescens, also were early inhabitants of the pond. The timing of the arrival of each of these fishes suggests that they migrated out from Atlantic coastal refugia. A minnow scale, referred to Phoxininae, was also retrieved; it could not be matched to any cyprinid currently found in northeastern North America. The species present historically in this pond are from five families found currently in ponds throughout the Northeast and sugoest that the lentic palaeo-enviromnent was similar to present mid-elevation or high-latitude lentic systems.

  5. Staining of Platyhelminthes by herbal dyes: An eco-friendly technique for the taxonomist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An environment compatible technique to stain Platyhelminthes, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Taenia solium, and Moniezia expansa using aqueous and alcoholic extract of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, China rose (Hibiscus rosasinensis, and red rose (Rosa hybrida were described to minimized the deleterious effects of the synthetic dyes. Materials and Methods: Aqueous/ethanolic extracts of roses were extracted from the flowers while red beet was extracted from the roots. Results: Stained helminthes acquired a comparable level of pigmentation with the distinction of their internal structure in these natural dyes. The flukes (liver and rumen internal structure, oral and ventral/posterior sucker, cirrus sac, gravid uterus, testes, ovary, and vitallaria were appeared pink color in aqueous and alcoholic extract of either China or red rose and yellow to brown color in sugar beet stain. The interior of the proglottid of T. solium and M. expansa took yellow to brown color with good contrast in sugar beet stain and of pink to pink-red in China and red rose stain. Conclusion: The extract of roses (red rose followed by China rose followed by red beet possess the potential to replace the conventional stains in the taxonomic study of Platyhelminthes parasites.

  6. Migration of 99Tc in unsaturated Chinese loess under artificial rainfall condition: an in situ test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; Wang, X.Y.; Wang, H.F.; Li, R.J.; Tang, L.T.

    2001-01-01

    The migration of 99 Tc in unsaturated Chinese loess under artificial rainfall condition was investigated in situ. Water suckers were buried at different depths under the bottom of an experimental pit of 2 m x 2 m x 1 m (deep). Quartz containing 3 H and 99 Tc was introduced into the experimental pit to an area of 40 cm x 40 cm and the pit was backfilled to a thickness of 30 cm. An artificial rainfall of 5 mm/h was applied to the experimental pit 4 h a day for 3 months. Moisture water samples were sucked with the help of a vacuum pumping system and the activity of 3 H and 99 Tc in the samples was determined. Breakthrough curves of 3 H and 99 Tc indicated that 99 Tc was slightly retarded. The calculated average apparent distribution coefficient of 99 Tc in the medium was (1.98 ± 0.42) x 10 -2 ml/g. (orig.)

  7. Land use in the karstic lands in the Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay Ibrahim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Karstic lands have special importance in terms of soil formation and land-use. Soil appears only on the flat and slightly undulating karstic lands, while soils are found along the cracks and bedding surfaces between the layers on the hilly karst areas although these lands are rocky in appearance. Karstic lands in the hilly area are not conducive to cultivation. But rocky areas create a favourable habitat for the growth of forests except in an arid climate. Because the tree roots easily follow and develop along the cracks in the limestone. As a general rule soil erosion does not occur on sub-horizontal karst surfaces due to the fact that atmospheric waters easily infiltrate along the cracks. Natural generation of vegetation like the maquis-type occurs via the root suckers, but coniferous trees such as cedar, fir, pine through seed dispersal. The clearance of natural vegetation on the karstic lands leads to the formation of bare lands. That is why the slopes of the limestone hillsides have been converted into bare and/or rocky terrains in places where natural vegetation has been completely destroyed.

  8. A historical perspective on the "fish tumors or other deformities" beneficial use impairment at Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, S.D.; Blazer, V.S.; Pinkney, A.E.; Grazio, J.L.; Obert, E.C.; Boughton, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement defines Areas of Concern as geographic areas that fail to meet the general or specific objectives of the agreement where such failure has caused or is likely to cause impairment of beneficial use of the area's ability to support aquatic life. One of the beneficial use impairments, fish tumors or other deformities, is defined by the International Joint Commission to occur when the incidence rate of fish tumors and other deformities exceeds rates at unimpacted or control sites, or when survey data confirm the presence of neoplastic or preneoplastic liver tumors in bullhead or suckers. Brown bullhead, a benthic species with a limited home range, have frequently been used as indicator species in U.S. Areas of Concern. While there is strong field evidence for an association between PAH exposure and hepatic neoplasia in brown bullhead, laboratory investigations would strengthen the association. There is less evidence linking specific classes of chemicals in the environment to orocutaneous neoplasia in brown bullhead. Studies on orocutaneous neoplasia of brown bullhead should focus on assessing the presence or absence of viruses and on epidermal exposure to specific chemicals and chemical mixtures. Lastly, the effects of covariates such as length, age, and gender on the prevalence of liver and skin neoplasms should be investigated. This paper reviews the state of science on the fish tumors or other deformities beneficial use impairment. Subsequent papers address specific issues related to this impairment and provide recommendations for standardized criteria.

  9. Transcriptome discovery in non-model wild fish species for the development of quantitative transcript abundance assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Mazik, Patricia M.; Blazer, Vicki S.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental studies increasingly identify the presence of both contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and legacy contaminants in aquatic environments; however, the biological effects of these compounds on resident fishes remain largely unknown. High throughput methodologies were employed to establish partial transcriptomes for three wild-caught, non-model fish species; smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Sequences from these transcriptome databases were utilized in the development of a custom nCounter CodeSet that allowed for direct multiplexed measurement of 50 transcript abundance endpoints in liver tissue. Sequence information was also utilized in the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) primers. Cross-species hybridization allowed the smallmouth bass nCounter CodeSet to be used for quantitative transcript abundance analysis of an additional non-model species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). We validated the nCounter analysis data system with qPCR for a subset of genes and confirmed concordant results. Changes in transcript abundance biomarkers between sexes and seasons were evaluated to provide baseline data on transcript modulation for each species of interest.

  10. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  11. Lifting oil and images : new pumpjacks hope to alter landscape and perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsters, S.

    1998-01-01

    Tieben Systems of Canada Inc., has developed a new hydraulic pumpjack for pumping oil wells. The Tieben pumping system makes use of nitrogen gas under pressure, interfaced with a primary hydraulic circuit through an accumulator, to counteract the dead weight of the rod string. The nitrogen boost provides two-thirds of the lift force. The pumping action is accomplished by a low pressure secondary hydraulic system which allows operators to pump fluid at half the horsepower previously needed. Tieben pumping units have been operating successfully at various oil fields. The unit has also worked without any mechanical problems at temperatures well below -30 degrees C. Alberta Basic Industries Ltd. (ABIL) has developed its own Canadian-made pumpjack prototype. One of the most significant features of ABIL's Series 9000 pumpjacks is the ability to independently set the upward and downward pumping speed of the sucker rod. The portability of the unit is another positive feature. Imperial plans to test ABIL's pumpjack at its Cold Lake operations, including long-reach wells that deviate up to 85 degrees so there is more of a load to pull. 2 figs

  12. Granulocytes in Helminth Infection - Who is Calling the Shots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makepeace, BL; Martin, C; Turner, JD; Specht, S

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as “worms” due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen; and nematodes (roundworms), which are dioecious, cylindrical parasites that inhabit intestinal and peripheral tissue sites. Helminths exhibit a sublime co-evolution with the host´s immune system that has enabled them to successfully colonize almost all multicellular species present in every geographical environment, including over two billion humans. In the face of this challenge, the host immune system has evolved to strike a delicate balance between attempts to neutralize the infectious assault versus limitation of damage to host tissues. Among the most important cell types during helminthic invasion are granulocytes: eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils. Depending on the specific context, these leukocytes may have pivotal roles in host protection, immunopathology, or facilitation of helminth establishment. This review provides an overview of the function of granulocytes in helminthic infections. PMID:22360486

  13. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  14. Invading species in the Eel River, California: Successes, failures, and relationships with resident species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L.R.; Moyle, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    We examined invasions of non-native fishes into the Eel River, California. At least 16 species of fish have been introduced into the drainage which originally supported 12-14 fish species. Our study was prompted by the unauthorized introduction in 1979 of Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis, a large predatory cyprinid. From 1986 to 1990, we conducted growth and diet studies of squaw fish, conducted intensive surveys of the distribution and habitat associations of both native and introduced species, and examined the nature of species-habitat and interspecies relationships. We found no evidence for increased growth or expanded feeding habits, compared to native populations, of Sacramento squawfish as they invaded the Eel River drainage. Ten of the introduced species were well established, with four species limited to a reservoir and six species established in streams. The success or failure of introductions of stream species appeared to be a function of the ability of a species to survive the fluctuating, highly seasonal, flow regime. The present mixture of native and exotic species has not formed stable fish assemblages but it seems likely that four habitat-associated assemblages will develop. The overall effect of the successful species introductions has been to assemble a group of species, with some exceptions, that are native to and occur together in many California streams. The assemblages now forming are similar to those found in other California streams. The assemblage characterized by squawfish and suckers is likely to be resistant to invasion, in the absence of human caused habitat modifications.

  15. Experimental Life Cycle of Hypoderaeum conoideum (Block, 1872 Diez, 1909(Trematoda: Echinostomatidae Parasite from the North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim AZIZI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Echinostomiasis is an intestinal disease caused by the members of family Echinostomatidae parasites. The aim of present research was to identify echinos­tomatidae cercariae emitted by Lymnaea palustris snails from Mazandaran province in the north of Iran based on the morphological and morphometrical charac­teristics of the different stages of experimental parasite life cycle.Methods: Echinostomatidae cercariae were collected from L. palustris (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae of the north of Iran. To collect metacercaria, 50 healthy snails were infected with cercariae experimentally (50 cercariae for each. To obtain the adult stage, 9 laboratory animals (3 ducks, 2 rats, 2 mice and 2 quails were fed with 60 metacercaria for each. To identify parasite, the different stages of worm were exam­ined using light microscope and then the figures were draw under camera Lucida microscope and measures were determined.Results: Averagely, 15metacercaria were obtained from each snail that had been previously exposed with cercariae. Ducks presented worm eggs in feces after 10-15 days post-infection. Intestinal worms were collected and identified as Hypoderaeum conoideum on the bases of figures and measures of cephalic collar, the number of collar spine, suckers diameter ratio, testes arrangement, etc.Conclusion: H. conoideum cercariae and adult worm are described. This is the first report of the different stages of the experimental life cycle of this parasite in Iran.

  16. Molecular identification of a yellow perch viral disease associated with exposure to oil sands process affected waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, N.; Van den Heuvel, M.; Phalen, L.

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of tailings and process affected water are generated as a result of oil sand mining processes. This presentation discussed the safe incorporation of these wastes into the terrestrial and aquatic landscape. A study was conducted in which yellow perch were stocked into experimental ponds, namely Demonstration Pond and South Bison Pond, during the periods of 1995-1997 and 2008-2010. Demonstration Pond was comprised of mature fine tailings capped with natural surface water, while South Bison Pond was formed at a site surrounded by overburden or lean oil sands. Disease surveys were conducted at these experimental ponds and also at Mildred, Sucker, and Kimowin Lakes. External white nodular lesions, characteristic of lymphocystis disease were observed on perch at all sites except Kimowin Lake. The identity of the virus was confirmed by DNA extraction and PCR with genotype generic major capsid protein gene primers. The presence of lymphocystis disease virus in perch was confirmed through sequencing of PCR results. The viral genotype appeared to be different from any previously isolated viral genotype. During the course of the study, there was an increasing incidence of the disease at Demonstration Pond and a decreasing incidence at the South Bison Pond. The intensity of the disease was found to be proportional to the incidence, which was positively correlated with changes in naphthenic acid concentration.

  17. PNRI mutant variety: Cordyline 'Afable'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurigue, Fernando B.

    2012-01-01

    Cordyline 'Afable', registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2009 Or-83, is an induced mutant developed from Cordyline 'Kiwi' by treating stem cuttings with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical to Cordyline 'Kiwi' in growth habit but differs in foliage color, and exhibits field resistance to Phytophthora sp., a fungus that causes leaf blight and rot in Ti plants. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color was altered by gamma irradiation and resistance to fungal diseases was improved. It also demonstrated how mutations that occur in nature may be generated artificially. Propagation of cordyline 'Afable' is true-to-type by vegetative propagation methods, such as separation of suckers and offshoots, shoot tip cutting, and top cutting. Aside from landscaping material, terrarium or dish-garden plant, it is ideal as containerized plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves or shoots may be harvested as cut foliage for flower arrangements. (author)

  18. Field evaluation of regenerated plants by somatic embryogenesis from shoots apexes of axillary buds in ´Navolean’ (Musa spp., AAB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of shoots apexes from axilary buds for callus induction with embryogenic structures in plantain ‘Navolean’ (Group AAB permitted to develop a plant regeneration method through out somatic embryogenesis. In order to know the phenotypic variants that may be produced with the previously mentioned method , 1000 plants were planted in field conditions in comparison to those coming from somatic embryos obtained from multibuds as initial explants and organogenesis-derived plants (shoot tipsand conventionally derived plants (corms, during two growing cycles. The main morphological characters and yield components were evaluated. The total frequency of somaclonal variation during the first growing cycle in plants coming from somatic embryos obtained from shoots apexes from axilary buds as initial explants were 1.1%, and 8,6% in regenerated plants from somatic embryos obtained from multi-buds as initial explants. Later, in this same growing cycle, plants regenerated from somatic embryos (both sources showed a similar performance between them and they were significantly superior in all evaluated variants in comparison to corm-derived plants. In the second growing cycle, significant differences were not observed in yield components of suckers from evaluated plants, in spite of the propagation method used. With regard to somaclonal variation, the best performance was obtained with shoots apexes from axilary buds as explants. Finally, the feasibility of using the new method was shown. Key words: embryogenic cell suspensions, somaclonal variation

  19. Ploidy Variation in Hybrids from Interploid 3x X 2x Crosses in Musa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osuji, JO.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrids were obtained after in vitro germination of embryos from interploid crosses between triploid 'French' plantain cultivars (Musa spp. AAB group 'Ntanga 2' and 'Bobby Tannap' with diploid banana (Ivlusa acuminata subsp. burmannicoidesj 'Calcutta 4'. Cross-pollinated bunches were harvested at full maturity and ripened with acetylene in a room for 4 days. Seeds were extracted from peeled ripe fruits by squashing. Embryos from the seeds were excised aseptically after 2 days and germinated in vitro. Seedlings were subsequently planted in early evaluation trials after acclimatising in the greenhouse. Chromosome counts were carried out on root tips of mature and maiden suckers to determine ploidy levels using a modified squashing technique. Counts showed that two of the hybrids were aneuploids (trisomies with somatic chromosome number of 2n = 2x + 1 = 23, one hybrid was diploid while the other two were tetraploids. Tetraploids are the most promising hybrids for the genetic improvement of plantains. Diploids are valuable material for further improvement of the plantain genome at this ploidy level. Trisomies provide means for further characterisation of the Musa genome and physical gene mapping in plantain and banana.

  20. Micropropagation of Crataeva adansonii D.C. Prodr: an ornamental avenue tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Purnima; Sharma, P K; Kothari, S L

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe multiplication of the superior and elite tree of Crataeva adansonii using plant tissue culture techniques. An ornamental and avenue tree, it is not available in abundance because of poor seed germination and seedling establishment. It reproduces in nature by root suckers, but that restricts its distribution to very limited areas. Efficient procedures are outlined for plant regeneration through direct shoot bud formation, indirect organogenesis, and somatic embryogenesis through callus formation. Different explants were utilized for separate pathways of regeneration. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing 3 mg/L BA and 0.05-0.1 mg/L NAA is most effective in direct induction of axillary buds from nodal explants and shoot tips. Adventitious shoots developed from leaves on MS medium containing 3 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L NAA. De novo shoots were obtained from the anthers on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA. Somatic embryos developed on half strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/L 2, 4-D. Roots were induced at the cut ends of shoots on MS basal medium devoid of growth regulators. The plantlets were then transferred to pots.

  1. Echinococcus granulosus protoscolex formation in natural infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO GALINDO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is a parasitic platyhelminth that is responsible for cystic hydatid disease. From the inner, germinal layer of hydatid cysts protoscoleces are generated, which are are the infective forms to the dog. Systematic studies on the cell biology of E. granulosus protoscolex formation in natural infections are scarce and incomplete. In the present report we describe seven steps in the development of protoscoleces. Cellular buds formed by a clustering of cells emerge from the germinal layer of hydatid cysts. The buds elongate and the cells at their bases seem to diminish in number. Very early on a furrow appears in the elongated buds, delimiting anterior (scolex and caudal (body regions. Hooks are the first fully-differentiated structures formed at the apical region of the nascent scolex. In a more advanced stage, the scolex shows circular projections and depressions that develop into suckers. A cone can later be seen at the center of the hooks, the body is expanded and a structured neck is evident between the scolex and the body. During protoscolex development this parasitic form remains attached to the germinative layer through a stalk. When fully differentiated, the stalk is cut off and the infective protoscolex is now free in the hydatid fluid

  2. A new gorgoderid species of the urinary bladder of Rana zweifeli from Michoacán, Mexico Una nueva especie de gorgodérido de la vejiga urinaria de Rana zweifeli de Michoacán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Mata-López

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gorgoderina tarascae n. sp. is described from the urinary bladder of Rana zweifeli, from Cutzaróndiro, Michoacán, Mexico. Gorgoderina tarascae differs from the other species of the genus by possessing the following combination of characters: follicular vitelline glands, arranged in two clusters of 4-7 follicles dorsal to the ovary, compact and smooth reproductive organs situated far from each other and from the acetabulum, suckers close to each other, and a slender, spindle shaped body with a flexed position due to the situation of the acetabulum.Gorgoderina tarascae n. sp. se describe como parásita de la vejiga urinaria de Rana zweifeli de Cutzaróndiro, Michoacán, México. Gorgoderina tarascae difiere del resto de las especies del género por la siguiente combinación de características: posee glándulas vitelógenas arregladas en dos racimos de 4-7 folículos situados dorsalmente al ovario, órganos reproductivos compactos y de bordes lisos, muy separados entre si y con respecto del acetábulo, ventosas cercanas una de la otra y cuerpo delgado, en forma de huso y flexionado debido a la posición del acetábulo.

  3. Cotylophoron panamensis (digenea: paramphistomidae) in cattle from Meta and Guaviare, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Martinez, Jessika; Velasquez Trujillo, Luz Elena

    2012-01-01

    Some species of Paramphistomidae (Trematoda: Digenea) that parasitize the digestive system of ruminants can cause decreases in milk and meat production. In Colombia, paramphistomosis cattle have been recorded from 1) dairy farms at high altitudes in the mountains of Antioquia (northwestern Colombia) where Cotylophoron cotylophorum was described as the causative agent; and 2) from lowland savannas in eastern Colombia, which has been attributed to several species of Paramphistomidae but with records remaining to be confirmed. Therefore, the discovery of digenea of cattle slaughtered in Guamal, Meta (eastern Colombia), was an opportunity to start with the description of the Paramphistomidae in this region. Between 2006 and 2008, we sampled 715 adult flukes from the rumen of 32 cattle from the departments of Meta and Guaviare. The morphological analysis shows that the adult has the following features typical of the family Paramphistomidae: Laurers canal crossing the excretory vesicle and opening posteriorly to the excretory pore; acetabulum small as in the genus Cotylophoron; pharynx as in Calicophoron; genital sucker without sphincter; absence of esophageal bulb and the lateral and dorsal vitellaria converging posteriorly in the body, below the acetabulum, as in C. panamensis. This study confirms the presence of paramfistomosis in Meta and it is the first report of Cotylophoron panamensis in cattle from the department of Guaviare, therefore expanding its geographic range in Colombia.

  4. Intertidal life: field observations on the clingfish Gobiesox barbatulus in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago H. S Pires

    Full Text Available The clingfish Gobiesox barbatulus shows nocturnal feeding activity, spending most part of the day stationary and adhered to the inferior part of stones. To feed, this species uses the sit-and-wait and particulate feeding tactics. It shows a carnivorous feeding habit mostly consuming small benthic crustaceans. It can move in two ways: (1 "stone-by-stone", sliding its ventral sucker disc across each stone and (2 "surf", when it takes advantage of the energy of the ebbing tide to quickly cross a distance up to four times its body length. Its reproductive season occurs between the end of spring and the beginning of summer, during which time it lays about 2,000 adhesive eggs of 1 mm each in a single layer under stones. It has more than one egg-laying session per reproductive season, therefore showing several different developmental stages. It performs fanning, mouthing and guarding of the eggs as forms of parental care. Data shown here also indicates that G. barbatulus has some shelter fidelity, being probably territorial.

  5. Epidemiological and molecular data on heterophyid trematode metacercariae found in the muscle of grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Simonetta; Piras, Maria Cristina; Sanna, Daria; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    This study is a contribution to the molecular taxonomy and epidemiology of heterophyid (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) metacercariae found in the muscle of Mugilidae (Osteichthyes) from Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea). Sixty specimens of mugilids (13 Chelon labrosus, 18 Liza aurata, 6 Liza ramada, 8 Liza saliens, 15 Mugil cephalus) were examined and 17,899 metacercariae isolated in 95 % of the hosts. Four types of metacercariae were identified: Heterophyes sp. (n = 14,113), Heterophyes sp. -small (1225), Stictodora sp. (1606), and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. (955). The experimental infection of a hamster with Heterophyes sp. metacercariae produced six adults identified as Heterophyes heterophyes and two as Heterophyes cf. nocens. The morphology of Heterophyes sp. -small metacercariae matched with that of Heterophyes dispar. The sequence analysis of the ITS2 and 28S portions of rDNA confirmed the morphological identification of metacercariae, showing four clusters. All adults grouped together with the Heterophyes sp. metacercariae, whereas adults of Heterophyes nocens from Korea clustered separately, showing that this species is distinguished from H. heterophyes, and suggesting caution in the exclusive use of the number of rodlets of the genital sucker to separate the two species. The presence of metacercariae was high in all hosts; the highest prevalence is of Heterophyes sp. (prevalence ≥78 %; mean intensity ≥135 metacercariae/100 g muscle), and the most heavily infected host is M. cephalus (prevalence = 100 %; mean intensity = 841 metacercariae/100 g muscle).

  6. Evaluation of Protection against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice Vaccinated with Irradiated Cercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Present study was designed to evaluate the biological changes in mice vaccinated with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae (40 krad) in comparison with infected non-vaccinated group. The degree of resistance was assessed by parasitological, biochemical, immunological, histopathological as well as scanning electron microscopy studies. The results of the present study revealed a significant reduction in worm burden and ova count in both liver and intestine of the immunized group. In addition, a moderate amelioration was recorded in the liver functions; gamma glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine and aspartate transaminase (ALT and AST). Assessment of tissue nuclear factor-a (TNF-a) and Interleukin -10 (IL-IO) in sera of the experimental groups showed significant protection changes. Histopathological examination of vaccinated mice livers showed protection against parasite maturation and liver damage after challenged as compared to mice infected only without vaccination. Also, scanning electron microscopy of whole worm revealed severe degree of surface tegumental disruption and intensive stunted of the worms as well as loss of the dorsal tegumental spines, On the other hand, there were severe deformations in both the anterior and ventral suckers as a result of the immunization

  7. Bio-inspired Miniature Suction Cups Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bing-shan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Wall climbing robots using negative pressure suction always employ air pumps which have great noise and large volume. Two prototypes of bio-inspired miniature suction cup actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA are designed based on studying characteristics of biologic suction apparatuses, and the suction cups in this paper can be used as adhesion mechanisms for miniature wall climbing robots without air pumps. The first prototype with a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME extension TiNi spring imitates the piston structure of the stalked sucker; the second one actuated by a one way SMA actuator with a bias has a basic structure of stiff margin, guiding element, leader and elastic element. Analytical model of the second prototype is founded considering the constitutive model of the SMA actuator, the deflection of the thin elastic plate under compound load and the thermo-dynamic model of the sealed air cavity. Experiments are done to test their suction characteristics, and the analytical model of the second prototype is simulated on Matlab/simulink platform and validated by experiments.

  8. An Unexpected Diversity of Photoreceptor Classes in the Longfin Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Alexandra C N; Wardill, Trevor J; Hanlon, Roger T; Cronin, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Cephalopods are famous for their ability to change color and pattern rapidly for signaling and camouflage. They have keen eyes and remarkable vision, made possible by photoreceptors in their retinas. External to the eyes, photoreceptors also exist in parolfactory vesicles and some light organs, where they function using a rhodopsin protein that is identical to that expressed in the retina. Furthermore, dermal chromatophore organs contain rhodopsin and other components of phototransduction (including retinochrome, a photoisomerase first found in the retina), suggesting that they are photoreceptive. In this study, we used a modified whole-mount immunohistochemical technique to explore rhodopsin and retinochrome expression in a number of tissues and organs in the longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. We found that fin central muscles, hair cells (epithelial primary sensory neurons), arm axial ganglia, and sucker peduncle nerves all express rhodopsin and retinochrome proteins. Our findings indicate that these animals possess an unexpected diversity of extraocular photoreceptors and suggest that extraocular photoreception using visual opsins and visual phototransduction machinery is far more widespread throughout cephalopod tissues than previously recognized.

  9. An Unexpected Diversity of Photoreceptor Classes in the Longfin Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C N Kingston

    Full Text Available Cephalopods are famous for their ability to change color and pattern rapidly for signaling and camouflage. They have keen eyes and remarkable vision, made possible by photoreceptors in their retinas. External to the eyes, photoreceptors also exist in parolfactory vesicles and some light organs, where they function using a rhodopsin protein that is identical to that expressed in the retina. Furthermore, dermal chromatophore organs contain rhodopsin and other components of phototransduction (including retinochrome, a photoisomerase first found in the retina, suggesting that they are photoreceptive. In this study, we used a modified whole-mount immunohistochemical technique to explore rhodopsin and retinochrome expression in a number of tissues and organs in the longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. We found that fin central muscles, hair cells (epithelial primary sensory neurons, arm axial ganglia, and sucker peduncle nerves all express rhodopsin and retinochrome proteins. Our findings indicate that these animals possess an unexpected diversity of extraocular photoreceptors and suggest that extraocular photoreception using visual opsins and visual phototransduction machinery is far more widespread throughout cephalopod tissues than previously recognized.

  10. Identification and characterization of Clonorchis sinensis cathepsin B proteases in the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; Ning, Dan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Tingjin; Lv, Xiaoli; Sun, Jiufeng; Wu, De; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2015-12-21

    Human clonorchiasis is a prevailing food-borne disease caused by Clonorchis sinensis infection. Functional characterizations of key molecules from C. sinensis could facilitate the intervention of C. sinensis associated diseases. In this study, immunolocalization of C. sinensis cathepsin B proteases (CsCBs) in C. sinensis worms was investigated. Four CsCBs were expressed in Pichia pastoris yeast cells. Purified yCsCBs were measured for enzymatic and hydrolase activities in the presence of various host proteins. Cell proliferation, wound-healing and transwell assays were performed to show the effect of CsCBs on human cells. CsCBs were localized in the excretory vesicle, oral sucker and intestinal tract of C. sinensis. Recombinant yCsCBs from yeast showed active enzymatic activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and at 37-42 °C. yCsCBs can degrade various host proteins including human serum albumin, human fibronectin, human hemoglobin and human IgG. CsCBs were detected in liver tissues of mice and cancer patients afflicted with clonorchiasis. Various bioassays collectively demonstrated that CsCBs could promote cell proliferation, migration and invasion of human cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that CsCBs can degrade various human proteins and we proved that the secreted CsCBs are involved in the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis.

  11. Estimates of hybridization between two species of catostomids in the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Extent of hybridization is described between two sympatric catostomids, Catostomus macrocheilus and C. columbianus, from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, southeastern Washington state. Estimated percentage of hybrids based on presence of intermediate meristic characters ranged from 12.4 to 14.6% of the total sucker population. Discriminant function analysis reduced subjective variability and lowered estimates of hybridization to 3.0 to 7.1%. Principal component analysis also provided evidence that the suspected hybrids were intermediate between populations of C. macrocheilus and C. columbianus. Meristic characters contributed most to all methods of treatment, with number of lateral line scales the best single criterion for species separation. Any analysis of closely related species would benefit from examination of offspring from artificial crosses and from knowledge of allopatric population characteristics. Breakdown of isolating mechanisms leading to C. macrocheilus X C. columbianus crosses may result from overlap in spawning time and incomplete habitat segregation. Morphological and coloration differences at spawning may provide a basis for species recognition, thus providing some degree of ethological isolation.

  12. Plant regeneration of bananas Ambon kuning and Barangan mutant lines were carried out by using female organ and shoot-tip as explants source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewi, Azri K; Ishak

    1998-01-01

    Plant regeneration of bananas Ambon Kuning and Barangan mutant lines were carried out by using female organ and shoot-tip as explants source. Female organ was taken from heart of banana stem, while shoot-tip taken from sucker in banana plantation at Pasar Jumat, Jakarta. Those explants were cultured on MS medium containing 3 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l IAA and supplemented by 100 tyrosin and 80 mg/l adenin hemisulphate. Observation showed that 180 and 42 buds were obtained from JBR 02 mutant lines respectively, while 84 and 79 buds for JAK 01 and JAK 02 respectively. The highest shoot formation was 1.013 shoots were obtained from BRC variety and lowest one was JBR 01 mutant line. statistical data analysis indicated that shoot formation between BRC variety and another mutant lines were significant difference using LSD test at level 0.05. Plantlet formation derived from female organ as well as shoot-tip showed that BRC variety produced number of plantlets per bottle was higher that another one. (author)

  13. New records of Cotylea (Polycladida, Platyhelminthes) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with remarks on the distribution of the Pseudoceros Lang, 1884 and Pseudobiceros Faubel, 1984 species of the Indo-Pacific Marine Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, Daniel; Aguado, M Teresa; Noreña, Carolina

    2015-09-18

    In the present work eleven polyclad species of Lizard Island are studied. Seven of them are new records for this locality of the Australian coral reef and one is new to science, Lurymare clavocapitata n. sp. (Family Prosthiostomidae). The remaining recorded species belong to the genera Pseudoceros (P. bimarginatus, P. jebborum, P. stimpsoni, P. zebra, P. paralaticlavus and P. prudhoei) and Pseudobiceros (Pb. hancockanus, Pb. hymanae, Pb. flowersi and Pb. uniarborensis). Regardless of the different distribution patterns, all pseudocerotid species show brilliant colours, but similar internal morphology. Furthermore, differences in the form and size of the stylet are characteristic, because it is a sclerotic structure that is not affected during fixation. In Pseudoceros, the distance between the sucker and the female pore also differs among species. These features do not vary enough to be considered as diagnostic, but they provide information that can help to disentangle similarly coloured species complexes. A key of the genera Pseudoceros and Pseudobiceros of the Indo-Pacific region is provided, in order to facilitate the identification of species from this area.

