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Sample records for rays energetic solar

  1. Impact of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the Earth’s ionosphere and atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velinov, P. I. Y.; Asenovski, S.; Kudela, K.; Laštovička, Jan; Mateev, L.; Mishev, A.; Tonev, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, 26 March (2013), A14/1-A14/17 ISSN 2115-7251 Grant - others:European COST Action(XE) ES0803 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : cosmic rays * solar energetic particles * ionization * ionosphere * atmosphere * solar activity * solar-terrestrial relationships Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2013 http://www.swsc-journal.org/articles/swsc/abs/2013/01/swsc120040/swsc120040.html

  2. High-energy particle production in solar flares (SEP, gamma-ray and neutron emissions). [solar energetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electrons and ions, over a wide range of energies, are produced in association with solar flares. Solar energetic particles (SEPs), observed in space and near earth, consist of electrons and ions that range in energy from 10 keV to about 100 MeV and from 1 MeV to 20 GeV, respectively. SEPs are directly recorded by charged particle detectors, while X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron detectors indicate the properties of the accelerated particles (electrons and ions) which have interacted in the solar atmosphere. A major problem of solar physics is to understand the relationship between these two groups of charged particles; in particular whether they are accelerated by the same mechanism. The paper reviews the physics of gamma-rays and neutron production in the solar atmosphere and the method by which properties of the primary charged particles produced in the solar flare can be deduced. Recent observations of energetic photons and neutrons in space and at the earth are used to present a current picture of the properties of impulsively flare accelerated electrons and ions. Some important properties discussed are time scale of production, composition, energy spectra, accelerator geometry. Particular attention is given to energetic particle production in the large flare on June 3, 1982.

  3. Energetic solar particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, M.

    1975-01-01

    In this review, some of the important aspects of energetic solar particles and their relation to solar physics are discussed. The major aspects of solar cosmic ray studies currently under investigation are identified and attention is focussed on the problems of the physical processes in the sun which may be responsible for these phenomena. The studies of the composition and energy spectra of solar cosmic ray nuclei are related to the basic problem of particle acceleration process in sun and to the composition of elements in solar atmosphere. The composition of higher energy (>20 MeV/amu) multiply charged nuclei of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe give information on the abundance of elements in the solar atmosphere. At lower energies (approximately 1-10 MeV/amu), the abundances of these elements show enhancements relative to solar abundances and these enhancements are believed to be due to particle acceleration mechanisms operative in the sun which are not fully understood at present. Studies of the relative abundances of H 2 , H 3 and He 3 isotopes and Li, Be, B nuclei in the solar cosmic rays can also be studied. The question of the relationship of the accelerated particles in the sun to the optical flare phenomena is discussed. Further studies of different aspects of these phenomena may give important clues to a wide ranging phenomena in the active sun. The observational methods employed for these studies are mentioned. (A.K.)

  4. Long Duration Gamma-Ray Flares & Solar Energetic Particles — Is there a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nolfo, G. A.; Boezio, M.; Bruno, A.; Christian, E. R.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Ryan, J. M.; Share, G.; Stochaj, S.

    2017-12-01

    Little is known still about the origin of the high-energy and sustained emission from Long Duration Gamma-Ray Flares (LDGRFs), identified with Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), and now Fermi. Though Fermi/LAT has identified dozens of flares with LDGRF emission, the nature of this emission has been a challenge to explain both due to the extreme energies and long durations. The highest energy emission has generally been attributed to pion production from the interaction of high-energy protons with the ambient matter, suggesting that particle acceleration occurs over large volumes extending high in the corona, either from stochastic acceleration within large coronal loops or from back precipitation from CME-driven shocks. It is possible to test these models by making direct comparisons between the accelerated ion population at the flare derived from the observations of Fermi/LAT with PAMELA measurements of solar energetic particles in the energy range corresponding to the pion-related emission observed with Fermi. For nearly a dozen SEP events, we compare the two populations (SEPs in space and the interacting population at the Sun) and discuss the implications in terms of particle acceleration and transport models.

  5. Impulsiveness and energetics in solar flares with and without type II radio bursts - A comparison of hard X-ray characteristics for over 2500 solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Douglas H.; Nelson, Robert; Kojoian, Gabriel; Seal, James

    1989-01-01

    The hard X-ray characteristics of more than 2500 solar flares are used to study the relative size, impulsiveness, and energetics of flares with and without type II radio bursts. A quantitative definition of the hard X-ray impulsiveness is introduced, which may be applied to a large number of events unambiguously. It is found that the flares with type II bursts are generally not significantly larger, more impulsive, or more energetic than those without type II bursts. Also, no evidence is found to suggest a simple classification of the flares as either 'impulsive' or 'gradual'. Because type II bursts are present even in small flares with relatively unimpulsive energy releases, it is concluded that changes in the ambient conditions of the solar atmosphere causing an unusually low Alfven speed may be important in the generation of the shock wave that produces type II radio bursts.

  6. Monitoring of the solar activity and solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akioka, Maki; Kubo, Yuki; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Ohtaka, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Solar activity is the source of various space weather phenomena in geospace and deep space. Solar X-ray radiation in flare, energetic particles, coronal mass ejection (CME) can cause various kind of disturbance near earth space. Therefore, detailed monitoring of the solar activity and its propagation in the interplanetary space is essential task for space weather. For example, solar energetic particle which sometimes affect spacecraft operation and manned space flight, is considered to be produced by solar flares and travelling shockwave caused by flares and CME. The research and development of monitoring technique and system for various solar activity has been an important topic of space weather forecast program in NICT. In this article, we will introduce the real time data acquisitions of STEREO and optical and radio observations of the Sun at Hiraiso Solar Observatory. (author)

  7. Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) as tracers of solar wind conditions near Saturn: Event lists and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, E.; Jackman, C. M.; Thomsen, M. F.; Kurth, W. S.; Badman, S. V.; Paranicas, C.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Bučík, R.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Radioti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The lack of an upstream solar wind monitor poses a major challenge to any study that investigates the influence of the solar wind on the configuration and the dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere. Here we show how Cassini MIMI/LEMMS observations of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) transients, that are both linked to energetic processes in the heliosphere such us Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs), can be used to trace enhanced solar wind conditions at Saturn's distance. SEP protons can be easily distinguished from magnetospheric ions, particularly at the MeV energy range. Many SEPs are also accompanied by strong GCR Forbush Decreases. GCRs are detectable as a low count-rate noise signal in a large number of LEMMS channels. As SEPs and GCRs can easily penetrate into the outer and middle magnetosphere, they can be monitored continuously, even when Cassini is not situated in the solar wind. A survey of the MIMI/LEMMS dataset between 2004 and 2016 resulted in the identification of 46 SEP events. Most events last more than two weeks and have their lowest occurrence rate around the extended solar minimum between 2008 and 2010, suggesting that they are associated to ICMEs rather than CIRs, which are the main source of activity during the declining phase and the minimum of the solar cycle. We also list of 17 time periods ( > 50 days each) where GCRs show a clear solar periodicity ( ∼ 13 or 26 days). The 13-day period that derives from two CIRs per solar rotation dominates over the 26-day period in only one of the 17 cases catalogued. This interval belongs to the second half of 2008 when expansions of Saturn's electron radiation belts were previously reported to show a similar periodicity. That observation not only links the variability of Saturn's electron belts to solar wind processes, but also indicates that the source of the observed periodicity in GCRs may be local. In this case GCR

  8. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Baylon cardiel, J L; Wallace, K C; Anderson, T B; Copley, M

    The cosmic-ray energetics and mass (CREAM) investigation is designed to measure cosmic-ray composition to the supernova energy scale of 10$^{15}$ eV in a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004. The goal is to observe cosmic-ray spectral features and/or abundance changes that might signify a limit to supernova acceleration. The particle ($\\{Z}$) measurements will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector to minimize the effect of backscatter from the calorimeter. The particle energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector (TRD) for $\\{Z}$ > 3 and a sampling tungsten/scintillator calorimeter for $\\{Z}$ $\\geq$1 particles, allowing inflight cross calibration of the two detectors. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation are reported in this paper.

  9. SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS FROM SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Linghua [Institute of Space Physics and Applied Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Gang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Shih, Albert Y. [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Lin, Robert P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F., E-mail: wanglhwang@gmail.com [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, University of Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe the acceleration site of coronal-mass-ejection-driven (CME-driven) shock-accelerated solar energetic particles (SEPs). In gradual SEP events, energetic protons can charge exchange with the ambient solar wind or interstellar neutrals to become ENAs. Assuming a CME-driven shock with a constant speed of 1800 km s{sup –1} and compression ratio of 3.5, propagating from 1.5 to 40 R{sub S} , we calculate the accelerated SEPs at 5-5000 keV and the resulting ENAs via various charge-exchange interactions. Taking into account the ENA losses in the interplanetary medium, we obtain the flux-time profiles of these solar ENAs reaching 1 AU. We find that the arriving ENAs at energies above ∼100 keV show a sharply peaked flux-time profile, mainly originating from the shock source below 5 R{sub S} , whereas the ENAs below ∼20 keV have a flat-top time profile, mostly originating from the source beyond 10 R{sub S} . Assuming the accelerated protons are effectively trapped downstream of the shock, we can reproduce the STEREO ENA fluence observations at ∼2-5 MeV/nucleon. We also estimate the flux of ENAs coming from the charge exchange of energetic storm protons, accelerated by the fast CME-driven shock near 1 AU, with interstellar hydrogen and helium. Our results suggest that appropriate instrumentation would be able to detect ENAs from SEPs and to even make ENA images of SEPs at energies above ∼10-20 keV.

  10. Capturing the most energetic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantsch, P.

    1999-01-01

    The methods of energy measurement applied to the most energetic cosmic rays are described. The rays are so rare that two gigantic systems of detectors are proposed to detect at least some of them (the Pierre Auger Project ). (Z.J.)

  11. An application of statistical adjustment of data to the energetic solar cosmic ray increase of August 7, 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, H.

    1975-01-01

    Data of five minute intervals of the neutron intensity from twelve cosmic ray stations were utilized for this application. Five source parameters; amplitude a, latitude lambdasub(s), longitude PHIsub(s), power law exponent γ in spectral representation and power law exponent n of angular spread have been determined by the least-square method of Deming. (orig./WBU) [de

  12. SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOLAR FLARES AND SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Ling, A. G.; Belov, A.; Yashiro, S.

    2012-01-01

    We suggest that the flatter size distribution of solar energetic proton (SEP) events relative to that of flare soft X-ray (SXR) events is primarily due to the fact that SEP flares are an energetic subset of all flares. Flares associated with gradual SEP events are characteristically accompanied by fast (≥1000 km s –1 ) coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that drive coronal/interplanetary shock waves. For the 1996-2005 interval, the slopes (α values) of power-law size distributions of the peak 1-8 Å fluxes of SXR flares associated with (a) >10 MeV SEP events (with peak fluxes ≥1 pr cm –2 s –1 sr –1 ) and (b) fast CMEs were ∼1.3-1.4 compared to ∼1.2 for the peak proton fluxes of >10 MeV SEP events and ∼2 for the peak 1-8 Å fluxes of all SXR flares. The difference of ∼0.15 between the slopes of the distributions of SEP events and SEP SXR flares is consistent with the observed variation of SEP event peak flux with SXR peak flux.

  13. Design of the detector to observe the energetic charged particles: a part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX onboard Interhelio-Probe mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Siarkowski, Marek; Evgen Kurbatov, mgr..

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic particle radiation may damages payload's electronics, optics, and sensors during of long-term scientific space mission especially the interplanetary ones. That is why it's extremely important to prevent failures of digital electronics, CCDs, semiconductor detectors at the times of passing through regions of enhanced charged particle fluxes. Well developed models of the Earth's radiation belts allow to predict and to protect sensitive equipment against disastrous influence of radiation due to energetic particle contained in the Van Allen belts. In the contrary interplanetary probes flying far away from our planet undergoes passages through clouds of plasma and solar cosmic rays not predictable by present models. Especially these concerns missions planned for non-ecliptic orbits. The practical approach to protect sensitive modules may be to measure the in situ particle fluxes with high time resolution and generation of alarm flags, which will switch off sensitive units of particular scientific equipment. The ChemiX (Chemical composition in X-rays) instrument is being developed by the Solar Physics Division of Polish Space Research Centre for the Interhelio-Probe interplanetary mission. Charged particle bursts can badly affect the regular measurements of X-ray spectra of solar origin. In order to detect presence of these enhanced particle fluxes the Background Particle Monitor (BPM) was developed constituting now a vital part of ChemiX. The BPM measurements of particle fluxes will assist to determine level of X-ray spectra contamination. Simultaneously BPM will measure the energy spectra of ambient particles. We present overall structure, design, technical and a scientific characteristic of BPM, particle sorts, and energy ranges to be registered. We describe nearly autonomous modular structure of BPM consisting of detector head, analogue and digital electronics modules, and of module of secondary power supply [1-3]. Detector head consists of three

  14. FUTURE TRENDS IN SOLAR ENERGETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the work the methodology of new generation solar flat collectors creation for heating and cooling systems warmly is described on the basis of use of multilayered, multichannel structures made of polymeric materials in their design. The model of the working processes occuring in a solar collector is developed, in view of the mechanism of thermal losses by convection and by radiation. On the offered model characteristics of temperature of the heat-carrier and its charge from time of day (have been received depending on change of intensity of a sunlight and an ambient temperature are well correlated with the experimental data.

  15. Solar energetic particles and radio burst emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miteva, R.; Samwel, S. W.; Krupař, Vratislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7 (2017), č. článku A37. ISSN 2115-7251 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06818Y Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar energetic particles * solar radio burst emission * solar cycle Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.446, year: 2016 https://www.swsc-journal.org/ articles /swsc/abs/2017/01/swsc170028/swsc170028.html

  16. Solar energetic particles and radio burst emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miteva Rositsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical study on the observed solar radio burst emission associated with the origin of in situ detected solar energetic particles. Several proton event catalogs in the period 1996–2016 are used. At the time of appearance of the particle origin (flare and coronal mass ejection we identified radio burst signatures of types II, III and IV by inspecting dynamic radio spectral plots. The information from observatory reports is also accounted for during the analysis. The occurrence of solar radio burst signatures is evaluated within selected wavelength ranges during the solar cycle 23 and the ongoing 24. Finally, we present the burst occurrence trends with respect to the intensity of the proton events and the location of their solar origin.

  17. Probabilistic Solar Energetic Particle Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Dietrich, William F.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    To plan and design safe and reliable space missions, it is necessary to take into account the effects of the space radiation environment. This is done by setting the goal of achieving safety and reliability with some desired level of confidence. To achieve this goal, a worst-case space radiation environment at the required confidence level must be obtained. Planning and designing then proceeds, taking into account the effects of this worst-case environment. The result will be a mission that is reliable against the effects of the space radiation environment at the desired confidence level. In this paper we will describe progress toward developing a model that provides worst-case space radiation environments at user-specified confidence levels. We will present a model for worst-case event-integrated solar proton environments that provide the worst-case differential proton spectrum. This model is based on data from IMP-8 and GOES spacecraft that provide a data base extending from 1974 to the present. We will discuss extending this work to create worst-case models for peak flux and mission-integrated fluence for protons. We will also describe plans for similar models for helium and heavier ions.

  18. Solar Energetic Particle Studies with PAMELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravar, U.; Christian, E. R.; deNolfo, Georgia; Ryan, J. M.; Stochaj, S.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the high-energy solar energetic particles (SEPs) may conceivably be found in composition signatures that reflect the elemental abundances of the low corona and chromosphere vs. the high corona and solar wind. The presence of secondaries, such as neutrons and positrons, could indicate a low coronal origin of these particles. Velocity dispersion of different species and over a wide energy range can be used to determine energetic particle release times at the Sun. Together with multi-wavelength imaging, in- situ observations of a variety of species, and coverage over a wide energy range provide a critical tool in identifying the origin of SEPs, understanding the evolution of these events within the context of solar active regions, and constraining the acceleration mechanisms at play. The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA)instrument, successfully launched in 2006 and expected to remain operational until at least the beginning of 2012, measures energetic particles in the same energy range as ground-based neutron monitors, and lower energies as well. It thus bridges the gap between low energy in-situ observations and ground-based Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) observations. It can measure the charge (up to Z=6) and atomic number of the detected particles, and it can identify and measure positrons and detect neutrons-an unprecedented array of data channels that we can bring to bear on the origin of high-energy SEPs. We present prelimiary results on the for the 2006 December 13 solar flare and GLE and the 2011 March 21 solar flare, both registering proton and helium enhancements in PAMELA. Together with multi- spacecraft contextual data and modeling, we discuss the PAMELA results in the context of the different acceleration mechanisms at play.

  19. The Two Sources of Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2013-06-01

    Evidence for two different physical mechanisms for acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) arose 50 years ago with radio observations of type III bursts, produced by outward streaming electrons, and type II bursts from coronal and interplanetary shock waves. Since that time we have found that the former are related to "impulsive" SEP events from impulsive flares or jets. Here, resonant stochastic acceleration, related to magnetic reconnection involving open field lines, produces not only electrons but 1000-fold enhancements of 3He/4He and of ( Z>50)/O. Alternatively, in "gradual" SEP events, shock waves, driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), more democratically sample ion abundances that are even used to measure the coronal abundances of the elements. Gradual events produce by far the highest SEP intensities near Earth. Sometimes residual impulsive suprathermal ions contribute to the seed population for shock acceleration, complicating the abundance picture, but this process has now been modeled theoretically. Initially, impulsive events define a point source on the Sun, selectively filling few magnetic flux tubes, while gradual events show extensive acceleration that can fill half of the inner heliosphere, beginning when the shock reaches ˜2 solar radii. Shock acceleration occurs as ions are scattered back and forth across the shock by resonant Alfvén waves amplified by the accelerated protons themselves as they stream away. These waves also can produce a streaming-limited maximum SEP intensity and plateau region upstream of the shock. Behind the shock lies the large expanse of the "reservoir", a spatially extensive trapped volume of uniform SEP intensities with invariant energy-spectral shapes where overall intensities decrease with time as the enclosing "magnetic bottle" expands adiabatically. These reservoirs now explain the slow intensity decrease that defines gradual events and was once erroneously attributed solely to slow

  20. GLOBAL ENERGETICS OF SOLAR FLARES. IV. CORONAL MASS EJECTION ENERGETICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2016-01-01

    This study entails the fourth part of a global flare energetics project, in which the mass m cme , kinetic energy E kin , and the gravitational potential energy E grav of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is measured in 399 M and X-class flare events observed during the first 3.5 years of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission, using a new method based on the EUV dimming effect. EUV dimming is modeled in terms of a radial adiabatic expansion process, which is fitted to the observed evolution of the total emission measure of the CME source region. The model derives the evolution of the mean electron density, the emission measure, the bulk plasma expansion velocity, the mass, and the energy in the CME source region. The EUV dimming method is truly complementary to the Thomson scattering method in white light, which probes the CME evolution in the heliosphere at r ≳ 2 R ⊙ , while the EUV dimming method tracks the CME launch in the corona. We compare the CME parameters obtained in white light with the LASCO/C2 coronagraph with those obtained from EUV dimming with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the SDO for all identical events in both data sets. We investigate correlations between CME parameters, the relative timing with flare parameters, frequency occurrence distributions, and the energy partition between magnetic, thermal, nonthermal, and CME energies. CME energies are found to be systematically lower than the dissipated magnetic energies, which is consistent with a magnetic origin of CMEs.

  1. Baseline composition of solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1985-01-01

    We analyze all existing spacecraft observations of the highly variable heavy element composition of solar energetic particles (SEP) during non- 3 He-rich events. All data show the imprint of an ever-present basic composition pattern (dubbed ''mass-unbiased baseline'' SEP composition) that differs from the photospheric composition by a simple bias related to first ionization potential (FIP). In each particular observation, this mass-unbiased baseline composition is being distorted by an additional bias, which is always a monotonic function of mass (or Z). This latter bias varies in amplitude and even sign from observation to observation. To first order, it seems related to differences in the A/Z* ratio between elements (Z* = mean effective charge)

  2. Elemental composition of solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, W.R. III.

    1981-01-01

    The Low Energy Telescopes on the Voyager spacecraft are used to measure the elemental composition (2 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28) and energy spectra (5 to 15 MeV/nucleon) of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in seven large flare events. Four flare events are selected which have SEP abundance ratios approximately independent of energy/nucleon. The abundances for these events are compared from flare to flare and are compared to solar abundances from other sources - spectroscopy of the photosphere and corona, and solar wind measurements. The selected SEP composition results may be described by an average composition plus a systematic flare-to-flare deviation about the average. For each of the four events, the ratios of the SEP abundances to the four-flare average SEP abundances are approximately monotonic functions of nuclear charge Z in the range 6 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28. An exception to this Z-dependent trend occurs for He, whose abundance relative to Si is nearly the same in all four events. The four-flare average SEP composition is significantly different from the solar composition determined by photospheric spectroscopy: the elements C, N and O are depleted in SEPs by a factor of about five relative to the elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, and Ni. For some elemental abundance ratios (e.g. Mg/O), the difference between SEP and photospheric results is persistent from flare to flare and is apparently not due to a systematic difference in SEP energy/nucleon spectra between the elements, nor to propagation effects which would result in a time-dependent abundance ratio in individual flare events

  3. Analysis and verification of a prediction model of solar energetic proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The solar energetic particle event can cause severe radiation damages near Earth. The alerts and summary products of the solar energetic proton events were provided by the Space Environment Prediction Center (SEPC) according to the flux of the greater than 10 MeV protons taken by GOES satellite in geosynchronous orbit. The start of a solar energetic proton event is defined as the time when the flux of the greater than 10 MeV protons equals or exceeds 10 proton flux units (pfu). In this study, a model was developed to predict the solar energetic proton events, provide the warning for the solar energetic proton events at least minutes in advance, based on both the soft X-ray flux and integral proton flux taken by GOES. The quality of the forecast model was measured against verifications of accuracy, reliability, discrimination capability, and forecast skills. The peak flux and rise time of the solar energetic proton events in the six channels, >1MeV, >5 MeV, >10 MeV, >30 MeV, >50 MeV, >100 MeV, were also simulated and analyzed.

  4. Solar energetic particles and space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.

    2001-02-01

    The solar energetic particles (SEPs) of consequence to space weather are accelerated at shock waves driven out from the Sun by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In the large events, these great shocks fill half of the heliosphere. SEP intensity profiles change appearance with longitude. Events with significant intensities of >10 MeV protons occur at an average rate of ~13 yr-1 near solar maximum and several events with high intensities of >100 MeV protons occur each decade. As particles stream out along magnetic field lines from a shock near the Sun, they generate waves that scatter subsequent particles. At high intensities, wave growth throttles the flow below the ``streaming limit.'' However, if the shock maintains its strength, particle intensities can rise above this limit to a peak when the shock itself passes over the observer creating a `delayed' radiation hazard, even for protons with energies up to ~1 GeV. The streaming limit makes us blind to the intensities at the oncoming shock, however, heavier elements such as He, O, and Fe probe the shape of the wave spectrum, and variation in abundances of these elements allow us to evade the limit and probe conditions at the shock, with the aid of detailed modeling. At high energies, spectra steepen to form a spectral `knee.' The location of the proton spectral knee can vary from ~10 MeV to ~1 GeV, depending on shock conditions, greatly affecting the radiation hazard. Hard spectra are a serious threat to astronauts, placing challenging requirements for shielding, especially on long-duration missions to the moon or Mars. .

  5. DRIFT-INDUCED PERPENDICULAR TRANSPORT OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, M. S.; Dalla, S.; Kelly, J.; Laitinen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Drifts are known to play a role in galactic cosmic ray transport within the heliosphere and are a standard component of cosmic ray propagation models. However, the current paradigm of solar energetic particle (SEP) propagation holds the effects of drifts to be negligible, and they are not accounted for in most current SEP modeling efforts. We present full-orbit test particle simulations of SEP propagation in a Parker spiral interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), which demonstrate that high-energy particle drifts cause significant asymmetric propagation perpendicular to the IMF. Thus in many cases the assumption of field-aligned propagation of SEPs may not be valid. We show that SEP drifts have dependencies on energy, heliographic latitude, and charge-to-mass ratio that are capable of transporting energetic particles perpendicular to the field over significant distances within interplanetary space, e.g., protons of initial energy 100 MeV propagate distances across the field on the order of 1 AU, over timescales typical of a gradual SEP event. Our results demonstrate the need for current models of SEP events to include the effects of particle drift. We show that the drift is considerably stronger for heavy ion SEPs due to their larger mass-to-charge ratio. This paradigm shift has important consequences for the modeling of SEP events and is crucial to the understanding and interpretation of in situ observations

  6. Foretelling Flares and Solar Energetic Particle Events: the FORSPEF tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Sandberg, Ingmar; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Kostas; Jiggens, Piers

    2017-04-01

    A novel integrated prediction system, for both solar flares (SFs) and solar energetic particle (SEP) events is being presented. The Forecasting Solar Particle Events and Flares (FORSPEF) provides forecasting of solar eruptive events, such as SFs with a projection to coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (occurrence and velocity) and the likelihood of occurrence of a SEP event. In addition, FORSPEF, also provides nowcasting of SEP events based on actual SF and CME near real-time data, as well as the complete SEP profile (peak flux, fluence, rise time, duration) per parent solar event. The prediction of SFs relies on a morphological method: the effective connected magnetic field strength (Beff); it is based on an assessment of potentially flaring active-region (AR) magnetic configurations and it utilizes sophisticated analysis of a large number of AR magnetograms. For the prediction of SEP events new methods have been developed for both the likelihood of SEP occurrence and the expected SEP characteristics. In particular, using the location of the flare (longitude) and the flare size (maximum soft X-ray intensity), a reductive statistical method has been implemented. Moreover, employing CME parameters (velocity and width), proper functions per width (i.e. halo, partial halo, non-halo) and integral energy (E>30, 60, 100 MeV) have been identified. In our technique warnings are issued for all > C1.0 soft X-ray flares. The prediction time in the forecasting scheme extends to 24 hours with a refresh rate of 3 hours while the respective prediction time for the nowcasting scheme depends on the availability of the near real-time data and falls between 15-20 minutes for solar flares and 6 hours for CMEs. We present the modules of the FORSPEF system, their interconnection and the operational set up. The dual approach in the development of FORPSEF (i.e. forecasting and nowcasting scheme) permits the refinement of predictions upon the availability of new data that characterize changes on

  7. SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS AND THE KIPLINGER EFFECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.

    2012-01-01

    The Kiplinger effect is an observed association of solar energetic (E > 10 MeV) particle (SEP) events with a 'soft-hard-harder' (SHH) spectral evolution during the extended phases of the associated solar hard (E > 30 keV) X-ray (HXR) flares. Besides its possible use as a space weather predictor of SEP events, the Kiplinger effect has been interpreted as evidence of SEP production in the flare site itself, contradicting the widely accepted view that particles of large SEP events are predominately or entirely accelerated in shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We review earlier work to develop flare soft X-ray (SXR) and HXR spectra as SEP event forecast tools and then examine recent Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) evidence supporting the association of SHH HXR flares with large SEP events. We point out that ad hoc prediction criteria using the CME widths and SXR flare durations of associated RHESSI hard X-ray bursts (HXBs) can yield results comparable to those of the SHH prediction criteria. An examination of the RHESSI dynamic plots reveals several ambiguities in the determination of whether and when the SHH criteria are fulfilled, which must be quantified and applied consistently before an SHH-based predictive tool can be made. A comparative HXR spectral study beginning with the large population of relatively smaller SEP events has yet to be done, and we argue that those events will not be so well predicted by the SHH criteria. SHH HXR flares and CMEs are both components of large eruptive flare events, which accounts for the good connection of the SHH HXR flares with SEP events.

  8. The HZE radiation problem. [highly-charged energetic galactic cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Radiation-exposure limits have yet to be established for missions envisioned in the framework of the Space Exploration Initiative. The radiation threat outside the earth's magnetosphere encompasses protons from solar particle events and the highly charged energetic particles constituting galactic cosmic rays; radiation biology entails careful consideration of the extremely nonuniform patterns of such particles' energy deposition. The ability to project such biological consequences of exposure to energetic particles as carcinogenicity currently involves great uncertainties from: (1) different regions of space; (2) the effects of spacecraft structures; and (3) the dose-effect relationships of single traversals of energetic particles.

  9. DOES A SCALING LAW EXIST BETWEEN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS AND SOLAR FLARES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    Among many other natural processes, the size distributions of solar X-ray flares and solar energetic particle (SEP) events are scale-invariant power laws. The measured distributions of SEP events prove to be distinctly flatter, i.e., have smaller power-law slopes, than those of the flares. This has led to speculation that the two distributions are related through a scaling law, first suggested by Hudson, which implies a direct nonlinear physical connection between the processes producing the flares and those producing the SEP events. We present four arguments against this interpretation. First, a true scaling must relate SEP events to all flare X-ray events, and not to a small subset of the X-ray event population. We also show that the assumed scaling law is not mathematically valid and that although the flare X-ray and SEP event data are correlated, they are highly scattered and not necessarily related through an assumed scaling of the two phenomena. An interpretation of SEP events within the context of a recent model of fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality by Aschwanden provides a physical basis for why the SEP distributions should be flatter than those of solar flares. These arguments provide evidence against a close physical connection of flares with SEP production.

  10. Solar cosmic rays in the system of solar terrestrial relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Leonty I.

    2008-02-01

    In this brief review, we discuss a number of geophysical effects of solar energetic particles (SEPs) or solar cosmic rays (SCR). We concentrate mainly on the observational evidence and proposed mechanisms of some expected effects and/or poor-studied phenomena discovered within the last three decades, in particular, depletion of the ozone layer, perturbations in the global electric current, effects on the winter storm vorticity, change of the atmospheric transparency and production of nitrates. Some "archaeological" data on SCR fluxes in the past and upper limit of total energy induced by SEPs are also discussed. Due attention is paid to the periodicities in the solar particle fluxes. Actually, many solar, heliospheric and terrestrial parameters changing generally in phase with the solar activity are subjected to a temporary depression close to the solar maximum ("Gnevyshev Gap"). A similar gap has been found recently in the yearly numbers of the >10 MeV proton events. All the above-mentioned findings are evidently of great importance in the studies of general proton emissivity of the Sun and long-term trends in the behaviour of solar magnetic fields. In addition, these data can be very helpful for elaborating the methods for prediction of the radiation conditions in space and for estimation of the SEPs' contribution to solar effects on the geosphere, their relative role in the formation of terrestrial weather and climate and in the problem of solar-terrestrial relations (STR) on the whole.

  11. Precision Modeling of Solar Energetic Particle Intensity and Anisotropy Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, D.; Sáiz, A.; Bieber, J. W.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.; Rujiwarodom, M.; Tooprakai, P.; Wechakama, M.; Khumlumlert, T.

    2006-12-01

    A focused transport equation for solar energetic particles is sufficiently complex that simple analytic approximations are generally inadequate, but the physics is sufficiently well established to permit precise numerical modeling of high energy particle observations at various distances from the Sun. We demonstrate how observed profiles of intensity and anisotropy vs. time can be quantitatively fit to determine an optimal injection profile at the Sun, scattering mean free path λ, and magnetic configuration. For several ground level enhancements (GLE) of solar energetic particles at energies ~ 1 GeV, the start time of injection has been determined to 1 or 2 minutes. In each case this start time coincides, within that precision, to the soft X-ray peak time, when the flare's primary energy release has ended. This is not inconsistent with acceleration at a coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shock, though the rapid timescale is challenging to understand. For the GLE of 2005 January 20, λ decreases substantially over ~ 10 minutes, which is consistent with concepts of proton-amplified waves. The GLE of 2000 July 14 is properly fit only when a magnetic bottleneck beyond Earth is taken into account, a feature later confirmed by NEAR observations. The long-standing puzzle of the 1989 October 22 event can now be explained by simultaneous injection of relativistic solar particles along both legs of a closed interplanetary magnetic loop, while other reasonable explanations fail the test of quantitative fitting. The unusually long λ (confirming many previous reports) and a low turbulent spectral index hint at unusual properties of turbulence in the loop. While the early GLE peak on 2003 October 28 remains a mystery, the main peak's strong anisotropy is inconsistent with a suggestion of injection along the far leg of a magnetic loop; quantitative fitting fails because of reverse focusing during Sunward motion. With these modeling capabilities, one is poised to take full

  12. Solar flares, CMEs and solar energetic particle events during solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Bimal; Pande, Seema; Chandra, Ramesh; Chandra Mathpal, Mahesh

    2018-01-01

    We present here a study of Solar Energetic Particle Events (SEPs) associated with solar flares during 2010-2014 in solar cycle 24. We have selected the flare events (≥GOES M-class), which produced SEPs. The SEPs are classified into three categories i.e. weak (proton intensity ≤ 1 pfu), minor (1 pfu pfu) and major (proton intensity ≥ 10 pfu). We used the GOES data for the SEP events which have intensity greater than one pfu and SOHO/ERNE data for the SEP event less than one pfu intensity. In addition to the flare and SEP properties, we have also discussed different properties of associated CMEs.

  13. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Intitute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 dhani@as.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  14. Electron energetics in the expanding solar wind via Helios observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 10 (2015), s. 8177-8193 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/2041; GA ČR GA15-17490S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar wind * electrons energetics * transport processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015

  15. Proton thermal energetics in the solar wind: Helios reloaded

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, P.; Štverák, Štěpán; Matteini, L.; Velli, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 4 (2013), s. 1351-1365 ISSN 2169-9380 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar wind * proton energetics * turbulent heating Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50107/abstract

  16. Non-Local Diffusion of Energetic Electrons during Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, N. H.; Emslie, G.; Kontar, E.

    2017-12-01

    The transport of the energy contained in suprathermal electrons in solar flares plays a key role in our understanding of many aspects of flare physics, from the spatial distributions of hard X-ray emission and energy deposition in the ambient atmosphere to global energetics. Historically the transport of these particles has been largely treated through a deterministic approach, in which first-order secular energy loss to electrons in the ambient target is treated as the dominant effect, with second-order diffusive terms (in both energy and angle) generally being either treated as a small correction or even neglected. Here, we critically analyze this approach, and we show that spatial diffusion through pitch-angle scattering necessarily plays a very significant role in the transport of electrons. We further show that a satisfactory treatment of the diffusion process requires consideration of non-local effects, so that the electron flux depends not just on the local gradient of the electron distribution function but on the value of this gradient within an extended region encompassing a significant fraction of a mean free path. Our analysis applies generally to pitch-angle scattering by a variety of mechanisms, from Coulomb collisions to turbulent scattering. We further show that the spatial transport of electrons along the magnetic field of a flaring loop can be modeled as a Continuous Time Random Walk with velocity-dependent probability distribution functions of jump sizes and occurrences, both of which can be expressed in terms of the scattering mean free path.

  17. SOLAR SOURCES OF 3He-RICH SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Nariaki V.; Mason, Glenn M.; Wang, Linghua; Cohen, Christina M. S.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Using high-cadence EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate the solar sources of 26 3 He-rich solar energetic particle events at ≲1 MeV nucleon −1 that were well-observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer during solar cycle 24. Identification of the solar sources is based on the association of 3 He-rich events with type III radio bursts and electron events as observed by Wind. The source locations are further verified in EUV images from the Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory, which provides information on solar activities in the regions not visible from the Earth. Based on AIA observations, 3 He-rich events are not only associated with coronal jets as emphasized in solar cycle 23 studies, but also with more spatially extended eruptions. The properties of the 3 He-rich events do not appear to be strongly correlated with those of the source regions. As in the previous studies, the magnetic connection between the source region and the observer is not always reproduced adequately by the simple potential field source surface model combined with the Parker spiral. Instead, we find a broad longitudinal distribution of the source regions extending well beyond the west limb, with the longitude deviating significantly from that expected from the observed solar wind speed

  18. STEREO Observations of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms during the 5 December 2006 Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. F.; Labrador, A. W.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms emitted during the X9 solar event of December 5, 2006. Beginning 1 hour following the onset of this E79 flare, the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on both the STEREO A and B spacecraft observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV protons beginning hours before the onset of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth. More than 70% of these particles arrived from a longitude within 10 of the Sun, consistent with the measurement resolution. The derived emission profile at the Sun had onset and peak times remarkably similar to the GOES soft X-ray profile and continued for more than an hour. The observed arrival directions and energy spectrum argue strongly that the particle events less than 5 MeV were due to energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs). To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of ENA emission from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection. Possible origins for the production of ENAs in a large solar event are considered. We conclude that the observed ENAs were most likely produced in the high corona and that charge-transfer reactions between accelerated protons and partially-stripped coronal ions are an important source of ENAs in solar events.

  19. Solar energetic particles: observational studies and magnetohydrodynamic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, S.

    2010-10-01

    Solar activity manifests itself through highly dynamical events, such as flares and coronal mass ejections, which result in energy release by magnetic reconnection. This thesis focuses on two manifestations of this energy release: solar energetic particles and dynamics of magnetic reconnection. The first part of my work consists in the detailed temporal analysis of several electromagnetic signatures, produced by energetic particles in the solar atmosphere, with respect to the energetic particle flux at Earth. Using multi-instrument observations, I highlighted that particles can be accelerated by the flare to relativistic energies during a specific episode of acceleration in the impulsive phase. This showed that particles traveled a longer path length than the theoretical length generally assumed. Using in-situ measurements of magnetic field and plasma, I identified the interplanetary magnetic field for 10 particle events, and performing a velocity dispersion analysis I obtained the interplanetary length traveled by particles. I showed that the magnetic structure of the interplanetary medium play a crucial role in the association of the particle flux at Earth and the acceleration signatures of particles at the Sun. The second part of my work focuses on the dynamics of magnetic reconnection. Observationally, the best evidence for magnetic reconnection is the appearance of brightnesses at the solar surface. Performing the first data-driven 3 dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of an observed event, I discovered that the evolution of brightnesses can be explained by the succession of two different reconnection regimes, induced by a new topological association where null-point separatrix lines are embedded in quasi-separatrix layers. This new topological association induces a change of field line connectivity, but also a continuous reconnection process, leading to an apparent slipping motion of reconnected field lines. From a MHD simulation I showed that

  20. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, J A.E.; Scourfield, M W.J. [Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). Space Physics Research Inst.

    1991-07-11

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by {approx} 9% over {approx} 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70{sup o}S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author).

  1. Importance of energetic solar protons in ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, J.A.E.; Scourfield, M.W.J.

    1991-01-01

    CHLORINE-catalysed depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer has commanded considerable attention since 1985, when Farman et al. observed a decrease of 50% in the total column ozone over Antarctica in the austral spring. Here we examine the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by the reaction of ozone with nitric oxide generated by energetic solar protons, associated with solar flares. During large solar flares in March 1989, satellite observations indicated that total column ozone was depleted by ∼ 9% over ∼ 20% of the total area between the South Pole and latitude 70 o S. Chlorine-catalysed ozone depletion takes place over a much larger area, but our results indicate that the influence of solar protons on atmospheric ozone concentrations should not be ignored. (author)

  2. Delay in solar energetic particle onsets at high heliographic latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dalla

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulysses observations have shown that solar energetic particles (SEPs can easily reach high heliographic latitudes. To obtain information on the release and propagation of SEPs prior to their arrival at Ulysses, we analyse the onsets of nine large high-latitude particle events. We measure the onset times in several energy channels, and plot them versus inverse particle speed. This allows us to derive an experimental path length and time of release from the solar atmosphere. We repeat the procedure for near-Earth observations by Wind and SOHO. We find that the derived path lengths at Ulysses are 1.06 to 2.45 times the length of a Parker spiral magnetic field line connecting the spacecraft to the Sun. The time of particle release from the Sun is between 100 and 350 min later than the release time derived from in-ecliptic measurements. We find no evidence of correlation between the delay in release and the inverse of the speed of the CME associated with the event, or the inverse of the speed of the corresponding interplanetary shock. The main parameter determining the magnitude of the delay appears to be the difference in latitude between the flare and the footpoint of the spacecraft.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (energetic particles, flares and mass ejections

  3. Solar-cosmic-ray variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The maximum flux of particles from solar events that should be considered in designing the shielding for a space habitation is discussed. The activities of various radionuclides measured in the top few centimeters of lunar rocks are used to examine the variability of solar cosmic ray fluxes over the last five million years. 10 references

  4. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  5. The acceleration and propagation of solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    During flares and coronal mass ejections at the Sun, ions and electrons can be accelerated to high energies. They can escape from the solar corona into interplanetary space, and be detected by instruments on board spacecraft. This paper will review measurements of these solar energetic particles (SEPs) and models of their acceleration and propagation.It is generally agreed that SEP flux enhancements fall into two distinct classes: the so-called impulsive events, thought to originate in solar flares, and gradual events, thought to be the result of acceleration at the shock driven through the corona and interplanetary space by coronal mass ejections. A fundamental assumption of this model for SEPs is that particles' guiding centers propagate essentially parallel to the interplanetary magnetic field lines, and cross-field particle diffusion is negligible.The recent passage of the Ulysses spacecraft over the solar poles provided the first ever measurements of SEPs out of the ecliptic plane. Analysis of these data has revealed several fundamental differences with respect to the near-ecliptic measurements, such as large delays in particle arrival and in fluxes reaching their peak value. It will be shown that the current model of SEP acceleration and propagation does not account for the Ulysses results, which would more easily be explained by efficient cross-field diffusion of energetic particles

  6. Solar Energetic Particle Events at the Rise Phase of the 23rd Solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Abstract. The experiment with 10K-80 aboard the INTER-BALL-2. (which detects protons with energies >7, 27-41, 41-58, 58-88, 88-180 and 180-300 MeV) registered six events of the solar energetic particle. (SEP) increase. These events are during the initial rise phase of the 23rd solar activity cycle. Solar flares with the ...

  7. The "FIP Effect" and the Origins of Solar Energetic Particles and of the Solar Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Reames, Donald V.

    2018-01-01

    We find that the element abundances in solar energetic particles (SEPs) and in the slow solar wind (SSW), relative to those in the photosphere, show different patterns as a function of the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements. Generally, the SEP and SSW abundances reflect abundance samples of the solar corona, where low-FIP elements, ionized in the chromosphere, are more efficiently conveyed upward to the corona than high-FIP elements that are initially neutral atoms. Abundances o...

  8. Precipitation and Release of Solar Energetic Particles from the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Lulu, E-mail: mzhang@fit.edu [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Blvd., Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2017-09-10

    Most solar energetic particles (SEPs) are produced in the corona. They propagate through complex coronal magnetic fields subject to scattering and diffusion across the averaged field lines by turbulence. We examine the behaviors of particle transport using a stochastic 3D focused transport simulation in a potential field source surface model of coronal magnetic field. The model is applied to an SEP event on 2010 February 7. We study three scenarios of particle injection at (i) the compact solar flare site, (ii) the coronal mass ejection (CME) shock, and (iii) the EUV wave near the surface. The majority of particles injected on open field lines are able to escape the corona. We found that none of our models can explain the observations of wide longitudinal SEP spread without perpendicular diffusion. If the perpendicular diffusion is about 10% of what is derived from the random walk of field lines at the rate of supergranular diffusion, particles injected at the compact solar flare site can spread to a wide range of longitude and latitude, very similar to the behavior of particles injected at a large CME shock. Stronger pitch-angle scattering results in a little more lateral spread by holding the particles in the corona for longer periods of time. Some injected particles eventually end up precipitating onto the solar surface. Even with a very small perpendicular diffusion, the pattern of the particle precipitation can be quite complicated depending on the detailed small-scale coronal magnetic field structures, which could be seen with future sensitive gamma-ray telescopes.

  9. Precipitation and Release of Solar Energetic Particles from the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    Most solar energetic particles (SEPs) are produced in the corona. They propagate through complex coronal magnetic fields subject to scattering and diffusion across the averaged field lines by turbulence. We examine the behaviors of particle transport using a stochastic 3D focused transport simulation in a potential field source surface model of coronal magnetic field. The model is applied to an SEP event on 2010 February 7. We study three scenarios of particle injection at (i) the compact solar flare site, (ii) the coronal mass ejection (CME) shock, and (iii) the EUV wave near the surface. The majority of particles injected on open field lines are able to escape the corona. We found that none of our models can explain the observations of wide longitudinal SEP spread without perpendicular diffusion. If the perpendicular diffusion is about 10% of what is derived from the random walk of field lines at the rate of supergranular diffusion, particles injected at the compact solar flare site can spread to a wide range of longitude and latitude, very similar to the behavior of particles injected at a large CME shock. Stronger pitch-angle scattering results in a little more lateral spread by holding the particles in the corona for longer periods of time. Some injected particles eventually end up precipitating onto the solar surface. Even with a very small perpendicular diffusion, the pattern of the particle precipitation can be quite complicated depending on the detailed small-scale coronal magnetic field structures, which could be seen with future sensitive gamma-ray telescopes.

  10. Precipitation and Release of Solar Energetic Particles from the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Lulu

    2017-09-01

    Most solar energetic particles (SEPs) are produced in the corona. They propagate through complex coronal magnetic fields subject to scattering and diffusion across the averaged field lines by turbulence. We examine the behaviors of particle transport using a stochastic 3D focused transport simulation in a potential field source surface model of coronal magnetic field. The model is applied to an SEP event on 2010 February 7. We study three scenarios of particle injection at (I) the compact solar flare site, (II) the coronal mass ejection (CME) shock, and (III) the EUV wave near the surface. The majority of particles injected on open field lines are able to escape the corona. We found that none of our models can explain the observations of wide longitudinal SEP spread without perpendicular diffusion. If the perpendicular diffusion is about 10% of what is derived from the random walk of field lines at the rate of supergranular diffusion, particles injected at the compact solar flare site can spread to a wide range of longitude and latitude, very similar to the behavior of particles injected at a large CME shock. Stronger pitch-angle scattering results in a little more lateral spread by holding the particles in the corona for longer periods of time. Some injected particles eventually end up precipitating onto the solar surface. Even with a very small perpendicular diffusion, the pattern of the particle precipitation can be quite complicated depending on the detailed small-scale coronal magnetic field structures, which could be seen with future sensitive gamma-ray telescopes.

  11. Composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, C.Y.; Gloeckler, G.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of approximatelt 1 to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production

  12. Composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, C.Y.; Gloeckler, G.

    1983-01-01

    The elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of approximately 1 to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events was determined and current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations are outlined. The composition within individual SEP events may vary both with time and energy, and will in general be different from that in other SEP events. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events, however are found to be roughly energy independent in the approximately 1 to approximately 20 MeV per nucleon range, and show a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seem to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs have revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ions with typical coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events show these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP Ne-22 relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind

  13. Observation and Interpretation of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Shih, A. Y.; Stone, E. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Labrador, A. W.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss observations of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs) from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection event reported by Mewaldt et al. (2009). The observations were made during the 5 December 2006 X9 solar flare, located at E79, by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on STEREO A and B. Prior to the arrival of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV particles arriving from the Sun. The derived solar emission profile, arrival directions, and energy spectrum all show that the atoms produced by either flare or shock-accelerated protons. RHESSI measurements of the 2.2-MeV gamma-ray line provide an estimate of the number of interacting flare-accelerated protons in this event, which leads to an improved estimate of ENA production by flare-accelerated protons. CME-driven shock acceleration is also considered. Taking into account ENA losses, we conclude that the observed ENAs must have been produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances .2 solar radii.

  14. Observations and Interpretations of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Shih, A. Y.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. f.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. c.; Labrador, A. W.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss recently reported observations of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs) from an X9 solar flare/coronal mass ejection event on 5 December 2006, located at E79. The observations were made by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on STEREO A and B. Prior to the arrival of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV energetic neutral hydrogen atoms produced by either flare or shock-accelerated protons. RHESSI measurements of the 2.2-MeV gamma-ray line provide an estimate of the number of interacting flare-accelerated protons in this event, which leads to an improved estimate of ENA production by flare-accelerated protons. Taking into account ENA losses, we find that the observed ENAs must have been produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances > or equal to 2 solar radii. Although there are no CME images from this event, it is shown that CME-shock-accelerated protons can, in principle, produce a time-history consistent with the observations.