  14. Attraction to and Avoidance of instream Hydrokinetic Turbines by Freshwater Aquatic Organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    The development of hydrokinetic (HK) energy projects is under consideration at over 150 sites in large rivers in the United States, including the Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee, and Atchafalaya Rivers. These waterbodies support numerous fish species that might interact with the HK projects in a variety of ways, e.g., by attraction to or avoidance of project structures. Although many fish species inhabit these rivers (about 172 species in the Mississippi River alone), not all of them will encounter the HK projects. Some species prefer low-velocity, backwater habitats rather than the high-velocity, main channel areas that would be the best sites for HK. Other, riverbank-oriented species are weak swimmers or too small to inhabit the main channel for significant periods of time. Some larger, main channel fish species are not known to be attracted to structures. Based on a consideration of habitat preferences, size/swim speed, and behavior, fish species that are most likely to be attracted to HK structures in the main channel include carps, suckers, catfish, white bass, striped bass, smallmouth bass, spotted bass, and sauger. Proper siting of the project in order to avoid sensitive fish populations, backwater and fish nursery habitat areas, and fish migration corridors will likely minimize concerns about fish attraction to or avoidance of HK structures.

  15. Impact of wild ungulates on coppices from the Bisenzio Valley (province of Prato, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi L

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Apennine areas, a considerable increase of wild ungulate density has been observed in the past decades in the Bisenzio valley (province of Prato, leading to a strong impact on coppice regeneration. In some felling areas, the prolonged browsing on young suckers turned the stumps into low and dense bushes, thus threatening the survival of the forest stand and triggering a loss of environmental stability. The aim of this work was to study the impact of deer on sprout regeneration after cutting in mixed coppices felled in the period 2007-2010 and characterized by the dominance of chestnut, hornbeam, Turkey oak, and beech. Some 36 plots were established in four municipal districts of the Prato province (Cantagallo, Vernio, Montemurlo, Vaiano. Damage and browsing intensity on each stump were evaluated using an index that allowed the comparison among different areas and fores stand types. Regardless of the species, over 90% of the sprouts revealed a very strong damage, whereas only 6% did not exhibit any damage. A significant difference in the sprout height was detected between browsed and non-browsed areas. Despite a high incidence of damage in all the studied areas, chestnut showed a greater resilience against browsing. In summary, overgrazing by wild game may determine severe contraints to the evolutionary dynamics of forest stands, frustrating the effects of silvicultural practices. The possible benefits of the implementation of a large-scale integrated wildlife plan, including hunting and forest-evironmental management are discussed.

  16. Geochemical pathways and biological uptake of radium in small Canadian Shield lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesslein, R.H.; Slavicek, E.

    1984-01-01

    The sediment-water interactions and biological uptake of 226 Ra are described for four small Canadian Shield lakes at the Experimental Lakes Area, Kenora, Ontario. A single addition of 226 Ra was made to each lake between 1970 and 1976. Approximately 90 percent of the added 226 Ra initially sorbed to the sediments. Outflow from the lakes showed losses of only 5-11 percent 226 Ra per year. Models are proposed for adsorption and outflow of 226 Ra from lakes. Biological uptake and long-term 226 Ra concentrations were measured in three species of macrophytes, crayfish, and five species of fish. Bioaccumulation ranged from 1100 to 5000 in macrophytes, 705 in crayfish, from 30 to 80 in large trout (Salvelinus namaycush), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and from 230 to 1200 in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), pearl dace (Semotilus margarita), and northern redbelly dace (Chrosomus eos). The concept of Ra/Ca ratio in organisms versus water and food is used to explain the differences in bioaccumulation. 226 Ra is discriminated against versus calcium by fish but favoured by macrophytes and crayfish

  17. Cultivation Versus Molecular Analysis of Banana (Musa sp.) Shoot-Tip Tissue Reveals Enormous Diversity of Normally Uncultivable Endophytic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pious; Sekhar, Aparna Chandra

    2017-05-01

    The interior of plants constitutes a unique environment for microorganisms with various organisms inhabiting as endophytes. Unlike subterranean plant parts, aboveground parts are relatively less explored for endophytic microbial diversity. We employed a combination of cultivation and molecular approaches to study the endophytic bacterial diversity in banana shoot-tips. Cultivable bacteria from 20 sucker shoot-tips of cv. Grand Naine included 37 strains under 16 genera and three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes). 16S rRNA gene-ribotyping approach on 799f and 1492r PCR-amplicons to avoid plant organelle sequences was ineffective showing limited bacterial diversity. 16S rRNA metagene profiling targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable region after filtering out the chloroplast (74.2 %), mitochondrial (22.9 %), and unknown sequences (1.1 %) revealed enormous bacterial diversity. Proteobacteria formed the predominant phylum (64 %) succeeded by Firmicutes (12.1 %), Actinobacteria (9.5 %), Bacteroidetes (6.4 %), Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria, and minor shares (banana shoot-tips (20 phyla, 46 classes) with about 2.6 % of the deciphered 269 genera and 1.5 % of the 656 observed species from the same source of shoot-tips attained through cultivation. The predominant genera included several agriculturally important bacteria. The study reveals an immense ecosystem of endophytic bacteria in banana shoot tissues endorsing the earlier documentation of intracellular "Cytobacts" and "Peribacts" with possible roles in plant holobiome and hologenome.

  18. Prisoner's Dilemma cellular automata revisited: evolution of cooperation under environmental pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, J.; Fernández, A.; Fort, H.

    2006-06-01

    We propose an extension of the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma cellular automata, introduced by Nowak and May (1992 Nature 359 826), in which the pressure of the environment is taken into account. This is implemented by requiring that individuals need to collect a minimum score Umin, representing indispensable resources (nutrients, energy, money, etc) to prosper in this environment. So the agents, instead of evolving just by adopting the behaviour of the most successful neighbour (who got Umsn), also take into account if Umsn is above or below the threshold Umin. If Umsnsucker's payoff is much worse than the punishment for mutual defection). We also analyse a more sophisticated version of this model in which the selective rule is supplemented with a 'win-stay, lose-shift' criterion. The cluster structure is analysed, and for this more complex version we found power-law scaling for a restricted region in the parameter space.

  19. A minute fossil phoretic mite recovered by phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Wirth, Stefan; Penney, David; McNeil, Andrew; Bradley, Robert S.; Withers, Philip J.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) reveals the phoretic deutonymph of a fossil astigmatid mite (Acariformes: Astigmata) attached to a spider's carapace (Araneae: Dysderidae) in Eocene (44–49 Myr ago) Baltic amber. Details of appendages and a sucker plate were resolved, and the resulting three-dimensional model demonstrates the potential of tomography to recover morphological characters of systematic significance from even the tiniest amber inclusions without the need for a synchrotron. Astigmatids have an extremely sparse palaeontological record. We confirm one of the few convincing fossils, potentially the oldest record of Histiostomatidae. At 176 µm long, we believe this to be the smallest arthropod in amber to be CT-scanned as a complete body fossil, extending the boundaries for what can be recovered using this technique. We also demonstrate a minimum age for the evolution of phoretic behaviour among their deutonymphs, an ecological trait used by extant species to disperse into favourable environments. The occurrence of the fossil on a spider is noteworthy, as modern histiostomatids tend to favour other arthropods as carriers. PMID:22072283

  20. An ethogram for Benthic Octopods (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jennifer A; Alupay, Jean S

    2016-05-01

    The present paper constructs a general ethogram for the actions of the flexible body as well as the skin displays of octopuses in the family Octopodidae. The actions of 6 sets of structures (mantle-funnel, arms, sucker-stalk, skin-web, head, and mouth) combine to produce behavioral units that involve positioning of parts leading to postures such as the flamboyant, movements of parts of the animal with relation to itself including head bob and grooming, and movements of the whole animal by both jetting in the water and crawling along the substrate. Muscular actions result in 4 key changes in skin display: (a) chromatophore expansion, (b) chromatophore contraction resulting in appearance of reflective colors such as iridophores and leucophores, (c) erection of papillae on the skin, and (d) overall postures of arms and mantle controlled by actions of the octopus muscular hydrostat. They produce appearances, including excellent camouflage, moving passing cloud and iridescent blue rings, with only a few known species-specific male visual sexual displays. Commonalities across the family suggest that, despite having flexible muscular hydrostat movement systems producing several behavioral units, simplicity of production may underlie the complexity of movement and appearance. This systematic framework allows researchers to take the next step in modeling how such diversity can be a combination of just a few variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Regimes of mini black hole abandoned to accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Biplab

    2018-01-01

    Being inspired by the Eddington’s idea, along with other auxiliary arguments, it is unveiled that there exist regimes of a black hole that would prohibit accretion of ordinary energy. In explicit words, there exists a lower bound to black hole mass below which matter accretion process does not run for black holes. Not merely the baryonic matter, but, in regimes, also the massless photons could get prohibited from rushing into a black hole. However, unlike the baryon accretion abandoned black hole regime, the mass-regime of a black hole prohibiting accretion of radiation could vary along with its ambient temperature. For example, we discuss that earlier to 10‑8 s after the big-bang, as the cosmological temperature of the Universe grew above ˜ 1014 K, the mass range of black hole designating the radiation accretion abandoned regime, had to be in varying state being connected with the instantaneous age of the evolving Universe by an “one half” power law. It happens to be a fact that a black hole holding regimes prohibiting accretion of energy is gigantic by its size in comparison to the Planck length-scale. Hence the emergence of these regimes demands mini black holes for not being viable as profound suckers of energy. Consideration of accretion abandoned regimes could be crucial for constraining or judging the evolution of primordial black holes over the age of the Universe.

  2. Seeing is believing -- SpyJack system investigates field problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, D.

    1998-01-01

    The SpyJack Remote Monitoring System, a stand-alone, single-site remote well monitoring system that works off its own embedded controller is described. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) unit, developed by CORE Technologies Inc., has an integrated voice/alarm system, monitoring sensors installed at remote well sites continuously 24 hours a day with a digital camera, with 300 degrees of visual confirmation capability. It can also be used as a surveillance tool against terrorism as has been shown in the case of some recent debilitating attacks on remote wells in Alberta. SpyJack monitors flow rates and pressures, pumpjack stroke rates, sucker rod temperature, load cell and engine shut-off relay, as well as ambient temperature, tank levels, and motion detection. At the office, SpyJack Well Management Interface uses nine drop-down screens to take users through the remote monitoring and control of each site. The screens include production sensors, line sensors, dyno chart, environmental/safety sensors and sensor information and set up. Currently under development is the unsolicited dial-out capability. When implemented the system will send out information at pre-determined times, such as every four hours, or at specific times during the day. Compressing images to enable speedier downloading is also being planned

  3. A minute fossil phoretic mite recovered by phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A; Wirth, Stefan; Penney, David; McNeil, Andrew; Bradley, Robert S; Withers, Philip J; Preziosi, Richard F

    2012-06-23

    High-resolution phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) reveals the phoretic deutonymph of a fossil astigmatid mite (Acariformes: Astigmata) attached to a spider's carapace (Araneae: Dysderidae) in Eocene (44-49 Myr ago) Baltic amber. Details of appendages and a sucker plate were resolved, and the resulting three-dimensional model demonstrates the potential of tomography to recover morphological characters of systematic significance from even the tiniest amber inclusions without the need for a synchrotron. Astigmatids have an extremely sparse palaeontological record. We confirm one of the few convincing fossils, potentially the oldest record of Histiostomatidae. At 176 µm long, we believe this to be the smallest arthropod in amber to be CT-scanned as a complete body fossil, extending the boundaries for what can be recovered using this technique. We also demonstrate a minimum age for the evolution of phoretic behaviour among their deutonymphs, an ecological trait used by extant species to disperse into favourable environments. The occurrence of the fossil on a spider is noteworthy, as modern histiostomatids tend to favour other arthropods as carriers.

  4. Examination of rare earth element concentration patterns in freshwater fish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, David B; Fairbrother, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) were measured in ten freshwater fish species from a reservoir in Washington State (United States). The REE distribution patterns were examined within fillet and whole body tissues for three size classes. Total concentrations (ΣREE) ranged from 0.014 to 3.0 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) and averaged 0.243 mg kg(-1) (dry weight). Tissue concentration patterns indicated that REEs accumulated to a greater extent in organs, viscera, and bone compared to muscle (fillet) tissues. Benthic feeding species (exposed to sediments) exhibited greater concentrations of REEs than pelagic omnivorous or piscivorous fish species. Decreasing REE concentrations were found with increasing age, total length or weight for largescale and longnose suckers, smallmouth bass, and walleye. Concentration patterns in this system were consistent with natural conditions without anthropogenic sources of REEs. These data provide additional reference information with regard to the fate and transport of REEs in freshwater fish tissues in a large aquatic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Concentration Trends for Lead and Calcium-Normalized Lead in Fish Fillets from the Big River, a Mining-Contaminated Stream in Southeastern Missouri USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J; McKee, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Lead (Pb) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were measured in fillet samples of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) and redhorse suckers (Moxostoma spp.) collected in 2005-2012 from the Big River, which drains a historical mining area in southeastern Missouri and where a consumption advisory is in effect due to elevated Pb concentrations in fish. Lead tends to accumulated in Ca-rich tissues such as bone and scale. Concentrations of Pb in fish muscle are typically low, but can become elevated in fillets from Pb-contaminated sites depending in part on how much bone, scale, and skin is included in the sample. We used analysis-of-covariance to normalize Pb concentration to the geometric mean Ca concentration (415 ug/g wet weight, ww), which reduced variation between taxa, sites, and years, as was the number of samples that exceeded Missouri consumption advisory threshold (300 ng/g ww). Concentrations of Pb in 2005-2012 were lower than in the past, especially after Ca-normalization, but the consumption advisory is still warranted because concentrations were >300 ng/g ww in samples of both taxa from contaminated sites. For monitoring purposes, a simple linear regression model is proposed for estimating Ca-normalized Pb concentrations in fillets from Pb:Ca molar ratios as a way of reducing the effects of differing preparation methods on fillet Pb variation.

  6. Tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) of firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Amazon River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-03-01

    A survey of proteocephalidean cestodes found in the firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix et Agassiz) from the Amazon River is provided. The following taxa parasitic in S. planiceps are redescribed on the basis of their type specimens and material collected recently in the Amazon River, near the type localities in Brazil, and in Iquitos, Peru: Monticellia lenha Woodland, 1933; Nomimoscolex lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Proteocephalus lenha Woodland, 1933); and Monticellia megacephala Woodland, 1934, for which a new genus, Lenhataenia, is proposed, with L. megacephala (Woodland, 1934) comb. n. as its type and only species. The new genus is a member of the Monticelliinae, i.e. has all genital organs in the cortex, and is most similar to Chambriella in possessing biloculate suckers and lacking a metascolex. It differs in the morphology of the cirrus-sac that contains a strongly coiled, thick-walled internal sperm duct (vas deferens) and a muscular cirrus of the appearance typical of most proteocephalideans, whereas that of Chambriella is sigmoid, with voluminous, tightly sinuous thick-walled internal sperm duct. In addition, Lenhataenia possesses a well developed internal musculature, whereas the internal musculature of Chambriella is weakly developed, formed by a low number of muscle fibres. The scolex morphology and distribution of microtriches of Peltidocotyle lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Othinoscolex lenha Woodland, 1933 and Othinoscolex myzofer Woodland, 1933), Chambriella sp. and Choanoscolex sp. are described using scanning electron microscopy. The two latter taxa may be new for science and are reported from S. planiceps for the first time.

  7. Bio-inspired Miniature Suction Cups Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bing-Shan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Wall climbing robots using negative pressure suction always employ air pumps which have great noise and large volume. Two prototypes of bio-inspired miniature suction cup actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA are designed based on studying characteristics of biologic suction apparatuses, and the suction cups in this paper can be used as adhesion mechanisms for miniature wall climbing robots without air pumps. The first prototype with a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME extension TiNi spring imitates the piston structure of the stalked sucker; the second one actuated by a one way SMA actuator with a bias has a basic structure of stiff margin, guiding element, leader and elastic element. Analytical model of the second prototype is founded considering the constitutive model of the SMA actuator, the deflection of the thin elastic plate under compound load and the thermo-dynamic model of the sealed air cavity. Experiments are done to test their suction characteristics, and the analytical model of the second prototype is simulated on Matlab/simulink platform and validated by experiments.

  8. Toxicity of pentachlorophenol to aquatic organisms under naturally varying and controlled environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedtke, S.F.; West, C.W.; Allen, K.N.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Mount, D.I.

    1986-06-01

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was determined in the laboratory for 11 aquatic species. Tests were conducted seasonally in ambient Mississippi River water and under controlled conditions in Lake Superior water. Fifty-one acute toxicity tests were conducted, with LC50 values ranging from 85 micrograms/L for the white sucker Catastomus commersoni during the summer to greater than 7770 micrograms/L for the isopod Asellus racovitzai during the winter. The effect of PCP on growth and/or reproduction was determined for seven species. The most sensitive chronically exposed organisms were the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata and the snail Physa gyrina. The greatest variation in toxicity was due to species sensitivity. Within a given, season there was as much as a 40-fold difference in LC50 values between species. For any one species, the maximum variation in LC50 between seasons was approximately 14-fold. There were also substantial differences in acute-chronic relationships, with acute/chronic ratios ranging from greater than 37 for C. reticulata to 1 for Simocephalus vetulus. It is suggested that the composition of the aquatic community should be the most important consideration in estimating the potential environmental effects of PCP.

  9. Molecular Phylogenetics of Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) Originated from Freshwater Fish from Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawad, Chalobol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sukontason, Kom; Maneepitaksanti, Worawit; Nantarat, Nattawadee

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the morphology and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Centrocestus formosanus originating from 5 species of freshwater fish, i.e., Esomus metallicus, Puntius brevis, Anabas testudineus, Parambassis siamensis , and Carassius auratus , in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and phylogeny based on internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) were performed. The results showed similar morphologies of adult C. formosanus from day 5 after infection in chicks. C. formosanus originated from 4 species of freshwater fish had the same number of circumoral spines on the oral sucker, except for those from C. auratus which revealed 34 circumoral spines. The phylogenetic tree obtained from SRAP profile and the combination of ITS2 and CO1 sequence showed similar results that were correlated with the number of circumoral spines in adult worms. Genetic variability of C. formosanus also occurred in different species of freshwater fish hosts. However, more details of adult worm morphologies and more sensitive genetic markers are needed to confirm the species validity of C. formosanus with 34 circumoral spines originating from C. auratus in the future.

  10. Prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus Metacercariae in Ornamental Fish from Chiang Mai, Thailand, with Molecular Approach Using ITS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlop, Atcharaphan; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Prattapong, Pongphol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Chontananarth, Thapana; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae was investigated in ornamental fish purchased from a pet shop in Chiang Mai, Thailand, including Carassius auratus (goldfish), Cyprinus carpio (Koi), Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin Molly), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), and Puntigrus tetrazona (Tiger barb). The parasite species was identified by the morphology of worms as well as by a molecular approach using ITS2. The results showed that 50 (33.3%) of 150 fish examined were infected with the metacercariae. The highest prevalence was found in C. auratus (83.3%), and the highest intensity was noted in C. carpio (70.8 metacercariae/fish). The most important morphological character was the presence of 32-34 circumoral spines on the oral sucker. The phylogenetic studies using the rRNA ITS2 region revealed that all the specimens of C. formosanus in this study were grouped together with C. formosanus in GenBank database. This is the first report on ornamental fish, C. carpio, P. latipinna, D. rerio, and P. tetrazona, taking the role of second intermediate hosts of C. formosanus in Thailand. Prevention and control of metacercarial infection in ornamental fish is urgently needed.

  11. A new, large-bodied omnivorous bat (Noctilionoidea: Mystacinidae) reveals lost morphological and ecological diversity since the Miocene in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Suzanne J; Beck, Robin M D; Archer, Michael; Simmons, Nancy B; Gunnell, Gregg F; Scofield, R Paul; Tennyson, Alan J D; De Pietri, Vanesa L; Salisbury, Steven W; Worthy, Trevor H

    2018-01-10

    A new genus and species of fossil bat is described from New Zealand's only pre-Pleistocene Cenozoic terrestrial fauna, the early Miocene St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island. Bayesian total evidence phylogenetic analysis places this new Southern Hemisphere taxon among the burrowing bats (mystacinids) of New Zealand and Australia, although its lower dentition also resembles Africa's endemic sucker-footed bats (myzopodids). As the first new bat genus to be added to New Zealand's fauna in more than 150 years, it provides new insight into the original diversity of chiropterans in Australasia. It also underscores the significant decline in morphological diversity that has taken place in the highly distinctive, semi-terrestrial bat family Mystacinidae since the Miocene. This bat was relatively large, with an estimated body mass of ~40 g, and its dentition suggests it had an omnivorous diet. Its striking dental autapomorphies, including development of a large hypocone, signal a shift of diet compared with other mystacinids, and may provide evidence of an adaptive radiation in feeding strategy in this group of noctilionoid bats.

  12. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghua Zong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and precise position control of the X cylinder, the applied pneumatic schemes of X and Y cylinders are employed to drive the high-speed on-off solenoid valves and an ordinary valve to adjust the air-flow and pressure to the cylinders. Furthermore a method of segment and variable bang-bang controller is proposed to implement the accurate control of the position servo system for the X cylinder during the sideways movement. Testing results show that the novel approach can effectively improve the control quality. This cleaning robot can meet the requirements of realization.

  14. Effective Pneumatic Scheme and Control Strategy of a Climbing Robot for Class Wall Cleaning on High-rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houxiang Zhang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of pneumatic climbing robot is presented to meet the requirements of glass-wall cleaning for high-rise buildings, which is totally actuated by pneumatic cylinders and attached to the glass wall with vacuum suckers. Using the pneumatic actuators the climbing robot can be made lightweight and dexterous. At the same time the movement driven by pneumatic actuators has the characteristic of passive compliance. In order to solve the problems of high speed movement for the Y cylinder and precise position control of the X cylinder, the applied pneumatic schemes of X and Y cylinders are employed to drive the high-speed on-off solenoid valves and an ordinary valve to adjust the air-flow and pressure to the cylinders. Furthermore a method of segment and variable bang-bang controller is proposed to implement the accurate control of the position servo system for the X cylinder during the sideways movement. Testing results show that the novel approach can effectively improve the control quality. This cleaning robot can meet the requirements of realization.

  15. Stairway to heaven: evaluating levels of biological organization correlated with the successful ascent of natural waterfalls in the Hawaiian stream goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko L Schoenfuss

    Full Text Available Selective pressures generated by locomotor challenges act at the level of the individual. However, phenotypic variation among individuals that might convey a selective advantage may occur across any of multiple levels of biological organization. In this study, we test for differences in external morphology, muscle mechanical advantage, muscle fiber type and protein expression among individuals of the waterfall climbing Hawaiian fish Sicyopterus stimpsoni collected from sequential pools increasing in elevation within a single freshwater stream. Despite predictions from previous laboratory studies of morphological selection, few directional morphometric changes in body shape were observed at successively higher elevations. Similarly, lever arm ratios associated with the main pelvic sucker, central to climbing ability in this species, did not differ between elevations. However, among climbing muscles, the adductor pelvicus complex (largely responsible for generating pelvic suction during climbing contained a significantly greater red muscle fiber content at upstream sites. A proteomic analysis of the adductor pelvicus revealed two-fold increases in expression levels for two respiratory chain proteins (NADH:ubiquinone reductase and cytochrome b that are essential for aerobic respiration among individuals from successively higher elevations. Assessed collectively, these evaluations reveal phenotypic differences at some, but not all levels of biological organization that are likely the result of selective pressures experienced during climbing.

  16. Production of mutants by irradiation of in vitro-cultured tissues of coconut and banana and their mass propagation by the tissue culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, E.V. de; Rosario, A.G. del; Pagcaliwagan, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Regeneration of buds/shoots as well as plantlets was induced from banana shoot tip explants cultured in highly modified Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with coconut water and benzyladenine. Initially shoot regeneration was sparse, but on further subculture became profuse. Gamma irradiation at low dosage (1.0 kR) was stimulating to explant growth and bud formation with the two types of explants used. With Bungulan stimulation was observed even at 2.5 kR. Several morphological aberrations were exhibited by shoots of 'irradiated' in vitro plants growing in potted soil. A highly and continuously proliferating tissue strain has been isolated from a subculture which was ultimately derived from an irradiated explant. Its continued proliferation is dependent on an external supply of coconut water and benzyladenine. In vitro-produced plants have been established under field conditions. The 'irradiated' plants are comparable with, and some seem to be better than, the unirradiated controls with respect to height, girth, sucker production and number of hands and fingers per bunch. Higher doses of irradiation are required to produce an adverse effect on growth of coconut embryos during the liquid culture than when growing in solid medium. (author)

  17. Reproductive system abnormalities in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae: brightfield and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni adult worms with genital anomalies isolated from Nectomys squamipes (Muridae: Sigmodontinae were studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy under the reflected mode. One male without testicular lobes (testicular agenesia/anorchism and two females, one with an atrophied ovary and another with 17 uterine eggs, were identified. The absence of testicular lobes occurred in a worm presenting otherwise normal male adult characteristics: tegument, tubercles and a gynaecophoric canal with spines. In both female specimens the digestive tube showed a vacuolated appearance, and the specimen with supernumerary uterine eggs exhibited a developing miracidium and an egg with a formed shell. The area of the ventral sucker was similar in both specimens however the tegument thickness, ovary and vitelline glands of the specimen with the atrophied ovary were smaller than those of the one with supernumerary eggs. These reported anomalies in the reproductive system call attention to the need to improve our understanding of genetic regulation and the possible role of environmental influences upon trematode development.

  18. Morphological aspects of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms isolated from nourished and undernourished mice: a comparative analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Renata Heisler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition hampers the course of schistosomiasis mansoni infection just as normal growth of adult worms. A comparative morphometric study on adult specimens (male and female recovered from undernourished (fed with a low protein diet - regional basic diet and nourished (rodent commercial laboratory food, NUVILAB white mice was performed. Tomographic images and morphometric analysis of the oral and ventral suckers, reproductive system and tegument were obtained by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy. Undernourished male specimens presented smaller morphometric values (length and width of the reproductive system (first, third and last testicular lobes and thickness of the tegument than controls. Besides that, it was demonstrated that the dorsal surface of the male worms bears large tubercles unevenly distributed, but kept grouped and flat. At the subtegumental region, vacuolated areas were detected. It was concluded that the inadequate nutritional status of the vertebrate host has a negative influence mainly in the reproductive system and topographical somatic development of male adult Schistosoma mansoni, inducing some alterations on the structure of the parasite.

  19. Plant–insect interactions from Middle Triassic (late Ladinian of Monte Agnello (Dolomites, N-Italy—initial pattern and response to abiotic environmental perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Wappler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic–Mesozoic transition is characterized by the most massive extinction of the Phanerozoic. Nevertheless, an impressive adaptive radiation of herbivorous insects occurred on gymnosperm-dominated floras not earlier than during the Middle to Late Triassic, penecontemporaneous with similar events worldwide, all which exhibit parallel expansions of generalized and mostly specialized insect herbivory on plants, expressed as insect damage on a various plant organs and tissues. The flora from Monte Agnello is distinctive, due to its preservation in subaerially deposited pyroclastic layers with exceptionally preserved details. Thus, the para-autochthonous assemblage provides insights into environmental disturbances, caused by volcanic activity, and how they profoundly affected the structure and composition of herbivory patterns. These diverse Middle Triassic biota supply extensive evidence for insect herbivore colonization, resulting in specific and complex herbivory patterns involving the frequency and diversity of 20 distinctive damage types (DTs. These DT patterns show that external foliage feeders, piercer-and-suckers, leaf miners, gallers, and oviposition culprits were intricately using almost all tissue types from the dominant host plants of voltzialean conifers (e.g., Voltzia, horsetails, ferns (e.g., Neuropteridium, Phlebopteris, Cladophlebis and Thaumatopteris, seed ferns (e.g., Scytophyllum, and cycadophytes (e.g., Bjuvia and Nilssonia.

  20. Cysteine-rich buccal gland protein suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of hela cells through akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianmei; Liu, Yu; Jiang, Qi; Xiao, Rong

    2017-11-01

    Cysteine-rich buccal gland protein (CRBGP) as a member of cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) superfamily was isolated from the buccal glands of Lampetra japonica, the blood suckers in the marine. Previous studies showed CRBGP could suppress angiogenesis probably due to its ion channel blocking activity. Whether CRBGP could also affect the activity of tumor cells has not been reported yet. In this study, CRBGP suppressed the proliferation of Hela cells with an IC 50 of 6.7 μM by inducing apoptosis. Both microscopic observation and Western blot indicated that CRBGP was able to induce the nuclei shrinking, downregulate the protein level of BCL2 and caspase 3 as well as upregulate the level of BAX in Hela cells, suggested that CRBGP might induce apoptosis of Hela cells in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Furthermore, CRBGP could disturb F-actin organization, which would finally cause the Hela cells to lose their shape and to lessen their abilities on adhesion, migration and invasion. Finally, CRBGP was shown to reduce the phosphorylation level of Akt, which indicated that CRBGP might inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of Hela cells through Akt pathway. CRBGP, as a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, also possesses the anti-tumor abilities which provided information on the effects and action manner of the other CRISPs. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(11):856-866, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Mercury and omega-3 fatty acid profiles in freshwater fish of the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories: Informing risk benefit assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Matthew J; Henao, Juan J Aristizabal; Reyes, Ellen S; Stark, Ken D; Low, George; Swanson, Heidi K; Laird, Brian D

    2018-05-17

    Traditional foods have significant nutritional, sociocultural and economic value in subarctic First Nations communities of the Northwest Territories, and play a crucial role in promoting cultural continuity and sovereignty. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3 PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), carry significant benefits for neurocognitive development and cardiovascular health. However, the health risks posed by methylmercury may serve to undermine the benefits of fish consumption in Northern Indigenous communities. The objective of this study was to characterize profiles for mercury (Hg) and fatty acids in fish species harvested across lakes of the Dehcho Region, in the Mackenzie Valley of the Northwest Territories, to better understand the risks and benefits associated with traditional foods. Hg levels increased with trophic position, with the highest levels found in Burbot, Lake Trout, Walleye, and Northern Pike. Lake Trout, along with planktivorous species including Lake Whitefish, Cisco, and Sucker, demonstrated higher N-3 PUFAs than other species. Negative associations were observed between Hg and N-3 PUFAs in Lake Trout, Northern Pike, Walleye and Burbot. Further stratifying these relationships revealed significant interactions by lake. Significant differences observed in fatty acid and Hg profiles across lakes underscore the importance of considering both species- and lake-specific findings. This growing dataset of freshwater fish of the Dehcho will inform future efforts to characterize human Hg exposure profiles using probabilistic dose reconstruction models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Problems of developing the Timano-Pechora oil and gas province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Features of the geological structure of oil formations, and types of oil and gas formations of the territory of the Timano-Pechora oil and gas province are covered, as well as indicators of hydrochemical situation for existence of natural waters. A study is made of the effect of parameters of the drilling mode on twisting of wells using the ISM bits. A calculation is made of the system of cooling the drilling mud. A quantitative evaluation is made of the effect of buffer pressure on well output and of ways to improve coverage of the productive section of the Pashninskiy field. Reserves for improving well output of the PermCarbonaceous formation and methods of reducing viscosity of heavy oil of the Usinskiy field are described. Hydraulic resistances are presented in the valves of deep sucker rod pumps and the use of packer-cut-offs to cap the wells, questions of improving the effectiveness of clay-acid treatment, and also valve devices for developing the wells. Paths are defined for improving the effectiveness of drilling operations at the association ''Komineft''. Questions of environmental protection in the process of developing the oil and gas province are examined.

  3. Transcriptome discovery in non-model wild fish species for the development of quantitative transcript abundance assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Cornman, Robert S; Mazik, Patricia M; Blazer, Vicki S

    2016-12-01

    Environmental studies increasingly identify the presence of both contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and legacy contaminants in aquatic environments; however, the biological effects of these compounds on resident fishes remain largely unknown. High throughput methodologies were employed to establish partial transcriptomes for three wild-caught, non-model fish species; smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) and brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). Sequences from these transcriptome databases were utilized in the development of a custom nCounter CodeSet that allowed for direct multiplexed measurement of 50 transcript abundance endpoints in liver tissue. Sequence information was also utilized in the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) primers. Cross-species hybridization allowed the smallmouth bass nCounter CodeSet to be used for quantitative transcript abundance analysis of an additional non-model species, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). We validated the nCounter analysis data system with qPCR for a subset of genes and confirmed concordant results. Changes in transcript abundance biomarkers between sexes and seasons were evaluated to provide baseline data on transcript modulation for each species of interest. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Hemipristicola gunterae gen. n., sp. n. (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Phyllobothriidae) from the snaggletooth shark, Hemipristis elongata (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae), from Moreton Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Theiss, Susan M; Bennett, Michael B; Cribb, Thomas H

    2011-09-01

    Helminthological examination of the snaggletooth shark, Hemipristis elongata (Klunzinger) (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae), from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, yielded a phyllobothriid genus and species previously unknown to science. Hemipristicola gunterae gen. n., sp. n. is described here, and is placed in the subfamily Phyllobothriinae Braun, 1900. Of the other phyllobothriid genera, the new genus most closely resembles Paraorygmatobothrium in that both genera possess bothridia with a single loculus and apical sucker, post-vaginal testes and lateral vitellarium. Hemipristicola, however, differs from Paraorygmatobothrium in the morphology of the proximal bothridial surface microthrix, possessing serrate gladiate spinitriches with marginal serrations restricted to the distal half of the blade, and in the possession of a more extensive uterus, extending anteriorly from the anterior margin of the ovary to well past the level of the cirrus-sac. The new genus also differs from Paraorygmatobothrium by possessing testes that are more than one layer deep. Hemipristicola gunterae further differs from Paraorygmatobothrium species found in hemigaleid sharks in possessing vitelline follicles arranged in two lateral bands that are restricted to the lateral margins of the proglottid and not possessing a cephalic peduncle. Bayesian inference analysis of partial 28S rDNA data shows that H. gunterae forms a sister taxon to species of Paraorygmatobothrium. These two genera were resolved with high posterior probability support in the analysis. Hemipristicola gunterae is only the second phyllobothriid species to be described from Hemipristis elongata from Australian waters, and the fourth from the Australian hemigaleids.

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of the metacercaria of Paragonimus caliensis, as a separate species from P. mexicanus in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Chea, Roderico; Jiménez-Rocha, Ana Eugenia; Castro, Ruth; Blair, David; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-04-01

    The trematode Paragonimus mexicanus is the etiological agent of paragonimiasis, a food-borne zoonotic disease in Latin America. This species, as well as Paragonimus caliensis, have been reported from Costa Rica, but it is not known if the two are synonymous. Two types of Paragonimus metacercariae from freshwater pseudothelphusid crabs from several localities in Costa Rica were recognized by light microscopy. Morphologically, these corresponded to descriptions of P. mexicanus and P. caliensis. Metacercariae of the former species lacked a membrane or cyst and their bodies were yellow in color. Those of P. caliensis were contained in a transparent thin cyst and were pink in color. Morphotypes of metacercariae were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on the number and distribution of papillae in the ventral sucker, three morphotypes were found for P. mexicanus and two for P. caliensis. Analysis of DNA sequences (nuclear ribosomal 28S and ITS2 genes, and partial mitochondrial cox1 gene) confirmed the presence of P. mexicanus and provided the first molecular data for P. caliensis. The two species are phylogenetically distinct from each other and distant from the Asian species. The confirmation of P. caliensis as a separate species from P. mexicanus raises several questions about the ecology, biological diversity, and epidemiology of the genus Paragonimus in Costa Rica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial distribution of pelagic fish larvae in the northern main basin of Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    Larval fish occurrence in inshore and offshore zones in the northern main basin of Lake Huron was assessed during 2007 as part of a larger ecological examination of Lake Huron foodwebs and habitats. Day and night collections using neuston and conical nets at inshore (1.5–15 m depths) and offshore (37 and 91 m depths) locations at De Tour and Hammond Bay to assess the abundance, phenology, and spatial distribution of pelagic ichthyoplankton during spring and early summer were made. In general, densities of larval fishes were higher at De Tour than Hammond Bay during daytime neuston net collections, with the exception of Longnose Sucker, which were only collected at Hammond Bay. Lake Whitefish, Burbot, and Rainbow Smelt dominated inshore catches in early spring with Cisco, Deepwater Sculpin, Emerald Shiner, Bloater, Slimy Sculpin, Ninespine Stickleback, and Yellow Perch larvae also collected.Nighttime nearshore and offshore sampling revealed that Rainbow Smelt and Burbot larvae were present in relatively high abundances compared to inshore densities. Concentrations of larvae of deepwater demersal fishes such as Lake Whitefish and Deepwater Sculpin suggest that inshore zones in northern Lake Huron are important nursery habitats emphasizing a critical production and recruitment linkage between inshore and deepwater zones.

  7. Evaluation of the toxicity and efficacy of hydrogen peroxide treatments on eggs of warm and cool water fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, J.J.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Howe, G.E.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    1998-01-01

    The use of hydrogen peroxide in aquaculture is growing and there is a need to develop fundamental guidelines to effectively treat diseased fish. The safety (toxicity) of hydrogen peroxide treatments was determined on eggs of representative warm- and coolwater fish species. Eggs of northern pike (Esox lucius), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), yellow perch (Pel ca flavescens), white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were cultured in egg jars or aquaria. Treatments were initiated with non-eyed eggs and continued until all viable eggs had hatched. Eggs were treated daily for 15 min Monday through Friday with either 0, 500, 1000, 3000, or 6000 mu l l(-1) of hydrogen peroxide. For all species, the mean percent hatch was greater in eggs treated with 1000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide for 15 min than in the untreated controls. Common carp, lake sturgeon, and paddlefish were the least sensitive to hydrogen peroxide with percent hatch ranging from 40 to 48% in the 6000 mu l l(-1) hydrogen peroxide treatment. Fungal infections reduced or eliminated the hatch in most controls whereas nearly all treated eggs remained free of infection; hydrogen peroxide inhibited fungal infections on fish eggs. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multi-scale thermal stability of a hard thermoplastic protein-based material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latza, Victoria; Guerette, Paul A.; Ding, Dawei; Amini, Shahrouz; Kumar, Akshita; Schmidt, Ingo; Keating, Steven; Oxman, Neri; Weaver, James C.; Fratzl, Peter; Miserez, Ali; Masic, Admir

    2015-09-01

    Although thermoplastic materials are mostly derived from petro-chemicals, it would be highly desirable, from a sustainability perspective, to produce them instead from renewable biopolymers. Unfortunately, biopolymers exhibiting thermoplastic behaviour and which preserve their mechanical properties post processing are essentially non-existent. The robust sucker ring teeth (SRT) from squid and cuttlefish are one notable exception of thermoplastic biopolymers. Here we describe thermoplastic processing of squid SRT via hot extrusion of fibres, demonstrating the potential suitability of these materials for large-scale thermal forming. Using high-resolution in situ X-ray diffraction and vibrational spectroscopy, we elucidate the molecular and nanoscale features responsible for this behaviour and show that SRT consist of semi-crystalline polymers, whereby heat-resistant, nanocrystalline β-sheets embedded within an amorphous matrix are organized into a hexagonally packed nanofibrillar lattice. This study provides key insights for the molecular design of biomimetic protein- and peptide-based thermoplastic structural biopolymers with potential biomedical and 3D printing applications.

  9. Bloodless pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass for a 3.2-kg patient whose parents are of Jehovah's Witness faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Todd M; Hodge, Ashley B; Preston, Thomas J; Galantowicz, Mark; Naguib, Aymen; Gomez, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Patients and parents of Jehovah's Witness (JW) faith present multiple challenges to a medical team, especially in the neonatal and pediatric population. The medical team must balance honoring the parents' request of not receiving blood products and fulfilling our commitment as advocates for the child's wellbeing. A multidisciplinary approach to cardiac surgery must be embraced for bloodless cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to be successful. At our institution, we have developed strategies and techniques for blood conservation that are used preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively for every CPB case with the goal of a bloodless procedure. These protocols include: preoperative erythropoietin, preoperative iron administration, selection of a CPB circuit specific to the patient's height and weight, acute normovolemic hemodilution, retrograde autologous prime and venous autologous prime, tranexamic acid administration, zero-balance ultrafiltration, flushing of the pump suckers post-CPB, modified ultrafiltration, and cell salvage. We present an 8-day-old, 3.2-kg patient of JW faith with aortic valve stenosis and regurgitation and a patent foramen ovale who underwent a bloodless left ventricle-to-aorta tunnel repair and aortic valve repair on CPB.

  10. Stairway to heaven: evaluating levels of biological organization correlated with the successful ascent of natural waterfalls in the Hawaiian stream goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Maie, Takashi; Moody, Kristine N; Lesteberg, Kelsey E; Blob, Richard W; Schoenfuss, Tonya C

    2013-01-01

    Selective pressures generated by locomotor challenges act at the level of the individual. However, phenotypic variation among individuals that might convey a selective advantage may occur across any of multiple levels of biological organization. In this study, we test for differences in external morphology, muscle mechanical advantage, muscle fiber type and protein expression among individuals of the waterfall climbing Hawaiian fish Sicyopterus stimpsoni collected from sequential pools increasing in elevation within a single freshwater stream. Despite predictions from previous laboratory studies of morphological selection, few directional morphometric changes in body shape were observed at successively higher elevations. Similarly, lever arm ratios associated with the main pelvic sucker, central to climbing ability in this species, did not differ between elevations. However, among climbing muscles, the adductor pelvicus complex (largely responsible for generating pelvic suction during climbing) contained a significantly greater red muscle fiber content at upstream sites. A proteomic analysis of the adductor pelvicus revealed two-fold increases in expression levels for two respiratory chain proteins (NADH:ubiquinone reductase and cytochrome b) that are essential for aerobic respiration among individuals from successively higher elevations. Assessed collectively, these evaluations reveal phenotypic differences at some, but not all levels of biological organization that are likely the result of selective pressures experienced during climbing.

  11. Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. (Cestoda: Monticelliidae) from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum (Synbranchiformes) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; de Chambrier, A; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2001-12-01

    Monticellia ophisterni n. sp. is described from the swamp-eel Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen and Greenwood (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae) from Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is placed into Monticellia because of the cortical position of the testes, ovary, and uterus. It differs from other Monticellia species (with the exception of Monticellia magna (Rego, Santos and Silva, 1974)) in the position of longitudinal musculature that crosses the vitelline follicles, making them paramuscular. The new species can be distinguished from M. magna--which possesses a similar number of testes (107-139), paramuscular vitelline follicles, and numerous gland cells distributed between the apex of the scolex and suckers--in the position of the genital pore (8-21% vs. 19-27%), in the presence of a weak internal longitudinal musculature, in the arrangement of the testes in the median field, and in the absence of a vaginal sphincter. This is the first proteocephalidean tapeworm reported from a synbranchid fish and the first species of Monticellia found in North America.

  12. Summary of sediment data from the Yampa river and upper Green river basins, Colorado and Utah, 1993-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John G.; Anders, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    The water resources of the Upper Colorado River Basin have been extensively developed for water supply, irrigation, and power generation through water storage in upstream reservoirs during spring runoff and subsequent releases during the remainder of the year. The net effect of water-resource development has been to substantially modify the predevelopment annual hydrograph as well as the timing and amount of sediment delivery from the upper Green River and the Yampa River Basins tributaries to the main-stem reaches where endangered native fish populations have been observed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Division of Wildlife and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study to identify sediment source reaches in the Green River main stem and the lower Yampa and Little Snake Rivers and to identify sediment-transport relations that would be useful in assessing the potential effects of hydrograph modification by reservoir operation on sedimentation at identified razorback spawning bars in the Green River. The need for additional data collection is evaluated at each sampling site. Sediment loads were calculated at five key areas within the watershed by using instantaneous measurements of streamflow, suspended-sediment concentration, and bedload. Sediment loads were computed at each site for two modes of transport (suspended load and bedload), as well as for the total-sediment load (suspended load plus bedload) where both modes were sampled. Sediment loads also were calculated for sediment particle-size range (silt-and-clay, and sand-and-gravel sizes) if laboratory size analysis had been performed on the sample, and by hydrograph season. Sediment-transport curves were developed for each type of sediment load by a least-squares regression of logarithmic-transformed data. Transport equations for suspended load and total load had coefficients of determination of at least 0.72 at all of the sampling sites except Little Snake River near

  13. Forestry practices and aquatic biodiversity: Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, fish communities are found in a diverse array of aquatic habitats ranging from the large coastal rivers of the temperate rainforests, to the fragmented and sometimes ephemeral streams of the xeric interior basins, and high-elevation streams and lakes in the mountainous areas (Rieman et al. 2003). Only high-elevation lakes and streams isolated above barriers to fish passage remained historically devoid of fish because they were never invaded following Pleistocene glaciation (Smith 1981). Despite this widespread distribution and once great population abundances, taxonomic diversity of fishes in these forested systems is naturally lower than in aquatic habitats in the eastern U.S. (Reeves, Bisson, and Dambacher 1998). Interactions among factors that influence species richness in aquatic systems (e.g., basin size, long-term stability of habitat, and barriers to colonization; Smith 1981) continue to influence the occurrence and persistence of fishes in these systems today. Consequently, the larger low-elevation rivers and estuaries support the greatest variety of fish species. In the high-elevation tributary streams, fish communities are less complex because these aquatic systems were less climatically and geologically stable, and fish populations were smaller and more prone to local extirpation. Furthermore, barriers to fish passage inhibited dispersal and colonization (Smith 1981). Streams in forested landscapes generally support salmon and trout, Oncorhynchus spp., whitefish Prosopium spp., sculpins Cottus spp., suckers Catostomus spp., and minnows (Cyprinidae), but in some of the colder streams, chars (e.g., Salvelinus confluentus and Salvelinus malma) and lampreys (Petromyzontidae)may also occur (Rieman et al. 2003).Although biodiversity defined in terms of fish species richness is low in the Pacific Northwest, intraspecific variability is high, and polytypic fish species are common in the diverse aquatic habitats of the region. For

  14. Proterometra epholkos sp. n. (Digenea: Azygiidae) from Terrapin Creek, Alabama, USA: molecular characterization of life cycle, redescription of Proterometra albacauda, and updated lists of host and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp. in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Matthew R; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-02-01

    Proterometra epholkos sp. n. asexually reproduces in the stream dwelling prosobranch, Elimia cf. modesta (Cerithioidea: Pleuroceridae) and infects the buccal cavity epithelium of spotted bass, Micropterus punctulatus (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) in the Coosa River (Terrapin Creek; N33°51'36.56″, W85°31'28.15″; Cleburne County, Alabama, USA). We characterize cercariae and adults of the new species using morphology and molecular sequence data and redescribe its morphologically similar congener Proterometra albacauda based on the holotype and paratype (USNPC Nos. 61229-30). The new species can be distinguished most easily from P. albacauda by the combination of having cercariae with long mamillae (>100μm) that encircle the tail stem anteriorly, that are restricted to 1 lateral column per body margin at midbody, and that are absent from the medial surface of the tail stem as well as by having adults with a partly extracecal uterus, a transverse metraterm occupying the space between the oral sucker and prostatic sac, and a vitellarium that is longer than the ceca and extends anteriad to the level of or beyond the posterior margin of the oral sucker. Sequence data from the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2; 251bp) did not reject the notion that the cercariae and adults we collected simultaneously from those infected, sympatric, individual snails and fish in Terrapin Creek were conspecific. Also provided herein for species of Proterometra are (i) taxonomic keys for cercariae and adults based on morphological and behavioral characteristics sourced from the published literature, (ii) updated lists of host records (prosobranchs and fishes) and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp., and (iii) synopses and assessments of the morphological features previously used to differentiate them. Proterometra macrostoma (type species), Proterometra melanophora, and Proterometra hodgesiana are species inquirendae; requiring new collections from type

  15. Deficiência de boro na cultura do abacaxi 'Pérola' Boron deficiency in pineapple 'Pérola'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Cristine Siebeneichler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte plantas de abacaxi "Pérola" foram cultivadas em vasos de plástico de 10 L, em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de caracterizar os sintomas visuais de deficiência de B nas plantas e nos frutos. Os vasos continham areia de rio lavada cinco vezes com água comum e depois duas vezes com água desionizada. Dez plantas foram irrigadas com solução completa e, de outras dez, o B foi suprimido da solução cinco meses após o plantio. As plantas apresentaram crescimento vegetativo normal e formaram frutos normais. Após a colheita dos frutos, acompanhou-se a formação das mudas do tipo rebento e rebentão basal, onde se observou que as plantas cultivadas sem B formaram mais mudas do tipo rebento do que as plantas cultivadas com B. Na formação das mudas do tipo rebentão basal, não se observou o efeito da supressão do B. No cultivo da planta-soca e em rebentões basais, cultivados em solução nutritiva sem B, observaram-se sintomas de deficiência de B somente no período reprodutivo. Os sintomas de deficiência de B se caracterizaram por: frutos deformados e menores, com formação de excrescência cortiçosa ou secreção de goma entre os frutilhos, rachaduras entre estes preenchidas com excrescência cortiçosa. As mudas tipo filhote formadas nas plantas-soca apresentaram folhas com falhas na borda e pontas secas.Twenty pineapple "Pérola" plants were cultivated in 10L plastic pots in a greenhouse, with the objective of characterizing the visual symptoms of boron deficiency in the pineapple leaves and fruit. The pots contained river sand that was washed five times with common water and two times with deionized water. Ten plants were irrigated five months after planting with a complete nutrient solution and the other ten, without B in the solution. The plants presented regular vegetative growth and fruit formation. After the harvest of the fruit, the formation of shoot and suckers seedling types were accompanied, where it was

  16. Development of bunchy top virus resistant banana cv lakatan in vitro culture and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrella, J.D.; Caymo, L.S.; Dizon, T.O.; Dela Cruz, F. Jr; Damasco, O.P.

    2002-01-01

    Bunchy to virus (BTV) is the most destructive virus disease of banana in the Philippines. Incorporation of resistance to this virus disease by conventional hybridization is not possible due to male and female sterility of most commercial banana cultivars. In vitro culture coupled with radiation technology can be used to develop BTV resistance in banana cv. Lakatan. The sensitivity of banana shot tip explants to gamma irradiation was determined by subjecting the shoot tips to varying doses (5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60, 80 and 100 Gy) of irradiation. The LD sub 50 for banana shoot tips determined by 50% reduction in growth and shoot proliferation, was observed to around 20-25 Gy. Bulk irradiation of shoot tip explants was conducted using 20-25 Gy. Irradiated cultures were multiplied for 3-5 cycles and plants regenerated were potted out and screened for BTV resistance. A total of 3,447 irradiated plants regenerated from the radiosensitivity experiment (1,847 plants) and bulk irradiation of 20/25 Gy (1,600 plants) were screened for BTV resistance in the greenhouse using artificial BTV inoculation using the aphid vector Pentalonia nigronervosa. One hundred eighteen plants or 3.4% (118/3,447) of the artificially irradiated plants showed seedling resistance after 4-7 months of evaluation. These plants were planted in the field and were subjected to natural BTV infection. To date, 85 (out of the 118) putative seedling resistant plants continuously expressed BTV resistance in the field after more than 10 months of evaluation. The absence of BTV infection in 39 putative resistant plants was confirmed by ELISA test. Suckers from selected putative resistance plants will be collected, propagated and evaluated for the second cycle stability of BTV resistance and detailed characterization of important horticultural traits

  17. Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.

    2012-12-01

    An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from PBDE-100 > PBDE-154 > PBDE-153. Concentrations in tissues and in sediments increased moving downstream from Skamania, WA to Columbia City, OR to Longview, WA. Preliminary biomarker results indicate that fish at the downstream sites experience greater stress relative to the upstream site

  18. Identification of non-cerebral cyst: Zoonotic Taenia multiceps in domestic goat in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Omer Faruk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to identify the non-cerebral Taenia multiceps cyst through molecular phylogeny of the 12S rRNA gene. Materials and Methods: Eight cyst samples were collected from 385 examined slaughtered goats during October 2015-September 2016 from three slaughterhouses in Chittagong City Corporation. Cysts were removed from the thigh muscle, and scolices were collected for light microscopic examination and molecular identification. The DNA was extracted and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using 12S rRNA gene primers. Cyst samples were also preserved in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological study. Results: T. multiceps non-cerebral cyst is 2.1% prevalent in goat in this area. Under light microscopic examination, scolex was found with four suckers and a rostellum with the double crown of 32 hooks and hooklets. Molecularly, all the samples were amplified with 12S rRNA gene fragments yielded 270 base pair amplicon. Zenker's necrosis with focal to diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophil was also found around the cyst wall in histopathological examination. Conclusion: Although the non-cerebral form of the cysts produced by T. multiceps is genetically identical with the cerebral cyst, previously published data indicated that cerebral T. multiceps cyst is predominant in other parts of the world as well as in Bangladesh. This study showed that non-cerebral cyst is also prevalent in this country which is very important for public health concern. This study depicts an idea of non-cerebral form of zoonotic T. multiceps cyst which will be helpful in taenia cyst control and prevention.

  19. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2) in Colbert County, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Stephen J; Ebersole, Jun A; Dickinson, William C; Ciampaglio, Charles N

    2016-01-01

    The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P.) leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL). Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa) specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus) and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum) taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole.

  20. Late Pleistocene fishes of the Tennessee River Basin: an analysis of a late Pleistocene freshwater fish fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2 in Colbert County, Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Jacquemin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tennessee River Basin is considered one of the most important regions for freshwater biodiversity anywhere on the globe. The Tennessee River Basin currently includes populations of at least half of the described contemporary diversity of extant North American freshwater fishes, crayfish, mussel, and gastropod species. However, comparatively little is known about the biodiversity of this basin from the Pleistocene Epoch, particularly the late Pleistocene (∼10,000 to 30,000 years B.P. leading to modern Holocene fish diversity patterns. The objective of this study was to describe the fish assemblages of the Tennessee River Basin from the late Pleistocene using a series of faunas from locales throughout the basin documented from published literature, unpublished reports, and an undocumented fauna from Bell Cave (site ACb-2, Colbert County, AL. Herein we discuss 41 unequivocal taxa from 10 late Pleistocene localities within the basin and include a systematic discussion of 11 families, 19 genera, and 24 identifiable species (28 unequivocal taxa specific to the Bell Cave locality. Among the described fauna are several extirpated (e.g., Northern Pike Esox lucius, Northern Madtom Noturus stigmosus and a single extinct (Harelip Sucker Moxostoma lacerum taxa that suggest a combination of late Pleistocene displacement events coupled with more recent changes in habitat that have resulted in modern basin diversity patterns. The Bell Cave locality represents one of the most intact Pleistocene freshwater fish deposits anywhere in North America. Significant preservational, taphonomic, sampling, and identification biases preclude the identification of additional taxa. Overall, this study provides a detailed look into paleo-river ecology, as well as freshwater fish diversity and distribution leading up to the contemporary biodiversity patterns of the Tennessee River Basin and Mississippi River Basin as a whole.

  1. Genomes of Fasciola hepatica from the Americas Reveal Colonization with Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related to the Agents of Potomac Horse and Human Sennetsu Fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Samantha N; Tort, Jose F; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Fischer, Kerstin; Rosa, Bruce A; Smircich, Pablo; Fontenla, Santiago; Choi, Young-Jun; Tyagi, Rahul; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Mann, Victoria H; Kammili, Lakshmi; Latham, Patricia S; Dell'Oca, Nicolas; Dominguez, Fernanda; Carmona, Carlos; Fischer, Peter U; Brindley, Paul J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2017-01-01

    Food borne trematodes (FBTs) are an assemblage of platyhelminth parasites transmitted through the food chain, four of which are recognized as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Fascioliasis stands out among the other NTDs due to its broad and significant impact on both human and animal health, as Fasciola sp., are also considered major pathogens of domesticated ruminants. Here we present a reference genome sequence of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica isolated from sheep, complementing previously reported isolate from cattle. A total of 14,642 genes were predicted from the 1.14 GB genome of the liver fluke. Comparative genomics indicated that F. hepatica Oregon and related food-borne trematodes are metabolically less constrained than schistosomes and cestodes, taking advantage of the richer millieux offered by the hepatobiliary organs. Protease families differentially expanded between diverse trematodes may facilitate migration and survival within the heterogeneous environments and niches within the mammalian host. Surprisingly, the sequencing of Oregon and Uruguay F. hepatica isolates led to the first discovery of an endobacteria in this species. Two contigs from the F. hepatica Oregon assembly were joined to complete the 859,205 bp genome of a novel Neorickettsia endobacterium (nFh) closely related to the etiological agents of human Sennetsu and Potomac horse fevers. Immunohistochemical studies targeting a Neorickettsia surface protein found nFh in specific organs and tissues of the adult trematode including the female reproductive tract, eggs, the Mehlis' gland, seminal vesicle, and oral suckers, suggesting putative routes for fluke-to-fluke and fluke-to-host transmission. The genomes of F. hepatica and nFh will serve as a resource for further exploration of the biology of F. hepatica, and specifically its newly discovered trans-kingdom interaction with nFh and the impact of both species on disease in ruminants and humans.

  2. Virulence and site of infection of the fungus, Hirsutella thompsonii, to the honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Christine Y S; Zhou, Xinsheng; Kaya, Harry K

    2002-11-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is recognized as the most serious pest of both managed and feral Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) in the world. The mite has developed resistance to fluvalinate, an acaricide used to control it in beehives, and fluvalinate residues have been found in the beeswax, necessitating an urgent need to find alternative control measures to suppress this pest. Accordingly, we investigated the possibility of using the fungus, Hirsutella thompsonii, as a biocontrol agent of the Varroa mite. Among the 9 isolates of H. thompsonii obtained from the University of Florida and the USDA, only the 3 USDA isolates (ARSEF 257, 1947 and 3323) were infectious to the Varroa mite in laboratory tests. The mite became infected when it was allowed to walk on a sporulating H. thompsonii culture for 5 min. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the membranous arolium of the mite leg sucker is the focus of infection where the fungal conidia adhered and germinated. The infected mites died from mycosis, with the lethal times to kill 50% (LT(50)s) dependent on the fungal isolates. Thus, the LT(50)s were 52.7, 77.2, and 96.7h for isolates 3323, 257, and 1947, respectively. Passage of H. thompsonii through Varroa mite three times significantly reduced the LT(50)s of isolates 257 and 1947 (P<0.05) but not the LT(50) of isolate 3323. The fungus did not infect the honey bee in larval, prepupal, pupal, and adult stages under our laboratory rearing conditions. Our encouraging results suggest that some isolates of H. thompsonii have the potential to be developed as a biocontrol agent for V. destructor. However, fungal infectivity against the mites under beehive conditions needs to be studied before any conclusion can be made.