  15. Proton thermal energetics in the solar wind: Helios reloaded

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Štverák, Štěpán; Matteini, L.; Velli, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 4 (2013), s. 3151-3165 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/2041; GA ČR GAP209/12/2023 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 263340 - SWIFF Grant - others:EU(XE) SHOCK Project No. 284515 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 ; RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar wind * proton energetics * turbulent heating Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFA-U) Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013

  16. Solar flares, coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particle event characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Sandberg, Ingmar; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Kostas; Tsiropoula, Georgia; Jiggens, Piers; Hilgers, Alain

    2016-12-01

    A new catalogue of 314 solar energetic particle (SEP) events extending over a large time span from 1984 to 2013 has been compiled. The properties as well as the associations of these SEP events with their parent solar sources have been thoroughly examined. The properties of the events include the proton peak integral flux and the fluence for energies above 10, 30, 60 and 100 MeV. The associated solar events were parametrized by solar flare (SF) and coronal mass ejection (CME) characteristics, as well as related radio emissions. In particular, for SFs: the soft X-ray (SXR) peak flux, the SXR fluence, the heliographic location, the rise time and the duration were exploited; for CMEs the plane-of-sky velocity as well as the angular width were utilized. For radio emissions, type III, II and IV radio bursts were identified. Furthermore, we utilized element abundances of Fe and O. We found evidence that most of the SEP events in our catalogue do not conform to a simple two-class paradigm, with the 73% of them exhibiting both type III and type II radio bursts, and that a continuum of event properties is present. Although, the so-called hybrid or mixed events are found to be present in our catalogue, it was not possible to attribute each SEP event to a mixed/hybrid sub-category. Moreover, it appears that the start of the type III burst most often precedes the maximum of the SF and thus falls within the impulsive phase of the associated SF. At the same time, type III bursts take place within ≈5.22 min, on average, in advance from the time of maximum of the derivative of the SXR flux (Neupert effect). We further performed a statistical analysis and a mapping of the logarithm of the proton peak flux at E > 10 MeV, on different pairs of the parent solar source characteristics. This revealed correlations in 3-D space and demonstrated that the gradual SEP events that stem from the central part of the visible solar disk constitute a significant radiation risk. The velocity of

  17. Solar energetic particle events during the rise phases of solar cycles 23 and 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R.; Gopalswamy, N.; Mäkelä, P.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Uddin, W.; Srivastava, A. K.; Joshi, N. C.; Jain, R.; Awasthi, A. K.; Manoharan, P. K.; Mahalakshmi, K.; Dwivedi, V. C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Nitta, N. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comparative study of the properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares associated with the solar energetic particle (SEP) events in the rising phases of solar cycles (SC) 23 (1996-1998) (22 events) and 24 (2009-2011) (20 events), which are associated with type II radio bursts. Based on the SEP intensity, we divided the events into three categories, i.e. weak (intensity pfu), minor (1 pfu pfu) and major (intensity ⩾ 10 pfu) events. We used the GOES data for the minor and major SEP events and SOHO/ERNE data for the weak SEP event. We examine the correlation of SEP intensity with flare size and CME properties. We find that most of the major SEP events are associated with halo or partial halo CMEs originating close to the sun center and western-hemisphere. The fraction of halo CMEs in SC 24 is larger than the SC 23. For the minor SEP events one event in SC23 and one event in SC24 have widths < 120° and all other events are associated with halo or partial halo CMEs as in the case of major SEP events. In case of weak SEP events, majority (more than 60%) of events are associated with CME width < 120°. For both the SC the average CMEs speeds are similar. For major SEP events, average CME speeds are higher in comparison to minor and weak events. The SEP event intensity and GOES X-ray flare size are poorly correlated. During the rise phase of solar cycle 23 and 24, we find north-south asymmetry in the SEP event source locations: in cycle 23 most sources are located in the south, whereas during cycle 24 most sources are located in the north. This result is consistent with the asymmetry found with sunspot area and intense flares.

  18. The energetic relationship among geoeffective solar flares, associated CMEs and SEPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt Nipa J; Jain Rajmal; Awasthi Arun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Major solar eruptions (flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs)) strongly influence geospace and space weather. Currently, the mechanism of their influence on space weather is not well understood and requires a detailed study of the energetic relationship among these eruptive phenomena. From this perspective, we investigate 30 flares (observed by RHESSI), followed by weak to strong geomagnetic storms. Spectral analysis of these flares suggests a new power-law relationship (r ∼ 0.79) between the hard X-ray (HXR) spectral index (before flare-peak) and linear speed of the associated CME observed by LASCO/SOHO. For 12 flares which were followed by SEP enhancement near Earth, HXR and SEP spectral analysis reveals a new scaling law (r ∼ 0.9) between the hardest X-ray flare spectrum and the hardest SEP spectrum. Furthermore, a strong correlation is obtained between the linear speed of the CME and the hardest spectrum of the corresponding SEP event (r ∼ 0.96). We propose that the potentially geoeffective flare and associated CME and SEP are well-connected through a possible feedback mechanism, and should be regarded within the framework of a solar eruption. Owing to their space weather effects, these new results will help improve our current understanding of the Sun-Earth relationship, which is a major goal of research programs in heliophysics

  19. Observation and Interpretation of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. F.; Shih, A. Y.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Labrador, A. W.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Cummings, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection event. The observations were made during the December 5, 2006 X9 solar flare, located at E79, by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on the STEREO A and B spacecraft. Within 1-2 hours of the flare onset, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV protons arriving hours before the onset of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth. More than 70% of these particles arrived from a longitude within +-10 degrees of the Sun. The derived emission profile at the Sun lasted for more than an hour and had a profile remarkably similar to the GOES soft X-ray profile. The observed arrival directions and energy spectrum argue strongly that the particle events atoms that were stripped of their electrons upon entering the LET sensor. To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of ENA emission from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection. We discuss possible origins for the production of ENAs in solar events, including charge-transfer reactions involving both flare and shock-accelerated protons. Assuming isotropic emission, we find that 2 x 10E28 ENAs escaped from the Sun in the upper hemisphere. Based on the 2.2 MeV gamma-ray emission observed by RHESSI in this event, and using measured and theoretical cross sections, we estimate that 3 x 10E31 ENAs with 1.8 - 5 MeV could be produced by protons accelerated in the flare. CME-driven shock acceleration is also a possible ENA source, but unfortunately there were no CME observations available from this event. Taking into account ENA losses, we conclude that the observed ENAs were most likely produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances 1.6 solar radii.

  20. Abundances, Ionization States, Temperatures, and FIP in Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2018-04-01

    The relative abundances of chemical elements and isotopes have been our most effective tool in identifying and understanding the physical processes that control populations of energetic particles. The early surprise in solar energetic particles (SEPs) was 1000-fold enhancements in {}3He/{}4He from resonant wave-particle interactions in the small "impulsive" SEP events that emit electron beams that produce type III radio bursts. Further studies found enhancements in Fe/O, then extreme enhancements in element abundances that increase with mass-to-charge ratio A/Q, rising by a factor of 1000 from He to Au or Pb arising in magnetic reconnection regions on open field lines in solar jets. In contrast, in the largest SEP events, the "gradual" events, acceleration occurs at shock waves driven out from the Sun by fast, wide coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Averaging many events provides a measure of solar coronal abundances, but A/Q-dependent scattering during transport causes variations with time; thus if Fe scatters less than O, Fe/O is enhanced early and depleted later. To complicate matters, shock waves often reaccelerate impulsive suprathermal ions left over or trapped above active regions that have spawned many impulsive events. Direct measurements of ionization states Q show coronal temperatures of 1-2 MK for most gradual events, but impulsive events often show stripping by matter traversal after acceleration. Direct measurements of Q are difficult and often unavailable. Since both impulsive and gradual SEP events have abundance enhancements that vary as powers of A/Q, we can use abundances to deduce the probable Q-values and the source plasma temperatures during acceleration, ≈3 MK for impulsive SEPs. This new technique also allows multiple spacecraft to measure temperature variations across the face of a shock wave, measurements otherwise unavailable and provides a new understanding of abundance variations in the element He. Comparing coronal abundances from SEPs

  1. Solar flares and the cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between the cosmic ray intensity and solar activity during solar cycle 20 is discussed. A model is developed whereby it is possible to simulate the observed cosmic ray intensity from the observed number of solar flares of importance >= 1. This model leads to a radius for the modulation region of 60-70 AU. It is suggested that high speed solar streams also made a small contribution to the modulation of cosmic rays during solar cycle 20. (orig.)

  2. Solar X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnov, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the popular form the consideration is given to the modern state tasks and results of X-ray spectrometry of solar bursts. The operation of X-ray spectroheliograph is described. Results of spectral and polarization measurings of X-ray radiation of one powerful solar burst are presented. The conclusion has been drawn that in the process of burst development three characteristic stages may be distingwished: 1) the initial phase; just in this period processes which lead to observed consequences-electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation are born; 2) the impulse phase, or the phase of maximum, is characterised by sharp increase of radiation flux. During this phase the main energy content emanates and some volumes of plasma warm up to high temperatures; 3) the phase of burst damping, during which plasma cools and reverts to the initial condition

  3. Global Energetics of Solar Flares. VI. Refined Energetics of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we refine the coronal mass ejection (CME) model that was presented in an earlier study of the global energetics of solar flares and associated CMEs and apply it to all (860) GOES M- and X-class flare events observed during the first seven years (2010-2016) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. The model refinements include (1) the CME geometry in terms of a 3D volume undergoing self-similar adiabatic expansion, (2) the solar gravitational deceleration during the propagation of the CME, which discriminates between eruptive and confined CMEs, (3) a self-consistent relationship between the CME center-of-mass motion detected during EUV dimming and the leading-edge motion observed in white-light coronagraphs, (4) the equipartition of the CME’s kinetic and thermal energies, and (5) the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling law. The refined CME model is entirely based on EUV-dimming observations (using Atmospheric Imager Assembly (AIA)/SDO data) and complements the traditional white-light scattering model (using Large-Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO)/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory data), and both models are independently capable of determining fundamental CME parameters. Comparing the two methods, we find that (1) LASCO is less sensitive than AIA in detecting CMEs (in 24% of the cases), (2) CME masses below {m}{cme}≲ {10}14 g are underestimated by LASCO, (3) AIA and LASCO masses, speeds, and energies agree closely in the statistical mean after the elimination of outliers, and (4) the CME parameters speed v, emission measure-weighted flare peak temperature T e , and length scale L are consistent with the following scaling laws: v\\propto {T}e1/2, v\\propto {({m}{cme})}1/4, and {m}{cme}\\propto {L}2.

  4. Solar wind heavy ions from energetic coronal events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Ions heavier than those of He can be resolved in the solar wind with electrostatic E/q analyzers when the local thermal temperatures are low. Ordinarily this condition prevails in the low speed solar wind found between high speed streams, i.e. the interstream, IS, solar wind. Various ions of O, Si and Fe are resolved in IS heavy ion spectra. Relative ion peak intensities indicate that the O ionization state is established in the IS coronal source regions at approx. 2.1 x 10 6 K while the state of Fe is frozen in at approx. 1.5 x 10 6 K farther out. Occasionally, anomalous spectra are observed in which the usually third most prominent ion peak, O 8+ , is depressed as are the Fe peaks ranging from Fe 12+ to Fe 7+ . A prominent peak in the usual Si 8+ position of IS spectra is self-consistently shown to be Fe 16+ . These features demonstrate that the ionization states were frozen in at higher than usual coronal temperatures. The source regions of these hot heavy ion spectra are identified as energetic coronal events including flares and nonflare coronal mass ejections. 24 references

  5. SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2012 JULY 23 EXTREME SOLAR STORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Bei; Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhongwei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Luhmann, Janet G., E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    We study the solar energetic particle (SEP) event associated with the 2012 July 23 extreme solar storm, for which Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the spacecraft at L1 provide multi-point remote sensing and in situ observations. The extreme solar storm, with a superfast shock and extremely enhanced ejecta magnetic fields observed near 1 au at STEREO A , was caused by the combination of successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Meanwhile, energetic particles were observed by STEREO and near-Earth spacecraft such as the Advanced Composition Explorer and SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory , suggesting a wide longitudinal spread of the particles at 1 au. Combining the SEP observations with in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements, we investigate the longitudinal distribution of the SEP event in connection with the associated shock and CMEs. Our results underscore the complex magnetic configuration of the inner heliosphere formed by solar eruptions. Examination of particle intensities, proton anisotropy distributions, element abundance ratios, magnetic connectivity, and spectra also gives important clues for particle acceleration, transport, and distribution.

  6. The "FIP Effect" and the Origins of Solar Energetic Particles and of the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2018-03-01

    We find that the element abundances in solar energetic particles (SEPs) and in the slow solar wind (SSW), relative to those in the photosphere, show different patterns as a function of the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements. Generally, the SEP and SSW abundances reflect abundance samples of the solar corona, where low-FIP elements, ionized in the chromosphere, are more efficiently conveyed upward to the corona than high-FIP elements that are initially neutral atoms. Abundances of the elements, especially C, P, and S, show a crossover from low to high FIP at {≈} 10 eV in the SEPs but {≈} 14 eV for the solar wind. Naively, this seems to suggest cooler plasma from sunspots beneath active regions. More likely, if the ponderomotive force of Alfvén waves preferentially conveys low-FIP ions into the corona, the source plasma that eventually will be shock-accelerated as SEPs originates in magnetic structures where Alfvén waves resonate with the loop length on closed magnetic field lines. This concentrates FIP fractionation near the top of the chromosphere. Meanwhile, the source of the SSW may lie near the base of diverging open-field lines surrounding, but outside of, active regions, where such resonance does not exist, allowing fractionation throughout the chromosphere. We also find that energetic particles accelerated from the solar wind itself by shock waves at corotating interaction regions, generally beyond 1 AU, confirm the FIP pattern of the solar wind.

  7. Radial dependence of solar energetic particles derived from the 15 March 2013 solar energetic particle event and global MHD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chin-Chun, E-mail: chin-chun.wu@nrl.navy.mil; Plunkett, Simon, E-mail: simon.plunkett@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Liou, Kan, E-mail: kan.liou@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland (United States); Wu, S. T., E-mail: wus@uah.edu [CSPAR, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama (United States); Dryer, Murray, E-mail: murraydryer@msn.com [Emeritus, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    We study an unusual solar energetic particle (SEP) event that was associated with the coronal mass ejection (CME) on March 15, 2013. Enhancements of the SEP fluxes were first detected by the ACE spacecraft at 14:00 UT, ∼7 hours after the onset of the CME (07:00 UT), and the SEP’s peak intensities were recorded ∼36 hours after the onset of the CME. Our recent study showed that the CME-driven shock Mach number, based on a global three-dimensional (3-D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, is well correlated with the time-intensity of 10-30 MeV and 30-80 MeV protons. Here we focus on the radial dependence (r{sup −α}) of {sup 4}He (3.43-41.2 MeV/n) and O (7.30-89.8 MeV/n) energetic particles from ACE/SIS. It is found that the scaling factor (α) ranges between 2 and 4 for most of the energy channels. We also found that the correlation coefficients tend to increase with SEP energies.

  8. SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE MODULATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH COHERENT MAGNETIC STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenchi, L.; Bruno, R.; D'amicis, R.; Marcucci, M. F.; Telloni, D.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.

    2013-01-01

    In situ observations of solar energetic particles (SEPs) often show rapid variations of their intensity profile, affecting all energies simultaneously, without time dispersion. A previously proposed interpretation suggests that these modulations are directly related to the presence of magnetic structures with a different magnetic topology. However, no compelling evidence of local changes in magnetic field or in plasma parameters during SEP modulations has been reported. In this paper, we performed a detailed analysis of SEP events and we found several signatures in the local magnetic field and/or plasma parameters associated with SEP modulations. The study of magnetic helicity allowed us to identify magnetic boundaries, associated with variations of plasma parameters, which are thought to represent the borders between adjacent magnetic flux tubes. It is found that SEP dispersionless modulations are generally associated with such magnetic boundaries. Consequently, we support the idea that SEP modulations are observed when the spacecraft passes through magnetic flux tubes, filled or devoid of SEPs, which are alternatively connected and not connected with the flare site. In other cases, we found SEP dropouts associated with large-scale magnetic holes. A possible generation mechanism suggests that these holes are formed in the high solar corona as a consequence of magnetic reconnection. This reconnection process modifies the magnetic field topology, and therefore, these holes can be magnetically isolated from the surrounding plasma and could also explain their association with SEP dropouts.

  9. Study of the Most Harmful Solar Energetic Particle for Shielding next Human Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komei Yamashiro, Bryan

    2015-04-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated by solar events such as flares and coronal mass ejections are radiation risks for humans in space on board the International Space Station (ISS), and will be significant obstacles for future long-duration manned space flight missions. This research supported efforts to improve predictions of large solar storms and aimed for a better understanding of Heliophysics. The main objective was to generate a dated catalog of the highest energy range SEPs measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). Using online graphical user interfaces from the satellites, Solar and Heliospeheric Observatory (SOHO) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-13, 15), the generated data files from the mounted particle detectors were plotted along a specified energy range. The resulting histograms illustrated the low energy range data from SOHO (4 MeV to 53 MeV) and the low-mid energy range from GOES (0.8 MeV to 500 MeV), which collectively provided a low- to mid-energy range spectrum of the specific event energy ranges versus the SEP proton flux. The high energy range results of the AMS-02 (125 MeV to a few TeV) will eventually be incorporated with the two alternative space satellites of lower energy ranges for a complete analysis across a full SEP energy range. X-ray flux from GOES-15 were then obtained and plotted with the corresponding time to portray initial phenomena of the solar events. This procedure was reproduced for 5 different events determined energetic enough to be measured by AMS-02. The generated plots showed correlation between the different satellite detectors.

  10. Monitoring solar energetic particles with an armada of European spacecraft and the new automated SEPF (Solar Energetic Proton Fluxes) Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, I.; Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Balasis, G.; Georgoulis, M.; Nieminen, P.; Evans, H.; Daly, E.

    2012-01-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in interplanetary medium consist of electrons, protons, alpha particles and heavier ions (up to Fe), with energies from dozens of keVs to a few GeVs. SEP events, or SEPEs, are particle flux enhancements from background level ( 30 MeV. The main part of SEPEs results from the acceleration of particles either by solar flares and/or by interplanetary shocks driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs); these accelerated particles propagate through the heliosphere, traveling along the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). SEPEs show significant variability from one event to another and are an important part of space weather, because they pose a serious health risk to humans in space and a serious radiation hazard for the spacecraft hardware which may lead to severe damages. As a consequence, engineering models, observations and theoretical investigations related to the high energy particle environment is a priority issue for both robotic and manned space missions. The European Space Agency operates the Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) on-board six spacecraft: Proba-1, INTEGRAL, Rosetta, Giove-B, Herschel and Planck, which measures high-energy protons and electrons with a fair angular and spectral resolution. The fact that several SREM units operate in different orbits provides a unique chance for comparative studies of the radiation environment based on multiple data gathered by identical detectors. Furthermore, the radiation environment monitoring by the SREM unit onboard Rosetta may reveal unknown characteristics of SEPEs properties given the fact that the majority of the available radiation data and models only refer to 1AU solar distances. The Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (ISARS/NOA) has developed and validated a novel method to obtain flux spectra from SREM count rates. Using this method and by conducting detailed scientific studies we have showed in

  11. Relating Solar Energetic Particle Event Fluences to Peak Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Stephen W.; Ling, Alan G.

    2018-02-01

    Recently we (Kahler and Ling, Solar Phys. 292, 59, 2017: KL) have shown that time-intensity profiles [I(t)] of 14 large solar energetic particle (SEP) events can be fitted with a simple two-parameter fit, the modified Weibull function, which is characterized by shape and scaling parameters [α and β]. We now look for a simple correlation between an event peak energy intensity [Ip] and the time integral of I(t) over the event duration: the fluence [F]. We first ask how the ratio of F/Ip varies for the fits of the 14 KL events and then examine that ratio for three separate published statistical studies of SEP events in which both F and Ip were measured for comparisons of those parameters with various solar-flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters. The three studies included SEP energies from a 4 - 13 MeV band to E > 100 MeV. Within each group of SEP events, we find a very robust correlation (CC > 0.90) in log-log plots of F versus Ip over four decades of Ip. The ratio increases from western to eastern longitudes. From the value of Ip for a given event, F can be estimated to within a standard deviation of a factor of {≤} 2. Log-log plots of two studies are consistent with slopes of unity, but the third study shows plot slopes of { 10 MeV to {>} 100 MeV. This difference is not explained.

  12. Characteristics of Solar Energetic Ions as a Function of Longitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A. [California Institute of Technology, MC 290-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mason, G. M., E-mail: cohen@srl.caltech.edu [Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Since the 2006 launch of STEREO , multi-spacecraft studies have yielded several surprising results regarding the spread of solar energetic particles (SEPs) within the inner heliosphere. We have investigated the role of energy and ridigity, using ACE and STEREO 10 MeV n{sup −1} oxygen data to identify 41 large SEP events observed by two or three spacecraft. We calculated fluence spectra from ∼0.1 to >10 MeV n{sup −1} for H, He, O, and Fe for each event at the observing spacecraft (including SOHO and GOES ). The particle fluences at 0.3, 1, and 10 MeV n{sup −1} were examined as a function of the distance between the associated solar flare longitude and the spacecraft magnetic footpoints at the Sun to determine the longitudinal spread of particles and study how the distribution centers and widths depend on energy and charge-to-mass (Q/M) for the first time. On average, the three-spacecraft event distributions were centered at 22 ± 4° west of the flare site and were 43 ± 1° wide, though there was substantial variability, while the fit to the aggregate of the two-spacecraft event fluences yielded significantly wider distributions at 0.3 and 1 MeV n{sup −1}. The widths derived from both the three- and two-spacecraft events show an energy dependence with distributions narrowing with increasing energy, consistent with lower energy ions experiencing more field line co-rotation, or being accelerated over a larger portion of the CME-driven shock or for longer times as the shock expands. Surprisingly, no clear evidence was found for a Q/M dependence to the widths or centers suggesting that rigidity-related processes are not the dominant means of spreading particles in longitude.

  13. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The composition within individual SEP events may vary both with time and energy, and will in general be different from that in other SEP events. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events, however, are found to be roughly energy independent in the proportional1 to proportional20 MeV per nucleon range, and show a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs have revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He + along with heavy ions with typically coronal ionization states. High-resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events show these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP 22 Ne/ 20 Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of 3 He-rich, heavy-ion rich and carbon-poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provide essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production. (orig./HM)

  14. Solar Energetic Particle Transport Near a Heliospheric Current Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battarbee, Markus; Dalla, Silvia [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Marsh, Mike S., E-mail: mbattarbee@uclan.ac.uk [Met Office, Exeter, EX1 3 PB (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-10

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs), a major component of space weather, propagate through the interplanetary medium strongly guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). In this work, we analyze the implications that a flat Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) has on proton propagation from SEP release sites to the Earth. We simulate proton propagation by integrating fully 3D trajectories near an analytically defined flat current sheet, collecting comprehensive statistics into histograms, fluence maps, and virtual observer time profiles within an energy range of 1–800 MeV. We show that protons experience significant current sheet drift to distant longitudes, causing time profiles to exhibit multiple components, which are a potential source of confusing interpretations of observations. We find that variation of the current sheet thickness within a realistic parameter range has little effect on particle propagation. We show that the IMF configuration strongly affects the deceleration of protons. We show that in our model, the presence of a flat equatorial HCS in the inner heliosphere limits the crossing of protons into the opposite hemisphere.

  15. Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leske, R. A., E-mail: ral@srl.caltech.edu; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wiedenbeck, M. E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.

  16. Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von

    2016-03-01

    As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.

  17. Transport, Acceleration and Spatial Access of Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikov, D.; Sokolov, I.; Effenberger, F.; Jin, M.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) are a major branch of space weather. Often driven by Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), SEPs have a very high destructive potential, which includes but is not limited to disrupting communication systems on Earth, inflicting harmful and potentially fatal radiation doses to crew members onboard spacecraft and, in extreme cases, to people aboard high altitude flights. However, currently the research community lacks efficient tools to predict such hazardous SEP events. Such a tool would serve as the first step towards improving humanity's preparedness for SEP events and ultimately its ability to mitigate their effects. The main goal of the presented research is to develop a computational tool that provides the said capabilities and meets the community's demand. Our model has the forecasting capability and can be the basis for operational system that will provide live information on the current potential threats posed by SEPs based on observations of the Sun. The tool comprises several numerical models, which are designed to simulate different physical aspects of SEPs. The background conditions in the interplanetary medium, in particular, the Coronal Mass Ejection driving the particle acceleration, play a defining role and are simulated with the state-of-the-art MHD solver, Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar-wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US). The newly developed particle code, Multiple-Field-Line-Advection Model for Particle Acceleration (M-FLAMPA), simulates the actual transport and acceleration of SEPs and is coupled to the MHD code. The special property of SEPs, the tendency to follow magnetic lines of force, is fully taken advantage of in the computational model, which substitutes a complicated 3-D model with a multitude of 1-D models. This approach significantly simplifies computations and improves the time performance of the overall model. Also, it plays an important role of mapping the affected region by connecting it with the origin of

  18. Trapping of Solar Energetic Particles by Small-Scale Topology of Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P.

    2004-05-01

    The transport of energetic particles perpendicular to the mean magnetic field in space plasmas long has been viewed as a diffusive process. However, there is an apparent conflict between recent observations of solar energetic particles (SEP): 1) impulsive solar flares can exhibit ``dropouts" in which SEP intensity near Earth repeatedly disappears and reappears, indicating a filamentary distribution of SEPs and little diffusion across these boundaries. 2) Observations by the IMP-8 and Ulysses spacecraft, while they were on opposite sides of the Sun, showed similar time-intensity profiles for many SEP events, indicating rapid lateral diffusion of particles throughout the inner solar system within a few days. We explain these seemingly contradictory observations using a theoretical model, supported by computer simulations, in which many particles are temporarily trapped within topological structures in statistically homogeneous magnetic turbulence, and ultimately escape to diffuse at a much faster rate. This work was supported by the Thailand Research Fund, the Rachadapisek Sompoj Fund of Chulalongkorn University, and the NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program (grant NAG5-8134).

  19. Non-Extensive Statistical Analysis of Solar Wind Electric, Magnetic Fields and Solar Energetic Particle time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlos, G. P.; Malandraki, O.; Khabarova, O.; Livadiotis, G.; Pavlos, E.; Karakatsanis, L. P.; Iliopoulos, A. C.; Parisis, K.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we study the non-extensivity of Solar Wind space plasma by using electric-magnetic field data obtained by in situ spacecraft observations at different dynamical states of solar wind system especially in interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), Interplanetary shocks, magnetic islands, or near the Earth Bow shock. Especially, we study the energetic particle non extensive fractional acceleration mechanism producing kappa distributions as well as the intermittent turbulence mechanism producing multifractal structures related with the Tsallis q-entropy principle. We present some new and significant results concerning the dynamics of ICMEs observed in the near Earth at L1 solar wind environment, as well as its effect in Earth's magnetosphere as well as magnetic islands. In-situ measurements of energetic particles at L1 are analyzed, in response to major solar eruptive events at the Sun (intense flares, fast CMEs). The statistical characteristics are obtained and compared for the Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) originating at the Sun, the energetic particle enhancements associated with local acceleration during the CME-driven shock passage over the spacecraft (Energetic Particle Enhancements, ESPs) as well as the energetic particle signatures observed during the passage of the ICME. The results are referred to Tsallis non-extensive statistics and in particular to the estimation of Tsallis q-triplet, (qstat, qsen, qrel) of electric-magnetic field and the kappa distributions of solar energetic particles time series of the ICME, magnetic islands, resulting from the solar eruptive activity or the internal Solar Wind dynamics. Our results reveal significant differences in statistical and dynamical features, indicating important variations of the magnetic field dynamics both in time and space domains during the shock event, in terms of rate of entropy production, relaxation dynamics and non-equilibrium meta-stable stationary states.

  20. Global energetics of solar flares. I. Magnetic energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin, Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju, E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com, E-mail: yan.xu@njit.edu, E-mail: ju.jing@njit.edu [Space Weather Research Laboratory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We present the first part of a project on the global energetics of solar flares and coronal mass ejections that includes about 400 M- and X-class flares observed with Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We calculate the potential (E{sub p} ), the nonpotential (E {sub np}) or free energies (E {sub free} = E {sub np} – E{sub p} ), and the flare-dissipated magnetic energies (E {sub diss}). We calculate these magnetic parameters using two different NLFFF codes: the COR-NLFFF code uses the line-of-sight magnetic field component B{sub z} from HMI to define the potential field, and the two-dimensional (2D) coordinates of automatically detected coronal loops in six coronal wavelengths from AIA to measure the helical twist of coronal loops caused by vertical currents, while the PHOT-NLFFF code extrapolates the photospheric three-dimensional (3D) vector fields. We find agreement between the two codes in the measurement of free energies and dissipated energies within a factor of ≲ 3. The size distributions of magnetic parameters exhibit powerlaw slopes that are approximately consistent with the fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model. The magnetic parameters exhibit scaling laws for the nonpotential energy, E{sub np}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.02}, for the free energy, E{sub free}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.7} and E{sub free}∝B{sub φ}{sup 1.0}L{sup 1.5}, for the dissipated energy, E{sub diss}∝E{sub p}{sup 1.6} and E{sub diss}∝E{sub free}{sup 0.9}, and the energy dissipation volume, V∝E{sub diss}{sup 1.2}. The potential energies vary in the range of E{sub p} = 1 × 10{sup 31}-4 × 10{sup 33} erg, while the free energy has a ratio of E {sub free}/E{sub p} ≈ 1%-25%. The Poynting flux amounts to F {sub flare} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during flares, which averages to F {sub AR} ≈ 6 × 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} during the entire observation

  1. High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to design and build the first imaging hard X-ray detector system that incorporates 3D stacking of closely packed detector readouts in finely-spaced imaging arrays with their required data processing and control electronics. In virtually all imaging astronomical detectors, detector readout is done with flex connectors or connections that are not vertical but rather horizontal , requiring loss of focal plane area. For high resolution pixel detectors needed for high speed event-based X-ray imaging, from low energy applications (CMOS) with focusing X-ray telescopes, to hard X-ray applications with pixelated CZT for large area coded aperture telescopes, this new detector development offers great promise. We propose to extend our previous and current APRA supported ProtoEXIST program that has developed the first large area imaging CZT detectors and demonstrated their astrophysical capabilities on two successful balloon flight to a next generation High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI), which would incorporate microvia technology for the first time to connect the readout ASIC on each CZT crystal directly to its control and data processing system. This 3-dimensional stacking of detector and readout/control system means that large area (>2m2) imaging detector planes for a High Resolution Wide-field hard X-ray telescope can be built with initially greatly reduced detector gaps and ultimately with no gaps. This increases detector area, efficiency, and simplicity of detector integration. Thus higher sensitivity wide-field imagers will be possible at lower cost. HREXI will enable a post-Swift NASA mission such as the EREXS concept proposed to PCOS to be conducted as a future MIDEX mission. This mission would conduct a high resolution (<2 arcmin) , broad band (5 200 keV) hard X-ray survey of black holes on all scales with ~10X higher sensitivity than Swift. In the current era of Time Domain Astrophysics, such a survey capability, in conjunction with a n

  2. Gamma ray detector for solar maximum mission (SMM) of NASA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, W.; Brichzin, K.; Sach, E.

    1981-06-01

    For NASA's Project Solar Maximum Mission-SMM (launch 14.2.80) a Gamma Ray Detector was developed, manufactured and tested to measure solar high energetic Gamma rays and Neutron fluxes within the energy range 10-160 MeV, 4,43 MeV amd 2,23 MeV. The main components of the sensor are 7 NaI crystals 3 x 3 and a CsI crystal 30 cm diameter x 7,5 cm. The rejection of charged particles is done by two plasitc scintillators and 4 CsI-shields. From the beginning of the mission the experiment is working fully successfull. (orig.) [de

  3. Electron–Ion Intensity Dropouts in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lun C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the field-line mixing model of Giacalone et al. suggests that ion dropouts cannot happen in the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event because of the large size of the particle source region in the event, the observational evidence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event should challenge the model. We have searched for the presence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event during solar cycle 23. From 10 SEP events the synchronized occurrence of ion and electron dropouts is identified in 12 periods. Our main observational facts, including the mean width of electron–ion dropout periods being consistent with the solar wind correlation scale, during the dropout period the dominance of the slab turbulence component and the enhanced turbulence power parallel to the mean magnetic field, and the ion gyroradius dependence of the edge steepness in dropout periods, are all in support of the solar wind turbulence origin of dropout events. Also, our observation indicates that a wide longitude distribution of SEP events could be due to the increase of slab turbulence fraction with the increased longitude distance from the flare-associated active region.

  4. Electron-Ion Intensity Dropouts in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lun C.

    2017-09-01

    Since the field-line mixing model of Giacalone et al. suggests that ion dropouts cannot happen in the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event because of the large size of the particle source region in the event, the observational evidence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event should challenge the model. We have searched for the presence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event during solar cycle 23. From 10 SEP events the synchronized occurrence of ion and electron dropouts is identified in 12 periods. Our main observational facts, including the mean width of electron-ion dropout periods being consistent with the solar wind correlation scale, during the dropout period the dominance of the slab turbulence component and the enhanced turbulence power parallel to the mean magnetic field, and the ion gyroradius dependence of the edge steepness in dropout periods, are all in support of the solar wind turbulence origin of dropout events. Also, our observation indicates that a wide longitude distribution of SEP events could be due to the increase of slab turbulence fraction with the increased longitude distance from the flare-associated active region.

  5. Electron–Ion Intensity Dropouts in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lun C., E-mail: ltan@umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Since the field-line mixing model of Giacalone et al. suggests that ion dropouts cannot happen in the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event because of the large size of the particle source region in the event, the observational evidence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event should challenge the model. We have searched for the presence of ion dropouts in the gradual SEP event during solar cycle 23. From 10 SEP events the synchronized occurrence of ion and electron dropouts is identified in 12 periods. Our main observational facts, including the mean width of electron–ion dropout periods being consistent with the solar wind correlation scale, during the dropout period the dominance of the slab turbulence component and the enhanced turbulence power parallel to the mean magnetic field, and the ion gyroradius dependence of the edge steepness in dropout periods, are all in support of the solar wind turbulence origin of dropout events. Also, our observation indicates that a wide longitude distribution of SEP events could be due to the increase of slab turbulence fraction with the increased longitude distance from the flare-associated active region.

  6. Solar Energetic Particles Events and Human Exploration: Measurements in a Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, L.; Berrilli, F.; Casolino, M.; Del Moro, D.; Forte, R.; Giovannelli, L.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Picozza, P.; Rizzo, A.; Scardigli, S.; Sparvoli, R.; Zeitlin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Solar activity is the source of Space Weather disturbances. Flares, CME and coronal holes modulate physical conditions of circumterrestrial and interplanetary space and ultimately the fluxes of high-energy ionized particles, i.e., solar energetic particle (SEP) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) background. This ionizing radiation affects spacecrafts and biological systems, therefore it is an important issue for human exploration of space. During a deep space travel (for example the trip to Mars) radiation risk thresholds may well be exceeded by the crew, so mitigation countermeasures must be employed. Solar particle events (SPE) constitute high risks due to their impulsive high rate dose. Forecasting SPE appears to be needed and also specifically tailored to the human exploration needs. Understanding the parameters of the SPE that produce events leading to higher health risks for the astronauts in deep space is therefore a first priority issue. Measurements of SPE effects with active devices in LEO inside the ISS can produce important information for the specific SEP measured, relative to the specific detector location in the ISS (in a human habitat with a shield typical of manned space-crafts). Active detectors can select data from specific geo-magnetic regions along the orbits, allowing geo-magnetic selections that best mimic deep space radiation. We present results from data acquired in 2010 - 2012 by the detector system ALTEA inside the ISS (18 SPEs detected). We compare this data with data from the detector Pamela on a LEO satellite, with the RAD data during the Curiosity Journey to Mars, with GOES data and with several Solar physical parameters. While several features of the radiation modulation are easily understood by the effect of the geomagnetic field, as an example we report a proportionality of the flux in the ISS with the energetic proton flux measured by GOES, some features appear more difficult to interpret. The final goal of this work is to find the

  7. Acceleration and propagation of energetic particles in the solar corona: from RHESSI data analysing to the preparation of the STIX tool operations on Solar Orbiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musset, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Sun is an active star and one manifestation of its activity is the production of solar flares. It is currently admitted that solar flares are caused by the release of magnetic energy during the process of magnetic reconnection in the solar upper atmosphere, the solar corona. During these flares, a large fraction of the magnetic energy is transferred to the acceleration of particles (electrons and ions). However, the details of particle acceleration during flares are still not completely understood. Several scenarios and models have been developed to explain particle acceleration. In some of them, electric fields, produced at the location of current sheets, which can be fragmented or collapsing, and which are preferentially located on quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs), are accelerating particles. To investigate a possible link between energetic particles and direct electric fields produced at current sheet locations, we looked for a correlation between X-ray emission from energetic electrons and electric currents which can be measured at the photospheric level. We used the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectrometric Imager (RHESSI) data to produce spectra and images of the X-ray emissions during GOES X-class flares, and spectro polarimetric data from the Helio seismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to calculate the vertical current densities from the reconstructed 3D vector magnetic field. A correlation between the coronal X-ray emissions (tracing the energetic electrons near the acceleration site) and the strong current ribbons at the photospheric level (tracing the coronal current sheet) was found in the five studied X-class flares. Moreover, thanks to the 12-minute time cadence of SDO/HMI, we could study for the first time the time evolution of electric currents : in several flares, a change in the current intensity, occurring during the flare peak, was found to be spatially correlated with X-ray emission sites. These

  8. THE 'TWIN-CME' SCENARIO AND LARGE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Liuguan; Jiang, Yong; Zhao, Lulu; Li, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Energetic particles in large solar energetic particle (SEP) events are a major concern for space weather. Recently, Li et al. proposed a 'twin-CME' scenario for ground-level events. Here we extend that study to large SEP events in solar cycle 23. Depending on whether preceding coronal mass ejections (CMEs) within 9 hr exist and whether ions >10 MeV nucleon –1 exceed 10 pfu, we categorize fast CMEs with speed >900 km s –1 and width >60° from the western hemisphere source regions into four groups: groups I and II are 'twin' and single CMEs that lead to large SEPs; groups III and IV are 'twin' and single CMEs that do not lead to large SEPs. The major findings of this paper are: first, large SEP events tend to be 'twin-CME' events. Of 59 western large SEP events in solar cycle 23, 43 are 'twin-CME' (group I) events and 16 are single-CME (group II) events. Second, not all 'twin CMEs' produced large SEPs: 28 twin CMEs did not produce large SEPs (group III events). Some of them produced excesses of particles up to a few MeV nucleon –1 . Third, there were 39 single fast CMEs that did not produce SEPs (group IV events). Some of these also showed an excess of particles up to a few MeV nucleon –1 . For all four groups of events, we perform statistical analyses on properties such as the angular width, the speed, the existence of accompanying metric type II radio bursts, and the associated flare class for the main CMEs and the preceding CMEs.

  9. Sunward-propagating Solar Energetic Electrons inside Multiple Interplanetary Flux Ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Herrero, Raúl; Hidalgo, Miguel A.; Carcaboso, Fernando; Blanco, Juan J. [Dpto. de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad de Alcalá, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Dresing, Nina; Klassen, Andreas; Heber, Bernd [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, University of Kiel, D-24118, Kiel (Germany); Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid [Institute of Physics/Kanzelhöhe Observatory, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Bučík, Radoslav [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, D-37077, Göttingen (Germany); Lario, David, E-mail: raul.gomezh@uah.es [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    On 2013 December 2 and 3, the SEPT and STE instruments on board STEREO-A observed two solar energetic electron events with unusual sunward-directed fluxes. Both events occurred during a time interval showing typical signatures of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). The electron timing and anisotropies, combined with extreme-ultraviolet solar imaging and radio wave spectral observations, are used to confirm the solar origin and the injection times of the energetic electrons. The solar source of the ICME is investigated using remote-sensing observations and a three-dimensional reconstruction technique. In situ plasma and magnetic field data combined with energetic electron observations and a flux-rope model are used to determine the ICME magnetic topology and the interplanetary electron propagation path from the Sun to 1 au. Two consecutive flux ropes crossed the STEREO-A location and each electron event occurred inside a different flux rope. In both cases, the electrons traveled from the solar source to 1 au along the longest legs of the flux ropes still connected to the Sun. During the December 2 event, energetic electrons propagated along the magnetic field, while during the December 3 event they were propagating against the field. As found by previous studies, the energetic electron propagation times are consistent with a low number of field line rotations N < 5 of the flux rope between the Sun and 1 au. The flux rope model used in this work suggests an even lower number of rotations.

  10. ARE THERE TWO DISTINCT SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE RELEASES IN THE 2012 MAY 17 GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Liu-Guan; Jiang, Yong; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    We examine ion release times in the solar vicinity for the 2012 May 17 Ground Level Enhancement event using the velocity dispersion analysis method. In situ energetic proton data from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite are used. We find two distinct releases of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) near the Sun, separated by ∼40 minutes. From soft X-ray observations, we find that the first release coincides with the solar flare eruption: the release starts from the flare onset and ends near the peak of the soft X-ray; type-III radio bursts also occur when the release starts. A type II radio burst may also start at the begining of the release. However, the associated Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) only has a height of 0.08R s from extrapolation of SOHO/LASCO data. At the start of the second release, the CME propagates to more than 8.4R s in height, and there are signatures of an enhanced type II radio burst. The time-integrated spectra for the two releases differ. The spectrum for the second release shows the common double-power-law feature of gradual SEP events. The spectrum for the first release does not resemble power laws because there is considerable modulation at lower energies. Based on our analysis, we suggest that SEPs of the first release were dominated by particles accelerated at the flare, and those of the second release were dominated by particles accelerated at the associated CME-driven shock. Our study may be important to understand certain extreme SEP events

  11. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle event of 20 January 2005 on polar stratospheric aerosols: direct observational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mironova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energetic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization of the low-middle atmosphere, leading to associated changes in atmospheric properties. Via the hypothetical influence of ionization on aerosol growth and facilitated formation of clouds, this may be an important indirect link relating solar variability to climate. This effect is highly debated, however, since the proposed theoretical mechanisms still remain illusive and qualitative, and observational evidence is inconclusive and controversial. Therefore, important questions regarding the existence and magnitude of the effect, and particularly the fraction of aerosol particles that can form and grow, are still open. Here we present empirical evidence of the possible effect caused by cosmic rays upon polar stratospheric aerosols, based on a case study of an extreme solar energetic particle (SEP event of 20 January 2005. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from different satellites with optical instruments that were operating during January 2005, such as the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III, and Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS, we found a significant simultaneous change in aerosol properties in both the Southern and Northern Polar regions in temporal association with the SEP event. We speculate that ionization of the atmosphere, which was abnormally high in the lower stratosphere during the extreme SEP event, might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles in the polar stratospheric region. However, a detailed interpretation of the effect is left for subsequent studies. This is the first time high vertical resolution measurements have been used to discuss possible production of stratospheric aerosols under the influence of cosmic ray induced ionization. The observed effect is marginally detectable for the analyzed severe SEP event and can be undetectable for the majority of weak

  12. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle event of 20 January 2005 on polar stratospheric aerosols: direct observational evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, I. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Petelina, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Energetic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization of the low-middle atmosphere, leading to associated changes in atmospheric properties. Via the hypothetical influence of ionization on aerosol growth and facilitated formation of clouds, this may be an important indirect link relating solar variability to climate. This effect is highly debated, however, since the proposed theoretical mechanisms still remain illusive and qualitative, and observational evidence is inconclusive and controversial. Therefore, important questions regarding the existence and magnitude of the effect, and particularly the fraction of aerosol particles that can form and grow, are still open. Here we present empirical evidence of the possible effect caused by cosmic rays upon polar stratospheric aerosols, based on a case study of an extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) event of 20 January 2005. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from different satellites with optical instruments that were operating during January 2005, such as the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), and Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS), we found a significant simultaneous change in aerosol properties in both the Southern and Northern Polar regions in temporal association with the SEP event. We speculate that ionization of the atmosphere, which was abnormally high in the lower stratosphere during the extreme SEP event, might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles in the polar stratospheric region. However, a detailed interpretation of the effect is left for subsequent studies. This is the first time high vertical resolution measurements have been used to discuss possible production of stratospheric aerosols under the influence of cosmic ray induced ionization. The observed effect is marginally detectable for the analyzed severe SEP event and can be undetectable for the majority of weak-moderate events. The present

  13. SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT ONSETS: FAR BACKSIDE SOLAR SOURCES AND THE EAST–WEST HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, S. W., E-mail: stephen.kahler@kirtland.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Prompt onsets and short rise times to peak intensities Ip have been noted in a few solar energetic (E > 10 MeV) particle (SEP) events from far behind (≥25°) the west limb. We discuss 15 archival and recent examples of these prompt events, giving their source longitudes, onset and rise times, and associated coronal mass ejection (CME) speeds. Their timescales and CME speeds are not exceptional in comparison with a larger set of SEP events from behind the west limb. A further statistical comparison of observed timescales of SEP events from behind the west limb with events similarly poorly magnetically connected to the eastern hemisphere (EH) shows the longer timescales of the latter group. We interpret this result in terms of a difference between SEP production at parallel shocks on the eastern flanks of western backside events and at perpendicular shocks on the western flanks of EH events.

  14. New Measurements of Suprathermal Ions, Energetic Particles, and Cosmic Rays in the Outer Heliosphere from the New Horizons PEPSSI Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. E.; Kollmann, P.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Stern, A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Young, L. A.; Olkin, C.; Spencer, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    During the period from January 2012 to December 2017 the New Horizons spacecraft traveled from 22 to 41 AU from the Sun, making nearly continuous interplanetary plasma and particle measurements utilizing the SWAP and PEPSSI instruments. We report on newly extended measurements from PEPSSI (Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation) that now bring together suprathermal particles above 2 keV/nuc (including interstellar pickup ions), energetic particles with H, He, and O composition from 30 keV to 1 MeV, and cosmic rays above 65 MeV (with effective count-rate-limited upper energy of 1 GeV). Such a wide energy range allows us to look at the solar wind structures passing over the spacecraft, the energetic particles that are often accelerated by these structures, and the suppression of cosmic rays resulting from the increased turbulence inhibiting cosmic ray transport to the spacecraft position (i.e., Forbush decreases). This broad perspective provides simultaneous, previously unattainable diagnostics of outer heliospheric particle dynamics and acceleration. Besides the benefit of being recent, in-ecliptic measurements, unlike the historic Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, these PEPSSI observations are also totally unique in the suprathermal range; in this region only PEPSSI can span the suprathermal range, detecting a population that is a linchpin to understanding the outer heliosphere.

  15. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed

  16. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  17. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  18. Strong non-radial propagation of energetic electrons in solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, A.; Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Veronig, A.

    2018-06-01

    Analyzing the sequence of solar energetic electron events measured at both STEREO-A (STA) and STEREO-B (STB) spacecraft during 17-21 July 2014, when their orbital separation was 34°, we found evidence of a strong non-radial electron propagation in the solar corona below the solar wind source surface. The impulsive electron events were associated with recurrent flare and jet (hereafter flare/jet) activity at the border of an isolated coronal hole situated close to the solar equator. We have focused our study on the solar energetic particle (SEP) event on 17 July 2014, during which both spacecraft detected a similar impulsive and anisotropic energetic electron event suggesting optimal connection of both spacecraft to the parent particle source, despite the large angular separation between the parent flare and the nominal magnetic footpoints on the source surface of STA and STB of 68° and 90°, respectively. Combining the remote-sensing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations, in-situ plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particle data we investigated and discuss here the origin and the propagation trajectory of energetic electrons in the solar corona. We find that the energetic electrons in the energy range of 55-195 keV together with the associated EUV jet were injected from the flare site toward the spacecraft's magnetic footpoints and propagate along a strongly non-radial and inclined magnetic field below the source surface. From stereoscopic (EUV) observations we estimated the inclination angle of the jet trajectory and the respective magnetic field of 63° ± 11° relative to the radial direction. We show how the flare accelerated electrons reach very distant longitudes in the heliosphere, when the spacecraft are nominally not connected to the particle source. This example illustrates how ballistic backmapping can occasionally fail to characterize the magnetic connectivity during SEP events. This finding also provides an additional mechanism (one among others

  19. Do Solar Coronal Holes Affect the Properties of Solar Energetic Particle Events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Arge, C. N.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2013-01-01

    The intensities and timescales of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events at 1 AU may depend not only on the characteristics of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), but also on large-scale coronal and interplanetary structures. It has long been suspected that the presence of coronal holes (CHs) near the CMEs or near the 1-AU magnetic footpoints may be an important factor in SEP events. We used a group of 41 E (is) approx. 20 MeV SEP events with origins near the solar central meridian to search for such effects. First we investigated whether the presence of a CH directly between the sources of the CME and of the magnetic connection at 1 AU is an important factor. Then we searched for variations of the SEP events among different solar wind (SW) stream types: slow, fast, and transient. Finally, we considered the separations between CME sources and CH footpoint connections from 1 AU determined from four-day forecast maps based on Mount Wilson Observatory and the National Solar Observatory synoptic magnetic-field maps and the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model of SW propagation. The observed in-situ magnetic-field polarities and SW speeds at SEP event onsets tested the forecast accuracies employed to select the best SEP/CH connection events for that analysis. Within our limited sample and the three analytical treatments, we found no statistical evidence for an effect of CHs on SEP event peak intensities, onset times, or rise times. The only exception is a possible enhancement of SEP peak intensities in magnetic clouds.