  3. Proterodiplostome Parasites (Digenea, Proterodiplostomidae of the Caiman, Caiman crocodilus yacare (Reptilia, Crocodylia in the Pantanal mato-Grossense, Brazil, with the description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João B. Catto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species are described from the caiman. Caiman crocodilus yacare. Proterodiplostomum breve n. sp. differs from all other species in the genus by the following chacacteristics: (1 the paraprostate gland is shorter and club-shaped; (2 the genital cone is, in average, eight times longer than that of P. medusae; (3 the genital atrium is larger and without pseudosuckers; (4 the oral sucker and pharynx are longer; and (5 there are larger numbers of papillae surrounding the tribocytic organ (40 against 20 in P. longum, 16 in p. tumidilum, 8 in P. ophidum, and 16-18 in P. medusae. Proterodiplostomum globulare n. sp. differs from all the other species in the fenus by the following characteristics: (1 from P. tumidilum, P. lomgum, P. medusae, and P. breve n. sp. for the absense of pseudosuckers or muscular bunches in the inferior wall of the genital atrium; (2 the shape of the paraprostate gland, which is globular and not cylindrical as in P. longum, P. tumidilum, P. medusae, and P. ophidum; (3 the size of the tribocytic organ 201-407 long, 183-495 wide, while is 138-270 long, 102-292 wide in P. medusae, and 138-270 long, 255 wide in P. ophidum; (4 the number of papillae in the tribocytic organ (18-20 in P. globulare and 16-18 in P. medusae, and 8 in P. ophidum. Specimens belonging to six other species of proterodiplostomes are recorded for the first time infecting the caiman, C. c. yacare in the Pantanal Mato-grossense, Brazil, namely: Proterodiplostomum medusae, P. tumidilum, Cystodiplostomum hollyi, Prolecithodiplostomum constrictum, Paradiplostomum abbreviatum, and Herpetodiplostomum caimancola.

  4. Low-impact chemical weed control techniques in UNESCO World Heritage Sites of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Enriquez, O; Alvarez, R; Morelli, F; Bastida, F; Camacho, D; Menendez, J

    2012-01-01

    Dichrostachys cinerea is a thorny, acacia-like, fast-growing woody bush which invades fields, wasteland, road sides and other disturbed areas. This gregarious species has become a very aggressive invasive weed in Cuba, where no native predators or pathogens are found. It often encroaches in fallows, overgrazed areas and mismanaged veld. D. cinerea is a very difficult weed to eliminate because of its active suckering, and is liable to produce dense thickets which are quite impenetrable on account of the density and abundance of its long, stiff, sharp thorns. In the Valle de los Ingenios area (Cuba Central), the tree is unchecked and forms veritable forests in areas on which cane growing has been discontinued. Physical management by cutting and burning the plants is not a very efficient control method, since the seeds survive in the soil, and they grow very fast. Therefore, chemical methods via the use of herbicides are often necessary to eradicate this weed. A preliminary study using glyphosate and auxin-like herbicides (2,4-D + picloram, MCPA, and MCPA + 2,4-D) plus adjuvants has been carried out in order to elucidate the best mixtures rendering maximum weed control with minimum herbicide rate and environmental stress. None of the herbicides used except glyphosate and 2,4-D + picloram showed acceptable mortality rates (75-80%) at the recommended doses tested. In the failed herbicide treatments, only the use of double herbicide rates succeeded in controlling marabou. The herbicide mixture of 2,4-D + picloram formulated with either a non-ionic surfactant or a mixture of fatty acid esters was the best option to control D. cinerea in terms of maximum effectiveness and minimum environmental stress, as the reduction in active ingredients applied to the environment was x3 in these two adjuvant-amended formulations compared to 2,4-D + picloram alone.

  5. Livestock system as a mitigation measure of a wind farm in a mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns a mountain territory, bordering Liguria, Piemonte, Lombardia and Emilia, where a high power 151 MW wind farm, with 42 tower of 3.6 MW power, has been proposed. As a measure of environmental mitigation, the realization of a livestock system of a herd of sucker cows pasturing in the wind farm areas is proposed. This has implications for environmental maintenance, employment in a territory gradually losing its population, and for tourism. The study, having focused on those aspects that reduce landscape impact and carrying out an analysis of the individual areas to evaluate forage resources and the different pastoral indexes, identifies the maximum sustainable load of animals (335 UBA/ha in the current conditions of neglect. So, some measures to improve and increase sustainable herds have been proposed and examined. The operations include: stone removal; light harrowing; overseeding; creation of fodder reserves for periods of shortage; and grazing will be managed by taking turns. Based on the results of two other studies, both previous tests carried out on site, encourage us to think that we will be able to increase the maximum sustainable seasonal load for the current situation by more than 50%. This means a herd of 500 UBA equal to a gross PLV, for the grazing period of 180 days, of 400,000 and so guarantee an adequate income to 3-4 UL (labor unit, and of 650,000/year in case the chain is completed during the winter months in structures located in the valley. In this case, the PLV obtained could assure income to 6-7 employees, which would be extremely important for the socio-economic conditions of the valley; in consideration of the induced activities- meat processing, marketing and tourism facilities- which could be made available. Experimental tests of the technical improvements described will be carried out in the next season.

  6. Thallium, uranium, and 235U/238U ratios in the digestive gland of American lobster (Homarus americanus) from an industrialized harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, C.L.; Uthe, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Only a few studies have concentrated on elements such as thallium (TI). Uranium (U) has been studied as a radionuclide of concern in food and the environment. Foodstuffs contain 10-100 ng U· -1 with vegetables and cereals contributing most heavily to the daily intake of ca 1.5 ug U. Between 10-30% of ingested U is absorbed, with most being stored in bone. Rainbow trout (onchorynchus mykiss) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) from a lake with naturally high radioactivity contained -1 in the flesh. Trout bone contained 40 ng U·g -1 . Higher tissue U concentrations occurred in fish from areas receiving U mining wastes. Bioconcentration factors for bone and flesh were estimated to be low, 118 and 14.7, respectively. This paper describes the Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination of Tl and U in digestive gland tissue from lobsters captured in the vicinity of Belledune Harbor, New Brunswick, Canada. The harbor is the site of a lead smelter, a fertilizer plant, and a coal-fired power station (the latter due to enter production in late 1993) and thus has the potential of adding significant amounts of Tl to the local marine environment. The accumulation of Tl from water by marine shellfish is low, at least for bivalves, and the accumulated Tl is eliminated in a number of days when the animals are transferred to clean water. Bioconcentration factors for U in finfish ranged from 0.4-17 for larger species. However, because of the high concentrations of various trace elements in lobster digestive gland, its desirability as a foodstuff, and its relatively large size (approximately 20% of the edible tissue yield), we have investigated Tl and U concentrations and 235U / 238U ratios in it. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Spatial and temporal dynamics of cyanotoxins and their relation to other water quality variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Sara L. Caldwell; Wood, Tamara M.; Echols, Kathy R.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms dominated by cyanobacteria that occur annually in hypereutrophic Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, produce microcystins at concentrations that may contribute to the decline in populations of endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers. During 2007–09, water samples were collected from Upper Klamath Lake to determine the presence and concentrations of microcystins and cylindrospermopsins and to relate the spatial and temporal occurrences of microcystins to water quality and other environmental variables. Samples were analyzed for intracellular (particulate) and extracellular (dissolved) microcystins and cylindrospermopsins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Samples contained the highest and most variable concentrations of microcystins in 2009, the year in which an earlier and heavier Aphanizomenon flos-aquae-dominated phytoplankton bloom occurred. Concentrations were lowest in 2008 when the bloom was lighter, overall, and delayed by nearly 1 month. Microcystins occurred primarily in dissolved and large (> 63 μm) particulate forms in all years of the study, and overall, concentrations were highest at MDT (the deepest site in the study) and HDB, although HDB was sampled only in 2007 and MDT was not sampled in 2008. Comparisons among daily median total microcystin concentrations; chlorophyll a concentrations; total, dissolved, and particulate nutrient concentrations; and nutrient ratios measured in 2009 and between 2007 and 2009 indicate that microcystin concentrations generally increase following the decline of the first A. flos-aquae-dominated bloom of each season in response to an increase in bioavailable nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen fixation by A. flos-aquae early in the sample season appears to provide new nitrogen for growth of toxigenic Microcystis aeruginosa, whereas, later in the season, these species appear to co-exist. Understanding the ecological interactions between these

  8. Taxonomy and life history of the Acropora-eating flatworm Amakusaplana acroporae nov. sp. (Polycladida: Prosthiostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, K. A.; Gillis, J. A.; Billings, R. E.; Borneman, E. H.

    2011-09-01

    Efforts to culture and conserve acroporid corals in aquaria have led to the discovery of a corallivorous polyclad flatworm (known as AEFW - Acropora-eating flatworm), which, if not removed, can eat entire colonies. Live observations of the AEFW, whole mounts, serial histological sections and comparison of 28S rDNA sequences with other polyclads reveal that this is a new species belonging to the family Prosthiostomidae Lang, 1884 and previously monospecific genus Amakusaplana (Kato 1938). Amakusaplana acroporae is distinguished from Amakusaplana ohshimai by a different arrangement and number of eyes, a large seminal vesicle and dorsoventrally compressed shell gland pouch. Typical of the genus, A. acroporae, lacks a ventral sucker and has a small notch at the midline of the anterior margin. Nematocysts and a Symbiodinium sp. of dinoflagellate from the coral are abundantly distributed in the gut and parenchyma. Individual adults lay multiple egg batches on the coral skeleton, each egg batch has 20-26 egg capsules, and each capsule contains between 3-7 embryos. Embryonic development takes approximately 21 days, during which time characteristics of a pelagic life stage (lobes and ciliary tufts) develop but are lost before hatching. The hatchling is capable of swimming but settles to the benthos quickly, and no zooxanthellae were observed in the animal at this stage. We suggest that intracapsular metamorphosis limits the dispersal potential of hatchlings and promotes recruitment of offspring into the natal habitat. The evolutionary and ecological significance of retaining lobes and ciliary tufts in the embryo are discussed. Camouflage, high fecundity and possible dispersal dimorphisms probably explain how Amakusaplana acroporae can cause Acropora sp. mortality in aquaria where natural predators may be absent.

  9. Patterns in the Use of a Restored California Floodplain by Native and Alien Fishes

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    Peter B Moyle

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fishes were sampled on the restored floodplain of the Cosumnes River in Central California in order to determine patterns of floodplain use. The floodplain was sampled for seven years (1998-2002, 2004-2005 during the winter-spring flooding season. The fishes fell into five groups: (1 floodplain spawners, (2 river spawners, (3 floodplain foragers, (4 floodplain pond fishes, and (5 inadvertent users. Eight of the 18 abundant species were natives, while the rest were aliens. There was a consistent pattern of floodplain use, modified by timing and extent of flooding. The first fishes to appear were floodplain foragers, inadvertent users, and juvenile Chinook salmon (river spawners. Next were floodplain spawners, principally Sacramento splittail and common carp. At the end of the season, in ponds of residual water, non-native annual fishes, mainly inland silverside and western mosquitofish, became abundant. Adult spawners left when inflow decreased; their juveniles persisted as long as flood pulses kept water levels up and temperatures low. Juvenile splittail and carp quickly grew large enough to dominate floodplain fish samples, along with smaller numbers of juvenile Sacramento sucker and pikeminnow (river spawners. Such juveniles left the Relatively few fishes that used the floodplain for spawning or rearing became stranded, except late season alien fishes. Most alien fishes had resident populations in adjacent river, sloughs, and ditches and were not dependent on the floodplain for persistence. This indicates that Central Valley floodplains managed to favor native fishes should have the following char- acteristics: (1 extensive early season flooding, (2 complete drainage by the end of the flooding season, (3 few areas with permanent water, (4 a mosaic of physical habitats, (5 regular annual flooding but with high variability in flood regime.

  10. MACROPROPAGATION OF PLANTAIN (MUSA SPP. CULTIVARS PITA 3, FHIA 21, ORISHELE AND CORNE 1: EFFECT OF BENZYLAMINOPURINE (BAP CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deless Edmond Fulgence THIEMELE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, plantain is one of the most important starchy food and cash crops. Nonetheless, one of the major constraints for its production was the unavailability of healthy planting materials at planting time. This constraint could be lifted using the cloning of planting materials via the in vitro micropropagation or in vivo macropropagation techniques. Shelled corms from four cultivars, known as PITA 3, FHIA 21, ORISHELE and CORNE 1, were used. Three treatments differing in three hormonal concentrations, especially 20.0, 30.0 and 40.0 mg L-1 were tested. The control one was hormone free. Tested treatments were laid out in a split plot design. The decorticated banana corms were sprayed twofold at 2 weeks interval with BAP solution when placed in sterilized soil in high humidity plastic tunnel. It emerged from results, regarding BAP concentration effect, that BAP treatment with 40 mg L-1 significantly reduced the emergence time of shoots at 20 days as against 25.1, 28.3 and 28.5 for the 2 tested other treatments as well as control, respectively. Likewise, the concentrations 40.0 mg L-1 both recorded the largest number of sprouted buds per corm and number of shoots per corm. With respect to banana cultivar effect, PITA 3 showed the largest number of shoots per corm. Basing on such findings, it is concluded that MSD technique combined with BAP at 40.0 mg L-1 is a suitable technique for improving of the in vivo macropropagation of plantain. This concentration increased at least 50 % of sucker production compared to control.

  11. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for 18 kDa antigen from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Luo, Xuenong; Guo, Aijiang; Zhu, Xueliang; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-07-01

    The gene encoding a mature 18 kDa glycoprotein of Taenia solium cysticerci (Ts18) was cloned and bacterially expressed with a His-tagged fusion protein. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the recombinant Ts18 antigen were generated in vitro by routine murine hybridoma technique of fusing splenocytes, from BALB/c mice immunized with the vesicular fluid of T. solium cysticerci (TsVF), with mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0). The reactivity and specificity of these MAbs were evaluated by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Three stable hybridoma clones, namely 3B11, 6C5, and 6G4, were screened using His-Ts18-based ELISA, and these showed two IgG1 isotypes and one IgM isotype. All MAbs reacted with His-Ts18 at molecular weight (MW) 12.8 kDa and the native antigen at MW 18 kDa in TsVF and whole larval extracts (WLE). In a dot blotting test, MAbs 6C5 and 6G4 showed no obvious cross-reactivity with heterologous vesicular fluids from other taeniid species, including Taenia saginata (TsaVF), Taenia pisiformis (TpVF), Taenia hydatigena (ThVF), Taenia multiceps (TmVF), and Echinococcus granulosus (EgVF). Immunofluorescent assays showed that MAb 6C5 specifically reacted with the Ts18 expressed from pEGFP-N1-Ts18-transfected HeLa cells. Immunolocalization analysis, using MAb 6C5 as a probe, indicated that Ts18 was present at high concentrations in the region of the larval sucker and spiral canal. The results indicate that the Ts18 protein is an abundantly secreted parasite protein and MAbs against it might provide a step forward for improving the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pathological and parasitological aspects of the peacock (Pavo cristatus infection by Tanaisia(Paratanaisiabragai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C. Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Trematodes belonging to the family Eucotylidae, including Tanaisia(ParatanaisiabragaiSantos, 1934are parasites of the kidney and ureter that affect several species of domestic and wild birds. Tanaisia bragaiis considered a low pathogenic parasite, but high worm burdens may determine clinical complications, including signs of apathy, weight loss, diarrhea and death. This paper describes the first report of infection by T. bragai in peacocks (Pavo cristatus, which constitutes a new host record and offers data on the lesions associated to this parasitism, although the degree of pathogenicity and parasite load may be considered mild. These birds did not exhibit clinical signs of parasitism. The macroscopic exam revealed discreet yellow spots on the liver. In the histological sections of the kidney, specimens of T. bragai were found in the collecting ducts, which were markedly dilated, with a thickened wall. Other findings included a mild inflammatory reaction in the wall of the ducts (but sometimes absent, flattening of lining epithelial cells and small, multifocal points of calcification around the collecting ducts. The microscopic examination of the parasites revealed trematodes with an elongated body, well-developed sub terminal oral sucker, pharynx present, short esophagus, cecum somewhat undulating or not, with blind end, testes symmetrical, equatorial, irregular in shape or slightly lobed, vitelline fields extending in both pre-ovarian and post ovarian fields, uterus very long, intercecal or sometimes overlapping the cecum and containing large quantities of eggs. The present findings suggest the need for further diagnostic studies on the prevalence of this trematode in peacocks as well as pathologic studies for the determination of the potential pathogenicity of this parasite in this species of bird. Moreover, infected peacocks could serve as carriers of T. bragai to be transferred to other bird species, thereby contributing to the

  13. Somatic embryogenesis on Musa AAAB, cv. FHIA-18, using liquids culture mediums

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    Luis A. Barranco

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Homogenous cell suspensions were iniciated from somatic embryos in the globular stage and the greatest volume of cell biomass on multiplying the suspensions at a density of 3.0% PCV. From the fifteenth day in culture medium for the formation of embryos, structures consisting of proembryos and somatic embryos in the globular stage started to form. With respect to the densities studied, the best results were obtained with 100 mgFW, where 1 871 SE.l-1 formed with a weight of 248 mgFW.l-1 after 30 days. With an initial density of 0.6 gFW in the culture medium for secondary multiplication, an increase of 42.9-fold the initial amount of fresh weight was obtained; after 60 days of culture 15 985 SE.l-1 were obtained. The greatest percentage of maturation was obtained with 400 mgFW with 70% of mature somatic embryos. The positive effect of Biobras-6 (brassinosteroid analogous was confirmed, with a concentration of 0.01 mg.l-1 the best germination percentages were obtained in liquid and semisolid culture medium. Embryo germination in temporaly inmersion (RITA was achieved with an inoculum density of 0.5 gFW for system with 85% germination. One thousand plants obtained from somatic embryos were taken to ex vitro environment, along with plants derived from conventional micropropagation (shoot tips to carry out studies on the possible presence of somaclonal variation. During the first cycle of production, the plants derived from the two methods in vitro culture showed differences with respect to the plants derived from corms in height, diameter and number of suckers. In the second production cycle, the plants from somatic embryos showed similar characteristics to the plants derived from shoot tip and corms with respect to the morphological parameters evaluated, with only 0.2% of the plants with phenotypic changes. Key Words: Banana, cellular density, germination, somaclonal variability, somatic embryo

  14. Effect of plant density and mixing ratio on crop yield in sweet corn/mungbean intercropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlak, S; Aghaalikhani, M; Zand, B

    2008-09-01

    In order to evaluate the ear and forage yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccarata) in pure stand and intercropped with mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was conducted at Varamin region on summer 2006. Experiment was carried out in a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with 4 replications. Plant density with 3 levels [Low (D1), Mean (D2) and High (D3) respecting 6, 8 and 10 m(-2) for sweet corn, cultivar S.C.403 and 10, 20 and 30 m(-2) for mung bean cultivar, Partow] was arranged in main plots and 5 mixing ratios [(P1) = 0/100, (P2) = 25/75, (P3) = 50/50, (P4) = 75/25, (P5) = 100/0% for sweet corn/mung bean, respectively] were arranged in subplots. Quantitative attributes such as plant height, sucker numbers, LER, dry matter distribution in different plant organs were measured in sweet corn economical maturity. Furthermore the yield of cannable ear corn and yield components of sweet corn and mung bean were investigated. Results showed that plant density has not any significant effect on evaluated traits, while the effect of mixing ratio was significant (p ratio of 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) could be introduced as the superior mixing ratio; because of it's maximum rate of total sweet corn's biomass, forage yield, yield and yield components of ear corn in intercropping. Regarding to profitability indices of intercropping, the mixing ratio 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) in low density (D1P2) which showed the LER = 1.03 and 1.09 for total crop yield before ear harvesting and total forage yield after ear harvest respectively, was better than corn or mung bean monoculture.

  15. Habitat quality and recruitment success of cui-ui in the Truckee River downstream of Marble Bluff Dam, Pyramid Lake, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter H.; Salgado, J. Antonio; Harry, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    We compared cui-ui (Chasmistes cujus) recruitment from two reaches of the Truckee River with histories of severe erosional downcutting caused by a decline in Pyramid Lake surface elevation. In 1975, Marble Bluff Dam (MBD) was constructed 5 kilometers upstream of the extant mouth of the Truckee River to stabilize the upstream reach of the river; the downstream reach of the river remained unstable and consequently unsuitable for cui-ui recruitment. By the early 2000s, there was a decrease in the Truckee River’s slope from MBD to Pyramid Lake after a series of wet years in the 1990s. This was followed by changes in river morphology and erosion abatement. These changes led to the question as to cui-ui recruitment potential in the Truckee River downstream of MBD. In 2012, more than 7,000 cui-ui spawners were passed upstream of MBD, although an indeterminate number of cui-ui spawned downstream of MBD. In this study, we compared cui-ui recruitment upstream and downstream of MBD during a Truckee River low-flow year (2012). Cui-ui larvae emigration to Pyramid Lake began earlier and ended later downstream of MBD. A greater number of cui-ui larvae was produced downstream of MBD than upstream. This also was true for native Tahoe sucker (Catostomus tahoensis) and Lahontan redside (Richardsonius egregius). The improved Truckee River stability downstream of MBD and concomitant cui-ui recruitment success is attributed to a rise in Pyramid Lake's surface elevation. A decline in lake elevation may lead to a shift in stream morphology and substrate composition to the detriment of cui-ui reproductive success as well as the reproductive success of other native fishes.

  16. Genotypic and Phenotypic Analysis of Fasciola Isolates

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    SN Mosavinasab

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify the fasciolid species by morphometric and molecular methods in Zanjan, north­west of Iran. "nMethods: Adult Fasciola worms (n=584 were obtained from cattle and sheep in Zanjan slaughterhouse in 2007. Living flukes were washed, then worms' images were taken by 3CCD camera and finally apical zone of each worm was obtained. Morphometric values such as body length, body width, body area, body pe­rimeter and the distance between ventral sucker and posterior end of body were obtained using Auto­CAD image analysis software. Total gDNA was extracted from individual flukes by modified phenol-chloroform method. PCR amplification of ITS2 fragment was performed the isolated DNA samples and the amplicons were consequently subjected to RFLP assay and nucleotide sequencing to distinguish be­tween fasciolid species. "nResults: Mean of morphometric values in flukes from sheep was greater than those of cattle. Accordingly, the identified species included 31% F. hepatica-like, 7% F. gigantica-like and 62% intermediate forms. How­ever, ITS2 fragment of 535 amplified specimens, showed no variation at the species-specific nucleo­tide sites 230, 340 and 341. The amplified fragment composed of partial 5.8S sequence (62bp, the com­plete ITS2 sequence (361bp and partial 28S sequence (34bp. The nucleotide contents of ITS2 region were 69 A, 116 T, 81 C and 95 G and the average G+C content was approximately 49%. Comparing of ITS2 sequences with the BLAST GenBank database, also confirmed that all specimens were F. hepatica. "nConclusion: A simple and rapid PCR-RFLP assay can be used for distinguishing between these species.

  17. Genomes of Fasciola hepatica from the Americas Reveal Colonization with Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related to the Agents of Potomac Horse and Human Sennetsu Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Samantha N.; Rosa, Bruce A.; Fontenla, Santiago; Choi, Young-Jun; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Kammili, Lakshmi; Latham, Patricia S.; Dell’Oca, Nicolas; Dominguez, Fernanda; Carmona, Carlos; Fischer, Peter U.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2017-01-01

    Food borne trematodes (FBTs) are an assemblage of platyhelminth parasites transmitted through the food chain, four of which are recognized as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Fascioliasis stands out among the other NTDs due to its broad and significant impact on both human and animal health, as Fasciola sp., are also considered major pathogens of domesticated ruminants. Here we present a reference genome sequence of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica isolated from sheep, complementing previously reported isolate from cattle. A total of 14,642 genes were predicted from the 1.14 GB genome of the liver fluke. Comparative genomics indicated that F. hepatica Oregon and related food-borne trematodes are metabolically less constrained than schistosomes and cestodes, taking advantage of the richer millieux offered by the hepatobiliary organs. Protease families differentially expanded between diverse trematodes may facilitate migration and survival within the heterogeneous environments and niches within the mammalian host. Surprisingly, the sequencing of Oregon and Uruguay F. hepatica isolates led to the first discovery of an endobacteria in this species. Two contigs from the F. hepatica Oregon assembly were joined to complete the 859,205 bp genome of a novel Neorickettsia endobacterium (nFh) closely related to the etiological agents of human Sennetsu and Potomac horse fevers. Immunohistochemical studies targeting a Neorickettsia surface protein found nFh in specific organs and tissues of the adult trematode including the female reproductive tract, eggs, the Mehlis’ gland, seminal vesicle, and oral suckers, suggesting putative routes for fluke-to-fluke and fluke-to-host transmission. The genomes of F. hepatica and nFh will serve as a resource for further exploration of the biology of F. hepatica, and specifically its newly discovered trans-kingdom interaction with nFh and the impact of both species on disease in ruminants and humans. PMID:28060841

  18. REDESCRIPTION OF SCIADOCEPHALUS MEGALODISCUS DIESING, 1850, ONE THE EARLIEST DIVERGING NEOTROPICAL FISH TAPEWORMS (CESTODA: PROTEOCEPHALIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain

    2018-06-04

    The tapeworm Sciadocephalus megalodiscus Diesing, 1850 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) is redescribed based on newly collected specimens parasitizing tucunare peacock bass, Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831 (Perciformes: Cichlidae), in the Peruvian Amazon. Even though this cestode was redescribed 2 decades ago by Rego et al. (1999), that redescription did not report some of the unique features of this species. The most unusual characteristics of the species are: (i) peculiar formation of the uterus, with fast formation of numerous, tightly packed diverticula protruding ventrally and dorsally, with simultaneous disintegration of the ovary and vitelline follicles in the first pregravid proglottids; (ii) inverted umbrella-shaped scolex with a well-developed apical sucker; (iii) a large-sized, follicular (grape cluster-like) ovary, which occupies most of the central (median) third of proglottids, with the ovarian isthmus situated almost equatorially; (iv) regular alternation of genital pores; (v) a well-developed internal seminal vesicle; and (vi) a small-sized strobila (shorter than 6 mm) consisting of few proglottids (15-20). Preliminary molecular data reveal S. megalodiscus to be most closely related to Cichlidocestus gillesi, the type species of the recently erected Cichlidocestus de Chambrier, Pinacho-Pinacho, Hernández-Orts and Scholz, 2017. Species of both genera parasitize Neotropical cichlids and are unique among all proteocephalids in the shape and position of the ovary. They also share other morphological characteristics unusual among other proteocephalids and thus these two genera can be considered good candidates to be placed in a new, higher-level taxon such as separate subfamily or even family when a new, more natural classification of the Proteocephalidae is proposed.

  19. Occurrence of /sup 22/Na in some species of Canadian biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrie, J E

    1965-09-01

    Cosmic-ray spallation of argon and fallout from testing of high-yield nuclear weapons have increased the amount of /sup 22/Na present in the environment. Consequently, it has been possible to measure /sup 22/Na in Alaskan natives, caribou, elk, and some foods. Samples of flora and fauna were routinely collected in the vicinity of Pinawa, Manitoba, as a part of the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment's radiation survey program. Gamma spectrometric analysis methods revealed the presence of /sup 22/Na in samples taken during 1964, in addition to other long-lived fission products such as /sup 144/Ce, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 54/Mn. Sodium-22 was measured in samples of muscle tissue taken from the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus sp.) and hare (Lepus americanus), but was not detected in the flesh of the short-tailed weasel (Mustela erminea). Sodium-22 was detected neither in the sweet (white) clover which grew profusely in the area where the mammals were trapped nor in composite samples of Winnipeg River water in any of the species of fish taken from the river during this period: rock bass (Amblopletes rupestris), sucker (Castostomus sp.), pike (Esox lucius), pickerel (Stizostedion vitreum), and sauger (Stizostedion canadense). However, /sup 22/Na has been reported in bass caught in the Columbia River, Washington. Potassium-40 and /sup 137/Cs means in the samples examined indicate an apparent increase in the amounts of /sup 137/Cs. The amount of /sup 22/Na measured in rabbits is much less than the maximum permissible body burden for the nuclide (10 ..mu..C).

  20. The morphology and attachment of Protopolystoma xenopodis (Monogenea: Polystomatidae infecting the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

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    Theunissen Maxine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Anura: Pipidae is host to more than 25 parasite genera encompassing most of the parasitic invertebrate groups. Protopolystoma xenopodis Price, 1943 (Monogenea: Polystomatidae is one of two monogeneans infecting X. laevis. This study focussed on the external morphology of different developmental stages using scanning electron microscopy, histology and light microscopy. Eggs are released continuously and are washed out when the frog urinates. After successful development, an active swimming oncomiracidium leaves the egg capsule and locates a potential post-metamorphic clawed frog. The oncomiracidium migrates to the kidney where it attaches and starts to feed on blood. The parasite then migrates to the urinary bladder where it reaches maturity. Eggs are fusiform, about 300 μm long, with a smooth surface and are operculated. Oncomiracidia are elongated and cylindrical in shape, with an oval posterior cup-shaped haptor that bears a total of 20 sclerites; 16 marginal hooklets used for attachment to the kidney of the host and two pairs of hamulus primordia. Cilia from the 64 ciliated cells enable the oncomiracidium to swim for up to 24 h when the cilia subsequently curl up, become non-functional and are shed from the body. The tegument between the ciliated cells bears a series of sensory papillae. The body of the mature parasite is elongated and pyriform and possesses an opisthaptor armed with three pairs of suckers and two pairs of falciform hooks to ensure a firm grip on the flexible internal surface of the urinary bladder.

  1. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Growth Factor Receptor Bound-Protein in Clonorchis sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuelian; Lee, Ji-Yun; Kim, Tae Im; Dai, Fuhong; Lee, Tae-Jin; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a potentially serious disease. Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) is a cytosolic protein conserved among animals and plays roles in cellular functions such as meiosis, organogenesis and energy metabolism. In the present study, we report first molecular characters of growth factor receptor bound-protein (CsGrb2) from C. sinensis as counter part of Grb2 from animals and its possible functions in development and organogenesis of C. sinensis. Methodology/Principal Findings A CsGrb2 cDNA clone retrieved from the C. sinensis transcriptome encoded a polypeptide with a SH3-SH2-SH3 structure. Recombinant CsGrb2 was bacterially produced and purified to homogeneity. Native CsGrb2 with estimated molecular weight was identified from C. sinensis adult extract by western blotting using a mouse immune serum to recombinant CsGrb2. CsGrb2 transcripts was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Immunohistochemical staining showed that CsGrb2 was localized to the suckers, mesenchymal tissues, sperms in seminal receptacle and ovary in the adults, and abundantly expressed in most organs of the metacercariae. Recombinant CsGrb2 was evaluated to be little useful as a serodiagnostic reagent for C. sinesis human infections. Conclusion Grb2 protein found in C. sinensis was conserved among animals and suggested to play a role in the organogenesis, energy metabolism and mitotic spermatogenesis of C. sinensis. These findings from C. sinensis provide wider understanding on diverse function of Grb2 in lower animals such as platyhelminths. PMID:24454892

  2. Characterization of a novel organic solute transporter homologue from Clonorchis sinensis.

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    Yanyan Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clonorchis sinensis is a liver fluke that can dwell in the bile ducts of mammals. Bile acid transporters function to maintain the homeostasis of bile acids in C. sinensis, as they induce physiological changes or have harmful effects on C. sinensis survival. The organic solute transporter (OST transports mainly bile acid and belongs to the SLC51 subfamily of solute carrier transporters. OST plays a critical role in the recirculation of bile acids in higher animals. In this study, we cloned full-length cDNA of the 480-amino acid OST from C. sinensis (CsOST. Genomic analysis revealed 11 exons and nine introns. The CsOST protein had a 'Solute_trans_a' domain with 67% homology to Schistosoma japonicum OST. For further analysis, the CsOST protein sequence was split into the ordered domain (CsOST-N at the N-terminus and disordered domain (CsOST-C at the C-terminus. The tertiary structure of each domain was built using a threading-based method and determined by manual comparison. In a phylogenetic tree, the CsOST-N domain belonged to the OSTα and CsOST-C to the OSTβ clade. These two domains were more highly conserved with the OST α- and β-subunits at the structure level than at sequence level. These findings suggested that CsOST comprised the OST α- and β-subunits. CsOST was localized in the oral and ventral suckers and in the mesenchymal tissues abundant around the intestine, vitelline glands, uterus, and testes. This study provides fundamental data for the further understanding of homologues in other flukes.

  3. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 is a bile transporter of Clonorchis sinensis simulated by in silico docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fuhong; Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Ji-Yun; Lu, Yanyan; Pak, Jhang Ho; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-11-21

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) is a member of the C subfamily of the ABC family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. MRP4 regulates ATP-dependent efflux of various organic anionic substrates and bile acids out of cells. Since Clonorchis sinensis lives in host's bile duct, accumulation of bile juice can be toxic to the worm's tissues and cells. Therefore, C. sinensis needs bile transporters to reduce accumulation of bile acids within its body. We cloned MRP4 (CsMRP4) from C. sinensis and obtained a cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 1469 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CsMRP4 belonged to the MRP/SUR/CFTR subfamily. A tertiary structure of CsMRP4 was generated by homology modeling based on multiple structures of MRP1 and P-glycoprotein. CsMRP4 had two membrane-spanning domains (MSD1 & 2) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 & 2) as common structural folds. Docking simulation with nine bile acids showed that CsMRP4 transports bile acids through the inner cavity. Moreover, it was found that CsMRP4 mRNA was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Mouse immune serum, generated against the CsMRP4-NBD1 (24.9 kDa) fragment, localized CsMRP4 mainly in mesenchymal tissues and oral and ventral suckers of the metacercariae and the adults. Our findings shed new light on MRPs and their homologs and provide a platform for further structural and functional investigations on the bile transporters and parasites' survival.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of growth factor receptor bound-protein in Clonorchis sinensis.

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    Xuelian Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonorchis sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a potentially serious disease. Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2 is a cytosolic protein conserved among animals and plays roles in cellular functions such as meiosis, organogenesis and energy metabolism. In the present study, we report first molecular characters of growth factor receptor bound-protein (CsGrb2 from C. sinensis as counter part of Grb2 from animals and its possible functions in development and organogenesis of C. sinensis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A CsGrb2 cDNA clone retrieved from the C. sinensis transcriptome encoded a polypeptide with a SH3-SH2-SH3 structure. Recombinant CsGrb2 was bacterially produced and purified to homogeneity. Native CsGrb2 with estimated molecular weight was identified from C. sinensis adult extract by western blotting using a mouse immune serum to recombinant CsGrb2. CsGrb2 transcripts was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Immunohistochemical staining showed that CsGrb2 was localized to the suckers, mesenchymal tissues, sperms in seminal receptacle and ovary in the adults, and abundantly expressed in most organs of the metacercariae. Recombinant CsGrb2 was evaluated to be little useful as a serodiagnostic reagent for C. sinesis human infections. CONCLUSION: Grb2 protein found in C. sinensis was conserved among animals and suggested to play a role in the organogenesis, energy metabolism and mitotic spermatogenesis of C. sinensis. These findings from C. sinensis provide wider understanding on diverse function of Grb2 in lower animals such as platyhelminths.

  5. Comparison of two serpins of Clonorchis sinensis by bioinformatics, expression, and localization in metacercaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yabo; Hu, Dong; Wang, Lexun; Liang, Chi; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2014-06-01

    Clonorchiasis, which has been an important public health problem in China, is caused by ingestion of raw or undercooked fish contaminated by live metacercaria. Therefore, preventing fish from infecting is of great significance for controlling the disease. SERPINs (serine protease inhibitors) are well known as negative regulators of hemostasis, thrombolysis, and innate immune responses. In the present study, two full-length sequences encoding SERPIN were identified from metacercaria cDNA library of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) and were denominated as CsSERPIN and CsSERPIN3, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the two sequences shares 35.9% identity to each other. Both of the sequences have SERPIN domain and the greatest difference between the two domains is the reactive centre loop. Transmembrane region was found in CsSERPIN3 while not in CsSERPIN. The expression of the two CsSERPINs was significantly higher at the life stage of metacercaria than that of adult. The transcription levels of CsSERPIN and CsSERPIN3 at metacercaria stage were 3.249- and 11.314-fold of that at adult stage, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of CsSERPIN was 4.32-fold of that of CsSERPIN3 at metacercaria stage. Immunobiochemistry revealed that CsERPIN was dispersed at subtegument and oral sucker of metacercaria, while CsSERPIN3 localized intensely in the tegument of metacercaria of C. sinensis inside of the cyst wall. All these indicated that the CsSERPINs play important roles at metacercaria stage of the parasite. CsSERPIN may take part in regulation of endogenous serine proteinase and CsSERPIN3 may be involved in immune evasion and be a potential candidate for vaccine and drug target for clonorchiasis.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Paramyosin from Cyst Wall of Metacercariae Implicated Protective Efficacy against Clonorchis sinensis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoli; Tian, Yanli; Men, Jingtao; Zhang, Xifeng; Lei, Huali; Zhou, Chenhui; Lu, Fangli; Liang, Chi; Hu, Xuchu; Xu, Jin; Wu, Zhongdao; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing

    2012-01-01

    Human clonorchiasis has been increasingly prevalent in recent years and results in a threat to the public health in epidemic regions, motivating current strategies of vaccines to combat Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis). In this study, we identified C. sinensis paramyosin (CsPmy) from the cyst wall proteins of metacercariae by proteomic approaches and characterized the expressed recombinant pET-26b-CsPmy protein (101 kDa). Bioinformatics analysis indicated that full-length sequences of paramyosin are conserved in helminthes and numerous B-cell/T-cell epitopes were predicted in amino acid sequence of CsPmy. Western blot analysis showed that CsPmy was expressed at four life stages of C. sinensis, both cyst wall proteins and soluble tegumental components could be probed by anti-CsPmy serum. Moreover, immunolocalization results revealed that CsPmy was specifically localized at cyst wall and excretory bladder of metacercaria, as well as the tegument, oral sucker and vitellarium of adult worm. Both immunoblot and immunolocalization results demonstrated that CsPmy was highly expressed at the stage of adult worm, metacercariae and cercaria, which could be supported by real-time PCR analysis. Both recombinant protein and nucleic acid of CsPmy showed strong immunogenicity in rats and induced combined Th1/Th2 immune responses, which were reflected by continuous high level of antibody titers and increased level of IgG1/IgG2a subtypes in serum. In vaccine trials, comparing with control groups, both CsPmy protein and DNA vaccine exhibited protective effect with significant worm reduction rate of 54.3% (psinensis regarding its high immunogenicity and surface localization. PMID:22470461

  7. Characterization of a novel organic solute transporter homologue from Clonorchis sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fuhong; Lee, Ji-Yun; Pak, Jhang Ho; Sohn, Woon-Mok

    2018-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a liver fluke that can dwell in the bile ducts of mammals. Bile acid transporters function to maintain the homeostasis of bile acids in C. sinensis, as they induce physiological changes or have harmful effects on C. sinensis survival. The organic solute transporter (OST) transports mainly bile acid and belongs to the SLC51 subfamily of solute carrier transporters. OST plays a critical role in the recirculation of bile acids in higher animals. In this study, we cloned full-length cDNA of the 480-amino acid OST from C. sinensis (CsOST). Genomic analysis revealed 11 exons and nine introns. The CsOST protein had a ‘Solute_trans_a’ domain with 67% homology to Schistosoma japonicum OST. For further analysis, the CsOST protein sequence was split into the ordered domain (CsOST-N) at the N-terminus and disordered domain (CsOST-C) at the C-terminus. The tertiary structure of each domain was built using a threading-based method and determined by manual comparison. In a phylogenetic tree, the CsOST-N domain belonged to the OSTα and CsOST-C to the OSTβ clade. These two domains were more highly conserved with the OST α- and β-subunits at the structure level than at sequence level. These findings suggested that CsOST comprised the OST α- and β-subunits. CsOST was localized in the oral and ventral suckers and in the mesenchymal tissues abundant around the intestine, vitelline glands, uterus, and testes. This study provides fundamental data for the further understanding of homologues in other flukes. PMID:29702646

  8. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 is a bile transporter of Clonorchis sinensis simulated by in silico docking

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    Fuhong Dai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4 is a member of the C subfamily of the ABC family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. MRP4 regulates ATP-dependent efflux of various organic anionic substrates and bile acids out of cells. Since Clonorchis sinensis lives in host’s bile duct, accumulation of bile juice can be toxic to the worm’s tissues and cells. Therefore, C. sinensis needs bile transporters to reduce accumulation of bile acids within its body. Results We cloned MRP4 (CsMRP4 from C. sinensis and obtained a cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 1469 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CsMRP4 belonged to the MRP/SUR/CFTR subfamily. A tertiary structure of CsMRP4 was generated by homology modeling based on multiple structures of MRP1 and P-glycoprotein. CsMRP4 had two membrane-spanning domains (MSD1 & 2 and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 & 2 as common structural folds. Docking simulation with nine bile acids showed that CsMRP4 transports bile acids through the inner cavity. Moreover, it was found that CsMRP4 mRNA was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Mouse immune serum, generated against the CsMRP4-NBD1 (24.9 kDa fragment, localized CsMRP4 mainly in mesenchymal tissues and oral and ventral suckers of the metacercariae and the adults. Conclusions Our findings shed new light on MRPs and their homologs and provide a platform for further structural and functional investigations on the bile transporters and parasites’ survival.

  9. Long-term survival of Naegleria polaris from Antarctica after 10 years of storage at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Junji; Nakamura, Shinji; Okubo, Torahiko; Fukui, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    A free-living amoeba, Naegleria is ubiquitously distributed in various natural environments. Since some Naegleria spp. are exclusively distributed in the Arctic and sub-Antarctic regions, we hypothesized that the amoeba may be useful to determine long-term survival of Naegleria in laboratory conditions at 4 °C. The main objective of the study is to determine that a species of an environmental amoebal isolated can live at low temperatures after a long time. Here, we therefore show long-term survival of an amoeba, Naegleria polaris isolated from a sediment sample, which was collected from Antarctica 10 years ago, and since stored at 4 °C. The sample was put on non-nutrient agar plates with heat-killed Escherichia coli, and then the plate was incubated at 4, 15, or 30 °C. Motile amoebae were seen only when the plate was incubated at 15 °C. The sequencing of ribosomal DNA including internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1, 5.8S rDNA, and ITS2 region revealed the amoebae to be N. polaris, which is exclusively distributed in the Arctic and sub-Antarctic regions. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed that no typical sucker-like structure was seen on the surface of N. polaris, but the cysts were similar to those of Naegleria fowleri. Thus, our result shows, for the first time, that N. polaris can survive after 10 years of storage at 4 °C. This finding may help us understand the still undescribed effects of environmental samples on viability of amoebae.

  10. The behavioural response of adult Petromyzon marinus to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, István; Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Using semi-natural enclosures, this study investigated (1) whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus show avoidance of damage-released conspecific cues, damage-released heterospecific cues and predator cues and (2) whether this is a general response to injured heterospecific fishes or a specific response to injured P. marinus. Ten replicate groups of 10 adult P. marinus, separated by sex, were exposed to one of the following nine stimuli: deionized water (control), extracts prepared from adult P. marinus, decayed adult P. marinus (conspecific stimuli), sympatric white sucker Catostomus commersonii, Amazon sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (heterospecific stimuli), 2-phenylethylamine (PEA HCl) solution, northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva (predator cues) and an adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination (a damage-released conspecific cue and a predator cue). Adult P. marinus showed a significant avoidance response to the adult P. marinus extract as well as to C. commersonii, human saliva, PEA and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. For mobile P. marinus, the N. sipedon washing induced behaviour consistent with predator inspection. Exposure to the P. pardalis extract did not induce a significant avoidance response during the stimulus release period. Mobile adult female P. marinus showed a stronger avoidance behaviour than mobile adult male P. marinus in response to the adult P. marinus extract and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. The findings support the continued investigation of natural damage-released alarm cue and predator-based repellents for the behavioural manipulation of P. marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  11. Development and genetic characterization of high-functional Rubus coreanus mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Hong

    2008-07-01

    The gamma irradiation as a 100 Gy lead to mutate Bokbunja seed as well as induction of germination, in addition, the optimum condition for inducing mutation is that H2SO4 should be treated after gamma irradiation in vivo. In order to breed the useful mutants in black raspberry, cultivated in Gochanggun, 2-year-old nursery stocks were irradiated with 70 (264 lines) and 120 Gy (360 lines) of gamma-ray. The LD50 dose was identified as 70 Gy. Morphological characteristics of the variants were observed such as stem variation, no. of thorn and no. of sucker compared with donor cultivar. The comparison of morphological and chemical characteristics between Rubus coreanus and Rubus occidentalis was carried out and these two species are quite different that is, number of cortex cells in Rubus occidentalis are much higher than Rubus coreanus. Rubus occidentalis highly contained glucose, xylose, and arabinose, and well developed secondary cell wall compared with Rubus coreanus. We carried out to obtain phylogenetic information on Korean cultivated bramble (KCB) by comparing its specific and random genomic and chloroplast sequences. The characteristics of nuclear and chloroplast genomes of KCB accessions are significantly different from those of other Rubus species. Phylogentic relationship inferred from these molecular features suggest that KCB accessions are relatively more closely related to black raspberry than to R. coreanus. Rubus are classified into 4 developing fruit stages such as green, yellow, red, and black color. The anthocyanin content was increased together with maturation, that is black color fruit is the highest anthocyanin content and highly correlated the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes sunch as C4H, F3H. In addition, the expression of genes involved in the anthocynin biosynthesis is modulated by chitosan resulting in enhanced anthocyanin content in ripen fruit

  12. Biology, etiology, and control of virus diseases of banana and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P Lava; Selvarajan, Ramasamy; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Chabannes, Matthieu; Hanna, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    Banana and plantain (Musa spp.), produced in 10.3 million ha in the tropics, are among the world's top 10 food crops. They are vegetatively propagated using suckers or tissue culture plants and grown almost as perennial plantations. These are prone to the accumulation of pests and pathogens, especially viruses which contribute to yield reduction and are also barriers to the international exchange of germplasm. The most economically important viruses of banana and plantain are Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV), a complex of banana streak viruses (BSVs) and Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV). BBTV is known to cause the most serious economic losses in the "Old World," contributing to a yield reduction of up to 100% and responsible for a dramatic reduction in cropping area. The BSVs exist as episomal and endogenous forms are known to be worldwide in distribution. In India and the Philippines, BBrMV is known to be economically important but recently the virus was discovered in Colombia and Costa Rica, thus signaling its spread into the "New World." Banana and plantain are also known to be susceptible to five other viruses of minor significance, such as Abaca mosaic virus, Abaca bunchy top virus, Banana mild mosaic virus, Banana virus X, and Cucumber mosaic virus. Studies over the past 100 years have contributed to important knowledge on disease biology, distribution, and spread. Research during the last 25 years have led to a better understanding of the virus-vector-host interactions, virus diversity, disease etiology, and epidemiology. In addition, new diagnostic tools were developed which were used for surveillance and the certification of planting material. Due to a lack of durable host resistance in the Musa spp., phytosanitary measures and the use of virus-free planting material are the major methods of virus control. The state of knowledge on BBTV, BBrMV, and BSVs, and other minor viruses, disease spread, and control are summarized in this review. © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  13. EFFECT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SAGO PALM (Metroxylon sagu Rottb. CALLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Riyadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of gamma irradiation on plant materials may increase the genetic variation of the offspring with useful traits. The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of irradiation dosage of gamma ray on growth and development of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu calli. Friable calli of sago palm derived from suspension culture were used as a material source. The primary calli were initiated from apical meristematic tissues of sago palm suckers of Alitir variety from Merauke, Papua. The treatments used were dosage of gamma ray irradiation at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy. The treated calli were then subcultured on modified Murashige and Skoog (MMS solid medium containing 3% sucrose and 0.1% activated charcoal and added with 1 mg l-1 2,4-D and 0.1 mg l-1 kinetin. The results showed that at all irradiation dosages, calli biomass increased significantly. The highest proliferation of calli biomass of 5.33 folds from the initial culture after 4 weeks was achieved at gamma irradiation of 25 Gy, whereas the lowest proliferation of calli biomass of 3.4 folds was achieved at control. The best development of embryogenic calli was obtained at 10 Gy that produced 100% somatic embryos, whereas the lowest somatic embryo formation at 0% was obtained at 0 and 25 Gy after one subculture. High response of somatic embryo induction to gamma irradiation at 10 Gy may increase production of somatic embryos. These results can be used in in vitro breeding of sago palm via mutagenesis to create new elite varieties.

  14. Well and Inflow Performance Relationship for Heavy Oil Reservoir under Heating Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal

    2017-10-17

    Well and Inflow Performance Relationship, termed TPR and IPR, respectively have been the unfailing methods to predict well performance. It is further to determine the schemes on optimising production. The main intention of the study is to explore TPR and IPR under heating treatment for heavy oil well. Klamono is a mature field which mostly has depleted wells, it produces heavy oil within 18.5 °API (>0.95 g/cc oil density), and therefore, artificial lifting method is necessary. Sucker Road Pump (SRP) and Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) are the most deployed artificial lifting method in this reservoir. To boost the heavy oil production, the application of Electric Downhole Heater (EDH) in Well KLO-X1 is being studied. Whole Klamono\\'s production is more than 100,000 blpd within 97-99% water cut. By installing EDH, oil viscosity is decreased hence oil mobility ratio will play a role to decrease water cut. EDH is installed together with the tubing joint to simplify its application in the wellbore. The study shows that EDH application can elevate fluid (mixed oil and brine) temperature. Oil viscosity confirms a reduction from 68 to 46 cP. The gross well production is up to 12.2 bopd due optimising its outflow performance and reducing 97.5 to 96.9% water cut. The field data gives an incremental of 4.9 bopd. The computational results only show an attainment of net oil production up to 8.3 bopd (2 bopd incremental). The EDH works to lessen both density and viscosity as we hypothesised for the mechanism of thermally induced oil production improvement. The evaluation study on its economics aspect exhibits good result that is 1.4 USD/bbl additional profit margin according to field data despite the challenging annual rig rent cost. Following the field data, the expected net income through analytical model revealed that this project is financially promising.

  15. The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertin, Caroline B; Simakov, Oleg; Mitros, Therese; Wang, Z Yan; Pungor, Judit R; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Brenner, Sydney; Ragsdale, Clifton W; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2015-08-13

    Coleoid cephalopods (octopus, squid and cuttlefish) are active, resourceful predators with a rich behavioural repertoire. They have the largest nervous systems among the invertebrates and present other striking morphological innovations including camera-like eyes, prehensile arms, a highly derived early embryogenesis and a remarkably sophisticated adaptive colouration system. To investigate the molecular bases of cephalopod brain and body innovations, we sequenced the genome and multiple transcriptomes of the California two-spot octopus, Octopus bimaculoides. We found no evidence for hypothesized whole-genome duplications in the octopus lineage. The core developmental and neuronal gene repertoire of the octopus is broadly similar to that found across invertebrate bilaterians, except for massive expansions in two gene families previously thought to be uniquely enlarged in vertebrates: the protocadherins, which regulate neuronal development, and the C2H2 superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors. Extensive messenger RNA editing generates transcript and protein diversity in genes involved in neural excitability, as previously described, as well as in genes participating in a broad range of other cellular functions. We identified hundreds of cephalopod-specific genes, many of which showed elevated expression levels in such specialized structures as the skin, the suckers and the nervous system. Finally, we found evidence for large-scale genomic rearrangements that are closely associated with transposable element expansions. Our analysis suggests that substantial expansion of a handful of gene families, along with extensive remodelling of genome linkage and repetitive content, played a critical role in the evolution of cephalopod morphological innovations, including their large and complex nervous systems.

  16. Interação entre Formigas e Aleirodídeos (Sternorrhyncha, Aleyrodidae em Cultivo Orgânico de Tangerina cv. Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rodrigues

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. The whiteflies are tending by ants, which give protection and dispersion make the control of those suckers more difficult. The interaction ant-Sternorrhyncha occurs, mainly due to the production of a sugared material named honeydew. The aim of the study as realized sampling, diversity study, frequency, constancy and dominance of the ant’s whiteflies tending species in night and day period. The sampling were conducted from October 2002 to October 2003. The species of whiteflies detected were Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell, Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino, Singhiella citrifolii (Morgan and Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi. The study concluded that 12 species of ants were associated with A. floccossus, 4 species with A. cruzi and 3 species with P. bondari. Associations between ants and S. citrifolli where not observed. Among the species of ants associated with whiteflies, those ones associated with A. floccosus presented the major diversity (0.743 and the minor dominance (0.3194 and equitability J (0.6882. Brachymyrmex sp. was the most frequent species (31.94% and also the most constant. P. bondari showed a diversity of 0.477, the dominance of 0.3333 and the equitability J 1. To A. cruzi, the diversity was of 0.422, dominance of 0.6098 e equitability J of 0.7013. This species of whiteflies show a dominance of the species Crematogaster sp. 1, with the frequency of 60.98% although it was secondary. The close relationship between A. floccosus and 12 ants demonstrates a preference for the excrements (honeydew of the whiteflies, for the quantity as well as for the quality of the honeydew.

  17. Pattern classification and recognition of invertebrate functional groups using self-organizing neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, WenJun

    2007-07-01

    Self-organizing neural networks can be used to mimic non-linear systems. The main objective of this study is to make pattern classification and recognition on sampling information using two self-organizing neural network models. Invertebrate functional groups sampled in the irrigated rice field were classified and recognized using one-dimensional self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural networks. Comparisons between neural network models, distance (similarity) measures, and number of neurons were conducted. The results showed that self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural network models were effective in pattern classification and recognition of sampling information. Overall the performance of one-dimensional self-organizing map neural network was better than self-organizing competitive learning neural network. The number of neurons could determine the number of classes in the classification. Different neural network models with various distance (similarity) measures yielded similar classifications. Some differences, dependent upon the specific network structure, would be found. The pattern of an unrecognized functional group was recognized with the self-organizing neural network. A relative consistent classification indicated that the following invertebrate functional groups, terrestrial blood sucker; terrestrial flyer; tourist (nonpredatory species with no known functional role other than as prey in ecosystem); gall former; collector (gather, deposit feeder); predator and parasitoid; leaf miner; idiobiont (acarine ectoparasitoid), were classified into the same group, and the following invertebrate functional groups, external plant feeder; terrestrial crawler, walker, jumper or hunter; neustonic (water surface) swimmer (semi-aquatic), were classified into another group. It was concluded that reliable conclusions could be drawn from comparisons of different neural network models that use different distance

  18. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain de Chambrier

    2015-04-01

    unresolved and possibly reflects a rapid radiation. The genus Spasskyellina Freze, 1965 is resurrected for three species of Monticellia bearing spinitriches on the margins of their suckers.

  19. Three new species of blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting pufferfishes (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae) from off Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, R Q-Y; Cutmore, S C; Bray, R A; Miller, T L; Semarariana, I W Y; Palm, H W; Cribb, T H

    2016-10-01

    We describe three new species of blood flukes (Aporocotylidae) and propose their classification within the genus Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929. All three species were collected from the circulatory systems of pufferfishes caught off Bali, central Indonesia. Psettarium pulchellum n. sp. was found in the gills of both the narrow-lined puffer (Arothron manilensis de Procé) and the spiny blaasop (Tylerius spinosissimus Regan), while P. ogawai n. sp. and P. jimbaranense n. sp. were found in the gills of the reticulated puffer (Arothron reticularis Bloch & Schneider). The morphological characteristics of these taxa necessitated emendation of the diagnosis for the genus Psettarium, to accommodate the presence of an oral sucker, multiple or entirely post-caecal testes and a degenerate posterior testis. Features such as proportion of body length occupied by the oesophagus, and posterior caeca being ≥7× the length of anterior caeca, are no longer regarded as useful genus-level characters. Additionally, Sasala nolani is reassigned to this genus as Psettarium nolani n. comb. In phylogenetic analyses of the 28S and ITS2 rDNA regions, all three new taxa form a well-supported clade, together with Psettarium sinense and Psettarium nolani n. comb., the two other species of tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids for which comparative rDNA data were available. The short branch lengths within this clade, despite dramatic morphological differences between the five species, suggest that rapid morphological diversification has occurred among the tetraodontid-infecting aporocotylids. The genus Psettarium has long been considered problematic. Further commentary is given on the history of this genus and how the issues presented might be resolved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtual Reality Tumor Resection: The Force Pyramid Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Robin; Bugdadi, Abdulgadir; Azarnoush, Hamed; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Alotaibi, Fahad E; Bajunaid, Khalid; AlZhrani, Gmaan A; Alsideiri, Ghusn; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    2017-09-05

    The force pyramid is a novel visual representation allowing spatial delineation of instrument force application during surgical procedures. In this study, the force pyramid concept is employed to create and quantify dominant hand, nondominant hand, and bimanual force pyramids during resection of virtual reality brain tumors. To address 4 questions: Do ergonomics and handedness influence force pyramid structure? What are the differences between dominant and nondominant force pyramids? What is the spatial distribution of forces applied in specific tumor quadrants? What differentiates "expert" and "novice" groups regarding their force pyramids? Using a simulated aspirator in the dominant hand and a simulated sucker in the nondominant hand, 6 neurosurgeons and 14 residents resected 8 different tumors using the CAE NeuroVR virtual reality neurosurgical simulation platform (CAE Healthcare, Montréal, Québec and the National Research Council Canada, Boucherville, Québec). Position and force data were used to create force pyramids and quantify tumor quadrant force distribution. Force distribution quantification demonstrates the critical role that handedness and ergonomics play on psychomotor performance during simulated brain tumor resections. Neurosurgeons concentrate their dominant hand forces in a defined crescent in the lower right tumor quadrant. Nondominant force pyramids showed a central peak force application in all groups. Bimanual force pyramids outlined the combined impact of each hand. Distinct force pyramid patterns were seen when tumor stiffness, border complexity, and color were altered. Force pyramids allow delineation of specific tumor regions requiring greater psychomotor ability to resect. This information can focus and improve resident technical skills training. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  1. Importance of Natural and Anthropogenic Environmental Factors to Fish Communities of the Fox River in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnier, Spencer; Cai, Ximing; Cao, Yong

    2016-02-01

    The dominant environmental determinants of aquatic communities have been a persistent topic for many years. Interactions between natural and anthropogenic characteristics within the aquatic environment influence fish communities in complex ways that make the effect of a single characteristic difficult to ascertain. Researchers are faced with the question of how to deal with a large number of variables and complex interrelationships. This study utilized multiple approaches to identify key environmental variables to fish communities of the Fox River Basin in Illinois: Pearson and Spearman correlations, an algorithm based on information theory called mutual information, and a measure of variable importance built into the machine learning algorithm Random Forest. The results are based on a dataset developed for this study, which uses a fish index of biological integrity (IBI) and its ten component metrics as response variables and a range of environmental variables describing geomorphology, stream flow statistics, climate, and both reach-scale and watershed-scale land use as independent variables. Agricultural land use and the magnitude and duration of low flow events were ranked by the algorithms as key factors for the study area. Reach-scale characteristics were dominant for native sunfish, and stream flow metrics were rated highly for native suckers. Regression tree analyses of environmental variables on fish IBI identified breakpoints in percent agricultural land in the watershed (~64 %), duration of low flow pulses (~12 days), and 90-day minimum flow (~0.13 cms). The findings should be useful for building predictive models and design of more effective monitoring systems and restoration plans.

  2. Microbiological pattern of ventilator associated pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Wahid, K.; Iqbal, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important and common complication of mechanically ventilated patients. It is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Intensive Care Units (ICU) worldwide. The aim of study was to determine the pattern of bacteria involved in VAP in intensive care unit of Jinnah hospital Lahore. Methods: It was descriptive case series study, conducted over a period of one year on mechanically ventilated 50 patients. American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines recommend quantitative/semi-quantitative culture of endotracheal aspirates (ETA) or bronchoscopic aspirates/washing from the infected lung segments for the diagnosis of VAP. Hence this study was conducted to identify the types of bacteria involved in VAP in our ICU. Patients enrolled were clinically and radiologically suspected VAP, admitted in the ICU of Jinnah Hospital/Allama Iqbal Medical College (AIMC) Lahore. Bronchial washings were taken with the help of Fiber optic bronchoscope. Wherever bronchoscopy was not possible, subglottic secretions were collected with the help of sterilized catheter and sucker. Collected samples were sent to the Pathology laboratory of AIMC for aerobic culture and sensitivity. Results: Major pathogenic bacteria isolated were Gram negative (74%). Among this group E. coli, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and Acinetobacter were the commonest organisms. Gram positive bacteria were 20%, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and haemolyticus streptococci were the major isolate. In 4% cases mixed growth and in 2% cases no growth was reported. Conclusion: Major pathogenic organisms of VAP in our ICU are Gram negative bacteria. The Bacteriological culture of endobroncheal aspirates is helpful in the diagnosis and management of VAP. Emperic antibiotic therapy for VAP should cover Gram negative organisms. (author)

  3. Well and Inflow Performance Relationship for Heavy Oil Reservoir under Heating Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Hakiki, Farizal; Aditya, A.; Ulitha, D. T.; Shidqi, M.; Adi, W. S.; Wibowo, K. H.; Barus, M.