  20. Solar X-Ray Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, P. C. V.; Brown, J. C.; MacKinnon, A. L.

    Past analyses of solar flares have ignored nonthermal recombination (NTR) emission as a means of producing Hard X-rays (HXRs) in the corona and chromosphere. However, Brown and Mallik (2008, A&A, 481, 507) have shown that NTR can be significant and even exceed nonthermal bremsstrahlung (NTB) emission for certain flare conditions that are quite common. For hot enough plasma (T > 10 MK), HXR emission of a few deka-keV has a large contribution from NTR onto highly ionized heavy elements, especially Fe. Consequently, including NTR has implications for the magnitude and the form of the inferred electron spectrum, F(E), and hence for fast-electron density and energy budgets and for the acceleration mechanisms. We show under what circumstances NTR dominates in deka-keV HXR emission. It is important to note that at high temperatures, HXR emission from thermal electrons (recombination and bremsstrahlung) becomes important. However, NTR dominates over NTB without being swamped by thermal emission in the photon energy (ɛ) regime of 20-30 keV and temperature range of 10-25MK (Fig. 1, left). By integrating the flux for all ɛ > 20keV, i.e., looking at the source luminosity function above 20 keV, we were able to show that by including NTR, the acceleration requirements are less demanding for every event, but to varying degrees based on temperature (T), spectral index (δ) and electron low-energy cut-off (Ec). Our key result is that, for T > 10MK and δ ≈ 5, including NTR reduces the demand for nonthermal electrons by up to 85%. Our paper with these results will be submitted to ApJ Letters.

  1. INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN THE 2013 MAY 22 LARGE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Liu-Guan; Xu, Fei; Gu, Bin; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Li, Gang; Jiang, Yong; Le, Gui-Ming; Shen, Cheng-Long; Wang, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yao

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the eruption and interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the large 2013 May 22 solar energetic particle event using multiple spacecraft observations. Two CMEs, having similar propagation directions, were found to erupt from two nearby active regions (ARs), AR11748 and AR11745, at ∼08:48 UT and ∼13:25 UT, respectively. The second CME was faster than the first CME. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, we reconstructed the propagation of these two CMEs and found that the leading edge of the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME at a height of ∼6 solar radii. After about two hours, the leading edges of the two CMEs merged at a height of ∼20 solar radii. Type II solar radio bursts showed strong enhancement during this two hour period. Using the velocity dispersion method, we obtained the solar particle release (SPR) time and the path length for energetic electrons. Further assuming that energetic protons propagated along the same interplanetary magnetic field, we also obtained the SPR time for energetic protons, which were close to that of electrons. These release times agreed with the time when the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME, indicating that the CME-CME interaction (and shock-CME interaction) plays an important role in the process of particle acceleration in this event

  2. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffin, R T; White, S M; Ray, P S; Kaiser, M L

    2015-01-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena. (paper)

  3. Type III-L Solar Radio Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, R. T.; White, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2015-09-01

    A radio-selected sample of fast drift radio bursts with complex structure occurring after the impulsive phase of the associated flare (“Type III-L bursts”) is identified by inspection of radio dynamic spectra from 1 to 180 MHz for over 300 large flares in 2001. An operational definition that takes into account previous work on these radio bursts starting from samples of solar energetic particle (SEP) events is applied to the data, and 66 Type III-L bursts are found in the sample. In order to determine whether the presence of these radio bursts can be used to predict the occurrence of SEP events, we also develop a catalog of all SEP proton events in 2001 using data from the ERNE detector on the SOHO satellite. 68 SEP events are found, for 48 of which we can identify a solar source and hence look for associated Type III-L emission. We confirm previous work that found that most (76% in our sample) of the solar sources of SEP events exhibit radio emission of this type. However, the correlation in the opposite direction is not as strong: starting from a radio-selected sample of Type III-L events, around 64% of the bursts that occur at longitudes magnetically well-connected to the Earth, and hence favorable for detection of SEPs, are associated with SEP events. The degree of association increases when the events have durations over 10 minutes at 1 MHz, but in general Type III-L bursts do not perform any better than Type II bursts in our sample as predictors of SEP events. A comparison of Type III-L timing with the arrival of near-relativistic electrons at the ACE spacecraft is not inconsistent with a common source for the accelerated electrons in both phenomena.

  4. Energetic and economic evaluation of solar thermal and photovoltaic cooling system in Cuban hotel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz Torres, Yamile; Valdivia Nodal, Yarelis; Castellanos Molina, Luis Miguel; Torres del Toro, Migdalia; Monteagudo Llanes, José

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses the energetic and economic feasibility of using two configurations of solar cooling in a Cuban Hotel. The air conditioning hybrid system schemes are: conventional system (Chiller) interconnected in parallel with a solar- powered absorption cooling system (SACS); and a photovoltaic cooling system (PCS). There were analyzed by methodologies and thermodynamic principles governing these technologies. The results show that their uses are alternatives for reducing energy consumption and environmental impact. (full text)

  5. ONSETS AND SPECTRA OF IMPULSIVE SOLAR ENERGETIC ELECTRON EVENTS OBSERVED NEAR THE EARTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontar, Eduard P.; Reid, Hamish A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Impulsive solar energetic electrons are often observed in the interplanetary space near the Earth and have an attractive diagnostic potential for poorly understood solar flare acceleration processes. We investigate the transport of solar flare energetic electrons in the heliospheric plasma to understand the role of transport to the observed onset and spectral properties of the impulsive solar electron events. The propagation of energetic electrons in solar wind plasma is simulated from the acceleration region at the Sun to the Earth, taking into account self-consistent generation and absorption of electrostatic electron plasma (Langmuir) waves, effects of nonuniform plasma, collisions, and Landau damping. The simulations suggest that the beam-driven plasma turbulence and the effects of solar wind density inhomogeneity play a crucial role and lead to the appearance of (1) a spectral break for a single power-law injected electron spectrum, with the spectrum flatter below the break, (2) apparent early onset of low-energy electron injection, and (3) the apparent late maximum of low-energy electron injection. We show that the observed onsets, spectral flattening at low energies, and formation of a break energy at tens of keV is the direct manifestation of wave-particle interactions in nonuniform plasma of a single accelerated electron population with an initial power-law spectrum.

  6. Hard X-Ray Emission from Partially Occulted Solar Flares: RHESSI Observations in Two Solar Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, Frederic; Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Petrosian, Vahé [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Oka, Mitsuo; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Krucker, Säm [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Glesener, Lindsay, E-mail: feffen@stanford.edu, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Flares close to the solar limb, where the footpoints are occulted, can reveal the spectrum and structure of the coronal looptop source in X-rays. We aim at studying the properties of the corresponding energetic electrons near their acceleration site, without footpoint contamination. To this end, a statistical study of partially occulted flares observed with Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager is presented here, covering a large part of solar cycles 23 and 24. We perform detailed spectra, imaging, and light curve analyses for 116 flares and include contextual observations from SDO and STEREO when available, providing further insights into flare emission that were previously not accessible. We find that most spectra are fitted well with a thermal component plus a broken power-law, non-thermal component. A thin-target kappa distribution model gives satisfactory fits after the addition of a thermal component. X-ray imaging reveals small spatial separation between the thermal and non-thermal components, except for a few flares with a richer coronal source structure. A comprehensive light curve analysis shows a very good correlation between the derivative of the soft X-ray flux (from GOES ) and the hard X-rays for a substantial number of flares, indicative of the Neupert effect. The results confirm that non-thermal particles are accelerated in the corona and estimated timescales support the validity of a thin-target scenario with similar magnitudes of thermal and non-thermal energy fluxes.

  7. LARGE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH FILAMENT ERUPTIONS OUTSIDE ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Mäkelä, P.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Xie, H.; Thakur, N. [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kahler, S. W., E-mail: nat.gopalswamy@nasa.gov [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM 87117 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    We report on four large filament eruptions (FEs) from solar cycles 23 and 24 that were associated with large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and interplanetary type II radio bursts. The post-eruption arcades corresponded mostly to C-class soft X-ray enhancements, but an M1.0 flare was associated with one event. However, the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were fast (speeds ∼ 1000 km s{sup −1}) and appeared as halo CMEs in the coronagraph field of view. The interplanetary type II radio bursts occurred over a wide wavelength range, indicating the existence of strong shocks throughout the inner heliosphere. No metric type II bursts were present in three events, indicating that the shocks formed beyond 2–3 Rs. In one case, there was a metric type II burst with low starting frequency, indicating a shock formation height of ∼2 Rs. The FE-associated SEP events did have softer spectra (spectral index >4) in the 10–100 MeV range, but there were other low-intensity SEP events with spectral indices ≥4. Some of these events are likely FE-SEP events, but were not classified as such in the literature because they occurred close to active regions. Some were definitely associated with large active region flares, but the shock formation height was large. We definitely find a diminished role for flares and complex type III burst durations in these large SEP events. Fast CMEs and shock formation at larger distances from the Sun seem to be the primary characteristics of the FE-associated SEP events.

  8. Electron energetics in the expanding solar wind via Helios observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 10 (2015), s. 8177-8193 ISSN 2169-9380 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar wind plasma * plasma energization * transport processes Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021368/abstract

  9. Periodic Recurrence Patterns In X-Ray Solar Flare Appearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Erdélyi, R.

    2018-06-01

    The temporal recurrence of micro-flare events is studied for a time interval before and after of major solar flares. Our sample is based on the X-ray flare observations by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The analyzed data contain 1330/301 M-class and X-class GOES/RHESSI energetic solar flares and 4062/4119 GOES/RHESSI micro-flares covering the period elapse since 2002. The temporal analysis of recurrence, by Fast Fourier Transform, of the micro-flares, shows multiple significant periods. Based on the GOES and RHESSI data, the temporal analysis also demonstrates that multiple periods manifest simultaneously in both statistical samples without any significant shift over time. In the GOES sample, the detected significant periods are: 11.33, 5.61, 3.75, 2.80, and 2.24 minutes. The RHESSI data show similar significant periods at 8.54, 5.28, 3.66, 2.88, and 2.19 minutes. The periods are interpreted as signatures of standing oscillations, with the longest period (P 1) being the fundamental and others being higher harmonic modes. The period ratio of the fundamental and higher harmonics (P 1/P N ) is also analyzed. The standing modes may be signatures of global oscillations of the entire solar atmosphere encompassing magnetized plasma from the photosphere to the corona in active regions.

  10. Long-lasting injection of solar energetic electrons into the heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Klassen, A.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A.

    2018-05-01

    Context. The main sources of solar energetic particle (SEP) events are solar flares and shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While it is generally accepted that energetic protons can be accelerated by shocks, whether or not these shocks can also efficiently accelerate solar energetic electrons is still debated. In this study we present observations of the extremely widespread SEP event of 26 Dec 2013 To the knowledge of the authors, this is the widest longitudinal SEP distribution ever observed together with unusually long-lasting energetic electron anisotropies at all observer positions. Further striking features of the event are long-lasting SEP intensity increases, two distinct SEP components with the second component mainly consisting of high-energy particles, a complex associated coronal activity including a pronounced signature of a shock in radio type-II observations, and the interaction of two CMEs early in the event. Aims: The observations require a prolonged injection scenario not only for protons but also for electrons. We therefore analyze the data comprehensively to characterize the possible role of the shock for the electron event. Methods: Remote-sensing observations of the complex solar activity are combined with in situ measurements of the particle event. We also apply a graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model to the coronagraph observations of the two associated CMEs to analyze their interaction. Results: We find that the shock alone is likely not responsible for this extremely wide SEP event. Therefore we propose a scenario of trapped energetic particles inside the CME-CME interaction region which undergo further acceleration due to the shock propagating through this region, stochastic acceleration, or ongoing reconnection processes inside the interaction region. The origin of the second component of the SEP event is likely caused by a sudden opening of the particle trap.

  11. Database of episode-integrated solar energetic proton fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Zachary D.; Adams, James H.; Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.

    2018-04-01

    A new database of proton episode-integrated fluences is described. This database contains data from two different instruments on multiple satellites. The data are from instruments on the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-8 (IMP8) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) series. A method to normalize one set of data to one another is presented to create a seamless database spanning 1973 to 2016. A discussion of some of the characteristics that episodes exhibit is presented, including episode duration and number of peaks. As an example of what can be understood about episodes, the July 4, 2012 episode is examined in detail. The coronal mass ejections and solar flares that caused many of the fluctuations of the proton flux seen at Earth are associated with peaks in the proton flux during this episode. The reasoning for each choice is laid out to provide a reference for how CME and solar flares associations are made.

  12. Database of episode-integrated solar energetic proton fluences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Zachary D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new database of proton episode-integrated fluences is described. This database contains data from two different instruments on multiple satellites. The data are from instruments on the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform-8 (IMP8 and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES series. A method to normalize one set of data to one another is presented to create a seamless database spanning 1973 to 2016. A discussion of some of the characteristics that episodes exhibit is presented, including episode duration and number of peaks. As an example of what can be understood about episodes, the July 4, 2012 episode is examined in detail. The coronal mass ejections and solar flares that caused many of the fluctuations of the proton flux seen at Earth are associated with peaks in the proton flux during this episode. The reasoning for each choice is laid out to provide a reference for how CME and solar flares associations are made.

  13. Stellar and solar X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novick, R [Columbia Univ., New York (USA)

    1975-12-01

    The scientific motivation for X-ray polarimetry is discussed with particular emphasis on the information that might be obtained on the binary X-ray pulsars in addition to a number of other classes of objects including solar flares. Detailed discussions are given for Thomson-scattering and Bragg-crystal polarimeters with numerical estimates for the sensitivity of various existing and proposed instruments.

  14. Solar--geophysical data number 410, October 1978. Part II. (Comprehensive reports). Data for April 1978--March 1978 and miscellanea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1978-10-01

    This comprehensive report for April 1978, March 1978 and Miscellaneous data provides data on active regions, synoptic solar maps, solar flares, solar radio waves, energetic solar particles and plasma, synoptic chart, abbreviated calendar record, regional flare index, solar x-ray radiation, cosmic rays, energetic solar particles and plasma for March 1978 and solar flares for February 1978

  15. Energetic and financial evaluation of solar assisted heat pump space heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Moschos, Konstantinos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Four solar heating systems are presented in this work. • Various combinations between solar collectors and heat pumps are presented. • The systems are compared energetically and financially. • The use of PV and an air source heat pump is the best choice financially. • The use of PVT with a water source heat pump is the best solution energetically. - Abstract: Using solar energy for space heating purposes consists an alternative way for substituting fossil fuel and grid electricity consumption. In this study, four solar assisted heat pump heating systems are designed, simulated and evaluated energetically and financially in order to determine the most attractive solution. The use of PV collectors with air source heat pump is compared to the use of FPC, PVT and FPC with PV coupled with a water source heat pump. A sensitivity analysis for the electricity cost is conducted because of the great variety of this parameter over the last years. The final results proved that for electricity cost up to 0.23 €/kW h the use of PV coupled with an air source heat pump is the most sustainable solution financially, while for higher electricity prices the coupling of PVT with an water source heat pump is the best choice. For the present electricity price of 0.2 €/kW h, 20 m"2 of PV is able to drive the air source heat pump with a yearly solar coverage of 67% leading to the most sustainable solution. Taking into account energetic aspects, the use of PVT leads to extremely low grid electricity consumption, fact that makes this technology the most environmental friendly.

  16. Global Energetics in Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2017-08-01

    We present a statistical study of the energetics of coronal mass ejections (CME) and compare it with the magnetic, thermal, and nonthermal energy dissipated in flares. The physical parameters of CME speeds, mass, and kinetic energies are determined with two different independent methods, i.e., the traditional white-light scattering method using LASCO/SOHO data, and the EUV dimming method using AIA/SDO data. We analyze all 860 GOES M- and X-class flare events observed during the first 7 years (2010-2016) of the SDO mission. The new ingredients of our CME modeling includes: (1) CME geometry in terms of a self-similar adiabatic expansion, (2) DEM analysis of CME mass over entire coronal temperature range, (3) deceleration of CME due to gravity force which controls the kinetic and potentail CME energy as a function of time, (4) the critical speed that controls eruptive and confined CMEs, (5) the relationship between the center-of-mass motion during EUV dimming and the leading edge motion observed in white-light coronagraphs. Novel results are: (1) Physical parameters obtained from both the EUV dimming and white-light method can be reconciled; (2) the equi-partition of CME kinetic and thermal flare energy; (3) the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling law. We find that the two methods in EUV and white-light wavelengths are highly complementary and yield more complete models than each method alone.

  17. Evidence for Alfvén Waves in Source Flares of Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucik, R.; Innes, D.; Mason, G. M.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Nitta, N.

    2017-12-01

    Impulsive solar energetic particle events, characterised by a peculiar elemental composition with the rare elements like 3He and ultra-heavy ions enhanced by factors up to ten thousand above their thermal abundance, have been puzzling for almost 50 years. The solar sources of these events have been commonly associated with coronal jets, believed to be a signature of magnetic reconnection involving field lines open to interplanetary space. Here we present some of the most intense events, highly enriched in both 3He and heavier ions. The corresponding high-resolution, extreme-ultraviolet imaging observations have revealed for the first time a helical structure in the source flare with a jet-like shape. A mini-filament at the base of the jet appears to trigger these events. The events were observed with the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories on the backside of the Sun, during the period of increased solar activity in 2014. During the last decade, it has been established that the helical motions in coronal jets represent propagating Alfvén waves. Revealing such magnetic-untwisting waves in the solar sources of highly enriched events in this study is consistent with a stochastic acceleration mechanism. An examination of jets in previously reported impulsive solar energetic particle events indicates that they tend to be large-scale blowout jets, sometimes cleanly showing a twisted configuration.The work of R. Bucik is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft grant BU 3115/2-1.

  18. Energetic-particle abundances in impulsive solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, D. V.; Cane, H. V.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1990-01-01

    The abundances of elements and of He-3 in 90 solar electron events have been examined. It is found that the events fall into two distinct groups based upon their F/C ratio. Events in the F-rich group frequently have high He-3/He-4 ratios and are associated with type III and type V radio bursts in the parent flare. The F-poor events are associated with type IV bursts. These results on individual events support the conclusions of earlier work done with daily-averaged abundances.

  19. The solar energetic particle event on 2013 April 11: an investigation of its solar origin and longitudinal spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, D.; Raouafi, N. E. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Kwon, R.-Y.; Zhang, J. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 6A2, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Gómez-Herrero, R. [Space Research Group, Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, E-28871 Spain (Spain); Dresing, N. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel D-24118 (Germany); Riley, P. [Predictive Science, 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    We investigate the solar phenomena associated with the origin of the solar energetic particle (SEP) event observed on 2013 April 11 by a number of spacecraft distributed in the inner heliosphere over a broad range of heliolongitudes. We use extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and white-light coronagraph observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft (STEREO-A and STEREO-B) to determine the angular extent of the EUV wave and coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with the origin of the SEP event. We compare the estimated release time of SEPs observed at each spacecraft with the arrival time of the structures associated with the CME at the footpoints of the field lines connecting each spacecraft with the Sun. Whereas the arrival of the EUV wave and CME-driven shock at the footpoint of STEREO-B is consistent, within uncertainties, with the release time of the particles observed by this spacecraft, the EUV wave never reached the footpoint of the field lines connecting near-Earth observers with the Sun, even though an intense SEP event was observed there. We show that the west flank of the CME-driven shock propagating at high altitudes above the solar surface was most likely the source of the particles observed near Earth, but it did not leave any EUV trace on the solar disk. We conclude that the angular extent of the EUV wave on the solar surface did not agree with the longitudinal extent of the SEP event in the heliosphere. Hence EUV waves cannot be used reliably as a proxy for the solar phenomenon that accelerates and injects energetic particles over broad ranges of longitudes.

  20. The Energetic Trans-Iron Cosmic-ray Experiment (ENTICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, W. R.; Adams. J. H.; Barghouty, A. F.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Hams, T.; Israel, M. H.; Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Link, J. T.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The ENTICE experiment is one of two instruments that comprise the "Orbiting Astrophysical Spectrometer in Space (OASIS)", which is presently undergoing a NASA "Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study". ENTICE is designed to make high precision measurements of the abundances of individual elements from neon through the actinides and, in addition, will search for possible superheavy nuclei in the galactic cosmic rays. The ENTICE instrument utilizes silicon detectors, aerogel and acrylic Cherenkov counters, and a scintillating optical fiber hodoscope to measure the charge and energy of these ultra-heavy nuclei for energies greater than 0.5 GeV/nucleon. It is a large instrument consisting of four modules with a total effective geometrical factor of approx.20 sq m sr. Measurements made in space for a period of three years with ENTICE will enable us to determine if cosmic rays include a component of recently synthesized transuranic elements (Pu-94 and Cm-96), to measure the age of that component, and to test the model of the OB association origin of galactic cosmic rays. Additionally, these observations will enable us to study how diffusive shock acceleration of cosmic rays operates differently on interstellar grains and gas. Keywords: cosmic rays Galaxy:abundances

  1. Standard Cosmic Ray Energetics and Light Element Production

    CERN Document Server

    Fields, B D; Cassé, M; Vangioni-Flam, E; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Casse, Michel; Vangioni-Flam, Elisabeth

    2001-01-01

    The recent observations of Be and B in metal poor stars has led to a reassessment of the origin of the light elements in the early Galaxy. At low it is metallicity ([O/H] < -1.75), it is necessary to introduce a production mechanism which is independent of the interstellar metallicity (primary). At higher metallicities, existing data might indicate that secondary production is dominant. In this paper, we focus on the secondary process, related to the standard Galactic cosmic rays, and we examine the cosmic ray energy requirements for both present and past epochs. We find the power input to maintain the present-day Galactic cosmic ray flux is about 1.5e41 erg/s = 5e50 erg/century. This implies that, if supernovae are the sites of cosmic ray acceleration, the fraction of explosion energy going to accelerated particles is about 30%, a value which we obtain consistently both from considering the present cosmic ray flux and confinement and from the present 9Be and 6Li abundances. Using the abundances of 9Be (an...

  2. Neutralized solar energetic particles in the inner heliosphere: a parameter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Klecker, Berndt; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Cipriani, Fabrice; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The large fluxes of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in Gradual Events, dominated by protons, are believed to be produced by the acceleration of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As SEPs propagate in the lower corona, there is a chance for them to be neutralized via the charge exchange and/or recombination processes and become energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). These ENAs retain the velocity of their parent SEPs and propagate in straight lines without the influence of the interplanetary magnetic field, and therefore might potentially serve as a new window to observe the particle acceleration processes in the solar corona. STEREO/Low Energy Telescope reported the first probable observation of hydrogen ENAs between 1.6 MeV - 5 MeV from the Sun prior to an X-class flare/CME [Mewaldt et al., 2009]. While such observations were somehow controversial, Wang et al. [2014] simulated the neutralization of solar energetic protons in the corona lower than 40 RS, and the result agreed with the STEREO observation. In this work, we further developed a production model of the ENA near the sun together with a transport model toward the inner planets, and explore the dependences of the ENA characteristics against the model parameters. These parameters include the angular width of the CME, its propagation direction with respect to the Sun-observer line, the propagation speed, the particle density in the corona, the abundances of O6+ and C4+, and the reaction rate of electron impact ionization in the loss of ENAs, and the heliospheric distance of the observer. The calculated ENA flux shows that at lower energy the expected ENA flux depends most sensitively on the CME apex angle and the CME propagation direction. At higher energy the dependence on the coronal density is more prominent. References Mewaldt, R. A., R. A. Leske, E. C. Stone, A. F. Barghouty, A. W. Labrador, C. M. S. Cohen, A. C. Cummings, A. J. Davis, T. T. von Rosenvinge, and M. E. Wiedenbeck (2009), STEREO

  3. Energetics and beaming of gamma ray burst triggers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M.J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A wide range of mechanisms have been proposed to supply the energy for gamma-ray bursts (GRB) at cosmological distances. It is a common misconception that some of these, notably NS-NS mergers, cannot meet the energy requirements suggested by recent observations. We show here that GRB energies, even

  4. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W

    2007-03-28

    While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

  5. The Role of Diffusion in the Transport of Energetic Electrons during Solar Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Nicolas H.; Kontar, Eduard P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Emslie, A. Gordon, E-mail: nicolas.bian@glasgow.gla.ac.uk, E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The transport of the energy contained in suprathermal electrons in solar flares plays a key role in our understanding of many aspects of flare physics, from the spatial distributions of hard X-ray emission and energy deposition in the ambient atmosphere to global energetics. Historically the transport of these particles has been largely treated through a deterministic approach, in which first-order secular energy loss to electrons in the ambient target is treated as the dominant effect, with second-order diffusive terms (in both energy and angle) generally being either treated as a small correction or even neglected. Here, we critically analyze this approach, and we show that spatial diffusion through pitch-angle scattering necessarily plays a very significant role in the transport of electrons. We further show that a satisfactory treatment of the diffusion process requires consideration of non-local effects, so that the electron flux depends not just on the local gradient of the electron distribution function but on the value of this gradient within an extended region encompassing a significant fraction of a mean free path. Our analysis applies generally to pitch-angle scattering by a variety of mechanisms, from Coulomb collisions to turbulent scattering. We further show that the spatial transport of electrons along the magnetic field of a flaring loop can be modeled rather effectively as a Continuous Time Random Walk with velocity-dependent probability distribution functions of jump sizes and occurrences, both of which can be expressed in terms of the scattering mean free path.

  6. FLARE VERSUS SHOCK ACCELERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that events omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 10 5 ) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ∼2 × 10 3 , similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20–W90) SEP events.

  7. CURRENT SHEET ENERGETICS, FLARE EMISSIONS, AND ENERGY PARTITION IN A SIMULATED SOLAR ERUPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Katharine K.; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran; Forbes, Terry G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate coronal energy flow during a simulated coronal mass ejection (CME). We model the CME in the context of the global corona using a 2.5D numerical MHD code in spherical coordinates that includes coronal heating, thermal conduction, and radiative cooling in the energy equation. The simulation domain extends from 1 to 20 R s . To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply detailed energy diagnostics in a flare/CME simulation when these important terms are considered in the context of the MHD equations. We find that the energy conservation properties of the code are quite good, conserving energy to within 4% for the entire simulation (more than 6 days of real time). We examine the energy release in the current sheet as the eruption takes place, and find, as expected, that the Poynting flux is the dominant carrier of energy into the current sheet. However, there is a significant flow of energy out of the sides of the current sheet into the upstream region due to thermal conduction along field lines and viscous drag. This energy outflow is spatially partitioned into three separate components, namely, the energy flux flowing out the sides of the current sheet, the energy flowing out the lower tip of the current sheet, and the energy flowing out the upper tip of the current sheet. The energy flow through the lower tip of the current sheet is the energy available for heating of the flare loops. We examine the simulated flare emissions and energetics due to the modeled CME and find reasonable agreement with flare loop morphologies and energy partitioning in observed solar eruptions. The simulation also provides an explanation for coronal dimming during eruptions and predicts that the structures surrounding the current sheet are visible in X-ray observations.

  8. Cosmic rays, solar activity and the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, T; Wolfendale, A W

    2013-01-01

    Although it is generally believed that the increase in the mean global surface temperature since industrialization is caused by the increase in green house gases in the atmosphere, some people cite solar activity, either directly or through its effect on cosmic rays, as an underestimated contributor to such global warming. In this letter a simplified version of the standard picture of the role of greenhouse gases in causing the global warming since industrialization is described. The conditions necessary for this picture to be wholly or partially wrong are then introduced. Evidence is presented from which the contributions of either cosmic rays or solar activity to this warming is deduced. The contribution is shown to be less than 10% of the warming seen in the twentieth century. (letter)

  9. WAITING TIME DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS MODELED WITH A NON-STATIONARY POISSON PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Su, W.; Fang, C.; Zhong, S. J.; Wang, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the waiting time distributions (WTDs) of solar energetic particle (SEP) events observed with the spacecraft WIND and GOES. The WTDs of both solar electron events (SEEs) and solar proton events (SPEs) display a power-law tail of ∼Δt –γ . The SEEs display a broken power-law WTD. The power-law index is γ 1 = 0.99 for the short waiting times (<70 hr) and γ 2 = 1.92 for large waiting times (>100 hr). The break of the WTD of SEEs is probably due to the modulation of the corotating interaction regions. The power-law index, γ ∼ 1.82, is derived for the WTD of the SPEs which is consistent with the WTD of type II radio bursts, indicating a close relationship between the shock wave and the production of energetic protons. The WTDs of SEP events can be modeled with a non-stationary Poisson process, which was proposed to understand the waiting time statistics of solar flares. We generalize the method and find that, if the SEP event rate λ = 1/Δt varies as the time distribution of event rate f(λ) = Aλ –α exp (– βλ), the time-dependent Poisson distribution can produce a power-law tail WTD of ∼Δt α –3 , where 0 ≤ α < 2

  10. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Control of the Entry of Solar Energetic Particles into the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, R. L.; El-Alaoui, M.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Walker, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the entry of energetic ions of solar origin into the magnetosphere as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field orientation. We have modeled this entry by following high energy particles (protons and 3 He ions) ranging from 0.1 to 50 MeV in electric and magnetic fields from a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind. For the most part these particles entered the magnetosphere on or near open field lines except for some above 10 MeV that could enter directly by crossing field lines due to their large gyroradii. The MHD simulation was driven by a series of idealized solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. It was found that the flux of particles in the magnetosphere and transport into the inner magnetosphere varied widely according to the IMF orientation for a constant upstream particle source, with the most efficient entry occurring under southward IMF conditions. The flux inside the magnetosphere could approach that in the solar wind implying that SEPs can contribute significantly to the magnetospheric energetic particle population during typical SEP events depending on the state of the magnetosphere.

  11. Solar cycle variations of the energetic H/He intensity ratio at high heliolatitudes and in the ecliptic plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lario

    Full Text Available We study the variability of the heliospheric energetic proton-to-helium abundance ratios during different phases of the solar cycle. We use energetic particle, solar wind, and magnetic field data from the Ulysses, ACE and IMP-8 spacecraft to compare the H/He intensity ratio at high heliographic latitudes and in the ecliptic plane. During the first out-of-ecliptic excursion of Ulysses (1992–1996, the HI-SCALE instrument measured corotating energetic particle intensity enhancements characterized by low values (< 10 of the 0.5–1.0 MeV nucleon-1 H/He intensity ratio. During the second out-of-ecliptic excursion of Ulysses (1999–2002, the more frequent occurrence of solar energetic particle events resulted in almost continuously high (< 20 values of the H/He ratio, even at the highest heliolatitudes reached by Ulysses. Comparison with in-ecliptic measurements from an identical instrument on the ACE spacecraft showed similar H/He values at ACE and Ulysses, suggesting a remarkable uniformity of energetic particle intensities in the solar maximum heliosphere at high heliolatitudes and in the ecliptic plane. In-ecliptic observations of the H/He intensity ratio from the IMP-8 spacecraft show variations between solar maximum and solar minimum similar to those observed by Ulysses at high heliographic latitudes. We suggest that the variation of the H/He intensity ratio throughout the solar cycle is due to the different level of transient solar activity, as well as the different structure and duration that corotating solar wind structures have under solar maximum and solar minimum conditions. During solar minimum, the interactions between the two different types of solar wind streams (slow vs. fast are strong and long-lasting, allowing for a continuous and efficient acceleration of interstellar pickup He +. During solar maximum, transient events of solar origin (characterized by high values of the H/He ratio are able to globally

  12. A new gamma-ray diagnostic for energetic ion distributions - The Compton tail on the neutron capture line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestrand, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a new radiation diagnostic for assaying the energy spectrum and the angular distribution of energetic ions incident on thick hydrogen-rich thermal targets. This diagnostic compares the number of emergent photons in the narrow neutron capture line at 2.223 MeV to the number of Compton scattered photons that form a low-energy tail on the line. It is shown that the relative strength of the tail can be used as a measure of the hardness of the incident ion-energy spectrum. Application of this diagnostic to solar flare conditions is the main thrust of the work presented here. It is examined how the strength of the Compton tail varies with flare viewing angle and the angular distribution of the flare-accelerated particles. Application to compact X-ray binary systems is also briefly discussed. 39 refs

  13. Energetic electron precipitation in the aurora as determined by x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werden, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    This work examines two aspects of energetic-particle dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere through the use of an x-ray imager flown from a stratospheric balloon in the auroral zone. The design and theory of this instrument is completely described, including the technique of image formation using an on-board microprocessor and a statistical analysis of the imaging process. Day-side energetic-electron precipitation is examined in the context of global energy dissipation during the substorm process. It is found that the relationship between events on the night side and the day side are considerably more complex that can be modeled with just a simple picture of drifting particles that induced instabilities, wave growth, and pitch-angle diffusion into the loss cone. The driving force for precipitation is probably not the presence of the energetic electrons (>30 keV) alone, but is influenced either by local effects or the less energetic component. The presence of small-scale structure, including gradients and complex motions in the precipitation region in the morning sector, suggests a local process influencing the rate of electron precipitation. The spatial and temporal evolution of a classic 5-15 second pulsating aurora during the post-breakup phase is also examined with the x-ray imager

  14. Energetical and ecological assessment of solar- and heat pump technologies for hot water preparation and space heating in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faninger, G.

    1991-11-01

    Solar and heat pump systems have been proved in many applications on the market. To achieve an efficient energy output it is necessary to consider the special conditions of these technologies. The energetical and ecological criteria of solar and heat pump systems for hot water preparation and space heating are analysed on the basis of experimental data. (author)

  15. Energetic, exergetic and financial evaluation of a solar driven absorption chiller – A dynamic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Symeou, Christoforos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar cooling system with ETC and a single effect absorption chiller is analyzed. • The analysis is dynamic and it is made for the city of Athens, Greece. • The analysis is energetic, exergetic and financial for all the summer period. • Firstly the system is optimized exergetically and after it is analyzed financially. • The optimum case is 450 m"2 of solar collectors coupled with a storage tank of 14 m"3. - Abstract: In this study, a solar cooling system of 100 kW is analyzed parametrically in dynamic basis for the city of Athens, Greece. The objective of this study is the design of a sustainable system, using energetic, exergetic and financial criteria. The examined system includes evacuated tube collectors, storage tank and a single stage absorption chiller operating with LiBr-H_2O working pair. Different combinations of collecting areas and storage tank volumes are tested in order to determine the most suitable cases exergetically. These optimum cases are evaluated financially and finally the system with the higher financial indexes is selected as the most suitable. More specifically, the collecting area is analyzed from 150 m"2 to 600 m"2 and the storage tank from 6 m"3 to 16 m"3. Finally, 450 m"2 of evacuated tube collectors with a 14 m"3 storage tank was proved to be the optimum solution financially with 15 years payback period and 67 k€ net present value.

  16. The energetic performance of a novel hybrid solar thermal and chemical looping combustion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Mehdi; Arjomandi, Maziar; Nathan, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid solar chemical looping combustion power cycle is reported. • The cycle is studied for two configurations, with and without an after-burner. • The oxygen carrier particles are used as storage medium for solar thermal energy. • Total solar shares of 41.4% and 60% are achieved with and without the after-burner. • Efficiencies of 50% and 44.0% are achieved with and without the after-burner. - Abstract: The overall energetic performance of a gas turbine combined cycle powered by a hybrid cycle between a solar thermal and a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system firing methane is reported for two configurations. In one case, the outlet from the air reactor is fed directly to a gas turbine, while in the other an after-burner, also firing methane, is added to increase the gas turbine inlet temperature. The cycle is simulated using Aspen Plus software for the average diurnal profile of normal irradiance for Port Augusta, South Australia. The first law efficiency, total solar absorption efficiency, average and peak fractional power boosts, total solar share, net solar to electrical efficiency, fraction of pressurised CO 2 , incremental CO 2 avoidance and the exergy efficiency for both cycles are reported. The calculations predict a first law efficiency of 50.0% for the cycle employing an after-burner, compared with 44.0% for that without the after-burner. However, this is achieved at the cost of decreasing the solar share from 60.0%, without the after-burner, to 41.4% with it. Also reported is the sensitivity analysis of performance to variations in key operating parameters. The sensitivity analysis shows that further improvements to the performance of the cycle are possible

  17. Noble gases from solar energetic particles revealed by closed system stepwise etching of lunar soil minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieler, R.; Baur, H.; Signer, P.

    1986-01-01

    He, Ne, and Ar abundances and isotopic ratios in plagioclase and pyroxene separates from lunar soils were determined using a closed system stepwise etching technique. This method of noble gas release allows one to separate solar wind (SW) noble gases from those implanted as solar energetic particles (SEP). SEP-Ne with 20 Ne/ 22 Ne = 11.3 +- 0.3 is present in all samples studied. The abundances of SEP-Ne are 2-4 orders of magnitude too high to be explained exclusively as implanted solar flare gas. The major part of SEP-Ne possibly originates from solar 'suprathermal ions' with energies < 0.1 MeV/amu. The isotopic composition of Ne in these lower energy SEP is, however, probably identical to that of real flare Ne. The suggestion that SEP-Ne might have the same isotopic composition as planetary Ne and thus possibly represent an unfractionated sample of solar Ne is not tenable. SW-Ne retained in plagioclase and pyroxene is less fractionated than has been deduced by total fusion analyses. Ne-B is a mixture of SW-Ne and SEP-Ne rather than fractionated SW-Ne. In contrast to SEP-Ne, SEP-Ar has probably a very similar composition as SW-Ar. (author)

  18. Multi-thermal dynamics and energetics of a coronal mass ejection in the low solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, I. G.; Kontar, E. P.

    2013-05-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to determine the multi-thermal characteristics and plasma energetics of an eruptive plasmoid and occulted flare observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). Methods: We study a 2010 Nov. 3 event (peaking at 12:20 UT in GOES soft X-rays) of a coronal mass ejection and occulted flare that demonstrates the morphology of a classic erupting flux rope. The high spatial and time resolution and six coronal channels of the SDO/AIA images allows the dynamics of the multi-thermal emission during the initial phases of eruption to be studied in detail. The differential emission measure is calculated, using an optimized version of a regularized inversion method, for each pixel across the six channels at different times, resulting in emission measure maps and movies in a variety of temperature ranges. Results: We find that the core of the erupting plasmoid is hot (8-11, 11-14 MK) with a similarly hot filamentary "stem" structure connecting it to the lower atmosphere, which could be interpreted as the current sheet in the flux rope model, though is wider than these models suggest. The velocity of the leading edge of the eruption is 597-664 km s-1 in the temperature range ≥3-4 MK and between 1029-1246 km s-1 for ≤2-3 MK. We estimate the density (in 11-14 MK) of the erupting core and stem during the impulsive phase to be about 3 × 109 cm-3, 6 × 109 cm-3, 9 × 108 cm-3 in the plasmoid core, stem, and surrounding envelope of material. This gives thermal energy estimates of 5 × 1029 erg, 1 × 1029 erg, and 2 × 1030 erg. The kinetic energy for the core and envelope is slightly lower. The thermal energy of the core and current sheet grows during the eruption, suggesting continuous influx of energy presumably via reconnection. Conclusions: The combination of the optimized regularized inversion method and SDO/AIA data allows the multi-thermal characteristics (i.e. velocity, density, and thermal energies) of the

  19. Solar cooling systems. Classification and energetic evaluation; Solare Kuehlsysteme. Klassifizierung und energetische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Jakob [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Hafner, Armin [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Eikevik, Trygve M. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    The investigation of alternative, sustainable concepts for cold production is worthwhile in times of increasing energy demand for cooling and air conditioning applications. Energy sources such as solar radiation can help to reduce the burden on the environment and energy networks. Solar electricity from photovoltaic cells or solar power from solar collectors can be used in refrigerating equipment (such as cold vapor compression chiller, absorption chiller, adsorption chillers, open systems, thermo-mechanical systems or ejector-based systems) are fed in order to produce the desired coldness. In many cases, the temporal coincidence of radiation supply and cooling requirements makes the solar cooling to a promising concept, especially at sites with a high solar radiation, large cooling demand, high energy prices, or insufficient access to public power grids. A model-based investigation of different solar cooling systems with an equivalent cooling capacity was carried out. The results show that the performance potential strongly depends on the selected technology and the site of the system. A balanced daily energy balance can be achieved with an appropriately dimensioned solar power plant with cooling concept. Depending on the system and interpretation, primary energy savings or a primary energy overhead can be achieved within a year in comparison to a conventional system.

  20. Golden Rays - July 2017 | Solar Research | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    , subscribe to the Solar Newsletter. SUBSCRIBE Hot Topics Two solar installers secure solar panels on the roof that has the potential to improve the efficiency of solar panels while leveraging existing

  1. EVIDENCE OF CONFINEMENT OF SOLAR-ENERGETIC PARTICLES TO INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, E. E.; Giacalone, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present new observations of solar-energetic particles (SEPs) associated with impulsive solar flares that show evidence for their confinement to interplanetary magnetic field lines. Some SEP events exhibit intermittent intensity dropouts because magnetic field lines filled with and empty of particle flux mix together. The edges of these dropouts are observed to be very sharp, suggesting that particles cannot easily move from a filled to an empty field line in the time available during their transport from the Sun. In this paper, we perform high time-resolution observations of intensity fall-off at the edges of observed SEP dropouts in order to look for signatures of particle motion off field lines. However, the statistical study is dominated by one particularly intense event. The inferred length scale of the intensity decay is comparable to the gyroradii of the particles, suggesting that particles only rarely scatter off magnetic field lines during interplanetary transport.

  2. Long-lasting solar energetic electron injection during the 26 Dec 2013 widespread SEP event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresing, N.; Klassen, A.; Temmer, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Veronig, A.

    2017-12-01

    The solar energetic particle (SEP) event on 26 Dec 2013 was detected all around the Sun by the two STEREO spacecraft and close-to-Earth observers. While the two STEREOs were separated by 59 degrees and situated at the front side of the associated large coronal event, it was a backside-event for Earth. Nevertheless, significant and long-lasting solar energetic electron anisotropies together with long rise times were observed at all three viewpoints, pointing to an extended electron injection. Although the CME-driven shock appears to account for the SEP event at a first glance a more detailed view reveals a more complex scenario: A CME-CME interaction takes place during the very early phase of the SEP event. Furthermore, four hours after the onset of the event, a second component is measured at all three viewpoints on top of the first SEP increase, mainly consisting of high energy particles. We find that the CME-driven shock alone can hardly account for the observed SEP event in total but a trapping scenario together with ongoing particle acceleration is more likely.

  3. Solar energetic particles in the Earth magnetosphere: kinematic modeling of the 'non-shock' penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, N N

    2013-01-01

    Penetration of solar energetic particles into the Earth's magnetosphere is quantitatively studied with a simple kinematic model. The goal is to assess, for the first time, how does effectiveness of the penetration depend on such geometry factors as: distance of the magneto-pause (MP) from the Earth; shape of MP; angle at which solar energetic particle crosses MP; location of the crossing point; type of the particle motion in the magnetosphere. To get off excessive details, the model deliberately operates with just equatorial section of the static dipolar magnetic field confined with asymmetric boundary – MP. Several rather obvious facts are illustrated: finite orbits of longitudinal drift reside only inside the circle of the Störmer-unit-length radius; deepest penetration of a particle occurs if the particle crosses MP at the point closest to the Earth and with velocity-vector oriented along the particle's longitudinal drift inside MP (westward for protons); etc. The model's software allows the inquirer to vary geometry of MP, the type, energy and direction of flight of the energetic particle(s), the location(s), aperture and orientation(s) of a virtual sensor, then to run the model and obtain the reference particle distributions either global (for entire magnetosphere) or for specified locations, all along the time, energy and flux-orientation axes. Static and animated plots can be easily produced. The model provides a toolkit allowing one to evaluate and illustrate the process of particle penetration into the magnetosphere under various conditions in space. It may be used for the configuring of the satellite particle sensors; its results may be compared with the observations for to assess how strongly the real magnetosphere differs from its simplified form; it may be used in education.

  4. ASSOCIATION OF {sup 3}He-RICH SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES WITH LARGE-SCALE CORONAL WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bučík, Radoslav [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, D-37077, Göttingen (Germany); Innes, Davina E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37077, Göttingen (Germany); Mason, Glenn M. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Wiedenbeck, Mark E., E-mail: bucik@mps.mpg.de [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Small, {sup 3}He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been commonly associated with extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jets and narrow coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are believed to be the signatures of magnetic reconnection, involving field lines open to interplanetary space. The elemental and isotopic fractionation in these events are thought to be caused by processes confined to the flare sites. In this study, we identify 32 {sup 3}He-rich SEP events observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer , near the Earth, during the solar minimum period 2007–2010, and we examine their solar sources with the high resolution Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO ) EUV images. Leading the Earth, STEREO -A has provided, for the first time, a direct view on {sup 3}He-rich flares, which are generally located on the Sun’s western hemisphere. Surprisingly, we find that about half of the {sup 3}He-rich SEP events in this survey are associated with large-scale EUV coronal waves. An examination of the wave front propagation, the source-flare distribution, and the coronal magnetic field connections suggests that the EUV waves may affect the injection of {sup 3}He-rich SEPs into interplanetary space.

  5. Association of 3He-rich solar energetic particles with large-scale coronal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucik, Radoslav; Innes, Davina; Guo, Lijia; Mason, Glenn M.; Wiedenbeck, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Impulsive or 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been typically associated with jets or small EUV brightenings. We identify 30 impulsive SEP events from ACE at L1 during the solar minimum period 2007-2010 and examine their solar sources with high resolution STEREO-A EUV images. At beginning of 2007, STEREO-A was near the Earth while at the end of the investigated period, when there were more events, STEREO-A was leading the Earth by 90°. Thus STEREO-A provided a better (more direct) view on 3He-rich flares generally located on the western Sun's hemisphere. Surprisingly, we find that about half of the events are associated with large-scale EUV coronal waves. This finding provides new insights on acceleration and transport of 3He-rich SEPs in solar corona. It is believed that elemental and isotopic fractionation in impulsive SEP events is caused by more localized processes operating in the flare sites. The EUV waves have been reported in gradual SEP events in association with fast coronal mass ejections. To examine their role on 3He-rich SEPs production the energy spectra and relative abundances are discussed. R. Bucik is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under grant BU 3115/2-1.

  6. Energetic particles in the heliosphere and GCR modulation: Reviewing of SH-posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struminsky, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    This rapporteur paper addresses the SH poster session titled 'Energetic particles in the heliosphere (solar and anomalous CRs, GCR modulation)' of the 23rd European Cosmic Ray Symposium (ECRS) and the 32nd Russian Cosmic Ray Conference (RCRC). The 65 posters presented are tentatively divided into five sections: Instruments and Methods; Solar Energetic Particles; Short Term Variations; Long Term Variations; Heliosphere.

  7. THE 'TWIN-CME' SCENARIO AND LARGE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Liuguan; Jiang, Yong [College of Math and Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210044 (China); Zhao, Lulu; Li, Gang, E-mail: gang.li@uah.edu [Department of Physics and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Energetic particles in large solar energetic particle (SEP) events are a major concern for space weather. Recently, Li et al. proposed a 'twin-CME' scenario for ground-level events. Here we extend that study to large SEP events in solar cycle 23. Depending on whether preceding coronal mass ejections (CMEs) within 9 hr exist and whether ions >10 MeV nucleon{sup -1} exceed 10 pfu, we categorize fast CMEs with speed >900 km s{sup -1} and width >60 Degree-Sign from the western hemisphere source regions into four groups: groups I and II are 'twin' and single CMEs that lead to large SEPs; groups III and IV are 'twin' and single CMEs that do not lead to large SEPs. The major findings of this paper are: first, large SEP events tend to be 'twin-CME' events. Of 59 western large SEP events in solar cycle 23, 43 are 'twin-CME' (group I) events and 16 are single-CME (group II) events. Second, not all 'twin CMEs' produced large SEPs: 28 twin CMEs did not produce large SEPs (group III events). Some of them produced excesses of particles up to a few MeV nucleon{sup -1}. Third, there were 39 single fast CMEs that did not produce SEPs (group IV events). Some of these also showed an excess of particles up to a few MeV nucleon{sup -1}. For all four groups of events, we perform statistical analyses on properties such as the angular width, the speed, the existence of accompanying metric type II radio bursts, and the associated flare class for the main CMEs and the preceding CMEs.

  8. The redshift and afterglow of the extremely energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 080916C

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, J.; Kruehler, T.; Kienlin, A.v.; Rau, A.; Sari, R.; Fox, Derek B.; Kawai, N.; Afonso, P.; Ajello, M.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S.B.; Cucchiara, A.; Filgas, R.; Klose, S.; Yoldas, A.Kuepue; Lichti, G.G.; Loew, S.; McBreen, S.; Nagayama, T.; Rossi, A.; Sato, S.; Szokoly, G.; Yoldas, A.; Zhang, X.-L.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of GeV photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has important consequences for the interpretation and modelling of these most-energetic cosmological explosions. The full exploitation of the high-energy measurements relies, however, on the accurate knowledge of the distance to the events. Here we report on the discovery of the afterglow and subsequent redshift determination of GRB 080916C, the first GRB detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope with high significance detection of photons at >0.1 GeV. Observations were done with 7-channel imager GROND at the 2.2m MPI/ESO telescope, the SIRIUS instrument at the Nagoya-SAAO 1.4m telescope in South Africa, and the GMOS instrument at Gemini-S. The afterglow photometric redshift of z=4.35+-0.15, based on simultaneous 7-filter observations with the Gamma-Ray Optical and Near-infrared Detector (GROND), places GRB 080916C among the top 5% most distant GRBs, and makes it the most energetic GRB known to date. The detection of GeV photons from such a dista...

  9. Propagation of energetic electrons in the solar corona observed with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, F.

    2017-06-01

    localized in the corona propagating in radial direction along magnetic field lines with an average velocity of 0.23c. A nonuniform propagation velocity is revealed. A new beam model is presented that explains the nonuniform motion of the radio source as a propagation effect of an electron ensemble with a spread velocity distribution and rules out a monoenergetic electron distribution. The coronal electron number density is derived in the region from 1.5 to 2.5 R⊙ and fitted with the newly developed density model. It determines the plasma density for the interplanetary space between Sun and Earth. The values correspond to a 1.25- and 5-fold Newkirk model for harmonic and fundamental emission, respectively. In comparison to data from other radio instruments the LOFAR data shows a high sensitivity and resolution in space, time and frequency. The new results from LOFAR's high resolution imaging spectroscopy are consistent with current theories of solar type III radio bursts and demonstrate its capability to track fast moving radio sources in the corona. LOFAR solar data is found to be a valuable source for solar radio physics and opens a new window for studying plasma processes associated with highly energetic electrons in the solar corona.

  10. Joint Ne/O and Fe/O Analysis to Diagnose Large Solar Energetic Particle Events during Solar Cycle 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lun C.; Shao, Xi [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Malandraki, Olga E., E-mail: ltan@umd.edu [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236, Penteli (Greece)

    2017-02-01

    We have examined 29 large solar energetic particle (SEP) events with the peak proton intensity J {sub pp}(>60 MeV) > 1 pfu during solar cycle 23. The emphasis of our examination is put on a joint analysis of Ne/O and Fe/O data in the energy range (3–40 MeV nucleon{sup −1}) covered by Wind /Low-Energy Matrix Telescope and ACE /Solar Isotope Spectrometer sensors in order to differentiate between the Fe-poor and Fe-rich events that emerged from the coronal mass ejection driven shock acceleration process. An improved ion ratio calculation is carried out by rebinning ion intensity data into the form of equal bin widths in the logarithmic energy scale. Through the analysis we find that the variability of Ne/O and Fe/O ratios can be used to investigate the accelerating shock properties. In particular, the high-energy Ne/O ratio is well correlated with the source plasma temperature of SEPs.

  11. The energetic implications of curtailing versus storing wind- and solar-generated electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, C. J.; Dale, M.; Brandt, A. R.; Benson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid deployment of power generation technologies harnessing wind and solar resources continues to reduce the carbon intensity of the power grid. But as these technologies comprise a larger fraction of power supply, their variable, weather-dependent nature poses challenges to power grid operation. Today, during times of power oversupply or unfavorable market conditions, power grid operators curtail these resources. Rates of curtailment are expected to increase with increased renewable electricity production. That is unless technologies are implemented that can provide grid flexibility to balance power supply with power demand. Curtailment is an obvious forfeiture of energy and it decreases the profitability of electricity from curtailed generators. What are less obvious are the energetic costs for technologies that provide grid flexibility. We present a theoretical framework to calculate how storage affects the energy return on energy investment (EROI) ratios of wind and solar resources. Our methods identify conditions under which it is more energetically favorable to store energy than it is to simply curtail electricity production. Electrochemically based storage technologies result in much smaller EROI ratios than large-scale geologically based storage technologies like compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS). All storage technologies paired with solar photovoltaic (PV) generation yield EROI ratios that are greater than curtailment. Due to their low energy stored on electrical energy invested (ESOIe) ratios, conventional battery technologies reduce the EROI ratios of wind generation below curtailment EROI ratios. To yield a greater net energy return than curtailment, battery storage technologies paired with wind generation need an ESOIe>80. We identify improvements in cycle life as the most feasible way to increase battery ESOIe. Depending upon the battery's embodied energy requirement, an increase of cycle life to 10

  12. DROPOUT OF DIRECTIONAL ELECTRON INTENSITIES IN LARGE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lun C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Reames, Donald V., E-mail: ltan@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    In the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event during solar cycle 23 we have observed the dispersionless modulation (“dropout”) in directional intensities of nonrelativistic electrons. The average duration of dropout periods is ∼0.8 hr, which is consistent with the correlation scale of solar wind turbulence. During the dropout period electrons could display scatter-free transport in an intermittent way. Also, we have observed a decrease in the anisotropic index of incident electrons with increasing electron energy (E{sub e}), while the index of scattered/reflected electrons is nearly independent of E{sub e}. We hence perform an observational examination of the correlation between the anisotropic index of low-energy scattered/reflected electrons and the signature of the locally measured solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range, which is responsible for resonant scattering of nonrelativistic electrons. Since during the dropout period the slab turbulence fraction is dominant (0.8 ± 0.1), we pay close attention to the effect of slab fraction on the correlation examined. Our observation is consistent with the simulation result that in the dominance of the slab turbulence component there should exist a dispatched structure of magnetic flux tubes, along which electrons could be transported in a scatter-free manner. Since a similar phenomenon is exhibited in the “impulsive” SEP event, electron dropout should be a transport effect. Therefore, being different from most ion dropout events, which are due to a compact flare source, the dropout of directional electron intensities should be caused by the change of turbulence status in the solar wind.

  13. DROPOUT OF DIRECTIONAL ELECTRON INTENSITIES IN LARGE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lun C.; Reames, Donald V.

    2016-01-01

    In the “gradual” solar energetic particle (SEP) event during solar cycle 23 we have observed the dispersionless modulation (“dropout”) in directional intensities of nonrelativistic electrons. The average duration of dropout periods is ∼0.8 hr, which is consistent with the correlation scale of solar wind turbulence. During the dropout period electrons could display scatter-free transport in an intermittent way. Also, we have observed a decrease in the anisotropic index of incident electrons with increasing electron energy (E e ), while the index of scattered/reflected electrons is nearly independent of E e . We hence perform an observational examination of the correlation between the anisotropic index of low-energy scattered/reflected electrons and the signature of the locally measured solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range, which is responsible for resonant scattering of nonrelativistic electrons. Since during the dropout period the slab turbulence fraction is dominant (0.8 ± 0.1), we pay close attention to the effect of slab fraction on the correlation examined. Our observation is consistent with the simulation result that in the dominance of the slab turbulence component there should exist a dispatched structure of magnetic flux tubes, along which electrons could be transported in a scatter-free manner. Since a similar phenomenon is exhibited in the “impulsive” SEP event, electron dropout should be a transport effect. Therefore, being different from most ion dropout events, which are due to a compact flare source, the dropout of directional electron intensities should be caused by the change of turbulence status in the solar wind

  14. Air shower simulation for WASAVIES: warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Kataoka, R.; Yasuda, H.; Yashiro, S.; Kuwabara, T.; Shiota, D.; Kubo, Y.

    2014-01-01

    WASAVIES, a warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles (SEPs), is under development by collaboration between several institutes in Japan and the USA. It is designed to deterministically forecast the SEP fluxes incident on the atmosphere within 6 h after flare onset using the latest space weather research. To immediately estimate the aircrew doses from the obtained SEP fluxes, the response functions of the particle fluxes generated by the incidence of monoenergetic protons into the atmosphere were developed by performing air shower simulations using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code system. The accuracy of the simulation was well verified by calculating the increase count rates of a neutron monitor during a ground-level enhancement, combining the response function with the SEP fluxes measured by the PAMELA spectrometer. The response function will be implemented in WASAVIES and used to protect air crews from additional SEP exposure. When galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) or solar energetic particles (SEPs) are incident on the atmosphere, they can induce air showers by producing various secondary particles. These secondary particles can reach conventional flight altitudes (∼12 km); hence, air crews are exposed to enhanced levels of radiation. The most important difference between GCR and SEP exposure arises from their temporal variations and dose rates; GCRs induce continuous exposure with low dose rates, usually up to several μSv h -1 , whereas SEPs produce pulsed exposure with high dose rates, occasionally >1 mSv h -1 , though such severe events rarely occur. Thus, subsequent evaluation is sufficient for estimating the aircrew dose due to GCR exposure, whereas forecasting is desirable for SEP exposure. Several calculation codes, e.g. CARI-6(3), EPCARD(4), JISCARD-EX(5), and PCAIRE(6), have been developed for post-exposure evaluation of GCR doses. On the other hand, empirical and phenomenological models have been developed for real-time or

  15. Evolution of cosmic ray fluxes during the rising phase of solar cycle 23: ULYSSES EPAC and COSPIN/KET observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, B.; Keppler, E.; Blake, J.B.; Fraenz, M.; Kunow, H.

    2000-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays are entering the heliosphere from the interstellar medium, while anomalous cosmic rays are believed to be pickup ions accelerated at the heliospheric termination shock. Both particle species are modulated by the solar wind and the heliospheric magnetic field. Since 1997 solar activity increased and as a consequence the flux of galactic and anomalous cosmic ray decreased. In this paper we will discuss the variation of low energy anomalous cosmic rays as measured by the Ulysses Energetic Particle Composition Experiment (EPAC) and the Kiel Electron Telescope (KET) on board Ulysses. Specifically we are addressing the question: Are there differences in the modulation of galactic and anomalous cosmic rays and what are possible implication for the modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere?

  16. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E ∼ 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20° of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  17. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, S. W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Akiyama, S. [Institute for Astrophyics and Computational Sciences, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: AFRL.RVB.PA@kirtland.af.mil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E {approx} 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 Degree-Sign of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  18. Deflections of Fast Coronal Mass Ejections and the Properties of Associated Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E approx 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 deg. of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events

  19. Solar energetic particles a modern primer on understanding sources, acceleration and propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Reames, Donald V

    2017-01-01

    This concise primer introduces the non-specialist reader to the physics of solar energetic particles (SEP) and systematically reviews the evidence for the two main mechanisms which lead to the so-called impulsive and gradual SEP events. More specifically, the timing of the onsets, the longitude distributions, the high-energy spectral shapes, the correlations with other solar phenomena (e.g. coronal mass ejections), as well as the all-important elemental and isotopic abundances of SEPs are investigated. Impulsive SEP events are related to magnetic reconnection in solar flares and jets. The concept of shock acceleration by scattering on self-amplified Alfvén waves is introduced, as is the evidence of reacceleration of impulsive-SEP material in the seed population accessed by the shocks in gradual events. The text then develops processes of transport of ions out to an observer. Finally, a new technique to determine the source plasma temperature in both impulsive and gradual events is demonstrated. Last but not ...

  20. Probabilistic model for fluences and peak fluxes of solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nymmik, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The model is intended for calculating the probability for solar energetic particles (SEP), i.e., protons and Z=2-28 ions, to have an effect on hardware and on biological and other objects in the space. The model describes the probability for the ≥10 MeV/nucleon SEP fluences and peak fluxes to occur in the near-Earth space beyond the Earth magnetosphere under varying solar activity. The physical prerequisites of the model are as follows. The occurrence of SEP is a probabilistic process. The mean SEP occurrence frequency is a power-law function of solar activity (sunspot number). The SEP size (taken to be the ≥30 MeV proton fluence size) distribution is a power-law function within a 10 5 -10 11 proton/cm 2 range. The SEP event particle energy spectra are described by a common function whose parameters are distributed log-normally. The SEP mean composition is energy-dependent and suffers fluctuations described by log-normal functions in separate events

  1. Solar cyclic behavior of trapped energetic electrons in Earth's inner radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Bob; Thorne, Richard M.

    1994-10-01

    Magnetic electron spectrometer data from six satellites (OV3-3, OV1-14, OGO 5, S3-2, S3-3, and CRRES) have been used to study long-term (1966-1991) behavior of trapped energetic electrons in the inner radiation belt. Comparison of the observed energy spectra at L equal to or greater than 1.35 for different phases of the solar cycle reveals a clear trend toward enhanced fluxes during periods of solar maximum for energies below a few hundred keV; we suggest that this is caused by an increase in the rate of inward radial diffusion from a source at higher L. In contrast, for L less than 1.30, where atmospheric collisions become increasingly important, the electron flux is reduced during solar maximum; we attribute this to the expected increase in upper atmospheric densities. The electron flux above 1 MeV exhibits a systematic decay beyond 1979 to values well below the current NASA AE-8 model. This indicates that the natural background of high-energy electrons has previously been overestimated due to the long lasting presence of electrons produced by nuclear detonations in the upper atmosphere in the late 1950s and early 1960s.

  2. DROPOUTS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES: ASSOCIATED WITH LOCAL TRAPPING BOUNDARIES OR CURRENT SHEETS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seripienlert, A.; Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P.

    2010-01-01

    In recent observations by the Advanced Composition Explorer, the intensity of solar energetic particles exhibits sudden, large changes known as dropouts. These have been explained in terms of turbulence or a flux tube structure in the solar wind. Dropouts are believed to indicate filamentary magnetic connection to a localized particle source near the solar surface, and computer simulations of a random-phase model of magnetic turbulence have indicated a spatial association between dropout features and local trapping boundaries (LTBs) defined for a two-dimensional (2D) + slab model of turbulence. Previous observations have shown that dropout features are not well associated with sharp magnetic field changes, as might be expected in the flux tube model. Random-phase turbulence models do not properly treat sharp changes in the magnetic field, such as current sheets, and thus cannot be tested in this way. Here, we explore the properties of a more realistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence model (2D MHD), in which current sheets develop and the current and magnetic field have characteristic non-Gaussian statistical properties. For this model, computer simulations that trace field lines to determine magnetic connection from a localized particle source indicate that sharp particle gradients should frequently be associated with LTBs, sometimes with strong 2D magnetic fluctuations, and infrequently with current sheets. Thus, the 2D MHD + slab model of turbulent fluctuations includes some realistic features of the flux tube view and is consistent with the lack of an observed association between dropouts and intense magnetic fields or currents.

  3. NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE LONGITUDINALLY ASYMMETRIC DISTRIBUTION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, H.-Q.; Wan, W., E-mail: hqhe@mail.iggcas.ac.cn, E-mail: wanw@mail.iggcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-06-22

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) affect the solar–terrestrial space environment and are very important to space weather research. In this work, we numerically investigate the transport processes of SEPs in the three-dimensional interplanetary magnetic field, with an emphasis on the longitudinal distribution of SEPs in the heliosphere. We confirm our previous finding that there exists an east–west longitudinal asymmetry in the SEP intensities, i.e., with the same longitude separations between the solar source centers and the magnetic footpoint of the observer, the fluxes of SEP events originating from solar sources located on the eastern side of the nominal magnetic footpoint of the observer are systematically larger than those of the SEP events originating from sources located on the western side. We discuss the formation mechanism of this phenomenon, and conclude that the longitudinally asymmetric distribution of SEPs results from the east–west azimuthal asymmetry in the topology of the heliospheric magnetic field as well as the effects of perpendicular diffusion on the transport of SEPs in the heliosphere. Our results will be valuable to understanding Sun–Earth relations and useful for space weather forecasting.

  4. Composition variations of low energy heavy ions during large solar energetic particle events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, George C., E-mail: George.Ho@jhuapl.edu; Mason, Glenn M., E-mail: Glenn.Mason@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    The time-intensity profile of large solar energetic particle (SEP) event is well organized by solar longitude as observed at Earth orbit. This is mostly due to different magnetic connection to the shock that is associated with large SEP event propagates from the Sun to the heliosphere. Earlier studies have shown event averaged heavy ion abundance ratios can also vary as a function of solar longitude. It was found that the Fe/O ratio for high energy particle (>10 MeV/nucleon) is higher for those western magnetically well connected events compare to the eastern events as observed at L1 by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. In this paper, we examined the low energy (∼1 MeV/nucleon) heavy ions in 110 isolated SEP events from 2009 to the end of 2014. In addition, the optical and radio signatures for all of our events are identified and when data are available we also located the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) data. Our survey shows a higher Fe/O ratio at events in the well-connected region, while there are no corrections between the event averaged elemental composition with the associated coronal mass ejection speed. This is inconsistent with the higher energy results, but inline with other recent low-energy measurements.

  5. Extreme fluxes in solar energetic particle events: Methodological and physical limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshnichenko, L.I.; Nymmik, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, all available data on the largest solar proton events (SPEs), or extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) events, for the period from 1561 up to now are analyzed. Under consideration are the observational, methodological and physical problems of energy-spectrum presentation for SEP fluxes (fluences) near the Earth's orbit. Special attention is paid to the study of the distribution function for extreme fluences of SEPs by their sizes. The authors present advances in at least three aspects: 1) a form of the distribution function that was previously obtained from the data for three cycles of solar activity has been completely confirmed by the data for 41 solar cycles; 2) early estimates of extremely large fluences in the past have been critically revised, and their values were found to be overestimated; and 3) extremely large SEP fluxes are shown to obey a probabilistic distribution, so the concept of an “upper limit flux” does not carry any strict physical sense although it serves as an important empirical restriction. SEP fluxes may only be characterized by the relative probabilities of their appearance, and there is a sharp break in the spectrum in the range of large fluences (or low probabilities). It is emphasized that modern observational data and methods of investigation do not allow, for the present, the precise resolution of the problem of the spectrum break or the estimation of the maximum potentialities of solar accelerator(s). This limitation considerably restricts the extrapolation of the obtained results to the past and future for application to the epochs with different levels of solar activity. - Highlights: • All available data on the largest solar proton events (SPEs) are analyzed. • Distribution function obtained for 3 last cycles is confirmed for 41 solar cycles. • Estimates of extremely large fluences in the past are found to be overestimated. • Extremely large SEP fluxes are shown to obey a probabilistic distribution.

  6. Variations in Solar Parameters and Cosmic Rays with Solar Magnetic Polarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S. [Department of Earth Science Education, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Y., E-mail: suyeonoh@jnu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, Space Science and Geology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    The sunspot number varies with the 11-year Schwabe cycle, and the solar magnetic polarity reverses every 11 years approximately at the solar maximum. Because of polarity reversal, the difference between odd and even solar cycles is seen in solar activity. In this study, we create the mean solar cycle expressed by phase using the monthly sunspot number for all solar cycles 1–23. We also generate the mean solar cycle for sunspot area, solar radio flux, and cosmic ray flux within the allowance of observational range. The mean solar cycle has one large peak at solar maximum for odd solar cycles and two small peaks for most even solar cycles. The odd and even solar cycles have the statistical difference in value and shape at a confidence level of at least 98%. For solar cycles 19–23, the second peak in the even solar cycle is larger than the first peak. This result is consistent with the frequent solar events during the declining phase after the solar maximum. The difference between odd and even solar cycles can be explained by a combined model of polarity reversal and solar rotation. In the positive/negative polarity, the polar magnetic field introduces angular momentum in the same/opposite direction as/to the solar rotation. Thus the addition/subtraction of angular momentum can increase/decrease the motion of plasma to support the formation of sunspots. Since the polarity reverses at the solar maximum, the opposite phenomenon occurs in the declining phase.

  7. Modeling Solar Energetic Particle Transport near a Wavy Heliospheric Current Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battarbee, Markus; Dalla, Silvia; Marsh, Mike S.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the transport of solar energetic particles (SEPs) from acceleration sites at the Sun into interplanetary space and to the Earth is an important question for forecasting space weather. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), with two distinct polarities and a complex structure, governs energetic particle transport and drifts. We analyze for the first time the effect of a wavy heliospheric current sheet (HCS) on the propagation of SEPs. We inject protons close to the Sun and propagate them by integrating fully 3D trajectories within the inner heliosphere in the presence of weak scattering. We model the HCS position using fits based on neutral lines of magnetic field source surface maps (SSMs). We map 1 au proton crossings, which show efficient transport in longitude via HCS, depending on the location of the injection region with respect to the HCS. For HCS tilt angles around 30°–40°, we find significant qualitative differences between A+ and A‑ configurations of the IMF, with stronger fluences along the HCS in the former case but with a distribution of particles across a wider range of longitudes and latitudes in the latter. We show how a wavy current sheet leads to longitudinally periodic enhancements in particle fluence. We show that for an A+ IMF configuration, a wavy HCS allows for more proton deceleration than a flat HCS. We find that A‑ IMF configurations result in larger average fluences than A+ IMF configurations, due to a radial drift component at the current sheet.

  8. Satellite observations of energetic electron precipitation during the 1979 solar eclipse and comparisons with rocket measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. E.; Imhof, W. L.; Voss, H. D.; Reagan, J. B.

    1983-07-01

    During the solar eclipse of 26 February 1979, the P78-1 satellite passed near Red Lake, Ontario, at an altitude of about 600 km. On two consecutive orbits spanning the time of total eclipse, energetic electrons were measured with two silicon solid state detector spectrometers having excellent energy and angular resolution. Significant fluxes of precipitating electrons were observed near the path of totality. Comparisons of flux intensities and energy spectra with those measured from a Nike Orion and two Nike Tomahawk rockets launched near Red Lake before and during total eclipse give good agreement and indicate that the electron precipitation was relatively uniform for more than an hour and over a broad geographical area.

  9. Energetics of small electron acceleration episodes in the solar corona from radio noise storm observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Tomin; Subramanian, Prasad

    2018-05-01

    Observations of radio noise storms can act as sensitive probes of nonthermal electrons produced in small acceleration events in the solar corona. We use data from noise storm episodes observed jointly by the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and the Nancay Radioheliograph (NRH) to study characteristics of the nonthermal electrons involved in the emission. We find that the electrons carry 1021 to 1024 erg/s, and that the energy contained in the electrons producing a representative noise storm burst ranges from 1020 to 1023 ergs. These results are a direct probe of the energetics involved in ubiquitous, small-scale electron acceleration episodes in the corona, and could be relevant to a nanoflare-like scenario for coronal heating.

  10. Satellite observations of energetic electron precipitation during the 1979 solar eclipse and comparisons with rocket measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, E.E.; Imhof, W.L.; Voss, H.D.; Reagan, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    During the solar eclipse of 26 February 1979, the P78-1 satellite passed near Red Lake, Ontario, at an altitude of approx. 600 km. On two consecutive orbits spanning the time of total eclipse, energetic electrons were measured with two silicon solid state detector spectrometers having excellent energy and angular resolution. Significant fluxes of precipitating electrons were observed near the path of totality. Comparisons of flux intensities and energy spectra with those measured from a Nike Orion and two Nike Tomahawk rockets launched near Red Lake before and during total eclipse give good agreement and indicate that the electron precipitation was relatively uniform for more than an hour and over a broad geographical area. (author)

  11. CORRECTING FOR INTERPLANETARY SCATTERING IN VELOCITY DISPERSION ANALYSIS OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S.; Huttunen-Heikinmaa, K.; Valtonen, E.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the origin of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), we must study their injection time relative to other solar eruption manifestations. Traditionally the injection time is determined using the Velocity Dispersion Analysis (VDA) where a linear fit of the observed event onset times at 1 AU to the inverse velocities of SEPs is used to derive the injection time and path length of the first-arriving particles. VDA does not, however, take into account that the particles that produce a statistically observable onset at 1 AU have scattered in the interplanetary space. We use Monte Carlo test particle simulations of energetic protons to study the effect of particle scattering on the observable SEP event onset above pre-event background, and consequently on VDA results. We find that the VDA results are sensitive to the properties of the pre-event and event particle spectra as well as SEP injection and scattering parameters. In particular, a VDA-obtained path length that is close to the nominal Parker spiral length does not imply that the VDA injection time is correct. We study the delay to the observed onset caused by scattering of the particles and derive a simple estimate for the delay time by using the rate of intensity increase at the SEP onset as a parameter. We apply the correction to a magnetically well-connected SEP event of 2000 June 10, and show it to improve both the path length and injection time estimates, while also increasing the error limits to better reflect the inherent uncertainties of VDA

  12. The effects of coronal holes on the propagation of solar energetic protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunches, Joseph M.; Zwickl, Ronald D.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate prediction of the start of a Solar Energetic Particle Event (SEP) is a high priority for space weather forecasters. The Space Environment Center (SEC) has recorded parameters related to SEPs since 1976, and that list includes a total of 134 events for the period 1976-1997. The onset times of individual events are variable, especially SEPs originating from the solar eastern hemisphere. An examination of the data shows the full set can be divided into two families -- those that begin at the geosynchronous satellite at a time consistent with what would be expected for activity from a given heliolongitude, and those whose onset is later than what accepted forecast techniques would predict. There are 21 'long onset' events in this historical record. Seeking to understand what factors distinguished the slow-to-arrive events, Helium I 1083.0 nm observations were examined for the presence of coronal holes at the times of the SEPs. It was found that all SEPs with long onset times had a coronal hole situated between the flare site and the footpoint of the interplanetary magnetic field line connecting to Earth ( Solar-Terrestrial Predictions-V, Hiraiso Solar-Terrestrial Research Center, Ibaraki, Japan). This coronal hole configuration is important for accurate predictions, although the hole may serve as merely a proxy for the plasma conditions that actually affect the propagation and acceleration of the protons. Since coronal holes are easily identifiable using Helium I and other wavelengths, operational forecasters can employ this technique to improve their predictions of SEPs

  13. Golden Rays - March 2017 | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problem for Solar Panels Winter may seem like an off-season for solar panels, but thanks to the SunShot Initiative's Regional Test Centers, solar panels are demonstrating their year-round resilience. At the test centers, researchers are studying the performance of solar panels in snowy weather and other harsh

  14. Great microwave bursts and hard X-rays from solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiehl, H.J.; Batchelor, D.A.; Crannell, C.J.; Dennis, B.R.; Price, P.N.

    1983-06-01

    The microwave and hard X-ray charateristics of 13 solar flares that produced microwave fluxes greater than 500 Solar Flux Units were analyzed. These Great Microwave Bursts were observed in the frequency range from 3 to 35 GHz at Berne, and simultaneous hard X-ray observations were made in the energy range from 30 to 500 keV with the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft. The principal aim of this analysis is to determine whether or not the same distribution of energetic electrons can explain both emissions. Correlations were found between respective temporal characteristics and, for the first time, between microwave and hard X-ray spectral characteristics. A single-temperature and a multi-temperature model from the literature were tested for consistency with the coincident X-ray and microwave spectra at microwave burst maximum. Four events are inconsistent with both of the models tested, and neither of the models attempts to explain the high-frequency part of the microwave spectrum. A model in which the emissions above and below the peak frequency originate in two different parts of a diverging magnetic loop is proposed. With this model the entire microwave spectrum of all but one of the events is explained

  15. Possible effect of strong solar energetic particle events on polar stratospheric aerosol: a summary of observational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironova, I A; Usoskin, I G

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents a summary of a phenomenological study of the response of the polar stratosphere to strong solar energetic particle (SEP) events corresponding to ground level enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays. This work is focused on evaluation of the possible influence of the atmospheric ionization caused by SEPs upon formation of aerosol particles in the stratosphere over polar regions. Following case studies of two major SEP/GLE events, in January 2005 and September 1989, and their possible effects on polar stratospheric aerosols, we present here the results of an analysis of variations of the daily profiles of the stratospheric aerosol parameters (aerosol extinction for different wavelengths, as well as Ångstrom exponent) for both polar hemispheres during SEP/GLE events of July 2000, April 2001 and October 2003, which form already five clear cases corresponding to extreme and strong SEP/GLE events. The obtained results suggest that an enhancement of ionization rate by a factor of about two in the polar region with night/cold/winter conditions can lead to the formation/growing of aerosol particles in the altitude range of 10–25 km. We also present a summary of the investigated effects based on the phenomenological study of the atmospheric application of extreme SEP events. (paper)

  16. Signatures of cosmic-ray interactions on the solar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckel, D.; Stanev, Todor; Gaisser, T. K.

    1991-01-01

    The fluxes of neutrinos, gamma rays, antiprotons, neutrons, and antineutrons that result from collisions of high-energy Galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere are estimated. The results are sensitive to assumptions about cosmic-ray transport in the magnetic fields of the inner solar system. The high-energy photon flux should be observable by the Gamma Ray Observatory. The neutrino flux should produce less than one event per year in the next generation of neutrino telescopes. The antiproton flux is unobservable against the Galactic background. The neutron and antineutron fluxes are detectable only if neutrons produced in terrestrial cosmic-ray events may be discriminated against.

  17. Molecular approaches to solar energy conversion: the energetic cost of charge separation from molecular-excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, James R

    2013-08-13

    This review starts with a brief overview of the technological potential of molecular-based solar cell technologies. It then goes on to focus on the core scientific challenge associated with using molecular light-absorbing materials for solar energy conversion, namely the separation of short-lived, molecular-excited states into sufficiently long-lived, energetic, separated charges capable of generating an external photocurrent. Comparisons are made between different molecular-based solar cell technologies, with particular focus on the function of dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells as well as parallels with the function of photosynthetic reaction centres. The core theme of this review is that generating charge carriers with sufficient lifetime and a high quantum yield from molecular-excited states comes at a significant energetic cost-such that the energy stored in these charge-separated states is typically substantially less than the energy of the initially generated excited state. The role of this energetic loss in limiting the efficiency of solar energy conversion by such devices is emphasized, and strategies to minimize this energy loss are compared and contrasted.

  18. Type II solar radio bursts, interplanetary shocks, and energetic particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane, H.V.; Stone, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Using the ISEE 3 radio astronomy experiment data we have identified 37 interplanetary type II bursts in the period 1978 September to 1981 December. We lists these events and the associated phenomena. The events are preceded by intense, soft X-ray events with long decay times and type II or type IV bursts, or both, at meter wavelengths. The meter wavelength type II bursts are usually intense and exhibit herringbone structure. The extension of the herringbone structure into the kilometer wavelength range appears as a fast drift radio feature which we refer to as a shock associated radio event. The shock associated event is an important diagnostic for the presence of a strong shock and particle acceleration. The majority of the interplanetary type II bursts are associated with energetic particle events. Our results support other studies which indicate that energetic soalr particles detected at 1 A.U. are generatd by shock acceleration. From a preliminary analysis of the available data there appears to be a high correlation with white light coronal transients. The transients are fast: i.e., velocities greater than 500 km s -1

  19. The effect of the magnetic topology of the Magnetic Clouds over the Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, J.; Hidalgo, M.; Blanco, J.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.

    2007-12-01

    We have simulated the effect of the magnetic topology of the Magnetic Clouds (MCs) over the solar energetic particle event (SEPe) fluxes (0.5-100 MeV) provided by solar flares. When a SEPe passes through a MC a characteristic behaviour in the data corresponding to the ion and electron fluxes is observed: a depression after a strong maximum of the flux. Using our cross-section circular and elliptical MC models we have tried to explain that effect, understanding the importance of the topology of the MC. In sight of the results of the preliminary analysis we conclude that the magnitude of the magnetic field seems not to play a significant role but the helicoidal topology associated with topology of the MCs. This work has been supported by the Spanish Comisión Internacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CICYT), grant ESP2005-07290-C02-01 and ESP2006-08459. This work is performed inside COST Action 724.

  20. Pluto's interaction with its space environment: Solar wind, energetic particles, and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagenal, F; Horányi, M; McComas, D J; McNutt, R L; Elliott, H A; Hill, M E; Brown, L E; Delamere, P A; Kollmann, P; Krimigis, S M; Kusterer, M; Lisse, C M; Mitchell, D G; Piquette, M; Poppe, A R; Strobel, D F; Szalay, J R; Valek, P; Vandegriff, J; Weidner, S; Zirnstein, E J; Stern, S A; Ennico, K; Olkin, C B; Weaver, H A; Young, L A

    2016-03-18

    The New Horizons spacecraft carried three instruments that measured the space environment near Pluto as it flew by on 14 July 2015. The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument revealed an interaction region confined sunward of Pluto to within about 6 Pluto radii. The region's surprisingly small size is consistent with a reduced atmospheric escape rate, as well as a particularly high solar wind flux. Observations from the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI) instrument suggest that ions are accelerated and/or deflected around Pluto. In the wake of the interaction region, PEPSSI observed suprathermal particle fluxes equal to about 1/10 of the flux in the interplanetary medium and increasing with distance downstream. The Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter, which measures grains with radii larger than 1.4 micrometers, detected one candidate impact in ±5 days around New Horizons' closest approach, indicating an upper limit of <4.6 kilometers(-3) for the dust density in the Pluto system. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. A SIMPLE ANALYTICAL METHOD TO DETERMINE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES' MEAN FREE PATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.-Q.; Qin, G.

    2011-01-01

    To obtain the mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs) for a solar event, one usually has to fit time profiles of both flux and anisotropy from spacecraft observations to numerical simulations of SEPs' transport processes. This method can be called a simulation method. But a reasonably good fitting needs a lot of simulations, which demand a large amount of calculation resources. Sometimes, it is necessary to find an easy way to obtain the mean free path of SEPs quickly, for example, in space weather practice. Recently, Shalchi et al. provided an approximate analytical formula of SEPs' anisotropy time profile as a function of particles' mean free path for impulsive events. In this paper, we determine SEPs' mean free path by fitting the anisotropy time profiles from Shalchi et al.'s analytical formula to spacecraft observations. This new method can be called an analytical method. In addition, we obtain SEPs' mean free path with the traditional simulation methods. Finally, we compare the mean free path obtained with the simulation method to that of the analytical method to show that the analytical method, with some minor modifications, can give us a good, quick approximation of SEPs' mean free path for impulsive events.

  2. A numerical simulation of solar energetic particle dropouts during impulsive events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Qin, G.; Zhang, M.; Dalla, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the conditions for producing rapid variations of solar energetic particle (SEP) intensity commonly known as 'dropouts'. In particular, we use numerical model simulations based on solving the focused transport equation in the three-dimensional Parker interplanetary magnetic field to put constraints on the properties of particle transport coefficients in both directions perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field. Our calculations of the temporal intensity profile of 0.5 and 5 MeV protons at the Earth show that the perpendicular diffusion must be small while the parallel mean free path is long in order to reproduce the phenomenon of SEP dropouts. When the parallel mean free path is a fraction of 1 AU and the observer is located at 1 AU, the perpendicular to parallel diffusion ratio must be below 10 –5 if we want to see the particle flux dropping by at least several times within 3 hr. When the observer is located at a larger solar radial distance, the perpendicular to parallel diffusion ratio for reproducing the dropouts should be even lower than that in the case of 1 AU distance. A shorter parallel mean free path or a larger radial distance from the source to observer will cause the particles to arrive later, making the effects of perpendicular diffusion more prominent and SEP dropouts disappear. All of these effects require the magnetic turbulence that resonates with the particles to be low everywhere in the inner heliosphere.

  3. The sub-energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 031203 as a cosmic analogue to the nearby GRB 980425.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, A M; Kulkarni, S R; Berger, E; Fox, D W; Sako, M; Frail, D A; Gal-Yam, A; Moon, D S; Cenko, S B; Yost, S A; Phillips, M M; Persson, S E; Freedman, W L; Wyatt, P; Jayawardhana, R; Paulson, D

    2004-08-05

    Over the six years since the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980425, which was associated with the nearby (distance approximately 40 Mpc) supernova 1998bw, astronomers have debated fiercely the nature of this event. Relative to bursts located at cosmological distance (redshift z approximately 1), GRB 980425 was under-luminous in gamma-rays by three orders of magnitude. Radio calorimetry showed that the explosion was sub-energetic by a factor of 10. Here we report observations of the radio and X-ray afterglow of the recent GRB 031203 (refs 5-7), which has a redshift of z = 0.105. We demonstrate that it too is sub-energetic which, when taken together with the low gamma-ray luminosity, suggests that GRB 031203 is the first cosmic analogue to GRB 980425. We find no evidence that this event was a highly collimated explosion viewed off-axis. Like GRB 980425, GRB 031203 appears to be an intrinsically sub-energetic gamma-ray burst. Such sub-energetic events have faint afterglows. We expect intensive follow-up of faint bursts with smooth gamma-ray light curves (common to both GRB 031203 and 980425) to reveal a large population of such events.

  4. The Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS): Energetic Particle Measurements for the Solar Probe Plus Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, D. J.; Christian, E. R.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; McNutt, R. L.; Cummings, A. C.; Desai, M. I.; Giacalone, J.; Hill, M. E.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Krimigis, SA. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    One of the major goals of NASA's Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission is to determine the mechanisms that accelerate and transport high-energy particles from the solar atmosphere out into the heliosphere. Processes such as coronal mass ejections and solar flares, which peak roughly every 11 years around solar maximum, release huge quantities of energized matter, magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation into space. The high-energy particles, known as solar energetic particles or SEPs, present a serious radiation threat to human explorers living and working outside low-Earth orbit and to technological assets such as communications and scientific satellites in space. This talk describes the Integrated Science Investigation of the Sun (ISIS) - Energetic Particle Instrument suite. ISIS measures key properties such as intensities, energy spectra, composition, and angular distributions of the low-energy suprathermal source populations, as well as the more hazardous, higher energy particles ejected from the Sun. By making the first-ever direct measurements of the near-Sun regions where the acceleration takes place, ISIS will provide the critical measurements that, when integrated with other SPP instruments and with solar and interplanetary observations, will lead to a revolutionary new understanding of the Sun and major drivers of solar system space weather.

  5. Molecular and Material Approaches to Overcome Kinetic and Energetic Constraints in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Thomas [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-08-14

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a lot of interest as they proffer the possibility of extremely inexpensive and efficient solar energy conversion. The excellent performance of the most efficient DSSCs relies on two main features: 1) a high surface area nanoparticle semiconductor photoanode to allow for excellent light absorption with moderate extinction molecular dyes and 2) slow recombination rates from the photoanode to I3- allowing good charge collection. The I3-/I- couple, however, has some disadvantages, notably the redox potential limits the maximum open-circuit voltage, and the dye regeneration requires a large driving force which constrains the light harvesting ability. Thus, the design features that allow DSSCs to perform as well as they do also prevent further significant improvements in performance. As a consequence, the most efficient device configuration, and the maximum efficiency, has remained essentially unchanged over the last 16 years. Significant gains in performance are possible; however it will likely require a substantial paradigm shift. The general goal of this project is to understand the fundamental role of dye-sensitized solar cell, DSSC, components (sensitizer, redox shuttle, and photoanode) involved in key processes in order to overcome the kinetic and energetic constraints of current generation DSSCs. For example, the key to achieving high energy conversion efficiency DSSCs is the realization of a redox shuttle which fulfills the dual requirements of 1) efficient dye regeneration with a minimal driving force and 2) efficient charge collection. In current generation DSSCs, however, only one or the other of these requirements is met. We are currently primarily interested in understanding the physical underpinnings of the regeneration and recombination reactions. Our approach is to systematically vary the components involved in reactions and interrogate them with a

  6. STEREO/LET Observations of Solar Energetic Particle Pitch Angle Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, Richard; Cummings, Alan; Cohen, Christina; Mewaldt, Richard; Labrador, Allan; Stone, Edward; Wiedenbeck, Mark; Christian, Eric; von Rosenvinge, Tycho

    2015-04-01

    As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, the shape of their pitch angle distributions is determined by magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies therefore probe interplanetary conditions far from the observer and can provide insight into particle transport. Bidirectional flows of SEPs are often seen within interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), resulting from injection of particles at both footpoints of the CME or from mirroring of a unidirectional beam. Mirroring is clearly implicated in those cases that show a loss cone distribution, in which particles with large pitch angles are reflected but the magnetic field enhancement at the mirror point is too weak to turn around particles with the smallest pitch angles. The width of the loss cone indicates the magnetic field strength at the mirror point far from the spacecraft, while if timing differences are detectable between outgoing and mirrored particles they may help constrain the location of the reflecting boundary.The Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) onboard both STEREO spacecraft measure energetic particle anisotropies for protons through iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. With these instruments we have observed loss cone distributions in several SEP events, as well as other interesting anisotropies, such as unusual oscillations in the widths of the pitch angle distributions on a timescale of several minutes during the 23 July 2012 SEP event and sunward-flowing particles when the spacecraft was magnetically connected to the back side of a distant shock well beyond 1 AU. We present the STEREO/LET anisotropy observations and discuss their implications for SEP transport. In particular, we find that the shapes of the pitch angle distributions generally vary with energy and particle species, possibly providing a signature of the rigidity dependence of the pitch angle diffusion coefficient.

  7. Solar--geophysical data number 406, June 1978, Part I. (prompt reports). Data for May 1978, April 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1978-06-01

    This prompt report provides data for May 1978 on: alert period, daily solar indices, solar flares, solar radio waves, solar x-ray radiation, coronal holes, inferred IP Magnetic field polarities, mean solar magnetic field, solar wind measurements, geomagnetic substorms, magnetograms of geomagnetic storm 30 April - 4 May, and energetic solar particles. It also provides data for April 1978 on: daily solar activity center, sudden ionospheric disturbances, solar x-ray radiation, solar radio waves, cosmic rays, geomagnetic indices, and radio propagation

  8. Solar-geophysical data number 408, August 1978, Part I. (Prompt reports). Data for July 1978, June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1978-08-01

    This prompt report provides data for July 1978 on: alert period, daily solar indices, solar flares, solar radio waves, solar x-ray radiation, coronal holes, solar wind measurements, inferred IP magnetic field polarities, mean solar magnetic field, spacecraft observations, Boulder geomagnetic substorm log, and energetic solar particles. It also provides data for June 1978 on: daily solar activity center, sudden ionospheric disturbances, solar x-ray radiation, solar radio waves, cosmic rays, geomagnetic indices, and radio propagation indices

  9. GOES-12 Solar X-ray Imager Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GOES Solar X-ray Imager is integrated into the GOES-12 satellite, whose primary mission is to provide Earth-weather monitoring. The SXI is operated by NOAA's...

  10. Solar flare hard and soft x ray relationship determined from SMM HXRBS and BCS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toot, G. David

    1989-01-01

    The exact nature of the solar flare process is still somewhat a mystery. A key element to understanding flares if the relationship between the hard x rays emitted by the most energetic portions of the flare and the soft x rays from other areas and times. This relationship was studied by comparing hard x ray light curved from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) with the soft x ray light curve and its derivation from the Bent Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) which is part of the X-Ray Polychrometer (XRP), these instruments being on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft (SMM). Data sample was taken from flares observed with the above instruments during 1980, the peak of the previous maximum of solar activity. Flares were chosen based on complete coverage of the event by several instruments. The HXRBS data covers the x ray spectrum from about 25 keV to about 440 keV in 15 spectral channels, while the BCS data used covers a region of the Spectrum around 3 angstroms including emission from the Ca XIX ion. Both sets of data were summed over their spectral ranges and plotted against time at a maximum time resolution of around 3 seconds. The most popular theory of flares holds that a beam of electrons produces the hard x rays by bremsstrahlung while the soft x rays are the thermal response to this energy deposition. The question is whether the rate of change of soft x ray emission might reflect the variability of the electron beam and hence the variability of the hard x rays. To address this, we took the time derivative of the soft x ray light curve and compared it to the hard flares, 12 of them showed very closed agreement between the soft x ray derivative and the hard x ray light curve. The other five did not show this behavior but were similar to each other in general soft x ray behavior. Efforts to determine basic differences between the two kinds of flares continue. In addition the behavior of soft x ray temperature of flares was examined.

  11. A DIRECT METHOD TO DETERMINE THE PARALLEL MEAN FREE PATH OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES WITH ADIABATIC FOCUSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.-Q.; Wan, W.

    2012-01-01

    The parallel mean free path of solar energetic particles (SEPs), which is determined by physical properties of SEPs as well as those of solar wind, is a very important parameter in space physics to study the transport of charged energetic particles in the heliosphere, especially for space weather forecasting. In space weather practice, it is necessary to find a quick approach to obtain the parallel mean free path of SEPs for a solar event. In addition, the adiabatic focusing effect caused by a spatially varying mean magnetic field in the solar system is important to the transport processes of SEPs. Recently, Shalchi presented an analytical description of the parallel diffusion coefficient with adiabatic focusing. Based on Shalchi's results, in this paper we provide a direct analytical formula as a function of parameters concerning the physical properties of SEPs and solar wind to directly and quickly determine the parallel mean free path of SEPs with adiabatic focusing. Since all of the quantities in the analytical formula can be directly observed by spacecraft, this direct method would be a very useful tool in space weather research. As applications of the direct method, we investigate the inherent relations between the parallel mean free path and various parameters concerning physical properties of SEPs and solar wind. Comparisons of parallel mean free paths with and without adiabatic focusing are also presented.

  12. THE EFFECT OF TURBULENCE INTERMITTENCE ON THE EMISSION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES BY CORONAL AND INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharov, Leon; Laitinen, Timo; Vainio, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Major solar energetic particle events are associated with shock waves in solar corona and solar wind. Fast scattering of charged particles by plasma turbulence near the shock wave increases the efficiency of the particle acceleration in the shock, but prevents particles from escaping ahead of the shock. However, the turbulence energy levels in neighboring magnetic tubes of solar wind may differ from each other by more than one order of magnitude. We present the first theoretical study of accelerated particle emission from an oblique shock wave propagating through an intermittent turbulence background that consists of both highly turbulent magnetic tubes, where particles are accelerated, and quiet tubes, via which the accelerated particles can escape to the non-shocked solar wind. The modeling results imply that the presence of the fast transport channels penetrating the shock and cross-field transport of accelerated particles to those channels may play a key role in high-energy particle emission from distant shocks and can explain the prompt onset of major solar energetic particle events observed near the Earth's orbit

  13. THE EFFECT OF TURBULENCE INTERMITTENCE ON THE EMISSION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES BY CORONAL AND INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharov, Leon [Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (Oulu Unit), P.O. Box 3000, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Laitinen, Timo [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Vainio, Rami [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-11-20

    Major solar energetic particle events are associated with shock waves in solar corona and solar wind. Fast scattering of charged particles by plasma turbulence near the shock wave increases the efficiency of the particle acceleration in the shock, but prevents particles from escaping ahead of the shock. However, the turbulence energy levels in neighboring magnetic tubes of solar wind may differ from each other by more than one order of magnitude. We present the first theoretical study of accelerated particle emission from an oblique shock wave propagating through an intermittent turbulence background that consists of both highly turbulent magnetic tubes, where particles are accelerated, and quiet tubes, via which the accelerated particles can escape to the non-shocked solar wind. The modeling results imply that the presence of the fast transport channels penetrating the shock and cross-field transport of accelerated particles to those channels may play a key role in high-energy particle emission from distant shocks and can explain the prompt onset of major solar energetic particle events observed near the Earth's orbit.

  14. SphinX: The Solar Photometer in X-Rays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gburek, S.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Kordylewski, Z.; Podgorski, P.; Plocieniak, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S.; Pertsov, A.A.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Fárník, František; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 2 (2013), s. 631-649 ISSN 0038-0938 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar corona * solar instrumentation * X-rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.805, year: 2013

  15. Time distributions of solar energetic particle events: Are SEPEs really random?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiggens, P. T. A.; Gabriel, S. B.