    2017-01-01

    Well and Inflow Performance Relationship, termed TPR and IPR, respectively have been the unfailing methods to predict well performance. It is further to determine the schemes on optimising production. The main intention of the study is to explore TPR and IPR under heating treatment for heavy oil well. Klamono is a mature field which mostly has depleted wells, it produces heavy oil within 18.5 °API (>0.95 g/cc oil density), and therefore, artificial lifting method is necessary. Sucker Road Pump (SRP) and Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) are the most deployed artificial lifting method in this reservoir. To boost the heavy oil production, the application of Electric Downhole Heater (EDH) in Well KLO-X1 is being studied. Whole Klamono's production is more than 100,000 blpd within 97-99% water cut. By installing EDH, oil viscosity is decreased hence oil mobility ratio will play a role to decrease water cut. EDH is installed together with the tubing joint to simplify its application in the wellbore. The study shows that EDH application can elevate fluid (mixed oil and brine) temperature. Oil viscosity confirms a reduction from 68 to 46 cP. The gross well production is up to 12.2 bopd due optimising its outflow performance and reducing 97.5 to 96.9% water cut. The field data gives an incremental of 4.9 bopd. The computational results only show an attainment of net oil production up to 8.3 bopd (2 bopd incremental). The EDH works to lessen both density and viscosity as we hypothesised for the mechanism of thermally induced oil production improvement. The evaluation study on its economics aspect exhibits good result that is 1.4 USD/bbl additional profit margin according to field data despite the challenging annual rig rent cost. Following the field data, the expected net income through analytical model revealed that this project is financially promising.

  4. Ritacestus gen. n. (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) and redescription of R. ritaii comb. n., a parasite of Rita rita (Siluriformes) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás; Ash, Anirban; Kar, Pradip Kumar

    2011-11-01

    A new genus, Ritacestus, is proposed to accommodate Ritacestus ritaii (Verma, 1926) comb. n. (syn. Proteocephalus ritaii), a parasite of the catfish Rita rita (Hamilton) in India. The new genus, which is placed in the Gangesiinae, is characterized by (i) a small, subspherical scolex formed by four large lobes separated from one another by longitudinal grooves, with a large, widely oval to pyriform rostellum-like apical organ, larger than suckers and possessing an apical hemispherical depression; (ii) paramuscular and cortical position of some vitelline follicles (most follicles are situated medullary); (iii) ventral and dorsal bands of vitelline follicles usually uninterrupted ventral to terminal genitalia and reaching to the posterior margin of proglottides; (iv) the vagina always anterior to the cirrus-sac; (v) a large size of the body (length up to 51 cm); and (vi) development of the uterus of type 2. In its morphology, especially shape of the scolex and apical organ, and paramuscular and cortical position of some vitelline follicles, Ritacestus resembles Postgangesia Akhmerov, 1969, but differs in the presence of a genital atrium (both genital pores of Postgangesia are separate), the anterior position of the vagina (almost always posterior in the latter genus), position of vitelline follicles in cross sections (dorsal and ventral bands in Ritacestus versus only a lateral band in the latter genus), and dorsal excretory canals indistinguishable in mature and gravid proglottides of R. ritaii (well developed in Postgangesia spp.). The type and only species of the genus, R. ritaii, is redescribed on the basis of new material from the type host from the Ganges River basin in India and its neotype is designated.

  5. Effects of ‘flowering chemicals’ application on the development of inflorescence and fruit of pineapple. [Ananas comosus (L. Merr. c.v. Phuket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butrat, P.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This comparative study of the effects of three different flowering chemicals, CaC2, ethephon, and NAA, on the development of inflorescence and fruit of pineapples c.v. Phuket was conducted at Amphoe Talang of Phuket Province, between December 2000 and September 2001. An experiment was arranged as a factorial design in RCB with 2 factors in 3 replications. In the first factor, there were CaC2 1 g/plant, ethephon 100 mg/l combenation with urea 1.5% 60 ml/plant, NAA 0.5 mg (1 ANAA tablet/plant, and the second factor was application period (one time and two times into the shoot tips of nine-month-old ground suckers. The results showed that the application of ethephon one time or two times led to faster floral development than in plants that received NAA or CaC2. In fact, the floral development with ethephon application was 5-7 days faster than that in NAA application, and 8-10 days faster than that in CaC2 application. Apical meristem differentiation took place 3 days after the application of ethephon, followed by complete development of the first floret and stamen within 42-43 days, anthesis within 45-46 days, and pistil within 48-49 days. Maturation of the egg was 5.7-6.3 days later than that of the pollen grains and 2.3-2.6 days after anthesis. In the treatment of NAA application once or twice, the development of the egg cell took a longer period.

  6. Post-Hurricane Successional Dynamics in Abundance and Diversity of Canopy Arthropods in a Tropical Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, T D; Willig, M R; Presley, S J

    2017-02-01

    We quantified long-term successional trajectories of canopy arthropods on six tree species in a tropical rainforest ecosystem in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico that experienced repeated hurricane-induced disturbances during the 19-yr study (1991-2009). We expected: 1) differential performances of arthropod species to result in taxon- or guild-specific responses; 2) differences in initial conditions to result in distinct successional responses to each hurricane; and 3) the legacy of hurricane-created gaps to persist despite subsequent disturbances. At least one significant effect of gap, time after hurricane, or their interaction occurred for 53 of 116 analyses of taxon abundance, 31 of 84 analyses of guild abundance, and 21 of 60 analyses of biodiversity (e.g., richness, evenness, dominance, and rarity). Significant responses were ∼60% more common for time after hurricane than for gap creation, indicating that temporal changes in habitat during recovery were of primary importance. Both increases and decreases in abundance or diversity occurred in response to each factor. Guild-level responses were probably driven by changes in the abundance of resources on which they rely. For example, detritivores were most abundant soon after hurricanes when litter resources were elevated, whereas sap-suckers were most abundant in gaps where new foliage growth was the greatest. The legacy of canopy gaps created by Hurricane Hugo persisted for at least 19 yr, despite droughts and other hurricanes of various intensities that caused forest damage. This reinforces the need to consider historical legacies when seeking to understand responses to disturbance. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Genomes of Fasciola hepatica from the Americas Reveal Colonization with Neorickettsia Endobacteria Related to the Agents of Potomac Horse and Human Sennetsu Fevers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha N McNulty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food borne trematodes (FBTs are an assemblage of platyhelminth parasites transmitted through the food chain, four of which are recognized as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Fascioliasis stands out among the other NTDs due to its broad and significant impact on both human and animal health, as Fasciola sp., are also considered major pathogens of domesticated ruminants. Here we present a reference genome sequence of the common liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica isolated from sheep, complementing previously reported isolate from cattle. A total of 14,642 genes were predicted from the 1.14 GB genome of the liver fluke. Comparative genomics indicated that F. hepatica Oregon and related food-borne trematodes are metabolically less constrained than schistosomes and cestodes, taking advantage of the richer millieux offered by the hepatobiliary organs. Protease families differentially expanded between diverse trematodes may facilitate migration and survival within the heterogeneous environments and niches within the mammalian host. Surprisingly, the sequencing of Oregon and Uruguay F. hepatica isolates led to the first discovery of an endobacteria in this species. Two contigs from the F. hepatica Oregon assembly were joined to complete the 859,205 bp genome of a novel Neorickettsia endobacterium (nFh closely related to the etiological agents of human Sennetsu and Potomac horse fevers. Immunohistochemical studies targeting a Neorickettsia surface protein found nFh in specific organs and tissues of the adult trematode including the female reproductive tract, eggs, the Mehlis' gland, seminal vesicle, and oral suckers, suggesting putative routes for fluke-to-fluke and fluke-to-host transmission. The genomes of F. hepatica and nFh will serve as a resource for further exploration of the biology of F. hepatica, and specifically its newly discovered trans-kingdom interaction with nFh and the impact of both species on disease in ruminants and humans.

  8. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    possibly reflects a rapid radiation. The genus Spasskyellina Freze, 1965 is resurrected for three species of Monticellia bearing spinitriches on the margins of their suckers.

  9. From Clinging to Digging: The Postembryonic Skeletal Ontogeny of the Indian Purple Frog, Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis (Anura: Nasikabatrachidae.

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    Gayani Senevirathne

    Full Text Available The Indian Purple frog, Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis, occupies a basal phylogenetic position among neobatrachian anurans and has a very unusual life history. Tadpoles have a large ventral oral sucker, which they use to cling to rocks in torrents, whereas metamorphs possess adaptations for life underground. The developmental changes that underlie these shifts in habits and habitats, and especially the internal remodeling of the cranial and postcranial skeleton, are unknown. Using a nearly complete metamorphic series from free-living larva to metamorph, we describe the postembryonic skeletal ontogeny of this ancient and unique monotypic lineage. The torrent-dwelling larva possesses a dorsoventrally flattened body and a head with tiny dorsal eyes, robust lower and upper jaw cartilages, well-developed trabecular horns, and a definable gap between the trabecular horns and the tip of the snout. Unlike tadpoles of many other frogs, those of Nasikabatrachus retain larval mouthparts into late metamorphic stages. This unusual feature enables the larvae to maintain their clinging habit until near the end of metamorphosis. The subsequent ontogenetic shift from clinging to digging is correlated with rapid morphological changes and behavioral modifications. Metamorphs are equipped with a shortened tibiafibula and ossified prehallical elements, which likely facilitate initial digging using the hind limbs. Subsequently, the frogs may shift to headfirst burrowing by using the wedge-shaped skull, anteriorly positioned pectoral girdle, well-developed humeral crests and spatula-shaped forelimbs. The transition from an aquatic life in torrents to a terrestrial life underground entails dramatic changes in skeletal morphology and function that represent an extreme in metamorphic remodeling. Our analysis enhances the scope for detailed comparative studies across anurans, a group renowned for the diversity of its life history strategies.

  10. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fishes from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D.; Holem, Ryan R.; Khim, Jong Seong; Chang, Hong; Kay, Denise P.; Roark, Shaun A.; Newsted, John L.; Patterson, William P.; Giesy, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing biological factors associated with species-specific accumulation of contaminants is one of the major focuses in ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry studies. In this study, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed in various fish species from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers (12 fish species; n = 314 individuals), Michigan, USA. Due to their migratory habits, greater δ 13 C stable isotope values were found in walleye and white sucker among 12 fish species. Meanwhile, the δ 15 N values indicated that the trophic status was least in carp and greatest in largemouth bass. The greatest total concentrations of dioxins were found in fishes with the lowest trophic status (carp (n = 50) followed by channel catfish (n = 49)), and concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs (20-440 pg/g ww (wet weight)), ΣPCBs (16-690 ng/g ww), and TEQs (6.8-350 pg/g ww) in carp were also greater than the least mean concentrations in other fishes. Contributions of various biological factors to the species accumulation were assessed. Body weight and lipid content were found to be the most significant factors influencing accumulation of ΣPCDD/Fs. Lipid content and trophic level seemed to be dominant factors determining accumulation of ΣPCB and TEQs, but negative correlations between trophic status and concentrations of ΣPCBs and TEQs were observed possibly due to the great concentrations in benthivorous fishes such as carp occupying lower trophic levels. These factors can be used to predict the contaminant levels of dioxins and health risks of the fishes in the river ecosystem.

  11. Predators and Parasitoids of Cacopsylla pyri (L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in Serbia

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    Dušanka Jerinić Prodanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of C. pyri and its natural enemies was studied in both treated and untreated pear orchards in Serbia from 2005 to 2009. Five parasitoid and 21 predator species were identified as present on a considerable number of sites. The following parasitoid species were found: Prionomitus mitratus (Dalman,Psyllaephagus procerus Marcet,Syrphophagus ariantes (Walker,Syrphophagus taeniatus Förster and Tamarixia sp. In the study, the species Psyllaephagus procerus,Syrphophagus ariantes and Tamarixia sp. were forthe first time identified as parasitoids of C. pyri and as new species in the Serbian fauna.Among the parasitoids determined, Prionomitus mitratus predominated. Of the predators, the following species in four orders were registered: Dermaptera [Forficula auricularia Linnaeus (Forficulidae], Heteroptera [Anthocoris nemoralis(Fabricius, Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, Orius (Heterorius minutus (Linnaeus, Orius (Heterorius nigerWolff (Anthocoridae, Campylomma verbasci (Mayer-Dür, Deraeocoris (Deraeocorisruber(Linnaeusand Deraeocoris(Knightocarsuslutescens (Schilling(Miridae],Neuroptera[Chrysopa pallens Rambur,Chrysoperla carnea(Stephens,Chrysopa sp.(Chrysopidae], and Coleoptera [Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, Adalia bipunctata Linnaeus, Adalia decempunctata(Linnaeus, Hippodamia tredecimpunctata (Linnaeus,Hippodamia variegata(Goeze,Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Linnaeus, Calvia (Anisocalvia quatuordecimguttata(Linnaeus(Coccinellidae, Cantharis rustica Fallén, Rhagonycha fulva (Scopoli and Rh. testacea(Linnaeus (Cantharidae]. Of the predators determined, 12 species were registered for the first time as predators of C. pyri in Serbia, while C. rustica, Rhagonycha fulva and Rh.testacea have so far been known neither in Serbia nor in the world as predators of pear suckers.

  12. Genetic characterization of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz.] landraces of North Eastern Hills of India and conservation measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Veerendra Kumar; Pandey, Avinash; Jha, Anjani Kumar; Ngachan, S V

    2017-10-01

    Chayote or chow-chow is an underutilized cucurbit vegetable crop, widely cultivated by farmers in the backyards and Jhum lands for its tender leaves, fruits and tuberous root. In order to initiate crop improvement program in this crop, the present study was undertaken to assess the genetic variations in the 74 chow-chow landraces collected from the North Eastern Hill region of India. Wide variations for fruit colors, fruit length (6.5-21.5 cm), fruit width (4.2-10.7 cm), fruit weight (60-560 g), vitamin-C (2.6-13.8 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (0.18-2.77%), total sugar (1.09-2.94%) and phenol content (0.17-3.85 mg/100 g FW) were recorded among the landraces. All the landraces were also characterized using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. In RAPD analyses, out of 28 primers a total of 198 reproducible amplicons were formed at an average of 7.01 per primer and an overall polymorphism of 88.38%. Eight fragments were specific to landraces with light green fruits. Four fragments were observed to be specific to RCSC-22 (dark green fruits) and another four specific to a RCSC-30 (pale yellow fruits). Out of 30 ISSR, only 5 primers generated a total of 32 reproducible amplicons with an average of 6.4 per primer and overall polymorphism of 62.5%. The pair wise similarity coefficient values ranged from 0.55 to 0.96. The grouping of landraces in cluster analysis was found to be independent of their respective geographic locations. The cuttings of suckers and shoot top (2 months old) treated with indole-3-butyric acid (200 mg l -1 ) provide an alternative for the conservation of the diverse genetic materials to the researchers.

  13. A new species of Temnocephala (Platyhelminthes) with an unusual pharynx, including an amendment of the diagnosis of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De leÓn, Rodrigo Ponce; Volonterio, Odile

    2018-02-08

    Three species of Temnocephala have been reported on Aegla from Uruguay: Temnocephala axenos, Temnocephala mertoni and Temnocephala talicei. As part of a systematic review of the Uruguayan species of Temnocephala, a fourth species was found on Aegla platensis and Aegla uruguayana. This species, new for the genus, has the following diagnostic characters: Large temnocephalan; slightly curved penial stylet (225 µm in length) with a symmetrical introvert (27 long by 18 µm in diameter) that has at least 44 spine-like projections, each bearing 7 rows of internal spines; a seminal vesicle that opens sub-polarly into the contractile vesicle; a muscular vagina with a strong asymmetrical sphincter; preequatorial nephridiopores close to the internal borders of the elongate-oval excretory syncytia; a large pharynx with anterior and posterior sphincters of about the same diameter and a narrow pharyngeal lumen with nearly uniform width. To contemplate the characters of the pharynx, an amendment of the genus Temnocephala is given. The new species resembles Temnocephala cyanoglandula, which also has a very long, slightly curved penial stylet, but differs from it by having a shorter penial stylet, a lower number of rows of spines in the introvert, a larger, different type of pharynx, a smaller contractile vesicle and a larger sucker. The new species is carnivorous and feeds on whole preys, which are mainly annelids (Stratiodrilus) and other species of Temnocephala. The new species was found to be hyperparasitised by plerocercoid and nematode larvae, but hyperparasites were not found in the other sympatric species of Temnocephala. Based on the findings presented here, it is clear that detailed histological descriptions of the pharynx should be contemplated as part of the normal work in taxonomy of temnocephalans.

  14. PERFORMANCE OF ‘NANICÃO JANGADA’ BANANA PLANTS INTERCROPPED WITH WINTER COVER CROPS

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    RICARDO SFEIR DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of cover crops species may be an important strategy in the pursuit of sustainability of agroecosystems, considering benefits to soil, such as improvements of physical and chemical characteristics, and weed control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops and other soil managements on chemical soil properties, on the cycle, on the production of the first cycle and on the fruit quality of banana cv. Nanicão Jangada in Andirá – PR, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial. Planting of banana suckers from the grower area occurred in the first half of March 2011, with a spacing of 2.40 m between rows and 1.90 m between plants. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four replications and six plants per plot. The six treatments were: black oat (Avenastrigosa Schreb, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus, consortium of black oat and forage turnip, chicken litter, residues of banana plants, and bare ground. The evaluations were vegetative development and life cycle of banana plants, yield and quality of fruits, soil chemical characterstics, and fresh and dry mass of green manures. The results were submitted to ANOVA (F Test, and Tukey test at 5 % probability. Black oat and black oat with forage turnip consortium were superior in biomass production. Systems of soil management had no effect on the variables, except in the periods between planting and flowering and between planting and harvest, which were shorter in the treatment of soil management with crop residues, longer in the treatment with forage turnip, and intermediate in the other treatments.

  15. Stream hierarchy defines riverscape genetics of a North American desert fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopken, Matthew W; Douglas, Marlis R; Douglas, Michael E

    2013-02-01

    Global climate change is apparent within the Arctic and the south-western deserts of North America, with record drought in the latter reflected within 640,000 km(2) of the Colorado River Basin. To discern the manner by which natural and anthropogenic drivers have compressed Basin-wide fish biodiversity, and to establish a baseline for future climate effects, the Stream Hierarchy Model (SHM) was employed to juxtapose fluvial topography against molecular diversities of 1092 Bluehead Sucker (Catostomus discobolus). MtDNA revealed three geomorphically defined evolutionarily significant units (ESUs): Bonneville Basin, upper Little Colorado River and the remaining Colorado River Basin. Microsatellite analyses (16 loci) reinforced distinctiveness of the Bonneville Basin and upper Little Colorado River, but subdivided the Colorado River Basin into seven management units (MUs). One represents a cline of three admixed gene pools comprising the mainstem and its lower-gradient tributaries. Six others are not only distinct genetically but also demographically (i.e. migrants/generation <9.7%). Two of these (i.e. Grand Canyon and Canyon de Chelly) are defined by geomorphology, two others (i.e. Fremont-Muddy and San Raphael rivers) are isolated by sharp declivities as they drop precipitously from the west slope into the mainstem Colorado/Green rivers, another represents an isolated impoundment (i.e. Ringdahl Reservoir), while the last corresponds to a recognized subspecies (i.e. Zuni River, NM). Historical legacies of endemic fishes (ESUs) and their evolutionary potential (MUs) are clearly represented in our data, yet their arbiter will be the unrelenting natural and anthropogenic water depletions that will precipitate yet another conservation conflict within this unique but arid region. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of sugarcane cultivars early maturing, for the start of the sugar harvest, non-calcium soils sialitizados

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    Irenaldo Delgado Mora

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar of sugarcane is the one with high productivity when grown under different environmental conditions. The most critical periods in terms of manufacturing performance, occurs in the first stage of harvest (November-January, which has been a concern of producers and a challenge for breeders. Therefore, the objective of the work is to evaluate the cultivars cane early maturing sugar high sugar and stable performance in various environments, for the start of the sugar harvest in Sialitizados non-calcium soils, using cold plantations. The experimental phase of this work was done in the experimental block Spartacus, belonging to the Territorial Research Station Sugar Cane Villa Clara, strain cane plant and first sucker. By high sugar yields and low levels of reducing sugars was obtained as a result, be used for the month of December, C86-156, C90-469, C89-148, C90-501, C92-203 and C89-161, varieties for January C87-252, C89-148, C89-161, C89-250, C90-501 and C92-203, for February cultivars C87-252, C90-469 and C92-203. The cultivars C87-252, C89-148, C89-161, C90-501 and C92-203, are noted for their stability in the variables studied at the beginning of the sugar war. Economically, it is not recommended to use C89-246 to present pol 3.27 % less than the average of the leading cultivar and reducing sugar values are above 0.38 can cause big damages in the manufacturing process.

  17. Evolutionary novelty versus exaptation: oral kinematics in feeding versus climbing in the waterfall-climbing Hawaiian Goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

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    Joshua A Cullen

    Full Text Available Species exposed to extreme environments often exhibit distinctive traits that help meet the demands of such habitats. Such traits could evolve independently, but under intense selective pressures of extreme environments some existing structures or behaviors might be coopted to meet specialized demands, evolving via the process of exaptation. We evaluated the potential for exaptation to have operated in the evolution of novel behaviors of the waterfall-climbing gobiid fish genus Sicyopterus. These fish use an "inching" behavior to climb waterfalls, in which an oral sucker is cyclically protruded and attached to the climbing surface. They also exhibit a distinctive feeding behavior, in which the premaxilla is cyclically protruded to scrape diatoms from the substrate. Given the similarity of these patterns, we hypothesized that one might have been coopted from the other. To evaluate this, we filmed climbing and feeding in Sicyopterus stimpsoni from Hawai'i, and measured oral kinematics for two comparisons. First, we compared feeding kinematics of S. stimpsoni with those for two suction feeding gobiids (Awaous guamensis and Lentipes concolor, assessing what novel jaw movements were required for algal grazing. Second, we quantified the similarity of oral kinematics between feeding and climbing in S. stimpsoni, evaluating the potential for either to represent an exaptation from the other. Premaxillary movements showed the greatest differences between scraping and suction feeding taxa. Between feeding and climbing, overall profiles of oral kinematics matched closely for most variables in S. stimpsoni, with only a few showing significant differences in maximum values. Although current data cannot resolve whether oral movements for climbing were coopted from feeding, or feeding movements coopted from climbing, similarities between feeding and climbing kinematics in S. stimpsoni are consistent with evidence of exaptation, with modifications, between these

  18. Evolutionary novelty versus exaptation: oral kinematics in feeding versus climbing in the waterfall-climbing Hawaiian Goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Joshua A; Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Species exposed to extreme environments often exhibit distinctive traits that help meet the demands of such habitats. Such traits could evolve independently, but under intense selective pressures of extreme environments some existing structures or behaviors might be coopted to meet specialized demands, evolving via the process of exaptation. We evaluated the potential for exaptation to have operated in the evolution of novel behaviors of the waterfall-climbing gobiid fish genus Sicyopterus. These fish use an "inching" behavior to climb waterfalls, in which an oral sucker is cyclically protruded and attached to the climbing surface. They also exhibit a distinctive feeding behavior, in which the premaxilla is cyclically protruded to scrape diatoms from the substrate. Given the similarity of these patterns, we hypothesized that one might have been coopted from the other. To evaluate this, we filmed climbing and feeding in Sicyopterus stimpsoni from Hawai'i, and measured oral kinematics for two comparisons. First, we compared feeding kinematics of S. stimpsoni with those for two suction feeding gobiids (Awaous guamensis and Lentipes concolor), assessing what novel jaw movements were required for algal grazing. Second, we quantified the similarity of oral kinematics between feeding and climbing in S. stimpsoni, evaluating the potential for either to represent an exaptation from the other. Premaxillary movements showed the greatest differences between scraping and suction feeding taxa. Between feeding and climbing, overall profiles of oral kinematics matched closely for most variables in S. stimpsoni, with only a few showing significant differences in maximum values. Although current data cannot resolve whether oral movements for climbing were coopted from feeding, or feeding movements coopted from climbing, similarities between feeding and climbing kinematics in S. stimpsoni are consistent with evidence of exaptation, with modifications, between these behaviors. Such

  19. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  20. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, K.D.; Schulte, L.A.; Guntenspergen, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage logged. Within this former old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest, tree dominance has shifted from Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) to broad-leaf deciduous species (Ulmus americana, Acer saccharum, Tilia americana, Populus tremuloides, and Betula alleghaniensis) in both the salvaged and unsalvaged areas. While the biological legacies of pre-disturbance seedlings, saplings, and mature trees were initially more abundant in the unsalvaged area, regeneration through root suckers and stump sprouts was common in both areas. After 25 years, tree basal area, sapling density, shrub layer density, and seedling cover had converged between unsalvaged and salvaged areas. In contrast, understory herb communities differed between salvaged and unsalvaged forest, with salvaged forest containing significantly higher understory herb richness and cover, and greater dominance of species benefiting from disturbance, especially Solidago species. Soil bulk density, pH, organic carbon content, and organic nitrogen content were also significantly higher in the salvaged area. The structural legacy of tip-up microtopography remains more pronounced in the unsalvaged area, with significantly taller tip-up mounds and deeper pits. Mosses and some forest herbs, including Athyrium filix-femina and Hydrophyllum virginianum, showed strong positive responses to this tip-up microrelief, highlighting the importance of these structural legacies for understory biodiversity. In sum, although the pathways of recovery differed, this forest appeared to be as resilient to the compound disturbances of windthrow

  1. [Structure of the epithelium of the parasitic turbellaria Notenera ivanovi (Turbellaria: Fecampiida)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornakova, E E; Marchenkov, A V

    2000-01-01

    mainly the suckering tissue transporting the low molecular nutrients.