    2009-10-01

    Solar energetic particle events (SEPEs) can exhibit flux increases of several orders of magnitude over background levels and have always been considered to be random in nature in statistical models with no dependence of any one event on the occurrence of previous events. We examine whether this assumption of randomness in time is correct. Engineering modeling of SEPEs is important to enable reliable and efficient design of both Earth-orbiting and interplanetary spacecraft and future manned missions to Mars and the Moon. All existing engineering models assume that the frequency of SEPEs follows a Poisson process. We present analysis of the event waiting times using alternative distributions described by Lévy and time-dependent Poisson processes and compared these with the usual Poisson distribution. The results show significant deviation from a Poisson process and indicate that the underlying physical processes might be more closely related to a Lévy-type process, suggesting that there is some inherent “memory” in the system. Inherent Poisson assumptions of stationarity and event independence are investigated, and it appears that they do not hold and can be dependent upon the event definition used. SEPEs appear to have some memory indicating that events are not completely random with activity levels varying even during solar active periods and are characterized by clusters of events. This could have significant ramifications for engineering models of the SEP environment, and it is recommended that current statistical engineering models of the SEP environment should be modified to incorporate long-term event dependency and short-term system memory.

  16. A comparison of solar energetic particle event timescales with properties of associated coronal mass ejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    The dependence of solar energetic proton (SEP) event peak intensities Ip on properties of associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been extensively examined, but the dependence of SEP event timescales is not well known. We define three timescales of 20 MeV SEP events and ask how they are related to speeds v CME or widths W of their associated CMEs observed by LASCO/SOHO. The timescales of the EPACT/Wind 20 MeV events are TO, the onset time from CME launch to SEP onset; TR, the rise time from onset to half the peak intensity (0.5Ip); and TD, the duration of the SEP intensity above 0.5Ip. This is a statistical study based on 217 SEP-CME events observed during 1996-2008. The large number of SEP events allows us to examine the SEP-CME relationship in five solar-source longitude ranges. In general, we statistically find that TO declines slightly with v CME , and TR and TD increase with both v CME and W. TO is inversely correlated with log Ip, as expected from a particle background effect. We discuss the implications of this result and find that a background-independent parameter TO+TR also increases with v CME and W. The correlations generally fall below the 98% significance level, but there is a significant correlation between v CME and W which renders interpretation of the timescale results uncertain. We suggest that faster (and wider) CMEs drive shocks and accelerate SEPs over longer times to produce the longer TR and TD SEP timescales.

  17. Do interacting coronal mass ejections play a role in solar energetic particle events?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Vourlidas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gradual solar energetic (E > 10 MeV) particle (SEP) events are produced in shocks driven by fast and wide coronal mass ejections (CMEs). With a set of western hemisphere 20 MeV SEP events, we test the possibility that SEP peak intensities, Ip, are enhanced by interactions of their associated CMEs with preceding CMEs (preCMEs) launched during the previous 12 hr. Among SEP events with no, 1, or 2 or more (2+) preCMEs, we find enhanced Ip for the groups with preCMEs, but no differences in TO+TR, the time from CME launch to SEP onset and the time from onset to SEP half-peak Ip. Neither the timings of the preCMEs relative to their associated CMEs nor the preCME widths W pre , speeds V pre , or numbers correlate with the SEP Ip values. The 20 MeV Ip of all the preCME groups correlate with the 2 MeV proton background intensities, consistent with a general correlation with possible seed particle populations. Furthermore, the fraction of CMEs with preCMEs also increases with the 2 MeV proton background intensities. This implies that the higher SEP Ip values with preCMEs may not be due primarily to CME interactions, such as the 'twin-CME' scenario, but are explained by a general increase of both background seed particles and more frequent CMEs during times of higher solar activity. This explanation is not supported by our analysis of 2 MeV proton backgrounds in two earlier preCME studies of SEP events, so the relevance of CME interactions for larger SEP event intensities remains unclear.

  18. SIMULATIONS OF LATERAL TRANSPORT AND DROPOUT STRUCTURE OF ENERGETIC PARTICLES FROM IMPULSIVE SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooprakai, P. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Seripienlert, A.; Ruffolo, D.; Chuychai, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, CHE, Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Matthaeus, W. H., E-mail: david.ruf@mahidol.ac.th [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We simulate trajectories of energetic particles from impulsive solar flares for 2D+slab models of magnetic turbulence in spherical geometry to study dropout features, i.e., sharp, repeated changes in the particle density. Among random-phase realizations of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, a spherical harmonic expansion can generate homogeneous turbulence over a sphere, but a 2D fast Fourier transform (FFT) locally mapped onto the lateral coordinates in the region of interest is much faster computationally, and we show that the results are qualitatively similar. We then use the 2D FFT field as input to a 2D MHD simulation, which dynamically generates realistic features of turbulence such as coherent structures. The magnetic field lines and particles spread non-diffusively (ballistically) to a patchy distribution reaching up to 25° from the injection longitude and latitude at r ∼ 1 au. This dropout pattern in field line trajectories has sharper features in the case of the more realistic 2D MHD model, in better qualitative agreement with observations. The initial dropout pattern in particle trajectories is relatively insensitive to particle energy, though the energy affects the pattern’s evolution with time. We make predictions for future observations of solar particles near the Sun (e.g., at 0.25 au), for which we expect a sharp pulse of outgoing particles along the dropout pattern, followed by backscattering that first remains close to the dropout pattern and later exhibits cross-field transport to a distribution that is more diffusive, yet mostly contained within the dropout pattern found at greater distances.

  19. SIMULATIONS OF LATERAL TRANSPORT AND DROPOUT STRUCTURE OF ENERGETIC PARTICLES FROM IMPULSIVE SOLAR FLARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooprakai, P.; Seripienlert, A.; Ruffolo, D.; Chuychai, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2016-01-01

    We simulate trajectories of energetic particles from impulsive solar flares for 2D+slab models of magnetic turbulence in spherical geometry to study dropout features, i.e., sharp, repeated changes in the particle density. Among random-phase realizations of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, a spherical harmonic expansion can generate homogeneous turbulence over a sphere, but a 2D fast Fourier transform (FFT) locally mapped onto the lateral coordinates in the region of interest is much faster computationally, and we show that the results are qualitatively similar. We then use the 2D FFT field as input to a 2D MHD simulation, which dynamically generates realistic features of turbulence such as coherent structures. The magnetic field lines and particles spread non-diffusively (ballistically) to a patchy distribution reaching up to 25° from the injection longitude and latitude at r ∼ 1 au. This dropout pattern in field line trajectories has sharper features in the case of the more realistic 2D MHD model, in better qualitative agreement with observations. The initial dropout pattern in particle trajectories is relatively insensitive to particle energy, though the energy affects the pattern’s evolution with time. We make predictions for future observations of solar particles near the Sun (e.g., at 0.25 au), for which we expect a sharp pulse of outgoing particles along the dropout pattern, followed by backscattering that first remains close to the dropout pattern and later exhibits cross-field transport to a distribution that is more diffusive, yet mostly contained within the dropout pattern found at greater distances.

  20. Observations of Solar Energetic Particle Anisotropies at MeV Energies from STEREO/LET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leske, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2016-12-01

    During the transport of solar energetic particles (SEPs) through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are modified by the competing effects of scattering and magnetic focusing. Thus, measurements of SEP anisotropies can reveal conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at heliospheric locations far removed from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures angular distributions in the ecliptic for SEP protons, helium, and heavier ions up to iron with energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed with this instrument include unidirectional outward beams at the onset of magnetically well-connected SEP events when particles experienced little scattering, bidirectional flows within many interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward particle flows when the spacecraft was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions when particles with large pitch angles were magnetically mirrored at a remote field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Observations at a 1-minute cadence also revealed peculiar oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 extreme SEP event. The shapes of the pitch angle distributions often vary with energy and differ for H, He, and heavier species, perhaps as a result of rigidity dependence of the pitch angle diffusion coefficient. We present a selection of the more interesting LET anisotropy observations made throughout solar cycle 24 and discuss the implications of these observations for SEP transport in the heliosphere.

  1. Coronal mass ejections, type II radio bursts, and solar energetic particle events in the SOHO era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gopalswamy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the extensive and uniform data on coronal mass ejections (CMEs, solar energetic particle (SEP events, and type II radio bursts during the SOHO era, we discuss how the CME properties such as speed, width and solar-source longitude decide whether CMEs are associated with type II radio bursts and SEP events. We discuss why some radio-quiet CMEs are associated with small SEP events while some radio-loud CMEs are not associated with SEP events. We conclude that either some fast and wide CMEs do not drive shocks or they drive weak shocks that do not produce significant levels of particle acceleration. We also infer that the Alfvén speed in the corona and near-Sun interplanetary medium ranges from <200 km/s to ~1600 km/s. Radio-quiet fast and wide CMEs are also poor SEP producers and the association rate of type II bursts and SEP events steadily increases with CME speed and width (i.e. energy. If we consider western hemispheric CMEs, the SEP association rate increases linearly from ~30% for 800 km/s CMEs to 100% for ≥1800 km/s. Essentially all type II bursts in the decametre-hectometric (DH wavelength range are associated with SEP events once the source location on the Sun is taken into account. This is a significant result for space weather applications, because if a CME originating from the western hemisphere is accompanied by a DH type II burst, there is a high probability that it will produce an SEP event.

  2. VELOCIRAPTOR: An X-band photoinjector and linear accelerator for the production of Mono-Energetic {gamma}-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.G., E-mail: anderson131@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Albert, F.; Bayramian, A.J.; Beer, G.; Bonanno, R.E.; Cross, R.R.; Deis, G.; Ebbers, C.A.; Gibson, D.J.; Hartemann, F.V.; Houck, T.L.; Marsh, R.A.; McNabb, D.P.; Messerly, M.J.; Scarpetti, R.D.; Shverdin, M.Y.; Siders, C.W.; Wu, S.S.; Barty, C.P.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Adolphsen, C.E. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); and others

    2011-11-21

    The rf photoinjector and linear accelerator in the Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) facility at LLNL is presented. This machine uses 11.4 GHz rf technology to accelerate a high-brightness electron beam up to 250 MeV to produce MeV {gamma}-rays through Compton scattering with a Joule-class laser pulse. Compton scattering-based generation of high flux, narrow bandwidth {gamma}-rays places stringent requirements on the performance of the accelerator. The component parts of the accelerator are presented and their requirements described. Simulations of expected electron beam parameters and the resulting light source properties are presented.

  3. Cosmic ray investigation for the Voyager missions; energetic particle studies in the outer heliosphere - and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E C; Vogt, R E [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA); McDonald, F B; Teegarden, B J; Trainor, J H [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md. (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center; Jokipii, J R [Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA); Webber, W R [New Hampshire Univ., Durham (USA)

    1977-12-01

    A cosmic-ray detector system (CRS) has been developed for the Voyager mission which will measure the energy spectrum of electrons from approximately 3-110 MeV and the energy spectra and elemental comparison of all cosmic-ray nuclei from hydrogen through iron over an energy range from approximately 1-500 MeV.nuc. Isotopes of hydrogen through sulfur will be resolved from approximately 2-75 MeV/nuc. Studies with CRS data will provide information on the energy content, origin and acceleration process, life history, and dynamics of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and contribute to an understanding of the nucleosynthesis of elements in the cosmic-ray sources. Particular emphasis will be placed on low-energy phenomena that are expected to exist in interstellar space and are known to be present in the outer Solar System. This investigation will also add to our understanding of the transport of cosmic rays, Jovian electrons, and low-energy interplanetary particles over an extended region of interplanetary space. A major contribution to these areas of study will be the measurement of three-dimensional streaming patterns of nuclei from H through Fe and electrons over an extended energy range, with a precision that will allow determination of anisotropies down to 1%. The required combination of charge resolution, reliability and redundance has been achieved with systems consisting entirely of solid-state charged-particle detectors.

  4. Solar cycle variation of cosmic ray intensity along with interplanetary and solar wind plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.K.; Tiwari, S.; Agarwal, R.

    2008-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays are modulated at their propagation in the heliosphere by the effect of the large-scale structure of the interplanetary medium. A comparison of the variations in the cosmic ray intensity data obtained by neutron monitoring stations with those in geomagnetic disturbance, solar wind velocity (V), interplanetary magnetic field (B), and their product (V , B) near the Earth for the period 1964-2004 has been presented so as to establish a possible correlation between them. We used the hourly averaged cosmic ray counts observed with the neutron monitor in Moscow. It is noteworthy that a significant negative correlation has been observed between the interplanetary magnetic field, product (V , B) and cosmic ray intensity during the solar cycles 21 and 22. The solar wind velocity has a good positive correlation with cosmic ray intensity during solar cycle 21, whereas it shows a weak correlation during cycles 20, 22 and 23. The interplanetary magnetic field shows a weak negative correlation with cosmic rays for solar cycle 20, and a good anti-correlation for solar cycles 21-23 with the cosmic ray intensity, which, in turn, shows a good positive correlation with disturbance time index (Dst) during solar cycles 21 and 22, and a weak correlation for cycles 20 and 23. (Authors)

  5. ENERGETIC PARTICLE CROSS-FIELD PROPAGATION EARLY IN A SOLAR EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S.; Marsh, M. S. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, PR1 2HE Preston (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-20

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) have been observed to easily spread across heliographic longitudes, and the mechanisms responsible for this behavior remain unclear. We use full-orbit simulations of a 10 MeV proton beam in a turbulent magnetic field to study to what extent the spread across the mean field can be described as diffusion early in a particle event. We compare the full-orbit code results to solutions of a Fokker-Planck equation including spatial and pitch angle diffusion, and of one including also propagation of the particles along random-walking magnetic field lines. We find that propagation of the particles along meandering field lines is the key process determining their cross-field spread at 1 AU at the beginning of the simulated event. The mean square displacement of the particles an hour after injection is an order of magnitude larger than that given by the diffusion model, indicating that models employing spatial cross-field diffusion cannot be used to describe early evolution of an SEP event. On the other hand, the diffusion of the particles from their initial field lines is negligible during the first 5 hr, which is consistent with the observations of SEP intensity dropouts. We conclude that modeling SEP events must take into account the particle propagation along meandering field lines for the first 20 hr of the event.

  6. Survey of ionic charge states of solar energetic particle events during the first year of ACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moebius, E.; Popecki, M.A.; Morris, D.; Galvin, A.B.; Heirtzler, D.; Kistler, L.M.; Siren, C.; Klecker, B.; Bogdanov, A.T.; Hovestadt, D.; Mason, G.M.; Dwyer, J.R.; Stone, E.C.

    2000-01-01

    The ionic charge state distributions of solar energetic particle events are determined with ACE SEPICA on an event by event basis, over the time period from launch through the end of 1998. Because of the large geometric factor of SEPICA the observations can be extended to events with very low fluxes. The study is confined to the most abundant species O, Ne, Mg, and Fe. Mean charge states for Fe are observed to vary between ≅11 for CME related events and ≅20 for small events that carry signatures of impulsive events. For these events all elements up to Mg, appear almost fully ionized. The charge states of all species follow the same trend as that of Fe in their variation from event to event. A comparison of observed mean charge states with a model assuming thermal equilibrium shows a general agreement with temperatures ranging from 1.2-10·10 6 K. However, noticeable deviations from charge states at a unique temperature for all species are seen for O at high and for Mg at both high and low charge states, which may suggest the presence of other processes. A distinct correlation is observed between the charge states and the overabundance of heavy ions in comparison with O. It remains puzzling that events with substantial deviations from coronal abundance accelerate almost fully stripped ions, which do not lend themselves easily to fractionation processes based on mass and charge

  7. Low-Frequency Type III Bursts and Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Makela, Pertti

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type 11 radio bursts associated with a set of six low frequency (15 min) normally used to define these bursts. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type 11 burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type 11 burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 min) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event.

  8. Solar Energetic Particle Event Risks for Future Human Missions within the Inner Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, S.; Ford, J.

    2017-12-01

    As astronauts travel beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), space weather research will play a key role in determining risks from space radiation. Of interest are the rare, large solar energetic particle (SEP) events that can cause significant medical effects during flight. Historical SEP data were analyzed from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) program covering the time period of 1986 to 2016 for SEP events. The SEP event data were combined with a Monte Carlo approach to develop a risk model to determine maximum expected doses for missions within the inner heliosphere. Presented here are results from risk assessments for proposed Mars transits as compared to a geostationary Earth-bound mission. Overall, the greatest risk was for the return from Mars with a Venus swing-by, due to the additional transit length and decreased distance from the Sun as compared to traditional Hohmann transfers. The overall results do not indicate that the effects of SEP events alone would prohibit these missions based on current radiation limits alone, but the combination of doses from SEP events and galactic cosmic radiation may be significant, and should be considered in all phases of mission design.

  9. Acceleration of Solar Energetic Particles at a Fast Traveling Shock in Non-uniform Coronal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. A.; Arthur, A. D.

    2017-09-01

    Time-dependent solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration is investigated at a fast, nearly parallel spherical traveling shock in the strongly non-uniform corona by solving the standard focused transport equation for SEPs and transport equations for parallel propagating Alfvén waves that form a set of coupled equations. This enables the modeling of self-excitation of Alfvén waves in the inertial range by SEPs ahead of the shock and its role in enhancing the efficiency of the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of SEPs in a self-regulatory fashion. Preliminary results suggest that, because of the highly non-uniform coronal conditions that the shock encounters, both DSA and wave excitation are highly time-dependent processes. Thus, DSA spectra of SEPs strongly deviate from the simple power-law prediction of standard steady-state DSA theory and initially strong wave excitation weakens rapidly. Consequently, the ability of DSA to produce high energy SEPs in the corona of ∼1 GeV, as observed in the strongest gradual SEP events, appears to be strongly curtailed at a fast nearly parallel shock, but further research is needed before final conclusions can be drawn.

  10. ENERGETIC PARTICLE CROSS-FIELD PROPAGATION EARLY IN A SOLAR EVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S.; Marsh, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) have been observed to easily spread across heliographic longitudes, and the mechanisms responsible for this behavior remain unclear. We use full-orbit simulations of a 10 MeV proton beam in a turbulent magnetic field to study to what extent the spread across the mean field can be described as diffusion early in a particle event. We compare the full-orbit code results to solutions of a Fokker-Planck equation including spatial and pitch angle diffusion, and of one including also propagation of the particles along random-walking magnetic field lines. We find that propagation of the particles along meandering field lines is the key process determining their cross-field spread at 1 AU at the beginning of the simulated event. The mean square displacement of the particles an hour after injection is an order of magnitude larger than that given by the diffusion model, indicating that models employing spatial cross-field diffusion cannot be used to describe early evolution of an SEP event. On the other hand, the diffusion of the particles from their initial field lines is negligible during the first 5 hr, which is consistent with the observations of SEP intensity dropouts. We conclude that modeling SEP events must take into account the particle propagation along meandering field lines for the first 20 hr of the event

  11. Solar Energetic Particle Composition over Two Solar Cycles as Observed by the Ulysses/HISCALE and ACE/EPAM Pulse Height Analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J. D.; Madanian, H.; Manweiler, J. W.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present the compositional variation in the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) population in the inner heliosphere over two solar cycles using data from the Ulysses Heliospheric Instrument for Spectra, Composition, and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HISCALE) and Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM). The Ulysses mission was active from late 1990 to mid-2009 in a heliopolar orbit inclined by 80° with a perihelion of 1.3 AU and an aphelion of 5.4 AU. The ACE mission has been active since its launch in late 1997 and is in a halo orbit about L1. These two missions provide a total of 27 years of continuous observation in the inner heliosphere with twelve years of simultaneous observation. HISCALE and EPAM data provide species-resolved differential flux and density of SEP between 0.5-5 MeV/nuc. Several ion species (He, C, O, Ne, Si, Fe) are identified using the Pulse Height Analyzer (PHA) system of the Composition Aperture for both instruments. The He density shows a noticeable increase at high solar activity followed by a moderate drop at the quiet time of the solar minimum between cycles 23 and 24. The density of heavier ions (i.e. O and Fe) change minimally with respect to the F10.7 index variations however, certain energy-specific count rates decrease during solar minimum. With Ulysses and ACE observing in different regions of the inner heliosphere, there are significant latitudinal differences in how the O/He ratios vary with the solar cycle. At solar minimum, there is reasonable agreement between the observations from both instruments. At solar max 23, the differences in composition over the course of the solar cycle, and as observed at different heliospheric locations can provide insight to the origins of and acceleration processes differentially affecting solar energetic ions.

  12. Multiple energetic injections in a strong spike-like solar burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Correia, E.; Costa, J.E.R.; Dennis, B.R.; Brown, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    An intense and fast spike-like solar burst was observed with high sensitivity in microwaves and hard X-rays, on December 18, 1980, at 19h 21m 20s U.T. It is shown that the burst was built up of short time scale structures superimposed on an underlying gradual emission, the time evolution of which showed remarkable proportionality between hard X-ray and microwave fluxes. The finer time structures were best defined at mm-microwaves. At the peak of the event the finer structures repeat energy 30-60 ms, (displaying an equivalent repetition rate of 16-20 s -1 ). The more showly varying component with a time scale of about 1 second was identified in microwaves and hard X-rays throughout the burst duration. Similarly to what has been found for mm-microwave burst emission, it is suggested that X-ray fluxes might also be proportional to the repetition rate of basic units of energy injection (quasi-quantized). It is estimated that one such injection produces a pulse of hard X-ray photons with about 4 x 10 21 erg, for epsilon > or aprox. 25 KeV. This figure is used to estimate the relevant parameters of one primary energy release site both in the case where hard X-rays are produced primarily by thick-target bremsstrahlung, and when they are purely thermal, and also discuss the relation of this figure to global energy considerations. It is found, in particular, that a thick-target interpretation only becomes possible if individual pulses have durations larger than 0.2s. (Author) [pt

  13. Golden Rays - May 2017 | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Panels? Stop! (Video) At first glance, this might look like a clip from the disco floor, but this panels. Solar cells are easy to break, but when they're packaged in a panel, it can be almost impossible degradation in higher-efficiency panels, and standardized methods of documenting data for accelerated testing

  14. A very energetic supernova associated with the gamma-ray burst of 29 March 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens; Sollerman, Jesper; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan P U; Woosley, Stan E; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Tanvir, Nial R; Greiner, Jochen; Andersen, Michael I; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J; Castro Cerón, José María; Fruchter, Andrew S; Gorosabel, Javier; Jakobsson, Páll; Kaper, Lex; Klose, Sylvio; Masetti, Nicola; Pedersen, Holger; Pedersen, Kristian; Pian, Elena; Palazzi, Eliana; Rhoads, James E; Rol, Evert; van den Heuvel, Edward P J; Vreeswijk, Paul M; Watson, Darach; Wijers, Ralph A M J

    2003-06-19

    Over the past five years evidence has mounted that long-duration (>2 s) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)-the most luminous of all astronomical explosions-signal the collapse of massive stars in our Universe. This evidence was originally based on the probable association of one unusual GRB with a supernova, but now includes the association of GRBs with regions of massive star formation in distant galaxies, the appearance of supernova-like 'bumps' in the optical afterglow light curves of several bursts and lines of freshly synthesized elements in the spectra of a few X-ray afterglows. These observations support, but do not yet conclusively demonstrate, the idea that long-duration GRBs are associated with the deaths of massive stars, presumably arising from core collapse. Here we report evidence that a very energetic supernova (a hypernova) was temporally and spatially coincident with a GRB at redshift z = 0.1685. The timing of the supernova indicates that it exploded within a few days of the GRB, strongly suggesting that core-collapse events can give rise to GRBs, thereby favouring the 'collapsar' model.

  15. PSR J1838–0537: DISCOVERY OF A YOUNG, ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletsch, H. J.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Baring, M. G.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Marelli, M.; Grove, J. E.; Ray, P. S.; Kerr, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of PSR J1838–0537, a gamma-ray pulsar found through a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsar has a spin frequency of 6.9 Hz and a frequency derivative of –2.2 × 10 –11 Hz s –1 , implying a young characteristic age of 4970 yr and a large spin-down power of 5.9 × 10 36 erg s –1 . Follow-up observations with radio telescopes detected no pulsations; thus PSR J1838–0537 appears radio-quiet as viewed from Earth. In 2009 September the pulsar suffered the largest glitch so far seen in any gamma-ray-only pulsar, causing a relative increase in spin frequency of about 5.5 × 10 –6 . After the glitch, during a putative recovery period, the timing analysis is complicated by the sparsity of the LAT photon data, the weakness of the pulsations, and the reduction in average exposure from a coincidental, contemporaneous change in LAT's sky-survey observing pattern. The pulsar's sky position is coincident with the spatially extended TeV source HESS J1841–055 detected by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). The inferred energetics suggest that HESS J1841–055 contains a pulsar wind nebula powered by the pulsar.

  16. The X-ray signature of solar coronal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. A.; Waggett, P. W.; Bentley, R. D.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bruner, M.

    1985-01-01

    The coronal response to six solar X-ray flares has been investigated. At a time coincident with the projected onset of the white-light coronal mass ejection associated with each flare, there is a small, discrete soft X-ray enhancement. These enhancements (precursors) precede by typically about 20 m the impulsive phase of the solar flare which is dominant by the time the coronal mass ejection has reached an altitude above 0.5 solar radii. Motions of hot X-ray emitting plasma, during the precursors, which may well be a signature of the mass ejection onsets, are identified. Further investigations have also revealed a second class of X-ray coronal transient, during the main phase of the flare. These appear to be associated with magnetic reconnection above post-flare loop systems.

  17. THE COLLIMATION AND ENERGETICS OF THE BRIGHTEST SWIFT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenko, S. B.; Butler, N. R.; Bloom, J. S.; Frail, D. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Ofek, E. O.; Rau, A.; Nakar, E.; Chandra, P. C.; Fox, D. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Kelemen, J.; Moon, D.-S.; Price, P. A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Teplitz, H. I.; Werner, M. W.; Bock, D. C.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be highly collimated explosions (bipolar conical outflows with half-opening angle θ∼ 1 0 -10 0 ). As a result of this beaming factor, the true energy release from a GRB is usually several orders of magnitude smaller than the observed isotropic value. Measuring this opening angle, typically inferred from an achromatic steepening in the afterglow light curve (a 'jet' break), has proven exceedingly difficult in the Swift era. Here, we undertake a study of five of the brightest (in terms of the isotropic prompt γ-ray energy release, E γ,iso ) GRBs in the Swift era to search for jet breaks and hence constrain the collimation-corrected energy release. We present multi-wavelength (radio through X-ray) observations of GRBs 050820A, 060418, and 080319B, and construct afterglow models to extract the opening angle and beaming-corrected energy release for all three events. Together with results from previous analyses of GRBs 050904 and 070125, we find evidence for an achromatic jet break in all five events, strongly supporting the canonical picture of GRBs as collimated explosions. The most natural explanation for the lack of observed jet breaks from most Swift GRBs is therefore selection effects. However, the opening angles for the events in our sample are larger than would be expected if all GRBs had a canonical energy release of ∼10 51 erg. The total energy release we measure for the 'hyper-energetic' (E tot ∼> 10 52 erg) events in our sample is large enough to start challenging models with a magnetar as the compact central remnant.

  18. Energetic and financial investigation of a stand-alone solar-thermal Organic Rankine Cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzivanidis, Christos; Bellos, Evangelos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A stand-alone solar driven Organic Rankine Cycle is optimized parametrically. • The system is optimized energetically and financially. • Nine working fluids are tested with cyclohexane to be the most suitable. • A collecting area of 25,000 m"2 parabolic trough collectors is the optimum solution. • The maximum IRR is 13.46% and the payback period is about 9 years. - Abstract: The use of solar thermal energy for electricity production is a clean and sustainable way to cover the increasing energy needs of our society. The most mature technology for capturing solar energy in high temperature levels is the parabolic trough collectors (PTC). In this study, an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) coupled with PTC is analyzed parametrically in order to be optimized financially and energetically. The first step is the thermodynamic investigation of the ORC by using various working fluids. The second step is the energetic and financial investigation of the total system which includes the solar field, the storage tank and the ORC module. By testing many combinations of collecting areas and storage tank volumes, finally cyclohexane proved to be the most suitable working fluid for producing 1 MW_e_l with PTC. Specifically, in the optimum situation a solar field of 25,000 m"2 with storage tank of about 300 m"3 leads to a payback period of 9 years and to an internal rate of return (IRR) equal to 13.46%. Moreover, an economic comparison for different commercial collectors is presented, with Eurotrough ET-150 being the financially optimum solution for this case study.

  19. Energy transport by energetic electrons released during solar flares. I - Thermal versus nonthermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.; Pritchett, P. L.

    1988-01-01

    The propagation of energetic electrons through a flaring flux tube is studied in an attempt to determine how the energy of the electrons is deposited in the flux tube. One-dimensional electrostatic particle simulations are used in the present investigation. As the energetic electrons propagate into the system, a return current of ambient plasma electrons and some of the energetic electrons is drawn into the energetic electron source. It is found that, as the ambient temperature relative to the ion temperature increases above about 3, the heated return-current electrons can excite ion-sound waves.

  20. EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES OF SOLAR ENERGETICS ON THE BASIS OF ACCURATE GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aculinin A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Expected quantity of a solar energy received by solar panel is estimated on the basis of accurate measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev. Optimal orientation of solar panels and apparent volume of the electric power generated by solar panels are determined.

  1. Solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays: techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis covers four topics in the theory of interplanetary cosmic-ray propagation: the first part involves the time-dependent, spherically-symmetric, solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays. A numerical technique was introduced for the solution of this problem. A model for the solar cycle variation in cosmic-ray intensity illustrated this method using enhanced particle scattering regions. The second section contains an attempt to explain recent observations which show that cosmic-ray electrons are returning to higher intensities, characteristic of solar minimum, faster than cosmic-ray protons of about the same energy, the reverse of the previous eleven-year cycle. The third section involves the solar modulation of galactic antiprotons. Using a steady-state, spherically-symmetric, numerical modulation code, a solution that reasonably fits the observed 1980 galactic proton spectrum at 1 AU implied that the modulation used for the data interpretation has been significantly underestimated. The final section contains a spherically-symmetric steady-state calculation of the effects of a strong termination shock in the heliosphere. In the end, high-energy particles cooling down in the upstream solar wind overwhelmed any accelerated low-energy particles

  2. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, Hilary V.; Erickson, W. C.; Prestage, N. P.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this correlative study between greater than 20 MeV solar proton events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and radio bursts it is found that essentially all of the proton events are preceded by groups of type III bursts and all are preceded by CMEs. These type III bursts (that are a flare phenomenon) usually are long-lasting, intense bursts seen in the low-frequency observations made from space. They are caused by streams of electrons traveling from close to the solar surface out to 1 AU. In most events the type III emissions extend into, or originate at, the time when type II and type IV bursts are reported (some 5 to 10 minutes after the start of the associated soft X-ray flare) and have starting frequencies in the 500 to approximately 100 MHz range that often get lower as a function of time. These later type III emissions are often not reported by ground-based observers, probably because of undue attention to type II bursts. It is suggested to call them type III-1. Type III-1 bursts have previously been called shock accelerated (SA) events, but an examination of radio dynamic spectra over an extended frequency range shows that the type III-1 bursts usually start at frequencies above any type II burst that may be present. The bursts sometimes continue beyond the time when type II emission is seen and, furthermore, sometimes occur in the absence of any type II emission. Thus the causative electrons are unlikely to be shock accelerated and probably originate in the reconnection regions below fast CMEs. A search did not find any type III-1 bursts that were not associated with CMEs. The existence of low-frequency type III bursts proves that open field lines extend from within 0.5 radius of the Sun into the interplanetary medium (the bursts start above 100 MHz, and such emission originates within 0.5 solar radius of the solar surface). Thus it is not valid to assume that only closed field lines exist in the flaring regions associated with CMEs and some

  3. The Effects of Interplanetary Transport in the Event-intergrated Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Lulu; Zhang, Ming; Rassoul, Hamid K., E-mail: lzhao@fit.edu [Physics and Space Sciences Department, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Previous investigations on the energy spectra of solar energetic particle (SEP) events revealed that the energy spectra observed at 1 au often show double power laws with break energies from one to tens of MeV/nuc. In order to determine whether the double power-law features result from the SEP source or the interplanetary transport process from the Sun to 1 au, we separately analyze the SEP spectra in the decay phase, during which the transport effect is minimum. In this paper, we reported three events observed by the Interplanetary Monitory Platform 8 spacecraft, which occurred on 1977 September 19, November 22, and 1979 March 1. For the first two events, the event-integrated spectra of protons possess double power-law profiles with break energies in a range of several MeV to tens of MeV, while the spectra integrated in the decay (reservoir) phase yield single power laws. Moreover, a general trend from a double power law at the rising phase to a single power law at the decay phase is observed. For the third event, both the event-integrated and the reservoir spectra show double power-law features. However, the difference between the low- and high-energy power-law indices is smaller for the reservoir spectrum than the event-integrated spectrum. These features were reproduced by solving the 1D diffusion equation analytically and we suggest that the transport process, especially the diffusion process, plays an important role in breaking the energy spectra.

  4. Features of energetic particle radial profiles inferred from geosynchronous responses to solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the radial profile of phase space density of relativistic electrons at constant adiabatic invariants is crucial for identifying the source for them within the outer radiation belt. The commonly used method is to convert flux observed at fixed energy to phase space density at constant first, second and third adiabatic invariants, which requires an empirical global magnetic field model and thus might produce some uncertainties in the final results. From a different perspective, in this paper we indirectly infer the shape of the radial profile of phase space density of relativistic electrons near the geosynchronous region by statistically examining the geosynchronous energetic flux response to 128 solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements during the years 2000 to 2003. We thus avoid the disadvantage of using empirical magnetic field models. Our results show that the flux response is species and energy dependent. For protons and low-energy electrons, the primary response to magnetospheric compression is an increase in flux at geosynchronous orbit. For relativistic electrons, the dominant response is a decrease in flux, which implies that the phase space density decreases toward increasing radial distance at geosynchronous orbit and leads to a local peak inside of geosynchronous orbit. The flux response of protons and non-relativistic electrons could result from a phase density that increases toward increasing radial distance, but this cannot be determined for sure due to the particle energization associated with pressure enhancements. Our results for relativistic electrons are consistent with previous results obtained using magnetic field models, thus providing additional confirmation that these results are correct and indicating that they are not the result of errors in their selected magnetic field model.

  5. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  6. Solar wind contribution to the average population of energetic He+ and He++ ions in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kremser

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements with the ion charge-energy-mass spectrometer CHEM on the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft were used to investigate the origin of energetic He+ and He++ ions observed in the equatorial plane at 3 ≤ L ≤ 9. Special emphasis was laid on the dependence of long-term average distributions on magnetic local time (MLT and the geomagnetic activity index Kp. The observations are described in terms of the phase space densities f1 (for He+ and f2 (for He++. They confirm preliminary results from a previous study: f1 is independent of MLT, whereas f2 is much larger on the nightside than on the dayside. They show, furthermore, that f1 increases slightly with Kp on intermediate drift shells, but decreases on high drift shells (L ≥ 7. f2 increases with Kp on all drift shells outside the premidnight sector. Within this sector a decrease is observed on high drift shells. A simple ion tracing code was developed to determine how and from where the ions move into the region of observations. It provides ion trajectories as a function of the ion charge, the magnetic moment and Kp. The ion tracing enables a distinction between regions of closed drift orbits (ring current and open convection trajectories (plasma sheet. It also indicates how the outer part of the observation region is connected to different parts of the more distant plasma sheet. Observations and tracing show that He++ ions are effectively transported from the plasma sheet on convection trajectories. Their distribution in the observation region corresponds to the distribution of solar wind ions in the plasma sheet. Thus, energetic He++ ions most likely originate in the solar wind. On the other hand, the plasma sheet is not an important source of energetic He+ ions. Convection trajectories more likely constitute a sink for He+ ions, which may diffuse onto them from closed drift orbits and then get lost through the magnetopause. An ionospheric origin of energetic He+ ions is unlikely as well, since

  7. Solar-geophysical data number 417, May 1979. Part II. Data for November 1978--October 1978 and miscellanea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1979-05-01

    This comprehensive report provides data for November 1978 on active regions, synoptic solar maps, solar flares, solar radio emission, energetic solar particles and plasma, and solar x-ray radiation. It also provides synoptic charts, abbreviated calendar record and regional flare index for October 1978. The miscellaneous data includes solar radio emission for January and February 1979 and cosmic rays for February 1979

  8. The CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS) Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Amir; Shih, Albert Y.; Warren, Harry; DeForest, Craig; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Schwartz, Richard A.; Woods, Thomas N.; Mason, James; Palo, Scott; Steslicki, Marek; Sylwester, Janusz; Gburek, Szymon; Mrozek, Tomasz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Torre, Gabriele; Crowley, Geoffrey; Schattenburg, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Solar soft X-ray (SXR) observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating, during solar flares and quiescent times. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding the dynamics, origins, and evolution of these energetic processes, providing probes both into the temperature distributions and elemental compositions of hot plasmas; spatially-resolved measurements are critical for understanding energy transport and mass flow. A better understanding of the thermal plasma improves our understanding of the relationships between particle acceleration, plasma heating, and the underlying release of magnetic energy during reconnection. We introduce a new proposed small satellite mission, the CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS), to measure spectrally- and spatially-resolved SXRs from the quiescent and flaring Sun from a 6U CubeSat platform in low-Earth orbit during a nominal 1-year mission. CubIXSS includes the Amptek X123-FastSDD silicon drift detector, a low-noise, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) instrument enabling solar SXR spectroscopy from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution with low power, mass, and volume requirements. Multiple detectors and tailored apertures provide sensitivity to a wide range of solar conditions, optimized for a launch during solar minimum. The precise spectra from these instruments will provide detailed measurements of the coronal temperature distribution and elemental abundances from the quiet Sun to active regions and flares. CubIXSS also includes a novel spectro-spatial imager -- the first ever solar imager on a CubeSat -- utilizing a custom pinhole camera and Chandra-heritage X-ray transmission diffraction grating to provide spatially- resolved, full-Sun imaging spectroscopy from ~0.1 to ~10 keV, with ~25 arcsec and ~0.1 Å FWHM spatial and spectral resolutions, respectively. MOXSI’s unique capabilities enable SXR spectroscopy and temperature diagnostics of individual

  9. Forecasting the Earth’s radiation belts and modelling solar energetic particle events: Recent results from SPACECAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poedts Stefaan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High-energy charged particles in the van Allen radiation belts and in solar energetic particle events can damage satellites on orbit leading to malfunctions and loss of satellite service. Here we describe some recent results from the SPACECAST project on modelling and forecasting the radiation belts, and modelling solar energetic particle events. We describe the SPACECAST forecasting system that uses physical models that include wave-particle interactions to forecast the electron radiation belts up to 3 h ahead. We show that the forecasts were able to reproduce the >2 MeV electron flux at GOES 13 during the moderate storm of 7–8 October 2012, and the period following a fast solar wind stream on 25–26 October 2012 to within a factor of 5 or so. At lower energies of 10 – a few 100 keV we show that the electron flux at geostationary orbit depends sensitively on the high-energy tail of the source distribution near 10 RE on the nightside of the Earth, and that the source is best represented by a kappa distribution. We present a new model of whistler mode chorus determined from multiple satellite measurements which shows that the effects of wave-particle interactions beyond geostationary orbit are likely to be very significant. We also present radial diffusion coefficients calculated from satellite data at geostationary orbit which vary with Kp by over four orders of magnitude. We describe a new automated method to determine the position at the shock that is magnetically connected to the Earth for modelling solar energetic particle events and which takes into account entropy, and predict the form of the mean free path in the foreshock, and particle injection efficiency at the shock from analytical theory which can be tested in simulations.

  10. The Relationship Between Solar Radio and Hard X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Benz, A. O.; Christe, S.; Farnik, F.; Kundu, M. R.; Mann, G.; Ning, Z.; Raulin, J.-P.; Silva-Valio, A. V. R.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the complementary relationship between radio and hard Xray observations of the Sun using primarily results from the era of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite. A primary focus of joint radio and hard X-ray studies of solar flares uses observations of nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission at radio wavelengths and bremsstrahlung hard X-rays to study the properties of electrons accelerated in the main flare site, since it is well established that these two emissions show very similar temporal behavior. A quantitative prescription is given for comparing the electron energy distributions derived separately from the two wavelength ranges: this is an important application with the potential for measuring the magnetic field strength in the flaring region, and reveals significant differences between the electrons in different energy ranges. Examples of the use of simultaneous data from the two wavelength ranges to derive physical conditions are then discussed, including the case of microflares, and the comparison of images at radio and hard X-ray wavelengths is presented. There have been puzzling results obtained from observations of solar flares at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, and the comparison of these results with corresponding hard X-ray data is presented. Finally, the review discusses the association of hard X-ray releases with radio emission at decimeter and meter wavelengths, which is dominated by plasma emission (at lower frequencies) and electron cyclotron maser emission (at higher frequencies), both coherent emission mechanisms that require small numbers of energetic electrons. These comparisons show broad general associations but detailed correspondence remains more elusive.

  11. The Solar-A soft X-ray telescope experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, L.; Bruner, M.; Brown, W.; Lemen, J.; Hirayama, T.

    1988-01-01

    The Japanese Solar-A mission for the study of high energy solar physics is timed to observe the sun during the next activity maximum. This small spacecraft includes a carefully coordinated complement of instruments for flare studies. In particular, the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) will provide X-ray images of flares with higher sensitivity and time resolution than have been available before. This paper describes the scientific capabilities of the SXT and illustrates its application to the study of an impulsive compact flare.

  12. Solar and Stellar X-ray Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, P. C. H.; SADE Team

    2004-05-01

    Stern et al. have shown that Yohkoh-SXT full disk X-ray irradiance shows an 11 year cycle with an max/min amplitude ratio of a factor 30. Similar cyclic X-ray variation in Sun-like stars observed by ROSAT and its predecessors is observed in only a few cases and limited to a factor two or three. We will show, by means of detailed bandpass comparisons, that this discrepancy cannot be ascribed to the differences in energy response between SXT and the stellar soft X-ray detectors. Is the Sun exceptional? After centuries of geocentric and heliocentric worldviews we find this a difficult proposition to entertain. But perhaps the Sun is a member of a small class of late-type stars with large amplitudes in their X-ray cycles. The stellar X-ray observations listed in the HEASARC catalog are too sparse to verify this hypothesis. To resolve these and related questions we have proposed a small low-cost stellar X-ray spectroscopic imager originally called SADE to obtain regular time series from late and early-type stars and accretion disks. This instrument is complimentary to the much more advanced Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories, and allows them to focus on those sources that require their full spatial and spectral resolution. We will describe the basic design and spectroscopic capability of SADE and show it meets the mission requirements.

  13. Observation of solar gamma-ray by Hinotori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimori, Masato; Okudaira, Kiyoaki; Hirashima, Yo; Kondo, Ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    The solar gamma-ray emitted by solar flare was observed. The gamma-ray is the electromagnetic radiation with the energy more than 300 keV. The line gamma-ray intensity and the time profile were observed. The gamma-ray detector CsI (Tl) was loaded on Hinotori, and the observed gamma-ray was analyzed by a multi-channel analyzer. The observed line gamma-ray was the radiation from Fe-56 and Ne-20. The line gamma-ray from C-12 and O-16 was also seen. These gamma-ray is the direct evidence of the nuclear reaction on the sun. The observed spectrum suggested the existence of the lines from Mg-24 and Si-28. The intensity of the 2.22 MeV gamma-line was small. This fact showed that the origin of this line was different from other nuclear gamma-ray. Two kinds of hard X-ray bursts were detected. The one was impulsive burst, and the other was gradual burst. There was no time difference between the hard X-ray and the gamma-ray of the impulsive burst. The impulsive burst may be explained by the beam model. The delay of time profile in the high energy gamma-ray of the gradual burst was observed. This means that the time when accelerated electrons cause bremsstrahlung depends on the electron energy. The long trapping of electrons at the top of magnetic loop is suggested. (Kato, T.)

  14. A Study on Mono-energetic Beam Source Using Characteristic X-ray for Substance Identification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwan Soo

    2009-02-01

    A new mono-energetic beam source was developed by using characteristic X-ray for improving performance of the substance identification system. Most of inspection systems use X-ray tubes for their source modules. However, the broad energy spectrum of X-ray tube causes an increase of uncertainty. In this study, it was found that mono-energetic beam sources can be generated by using X-ray tube and the designed target filter assembly. In order to investigate the monoenergetic beam source, the sensitivity study was conducted with a series of different X-ray tube potentials, radiator and filter materials using Monte Carlo simulation. The developed beam sources have a mono-energy peak at 69 keV, 78 keV and 99 keV, and they are named as characteristic X-ray beam BEAM69, BEAM78 and BEAM99, respectively. The characteristic X-ray beam intensity was over thirty three times more than that of hardening beam used previous work at Hanyang University. And BEAM69 and BEAM99 were applied to the substance identification system as a source. The relative error between results of characteristic X-ray beams and 69 keV and 99 keV photons was about 2% on the average for five unknown materials. In comparison with experiment results by using hardening beam, characteristic X-ray beam achieves better accuracy which is about 6.46 % on the average. Hence, it is expected that the developed characteristic X-ray beam source helps lower uncertainty of the inspection system, and the inspection time will be reduced considerably due to its high beam intensity

  15. A theoretical perspective on particle acceleration by interplanetary shocks and the Solar Energetic Particle problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL35899 (United States); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA91109 (United States); Zank, Gary P.; Li, Gang [Department of Space Science, UAH, Huntsville, AL35899 (United States); Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL35899 (United States)

    2015-02-12

    Understanding the physics of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is of importance to the general question of particle energization throughout the cosmos as well as playing a role in the technologically critical impact of space weather on society. The largest, and often most damaging, events are the so-called gradual SEP events, generally associated with shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We review the current state of knowledge about particle acceleration at evolving interplanetary shocks with application to SEP events that occur in the inner heliosphere. Starting with a brief outline of recent theoretical progress in the field, we focus on current observational evidence that challenges conventional models of SEP events, including complex particle energy spectra, the blurring of the distinction between gradual and impulsive events, and the difference inherent in particle acceleration at quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks. We also review the important problem of the seed particle population and its injection into particle acceleration at a shock. We begin by discussing the properties and characteristics of non-relativistic interplanetary shocks, from their formation close to the Sun to subsequent evolution through the inner heliosphere. The association of gradual SEP events with shocks is discussed. Several approaches to the energization of particles have been proposed, including shock drift acceleration, diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), acceleration by large-scale compression regions, acceleration by random velocity fluctuations (sometimes known as the “pump mechanism”), and others. We review these various mechanisms briefly and focus on the DSA mechanism. Much of our emphasis will be on our current understanding of the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients for energetic particles and models of plasma turbulence in the vicinity of the shock. Because of its importance both to the DSA mechanism itself and to the

  16. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  17. Observations of gamma-ray emission in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, D.J.; Chupp, E.L.; Suri, A.N.; Reppin, C.

    1973-01-01

    This paper reviews the observations of gamma-ray emission made from the OSO-7 satellite in connection with two solar flares in early August 1972. The details of the measurements and a preliminary interpretation of some of the observed features are given. (U.S.)

  18. Rotation of the Earth, solar activity and cosmic ray intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlyaeva, T.; Bard, E. [Aix-Marseille Univ., CNRS, IRD, Aix-en-Provence (France). CEREGE, College de France; Abarca-del-Rio, R. [Universidad de Concepcion (UDEC) (Chile). Dept. de Geofisica (DGEO)

    2014-10-01

    We analyse phase lags between the 11-year variations of three records: the semi-annual oscillation of the length of day (LOD), the solar activity (SA) and the cosmic ray intensity (CRI). The analysis was done for solar cycles 20-23. Observed relationships between LOD, CRI and SA are discussed separately for even and odd solar cycles. Phase lags were calculated using different methods (comparison of maximal points of cycles, maximal correlation coefficient, line of synchronization of cross-recurrence plots). We have found different phase lags between SA and CRI for even and odd solar cycles, confirming previous studies. The evolution of phase lags between SA and LOD as well as between CRI and LOD shows a positive trend with additional variations of phase lag values. For solar cycle 20, phase lags between SA and CRI, between SA and LOD, and between CRI and LOD were found to be negative. Overall, our study suggests that, if anything, the length of day could be influenced by solar irradiance rather than by cosmic rays.