  2. Orders out of chaos--molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Novel molecular data are presented to resolve the long-standing issue of the non-monophyly of the elasmobranch-hosted tapeworm order Tetraphyllidea relative to the other acetabulate eucestode orders. Bayesian inference analyses of various combinations of full ssrDNA, and full or partial lsrDNA (D1-D3), sequence data, which included 134 species representing 97 genera across the 15 eucestode orders, were conducted. New ssrDNA data were generated for 82 species, partial lsrDNA data for 53 species, and full lsrDNA data for 29 species. The monophyly of each of the elasmobranch-hosted orders Cathetocephalidea, Litobothriidea, Lecanicephalidea and Rhinebothriidea was confirmed, as was the non-monophyly of the Tetraphyllidea. Two relatively stable groups of tetraphyllidean taxa emerged and are hereby designated as new orders. The Onchoproteocephalidea n. ord. is established to recognise the integrated nature of one undescribed and 10 described genera of hook-bearing tetraphyllideans, previously placed in the family Onchobothriidae, with the members of the order Proteocephalidea. The Phyllobothriidea n. ord. is established for a subset of 12 non-hooked genera characterised by scoleces bearing four bothridia each with an anterior accessory sucker; most parasitise sharks and have been assigned to the Phyllobothriidae at one time or another. Tentative ordinal placements are suggested for eight additional genera; placements for the remaining tetraphyllidean genera have not yet emerged. We propose that these 17 genera remain in the "Tetraphyllidea". Among these, particularly labile across analyses were Anthobothrium, Megalonchos, Carpobothrium, Calliobothrium and Caulobothrium. The unique association of Chimaerocestus with holocephalans, rather than with elasmobranchs, appears to represent a host-switching event. Both of the non-elasmobranch hosted clades of acetabulate cestodes (i.e. Proteocephalidea and Cyclophyllidea and their kin) appear to have had their origins with

  3. Local norms of cheating and the cultural evolution of crime and punishment: a study of two urban neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Gillian V.; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antisocial behavior varies across time and place. The likelihood of committing such behavior is affected by, and also affects, the local social environment. To further our understanding of this dynamic process, we conducted two studies of antisocial behavior, punishment, and social norms. These studies took place in two neighborhoods in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. According to a previous study, Neighborhood A enjoys relatively low frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and high levels of social capital. In contrast, Neighborhood B is characterized by relatively high frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and low levels of social capital. In Study 1, we used an economic game to assess neighborhood differences in theft, third-party punishment (3PP) of theft, and expectation of 3PP. Participants also reported their perceived neighborhood frequency of cooperative norm violation (“cheating”). Participants in Neighborhood B thought that their neighbors commonly cheat but did not condone cheating. They stole more money from their neighbors in the game, and were less punitive of those who did, than the residents of Neighborhood A. Perceived cheating was positively associated with theft, negatively associated with the expectation of 3PP, and central to the neighborhood difference. Lower trust in one’s neighbors and a greater subjective value of the monetary cost of punishment contributed to the reduced punishment observed in Neighborhood B. In Study 2, we examined the causality of cooperative norm violation on expectation of 3PP with a norms manipulation. Residents in Neighborhood B who were informed that cheating is locally uncommon were more expectant of 3PP. In sum, our results provide support for three potentially simultaneous positive feedback mechanisms by which the perception that others are behaving antisocially can lead to further antisocial behavior: (1) motivation to avoid being suckered, (2) decreased punishment of

  4. Local norms of cheating and the cultural evolution of crime and punishment: a study of two urban neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Kari Britt; Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antisocial behavior varies across time and place. The likelihood of committing such behavior is affected by, and also affects, the local social environment. To further our understanding of this dynamic process, we conducted two studies of antisocial behavior, punishment, and social norms. These studies took place in two neighborhoods in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. According to a previous study, Neighborhood A enjoys relatively low frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and high levels of social capital. In contrast, Neighborhood B is characterized by relatively high frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and low levels of social capital. In Study 1, we used an economic game to assess neighborhood differences in theft, third-party punishment (3PP) of theft, and expectation of 3PP. Participants also reported their perceived neighborhood frequency of cooperative norm violation ("cheating"). Participants in Neighborhood B thought that their neighbors commonly cheat but did not condone cheating. They stole more money from their neighbors in the game, and were less punitive of those who did, than the residents of Neighborhood A. Perceived cheating was positively associated with theft, negatively associated with the expectation of 3PP, and central to the neighborhood difference. Lower trust in one's neighbors and a greater subjective value of the monetary cost of punishment contributed to the reduced punishment observed in Neighborhood B. In Study 2, we examined the causality of cooperative norm violation on expectation of 3PP with a norms manipulation. Residents in Neighborhood B who were informed that cheating is locally uncommon were more expectant of 3PP. In sum, our results provide support for three potentially simultaneous positive feedback mechanisms by which the perception that others are behaving antisocially can lead to further antisocial behavior: (1) motivation to avoid being suckered, (2) decreased punishment of antisocial

  5. Climatic Forcing on Black Sigatoka Disease of Banana Crops in Urabá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, A.; Álvarez, P.; Poveda, G.; Buriticá, P.; Mira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bananas are widely the most consumed fruit in the world and Colombia is one of the major producers and exporters of bananas worldwide. We analyzed the climatic forcing agents on banana crops in the Urabá region, the largest banana producer in Colombia. Although this crop is harvested continuously throughout the entire year, it exhibits climate driven seasonality. Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) has been the most important threat for banana production worldwide. BSD attacks plant leaves producing small spots of dead material. When BSD is not treated, it can grow enough to damage the entire leaf, reducing both growth and developmental rates which may result in the loss of the plant. BSD is caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. This fungus is dispersed by wind with its inoculation occurring when there is water on the leaf. Thus, climatic variables such as wind, relative humidity of air (RH) and leaf wetness duration (LWD) all affect phenological phases of the banana crop (suckering, growing, flowering and harvesting). This study was carried out at the Cenibanano Experimental Plot located in Carepa (Urabá, Colombia) during 2007-2012. We used phytopathologic and weather data from the Cenibanano database along with climatic data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). BSD was diagnosed using the Biological Forecasting method. Results show that rainfall drives both plant and disease development rate. During wet periods the Foliar Emission Rate exceeds rates measured during dry periods. Although wetness is a positive factor for fungal reproduction (and BSD), it also heightens the chance for the plant to create more foliar tissue to fight against BSD. Hence, during wet periods the Severity Index of BSD is reduced in relation to dry periods. This effect was also observed at the inter-annual scale of the El Niño - South Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. During the ENSO warm/cold phase (El Niño/La Niña) rainfall anomalies in Colombia were observed as negative

  6. Test results for the Oasis 3C high performance water-pumping windmill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggleston, D.M. [DME Engineering, Midland, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The WINDTech International, L.L.C. Oasis 3C, a 3 m diameter, high-performance water-pumping windmill, was tested at the DME Engineering Wind Test Site just south of Midland, Texas from August through December, 1996. This machine utilizes a 3:1 gearbox with rotating counterweights, similar to a conventional oilfield pumping unit, driven by a multibladed rotor. The rotating counterweight system balances most of the pumping loads and reduces gear loads and starting torque by a factor of at least two and often by a factor of four or more. The torque reduction substantially extends gear and bearing life, and reduces wind speeds required for starting by 30 to 50% or more. The O3C was tested pumping from a quiescent fluid depth of 12.2 m (40 ft) from a 28.3 m (93 ft)-deep well, with additional pumping depth simulated using a pressure regulator valve system. A 9.53 cm (3.75 in.) diameter Harbison-Fischer seal-less single-acting piston pump was used to eliminate pump seal friction as a variable, and standard O3C stroke lengths of 30.5 and 15.2 cm (12 and 6 inches) were used. The regulator spring was set to give a maximum stroke rate of 33 strokes per minute. The water pumped was returned to the well after flowing through a settling tank. The tests were performed in accordance with AWEA WECS testing standards. Instrumentation provided 16 channels of data to accurately measure machine performance, including starting wind speeds, flow rates, O3C azimuth, tail furl angle, wind direction tracking errors, RPM, sucker rod loads, and other variables. The most significant performance data is summarized herein. A mathematical model of machine performance was developed that fairly accurately predicts performance for each of three test conditions. The results verify that the O3C is capable of pumping water at wind speeds from 30% to more than 50% lower than comparable un-counterbalanced units.

  7. Intertidal life: field observations on the clingfish Gobiesox barbatulus in southeastern Brazil

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    Tiago H. S Pires

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The clingfish Gobiesox barbatulus shows nocturnal feeding activity, spending most part of the day stationary and adhered to the inferior part of stones. To feed, this species uses the sit-and-wait and particulate feeding tactics. It shows a carnivorous feeding habit mostly consuming small benthic crustaceans. It can move in two ways: (1 "stone-by-stone", sliding its ventral sucker disc across each stone and (2 "surf", when it takes advantage of the energy of the ebbing tide to quickly cross a distance up to four times its body length. Its reproductive season occurs between the end of spring and the beginning of summer, during which time it lays about 2,000 adhesive eggs of 1 mm each in a single layer under stones. It has more than one egg-laying session per reproductive season, therefore showing several different developmental stages. It performs fanning, mouthing and guarding of the eggs as forms of parental care. Data shown here also indicates that G. barbatulus has some shelter fidelity, being probably territorial.O peixe-pregador Gobiesox barbatulus apresenta atividade alimentar noturna, permanecendo estacionário e aderido à parte inferior de pedras durante a maior parte do dia. Para se alimentar utiliza as táticas de espreita e consumo de material particulado. Apresenta hábito alimentar carnívoro e ingere principalmente crustáceos bentônicos. Locomove-se principalmente de duas formas: (1 "pedra-a-pedra", deslizando seu disco adesivo ventral por sobre pedras adjacentes e (2 "surfe", quando se aproveita da energia da maré vazante para percorrer rapidamente distâncias de até quatro vezes seu tamanho. A época reprodutiva desta espécie ocorre entre o final da primavera e início do verão, quando deposita aproximadamente 2.000 ovos adesivos de 1 mm de diâmetro cada e dispostos em uma única camada na parte inferior de pedras. Possui mais de uma desova por estação reprodutiva e, portanto, contendo ovos em diferentes estágios de

  8. Characterization of 28S rRNA sequences of cestoda parasite Electrotaenia malapteruri Fritsch, 1886 from the Electric catfish Malapterurus electricus (Siluriformes: Malapteruridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Alajmi, Reem; Quraishy, Saleh Al; Morsy, Kareem; Rasheid, Khaled Al

    2018-07-01

    Proteocephalids are cestoda parasites that mostly infect freshwater fish. The present study was carried out to investigate the presence of proteocephalids infecting the electric catfish Malapterurus electricus from Lake Manzala, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Morphological characterization revealed the present parasite is a cestoda belonging to the genus Electrotaenia. Morphologically, the recovered worms were characterized by an elongated body measuring 100-127 (120 ± 2) mm long and 0.92-2.11 (2.76 ± 0.1) mm wide. The anterior part of the worm was obvious terminated at a spherical scolex measured 1.12-1.91 (1.72 ± 0.01) mm long and 1.12-1.65 (1.42 ± 0.01) mm wide with a rostellum-like apical organ equipped by 5-6 irregular rows of minute hooklets, as well as four uniloculate suckers with a diameter of 0.13-0.15 (0.14 ± 0.01) mm and covered with microtriches. A long unsegmented neck was observed followed by acraspedote and anapolytic strobila consisted of 85-120 proglottids divided into 50-58 immature, 12-19 mature, and up to 49 gravid proglottids. Molecular characterization based on 28S rRNA sequences was done to confirm the taxonomy of this parasite based on its morphology. It was observed that there was a close identity up to 72.0% with other protocephalid species obtained for comparison from the GenBank. Also, the data obtained revealed that there was high blast scores and low divergence between the present parasite and previously described Electrotaenia malapteruri (acc. no. JX477434). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the parasite sequence in conjunction with existing data investigates the placement of this protocephalid species within Proteocephalidea. It was shown that the present species is deeply embedded in the genus Electrotaenia with close relationships to other Electrotaenia malapteruri as a putative sister taxon. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Detecting local establishment strategies of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed

  10. Identification and characterization of paramyosin from cyst wall of metacercariae implicated protective efficacy against Clonorchis sinensis infection.

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    Xiaoyun Wang

    Full Text Available Human clonorchiasis has been increasingly prevalent in recent years and results in a threat to the public health in epidemic regions, motivating current strategies of vaccines to combat Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis. In this study, we identified C. sinensis paramyosin (CsPmy from the cyst wall proteins of metacercariae by proteomic approaches and characterized the expressed recombinant pET-26b-CsPmy protein (101 kDa. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that full-length sequences of paramyosin are conserved in helminthes and numerous B-cell/T-cell epitopes were predicted in amino acid sequence of CsPmy. Western blot analysis showed that CsPmy was expressed at four life stages of C. sinensis, both cyst wall proteins and soluble tegumental components could be probed by anti-CsPmy serum. Moreover, immunolocalization results revealed that CsPmy was specifically localized at cyst wall and excretory bladder of metacercaria, as well as the tegument, oral sucker and vitellarium of adult worm. Both immunoblot and immunolocalization results demonstrated that CsPmy was highly expressed at the stage of adult worm, metacercariae and cercaria, which could be supported by real-time PCR analysis. Both recombinant protein and nucleic acid of CsPmy showed strong immunogenicity in rats and induced combined Th1/Th2 immune responses, which were reflected by continuous high level of antibody titers and increased level of IgG1/IgG2a subtypes in serum. In vaccine trials, comparing with control groups, both CsPmy protein and DNA vaccine exhibited protective effect with significant worm reduction rate of 54.3% (p<0.05 and 36.1% (p<0.05, respectively. In consistence with immune responses in sera, elevated level of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 in splenocytes suggested that CsPmy could induce combined cellular immunity and humoral immunity in host. Taken together, CsPmy could be a promising vaccine candidate in the prevention of C. sinensis regarding its high immunogenicity

  11. Redescription and Molecular Assessment of Relationships Among Three Species of Echeneibothrium (Rhinebothriidea: Echeneibothriidae) Parasitizing the Yellownose Skate, Dipturus chilensis, in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Veronica M; Caira, Janine N

    2017-06-01

    Much progress has recently been made in revising the taxonomic assignments of genera originally classified in the polyphyletic "Tetraphyllidea." Many of these genera, including Echeneibothrium, were accommodated in the order Rhinebothriidea. However, beyond this larger taxonomic action, little work has been conducted on this genus over the past 50 yr. Consequently, the criteria used for characterizing species of Echeneibothrium have lagged behind those typically used in more modern descriptions of elasmobranch-hosted cestode taxa. A series of collecting trips to Chile to obtain cestodes from the yellownose skate, Dipturus chilensis , provided a unique opportunity to apply modern morphological and molecular methods to investigate the 3 species of Echeneibothrium reported parasitizing this skate, specifically Echeneibothrium megalosoma, Echeneibothrium multiloculatum, and Echeneibothrium williamsi. In addition to redescribing all 3 species, using morphological data from light and scanning electron microscopy, maximum likelihood and bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses of the D1-D3 regions of the 28S rDNA gene were conducted to assess their relationships among other echeneibothriids for which comparable data are available. Sequencing of 59 specimens representing these 3 species of Echeneibothrium allowed us to assess the intra- and interspecific variation in the 28S rDNA gene. The redescriptions use standardized terminology for scolex morphology, proglottid anatomy, and microthrix forms and pattern; they also expand on the original descriptions to include data on scolex size, ovary size, vas deferens and vaginal configurations, testes arrangement, and genital pore position. Our morphological work led to a major reinterpretation of the scolex morphology with the recognition that all 3 species bear an apical bothridial sucker, rather than an apical loculus, prompting emendation of the diagnosis for the family Echeneibothriidae. The presence of a band of spinitriches

  12. Pseudocrepidobothrium eirasi, (Rego e de Chambrier, 1995 gen. n., comb. nov. (Cestoda, Proteocephalidea, parasita de um peixe de água doce da América do Sul, e análise cladística comparativa com Crepidobothriu Pseudocrepidobothrium eirasi (Rego and de Chambrier, 1995 gen. n. and comb. nov. (Cestoda, Proteocephalidea, parasite of a South American freshwater fish, and comparative cladistic analysis with Crepidobothrium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Arandas Rego

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi revisada a morfologia de Crepidobothrium eirasi Rego and Chambrier, 1995, e feita uma análise cladística das seis espécies de Crepidobothrium Monticelli, 1900 [ viz. C. eirasi, C. gerrardi (Baird, 1860, C. viperis (Beddard, 1913, C. dollfusi Freze, 1965, C. garzoni de Chambrier, 1988 e C.lachesidis (MacCallum, 1921], utilizando-se 23 caracteres e um grupo externo. Obtiveram-se duas árvores com parcimônia e 0,76 de indice de consistência. Ambas as árvores coincidem na posição de C. eirasi, o que sugere que Crepidobothrium é monofilético apenas quando C. eirasi é excluído do gênero. O novo gênero Pseudocrepidobothrium é proposto para alojar C. eirasi, e assim a monofilia de Crepidobothrium pode ser mantida. Pseudocrepidobothrium eirasi comb. n. é a única espécie parasita de peixe que possui ventosas sulcadas, enquanto todas as espécies de Crepidobothrium são parasitas de répteis da América do SulThe morphology of Crepidobothrium eirasi Rego and de Chambrier, 1995 was revised and a cladistic analysis was performed on the six known species of Crepidobothrium Monticelli, 1900, namely, C. eirasi, C. Gerrardi (Baird, 1860, C. Viperis (Beddard, 1913, C. Dollfusi Freze, 1965, C. Garzoni de Chambrier, 1988 and C. Lachesidis (MacCallum, 1921, using 23 characters and one outgroup. This analysis yielded two parsimonious trees with 0.76 consistency index. Both trees concur in the position of C. Eirasi, and suggest that Crepidobothrium is monophyletic only when C. eirasi is excluded from the genus. The new genus Pseudocrepidobothrium has been built to allocate C. Eirasi, so that the monophyly of Crepidobothrium may be maintained. Pseudocrepidobothrium eirasi n. comb. is the only species from a fish with notched suckers, while all Crepidobothrium spp. are parasites of South American reptiles

  13. Anfíbios Anuros do Distrito Federal The Frogs of the Federal District of Brazil

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    Bertha Lutz

    1954-03-01

    larvae and direct development. (B Lutz, 1948. The author interprets the morphological specialization of the casque-headed Hylids and the biological specialization of the montane forest forms as adaptive. Casque-headedness and phragmosis increase protection against blood-suckers and predators. The humidity of the rain forest permits eggs, embryos and larvae to develop, unharmed, outside their usual, aquatic, environment.

  14. Application of the target fish community model to an urban river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixler, Marcia S

    2011-04-01

    Several models have been developed to assess the biological integrity of aquatic systems using fish community data. One of these, the target fish community (TFC) model, has been used primarily to assess the biological integrity of larger, mainstem rivers in southern New England with basins characterized by dispersed human activities. We tested the efficacy of the TFC approach to specify the fish community in the highly urbanized Charles River watershed in eastern Massachusetts. To create a TFC for the Charles River we assembled a list of fish species that historically inhabited the Charles River watershed, identified geomorphically and zoogeographically similar reference rivers regarded as being in high quality condition, amassed fish survey data for the reference rivers, and extracted from the collections the information needed to define a TFC. We used a similarity measurement method to assess the extent to which the study river community complies with the TFC and an inference approach to summarize the manner in which the existing fish community differed from target conditions. The five most abundant species in the TFC were common shiners (34%), fallfish (17%) redbreast sunfish (11%), white suckers (8%), and American eel (7%). Three of the five species predicted to be most abundant in the TFC were scarce or absent in the existing river community. Further, the river was dominated by macrohabitat generalists (99%) while the TFC was predicted to contain 19% fluvial specialist species, 43% fluvial dependent species, and 38% macrohabitat generalist species. In addition, while the target community was dominated by fish intolerant (37%) and moderately tolerant (39%) of water quality degradation, the existing community was dominated by tolerant individuals (59%) and lacked intolerant species expected in the TFC. Similarity scores for species, habitat use specialization, and water quality degradation tolerance categories were 28%, 35% and 66%, respectively. The clear

  15. Local norms of cheating and the cultural evolution of crime and punishment: a study of two urban neighborhoods

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    Kari Britt Schroeder

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antisocial behavior varies across time and place. The likelihood of committing such behavior is affected by, and also affects, the local social environment. To further our understanding of this dynamic process, we conducted two studies of antisocial behavior, punishment, and social norms. These studies took place in two neighborhoods in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. According to a previous study, Neighborhood A enjoys relatively low frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and high levels of social capital. In contrast, Neighborhood B is characterized by relatively high frequencies of antisocial behavior and crime and low levels of social capital. In Study 1, we used an economic game to assess neighborhood differences in theft, third-party punishment (3PP of theft, and expectation of 3PP. Participants also reported their perceived neighborhood frequency of cooperative norm violation (“cheating”. Participants in Neighborhood B thought that their neighbors commonly cheat but did not condone cheating. They stole more money from their neighbors in the game, and were less punitive of those who did, than the residents of Neighborhood A. Perceived cheating was positively associated with theft, negatively associated with the expectation of 3PP, and central to the neighborhood difference. Lower trust in one’s neighbors and a greater subjective value of the monetary cost of punishment contributed to the reduced punishment observed in Neighborhood B. In Study 2, we examined the causality of cooperative norm violation on expectation of 3PP with a norms manipulation. Residents in Neighborhood B who were informed that cheating is locally uncommon were more expectant of 3PP. In sum, our results provide support for three potentially simultaneous positive feedback mechanisms by which the perception that others are behaving antisocially can lead to further antisocial behavior: (1 motivation to avoid being suckered, (2 decreased

  16. Mercury Concentrations in Fish and Sediment within Streams are Influenced by Watershed and Landscape Variables including Historical Gold Mining in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, C. N.; Yee, J. L.; Ackerman, J. T.; Orlando, J. L.; Slotton, D. G.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    We compiled available data on total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish tissue and streambed sediment from stream sites in the Sierra Nevada, California, to assess whether spatial data, including information on historical mining, can be used to make robust predictions of fish fillet tissue THg concentrations. A total of 1,271 fish from five species collected at 103 sites during 1980-2012 were used for the modeling effort: 210 brown trout, 710 rainbow trout, 79 Sacramento pikeminnow, 93 Sacramento sucker, and 179 smallmouth bass. Sediment data were used from 73 sites, including 106 analyses of THg and 77 analyses of MeHg. The dataset included 391 fish (mostly rainbow trout) and 28 sediment samples collected explicitly for this study during 2011-12. Spatial data on historical mining included the USGS Mineral Resources Data System and publicly available maps and satellite photos showing the areas of hydraulic mine pits and other placer mines. Modeling was done using multivariate linear regression and multi-model inference using Akaike Information Criteria. Results indicate that fish THg, accounting for species and length, can be predicted using geospatial data on mining history together with other landscape characteristics including land use/land cover. A model requiring only geospatial data, with an R2 value of 0.61, predicted fish THg correctly with respect to over-or-under 0.2 μg/g wet weight (a California regulatory threshold) for 108 of 121 (89 %) size-species combinations tested. Data for THg in streambed sediment did not improve the geospatial-only model. However, data for sediment MeHg, loss on ignition (organic content), and percent of sediment less than 0.063 mm resulted in a slightly improved model, with an R2 value of 0.63. It is anticipated that these models will be useful to the State of California and others to predict areas where mercury concentrations in fish are likely to exceed regulatory criteria.

  17. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  18. Surface topography and ultrastructural architecture of the tegument of adult Carmyerius spatiosus Brandes, 1898.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuracpreeda, Panat; Phutong, Sumittra; Ngamniyom, Arin; Panyarachun, Busaba; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-03-01

    Adult Carmyerius spatiosus or stomach fluke has an elongate, cylindrical-shaped, straight to slightly curved body, with conical anterior end and truncated posterior end. The worm measures about 8.7-11.2mm in body length and 2.3-3.0mm in body width across the mid-section. When observed by SEM, the tegumental surface in all part of the body appears highly corrugated with ridges and furrows, and having no spines. The ventral surface has more complex corrugation than those of the dorsal surface. Both anterior and posterior suckers have thick edges covered with transverse folds and appear spineless. The genital pore is located at the anterior part of the body. There are two types of sensory papillae on the surface: type 1 is bulbous in shape with nipple-like tips; type 2 has a similar shape with short cilia on the tip. The dorsal surface exhibits similar surface features, but papillae appear less numerous and are smaller. When observed by TEM, the tegument is divided into four layers. The first layer includes the ridges and furrows which are covered by a trilaminate membrane underlined by a dense lamina and coated externally with the glycocalyx. The second layer of the tegument is a narrow region of cytoplasm that contains high concentrations of ovoid electron lucent tegumental granules (TG1), and disc-shaped electron dense tegumental granules (TG2) as well as lysosomes. TG1 close to the surface invariably exocytose their content into bottoms of the ridges, while some TG2 are fused and have their membrane joined up with the surface membrane. The third layer is the widest middle area of the tegument which contains numerous and evenly distributed mitochondria. Both TG1 and TG2 granules are present but in much fewer number than in the first and second layers. The fourth layer is the innermost zone that rests on and couples with a thick basal lamina. The cytoplasm in this layer is loosely packed and contains numerous infoldings of the basal plasma membrane with closely

  19. A new species of Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parasitizing Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata from northeastern Argentina Una especie nueva de Mathevotaenia (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae parásita de Tropidurus spinulosus (Reptilia, Squamata del noreste de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Inés Lunaschi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae from a Spiny Lava Lizard, Tropidurus spinulosus, collected in Chaco Province, Argentina, is described. This is the second species of Mathevotaenia described from Neotropical reptiles. The new species is mainly characterized by having a relatively small strobila, 24 mm in total length, with about 100 craspedote proglottids, and 19-24 testes per proglottid. Among the South American species of Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis is most similar to the new species by having similar body length and number of testes, but the major differences between both species include the size of suckers, neck, proglottids, testes and egg capsules, and the shape of the genital atrium and ovary (with 10-13 lobules on each side in M. argentinensis,, and 4-7 lobules in M. chaquensis n. sp.. A key to the species of the South American members of the Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946 is presented.Mathevotaenia chaquensis n. sp. (Cestoda, Anoplocephalidae, Linstowiinae es descrita parasitando al lagarto de los quebrachales, Tropidurus spinulosus, procedente de la Provincia del Chaco, Argentina. Esta es la segunda especie de Mathevotaenia descrita parasitando reptiles Neotropicales. La nueva especie está caracterizada principalmente por tener un estróbilo relativamente pequeño, 24 mm de largo, con aproximadamente 100 proglótides craspedotas y 19-24 testículos por proglótide. Entre las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia, M. argentinensis es la más semejante a la nueva especie por presentar similar longitud del cuerpo y número de testículos, pero difieren en el tamaño de las ventosas, cuello, proglótides, testículos y huevos. Además difieren en la forma del atrio genital y del ovario (10-13 lóbulos a cada lado enM. argentinensis vs. 4-7 lóbulos en M. chaquensis n. sp.. Se presenta una clave para la determinación de las especies sudamericanas de Mathevotaenia Akumyan, 1946.

  20. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Limnological and Fisheries Monitoring, Annual Report 2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chuck; Scofield, Ben; Pavlik, Deanne

    2003-03-01

    A slightly dryer than normal year yielded flows in Lake Roosevelt that were essentially equal to the past ten year average. Annual mean inflow and outflow were 3,160.3 m3/s and 3,063.4 m3/s respectively. Mean reservoir elevation was 387.2 m above sea level at the Grand Coulee Dam forebay. The forebay elevation was below the mean elevation for a total of 168 days. During the first half of the 2000 forebay elevation changed at a rate of 0.121 m/d and during the last half changed at a rate of 0.208 m/d. The higher rate of elevation change earlier in the year is due to the drawdown to accommodate spring runoff. Mean annual water retention time was 40 days. Annual mean total dissolved gas was 108%. Total dissolved gas was greatest at upriver locations (110% = US/Canada Border annual mean) and decreased moving toward Grand Coulee Dam (106% = Grand Coulee Dam Forebay annual mean). Total dissolved gas was greatest in May (122% reservoir wide monthly mean). Gas bubble trauma was observed in 16 fish primarily largescale suckers and was low in severity. Reservoir wide mean temperatures were greatest in August (19.5 C) and lowest in January (5.5 C). The Spokane River and Sanpoil River Arms experienced higher temperatures than the mainstem reservoir. Brief stratification was observed at the Sanpoil River shore location in July. Warm water temperatures in the Spokane Arm contributed to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in August (2.6 mg/L at 33 m). However, decomposition of summer algal biomass was likely the main cause of depressed dissolved oxygen concentrations. Otherwise, dissolved oxygen profiles were relatively uniform throughout the water column across other sampling locations. Annual mean Secchi depth throughout the reservoir was 5.7 m. Nutrient concentrations were generally low, however, annual mean total phosphorus (0.016 mg/L) was in the mesotrophic range. Annual mean total nitrogen was in the meso-oligotrophic range. Total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratios were

  1. Remedial Investigation of Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River - 13603

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, J.A.; Hulstrom, L.C. [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Sands, J.P. [U.S Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In south-central Washington State, the Columbia River flows through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. A primary objective of the Hanford Site cleanup mission is protection of the Columbia River, through remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater that resulted from its weapons production mission. Within the Columbia River system, surface water, sediment, and biota samples related to potential Hanford Site hazardous substance releases have been collected since the start of Hanford operations. The impacts from release of Hanford Site radioactive substances to the Columbia River in areas upstream, within, and downstream of the Hanford Site boundary have been previously investigated as mandated by the U.S. Department of Energy requirements under the Atomic Energy Act. The Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Hanford Site Releases to the Columbia River [1] was issued in 2008 to initiate assessment of the impacts under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [2]. The work plan established a phased approach to characterize contaminants, assess current risks, and determine whether or not there is a need for any cleanup actions. Field investigation activities over a 120-mile stretch of the Columbia River began in October 2008 and were completed in 2010. Sampled media included surface water, pore water, surface and core sediment, island soil, and fish (carp, walleye, whitefish, sucker, small-mouth bass, and sturgeon). Information and sample results from the field investigation were used to characterize current conditions within the Columbia River and assess whether current conditions posed a risk to ecological or human receptors that would merit additional study or response actions under CERCLA. The human health and ecological risk assessments are documented in reports that were published in 2012 [3, 4]. Conclusions from the risk assessment reports are being summarized and integrated with remedial investigation

  2. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross compliance standard Maintenance of olive groves in good vegetative condition in avoiding the deterioration of habitats and land abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Santilli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The last CAP reform (Council Regulation (EC n. 1782/2003, coincided with the mandatory obligations of the principles of cross compliance, under which all compensatory payments given in the context of the former reform packages were replaced by a Single Payment Scheme (SPS, bound to fulfillment of certain requirements and minimum standards regarding the environment and animal welfare, as well as maintaining the land in good agricultural and environmental conditions. For the olive sector, where potential risks are mainly associated to the abandonment of groves in marginal areas with consequent negative environmental impact, it has been specifically established the standard 4.3 of the Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC which concerns the Maintenance of olive groves and vines in good vegetative conditions. This GAEC standard was formulated to ensure a minimum level of land maintenance and to avoid the deterioration of habitats. To achieve these objectives it should be considered that a good vegetative development is strictly related to the care of the soil in which the plants grow. Erosion, organic matter and soil structure decay are the most commonly identified impacts for olive orchards, 30% of which are localized in areas with difficult orographic conditions. In this sense, proper hydraulic and mechanical techniques, cover cropping, green manuring and timely pruning turns, are essential to minimize losses due to soil erosion, to limit the leaching of nutrients and to maintain the plant productivity. Furthermore, grinded pruning residues should be spread in situ and weeds, watersprouts and suckers should be periodically cut off in order to increase the atmospheric CO2 sequestration and soil organic matter (OM and to prevent wildfires risk and nutrients competition. The application of the standard 4.3 requires further investigations, because, while numerous studies have shown that pruning is essential for the production, there are

  3. Streamflow investigations on a reach of Hobble Creek near Springville, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, Steven J.