  19. Rotation of the Earth, solar activity and cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlyaeva, T.; Bard, E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse phase lags between the 11-year variations of three records: the semi-annual oscillation of the length of day (LOD), the solar activity (SA) and the cosmic ray intensity (CRI). The analysis was done for solar cycles 20-23. Observed relationships between LOD, CRI and SA are discussed separately for even and odd solar cycles. Phase lags were calculated using different methods (comparison of maximal points of cycles, maximal correlation coefficient, line of synchronization of cross-recurrence plots). We have found different phase lags between SA and CRI for even and odd solar cycles, confirming previous studies. The evolution of phase lags between SA and LOD as well as between CRI and LOD shows a positive trend with additional variations of phase lag values. For solar cycle 20, phase lags between SA and CRI, between SA and LOD, and between CRI and LOD were found to be negative. Overall, our study suggests that, if anything, the length of day could be influenced by solar irradiance rather than by cosmic rays.

  20. Cosmic Ray Daily Variation And SOLAR Activity On Anomalous Days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Mishra, Rekha Agarwal

    2008-01-01

    A study is carried out on the long-term changes in the diurnal anisotropy of cosmic rays using the ground based Deep River neutron monitor data during significantly low amplitude anisotropic wave train events in cosmic ray intensity for the period 1981-94. It has been observed that the phase of the diurnal anisotropy for majority of the low amplitude anisotropic wave train events significantly shifts towards earlier hours as compared to the co-rotational direction. The long-term behaviour of the amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy can be explained in terms of the occurrence of low amplitude anisotropic wave train events. The occurrence of these events is dominant during solar activity minimum years. The amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy is well correlated with the solar cycle but the direction of the anisotropy is not correlated with the solar cycle and shows a systematic shift to earlier hours. (authors)

  1. Analysis of trends between solar wind velocity and energetic electron fluxes at geostationary orbit using the reverse arrangement test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Homayon; Boynton, Richard J.; Walker, Simon N.

    2013-02-01

    A correlation between solar wind velocity (VSW) and energetic electron fluxes (EEF) at the geosynchronous orbit was first identified more than 30 years ago. However, recent studies have shown that the relation between VSW and EEF is considerably more complex than was previously suggested. The application of process identification technique to the evolution of electron fluxes in the range 1.8 - 3.5 MeV has also revealed peculiarities in the relation between VSW and EEF at the geosynchronous orbit. It has been revealed that for a constant solar wind density, EEF increase with VSW until a saturation velocity is reached. Beyond the saturation velocity, an increase in VSW is statistically not accompanied with EEF enhancement. The present study is devoted to the investigation of saturation velocity and its dependency upon solar wind density using the reverse arrangement test. In general, the results indicate that saturation velocity increases as solar wind density decreases. This implies that solar wind density plays an important role in defining the relationship between VSW and EEF at the geosynchronous orbit.

  2. Analysis of solar blocker through portable X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Diego de Dio; Melquiades, Fabio Luiz; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Lopes, Fabio; Lonni, Audrey Stinghen G.; Oliveira, Frederico Minardi de; Duarte, Jose C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the concentration of TiO 2 by Energy Dispersion X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) viewing t obtain the FPS due to the physical barrier in the composition of solar blockers, and identifies possible present metals in the samples. A portable EDXRF equipment was used and 27 commercial of different brands and solar protection factors were analysed. Also, three formulations (A, B and C) were prepared and measured estimated in FPS-30 using 5% or TiO 2 . The quantification was performed through calibration curves with 1% to 30% standards of TiO 2 . As result, it was possible to determine the contribution to physical protection in the FPS, associated to the Ti concentration present in some solar blocker samples available in the market. Also, it was possible to detect the presence of various metals in solar protectors, such as Fe, Zn, Br and Sr, and identify chemical elements which were not mentioned and their formulation as well

  3. Long-lived sources of solar cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The high correlation between prompt solar cosmic rays and a flare-induced MHD shock is well known. We point out that the propagation properties of such a shock cause shock heating of the solar atmosphere to be confined to a unipolar magnetic region. As a result, if particles can be accelerated within the shock-processed part of the corona, the fluxes of suc particles will exhibit sharp spatial gradients near quiescent filaments. The passage of an MHD shock leads to the rapid collapse of magnetic neutral regions which prior to shock passage were collapsing too slowly to accelerate particles. We suggest that these newly triggered magnetic acceleration regions provide a third phase of solar flare acceleration regions provide a third phase of solar flare acceleration which may persist for many days after a flare. Collapsing magnetic regions with lengths scales of order 100 km can explain a variety of coronal phenomena

  4. Soft x-ray spectrographs for solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the recent advances in the state of the art of soft X-ray spectrometers, particularly as they might be applied to Solar Observations. The discussions center on the windowless region from roughly 1 to 100 A, and covers both grating and crystal instruments. The author begins with a short discussion of the solar soft X-ray spectrum and its interpretation, followed by a few general comments on problems peculiar to soft X-ray instruments. The paper reviews of recent developments in spectrometer optical design, which has been a lively field during the last dozen years. This is particularly true in the case of grating spectrometers. The paper concludes with a short section on telescope considerations, and some remarks on future flight opportunities

  5. Multi-spacecraft observations and transport simulations of solar energetic particles for the May 17th 2012 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battarbee, M.; Guo, J.; Dalla, S.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Swalwell, B.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Context. The injection, propagation and arrival of solar energetic particles (SEPs) during eruptive solar events is an important and current research topic of heliospheric physics. During the largest solar events, particles may have energies up to a few GeVs and sometimes even trigger ground-level enhancements (GLEs) at Earth. These large SEP events are best investigated through multi-spacecraft observations. Aims: We aim to study the first GLE-event of solar cycle 24, from 17th May 2012, using data from multiple spacecraft (SOHO, GOES, MSL, STEREO-A, STEREO-B and MESSENGER). These spacecraft are located throughout the inner heliosphere, at heliocentric distances between 0.34 and 1.5 astronomical units (au), covering nearly the whole range of heliospheric longitudes. Methods: We present and investigate sub-GeV proton time profiles for the event at several energy channels, obtained via different instruments aboard the above spacecraft. We investigated issues caused by magnetic connectivity, and present results of three-dimensional SEP propagation simulations. We gathered virtual time profiles and perform qualitative and quantitative comparisons with observations, assessed longitudinal injection and transport effects as well as peak intensities. Results: We distinguish different time profile shapes for well-connected and weakly connected observers, and find our onset time analysis to agree with this distinction. At select observers, we identify an additional low-energy component of Energetic Storm Particles (ESPs). Using well-connected observers for normalisation, our simulations are able to accurately recreate both time profile shapes and peak intensities at multiple observer locations. Conclusions: This synergetic approach combining numerical modelling with multi-spacecraft observations is crucial for understanding the propagation of SEPs within the interplanetary magnetic field. Our novel analysis provides valuable proof of the ability to simulate SEP propagation

  6. Monitoring and forecasting of radiation hazard from great solar energetic particle events by using on-line one-min neutron monitor and satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, L. I.

    2007-01-01

    The method of automatically determining the start of great solar energetic particle (SEP) events are described on the basis of cosmic ray (CR) one-min observations by neutron monitors in real-time scale. It is shown that the probabilities of false alarms and missed triggers are negligible. After the start of SEP event, it is automatically determined by the method of coupling functions the SEP energy spectrum and flux for each minute of observations. By solving the inverse problem during few first minutes of SEP event, diffusion coefficient in the interplanetary space, source function on the Sun, and time of ejection of SEP into solar wind are determined. For extending obtained results into small energy range we use also available from Internet the satellite one-min CR data. This make possible to give forecast of space-time variation of SEP for more than 2 days and estimate expected radiation dose for satellite and aircraft. With each new minute of observations, the quality of forecast increased, and after ∼30 min became near 100%. (authors)

  7. X-ray spectroscopic technique for energetic electron transport studies in short-pulse laser/plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutt, T.E.

    1994-12-01

    When a solid target is irradiated by a laser beam, the material is locally heated to a high temperature and a plasma forms. The interaction of the laser with plasma can produce energetic electrons. By observing the behavior of these {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} electrons, we hope to obtain a better understanding of Laser/Plasma Interactions. In this work we employ a layered-fluorescer technique to study the transport, and therefore the energetics, of the electrons. The plasma forms on a thin foil of metallic Pd which is bonded to thin layer of metallic Sn. Electrons formed from the plasma penetrate first the Pd and then the Sn. In both layers the energetic electrons promote inner (K) shell ionization of the metallic atoms which leads to the emission of characteristic K{sub {alpha}} x-rays of the fluorescers. By recording the x-ray spectrum emitted by the two foils, we can estimate the energy-dependent range of the electrons and their numbers.

  8. Solar flare neon and solar cosmic ray fluxes in the past using gas-rich meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nautiyal, C.M.; Rao, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Methods were developed earlier to deduce the composition of solar flare neon and to determine the solar cosmic ray proton fluxes in the past using etched lunar samples and at present, these techniques are extended to gas rich meteorites. By considering high temperature Ne data points for Pantar, Fayetteville and other gas rich meteorites and by applying the three component Ne-decomposition methods, the solar cosmic ray and galactic cosmic ray produced spallation Ne components from the trapped SF-Ne was resolved. Using appropiate SCR and GCR production rates, in the case of Pantar, for example, a GCR exposure age of 2 m.y. was estimated for Pantar-Dark while Pantar-Light yielded a GCR age of approx. 3 m.y. However the SCR exposure age of Pantar-Dark is two orders of magnitude higher than the average surface exposure ages of lunar soils. The possibility of higher proton fluxes in the past is discussed

  9. High spectral resolution measurements of a solar flare hard X-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.P.; Schwartz, R.A.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported of an intense solar flare hard X-ray burst on June 27, 1980, made with a balloon-borne array of liquid nitrogen-cooled Ge detector which provided unprecedented spectral resolution (no more than 1 keV FWHM). The hard X-ray spectra throughout the impulsive phase burst fitted well to a double power-law form, and emission from an isothermal 0.1-1 billion K plasma can be specifically excluded. The temporal variations of the spectrum indicate that the hard X-ray burst is made up of two superposed components: individual spikes lasting about 3-15 sec, which have a hard spectrum and a break energy of 30-65 keV; and a slowly varying component characterized by a soft spectrum with a constant low-energy slope and a break energy which increases from 25 kev to at least 100 keV through the event. The double power-law shape indicates that DC electric field acceleration, similar to that occurring in the earth's auroral zone, may be the source of the energetic electrons which produce the hard X-ray emission. 39 references

  10. Hard X-ray bremsstrahlung production in solar flares by high-energy proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. G.; Brown, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that solar hard X-ray bremsstrahlung is produced by acceleration of stationary electrons by fast-moving protons, rather than vice versa, as commonly assumed, was investigated. It was found that a beam of protons which involves 1836 times fewer particles, each having an energy 1836 times greater than that of the electrons in the equivalent electron beam model, has exactly the same bremsstrahlung yield for a given target, i.e., the mechanism has an energetic efficiency equal to that of conventional bremsstrahlung models. Allowance for the different degrees of target ionization appropriate to the two models (for conventional flare geometries) makes the proton beam model more efficient than the electron beam model, by a factor of order three. The model places less stringent constraints than a conventional electron beam model on the flare energy release mechanism. It is also consistent with observed X-ray burst spectra, intensities, and directivities. The altitude distribution of hard X-rays predicted by the model agrees with observations only if nonvertical injection of the protons is assumed. The model is inconsistent with gamma-ray data in terms of conventional modeling.

  11. Interplanetary ions during an energetic storm particle event - The distribution function from solar wind thermal energies to 1.6 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Zwickl, R. D.; Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.; Hynds, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    An ion velocity distribution function of the postshock phase of an energetic storm particle (ESP) event is obtained from data from the ISEE 2 and ISEE 3 experiments. The distribution function is roughly isotropic in the solar wind frame from solar wind thermal energies to 1.6 MeV. The ESP event studied (8/27/78) is superposed upon a more energetic particle event which was predominantly field-aligned and which was probably of solar origin. The observations suggest that the ESP population is accelerated directly out of the solar wind thermal population or its quiescent suprathermal tail by a stochastic process associated with shock wave disturbance. The acceleration mechanism is sufficiently efficient so that approximately 1% of the solar wind population is accelerated to suprathermal energies. These suprathermal particles have an energy density of approximately 290 eV cubic centimeters.

  12. LONGITUDINAL PROPERTIES OF A WIDESPREAD SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT ON 2014 FEBRUARY 25: EVOLUTION OF THE ASSOCIATED CME SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, D.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Vourlidas, A.; Raouafi, N. E.; Haggerty, D. K.; Ho, G. C.; Anderson, B. J. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Papaioannou, A. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15 236 Penteli (Greece); Gómez-Herrero, R. [Space Research Group, Physics and Mathematics Department, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, E-28871 (Spain); Dresing, N. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Riley, P. [Predictive Science, 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the solar phenomena associated with the origin of the solar energetic particle (SEP) event observed on 2014 February 25 by a number of spacecraft distributed in the inner heliosphere over a broad range of heliolongitudes. These include spacecraft located near Earth; the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft, STEREO-A and STEREO-B, located at ∼1 au from the Sun 153° west and 160° east of Earth, respectively; the MErcury Surface Space ENvironment GEochemistry and Ranging mission (at 0.40 au and 31° west of Earth); and the Juno spacecraft (at 2.11 au and 48° east of Earth). Although the footpoints of the field lines nominally connecting the Sun with STEREO-A, STEREO-B and near-Earth spacecraft were quite distant from each other, an intense high-energy SEP event with Fe-rich prompt components was observed at these three locations. The extent of the extreme-ultraviolet wave associated with the solar eruption generating the SEP event was very limited in longitude. However, the white-light shock accompanying the associated coronal mass ejection extended over a broad range of longitudes. As the shock propagated into interplanetary space it extended over at least ∼190° in longitude. The release of the SEPs observed at different longitudes occurred when the portion of the shock magnetically connected to each spacecraft was already at relatively high altitudes (≳2 R{sub ⊙} above the solar surface). The expansion of the shock in the extended corona, as opposite to near the solar surface, determined the SEP injection and SEP intensity-time profiles at different longitudes.

  13. Backscatter, anisotropy, and polarization of solar hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    Hard X-rays incident upon the photosphere with energies > or approx. =15 keV have high probabilities of backscatter due to Compton collisions with electrons. This effect has a strong influence on the spectrum, intensity, and polarization of solar hard X-rays - especially for anisotropic models in which the primary X-rays are emitted predominantly toward the photosphere. We have carried out a detailed study of X-ray backscatter, and we have investigated the interrelated problems of anisotropy, polarization, center-to-limb variation of the X-ray spectrum, and Compton backscatter in a coherent fashion. The results of this study are compared with observational data. Because of the large contribution from backscatter, for an anisotropic primary X-ray source which is due to bremsstrahlung of accelerated electrons moving predominantly down toward the photosphere, the observed X-ray flux around 30 keV does not depend significantly on the position of flare on the Sun. For such an anisotropic source, the X-ray spectrum observed in the 15-50 keV range becomes steeper with the increasing heliocentric angle of the flare. These results are compatible with the data. The degree of polarization of the sum of the primary and reflected X-rays with energies between about 15 and 30 keV can be very large for anisotropic primary X-ray sources, but it is less than about 4% for isotropic sources. We also discuss the characteristics of the brightness distribution of the X-ray albedo patch created by the Compton backscatter. The height and anisotropy of the primary hard X-ray source might be inferred from the study of the albedo patch

  14. Solar wind contribution to the average population of energetic He+ and He++ ions in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kremser

    Full Text Available Measurements with the ion charge-energy-mass spectrometer CHEM on the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft were used to investigate the origin of energetic He+ and He++ ions observed in the equatorial plane at 3 ≤ L ≤ 9. Special emphasis was laid on the dependence of long-term average distributions on magnetic local time (MLT and the geomagnetic activity index Kp. The observations are described in terms of the phase space densities f1 (for He+ and f2 (for He++. They confirm preliminary results from a previous study: f1 is independent of MLT, whereas f2 is much larger on the nightside than on the dayside. They show, furthermore, that f1 increases slightly with Kp on intermediate drift shells, but decreases on high drift shells (L ≥ 7. f2 increases with Kp on all drift shells outside the premidnight sector. Within this sector a decrease is observed on high drift shells. A simple ion tracing code was developed to determine how and from where the ions move into the region of observations. It provides ion trajectories as a function of the ion charge, the magnetic moment and Kp. The ion tracing enables a distinction between regions of closed drift orbits (ring current and open convection trajectories (plasma sheet. It also indicates how the outer part of the observation region is connected to different parts of the more distant plasma sheet. Observations and tracing show that He++ ions are effectively transported from the plasma sheet on convection trajectories. Their distribution in the observation region corresponds to the distribution of solar wind ions in the plasma sheet. Thus, energetic He++ ions most likely originate in the solar wind. On the other hand, the plasma sheet is not an

  15. Solar wind contribution to the average population of energetic He(+) and He(++) ions in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremser, G.; Rasinkangas, R.; Tanskanen, P.; Wilken, B.; Gloeckler, G.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements with the ion charge-energy-mass spectrometer CHEM on the AMPTE/CCE spacecraft were used to investigate the origin of energetic He(+) and He(++) ions observed in the equatorial plane at 3 less than or equal to L less than or equal to 9. Special emphasis was laid on the dependence of long-term average distributions on magnetic local time (MLT) and the geomagnetic activity index K(sup p). The observations are described in terms of the phase space densities f(sub 1) (for He(+)) and f(sub 2) (for He(++)). They confirm preliminary results from a previous study f(sub 1) is independent of MLT, whereas f(sub 2) is much larger on the nightside than on the dayside. They show, furthermore, that f(sub 1) increases slightly with K(sub p) on intermediate drift shells, but decreases on high drift shells (L greater than or equal to 7). f(sub 2) increases with K(sub p) on all drift shells outside the premidnight sector. Within this sector a decrease is observed on high drift shells. A simple ion tracing code was developed to determine how and from where the ions move into the region of observations. It provides ion trajectories as a function of the ion charge, the magnetic moment and K(sub p). The ion tracing enables a distinction between regions of closed drift orbits (ring current) and open convection trajectories (plasma sheet). It also indicates how the outer part of the observation region is connected to different parts of the more distant plasma sheet. Observations and tracing show that He(++) ions are effectively transported from the plasma sheet on convection trajectories. Their distribution in the observation region corresponds to the distribution of solar wind ions in the plasma sheet. Thus, energetic He(++) ions most likely originate in the solar wind. On the other hand, the plasma sheet is not an important source of energetic He(+) ions. Convection trajectories more likely constitute a sink for He(+) ions, which may diffuse onto them from closed drift orbits

  16. The cosmic ray and solar flare isotope experiments in the CRRES, NOAA-I and ''Ulysses'' satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.

    1990-01-01

    The ONR-604 instrument has been designed to measure the energy spectra and the isotopic composition at 1 AU of the elements Hydrogen to Nickel in the energy range 40--500 MeV/n and will be carried by the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) to be launched July, 1990 in a highly eccentric orbit between a low perigee and a synchronous orbit point. It will measure galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and trapped and pseudo-trapped particles in the Earth magnetosphere. Also at 1 AU, the Energetic Heavy Ion Composition (EHIC) instrument, designed to study mainly the elemental and isotopic composition of solar energetic particles over the charge range H to Ni, in the energy range 0.5 to 200 MeV/n, will be placed in a Sun-synchronous circular polar orbit of 833 or 870 km altitude by a NOAA-I satellite scheduled to be launched late 1990 or early 1991. The University of Chicago High Energy Telescope (HET) experiment which is part of the COSPIN consortium on the ''Ulysses'' mission will measure the energy spectra and the isotopic composition of the elments Hydrogen to Nickel in the energy interval 20--450 MeV/n in the heliosphere, both the ecliptic plane and at high heliographic latitudes in an orbit around the Sun that will have an aphelion near a Jupiter orbit point and a perhelion of about 1.4 AU. It will be launched October 1990

  17. Synchrotron X-ray imaging applied to solar photovoltaic silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafford, T A; Villanova, J; Plassat, N; Dubois, S; Camel, D

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cell performance is dictated by the material of the cell, its quality and purity, the type, quantity, size and distribution of defects, as well as surface treatments, deposited layers and contacts. A synchrotron offers unique opportunities for a variety of complementary X-ray techniques, given the brilliance, spectrum, energy tunability and potential for (sub-) micron-sized beams. Material properties are revealed within in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces. X-ray Diffraction Imaging (X-ray Topography), Rocking Curve Imaging and Section Topography reveal defects such as dislocations, inclusions, misorientations and strain in the bulk and at surfaces. Simultaneous measurement of micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (μ-XRF) and micro-X-ray Beam Induced Current (μ-XBIC) gives direct correlation between impurities and PV performance. Together with techniques such as microscopy and Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) measurements, the correlation between structural properties and photovoltaic performance can be deduced, as well as the relative influence of parameters such as defect type, size, spatial distribution and density (e.g [1]). Measurements may be applied at different stages of solar cell processing in order to follow the evolution of the material and its properties through the manufacturing process. Various grades of silicon are under study, including electronic and metallurgical grades in mono-crystalline, multi-crystalline and mono-like forms. This paper aims to introduce synchrotron imaging to non-specialists, giving example results on selected solar photovoltaic silicon samples.

  18. Density and temperature of energetic electrons in the Earth's magnetotail derived from high-latitude GPS observations during the declining phase of the solar cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Denton

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Single relativistic-Maxwellian fits are made to high-latitude GPS-satellite observations of energetic electrons for the period January 2006–November 2010; a constellation of 12 GPS space vehicles provides the observations. The derived fit parameters (for energies ~0.1–1.0 MeV, in combination with field-line mapping on the nightside of the magnetosphere, provide a survey of the energetic electron density and temperature distribution in the magnetotail between McIlwain L-values of L=6 and L=22. Analysis reveals the characteristics of the density-temperature distribution of energetic electrons and its variation as a function of solar wind speed and the Kp index. The density-temperature characteristics of the magnetotail energetic electrons are very similar to those found in the outer electron radiation belt as measured at geosynchronous orbit. The energetic electron density in the magnetotail is much greater during increased geomagnetic activity and during fast solar wind. The total electron density in the magnetotail is found to be strongly correlated with solar wind speed and is at least a factor of two greater for high-speed solar wind (VSW=500–1000 km s−1 compared to low-speed solar wind (VSW=100–400 km s−1. These results have important implications for understanding (a how the solar wind may modulate entry into the magnetosphere during fast and slow solar wind, and (b if the magnetotail is a source or a sink for the outer electron radiation belt.

  19. Average properties of cosmic ray diffusion in solar wind streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G.; Richter, A.K.; Scholer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Applying a superposed epoch analysis to the Mariner 5 plasma and magnetic field observations of 13 corotating high speed solar wind streams, we obtain the average azimuthal distribution of all relevant parameters of the background interplanetary medium, as well as those of superimposed Alfven waves. Using these measurements in model calculations allows us to determine the radial and azimuthal variation of the background and fluctuation parameters between 1 and 5 AU, and thus to calculate the cosmic ray diffusion coefficient kappa from the plasma and field properties. The calculation of kappa assumes that quasi-linear wave-particle interaction theory is applicable, and that the Alfven waves responsible for the scattering are propagating in the azimuthally varying solar wind according to geometrical optics. The consequences of these calculations regarding the occurrence of solar wind stream associated Forbush decreases are discussed

  20. High resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fei; Wang Huanyu; Peng Wenxi; Liang Xiaohua; Zhang Chunlei; Cao Xuelei; Jiang Weichun; Zhang Jiayu; Cui Xingzhu

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution solar soft X-ray spectrometer (SOX) payload onboard a satellite is developed. A silicon drift detector (SDD) is adopted as the detector of the SOX spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of the detectors and their readout electronics, a data acquisition unit and a payload data handling unit. A ground test system is also developed to test SOX. The test results show that the design goals of the spectrometer system have been achieved. (authors)

  1. Trends in NOAA Solar X-ray Imager Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Steven M.; Darnell, John A.; Seaton, Daniel B.

    2016-05-01

    NOAA has provided operational soft X-ray imaging of the sun since the early 2000’s. After 15 years of observations by four different telescopes, it is appropriate to examine the data in terms of providing consistent context for scientific missions. In particular, this presentation examines over 7 million GOES Solar X-ray Imager (SXI) images for trends in performance parameters including dark current, response degradation, and inter-calibration. Because observations from the instrument have overlapped not only with each other, but also with research observations like Yohkoh SXT and Hinode XRT, relative performance comparisons can be made. The first GOES Solar X-ray Imager was launched in 2001 and entered operations in 2003. The current SXIs will remain in operations until approximately 2020, when a new series of Solar (extreme-)Ultraviolet Imagers (SUVIs) will replace them as the current satellites reach their end of life. In the sense that the SXIs are similar to Yokoh’s SXT and Hinode’s XRT, the SUVI instruments will be similar to SOHO’s EIT and SDO’s AIA. The move to narrowband EUV imagers will better support eventual operational estimation of plasma conditions. While NOAA’s principal use of these observations is real-time space weather forecasting, they will continue to provide a reliable context measurement for researchers for decades to come.

  2. SphinX: The Solar Photometer in X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gburek, Szymon; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kordylewski, Zbigniew; Podgorski, Piotr; Plocieniak, Stefan; Siarkowski, Marek; Sylwester, Barbara; Trzebinski, Witold; Kuzin, Sergey V.; Pertsov, Andrey A.; Kotov, Yurij D.; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

    2013-04-01

    Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) was a spectrophotometer developed to observe the Sun in soft X-rays. The instrument observed in the energy range ≈ 1 - 15 keV with resolution ≈ 0.4 keV. SphinX was flown on the Russian CORONAS-PHOTON satellite placed inside the TESIS EUV and X telescope assembly. The spacecraft launch took place on 30 January 2009 at 13:30 UT at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia. The SphinX experiment mission began a couple of weeks later on 20 February 2009 when the first telemetry dumps were received. The mission ended nine months later on 29 November 2009 when data transmission was terminated. SphinX provided an excellent set of observations during very low solar activity. This was indeed the period in which solar activity dropped to the lowest level observed in X-rays ever. The SphinX instrument design, construction, and operation principle are described. Information on SphinX data repositories, dissemination methods, format, and calibration is given together with general recommendations for data users. Scientific research areas in which SphinX data find application are reviewed.

  3. Application of solar energy for meeting the energetic demand of large hotel objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycheh, B.

    1993-01-01

    The extensive review of renewable energy sources especially taking account the solar energy and its practical application have been described. It has been shown that the use of solar batteries for supply the large hotel objects is satisfactory only in geographic regions of very intensive isolation, e.g. in Latakia. For regions in Middle Europe, the calculations of energy needs during whole year have been shown that application of only solar energy is un-sufficient and economically unreasonable. During winter the solar installation should be supported by the sources of energy available in the region. The core full economical analysis has been done. Its results proved that e.g. for the German climate conditions the price of energy unit taken from combined solar installation is very close the price of energy obtained in conventional fossil fuel power plants. 37 refs, 48 figs, 29 tabs

  4. SHOCK CONNECTIVITY IN THE 2010 AUGUST AND 2012 JULY SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS INFERRED FROM OBSERVATIONS AND ENLIL MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, H. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y.; Mays, M. L.; Jian, L. K.; Odstrcil, D.

    2016-01-01

    During periods of increased solar activity, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can occur in close succession and proximity to one another. This can lead to the interaction and merger of CME ejecta as they propagate in the heliosphere. The particles accelerated in these shocks can result in complex solar energetic particle (SEP) events, as observing spacecraft form both remote and local shock connections. It can be challenging to understand these complex SEP events from in situ profiles alone. Multipoint observations of CMEs in the near-Sun environment, from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory –Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph, greatly improve our chances of identifying the origin of these accelerated particles. However, contextual information on conditions in the heliosphere, including the background solar wind conditions and shock structures, is essential for understanding SEP properties well enough to forecast their characteristics. Wang–Sheeley–Arge WSA-ENLIL + Cone modeling provides a tool to interpret major SEP event periods in the context of a realistic heliospheric model and to determine how much of what is observed in large SEP events depends on nonlocal magnetic connections to shock sources. We discuss observations of the SEP-rich periods of 2010 August and 2012 July in conjunction with ENLIL modeling. We find that much SEP activity can only be understood in the light of such models, and in particular from knowing about both remote and local shock source connections. These results must be folded into the investigations of the physics underlying the longitudinal extent of SEP events, and the source connection versus diffusion pictures of interpretations of SEP events.

  5. SHOCK CONNECTIVITY IN THE 2010 AUGUST AND 2012 JULY SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS INFERRED FROM OBSERVATIONS AND ENLIL MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, H. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y. [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Mays, M. L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Jian, L. K.; Odstrcil, D., E-mail: hbain@ssl.berkeley.edu [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    During periods of increased solar activity, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can occur in close succession and proximity to one another. This can lead to the interaction and merger of CME ejecta as they propagate in the heliosphere. The particles accelerated in these shocks can result in complex solar energetic particle (SEP) events, as observing spacecraft form both remote and local shock connections. It can be challenging to understand these complex SEP events from in situ profiles alone. Multipoint observations of CMEs in the near-Sun environment, from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory –Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph, greatly improve our chances of identifying the origin of these accelerated particles. However, contextual information on conditions in the heliosphere, including the background solar wind conditions and shock structures, is essential for understanding SEP properties well enough to forecast their characteristics. Wang–Sheeley–Arge WSA-ENLIL + Cone modeling provides a tool to interpret major SEP event periods in the context of a realistic heliospheric model and to determine how much of what is observed in large SEP events depends on nonlocal magnetic connections to shock sources. We discuss observations of the SEP-rich periods of 2010 August and 2012 July in conjunction with ENLIL modeling. We find that much SEP activity can only be understood in the light of such models, and in particular from knowing about both remote and local shock source connections. These results must be folded into the investigations of the physics underlying the longitudinal extent of SEP events, and the source connection versus diffusion pictures of interpretations of SEP events.

  6. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Aran, A.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ – (φ – φ 0 ) 2 /2σ 2 ], where φ is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, φ 0 is the distribution centroid, and σ determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R –α with α 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  7. The soft x ray telescope for Solar-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.; Bruner, M. E.; Lemen, J. R.; Strong, K. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar-A satellite being prepared by the Institute for Sapce and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) in Japan is dedicated to high energy observations of solar flares. The Soft X Ray Telescope (SXT) is being prepared to provide filtered images in the 2 to 60 A interval. The flight model is now undergoing tests in the 1000 foot tunnel at MSFC. Launch will be in September 1991. Earlier resolution and efficiency tests on the grazing incidence mirror have established its performance in soft x rays. The one-piece, two mirror grazing incidence telescope is supported in a strain free mount separated from the focal plane assembly by a carbon-epoxy metering tube whose windings and filler are chosen to minimize thermal and hygroscopic effects. The CCD detector images both the x ray and the concentric visible light aspect telescope. Optical filters provide images at 4308 and 4700 A. The SXT will be capable of producing over 8000 of the smallest partial frame images per day, or fewer but larger images, up to 1024 x 1024 pixel images. Image sequence with two or more of the five x ray analysis filters, with automatic exposure compensation to optimize the charge collection by the CCD detector, will be used to provide plasma diagnostics. Calculations using a differential emission measure code were used to optimize filter selection over the range of emission measure variations and to avoid redundancy, but the filters were chosen primarily to give ratios that are monotonic in plasma temperature.

  8. The soft x ray telescope for Solar-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.A.; Acton, L.W.; Bruner, M.E.; Lemen, J.R.; Strong, K.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar-A satellite being prepared by the Institute for Sapce and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) in Japan is dedicated to high energy observations of solar flares. The Soft X Ray Telescope (SXT) is being prepared to provide filtered images in the 2 to 60 A interval. The flight model is now undergoing tests in the 1000 foot tunnel at MSFC. Launch will be in September 1991. Earlier resolution and efficiency tests on the grazing incidence mirror have established its performance in soft x rays. The one-piece, two mirror grazing incidence telescope is supported in a strain free mount separated from the focal plane assembly by a carbon-epoxy metering tube whose windings and filler are chosen to minimize thermal and hygroscopic effects. The CCD detector images both the x ray and the concentric visible light aspect telescope. Optical filters provide images at 4308 and 4700 A. The SXT will be capable of producing over 8000 of the smallest partial frame images per day, or fewer but larger images, up to 1024 x 1024 pixel images. Image sequence with two or more of the five x ray analysis filters, with automatic exposure compensation to optimize the charge collection by the CCD detector, will be used to provide plasma diagnostics. Calculations using a differential emission measure code were used to optimize filter selection over the range of emission measure variations and to avoid redundancy, but the filters were chosen primarily to give ratios that are monotonic in plasma temperature

  9. The magnetic connectivity of coronal shocks from behind-the-limb flares to the visible solar surface during γ-ray events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, I.; Rouillard, A. P.; Share, G. H.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The observation of >100 MeV γ-rays in the minutes to hours following solar flares suggests that high-energy particles interacting in the solar atmosphere can be stored and/or accelerated for long time periods. The occasions when γ-rays are detected even when the solar eruptions occurred beyond the solar limb as viewed from Earth provide favorable viewing conditions for studying the role of coronal shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the acceleration of these particles. Aims: In this paper, we investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the coronal shocks inferred from stereoscopic observations of behind-the-limb flares to determine if they could be the source of the particles producing the γ-rays. Methods: We analyzed the CMEs and early formation of coronal shocks associated with γ-ray events measured by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) from three eruptions behind the solar limb as viewed from Earth on 2013 Oct. 11, 2014 Jan. 06 and Sep. 01. We used a 3D triangulation technique, based on remote-sensing observations to model the expansion of the CME shocks from above the solar surface to the upper corona. Coupling the expansion model to various models of the coronal magnetic field allowed us to derive the time-dependent distribution of shock Mach numbers and the magnetic connection of particles produced by the shock to the solar surface visible from Earth. Results: The reconstructed shock fronts for the three events became magnetically connected to the visible solar surface after the start of the flare and just before the onset of the >100 MeV γ-ray emission. The shock surface at these connections also exhibited supercritical Mach numbers required for significant particle energization. The strongest γ-ray emissions occurred when the flanks of the shocks were connected in a quasi-perpendicular geometry to the field lines reaching the visible surface. Multipoint, in situ, measurements of solar energetic particles (SEPs) were

  10. Solar heating and cooling system with absorption chiller and low temperature latent heat storage: Energetic performance and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, M.; Keil, C.; Hiebler, S.; Mehling, H.; Schweigler, C. [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern) (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Absorption cooling systems based on water/lithium bromide (LiBr) solution typically require an open wet cooling tower to transfer the reject heat to the ambient. Yet, water consumption, the need for water make-up and cleaning, formation of fog, and the risk of Legionella bacteria growth are hindering factors for the implementation of small solar cooling systems. The application of a latent heat storage supporting the heat rejection of the absorption chiller in conjunction with a dry cooling system allows eliminating the wet cooling tower. By that means heat rejection of the chiller is shifted to periods with lower ambient temperatures, i.e. night time or off-peak hours. The system concept and the hydraulic scheme together with an analysis of the energetic performance of the system are presented, followed by a report on the operation of a first pilot installation. (author)

  11. Experimental device for the X-ray energetic distribution measurement in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental system to measure the X-ray spectrum in a tokamak plasma is described, emphasizing its characteristics: resolution, dead time and the pulse pile-up distortion effects on the X-ray spectra. (author) [es

  12. Energetic performances of an optimized passive Solar Heating Prototype used for Tunisian buildings air-heating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdaoui, Farah; Hazami, Majdi; Naili, Nabiha; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The study of a Solar Heating Prototype to prevail the buildings air-heating needs. • A parametric study of the system was achieved by means of the TRNSYS program. • The monthly internal temperature during cold months ranges between 22 and 25 °C. • The results shows that the relative humidity inside the monozone room of about 40%. - Abstract: This paper deals with the energetic performances of a Solar Heating Prototype (SHP) conceived in our laboratory to prevail the Tunisian households’ air-heating needs. The conceived SHP mainly consists of a flat-plate solar collector, solar hot water tank and an active layer integrated inside a single room. Firstly, a complete model is formulated taking into account various modes of heat transfer in the SHP by means of the TRNSYS simulation program. To validate the TRNSYS model, experimental tests under local weather conditions were performed for 2 days spread over 2 months (March and April 2013). Predicted results were compared to the measurements in order to determine the accuracy of the simulation program. A parametric study was then achieved by means of the TRNSYS program in order to optimize SHP design parameters (Collector area, collector mass flow rate, floor mass flow rate, storage tank volume and thickness of the active layer). The optimization of all design parameters shows that to achieve a maximum performances from the SHP it is essential to use a solar collector with an area equal to 6 m 2 area, a collector mass flow rate equal to 100 kg h −1 and a hot water storage tank with a capacity equal to 450 l. Concerning the floor heating, the optimal values of mass flow rate and the active layer thickness are 200 kg h −1 and 0.06 m, respectively. The long-term SHP performances were afterward evaluated by means of the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data relative to Tunis, Tunisia. Results showed that for an annual total solar insolation of about 6493.37 MJ m −2 the average solar fraction

  13. Study of cosmic rays reveals secrets of solar-terrestrial science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    For many years cosmic rays provided the most important source of energetic particles for studies of subatomic physics. Today, cosmic rays are being studied as a natural phenomenon that can tell us much about both the Earth's environment in space and distant astrophysical processes. Cosmic rays are naturally occurring energetic particles—mainly ions—with kinetic energies extending from just above thermal energies to more than 1020 electron volts (eV). They constantly bombard the Earth from all directions, with more than 1018 particles having energies >1 MeV striking the top of the Earth's atmosphere each second. Figure 1 illustrates the continuous cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  14. TRACKING THE SOLAR CYCLE THROUGH IBEX OBSERVATIONS OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM FLUX VARIATIONS AT THE HELIOSPHERIC POLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Janzen, P. H. [University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Bzowski, M., E-mail: dan.reisenfeld@umontana.edu, E-mail: paul.janzen@umontana.edu, E-mail: bzowski@cbk.waw.pl [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, (CBK PAN), Bartycka 18A, 00-716, Warsaw (Poland); and others

    2016-12-20

    With seven years of Interstellar Boundary Explorer ( IBEX ) observations, from 2009 to 2015, we can now trace the time evolution of heliospheric energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) through over half a solar cycle. At the north and south ecliptic poles, the spacecraft attitude allows for continuous coverage of the ENA flux; thus, signal from these regions has much higher statistical accuracy and time resolution than anywhere else in the sky. By comparing the solar wind dynamic pressure measured at 1 au with the heliosheath plasma pressure derived from the observed ENA fluxes, we show that the heliosheath pressure measured at the poles correlates well with the solar cycle. The analysis requires time-shifting the ENA measurements to account for the travel time out and back from the heliosheath, which allows us to estimate the scale size of the heliosphere in the polar directions. We arrive at an estimated distance to the center of the ENA source region in the north of 220 au and in the south a distance of 190 au. We also find a good correlation between the solar cycle and the ENA energy spectra at the poles. In particular, the ENA flux for the highest IBEX energy channel (4.3 keV) is quite closely correlated with the areas of the polar coronal holes, in both the north and south, consistent with the notion that polar ENAs at this energy originate from pickup ions of the very high speed wind (∼700 km s{sup −1}) that emanates from polar coronal holes.

  15. The Effects of Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Changes on the Substorm Auroras and Energetic Electron Injections on 24 August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. Y.; Wang, Z. Q.

    2018-01-01

    After the passage of an interplanetary (IP) shock at 06:13 UT on 24 August 2005, the enhancement (>6 nPa) of solar wind dynamic pressure and the southward turning of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cause the earthward movement of dayside magnetopause and the drift loss of energetic particles near geosynchronous orbit. The persistent electron drift loss makes the geosynchronous satellites cannot observe the substorm electron injection phenomenon during the two substorm expansion phases (06:57-07:39 UT) on that day. Behind the IP shock, the fluctuations ( 0.5-3 nPa) of solar wind dynamic pressure not only alter the dayside auroral brightness but also cause the entire auroral oval to swing in the day-night direction. However, there is no Pi2 pulsation in the nightside auroral oval during the substorm growth phase from 06:13 to 06:57 UT. During the subsequent two substorm expansion phases, the substorm expansion activities cause the nightside aurora oval brightening from substorm onset site to higher latitudes, and meanwhile, the enhancement (decline) of solar wind dynamic pressure makes the nightside auroral oval move toward the magnetic equator (the magnetic pole). These observations demonstrate that solar wind dynamic pressure changes and substorm expansion activities can jointly control the luminosity and location of the nightside auroral oval when the internal and external disturbances occur simultaneously. During the impact of a strong IP shock, the earthward movement of dayside magnetopause probably causes the disappearance of the substorm electron injections near geosynchronous orbit.

  16. Energetic and economic optimization of solar tunnel dryers with a photovoltaic driven fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlbauer, W.; Mayer, R.A.; Esper, A.; Reisinger, L.; Linckh, G.; Hensel, O.

    1992-02-01

    In the recent years the solar tunnel dryer has been used successfully for drying several agricultural products in tropical and subtropical countries. Up to now the dissemination has been limited to electrified areas. Objective of this work has been the improvement of the thermal performance of the tunnel dryer due to a optimization of the plastic film solar air heater as well as optimization work in point of fluid dynamic view to reduce the power requirement of the blower. To improve the efficiency of the blower optimization work had been done by investigating several blower wheels, dc-motors and actuation systems. A PV-System was designed according to these requirements to test the long term behaviour. The remarkable features of the newly designed solar tunnel dryer are the low power requirement for driving the blower and a high efficiency of the actuation. In the range of a power requirement of 80 - 100 W a blower with an efficiency of 48% is now available. The theoretical power requirement of the solar tunnel dryer could be reduced to 11 W. From economic point of view the use of the solar tunnel dryer is possible. (orig.) With 3 refs., 15 tabs., 49 figs [de

  17. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  18. ON THE REMOTE DETECTION OF SUPRATHERMAL IONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA AND THEIR ROLE AS SEEDS FOR SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laming, J. Martin; Moses, J. Daniel; Ko, Yuan-Kuen [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7684, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ng, Chee K. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Rakowski, Cara E.; Tylka, Allan J. [NASA/GSFC Code 672, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Forecasting large solar energetic particle (SEP) events associated with shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) poses a major difficulty in the field of space weather. Besides issues associated with CME initiation, the SEP intensities are difficult to predict, spanning three orders of magnitude at any given CME speed. Many lines of indirect evidence point to the pre-existence of suprathermal seed particles for injection into the acceleration process as a key ingredient limiting the SEP intensity of a given event. This paper outlines the observational and theoretical basis for the inference that a suprathermal particle population is present prior to large SEP events, explores various scenarios for generating seed particles and their observational signatures, and explains how such suprathermals could be detected through measuring the wings of the H I Ly{alpha} line.

  19. ON THE REMOTE DETECTION OF SUPRATHERMAL IONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA AND THEIR ROLE AS SEEDS FOR SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laming, J. Martin; Moses, J. Daniel; Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Ng, Chee K.; Rakowski, Cara E.; Tylka, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting large solar energetic particle (SEP) events associated with shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) poses a major difficulty in the field of space weather. Besides issues associated with CME initiation, the SEP intensities are difficult to predict, spanning three orders of magnitude at any given CME speed. Many lines of indirect evidence point to the pre-existence of suprathermal seed particles for injection into the acceleration process as a key ingredient limiting the SEP intensity of a given event. This paper outlines the observational and theoretical basis for the inference that a suprathermal particle population is present prior to large SEP events, explores various scenarios for generating seed particles and their observational signatures, and explains how such suprathermals could be detected through measuring the wings of the H I Lyα line.

  20. Design and energetical feasibility study of a refrigerated trailer with photovoltaic solar energy; Diseno y estudio de viabilidad energetica de un trailer refrigerado mediante energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callen, S.; Ibanez, M.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2004-07-01

    In this study we have tried to show the energetic viability and the design of a refrigerated trailer, in which it has changed the traditional oil generator from the refrigeration system to a photovoltaic generator. Due to restrictions of design limited by trailer dimensions and the horizontal positions of modules, as one of the first conclusion has been necessary to reduce the refrigeration charge, to obtain the necessary energy savings to have technical viability of the project. The propositions to get the energy savings are to improve the thermal insulation of the trailer and to limit the kind and amount of products to transport. Finally, to apply the technology of solar refrigeration in the cooling unit of the trailer to optimise its performance. (Author)

  1. Time integrated x-ray measurments of the very energetic electron end loss profile in TMX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osher, J.E.; Fabyan, J.

    1984-01-01

    The time-integrated 2-D profile of the thick-target bremsstrahlung produced by energetic end loss electrons has been measured during ECRH operation of TMX-U. Sheets of x-ray film and/or arrays of thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed on the outside of the end tank end wall to measure the relative spatial x-ray profile, with locally added filters of Pb to determine the effective mean x-ray energy. The purpose of this simple survey diagnostic was to allow deduction of the gross features of the ECRH region. The electron source functions needed to fit the x-ray data were modeled for various anchor cell radial distributions mapped along magnetic field lines to the elliptical plasma potential control plates or the Al end walls. The data are generally consistent with (1) major ECR heating in the central 25-cm-diam core, (2) a mean ECRH electron loss energy of 420 keV, and (3) an ECRH coupling efficiency to these hot electrons of greater than or equal to 10%

  2. Influence of Blend Morphology and Energetics on Charge Separation and Recombination Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells Incorporating a Nonfullerene Acceptor

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Hyojung; Wheeler, Scot; Holliday, Sarah; Dimitrov, Stoichko D.; Wadsworth, Andrew; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain; Durrant, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) in blends with highly crystalline donor polymers have been shown to yield particularly high device voltage outputs, but typically more modest quantum yields for photocurrent generation as well as often lower fill factors (FF). In this study, we employ transient optical and optoelectronic analysis to elucidate the factors determining device photocurrent and FF in blends of the highly crystalline donor polymer PffBT4T-2OD with the promising NFA FBR or the more widely studied fullerene acceptor PC71BM. Geminate recombination losses, as measured by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, are observed to be significantly higher for PffBT4T-2OD:FBR blends. This is assigned to the smaller LUMO-LUMO offset of the PffBT4T-2OD:FBR blends relative to PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM, resulting in the lower photocurrent generation efficiency obtained with FBR. Employing time delayed charge extraction measurements, these geminate recombination losses are observed to be field dependent, resulting in the lower FF observed with PffBT4T-2OD:FBR devices. These data therefore provide a detailed understanding of the impact of acceptor design, and particularly acceptor energetics, on organic solar cell performance. Our study concludes with a discussion of the implications of these results for the design of NFAs in organic solar cells.

  3. Economic, Energetic, and Environmental Performance of a Solar Powered Organic Rankine Cycle with Electric Energy Storage in Different Commercial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis to determine the economic, energetic, and environmental benefits that could be obtained from the implementation of a combined solar-power organic Rankine cycle (ORC with electric energy storage (EES to supply electricity to several commercial buildings including a large office, a small office, and a full service restaurant. The operational strategy for the ORC-EES system consists in the ORC charging the EES when the irradiation level is sufficient to generate power, and the EES providing electricity to the building when there is not irradiation (i.e., during night time. Electricity is purchased from the utility grid unless it is provided by the EES. The potential of the proposed system to reduce primary energy consumption (PEC, carbon dioxide emission (CDE, and cost was evaluated. Furthermore, the available capital cost for a variable payback period for the ORC-EES system was determined for each of the evaluated buildings. The effect of the number of solar collectors on the performance of the ORC-EES is also studied. Results indicate that the proposed ORC-EES system is able to satisfy 11%, 13%, and 18% of the electrical demand for the large office, the small office and the restaurant, respectively.

  4. Influence of Blend Morphology and Energetics on Charge Separation and Recombination Dynamics in Organic Solar Cells Incorporating a Nonfullerene Acceptor

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Hyojung

    2017-11-27

    Nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) in blends with highly crystalline donor polymers have been shown to yield particularly high device voltage outputs, but typically more modest quantum yields for photocurrent generation as well as often lower fill factors (FF). In this study, we employ transient optical and optoelectronic analysis to elucidate the factors determining device photocurrent and FF in blends of the highly crystalline donor polymer PffBT4T-2OD with the promising NFA FBR or the more widely studied fullerene acceptor PC71BM. Geminate recombination losses, as measured by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, are observed to be significantly higher for PffBT4T-2OD:FBR blends. This is assigned to the smaller LUMO-LUMO offset of the PffBT4T-2OD:FBR blends relative to PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM, resulting in the lower photocurrent generation efficiency obtained with FBR. Employing time delayed charge extraction measurements, these geminate recombination losses are observed to be field dependent, resulting in the lower FF observed with PffBT4T-2OD:FBR devices. These data therefore provide a detailed understanding of the impact of acceptor design, and particularly acceptor energetics, on organic solar cell performance. Our study concludes with a discussion of the implications of these results for the design of NFAs in organic solar cells.

  5. The 4U 0115+63: Another energetic gamma ray binary pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, P. M.; Dipper, N. A.; Dowthwaite, J. C.; Kirkman, I. W.; Mccomb, T. J. L.; Orford, K. J.; Turver, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    Following the discovery of Her X-1 as a source of pulsed 1000 Gev X-rays, a search for emission from an X-ray binary containing a pulsar with similar values of period, period derivative and luminosity was successful. The sporadic X-ray binary 4U 0115-63 has been observed, with probability 2.5 x 10 to the minus 6 power ergs/s to emit 1000 GeV gamma-rays with a time averaged energy flux of 6 to 10 to the 35th power.

  6. THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SOLAR FLARES OVER THREE SOLAR CYCLES USING GOES X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Daniel F.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Dennis, Brian R.; Kim Tolbert, A.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Alex Young, C.

    2012-01-01

    Solar flare X-ray emission results from rapidly increasing temperatures and emission measures in flaring active region loops. To date, observations from the X-Ray Sensor (XRS) on board the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) have been used to derive these properties, but have been limited by a number of factors, including the lack of a consistent background subtraction method capable of being automatically applied to large numbers of flares. In this paper, we describe an automated Temperature and Emission measure-Based Background Subtraction method (TEBBS), that builds on the methods of Bornmann. Our algorithm ensures that the derived temperature is always greater than the instrumental limit and the pre-flare background temperature, and that the temperature and emission measure are increasing during the flare rise phase. Additionally, TEBBS utilizes the improved estimates of GOES temperatures and emission measures from White et al. TEBBS was successfully applied to over 50,000 solar flares occurring over nearly three solar cycles (1980-2007), and used to create an extensive catalog of the solar flare thermal properties. We confirm that the peak emission measure and total radiative losses scale with background subtracted GOES X-ray flux as power laws, while the peak temperature scales logarithmically. As expected, the peak emission measure shows an increasing trend with peak temperature, although the total radiative losses do not. While these results are comparable to previous studies, we find that flares of a given GOES class have lower peak temperatures and higher peak emission measures than previously reported. The TEBBS database of flare thermal plasma properties is publicly available at http://www.SolarMonitor.org/TEBBS/.

  7. Field-Lines-Threaded Model for: (1) the Low Solar Corona; (2) Electrons in the Transition Region; and (3) Solar Energetic Particle Acceleration and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Jin, M.; Gombosi, T. I.; Taktakishvili, A.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    In numerical simulations of the solar corona, both for the ambient state and especially for dynamical processes the most computational resources are spent for maintaining the numerical solution in the Low Solar Corona and in the transition region, where the temperature gradients are very sharp and the magnetic field has a complicated topology. The degraded computational efficiency is caused by the need in a highest resolution as well as the use of the fully three-dimensional implicit solver for electron heat conduction. On the other hand, the physical nature of the processes involved is rather simple (which still does not facilitate the numerical methods) as long as the heat fluxes as well as slow plasma motional velocities are aligned with the magnetic field. The Alfven wave turbulence, which is often believed to be the main driver of the solar wind and the main source of the coronal heating, is characterized by the Poynting flux of the waves, which is also aligned with the magnetic field. Therefore, the plasma state in any point of the three-dimensional grid in the Low Solar Corona can be found by solving a set of one-dimensional equations for the magnetic field line ('thread'), which passes through this point and connects it to the chromosphere and to the global Solar Corona. In the present paper we describe an innovative computational technology based upon the use of the magnetic-field-line-threads to find the local solution. We present the development of the AWSoM code of the University of Michigan with the field-lines-threaded Low Solar Corona. In the transition region, where the essentially kinetic description of the electron energy fluxes is required, we solve the Fokker-Plank equation on the system of threads, to achieve the physically consistent description of chromosphere evaporation. The third application for the field-lines-treaded model is the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) acceleration and transport. Being the natural extension of the Field

  8. Solar cooking and wood in Chile, energetical alternatives; Cocina solares y manejo de lena en Chile, alternativas energeticas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R. P.

    2004-07-01

    Firewood in Latin America is, after petroleum, the second primary source of energy. In Chile, the statistics have shown that the total use of energy produce by firewood fluctuates between 16 and 21% from which the residential sector represents 54%. There are great social and environmental impacts produced by the use of firewood. For the near future, it will be difficult to eradicate the firewood consumption in Latin America. In looking for sustainable use of firewood to produce energy, NGOs have developed efficient systems for production, management and consume of it. For this research we will focus on the efficient use of biomass and solar energy use for cooking, both to be applied in suitable places. The paper shows Chilean experiences on both, biomass and solar energy production, and how these programs have impacted the national statistics in energy consumption. (Author)

  9. Solar Coronal Events with Extended Hard X-ray and Gamma-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    A characteristic pattern of solar hard X-ray emission, first identified in SOL1969-03-31 by Frost & Dennis (1971) now has been linked to prolonged high-energy gamma-ray emission detected by the Fermi/LAT experiment, for example in SOL2014-09-01. The distinctive features of these events include flat hard X-ray spectra extending well above 100 keV, a characteristic pattern of time development, low-frequency gyrosynchrotron peaks, CME association, and gamma-rays identifiable with pion decay originating in GeV ions. The identification of these events with otherwise known solar structures nevertheless remains elusive, in spite of the wealth of imagery available from AIA. The quandary is that these events have a clear association with CMEs in the high corona, and yet the gamma-ray production implicates the photosphere itself. The vanishingly small loss cone in the nominal acceleration region makes this extremely difficult. I propose direct inward advection of a part of the SEP particle population, as created on closed field structures, as a possible resolution of this puzzle, and note that this requires retracting magnetic structures on long time scales following the flare itself.

  10. The afterglow, redshift and extreme energetics of the gamma-ray burst of 23 January 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, [No Value; Djorgovski, SG; Odewahn, SC; Bloom, JS; Gal, RR; Koresko, CD; Harrison, FA; Lubin, LM; Armus, L; Sari, R; Illingworth, GD; Kelson, DD; Magee, DK; van Dokkum, PG; Frail, DA; Mulchaey, JS; Malkan, MA; McClean, IS; Teplitz, HI; Koerner, D; Kirkpatrick, D; Kobayashi, N; Yadigaroglu, IA; Halpern, J; Piran, T; Goodrich, RW; Chaffee, FH; Feroci, M; Costa, E

    1999-01-01

    Long-lived emission, known as afterglow, has now been detected from about a dozen gamma-ray bursts. Distance determinations place the bursts at cosmological distances, with redshifts,z, ranging from similar to 1 to 3, The energy required to produce these bright gamma-ray flashes is enormous: up to

  11. A FOCUSED TRANSPORT APPROACH TO THE TIME-DEPENDENT SHOCK ACCELERATION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES AT A FAST TRAVELING SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most sophisticated models for solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejection driven shocks are based on standard diffusive shock acceleration theory. However, this theory, which only applies when SEP pitch-angle anisotropies are small, might have difficulty in describing first-order Fermi acceleration or the shock pre-heating and injection of SEPs into first-order Fermi acceleration accurately at lower SEP speeds where SEP pitch-angle anisotropies upstream near the shock can be large. To avoid this problem, we use a time-dependent focused transport model to reinvestigate first-order Fermi acceleration at planar parallel and quasi-parallel spherical traveling shocks between the Sun and Earth with high shock speeds associated with rare extreme gradual SEP events. The focused transport model is also used to investigate and compare three different shock pre-heating mechanisms associated with different aspects of the nonuniform cross-shock solar wind flow, namely, the convergence of the flow (adiabatic compression), the shear tensor of the flow, and the acceleration of the flow, and a fourth shock pre-heating mechanism associated with the cross-shock electric field, to determine which pre-heating mechanism contributes the most to injecting shock pre-heated source particles into the first-order Fermi acceleration process. The effects of variations in traveling shock conditions, such as increasing shock obliquity and shock slowdown, and variations in the SEP source with increasing shock distance from the Sun on the coupled processes of shock pre-heating, injection, and first-order Fermi acceleration are analyzed. Besides the finding that the cross-shock acceleration of the solar wind flow yields the dominant shock pre-heating mechanism at high shock speeds, we find that first-order Fermi acceleration at fast traveling shocks differs in a number of respects from the predictions and assumptions of standard steady-state diffusive shock

  12. LONGITUDINAL AND RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PEAK INTENSITIES: STEREO, ACE, SOHO, GOES, AND MESSENGER OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, D.; Ho, G. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Aran, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Gomez-Herrero, R.; Dresing, N.; Heber, B., E-mail: david.lario@jhuapl.edu [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-04-10

    Simultaneous measurements of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by two or more of the spacecraft located near 1 AU during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (i.e., STEREO-A, STEREO-B, and near-Earth spacecraft such as ACE, SOHO, and GOES) are used to determine the longitudinal dependence of 71-112 keV electron, 0.7-3 MeV electron, 15-40 MeV proton, and 25-53 MeV proton peak intensities measured in the prompt component of SEP events. Distributions of the peak intensities for the selected 35 events with identifiable solar origin are approximated by the form exp [ - ({phi} - {phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/2{sigma}{sup 2}], where {phi} is the longitudinal separation between the parent active region and the footpoint of the nominal interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line connecting each spacecraft with the Sun, {phi}{sub 0} is the distribution centroid, and {sigma} determines the longitudinal gradient. The MESSENGER spacecraft, at helioradii R < 1 AU, allows us to determine a lower limit to the radial dependence of the 71-112 keV electron peak intensities measured along IMF lines. We find five events for which the nominal magnetic footpoint of MESSENGER was less than 20 Degree-Sign apart from the nominal footpoint of a spacecraft near 1 AU. Although the expected theoretical radial dependence for the peak intensity of the events observed along the same field line can be approximated by a functional form R {sup -{alpha}} with {alpha} < 3, we find two events for which {alpha} > 3. These two cases correspond to SEP events occurring in a complex interplanetary medium that favored the enhancement of peak intensities near Mercury but hindered the SEP transport to 1 AU.

  13. Gamma rays from the de-excitation of 12C*(15.11MeV) and 12C*(4.44MeV) as probes of energetic particle spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crannell, C.J.; Ramaty, R.; Crannell, H.

    1977-01-01

    The flux of 15.11 MeV γ rays relative to the flux 4.44 MeV γ rays has been calculated from measured cross sections for excitation of the corresponding states of 12 C and from experimental determinations of the branching ratios for direct de-excitation of these states to the ground state. Because of the difference in threshold energies for excitation of these two levels, the relative intensities in the two lines are particularly sensitive to the spectral distribution of energetic particles which excite the corresponding nuclear levels. For both solar and cosmic emission, the observability of the 15.11 MeV line is expected to be enhanced by low source-background continuum in this ener

  14. Solar induced long- and short-term variations of the cosmic ray intensity in the past, and predictions and opportunities for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K. G.; McDonald, F. B.; Beer, J.

    2009-12-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide data from the past 10,000 years, and the instrumental cosmic ray data since 1936 provide detailed information on the possible consequences of the present long and deep solar minimum. Furthermore, the cosmic ray transport equation has been used to estimate the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) throughout the past 10,000 years. This paper presents a series of figures that document the behavior of both the cosmic radiation and the IMF at Earth in the past. In particular, the 11-year cycles in both quantities for the past 600 years are displayed; and estimates given of the cosmic ray spectrum at Earth for situations that history tells us may occur in the near future. Over the longer term, a minimum of the Hallstatt cycle (2200 yr periodicity) of solar activity occurred ~500 years ago and the Sun is now on a steadily rising plane of activity. The historic record shows that the cosmic ray intensity has decreased extremely rapidly after earlier prolonged deep minima and this suggests rapid and large changes in the heliospheric conditions that we may see replicated. The paper will also display data from the deep, isolated solar minimum of 1956 that exhibited unusual low energy cosmic ray fluxes, and a highly anomalous cosmic ray gradient in the inner heliosphere. Paleo-cosmic ray evidence will also be displayed of an episode of intense solar energetic particle (SEP) events in the interval of reduced solar activity, 1892-1900, that may possibly be repeated. If the present long, deep solar minimum is a precursor to a “Grand Minimum” such as the Dalton minimum, it will provide a much improved insight into the spectrum of the cosmic radiation in interstellar space, and to the cosmic ray modulation process in the heliosphere. With this in mind, the paper suggests key measurements, and speculates on experimental conditions that may be markedly different from those encountered in the instrumental era.

  15. Irradiation of micro-organisms with mono-energetic X-rays; biological consequences of the Auger effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpern, A; Muetze, B [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-07-01

    The radiation resonance effect reported previously for isolated biomolecules has now for the first time been observed in a cellular system. Dried bacteria, Micrococcus denitrificans, in which TdR in DNA was partially substituted by BUdR, were subjected to mono-energetic X-rays of energies below or above the K-edge for Br. Subsequently, the colony-forming ability was assayed. For photon energy slightly above the K-edge, the lethality/rad was greater than that below the K-edge. This is interpreted in terms of the Auger effect initiated selectively by photo-absorption in constituent Br atoms. The differential absorption of low-energy photons in constituent atoms of DNA is also discussed.

  16. Dual isotope notch observer for isotope identification, assay and imaging with mono-energetic gamma-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2013-02-05

    A dual isotope notch observer for isotope identification, assay and imaging with mono-energetic gamma-ray sources includes a detector arrangement consists of three detectors downstream from the object under observation. The latter detector, which operates as a beam monitor, is an integrating detector that monitors the total beam power arriving at its surface. The first detector and the middle detector each include an integrating detector surrounding a foil. The foils of these two detectors are made of the same atomic material, but each foil is a different isotope, e.g., the first foil may comprise U235 and second foil may comprise U238. The integrating detectors surrounding these pieces of foil measure the total power scattered from the foil and can be similar in composition to the final beam monitor. Non-resonant photons will, after calibration, scatter equally from both foils.

  17. X-ray line coincidence photopumping in a solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Mathioudakis, M.; Rose, S. J.; Flowerdew, J.; Hynes, D.; Christian, D. J.; Nilsen, J.; Johnson, W. R.

    2018-03-01

    Line coincidence photopumping is a process where the electrons of an atomic or molecular species are radiatively excited through the absorption of line emission from another species at a coincident wavelength. There are many instances of line coincidence photopumping in astrophysical sources at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths, with the most famous example being Bowen fluorescence (pumping of O III 303.80 Å by He II), but none to our knowledge in X-rays. However, here we report on a scheme where a He-like line of Ne IX at 11.000 Å is photopumped by He-like Na X at 11.003 Å, which predicts significant intensity enhancement in the Ne IX 82.76 Å transition under physical conditions found in solar flare plasmas. A comparison of our theoretical models with published X-ray observations of a solar flare obtained during a rocket flight provides evidence for line enhancement, with the measured degree of enhancement being consistent with that expected from theory, a truly surprising result. Observations of this enhancement during flares on stars other than the Sun would provide a powerful new diagnostic tool for determining the sizes of flare loops in these distant, spatially unresolved, astronomical sources.

  18. Structural and energetic characterization of anhydrous and hemihydrated 2-mercaptoimidazole: Calorimetric, X-ray diffraction, and computational studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ana L.R.; Morais, Victor M.F.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.; Simões, Ricardo G.; Bernardes, Carlos E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry was used to obtain the enthalpy of formation of crystalline 2-mercaptoimidazole. • Enthalpy of sublimation of 2-mercaptoimidazole was measured by Calvet microcalorimetry. • Enthalpy of interaction between substituents is calculated using isodesmic reactions. • Crystal X-ray diffraction determinations for anhydrous and hemihydrate 2-mercaptoimidazole forms were carried. • Gas-phase enthalpies of formation of 2-mercaptoimidazole and 1,3-dihydro-2H-imidazole-2-thione estimated by the G3 method. - Abstract: This paper reports an experimental and theoretical study on the structural and energetic characterization of the 2-mercaptoimidazole (2-MI) in the solid and in the gaseous phases. The single crystal X-ray diffraction determinations on the anhydrous and hemihydrate 2-MI forms were carried out at T = (296 ± 2) K and T = (150 ± 2) K, respectively, and suggest that in both forms the 2-MI molecule is closer to the thione conformation, albeit some single bond character is possible. The energy of combustion of the title compound was measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry, being used to derive the corresponding enthalpy of formation in the crystalline-phase. The enthalpy of sublimation of 2-MI, at T = 298.15 K, was obtained from high temperature Calvet microcalorimetry measurements. These two parameters yielded the gas-phase enthalpy of formation, allowing the inherent energetic analysis of the molecule. This result was discussed together with the corresponding predictions for 2-MI and its tautomer, 1,3-dihydro-2H-imidazole-2-thione, by the G3 method. The dehydration reaction of 2-MI · 0.5H_2O(cr) was also investigated and the corresponding enthalpy of dehydration was determined by Calvet microcalorimetry.

  19. Rocket measurements of X-rays and energetic electrons through an auroral arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarsnes, K.; Stadsnes, J.; Soeraas, F.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results from rocket measurements on auroral electron precipitation are discussed as far as the spatial structure and time and space variations in the primary electron fluxes are concerned. The analysis demonstrates that there was a good overall correspondence between the X-ray and electron data. By using a well collimated X-ray detector on a spinning rocket, it was possible to get additional information on the overall electron precipitation pattern

  20. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, G. A.; Wolfson, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density.

  1. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.A.; Wolfson, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density. 44 references

  2. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.A.; Wolfson, C.J.

    1988-08-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density. 44 references.

  3. Interplanetary ions during an energetic storm particle event: The distribution function from solar wind thermal energies to 1.6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Zwickl, R.D.; Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.; Hynds, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory/Max-Planck-Institut fast plasma experiment on Isee 2 have been combined with data from the European Space Agency/Imperial College/Space Research Laboratory low-energy proton experiment on Isee 3 to obtain for the first time an ion velocity distribution function f(v) extending from solar wind energies (-1 keV) to 1.6 MeV during the postshock phase of an energetic storm particle (ESP) event. This study reveals that f(v) of the ESP population is roughly isotropic in the solar wind frame from solar wind thermal energies out to 1.6 MeV. Emerging smoothly out of the solar wind thermal distribution, the ESP f(v) initially falls with increasing energy as E/sup -2.4/ in the solar wind frame. Above about 40 keV no single power law exponent adequately describes the energy dependence of f(v) in the solar wind frame. Above approx.200 keV in both the spacecraft frame and the solar wind frame, f(v) can be described by an exponential in speed (f(v)proportionale/sup -v/v//sub o/) with v/sub o/ = 1.05 x 10 8 cm s -1 . The ESP event studied (August 27, 1978) was superposed upon a more energetic particle event which was predominantly field-aligned and which was probably of solar origin. Our observations suggest that the ESP population is accelerated directly out of the solar wind thermal population or its quiescent suprathermal tail by a stochastic process associated with the shock wave disturbance. The acceleration mechanism is sufficiently efficient that approx.1% of the solar wind population is accelerated to suprathermal energies. These suprathermal particles have an energy density of approx.290 eV cm -3

  4. Energetic optimization of a solar thermochemical energy storage system subject to real constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovegrove, K [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Energy Research Centre

    1993-12-01

    An approach to the optimization of a solar energy conversion system which involves treating the system as a series of subsystems, each having a single cost determining variable, is proposed. The application to an ammonia-based thermochemical system with direct work output is discussed and possible subsystems are identified. The subsystem consisting of the exothermic reactor has been studied in detail. For this subsystem, the ratio of available catalyst volume to thermal power level is held constant whilst the exergetic efficiency is maximized. Results are presented from a determination of optimized reaction paths using dynamic programming techniques. (author)

  5. The Solar Energetic Particle Event of 2010 August 14: Connectivity with the Solar Source Inferred from Multiple Spacecraft Observations and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, D.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Raouafi, N. E. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Richardson, I. G.; Thompson, B. J.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von; Mays, M. L.; Mäkelä, P. A.; Xie, H.; Thakur, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bain, H. M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Zhang, M.; Zhao, L. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Cane, H. V. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia); Papaioannou, A. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15 236 Penteli (Greece); Riley, P., E-mail: david.lario@jhuapl.edu [Predictive Science, 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We analyze one of the first solar energetic particle (SEP) events of solar cycle 24 observed at widely separated spacecraft in order to assess the reliability of models currently used to determine the connectivity between the sources of SEPs at the Sun and spacecraft in the inner heliosphere. This SEP event was observed on 2010 August 14 by near-Earth spacecraft, STEREO-A (∼80° west of Earth) and STEREO-B (∼72° east of Earth). In contrast to near-Earth spacecraft, the footpoints of the nominal magnetic field lines connecting STEREO-A and STEREO-B with the Sun were separated from the region where the parent fast halo coronal mass ejection (CME) originated by ∼88° and ∼47° in longitude, respectively. We discuss the properties of the phenomena associated with this solar eruption. Extreme ultraviolet and white-light images are used to specify the extent of the associated CME-driven coronal shock. We then assess whether the SEPs observed at the three heliospheric locations were accelerated by this shock or whether transport mechanisms in the corona and/or interplanetary space provide an alternative explanation for the arrival of particles at the poorly connected spacecraft. A possible scenario consistent with the observations indicates that the observation of SEPs at STEREO-B and near Earth resulted from particle injection by the CME shock onto the field lines connecting to these spacecraft, whereas SEPs reached STEREO-A mostly via cross-field diffusive transport processes. The successes, limitations, and uncertainties of the methods used to resolve the connection between the acceleration sites of SEPs and the spacecraft are evaluated.

  6. Impact of energetic cosmic-ray ions on astrophysical ice grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainitz, Martin; Anders, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M., E-mail: urbassek@rhrk.uni-kl.de

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We use the REAX potential to model dissociations and reactions. • An ice grain consisting of a mixture of small molecules is considered. • The passage of a cosmic-ray ion initiates an ion track. • The track induces a shock wave and disintegrates the grain. • Abundant fragments and reaction products are detected. - Abstract: Using molecular-dynamics simulation with REAX potentials, we study the consequences of cosmic-ray ion impact on ice grains. The grains are composed of a mixture of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OH molecules. Due to the high energy deposition of the cosmic-ray ion, 5 keV/nm, a strong pressure wave runs through the grain, while the interior of the ion track gasifies. Abundant molecular dissociations occur; reactions of the fragments form a variety of novel molecular product species.

  7. Impact of energetic cosmic-ray ions on astrophysical ice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainitz, Martin; Anders, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We use the REAX potential to model dissociations and reactions. • An ice grain consisting of a mixture of small molecules is considered. • The passage of a cosmic-ray ion initiates an ion track. • The track induces a shock wave and disintegrates the grain. • Abundant fragments and reaction products are detected. - Abstract: Using molecular-dynamics simulation with REAX potentials, we study the consequences of cosmic-ray ion impact on ice grains. The grains are composed of a mixture of H_2O, CO_2, NH_3, and CH_3OH molecules. Due to the high energy deposition of the cosmic-ray ion, 5 keV/nm, a strong pressure wave runs through the grain, while the interior of the ion track gasifies. Abundant molecular dissociations occur; reactions of the fragments form a variety of novel molecular product species.

  8. Gamma rays, tracers of the interstellar medium and messengers of pulsars and other energetic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, I.

    1988-03-01

    Gamma radiation observed in our Galaxy by the COS-B satellite was studied. The interstellar medium was studied at large scale using the fact that diffuse gamma rays are created by the interaction of cosmic rays with any interstellar matter and comparisons with different tracers and star and galaxy counts. Ground-based maps of molecular clouds were also used. Bright compact gamma sources were also analyzed. Results include the detection in Co of a distant spiral arm of the Galaxy (15kpc) and an important molecular complex nearby (300pc); the first Co survey of the Galaxy; measurement of the NH2/WCo ratio and week galactic gradients of cosmic rays; the high energy behavior of the Vela pulsar; the detection of a gamma source; and the discovery of a large supernova remnant which exploded 300pc from the Sun 40,000 years ago [fr

  9. Solar /flare/ cosmic ray proton fluxes in the recent past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, T.R.; Nautiyal, C.M.; Padia, J.T.; Rao, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    A method for determining the average solar cosmic ray (SCR) proton fluxes which occurred in the last few million yr from He-3 samples from suitable lunar rocks is presented. Specimens removed from 0.3-1.5, 5-7, and 7-9 mm depths of the lunar surface were cleaned to reveal the feldspar grains of interest and heated for stepwise mass-spectrometric analyses. The 200 micron or greater grains were outgassed at 600, 1000, 1200, and 1600 C and noble gas data were recorded, along with isotopic ratio data. He-3 is assumed to have been degassed completely from rocks shocked by an impact event and diffusion losses are negligible due to the 90 C or less temperature exposures on the lunar surface. Thus the presence of He-3 is indicative of cosmic ray incidence, and known galactic cosmic ray production abundances for He-3 can be subtracted from the total He-3 observed, yielding the SCR flux results, which, when combined with exposure data, yield a history of SCR events

  10. Cosmic and solar gamma-ray x-ray and particle measurements from high altitude balloons in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    For measurements of cosmic and solar gamma-rays, hard X-rays, and particles, Antarctica offers the potential for very long, 10--20 day, continuous, twenty-four-hour-a-day observations, with balloon flights circling the South Pole during austral summer. For X-ray/gamma-ray sources at high south latitude the overlying atmosphere is minimized, and for cosmic ray measurements the low geomagnetic cutoff permits entry of low rigidity particles. The first Antarctic flight of a heavy (∼2400 lb.) payload on a large (11.6x10 6 cu. ft.) balloon took place in January, 1988, to search for the gamma-ray lines of 56 Co produced in the new supernova SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The long duration balloon flights presently planned from Antarctica include those for further gamma-ray/hard X-ray studies of SN 1987A and for the NASA Max '91 program for solar flare studies

  11. Acceleration, Transport, Forecasting and Impact of solar energetic particles in the framework of the 'HESPERIA' HORIZON 2020 project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Olga; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Vainio, Rami; Agueda, Neus; Nunez, Marlon; Heber, Bernd; Buetikofer, Rolf; Sarlanis, Christos; Crosby, Norma

    2017-04-01

    High-energy solar energetic particles (SEPs) emitted from the Sun are a major space weather hazard motivating the development of predictive capabilities. In this work, the current state of knowledge on the origin and forecasting of SEP events will be reviewed. Subsequently, we will present the EU HORIZON2020 HESPERIA (High Energy Solar Particle Events foRecastIng and Analysis) project, its structure, its main scientific objectives and forecasting operational tools, as well as the added value to SEP research both from the observational as well as the SEP modelling perspective. The project addresses through multi-frequency observations and simulations the chain of processes from particle acceleration in the corona, particle transport in the magnetically complex corona and interplanetary space to the detection near 1 AU. Furthermore, publicly available software to invert neutron monitor observations of relativistic SEPs to physical parameters that can be compared with space-borne measurements at lower energies is provided for the first time by HESPERIA. In order to achieve these goals, HESPERIA is exploiting already available large datasets stored in databases such as the neutron monitor database (NMDB) and SEPServer that were developed under EU FP7 projects from 2008 to 2013. Forecasting results of the two novel SEP operational forecasting tools published via the consortium server of 'HESPERIA' will be presented, as well as some scientific key results on the acceleration, transport and impact on Earth of high-energy particles. Acknowledgement: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324.

  12. MULTI-SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS AND TRANSPORT MODELING OF ENERGETIC ELECTRONS FOR A SERIES OF SOLAR PARTICLE EVENTS IN AUGUST 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dröge, W.; Kartavykh, Y. Y. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Dresing, N.; Klassen, A. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Kiel, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    During 2010 August a series of solar particle events was observed by the two STEREO spacecraft as well as near-Earth spacecraft. The events, occurring on August 7, 14, and 18, originated from active regions 11093 and 11099. We combine in situ and remote-sensing observations with predictions from our model of three-dimensional anisotropic particle propagation in order to investigate the physical processes that caused the large angular spreads of energetic electrons during these events. In particular, we address the effects of the lateral transport of the electrons in the solar corona that is due to diffusion perpendicular to the average magnetic field in the interplanetary medium. We also study the influence of two coronal mass ejections and associated shock waves on the electron propagation, and a possible time variation of the transport conditions during the above period. For the August 18 event we also utilize electron observations from the MESSENGER spacecraft at a distance of 0.31 au from the Sun for an attempt to separate between radial and longitudinal dependencies in the transport process. Our modelings show that the parallel and perpendicular diffusion mean free paths of electrons can vary significantly not only as a function of the radial distance, but also of the heliospheric longitude. Normalized to a distance of 1 au, we derive values of λ {sub ∥} in the range of 0.15–0.6 au, and values of λ {sub ⊥} in the range of 0.005–0.01 au. We discuss how our results relate to various theoretical models for perpendicular diffusion, and whether there might be a functional relationship between the perpendicular and the parallel mean free path.

  13. Dependence of the Peak Fluxes of Solar Energetic Particles on CME 3D Parameters from STEREO and SOHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinhye; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationships between the peak fluxes of 18 solar energetic particle (SEP) events and associated coronal mass ejection (CME) 3D parameters (speed, angular width, and separation angle) obtained from SOHO , and STEREO-A / B for the period from 2010 August to 2013 June. We apply the STEREO CME Analysis Tool (StereoCAT) to the SEP-associated CMEs to obtain 3D speeds and 3D angular widths. The separation angles are determined as the longitudinal angles between flaring regions and magnetic footpoints of the spacecraft, which are calculated by the assumption of a Parker spiral field. The main results are as follows. (1) We find that the dependence of the SEP peak fluxes on CME 3D speed from multiple spacecraft is similar to that on CME 2D speed. (2) There is a positive correlation between SEP peak flux and 3D angular width from multiple spacecraft, which is much more evident than the relationship between SEP peak flux and 2D angular width. (3) There is a noticeable anti-correlation ( r = −0.62) between SEP peak flux and separation angle. (4) The multiple-regression method between SEP peak fluxes and CME 3D parameters shows that the longitudinal separation angle is the most important parameter, and the CME 3D speed is secondary on SEP peak flux.

  14. Modeling the entry and trapping of solar energetic particles in the magnetosphere during the November 24-25, 2001 storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, R. L.; El-Alaoui, M.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Walker, R. J.

    2009-04-01

    We have modeled the entry of solar energetic particles (SEPs) into the magnetosphere during the November 24-25, 2001 magnetic storm and the trapping of particles in the inner magnetosphere. The study used the technique of following many test particles, protons with energies greater than about 100 keV, in the electric and magnetic fields from a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the magnetosphere during this storm. SEP protons formed a quasi-trapped and trapped population near and within geosynchronous orbit. Preliminary data comparisons show that the simulation does a reasonably good job of predicting the differential flux measured by geosynchronous spacecraft. Particle trapping took place mainly as a result of particles becoming non-adiabatic and crossing onto closed field lines. Particle flux in the inner magnetosphere increased dramatically as an interplanetary shock impacted and compressed the magnetosphere near 0600 UT, but long term trapping (hours) did not become widespread until about an hour later, during a further compression of the magnetosphere. Trapped and quasi-trapped particles were lost during the simulation by motion through the magnetopause and by precipitation, primarily the former. This caused the particle population near and within geosynchronous orbit to gradually decrease later on during the latter part of the interval.

  15. Dependence of the Peak Fluxes of Solar Energetic Particles on CME 3D Parameters from STEREO and SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinhye; Moon, Y.-J. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Harim, E-mail: jinhye@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-20

    We investigate the relationships between the peak fluxes of 18 solar energetic particle (SEP) events and associated coronal mass ejection (CME) 3D parameters (speed, angular width, and separation angle) obtained from SOHO , and STEREO-A / B for the period from 2010 August to 2013 June. We apply the STEREO CME Analysis Tool (StereoCAT) to the SEP-associated CMEs to obtain 3D speeds and 3D angular widths. The separation angles are determined as the longitudinal angles between flaring regions and magnetic footpoints of the spacecraft, which are calculated by the assumption of a Parker spiral field. The main results are as follows. (1) We find that the dependence of the SEP peak fluxes on CME 3D speed from multiple spacecraft is similar to that on CME 2D speed. (2) There is a positive correlation between SEP peak flux and 3D angular width from multiple spacecraft, which is much more evident than the relationship between SEP peak flux and 2D angular width. (3) There is a noticeable anti-correlation ( r = −0.62) between SEP peak flux and separation angle. (4) The multiple-regression method between SEP peak fluxes and CME 3D parameters shows that the longitudinal separation angle is the most important parameter, and the CME 3D speed is secondary on SEP peak flux.

  16. Agile deployment and code coverage testing metrics of the boot software on-board Solar Orbiter's Energetic Particle Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Pablo; da Silva, Antonio; Polo, Óscar R.; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2018-02-01

    In this day and age, successful embedded critical software needs agile and continuous development and testing procedures. This paper presents the overall testing and code coverage metrics obtained during the unit testing procedure carried out to verify the correctness of the boot software that will run in the Instrument Control Unit (ICU) of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on-board Solar Orbiter. The ICU boot software is a critical part of the project so its verification should be addressed at an early development stage, so any test case missed in this process may affect the quality of the overall on-board software. According to the European Cooperation for Space Standardization ESA standards, testing this kind of critical software must cover 100% of the source code statement and decision paths. This leads to the complete testing of fault tolerance and recovery mechanisms that have to resolve every possible memory corruption or communication error brought about by the space environment. The introduced procedure enables fault injection from the beginning of the development process and enables to fulfill the exigent code coverage demands on the boot software.

  17. Development of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Dion, Michael P.; McConnell, Mark L.; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Son, Seunghee; Ryan, James M.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in high-energy gamma-ray science has been dramatic since the launch of INTEGRAL, AGILE and FERMI. These instruments, however, are not optimized for observations in the medium-energy (approx.0.3< E(sub gamma)< approx.200 MeV) regime where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. We outline some of the major science goals of a medium-energy mission. These science goals are best achieved with a combination of two telescopes, a Compton telescope and a pair telescope, optimized to provide significant improvements in angular resolution and sensitivity. In this paper we describe the design of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) based on the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) detector. This technology achieves excellent, medium-energy sensitivity, angular resolution near the kinematic limit, and gamma-ray polarization sensitivity, by high resolution 3-D electron tracking. We describe the performance of a 30x30x30 cm3 prototype of the AdEPT instrument.

  18. Multi-parametric Effect of Solar Activity on Cosmic Rays V. K. Mishra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Key words. Sun—solar parameters—cosmic ray modulation—running ... Neutron monitors are most sensitive to cosmic rays in the energy range. 0.5–20 GeV ... been considered as a primary indicator to define the level of solar activity, which.

  19. SphinX: A Fast Solar Photometer in X-rays J. Sylwester , S. Kuzin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NAS solar mission. SphinX (Solar Photometer in X-rays) will use PIN silicon detectors for high time resolution (0.01 s) measurements of the solar spectra of .... right panel of Fig. 2. In this NBF concept, three fluorescing targets illuminate a single. PIN detector. The fluorescence radiation is coming from three different pure ...

  20. Flare energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Dejager, C.; Dennis, B. R.; Hudson, H. S.; Simnett, G. M.; Strong, K. T.; Bentley, R. D.; Bornmann, P. L.; Bruner, M. E.; Cargill, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this investigation of flare energetics, researchers sought to establish a comprehensive and self-consistent picture of the sources and transport of energy within a flare. To achieve this goal, they chose five flares in 1980 that were well observed with instruments on the Solar Maximum Mission, and with other space-borne and ground-based instruments. The events were chosen to represent various types of flares. Details of the observations available for them and the corresponding physical parameters derived from these data are presented. The flares were studied from two perspectives, the impulsive and gradual phases, and then the results were compared to obtain the overall picture of the energics of these flares. The role that modeling can play in estimating the total energy of a flare when the observationally determined parameters are used as the input to a numerical model is discussed. Finally, a critique of the current understanding of flare energetics and the methods used to determine various energetics terms is outlined, and possible future directions of research in this area are suggested.

  1. HARD X-RAY ASYMMETRY LIMITS IN SOLAR FLARE CONJUGATE FOOTPOINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daou, Antoun G.; Alexander, David, E-mail: agdaou@rice.edu, E-mail: dalex@rice.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, MS 108, Houston, TX, 77005 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    The transport of energetic electrons in a solar flare is modeled using a time-dependent one-dimensional Fokker–Planck code that incorporates asymmetric magnetic convergence. We derive the temporal and spectral evolution of the resulting hard X-ray (HXR) emission in the conjugate chromospheric footpoints, assuming thick target photon production, and characterize the time evolution of the numerically simulated footpoint asymmetry and its relationship to the photospheric magnetic configuration. The thick target HXR asymmetry in the conjugate footpoints is found to increase with magnetic field ratio as expected. However, we find that the footpoint HXR asymmetry saturates for conjugate footpoint magnetic field ratios ≥4. This result is borne out in a direct comparison with observations of 44 double-footpoint flares. The presence of such a limit has not been reported before, and may serve as both a theoretical and observational benchmark for testing a range of particle transport and flare morphology constraints, particularly as a means to differentiate between isotropic and anisotropic particle injection.

  2. Studies of soft x-ray emission during solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandaram, M.N.

    1973-01-01

    Solar flare soft x-ray emission from 0.5 A to 8.5 A was observed during 1967-68 by Bragg crystal (LiF and EDDT) spectrometers aboard the OSO-4 satellite and also by NRL broad-band ionization detectors aboard the OGO-4 satellite. In this work, instrumental parameters for the LiF crystal spectrometer based on experimental values have been determined and used in the data analysis. The total continuum emission in the 0.5 to 3 A and the 1 to 8 A broad band segments has been determined from OGO-4 data for 21 flares. In doing this, a simple and approximate method of converting the total emission based on the gray body approximation (in which the OGO-4 data are reported) to one based on the thermal continuum spectrum has been developed. (author)

  3. Are we making progress in finding the sources of the most energetic cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillas, A. M.

    1999-01-01

    There is progress, in the sense that although the energies assigned to cosmic rays by air shower arrays may need reducing by about 20%, energy measurements are consistent at about this level, and several experiments now accord with a spectrum which astonishingly shows no GZK cut-off near 10 20 eV, greatly limiting the possible source regions. The simplest interpretation is that few cosmic rays above 10 19 eV come from hundreds of Mpc, contrary to expectation on geometrical grounds. Most of the arrival directions of showers above 4 x 10 19 eV show little correlation with the supergalaxy or with matter concentrations within 200 Mpc. The implications of the spectrum and the arrival directions are discussed. The most likely explanations of their unexpected features are either (a) that these cosmic rays come mainly from the decay of cosmological relic particles clustered in a large galactic halo (though not if photons really do form a large part of the decay spectrum), or (b) that local intergalactic magnetic fields are unexpectedly strong, and disguise the position of and enhance one extraordinary source within a few Mpc, or (c) most particles above 10 19 eV are very different from protons after all, and do not have a threshold for serious energy loss as low as 10 20 eV, or (d) that there is a conspiracy of matching fluxes, so that most cosmic rays above 10 19 eV are from widespread extragalactic sources, but a superimposed hard spectrum from decaying halo relic particles neatly reduces the magnitude of the GZK fall-off above 10 20 eV. Several close pairs of arrival directions may yet turn out to be accidental, but if not, explanations (a) and (b) fail. There are several diagnostic tests to be made by the well-placed first (Southern) Auger Project detector and the High-Resolution Fly's Eye detector

  4. Energetic electron processes fluorescence effects for structured nanoparticles X-ray analysis and nuclear medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taborda, A.; Desbrée, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI/LEDI, BP-17, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Carvalho, A. [IEQUALTECS, Lda, Rua Dr. Francisco Sá Carneiro, 36, 2500-065 S. Gregório CLD (Portugal); Chaves, P.C. [C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km 139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Reis, M.A., E-mail: mareis@ctn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [IEQUALTECS, Lda, Rua Dr. Francisco Sá Carneiro, 36, 2500-065 S. Gregório CLD (Portugal); C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km 139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and can be modified for improved imaging or to become tissue-specific or even protein-specific. The knowledge of their detailed elemental composition characterisation and potential use in nuclear medicine applications, is, therefore, an important issue. X-ray fluorescence techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), can be used for elemental characterisation even in problematic situations where very little sample volume is available. Still, the fluorescence coefficient of Fe is such that, during the decay of the inner-shell ionised atomic structure, keV Auger electrons are produced in excess to X-rays. Since cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons, for low atomic number atoms, are of the order of 10{sup 3} barn, care should be taken to account for possible fluorescence effects caused by Auger electrons, which may lead to the wrong quantification of elements having atomic number lower than the atomic number of Fe. Furthermore, the same electron processes will occur in iron oxide nanoparticles containing {sup 57}Co, which may be used for nuclear medicine therapy purposes. In the present work, simple approximation algorithms are proposed for the quantitative description of radiative and non-radiative processes associated with Auger electrons cascades. The effects on analytical processes and nuclear medicine applications are quantified for the case of iron oxide nanoparticles, by calculating both electron fluorescence emissions and energy deposition on cell tissues where the nanoparticles may be embedded.

  5. Deduction of solar neutron fluences from large gamma-ray flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimori, Masato; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Solar neutron fluences from large gamma-ray flares are deduced from accelerated proton spectra and numbers derived from the gamma-ray observations. The deduced solar neutron fluences range from 1 to 200 neutrons cm -2 . The present result indicates a possibility that high sensitivity ground-based neutron monitors can detect solar neutron events, just as detected by the Jungfraujoch and Rome neutron monitors. (author)

  6. Energetic evaluation of the largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 on March 17, 2015 and September 8, 2017 during solar maximum and minimum, respectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomova, Dimitrinka; Velinov, Peter; Tassev, Yordan; Tomova, Dimitrinka

    2018-01-01

    Some of the most powerful Earth’s directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the current 24 solar cycle have been investigated. These are CMEs on March 15, 2015 and on September 4 and 6, 2017. As a result of these impacts of Sun on Earth, the highest intensity of the geomagnetic storms for the 24th solar cycle is observed. These G4 – Severe geomagnetic storms are in the periods March 17÷19, 2015 and September 7÷10, 2017. We use the solar wind parameters (velocity V, density or concentration N , temperature T p and intensity of the magnetic field B) from measurements by WIND, ACE and SOHO space crafts in the Lagrange equilibrium point L1 between Sun and Earth. We make calculations for the kinetic (dynamic) energy density E k , thermal energy density E t and magnetic energy density E m during the investigated periods May 10÷24, 2015 and September 2÷16, 2017. Both the energy densities for the individual events and the cumulative energy for each of them are evaluated. The quantitative analysis shows that not always the size of the geomagnetic reaction is commensurate with the density of the energy flux reaching the magnetosphere. In both studied periods, the energy densities have different behaviour over time. But for both periods, we can talk about the prognostic effect – with varying degrees of increase of the dynamic and thermal energies. Such an effect is not observed in the density of magnetic energy. An inverse relationship between the magnitude of the density of energies and the effect of Forbush decrease of the galactic cosmic rays is established. Key words: solar activity, flares, coronal mass ejection (CME), G4 –Severe geomagnetic storms, energy density of the solar wind, space weather

  7. The Charged Particle Environment on the Surface of Mars induced by Solar Energetic Particles - Five Years of Measurements with the MSL/RAD instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, B.; Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C.; Guo, J.; Lee, C. O.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Appel, J. K.; Boehm, E.; Boettcher, S. I.; Brinza, D. E.; Burmeister, S.; Lohf, H.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Matthiae, D.; Rafkin, S. C.; Reitz, G.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission has now been operating in Gale crater on the surface of Mars for five years. On board MSL, the Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD) is measuring the Martian surface radiation environment, providing insights on its intensity and composition. This radiation field is mainly composed of primary Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and secondary particles created by the GCRs' interactions with the Martian atmosphere and soil. However, on shorter time scales the radiation environment can be dominated by contributions from Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Due to the modulating effect of the Martian atmosphere shape and intensity of these SEP spectra will differ significantly between interplanetary space and the Martian surface. Understanding how SEP events influence the surface radiation field is crucial to assess associated health risks for potential human missions to Mars. Here, we present updated MSL/RAD results for charged particle fluxes measured on the surface during SEP activity from the five years of MSL operations on Mars. The presented results incorporate updated analysis techniques for the MSL/RAD data and yield the most robust particle spectra to date. Furthermore, we compare the MSL/RAD SEP-induced fluxes to measurements from other spacecraft in the inner heliosphere and, in particular, in Martian orbit. Analyzing changes of SEP intensities from interplanetary space to the Martian surface gives insight into the modulating effect of the Martian atmosphere, while comparing timing profiles of SEP events between Mars and different points in interplanetary space can increase our understanding of SEP propagation in the heliosphere.

  8. Solar flare X-radiation and energetic particles by the observation data from the Venera-13,14 space probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, S.A.; Dajbog, E.I.; D'yachkov, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between bursts of solar hard X-radiation quanta (Esub(x) > 0.055 MeV) and flares of solar cosmic rays (SCR) was considered on the basis of the data from the Venera-13, 14 space probes. The data on solar flares in Hsub(α) and thermal X-radiation range as well as radio-frequency radiation of the 3d type were used for analysis. It was established that the intensity amplitude of flare electrons (Esub(e) > 0.025 and > 0.07 MeV) and protons (Esub(p) > 1.0 MeV) correlates best with the flare importance in the thermal X-radiation range (r approximately 0.8+-0.03). The use of flare importance in thermal X-radiation range was independent measure of flare power in which SCR particles were generated enabled to construct heliolongitudinal dependences of the flare electron fluxes and to obtain the idea of the heliolongitudinal flare interval in which the effects of coronal propagation could be ignored. It is shown that the flux of the flare nonrelativistic electrons is related with the total energy release in the burst of hard X-radiation better than with the amplitude of this burst. Distributions of the solar events were studied with respect to the amplitudes of the intensity of electrons of SCR, thermal and hard X-radiation. It is shown that in the most part of the varying amplitude ranqe the distribution functions are approximated according to the power law. It is shown that the distribution function factor depends both on the parameter used for its construction and the type of events being used for analysis

  9. New Solar Irradiance Measurements from the Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer Cubesat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Richard; Mason, James Paul; Moore, Christopher S.; Palo, Scott; Rouleau, Colden [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Caspi, Amir [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Chamberlin, Phillip C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Solomon, Stanley C. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Machol, Janet; Viereck, Rodney [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The goal of the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer ( MinXSS ) CubeSat is to explore the energy distribution of soft X-ray (SXR) emissions from the quiescent Sun, active regions, and during solar flares and to model the impact on Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. The energy emitted in the SXR range (0.1–10 keV) can vary by more than a factor of 100, yet we have limited spectral measurements in the SXRs to accurately quantify the spectral dependence of this variability. The MinXSS primary science instrument is an Amptek, Inc. X123 X-ray spectrometer that has an energy range of 0.5–30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV energy resolution. Two flight models have been built. The first, MinXSS -1, has been making science observations since 2016 June 9 and has observed numerous flares, including more than 40 C-class and 7 M-class flares. These SXR spectral measurements have advantages over broadband SXR observations, such as providing the capability to derive multiple-temperature components and elemental abundances of coronal plasma, improved irradiance accuracy, and higher resolution spectral irradiance as input to planetary ionosphere simulations. MinXSS spectra obtained during the M5.0 flare on 2016 July 23 highlight these advantages and indicate how the elemental abundance appears to change from primarily coronal to more photospheric during the flare. MinXSS -1 observations are compared to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite ( GOES ) X-ray Sensor (XRS) measurements of SXR irradiance and estimated corona temperature. Additionally, a suggested improvement to the calibration of the GOES XRS data is presented.

  10. Voyager 1 Observations of a Recent Transient Disturbance in the Interstellar Medium Caused by an Energetic Solar Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Decker, R. B.; Ness, N. F.; Burlaga, L. F.