    2017-07-27

    The Central Utah Water Conservancy District (CUWCD) is proposing to deliver supplemental flow to Hobble Creek from Strawberry Reservoir through the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline. A substantial portion of the supplemental water is intended to benefit June Sucker recovery and other fish and wildlife along Hobble Creek. The objective of this study was to determine gains or losses of water in a section of Hobble Creek between the Island Dam and the Swenson Dam (the primary study reach) during different seasons and flow conditions.Paired measurements of flow in Hobble Creek were made during June to November 2016, at sites bracketing the primary study reach from site HC3 to HC6. These measurements showed increased streamflow in this reach that ranged from 6.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to 9.3 ft3/s. During August and November, two sets of measurements were made at several locations along the study reach to document baseline conditions, and then an additional amount of water (a pulse of about 9–10 ft3/s) from Strawberry Reservoir through the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline, was added to the reach. During the August 23 measurements, the average change at the upstream site (HC3) relative to the pulse was 9.3 ft3/s, and the average change at the downstream site (HC6) was about 8.4 ft3/s, leaving about 0.9 ft3/s of the additional water unaccounted for at site HC6. However, there was no significant difference between the net streamflow volume at sites HC3 and HC6 associated with the pulse that would indicate water was being lost. During the November 7–9 streamflow measurements, the average change in discharge at site HC3 relative to an increase in flow from the Mapleton-Springville Lateral pipeline (the pulse) was 9.6 ft3/s, and the average change at site HC6 was about 9.8 ft3/s. On the basis of these measurements it appears that the entire amount of the pulse added to the stream at site HC3 was accounted for at site HC6. Additionally, there was no

  4. Comparison of physical chewing measures to consumer typed Mouth Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Arran; Jeltema, Melissa; Morgenstern, Marco P; Motoi, Lidia; Kim, Esther; Hedderley, Duncan

    2018-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypotheses that when presented with foods that could be chewed in different ways, (1) are participants jaw movements and chewing sequence measures correlated with Mouth Behavior (MB) group, as measured by the JBMB typing tool? (2) can MB group membership can be predicted from jaw movement and chewing sequence measures? One hundred subjects (69 female and 31 male, mean age 27 ± 7.7 years) were given four different foods (Mentos, Walkers, Cheetos Puffs, Twix) and video recordings of their jaw movements made. Twenty-nine parameters were calculated on each chewing sequence with 27 also calculated for the first half and second half of chewing sequence. Subjects were assigned to a MB group using the JBMB typing tool which gives four MB groups ("Chewers," "Crunchers," "Smooshers," and "Suckers"). The differences between individual chewing parameters and MB group were assessed with analysis of variance which showed only small differences in average chewing parameters between the MB groups. By using discriminant analysis, it was possible to partially discriminate between MB groups based on changes in their chewing parameters between foods with different material properties and stages of the chewing. A 19-variable model correctly predicted 68% of the subjects' membership of a MB group. This partially confirms our first hypothesis that when presented with foods that could be chewed in different ways participants will use a chewing sequence and jaw movements that correlate with their MB as measured by the JBMB typing tool. The way consumers chew their food has an impact on their texture perception of that food. While there is a wide range of chewing behaviors between consumers, they can be grouped into broad categories to better target both product design and product testing by sensory panel. In this study, consumers who were grouped on their texture preference (MB group) had jaw movements, when chewing a range of foods, which

  5. On eradication of woody plants with herbicides in fields and pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Mukula

    1950-01-01

    the beginning of July. If treated early in spring, many new sprouts develop on stems and branches; if treated late in summer, artificial hormones do not kill leaves effectively enough. The leaves of young sprouts and suckers die more readily than those of old tall trees and shrubs. It is possible to 2prevent the regeneration of alder almost completely by sprayings in one summer, if sprouts do not grow from the stumps of very tall trees. Willow, birch, mountain ash, and aspen often show slight regeneration in the following summer. The results obtained with sprayings with artificial hormones confirm with slight exceptions the results of earlier investigations (1, 4,5, 6, 12, 23, 24. It is possible to kill the leaves of sprouts by sprayings with chlorate and chresol, but such treatment does not prevent the development of new sprouts. Aqueous solutions of the investigated types of artificial hormones can be effectively applied to alders through a cut branch (fig. 9. Water-insoluble artificial hormones cannot be thus absorbed. Solutions of low concentrations are absorbed more easily than those of high concentrations. The amount of active substance used, however, is for the latter type greater than for the former. Relatively tall alders, and their roots, can thus be killed. But tall willows, birches, mountain ashes, and aspens are not killed, if the substance is applied to one branch only. The necessary amount of substance is even for alder so great that this method cannot be recommended for general practice. Solutions absorbed through cut branches are chiefly transported to different parts of the plant in the xylem. Because of the transpiration stream their translocation downwards in the xylem is very difficult. If transpiration stream, however, is prevented by cutting the stem above the absorbing branch, the substance travels vigorously towards the roots, at least in July and August. Based on this, it has been suggested that high thickets of sprouts (and suckers as well

  6. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, Progress Report 1996-1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, Angelo; Bailey, Dee; Peters, Ron

    2003-06-01

    fishes in Coeur d'Alene Lake from 1997 to 1998. Four out of the six most commonly sampled species are non-native. Northern pikeminnow and largescale suckers are the only native species among the six most commonly sampled. Northern pikeminnow comprise 8-9% of the electroshocking catch and 18-20% of the gillnet catch. Largescale suckers comprise 24-28% of the electroshocking catch and 9-21% of the gillnet catch. Cutthroat trout and mountain whitefish, on the other hand, comprise less than 1% of the catch when using electroshocking methods and about 1.4% of the gillnet catch. Since 1994, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water and Wildlife Program has conducted an extensive mark-recapture study (Peters et al. 1999). To date, 636 fish have been tagged and 23 fish have been recaptured. We are finding that northern pike have a tendency to migrate from the original sampling site, while largemouth bass appear very territorial, rarely moving from the site where they were tagged. Both species are most commonly associated with shallow, near-shore habitats, where the potential for encountering seasonal migrations of cutthroat trout is maximized. Low-order tributaries provide the most important spawning habitat for cutthroat trout on the Reservation. The mapped distribution of potentially suitable spawning gravel was patchy and did not vary considerably within reaches or between watersheds. Furthermore, the quantity of spawning gravel was low, averaging just 4.1% of measured stream area. The lack of a strong association between spawning gravel abundance and several reach characteristics (gradient, proportion of gravel and pea gravel) corroborates the findings of other authors who suggest that local hydrologic features influence spawning gravel availability. Although the distribution of spawning substrate was patchy within the target watersheds, there is probably adequate habitat to support resident and adfluvial spawners because of currently depressed numbers. Spawning gravels

  7. Insetos Sugadores (Sternorrhyncha em Cultivo Orgânico de Tangerina cv. Poncã (Citrus reticulata Blanco: Diversidade, Constância, Freqüência e Flutuação Populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Costa Rodrigues

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar a diversidade, constância, freqüência e a flutuação populacional de insetos sugadores da subordem Sternorrhyncha associados à tangerina cv. Poncã sob o sistema de cultivo orgânico. Os levantamentos foram realizados entre outubro de 2002 e outubro de 2003. Dentre os aleirodídeos, Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell destacou-se dos demais, com média populacional igual a 74,06%. Aleurotrachelus cruzi Cassino obteve média de 52,6%. Entre as cochonilhas destacaram-se Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan (23,96% e Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret (19,38%. O psilídeo Diaphorina citri Kuwayama obteve média de 52,6%, sendo a segunda espécie com maior média. Os pulgões Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy e Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer, somente ocorreram em período de brotação e floração, com média populacional de 7,6% e 6,25%, respectivamente. Quanto à diversidade das espécies o período com maior diversidade, ocorreu na 1ª quinzena de setembro de 2003 (H’= 0,964, coincidindo com a menor dominância (D= 0,200, e menor diversidade na 1º quinzena de maio de 2003 (H’= 0,657 e maior dominância (D= 0,522. As espécies constantes foram: A. floccosus (100%, A. cruzi (96%, Coccus viridis (Green (100%, P. aspidistrae (100% e D. citri (100%. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: A. floccosus (30,79% e D. citri (21,87%. Os resultados sugerem que as espécies verificadas possuem a dinâmica populacional em parte influenciada pela competição interespecífica, pois quando há um aumento populacional dos aleirodídeos, há um decréscimo da população das cochonilhas e vice-versa, além dos fatores ambientais, a predação e o parasitismo.Sucker Insects (Sternorrhyncha in Organic Cropping of Tangerine cv. Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco: Diversity, Constancy, Frequency and Populational FluctuationAbstract. The aim of this work was to study the diversity, constancy, frequency and the population fluctuation of the sucker

  8. Intelligent robot / manipulator systems for NDT of primary components in nuclear power plants; Intelligente Roboter / Handhabungssysteme fuer die Pruefung von Primaerkreiskomponenten in Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirauf, F.; Gottfried, R.; Bauer, R. [Siemens AG, KWU, Erlangen (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    The inspection robot developed by Siemens KWU for BWR reactor pressure vessel inspection has a mounting plate with exchangeable parts so as to fit into the various profiles of the vertical guiding tracks at the different pressure vessels. The robot is a versatile device also due to its variable cinematic equipment and thus can be used for any task hitherto performed by the available manipulators. For BWR pressure vessel testing, a novel, compact probe system equipped with five radiation assemblies has been combined with the ultrasonic SAPHIR probe. Until now, NDE of the RPV nozzles in BWRs has been carried out from the outside of the component. The newly developed manipulator of Siemens for inspection of the RPV nozzles can be moved to the nozzles either by manipulating arms or by a floating device, and is fixed to the nozzles by means of pneumatic suckers. Due to the modular design, probe arrays can be exchanged according to nozzle size or structural profiles to be tested. The mobile testing robot SISTAR for PWR pressure vessels consists of a floating cylinder platform that is moved under water to the target position by popellers or by ropes. It is self-adjusting for taking horizontal position and is held in position in the center of the RPV by means of a radial arrangement of legs automatically and synchronously extending from the robot. The platform can be equipped with one or two manipulator arms, depending on the testing task. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der von Siemens KWU neuentwickelte Pruefroboter fuer SWR-Reaktordruckbehaelter besitzt einen auswechselbaren Grundwagen, so dass er an die unterschiedlichen Profile der vertikalen Fuehrungsschienen in den einzelnen Kraftwerken angepasst werden kann. Er ist damit auch aufgrund seiner variablen Kinematik universell einsetzbar und kann saemtliche herkoemmliche Manipulatoren ersetzen. In Verbindung mit dem US-Pruefgeraet SAPHIR wurde fuer die SWR-Reaktordruckbehaelter ein neuartiges kompaktes Pruefkopfsystem mit fuenf

  9. Patagifer lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae from the white ibis Eudocimus albus (Threskiornithidae from Texas, USA Patagifer lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae del ibis blanco Eudocimus albus (Threkiornithidae de Texas, EUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman O. Dronen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During a study of the endohelminths of wading birds from the Texas Gulf coast, 12 specimens of an undescribed species of Patagifer Dietz, 1909 (Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae were collected from 2 of 8 white ibis, Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus (Threskiornithidae, from the Galveston and Brazos County areas of Texas, USA. Patagifer lamothei n. sp. can be distinguished from P. bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819, P. brygooi Richard, 1964, P. consimilis Dietz, 1909, and P. fraternus Johnston, 1917, where the testes are close together (contiguous to nearly contiguous, the ovary is close to the anterior testis (a distance that is less than the length of the ovary, and the posttesticular space is less extensive, by having the testes separated from each other by a distance approximately equal to or greater than the length of the ovary, the ovary positioned about the length or longer of the ovary from the anterior testis, and by having a more extensive posttesticular space. In addition, the ovary of the new species is located just ahead of midbody rather than being at midbody, as is seen in P. bilobus, P. fraternus, and P. vioscai Lumsden, 1962, or below midbody, as is the case in P. brygooi and P. consimilis. The new species is most like P. simarai Nigam, 1944 in the similar distance between testes, position of the ovary, and the posttesticular space (30-36% of the body length. The new species differs from P. simarai by having a smaller body size, a smaller oral sucker and pharynx, a smaller acetabulum, ovary, testes, cirrus sac, and smaller spines on the margin of the collar, but larger corner spines, and the ovary of the new species is located immediately anterior to the midbody, while in P. simarai it is located well ahead of the midbody.En un estudio de endohelmintos de aves de los humedales de la costa de Texas, se recolectaron 12 ejemplares de una especie no descrita de Patagifer Dietz, 1909 (Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae en 2 ibis blancos de 8 examinados

  10. Preliminary assessment of factors influencing riverine fish communities in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Richards, Todd A.; Brandt, Sara L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (MDCR), Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MDEP), and the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game (MDFG), conducted a preliminary investigation of fish communities in small- to medium-sized Massachusetts streams. The objective of this investigation was to determine relations between fish-community characteristics and anthropogenic alteration, including flow alteration and impervious cover, relative to the effect of physical basin and land-cover (environmental) characteristics. Fish data were obtained for 756 fish-sampling sites from the Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife fish-community database. A review of the literature was used to select a set of fish metrics responsive to flow alteration. Fish metrics tested include two fish-community metrics (fluvial-fish relative abundance and fluvial-fish species richness), and five indicator species metrics (relative abundance of brook trout, blacknose dace, fallfish, white sucker, and redfin pickerel). Streamflows were simulated for each fish-sampling site using the Sustainable Yield Estimator application (SYE). Daily streamflows and the SYE water-use database were used to determine a set of indicators of flow alteration, including percent alteration of August median flow, water-use intensity, and withdrawal and return-flow fraction. The contributing areas to the fish-sampling sites were delineated and used with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine a set of environmental characteristics, including elevation, basin slope, percent sand and gravel, percent wetland, and percent open water, and a set of anthropogenic-alteration variables, including impervious cover and dam density. Two analytical techniques, quantile regression and generalized linear modeling, were applied to determine the association between fish-response variables and the selected environmental and

  11. Enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de mirtilo sob o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico Rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings of blueberry under different indolebutyric acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice Lobato de Oliveira Fischer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os métodos de multiplicação, o mirtilo pode ser propagado por sementes, rebentos, micropropagação e estaquia. Comercialmente, a propagação por meio de estaca é o método mais utilizado, proporcionando resultados diversos de acordo com a cultivar. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico (AIB no enraizamento de estacas semilenhosas de mirtilo das cultivares Delite e Bluebelle, coletadas em dezembro/2005. O material utilizado, oriundo de plantas irrigadas, foi segmento de ramos principais, com quatro gemas e diâmetro médio de 6 mm, contendo duas folhas na extremidade superior, cortadas pela metade. Após o preparo, as estacas foram tratadas com AIB, nas concentrações de 0; 1.000; 2.000 e 4.000 mg. L-1, sendo colocadas para enraizar em areia de granulometria grossa lavada, sob irrigação intermitente por microaspersão. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e dez estacas por parcela. Para a cultivar Bluebelle, o uso de AIB na concentração de 1.000 mg.L-1 propiciou, aos 120 dias após a instalação do experimento, maior número e comprimento de raízes, número e comprimento de brotações e enraizamento de 37,5%. A cultivar Delite apresentou maior facilidade de emissão de raízes e brotações, independentemente do uso de AIB, com percentual de estacas enraizadas superior a 82,5%.Blueberries can be propagated by a variety of methods such as seeds, suckers, micropropagation and cuttings. Commercially, most propagation is done by cutting, providing different results depending on the cultivar. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the indolebutyric acid (IBA effect on rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings of blueberry cultivars Delite and Bluebelle collected on December/2005. Four-node segments with 6 mm approximately, containing 2 upper leaves cut in half were taken from main branches of irrigated plants. After preparation, the

  12. Comportamento fitotécnico da bananeira 'Prata-Anã' e de seus híbridos Phytotechnical behavior of 'Prata-Anã' banana and progeny hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato

    2009-12-01

    yield. The Fhia-18 hybrid showed greater size and pseudostem perimeter, and 'Prata-Anã' had the smallest, (with maintenance of this character in the PA42-44. The hybrids were similar in the number of suckers produced. BRS Fhia-18, PA42-44 and Fhia-1 were early for harvest and had greater fruit length than 'Prata-Anã'. Fhia-18 produced more fruit and PA42-44 had fewer hands compared to the parental cultivar. BRS Fhia-18, Fhia-18 and Fhia-1 are more productive than the parental cultivar. 'Prata-Anã' is more susceptible to yellow sigatoka, while PA42-44 is resistant, with greater retention of leaves at harvest; however, both have similar yields.

  13. Correlação fenotípica entre caracteres de híbridos diploides (AA de bananeira Phenotypic correlation between characters in banana (AA diploid hybrids

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    Lauro Saraiva Lessa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de correlação tem como propósito mensurar a alteração em um caráter quando se altera outro. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estimar correlações fenotípicas entre o número de frutos por cacho e 22 caracteres avaliados em híbridos diploides (AA de bananeira. No experimento, conduzido na Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, foram avaliados 11 híbridos diploides (AA de bananeira. Os caracteres avaliados foram: altura de plantas, diâmetro do pseudocaule, número de filhos, número de folhas na floração, período do plantio ao florescimento, presença de pólen, peso do cacho e da ráquis, sigatoka-amarela no florescimento, número de folhas na colheita, Sigatoka-amarela na colheita do cacho, número de dias do florescimento à colheita, comprimento e diâmetro do engaço, peso da segunda penca, número de pencas e de frutos por cacho, fragilidade do pedicelo, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto e comprimento do pedicelo, além de presença de semente. Após a tabulação, procederam-se a estudos de correlação entre o número de frutos e os demais caracteres da planta. Essas correlações variaram entre os genótipos, sendo assim, observado que as associações entre o número de frutos e os caracteres vegetativos da planta foram, de forma geral, não significativas. Já as relações entre o número de frutos por cacho e os outros caracteres produtivos foram, predominantemente, significativas.The objective of the present study was to estimate the phenotypic correlations between the number of fruits per bunch and 22 characters evaluated in banana (AA diploid hybrids. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Cassava and Fruits in randomized blocks with four repetitions and 11 (AA banana diploid hybrids were evaluated. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, pseudostem diameter, number of suckers, number of leaves during flowering, plant cycle until emission of the

  14. Seleção de híbridos diplóides (AA de bananeira com base em três índices não paramétricos Selection of (AA diploid banana hybrids using three non-parametric indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Saraiva Lessa

    2010-01-01

    characteristics were evaluated: plant height, pseudostem diameter, number of suckers, number of leaves during flowering, plant cycle from planting to bunch emission, presence of pollen, number of hands, number of fruits, fruit length and yellow-Sigatoka resistance. The average of these ten characteristics was used for calculating the multiplicative indices of sum of classification and genotype-ideotype distance. The two hybrids presenting best global performance SH3263 and 1318-01 ranked respectively, first and second by the multiplicative indices and sum of classification whereas the genotype-ideotype distance index ranked them first and fourth . Although in general, all three indexes presented good coherence between general performance of the hybrids and their classification, the multiplicative and sum of classification indexes provided a more adequate classification of these hybrids.

  15. Jurassic onychites (arm hooks) from squid-like cephalopods from the Wessex Basin, southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Malcolm; Hughes, Zoe; Page, Kevin; Price, Gregory; Smart, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Modern coleoid (squid-like) cephalopods have arms that carry arrays of both suckers and hardened, organic hooks. Fossil arm hooks have been known since the description of Sternberg in 1823, although he identified them as algal remains. During the twentieth century there have been a number of descriptions of hooks (Kulicki & Szaniawski, 1972; Clarke & Engeser, 1988). Kulicki & Szaniawski (1972) gave these 'morphotypes' names using a binomial classification though, with many lacking defined (and figured) holotypes and, in some cases, only one recorded specimen, some of their designations should be regarded as invalid. Some of their morphotypes have, however, been reported widely, from DSDP sites on the Falkland Plateau as well as New Zealand, Germany, Svalbard, Poland and the United Kingdom. Exceptional soft-bodied preservation of species such as Belemnotheutis antiquus (Pearce, 1847) from the Callovian-Oxfordian of Wiltshire (UK) and Clarkeiteuthis montefiore (Buckman, 1880) from the Sinemurian of Dorset (UK) has allowed the identification of the host animal of some morphotypes, though the majority remain un-attributable. In the Christian Malford lagerstätte (Upper Callovian) of Wiltshire large numbers of hooks (including forms described as Acanthuncus, Arites, Deinuncus, Falcuncus, Longuncus and Paraglycerites) are found associated with an abundance of statoliths (cephalopod 'ear bones') and macrofossil evidence of both belemnites and teuthids, some of which includes exceptional soft-bodied preservation (Wilby et al., 2004; Hart et al., 2016). Many of the hook types cannot, at present be assigned to known taxa of coleoid. In Belemnotheutis antiquus there appears to be one form of simple, slightly curved hook and their shape appears to remain constant throughout the Callovian -Kimmeridgian interval. In the Lias Group, hooks of Clarkeiteuthis are very different, with inflated, often bi-lobate bases and each arm often characterised by the presence of different shapes

  16. Manejo de pragas no controle de doenças no cultivo de hortícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Os insetos estão geralmente associados a uma planta, em sua maioria são considerados pragas, principalmente em cultivos agrícolas, sejam como pragas broqueadoras, sugadoras de seiva, ou até mesmo como vetores de fitopatógenos, sendo neste último uma das causas mais preocupantes, uma vez que muitos fitopatógenos patógenos causam doenças que ainda não tem-se um controle eficaz. Sabe-se que no modelo convencional de produção, o manejo das pragas são feitos por controle químico. Este trabalho teve como objetivo fazer uma revisão bibliográfica de trabalhos representativos a respeito do controle de pragas vetores de doenças. A mosca-branca (Bemisia ssp foi o gênero que mais preocupa os produtores, uma vez que se apresentou como praga em uma grande quantidade de plantas hortícolas, e por ser vetor de vírus, doenças a te então, com controle restrito. Pulgões (Aphididae também foram relatados, assim como a traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostela e do tomateiro (Tuta absoluta, controle biológico com o uso de Trichogramma ssp., Beauveria Bassiana, bem como controle físico, químico, etc. De modo geral, vários controles se mostraram viáveis para o controle destas pragas, dentre eles estão o controle químico, físico, genético, biológico e cultural, ambos no intuito de controlar a praga com a finalidade de prevenir a transmissão de doenças por estes. Pest management in disease control in vegetable growingAbstract: The insects are usually associated with a plant, for the most part are considered pests, particularly in agricultural crops, are as broqueadoras pests, sap suckers, or even how plant pathogens vectors, with the latter one of the most disturbing causes a Since many pathogens pathogens cause disease that still has to be an effective control. It is known that the conventional model of production, pest management are made by chemical control. This study aimed to do a literature review of representative works about

  17. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : January 2000-December 2002 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2003-04-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports were implemented from calendar year 2000 through 2002 in the Pataha Creek Watershed. The Pataha Creek Watershed was selected in 1993, along with the Tucannon and Asotin Creeks, as model watersheds by NPPC. In previous years, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and were the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices were the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. Prior to 2000, several bank stabilization projects were installed but the installation costs became prohibitive and these types of projects were reduced in numbers over the following years. The years 2000 through 2002 were years where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. The Pataha Creek has steelhead in the upper reaches and native and planted rainbow trout in the mid to upper portion. Suckers, pikeminow and shiners inhabit the lower portion because of the higher water temperatures and lack of vegetation. The improvement of riparian habitat will improve habitat for the desired fish species. The lower portion of the Pataha Creek could eventually develop into spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon if some migration barriers are removed and habitat is restored. The upland projects completed during 2000 through 2002 were practices that reduce erosion from the cropland. Three-year continuous no-till projects were finishing up and the monitoring of this particular practice is ongoing. Its direct impact on soil erosion along with the economical aspects is being studied. Other practices such as terrace, waterway, sediment

  18. Estimativas de tamanho de parcelas para avaliação de descritores fenotípicos em bananeira Estimates of plot size for the evaluation of phenotipics descriptors in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o tamanho adequado de parcelas experimentais, para avaliação de descritores fenotípicos em bananeira, a partir de um ensaio de uniformidade com a cultivar Tropical, no espaçamento de 3x2 m, em área útil com nove fileiras de 40 plantas. Foram avaliados: altura da planta; perímetro do pseudocaule; número de filhos emitidos e número de folhas vivas, no florescimento e na colheita; peso do cacho e das pencas; número de pencas e de frutos; peso da segunda penca; e peso, comprimento e diâmetro do fruto, em dois ciclos de produção. As plantas, consideradas unidades básicas, foram combinadas para formar diferentes tamanhos de parcelas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância em modelo hierárquico. O tamanho da parcela foi estimado pelos métodos da máxima curvatura, máxima curvatura modificado e comparação de variâncias. Determinaram-se o índice de heterogeneidade do solo e a diferença detectável entre médias de tratamentos. A variabilidade aumentou entre os ciclos, com reflexos nos tamanhos de parcela, que variaram com o método utilizado, a variável avaliada e o ciclo de produção. O método da máxima curvatura modificado apresenta estimativas mais ajustadas. Parcelas com seis unidades básicas (36 m² são apropriadas para avaliar, com precisão, os descritores fenotípicos em bananeira.The aim of this work was to estimate the adequate size of experimental plots, for the evaluation of phenotypic descriptors in banana, from a trial of uniformity with the cultivar Tropical, in the spacing of 3x2 m, in a useful area with nine rows of 40 plants. The following variables were evaluated: plant height; pseudostem perimeter; number of emitted suckers and number live leaves, during flowering and at harvest; weight of the bunch and the hands; number of hands and fruits; weight of the second hand; weight, length and diameter of the fruit, in two cycles of production. The plants

  19. Flow effects on benthic stream invertebrates and ecological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivsek, Maja; Brilly, Mitja

    2010-05-01

    Flow is the main abiotic factor in the streams. Flow affects the organisms in many direct and indirect ways. The organisms are directly affected by various hydrodynamic forces and mass transfer processes like drag forces, drift, shear stress, food and gases supply and washing metabolites away. Indirect effects on the organisms are determining and distribution of the particle size and structure of the substrate and determining the morphology of riverbeds. Flow does not affect only on individual organism, but also on many ecological effects. To expose just the most important: dispersal of the organisms, habitat use, resource acquisition, competition and predator-prey interactions. Stream invertebrates are adapted to the various flow conditions in many kinds of way. Some of them are avoiding the high flow with living in a hyporeic zone, while the others are adapted to flow with physical adaptations (the way of feeding, respiration, osmoregulation and resistance to draught), morphological adaptations (dorsoventrally flattened shape of organism, streamlined shape of organism, heterogeneous suckers, silk, claws, swimming hair, bristles and ballast gravel) or with behaviour. As the flow characteristics in a particular stream vary over a broad range of space and time scales, it is necessary to measure accurately the velocity in places where the organisms are present to determine the actual impact of flow on aquatic organisms. By measuring the mean flow at individual vertical in a single cross-section, we cannot get any information about the velocity situation close to the bottom of the riverbed where the stream invertebrates are living. Just measuring the velocity near the bottom is a major problem, as technologies for measuring the velocity and flow of natural watercourses is not adapted to measure so close to the bottom. New researches in the last two decades has shown that the thickness of laminar border layer of stones in the stream is only a few 100 micrometers, what

  20. The role of habitat factors in successful invasion of alien plant Acer negundo in riparian zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Piotr; Sikorska, Daria

    2016-04-01

    thickness (r2=0,35 i r3=0,35) become limiting factors to the plants development. The diversity of shoot age increases with the bars age (r=0,78), but the new emerging shoots are suckers rather than newly established seedlings. The removal of ash-leaved maple in the early development stage is ineffective as this is a period when high number of seedlings develop. The removal at the later stage leads to damage done to sensitive herbaceous vegetation which is developed by then. Management of the invasive ash-leaved maple should be held on sand bars older than 10 years, the moment the competition of other trees and shrubs reduces the establishment of new seedlings. Removal of trees of diameter bigger than 10 cm will impair the plants expansion with minimal damage done to the habitat.

  1. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    species in Mahanoy Creek decreased progressively upstream from 13 species at Gowen City to only 2 species each at Ashland and Girardville. White sucker (Catostomus commersoni), a pollution-tolerant species, was present at each of the surveyed reaches. The presence of fish at Girardville was unexpected because of the poor water quality and iron-encrusted streambed at this location. Generally, macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance at these sites were diminished compared to Schwaben Creek and other tributaries draining unmined basins, consistent with the observed quality of streamwater and streambed sediment. Data on the flow rate and chemistry for 35 AMD sources and 31 stream sites throughout the Mahanoy Creek Basin were collected by the USGS during high base-flow conditions in March 2001 and low base-flow conditions in August 2001. A majority of the base-flow streamwater samples met water-quality standards for pH (6.0 to 9.0); however, few samples downstream from AMD sources met criteria for acidity less than alkalinity (net alkalinity = 20 milligrams per liter as CaCO3) and concentrations of dissolved iron (0.3 milligram per liter) and total manganese (1.0 milligram per liter). Iron, aluminum, and various trace elements including cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, were present in many streamwater samples at concentrations at which continuous exposure can not be tolerated by aquatic organisms without an unacceptable effect. Furthermore, concentrations of sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, and (or) beryllium in some samples exceeded drinking-water standards. Other trace elements, including antimony, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, selenium, silver, and thallium, did not exceed water-quality criteria for protection of aquatic organisms or human health. Nevertheless, when considered together, concentrations of iron, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in a majority of the streambed sediment samples from Mahanoy Creek and

  2. Concentrations, loads, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary, eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to contaminate the Neponset River, which flows through parts of Boston, Massachusetts, and empties into the Neponset River Estuary, an important fish-spawning area. The river is dammed and impassable to fish. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, Division of Ecological Restoration, Riverways Program, collected, analyzed, and interpreted PCB data from bottom-sediment, water, and (or) fish-tissue samples in 2002, 2004-2006. Samples from the Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary were analyzed for 209 PCB congeners, PCB homologs, and Aroclors. In order to better assess the overall health quality of river-bottom sediments, sediment samples were also tested for concentrations of 31 elements. PCB concentrations measured in the top layers of bottom sediment ranged from 28 nanograms per gram (ng/g) just upstream of the Mother Brook confluence to 24,900 ng/g measured in Mother Brook. Concentrations of elements in bottom sediment were generally higher than background concentrations and higher than levels considered toxic to benthic organisms according to freshwater sediment-quality guidelines defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of dissolved PCBs in water samples collected from the Neponset River (May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006) averaged about 9.2 nanograms per liter (ng/L) (annual average of monthly values); however, during the months of August (about 16.5 ng/L) and September (about 15.6 ng/L), dissolved PCB concentrations were greater than 14 ng/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's freshwater continuous chronic criterion for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of PCBs in white sucker (fillets and whole fish) were all greater than 2,000 ng/g wet wt, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guideline for safe consumption of fish: PCB concentrations measured in fish-tissue samples collected from the Tileston and Hollingsworth and

  3. Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    Coal and associated waste rock are among environmental selenium (Se) sources that have the potential to affect reproduction in fish and aquatic birds. Ecosystems of southern West Virginia that are affected by drainage from mountaintop coal mines and valleys filled with waste rock in the Coal, Gauley, and Lower Guyandotte watersheds were assessed during 2010 and 2011. Sampling data from earlier studies in these watersheds (for example, Upper Mud River Reservoir) and other mining-affected watersheds also are included to assess additional hydrologic settings and food webs for comparison. Basin schematics give a comprehensive view of sampled species and Se concentration data specific to location and date. Food-web diagrams document the progression of Se trophic transfer across suspended particulate material, invertebrates, and fish for each site to serve as the basis for developing an ecosystem-scale model to predict Se exposure within the hydrologic conditions and food webs of southern West Virginia. This approach integrates a site-specific predator’s dietary exposure pathway into modeling to ensure an adequate link to Se toxicity and, thus, to species v