    2016-12-01

    In late August 2012 the Voyager 1 spacecraft crossed the heliopause into the nearby interstellar medium. Since then the spacecraft has detected four distinct particle and field disturbances in the interstellar plasma, each believed to be produced by a shock originating from a solar event. Here we describe the fourth and most recent of these events. This event was first identified in the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) and Cosmic Ray (CRS) data around day 1, 2015, by the onset of a gradual downward trend in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays near 90° pitch angles. This decrease was briefly interrupted by a small recovery, and then resumed the decrease on day 100, 2015. The downward trend was followed about half a year later by the onset of intense bursts of electron plasma oscillations on day 250, 2015. The plasma oscillations continued with high intensities, the highest intensities yet observed, to about day 310, 2015, where they abruptly ended. The oscillation frequency was around 3.0 kHz, which corresponds to a local electron density of 0.11 cm-3, the highest yet measured in the interstellar medium. Near the end of the year, day 1, 2016, the downward trend in the 90° cosmic ray intensities reversed and started increasing, but has not yet returned to isotropy as of this writing. At the minimum, the 90° cosmic ray intensity at 200 MeV was depressed about 10% below the isotropic value. Overall, the new event has very similar characteristics to the three previous events, although differing in some details and of somewhat longer in duration. Most striking is the depression in the cosmic ray intensity near 90° pitch angles which in every case precedes the onset of the electron plasma oscillations. Since the electron plasma oscillations have been widely interpreted as being driven by electron beams streaming out ahead of an approaching shock (two of which have been directly detected), it appears that the depression in the cosmic ray intensities near 90° pitch

  11. Characteristic studies on solar x-ray flares and solar radio bursts during descending phases of solar cycles 22 and 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, J.; De, B.K.; Guha, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study between the solar X-ray flares and solar radio bursts in terms of their duration and energy has been done. This has been done by analyzing the data in a statistical way covering the descending phase of the 22nd and 23rd solar cycles. It has been observed that the most probable value of duration of both solar X-ray flares and solar radio bursts remain same for a particular cycle. There is a slight variation in the most probable value of duration in going from 22nd cycle to 23rd cycle in the case of both kinds of events. This small variation may be due to the variation of polar field. A low correlation has been observed between energy fluxes in solar X-ray flares and in solar radio bursts. This has been attributed to the non symmetric contribution of energy to the solar radio and X-ray band controlled by solar magnetic field

  12. Response of cultured human airway epithelial cells to X-rays and energetic α-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.; Holley, W.R.; Curtis, S.B.; Gruenert, D.C.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1990-01-01

    Radon and its progeny, which emit α-particles during decay, may play an important role in inducing human lung cancer. To gain a better understanding of the biological effects of α-particles in human lung we studied the response of cultured human airway epithelial cells to X-rays and monoenergetic helium ions. Experimental results indicated that the radiation response of primary cultures was similar to that for airway epithelial cells that were transformed with a plasmid containing an origin-defective SV40 virus. The RBE for cell inactivation determined by the ratio of D 0 for X-rays to that for 8 MeV helium ions was 1.8-2.2. The cross-section for helium ions, calculated from the D 0 value, was about 24 μm 2 for cells of the primary culture. This cross-section is significantly smaller than the average geometric nuclear area (∼ 180 μm 2 ), suggesting that an average of 7.5 α-particles (8 MeV helium ions) per cell nucleus are needed to induce a lethal lesion. (author)

  13. Planetary Protection: X-ray Super-Flares Aid Formation of "Solar Systems"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory imply that X-ray super-flares torched the young Solar System. Such flares likely affected the planet-forming disk around the early Sun, and may have enhanced the survival chances of Earth. By focusing on the Orion Nebula almost continuously for 13 days, a team of scientists used Chandra to obtain the deepest X-ray observation ever taken of this or any star cluster. The Orion Nebula is the nearest rich stellar nursery, located just 1,500 light years away. These data provide an unparalleled view of 1400 young stars, 30 of which are prototypes of the early Sun. The scientists discovered that these young suns erupt in enormous flares that dwarf - in energy, size, and frequency -- anything seen from the Sun today. Illustration of Large Flares Illustration of Large Flares "We don't have a time machine to see how the young Sun behaved, but the next best thing is to observe Sun-like stars in Orion," said Scott Wolk of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "We are getting a unique look at stars between one and 10 million years old - a time when planets form." A key result is that the more violent stars produce flares that are a hundred times as energetic as the more docile ones. This difference may specifically affect the fate of planets that are relatively small and rocky, like the Earth. "Big X-ray flares could lead to planetary systems like ours where Earth is a safe distance from the Sun," said Eric Feigelson of Penn State University in University Park, and principal investigator for the international Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project. "Stars with smaller flares, on the other hand, might end up with Earth-like planets plummeting into the star." Animation of X-ray Flares from a Young Sun Animation of X-ray Flares from a "Young Sun" According to recent theoretical work, X-ray flares can create turbulence when they strike planet-forming disks, and this affects the position of rocky planets as they

  14. Double-coronal X-Ray and Microwave Sources Associated with a Magnetic Breakout Solar Eruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yao; Wu, Zhao; Zhao, Di; Wang, Bing; Du, Guohui [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Liu, Wei [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Schwartz, Richard A., E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and American University, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Double-coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources are believed to be critical observational evidence of bi-directional energy release through magnetic reconnection in large-scale current sheets in solar flares. Here, we present a study on double-coronal sources observed in both HXR and microwave regimes, revealing new characteristics distinct from earlier reports. This event is associated with a footpoint-occulted X1.3-class flare (2014 April 25, starting at 00:17 UT) and a coronal mass ejection that were likely triggered by the magnetic breakout process, with the lower source extending upward from the top of the partially occulted flare loops and the upper source co-incident with rapidly squeezing-in side lobes (at a speed of ∼250 km s{sup −1} on both sides). The upper source can be identified at energies as high as 70–100 keV. The X-ray upper source is characterized by flux curves that differ from those of the lower source, a weak energy dependence of projected centroid altitude above 20 keV, a shorter duration, and an HXR photon spectrum slightly harder than those of the lower source. In addition, the microwave emission at 34 GHz also exhibits a similar double-source structure and the microwave spectra at both sources are in line with gyrosynchrotron emission given by non-thermal energetic electrons. These observations, especially the co-incidence of the very-fast squeezing-in motion of side lobes and the upper source, indicate that the upper source is associated with (and possibly caused by) this fast motion of arcades. This sheds new light on the origin of the corona double-source structure observed in both HXRs and microwaves.

  15. Towards understanding the nature of any relationship between Solar Activity and Cosmic Rays with thunderstorm activity and lightning discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, J.; Muller, J.-P.; Matthews, S.

    2012-04-01

    The runaway breakdown hypothesis of lightning discharge has predicted relationships between cosmic rays' interactions with the atmosphere and thunderstorm production and lightning activity. Precipitating energetic particles lead to the injection of MeV-energy electrons into electrified thunderclouds [1,2], resulting in runaway breakdown occurring, and assisting in the process of charge separation [2]. Previous lightning studies show that correlations to solar activity are weak but significant, with better correlations to solar activity and cosmic rays when carried out over smaller geographical areas [3,4,5,6] and over longer timescales [6]. In this work, correlations are explored between variations of SEPs and lightning activity levels at various spatio-temporal scales. Temporal scales span from short-term (days) scales surrounding large Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (CME) events to long-term (years) scales. Similarly, spatial scales span from 1-degree x 1-degree latitudinal-longitudinal grid scales to an entirely global study, for varying timescales. Additionally, investigation of correlation sign and statistical significance by 1-degree latitudinal bands is also employed, allowing a comparative study of lightning activity relative to regions of greatest - and contrasting regions of relative absence of - energetic particle precipitation. These regions are determined from electron and proton flux maps, derived from measurements from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector (MEPED) onboard the Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) system. Lightning data is obtained from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) for the period 2005 to 2011. The correlations of lightning strike rates are carried out with respect to Relative Sunspot Number (R), 10.7cm Solar radio flux (F10.7), Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) neutron monitor flux, the Ap geomagnetic activity index, and Disturbance Storm Time (DST) index. Correlations show dramatic variations in

  16. Correlation Analyses Between the Characteristic Times of Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events and the Properties of Associated Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wang, Yuming; Xue, X. H.

    2011-06-01

    It is generally believed that gradual solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated by shocks associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Using an ice-cream cone model, the radial speed and angular width of 95 CMEs associated with SEP events during 1998 - 2002 are calculated from SOHO/LASCO observations. Then, we investigate the relationships between the kinematic properties of these CMEs and the characteristic times of the intensity-time profile of their accompanied SEP events observed at 1 AU. These characteristic times of SEP are i) the onset time from the accompanying CME eruption at the Sun to the SEP arrival at 1 AU, ii) the rise time from the SEP onset to the time when the SEP intensity is one-half of peak intensity, and iii) the duration over which the SEP intensity is within a factor of two of the peak intensity. It is found that the onset time has neither significant correlation with the radial speed nor with the angular width of the accompanying CME. For events that are poorly connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have no significant correlation with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. However, for events that are magnetically well connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have significantly positive correlations with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. This indicates that a CME event with wider angular width and higher speed may more easily drive a strong and wide shock near to the Earth-connected interplanetary magnetic field lines, may trap and accelerate particles for a longer time, and may lead to longer rise time and duration of the ensuing SEP event.

  17. Propagation of Solar Energetic Particles in Three-dimensional Interplanetary Magnetic Fields: Radial Dependence of Peak Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H.-Q.; Zhou, G.; Wan, W.

    2017-06-01

    A functional form {I}\\max (R)={{kR}}-α , where R is the radial distance of a spacecraft, was usually used to model the radial dependence of peak intensities {I}\\max (R) of solar energetic particles (SEPs). In this work, the five-dimensional Fokker-Planck transport equation incorporating perpendicular diffusion is numerically solved to investigate the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities. We consider two different scenarios for the distribution of a spacecraft fleet: (1) along the radial direction line and (2) along the Parker magnetic field line. We find that the index α in the above expression varies in a wide range, primarily depending on the properties (e.g., location and coverage) of SEP sources and on the longitudinal and latitudinal separations between the sources and the magnetic foot points of the observers. Particularly, whether the magnetic foot point of the observer is located inside or outside the SEP source is a crucial factor determining the values of index α. A two-phase phenomenon is found in the radial dependence of peak intensities. The “position” of the break point (transition point/critical point) is determined by the magnetic connection status of the observers. This finding suggests that a very careful examination of the magnetic connection between the SEP source and each spacecraft should be taken in the observational studies. We obtain a lower limit of {R}-1.7+/- 0.1 for empirically modeling the radial dependence of SEP peak intensities. Our findings in this work can be used to explain the majority of the previous multispacecraft survey results, and especially to reconcile the different or conflicting empirical values of the index α in the literature.

  18. Solar-geophysical data number 420, August 1979. Part II (Comprehensive reports). Data for February 1979, January 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, H.E.

    1979-08-01

    This comprehensive report provides data for February 1979 on active regions, synoptic solar maps, solar radio emission, energetic solar particles and plasma, and solar x-ray radiation. It also provides synoptic charts and abbreviated calendar record for January 1979. The miscellaneous data include solar radio emission, cosmic rays-April and May 1979, Solar flares-January 1979, and regional flare index - December 1978

  19. Solar flare location effect on the spectral characteristics of the diurnal anisotropy of cosmic ray intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, R S; Kumar, S; Naqvi, T N [Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India)

    1977-01-01

    The spectral parameters of the diurnal anisotropy of cosmic ray intensity are studied separately for days where the solar flares have occurred on the western limb as well as on the eastern limb of the solar disc for both nucleonic as well as mesonic components of the cosmic rays. It is observed that the diurnal amplitude of the cosmic ray intensity in space is larger for days where solar flares have occurred on the western limb of the solar disc as compared to the days where solar flares have occurred on the eartern limb of the solar disc. This is true in both nucleonic as well as mesonic components of the cosmic ray intensity. The average value of the direction in space of diurnal anisotropy in local asymptotic time for various stations is almost same and is observed at around the same hours for flares which occur on the western as well as eastern limb of the solar disc. When these results are compared with the direction of the diurnal anisotropy in space on quiet days, it is found that the direction of the diurnal anisotropy on days where solar flares have occurred on the western limb as well as eastern limb of the solar disc is earlier in comparison to quiet days. This phase shift towards earlier hours is about three hours for nucleonic as well as mesonic components of the cosmic rays intensity. The variation of the rigidity exponent observed on different types of days for the nucleonic component has also been discussed.

  20. Energetic particle pressure in intense ESP events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-09-01

    We study three intense energetic storm particle (ESP) events in which the energetic particle pressure PEP exceeded both the pressure of the background thermal plasma Pth and the pressure of the magnetic field PB. The region upstream of the interplanetary shocks associated with these events was characterized by a depression of the magnetic field strength coincident with the increase of the energetic particle intensities and, when plasma measurements were available, a depleted solar wind density. The general feature of cosmic-ray mediated shocks such as the deceleration of the upstream background medium into which the shock propagates is generally observed. However, for those shocks where plasma parameters are available, pressure balance is not maintained either upstream of or across the shock, which may result from the fact that PEP is not included in the calculation of the shock parameters.

  1. Structure of Energetic Particle Mediated Shocks Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of collisionless shock waves is often modified by the presence of energetic particles that are not equilibrated with the thermal plasma (such as pickup ions [PUIs] and solar energetic particles [SEPs]). This is relevant to the inner and outer heliosphere and the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM), where observations of shock waves (e.g., in the inner heliosphere) show that both the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure are less than the energetic particle component pressures. Voyager 2 observations revealed that the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) is very broad and mediated by energetic particles. PUIs and SEPs contribute both a collisionless heat flux and a higher-order viscosity. We show that the incorporation of both effects can completely determine the structure of collisionless shocks mediated by energetic ions. Since the reduced form of the PUI-mediated plasma model is structurally identical to the classical cosmic ray two-fluid model, we note that the presence of viscosity, at least formally, eliminates the need for a gas sub-shock in the classical two-fluid model, including in that regime where three are possible. By considering parameters upstream of the HTS, we show that the thermal gas remains relatively cold and the shock is mediated by PUIs. We determine the structure of the weak interstellar shock observed by Voyager 1 . We consider the inclusion of the thermal heat flux and viscosity to address the most general form of an energetic particle-thermal plasma two-fluid model.

  2. Structure of Energetic Particle Mediated Shocks Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Webb, G. M. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    The structure of collisionless shock waves is often modified by the presence of energetic particles that are not equilibrated with the thermal plasma (such as pickup ions [PUIs] and solar energetic particles [SEPs]). This is relevant to the inner and outer heliosphere and the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM), where observations of shock waves (e.g., in the inner heliosphere) show that both the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure are less than the energetic particle component pressures. Voyager 2 observations revealed that the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) is very broad and mediated by energetic particles. PUIs and SEPs contribute both a collisionless heat flux and a higher-order viscosity. We show that the incorporation of both effects can completely determine the structure of collisionless shocks mediated by energetic ions. Since the reduced form of the PUI-mediated plasma model is structurally identical to the classical cosmic ray two-fluid model, we note that the presence of viscosity, at least formally, eliminates the need for a gas sub-shock in the classical two-fluid model, including in that regime where three are possible. By considering parameters upstream of the HTS, we show that the thermal gas remains relatively cold and the shock is mediated by PUIs. We determine the structure of the weak interstellar shock observed by Voyager 1 . We consider the inclusion of the thermal heat flux and viscosity to address the most general form of an energetic particle-thermal plasma two-fluid model.

  3. Lunar radionuclide records of average solar-cosmic-ray fluxes over the last ten million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Because changes in solar activity can modify the fluxes of cosmic-ray particles in the solar system, the nature of the galactic and solar cosmic rays and their interactions with matter are described and used to study the ancient sun. The use of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites and lunar samples as detectors of past cosmic-ray variations are discussed. Meteorite records of the history of the galactic cosmic rays are reviewed. The fluxes of solar protons over various time periods as determined from lunar radionuclide data are presented and examined. The intensities of solar protons emitted during 1954 to 1964 (11-year solar cycle number 19) were much larger than those for 1965 to 1975 (solar cycle 20). Average solar-proton fluxes determined for the last one to ten million years from lunar 26 Al and 53 Mn data show little variation and are similar to the fluxes for recent solar cycles. Lunar activities of 14 C (and preliminary results for 81 Kr) indicate that the average fluxes of solar protons over the last 10 4 (and 10 5 ) years are several times larger than those for the last 10 6 to 10 7 years; however, cross-section measurements and other work are needed to confirm these flux variations

  4. Gasdynamics of relativistically expanding gamma-ray burst sources - Kinematics, energetics, magnetic fields, and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, P.; Laguna, P.; Rees, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    We calculate both analytically and numerically the evolution of highly relativistic fireballs through the stages of free expansion and coasting, and determine the dependence of the thermodynamic and radiation variables in the comoving and laboratory flames. The dynamics and the comoving geometry change at the (lab) expansion factors r/r(0) greater than eta and r/r(0) greater than eta-squared, respectively, where eta = E(0)/M(0)c-squared is the initial Lorentz factor. In the lab, the gas appears concentrated in a thin shell of width r(0) until r/r(0) of less than about eta-squared, and increases linearly after that. Magnetic fields may have been important in the original impulsive event. We discuss their effect on the fireball dynamics and also consider their effects on the radiation emitted when the fireball runs into an external medium and is decelerated. The inverse synchro-Compton mechanism can then yield high radiative efficiency in the reverse shock (and through turbulent instabilities and mixing also in the forward blast wave), producing a burst of nonthermal radiation mainly in the MeV to GeV range. The energy and duration depend on eta, the magnetic field strength, and the external density, and can match the range of properties observed in cosmic gamma-ray bursts.

  5. Simulation of GRIS spectrometer response to the solar gamma-ray flare of 23 July 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, Yu A; Kotov, Yu D; Yurov, V N; Lupar, E E; Faradzhaev, R M; Glyanenko, A S

    2017-01-01

    GRIS is a prospective experiment designed to measure hard X-rays and γ-rays of solar flares in the energy range from 50 keV to 200 MeV as well as solar neutrons > 30 MeV. This study considers results of GEANT 4 simulation of GRIS detectors response to cosmic background radiation and to the solar flare SOL2002-07-23 (X4.8). It is shown that the GRIS spectrometers have enough sensitivity and energy resolution to measure redshifts of some narrow γ-rays in flare spectra, that the low energy thresholds of the detectors can be lowered considerably without a risk of counting rate saturation during high magnitude flares and that at a choice between LaBr 3 (Ce) and CeBr 3 the second one is a preferable scintillator for a hard X-ray and γ-ray spectrometer of solar flares. (paper)

  6. Composition and Spectral Evolution of Energetic Ions at Voyager 1 in the Vicinity of the Solar Wind Termination Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.

    2003-12-01

    For a six-month period beginning in mid-2002, measurements from the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instrument aboard Voyager 1 (V1) indicate that the spacecraft was in a region having a low, subsonic solar wind speed. Before and after this period of interest (POI), the observations indicate higher, supersonic solar wind speeds. During the POI there was a low-energy particle enhancement showing intensity increases up to two orders of magnitude over the preceding period, with a composition that is poor in C, and for which the relative intensities of He and O are consistent with anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) composition. Consistency with ACR composition is determined based on ``species scaling'' arguments associated with transport effects. However, since the ACR peak for H is obscured by galactic cosmic rays, the relative H composition is uncertain and may diverge from ACR levels at higher energies per nucleon or may indeed differ from ACR-like composition. We have argued that these and other observations offer evidence that V1 crossed the termination shock (TS), resided downstream of the TS in the heliosheath for about six months, and then re-crossed the TS (which has a variable position), thus reentering the region of supersonic solar wind plasma early in 2003. To investigate this event further, we are undertaking analysis on time scales shorter than the entire six-month period, including the investigation of energy spectra using higher temporal resolution. The noted difference between the expected idealized TS spectrum and that which we observe is reduced when shorter time intervals are examined. There are also possible spectral features indicative of the transport of a very local ACR-like population from the TS to V1 in the upstream region just before and after the POI. Using the LECP instrument, which affords the lowest energy particle measurements from V1, we will pursue the ion composition by considering, e.g., the species scaling in light of the possible

  7. Quantitative relationship between VLF phase deviations and 1-8 A solar X-ray fluxes during solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Y; Murata, H; Sato, T [Hyogo Coll. Of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1977-07-01

    An attempt is made to investigate the quantitative relationship between VLF phase deviations in SPA (sudden phase anomalies) events and associated solar X-ray fluxes in the 1 to 8 A band during solar flares. The phase deviations (..delta..phi) of the 18.6 kHz VLF wave transmitted from NLK, USA are used in this analysis which were recorded at Nishinomiya, Japan during the period June 1974 to May 1975. The solar X-ray fluxes (F/sub 0/) in the 1 to 8 A band are estimated from fsub(min) variations using the empirical expression given by Sato (J.Geomag.Geoelectr.;27: 95(1975)), because no observed data were available on the 1 to 8 a X-ray fluxes during the period of the VLF observation. The result shows that the normalized phase variation, ..delta..phi/coschisub(min), where chisub(min) represents the minimum solar zenith angle on the VLF propagation path, increases with increasing logF/sub 0/. A theoretical explanation for this is presented assuming that enhanced ionizations produced in the lower ionosphere by a monochromatic solar X-ray emission are responsible for the VLF phase deviations. Also it is found that a threshold X-ray flux to produce a detectable SPA effect is approximately 1.5 x 10/sup -3/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ in the 1 to 8 a band.

  8. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  9. On the puzzling high-energy pulsations of the energetic radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar J1813–1246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marelli, M.; Pizzocaro, D.; De Luca, A.; Caraveo, P.; Salvetti, D. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Harding, A. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wood, K. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Saz Parkinson, P. M. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Acero, F., E-mail: marelli@lambrate.inaf.it [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universit Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-11-10

    We have analyzed the new deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the energetic, radio-quiet pulsar J1813–1246. The X-ray spectrum is nonthermal, very hard, and absorbed. Based on spectral considerations, we propose that J1813 is located at a distance further than 2.5 kpc. J1813 is highly pulsed in the X-ray domain, with a light curve characterized by two sharp, asymmetrical peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase. We detected no significant X-ray spectral changes during the pulsar phase. We extended the available Fermi ephemeris to five years. We found two glitches. The γ-ray light curve is characterized by two peaks, separated by 0.5 in phase, with a bridge in between and no off-pulse emission. The spectrum shows clear evolution in phase, being softer at the peaks and hardening toward the bridge. Surprisingly, both X-ray peaks lag behind the γ-ray ones by a quarter of phase. We found a hint of detection in the 30-500 keV band with INTEGRAL, which is consistent with the extrapolation of both the soft X-ray and γ-ray emission of J1813. The unique X-ray and γ-ray phasing suggests a singular emission geometry. We discuss some possibilities within the current pulsar emission models. Finally, we develop an alternative geometrical model where the X-ray emission comes from polar cap pair cascades.

  10. Reconstruction of energetic electron spectra in the upper atmosphere: balloon observations of auroral X-rays coordinated with measurements from the EISCAT radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olafsson, K.J.

    1990-08-01

    Energetic electron precipitation in the auroral zone has been studied using coordinated auroral X-ray measurements from balloons, altitude profiles of the ionospheric electron density measured by the EISCAT radar above the balloons, and cosmic noise absorption data from the Scandinavian riometer network. The data were obtained during the Coordinated EISCAT and Balloon Observations (CEBO) campaign in August 1984. The energy spectral variations of both the X-ray fluxes and the primary precipitating electrons were examined for two precipitation events in the morning sector. As far as reasonably can be concluded from observations of magnetic activity in the auroral zone, and from the temporal development of the energy spectra, the two precipitation events can be interpreted in the frame of present models of energetic electron precipitation on the mordning side of the auroral zone. 96 refs., 70 figs., 11 tabs

  11. Cosmic ray modulation and radiation dose of aircrews during the solar cycle 24/25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Shoko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Weak solar activity and high cosmic ray flux during the coming solar cycle are qualitatively anticipated by the recent observations that show the decline in the solar activity levels. We predict the cosmic ray modulation and resultant radiation exposure at flight altitude by using the time-dependent and three-dimensional model of the cosmic ray modulation. Our galactic cosmic ray (GCR) model is based on the variations of the solar wind speed, the strength of the heliospheric magnetic field, and the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet. We reproduce the 22 year variation of the cosmic ray modulation from 1980 to 2015 taking into account the gradient-curvature drift motion of GCRs. The energy spectra of GCR protons obtained by our model show good agreement with the observations by the Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting magnetic rigidity Spectrometer (BESS) and the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) except for a discrepancy at the solar maximum. Five-year annual radiation dose around the solar minimum at the solar cycle 24/25 will be approximately 19% higher than that in the last cycle. This is caused by the charge sign dependence of the cosmic ray modulation, such as the flattop profiles in a positive polarity.

  12. FARIMA MODELING OF SOLAR FLARE ACTIVITY FROM EMPIRICAL TIME SERIES OF SOFT X-RAY SOLAR EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislavsky, A. A.; Burnecki, K.; Magdziarz, M.; Weron, A.; Weron, K.

    2009-01-01

    A time series of soft X-ray emission observed by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellites from 1974 to 2007 is analyzed. We show that in the solar-maximum periods the energy distribution of soft X-ray solar flares for C, M, and X classes is well described by a fractional autoregressive integrated moving average model with Pareto noise. The model incorporates two effects detected in our empirical studies. One effect is a long-term dependence (long-term memory), and another corresponds to heavy-tailed distributions. The parameters of the model: self-similarity exponent H, tail index α, and memory parameter d are statistically stable enough during the periods 1977-1981, 1988-1992, 1999-2003. However, when the solar activity tends to minimum, the parameters vary. We discuss the possible causes of this evolution and suggest a statistically justified model for predicting the solar flare activity.

  13. Reconstruction of energetic electron spectra in the upper atmosphere: balloon observations of auroral X-rays coordinated with measurements from the Eiscat radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olafsson, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Energetic electron precipitation in the auroral zone has been studied using coordinated auroral X-ray measurements from balloons, altitude profiles of the ionospheric electron density measured by the EISCAT radar above the balloons, and cosmic noise absorption data from the Scandinavian riometer network. The data were obtained during the coordinated EISCAT and balloon observation campaign in August 1984. A method by which an estimate of the energy spectrum of precipitating energetic electrons can be obtained from balloon measurements of bremsstrahlung X-rays is described. The energy spectral variation of both the X-ray fluxes and the primary precipitating electrons were examined for two precipitation events in the morning sector. As far as reasonably can be concluded from observations of magnetic activity in the auroral zone, and from the temporal development of the energy spectra, the two precipitation events can be interpreted in the frame of present models of energetic electron precipitation on the morning side of the auroral zone. 96 refs

  14. Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. M.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, U.; Bruno, A.; Christian, E. R.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Stochaj, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report updated event-integrated spectra from several SEP events measured with PAMELA. The measurements were made from 2006 to 2014 in the energy range starting at 80 MeV and extending well above the neutron monitor threshold. The PAMELA instrument is in a high inclination, low Earth orbit and has access to SEPs when at high latitudes. Spectra have been assembled from these high-latitude measurements. The field of view of PAMELA is small and during the high-latitude passes it scans a wide range of asymptotic directions as the spacecraft orbits. Correcting for data gaps, solid angle effects and improved background corrections, we have compiled event-integrated intensity spectra for twenty-eight SEP events. Where statistics permit, the spectra exhibit power law shapes in energy with a high-energy exponential roll over. The events analyzed include two genuine ground level enhancements (GLE). In those cases the roll-over energy lies above the neutron monitor threshold ( 1 GV) while the others are lower. We see no qualitative difference between the spectra of GLE vs. non-GLE events, i.e., all roll over in an exponential fashion with rapidly decreasing intensity at high energies.

  15. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

    2012-01-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 x 10^47 cm^-3 and 1.1 x 10^48 cm^-3. Comparing Sph...

  16. Common observations of solar X-rays from SPHINX/CORONAS-PHOTON and XRS/MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Anna; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Siarkowski, Marek; Mrozek, Tomasz; Gryciuk, Magdalena; Phillips, Kenneth

    SphinX was a soft X-ray spectrophotometer constructed in the Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences. The instrument was launched on 30 January 2009 aboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite as a part of TESIS instrument package. SphinX measured total solar X-ray flux in the energy range from 1 to 15 keV during the period of very low solar activity from 20 February to 29 November 2009. For these times the solar detector (X-ray Spectrometer - XRS) onboard MESSENGER also observed the solar X-rays from a different vantage point. XRS measured the radiation in similar energy range. We present results of the comparison of observations from both instruments and show the preliminary results of physical analysis of spectra for selected flares.

  17. SOLFAST, a Ray-Tracing Monte-Carlo software for solar concentrating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccia, J P; Piaud, B; Coustet, C; Caliot, C; Guillot, E; Flamant, G; Delatorre, J

    2012-01-01

    In this communication, the software SOLFAST is presented. It is a simulation tool based on the Monte-Carlo method and accelerated Ray-Tracing techniques to evaluate efficiently the energy flux in concentrated solar installations.

  18. Exergetic and energetic comparison of LiCl-H_2O and LiBr-H_2O working pairs in a solar absorption cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two working pairs (LiCl-H_2O and LiBr-H_2O) are examined in a solar absorption chiller. • The examined single effect absorption chiller is driven by flat plate collectors. • The system is analyzed energetically and energetically for 3 ambient temperatures. • LiCl-H_2O performs better than LiBr-H_2O in all the examined cases. • The optimum operating temperature is lower for the case of pair LiCl-H_2O. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the use of an alternative working pair in a solar absorption cooling system. LiCl-H_2O is the new examined pair and it is compared energetically and exegetically with the conventional pair LiBr-H_2O, which is the most usual in air-conditioning applications. The simplest solar cooling system is analyzed in order to focus in the comparison between these working fluids. Specifically, flat plate collectors, coupled with a storage tank, feed the single effect absorption chiller which produces 250 kW cooling at 10 °C. The two pairs are examined parametrically for various heat source temperature levels and for three ambient temperature levels (25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C). The minimization of the collecting area, which means maximum exergetic efficiency, is the optimization goal in every case. The final results show that LiCl-H_2O pair performs better in all cases by giving greater exergetic efficiency. More specifically, about 8% lower collecting area is required to cover the demanded cooling load with this working pair. Another interesting result is that the optimum heat source temperature for the LiCl-H_2O is roughly lower than the respective for the LiBr-H_2O. The system is analyzed in steady state with the commercial software Engineering Equator Solver (EES).

  19. SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF LARGE GRADUAL SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS. II. SYSTEMATIC Q/M DEPENDENCE OF HEAVY ION SPECTRAL BREAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, M. I.; Dayeh, M. A.; Ebert, R. W.; Schwadron, N. A. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Mason, G. M. [Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); McComas, D. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States); Li, G. [The Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35756 (United States); Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smith, C. W., E-mail: mdesai@swri.edu [University of New Hampshire, 8 College Road, Durham NH 03824 (United States)

    2016-09-10

    We fit ∼0.1–500 MeV nucleon{sup −1} H–Fe spectra in 46 large solar energetic particle (SEP) events with the double power-law Band function to obtain a normalization constant, low- and high-energy parameters γ {sub a} and γ {sub b}, and break energy E {sub B}, and derive the low-energy spectral slope γ {sub 1}. We find that: (1) γ {sub a}, γ {sub 1}, and γ {sub b} are species-independent and the spectra steepen with increasing energy; (2) E {sub B} decreases systematically with decreasing Q/M scaling as (Q/M){sup α}; (3) α varies between ∼0.2–3 and is well correlated with the ∼0.16–0.23 MeV nucleon{sup −1} Fe/O; (4) in most events, α < 1.4, γ {sub b}– γ {sub a} > 3, and O E {sub B} increases with γ {sub b}– γ {sub a}; and (5) in many extreme events (associated with faster coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and GLEs), Fe/O and {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are enriched, α ≥ 1.4, γ {sub b}– γ {sub a} < 3, and E {sub B} decreases with γ {sub b}– γ {sub a}. The species-independence of γ {sub a}, γ {sub 1}, and γ {sub b} and the Q/M dependence of E {sub B} within an event and the α values suggest that double power-law SEP spectra occur due to diffusive acceleration by near-Sun CME shocks rather than scattering in interplanetary turbulence. Using γ {sub 1}, we infer that the average compression ratio for 33 near-Sun CME shocks is 2.49 ± 0.08. In most events, the Q/M dependence of E {sub B} is consistent with the equal diffusion coefficient condition and the variability in α is driven by differences in the near-shock wave intensity spectra, which are flatter than the Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum but weaker than the spectra for extreme events. In contrast, in extreme events, enhanced wave power enables faster CME shocks to accelerate impulsive suprathermal ions more efficiently than ambient coronal ions.

  20. INTERPLANETARY PROPAGATION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE HEAVY IONS OBSERVED AT 1 AU AND THE ROLE OF ENERGY SCALING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G. M.; Haggerty, D. K.; Li, G.; Zank, G. P.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Desai, M. I.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied ∼0.3 to >100 MeV nucleon –1 H, He, O, and Fe in 17 large western hemisphere solar energetic particle events (SEP) to examine whether the often observed decrease of Fe/O during the rise phase is due to mixing of separate SEP particle populations, or is an interplanetary transport effect. Our earlier study showed that the decrease in Fe/O nearly disappeared if Fe and O were compared at energies where the two species interplanetary diffusion coefficient were equal, and therefore their kinetic energy nucleon –1 was different by typically a factor ∼2 ( e nergy scaling ) . Using an interplanetary transport model that includes effects of focusing, convection, adiabatic deceleration, and pitch angle scattering we have fit the particle spectral forms and intensity profiles over a broad range of conditions where the 1 AU intensities were reasonably well connected to the source and not obviously dominated by local shock effects. The transport parameters we derive are similar to earlier studies. Our model follows individual particles with a Monte Carlo calculation, making it possible to determine many properties and effects of the transport. We find that the energy scaling feature is preserved, and that the model is reasonably successful at fitting the magnitude and duration of the Fe/O ratio decrease. This along with successfully fitting the observed decrease of the O/He ratio leads us to conclude that this feature is best understood as a transport effect. Although the effects of transport, in particular adiabatic deceleration, are very significant below a few MeV nucleon –1 , the spectral break observed in these events at 1 AU is only somewhat modified by transport, and so the commonly observed spectral breaks must be present at injection. For scattering mean free paths of the order of 0.1 AU adiabatic deceleration is so large below ∼200 keV nucleon –1 that ions starting with such energies at injection are cooled sufficiently as to be

  1. Solar cosmic ray events at large radial distances from the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwickl, R.; Webber, W.R.; McDonald, F.B.; Teegarden, B.; Trainor, J.

    1975-01-01

    Using the GSFC-UNH cosmic ray telescope on Pioneer 10 and 11 we have examined solar cosmic ray events out to a distance approximately 5 AU from the sun. Here we consider two aspects of this work, both related to our anisotropy studies. First, a detailed error analysis of the cosine fit to the anisotropy is presented. Second, we look at the anisotropy and intensity time characteristics during solar events as a function of radial distance. (orig.) [de

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WATCH Solar X-Ray Burst Catalogue (Crosby+ 1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, N.; Lund, N.; Vilmer, N.; Sunyaev, R.

    1998-01-01

    Catalogue containing solar X-ray bursts measured by the Danish Wide Angle Telescope for Cosmic Hard X-Rays (WATCH) experiment aboard the Russian satellite GRANAT in the deca-keV energy range. Table 1 lists the periods during which solar observations with WATCH are available (WATCH ON-TIME) and where the bursts listed in the catalogue have been observed. (2 data files).

  3. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission – Low Energy Payload ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)' mission, which was launched onboard GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft on 08 May 2003 by GSLV-D2 rocket to study the solar flares. The SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload was designed, developed and ...

  4. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) Mission – Low Energy Payload

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We present the first results from the 'Low Energy Detector' payload of 'Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)' mission, which was launched onboard GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft on 08 May 2003 by GSLV-D2 rocket to study the solar flares. The SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload was designed, developed ...

  5. ELECTRON ENERGY PARTITION IN THE ABOVE-THE-LOOPTOP SOLAR HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal, E-mail: moka@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (≳15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff E{sub c}. In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

  6. Cosmic ray transport in heliospheric magnetic structures. I. Modeling background solar wind using the CRONOS magnetohydrodynamic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiengarten, T.; Kleimann, J.; Fichtner, H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Germany); Kühl, P.; Kopp, A.; Heber, B. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrecht-Universität zu Kiel (Germany); Kissmann, R. [Institut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Universität Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-06-10

    The transport of energetic particles such as cosmic rays is governed by the properties of the plasma being traversed. While these properties are rather poorly known for galactic and interstellar plasmas due to the lack of in situ measurements, the heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric transport of energetic particles are structures such as corotating interaction regions, which, due to strongly enhanced magnetic field strengths, turbulence, and associated shocks, can act as diffusion barriers on the one hand, but also as accelerators of low energy CRs on the other hand as well. In a two-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with a numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) setup (this paper), which will serve as an input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (second paper). In this first paper, we present results from 3D MHD simulations with our code CRONOS: for validation purposes we use analytic boundary conditions and compare with similar work by Pizzo. For a more realistic modeling of solar wind conditions, boundary conditions derived from synoptic magnetograms via the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model are utilized, where the potential field modeling is performed with a finite-difference approach in contrast to the traditional spherical harmonics expansion often utilized in the WSA model. Our results are validated by comparing with multi-spacecraft data for ecliptical (STEREO-A/B) and out-of-ecliptic (Ulysses) regions.

  7. The metal-enriched host of an energetic γ-ray burst at z ≈ 1.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Geier, S.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Levan, A. J.; Sparre, M.; Watson, D. J.; Zafar, T.

    2012-10-01

    Context. The star-forming nature of long γ-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies provides invaluable constraints on the progenitors of GRBs and might open a short-cut to the characteristics of typical star-forming galaxies throughout the history of the Universe. Due to the absence of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, however, detailed investigations, specifically a determination of the gas-phase metallicity of gamma-ray burst hosts, was largely limited to redshifts z 1 GRB host in unprecedented detail and investigate the relation between GRB hosts and field galaxies. Methods: We availed of VLT/X-shooter optical/NIR spectroscopy to measure the metallicity, electron density, star-formation rate (SFR), and reddening of the host of GRB 080605. Specifically, we used different strong-line diagnostics to robustly measure the gas-phase metallicity within the interstellar medium (ISM) for the first time based on [N ii] at this redshift. Results: The host of the energetic (Eγ,iso ~ 2 × 1053 erg) GRB 080605 at z ~ 1.64 is a morphologically complex, vigorously star-forming galaxy with an Hα-derived SFR of 31-6+12 M⊙ yr-1. Its ISM is significantly enriched with metals. Specifically, [N ii]/Hα = 0.14 ± 0.02, which yields an oxygen abundance 12 + log (O/H) between 8.3 and 8.6 depending on the adopted strong-line calibrator. This corresponds to values in the range of 0.4 - 0.8 Z⊙. For its measured stellar mass M* = 8.0-1.6+1.3 × 109 M⊙ and SFR, this value is consistent with the fundamental metallicity relation defined by star-forming field galaxies. The absence of strong Lyα emission constrains the escape fraction of resonantly-scattered Lyα photons to fesc ≲ 0.08. Conclusions: Our observations provide a detailed picture of the conditions in the ISM of a highly star-forming galaxy with irregular morphology at z ~ 1.6. They include the first robust metallicity measurement based on [N ii] for a GRB host at z > 1 and directly illustrate that GRB hosts are not necessarily

  8. Cosmic ray variations of solar origin in relation to human physiological state during the December 2006 solar extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papailiou, M.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Vassilaki, A.; Kelesidis, K. M.; Mertzanos, G. A.; Petropoulos, B.

    2009-02-01

    There is an increasing amount of evidence linking biological effects to solar and geomagnetic disturbances. A series of studies is published referring to the changes in human physiological responses at different levels of geomagnetic activity. In this study, the possible relation between the daily variations of cosmic ray intensity, measured by the Neutron Monitor at the Cosmic Ray Station of the University of Athens (http://cosray.phys.uoa.gr) and the average daily and hourly heart rate variations of persons, with no symptoms or hospital admission, monitored by Holter electrocardiogram, is considered. This work refers to a group of persons admitted to the cardiological clinic of the KAT Hospital in Athens during the time period from 4th to 24th December 2006 that is characterized by extreme solar and geomagnetic activity. A series of Forbush decreases started on 6th December and lasted until the end of the month and a great solar proton event causing a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) of the cosmic ray intensity on 13th December occurred. A sudden decrease of the cosmic ray intensity on 15th December, when a geomagnetic storm was registered, was also recorded in Athens Neutron Monitor station (cut-off rigidity 8.53 GV) with amplitude of 4%. It is noticed that during geomagnetically quiet days the heart rate and the cosmic ray intensity variations are positively correlated. When intense cosmic ray variations, like Forbush decreases and relativistic proton events produced by strong solar phenomena occur, cosmic ray intensity and heart rate get minimum values and their variations, also, coincide. During these events the correlation coefficient of these two parameters changes and follows the behavior of the cosmic ray intensity variations. This is only a small part of an extended investigation, which has begun using data from the year 2002 and is still in progress.

  9. Lower Ionosphere Sensitivity to Solar X-ray Flares Over a Complete Solar Cycle Evaluated From VLF Signal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macotela, Edith L.; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Manninen, Jyrki; Correia, Emília; Turunen, Tauno; Magalhães, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The daytime lower ionosphere behaves as a solar X-ray flare detector, which can be monitored using very low frequency (VLF) radio waves that propagate inside the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. In this paper, we infer the lower ionosphere sensitivity variation over a complete solar cycle by using the minimum X-ray fluence (FXmin) necessary to produce a disturbance of the quiescent ionospheric conductivity. FXmin is the photon energy flux integrated over the time interval from the start of a solar X-ray flare to the beginning of the ionospheric disturbance recorded as amplitude deviation of the VLF signal. FXmin is computed for ionospheric disturbances that occurred in the time interval of December-January from 2007 to 2016 (solar cycle 24). The computation of FXmin uses the X-ray flux in the wavelength band below 0.2 nm and the amplitude of VLF signals transmitted from France (HWU), Turkey (TBB), and U.S. (NAA), which were recorded in Brazil, Finland, and Peru. The main result of this study is that the long-term variation of FXmin is correlated with the level of solar activity, having FXmin values in the range (1 - 12) × 10-7 J/m2. Our result suggests that FXmin is anticorrelated with the lower ionosphere sensitivity, confirming that the long-term variation of the ionospheric sensitivity is anticorrelated with the level of solar activity. This result is important to identify the minimum X-ray fluence that an external source of ionization must overcome in order to produce a measurable ionospheric disturbance during daytime.

  10. Energetic particle, solar wind plasma and magnetic field measurements on board Prognoz-6 during the large scale interplanetary disturbance of Jan. 3-4, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurt, V.G.; Stolpovskij, V.G.; Gombosi, T.I.; Kecskemety, K.; Somogyi, J.; Gringauz, K.I.; Kotova, G.A.; Verigin, M.I.; Styazhkin, V.A.

    1980-05-01

    The interplanetary shock, generated during the solar flare of Jan. 1, 1978 reached the Earth's orbit on January 3, 21sup(h) UT. Aboard Prognoz-6 satellite the fluxes and spectra of energetic electron (E>30 keV) and proton (E>500 keV) fluxes and energy spectra of solar wind ions up to 4.5 keV and magnetic field were measured, with a time resolution approximately 10 sec. Time variation of these characteristics are given including preshock and postshock frequency spectra of magnetic field fluctuations. Effective acceleration of protons in the oblique shock was observed. The mean free path of protons with E<6 MeV was determined by using the time interval of anisotropic particle flux observations as lambda approximately 0.2 a.u. (author)

  11. Energetic particles detected by the Electron Reflectometer instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor, 1999-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delory, Gregory T.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Brain, David

    2012-01-01

    events at Mars associated with solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which includes the identification of interplanetary shocks. MGS observations of energetic particles at varying geometries between the Earth and Mars that include shocks produced by halo, limb, and backsided events provide a unique......We report the observation of galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles by the Electron Reflectometer instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from May of 1999 to the mission conclusion in November 2006. Originally designed to detect low-energy electrons, the Electron...... recorded high energy galactic cosmic rays with similar to 45% efficiency. Comparisons of this data to galactic cosmic ray proton fluxes obtained from the Advanced Composition Explorer yield agreement to within 10% and reveal the expected solar cycle modulation as well as shorter timescale variations. Solar...

  12. The radial distribution of cosmic rays in the heliosphere at solar maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, F. B.; Fujii, Z.; Heikkila, B.; Lal, N.

    2003-08-01

    To obtain a more detailed profile of the radial distribution of galactic (GCRs) and anomalous (ACRs) cosmic rays, a unique time in the 11-year solar activity cycle has been selected - that of solar maximum. At this time of minimum cosmic ray intensity a simple, straight-forward normalization technique has been found that allows the cosmic ray data from IMP 8, Pioneer 10 (P-10) and Voyagers 1 and 2 (V1, V2) to be combined for the solar maxima of cycles 21, 22 and 23. This combined distribution reveals a functional form of the radial gradient that varies as G 0/r with G 0 being constant and relatively small in the inner heliosphere. After a transition region between ˜10 and 20 AU, G 0 increases to a much larger value that remains constant between ˜25 and 82 AU. This implies that at solar maximum the changes that produce the 11-year modulation cycle are mainly occurring in the outer heliosphere between ˜15 AU and the termination shock. These observations are not inconsistent with the concept that Global Merged Interaction. regions (GMIRs) are the principal agent of modulation between solar minimum and solar maximum. There does not appear to be a significant change in the amount of heliosheath modulation occurring between the 1997 solar minimum and the cycle 23 solar maximum.

  13. Very high resolution UV and X-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W. A.; Haisch, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the X-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical X-ray observations using this new technique.

  14. The soft X-ray telescope for the SOLAR-A mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneta, S.; Acton, L.; Bruner, M.; Lemen, J.; Brown, W.; Caravalho, R.; Catura, R.; Freeland, S.; Jurcevich, B.; Owens, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) of the SOLAR-A mission is designed to produce X-ray movies of flares with excellent angular and time resolution as well as full-disk X-ray images for general studies. A selection of thin metal filters provide a measure of temperature discrimination and aid in obtaining the wide dynamic range required for solar observing. The co-aligned SXT aspect telescope will yield optical images for aspect reference, white-light flare and sunspot studies, and, possibly, helioseismology. This paper describes the capabilities and characteristics of the SXT for scientific observing.

  15. Energetic Particles at High Latitudes of the Heliosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming

    2004-01-01

    Ulysses has by now made two complete out-of-ecliptic orbits around the sun. The first encounter of the solar poles occurred in 1994-1995, when the sun was near the minimum of its activity cycle, while the second one was in 2000-2001, when the sun was at solar maximum. To our surprise, energetic particles of all origins at high latitude are not much different from those we observe near the ecliptic for at least these two phases of solar cycle. The latitude gradients of galactic and anomalous cosmic rays are positive but small at the 1994-1995 solar minimum and almost zero at the 2000-2001 solar maximum, while temporal solar cycle variation dominates their flux variation at all latitudes. Solar energetic particles from all large gradual events can be seen at both Ulysses and Earth no matter how large their spatial separations from the solar event are, and the particle flux often reaches a uniform level in the entire inner heliosphere within a few days after event onset and remains so throughout the decay phase that can sometimes last over a month. Energetic particles accelerated by low-latitude CIRs can appear at high latitudes, far beyond the latitudinal range of CIRs. All these observations suggest that latitudinal transport of energetic particles is quite easy. In addition, because the average magnetic field is radial at the pole, The Ulysses observations indicate that parallel diffusion and drift in the radial direction need to be reduced at the poles relative to their equatorial values. To achieve such behaviors of particle transport, the heliospheric magnetic field needs a significant latitudinal component at the poles. A non-zero latitudinal magnetic field component can be produced by latitudinal motion of the magnetic field line in solar corona, which can be in form of either random walk suggested by Jokipii or large scale systematic motion suggested by Fisk

  16. A Compressed Sensing-based Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Solar Flare X-Ray Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Simon; Bolzern, Roman; Battaglia, Marina, E-mail: simon.felix@fhnw.ch, E-mail: roman.bolzern@fhnw.ch, E-mail: marina.battaglia@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2017-11-01

    One way of imaging X-ray emission from solar flares is to measure Fourier components of the spatial X-ray source distribution. We present a new compressed sensing-based algorithm named VIS-CS, which reconstructs the spatial distribution from such Fourier components. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm on synthetic and observed solar flare X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite and compare its performance with existing algorithms. VIS-CS produces competitive results with accurate photometry and morphology, without requiring any algorithm- and X-ray-source-specific parameter tuning. Its robustness and performance make this algorithm ideally suited for the generation of quicklook images or large image cubes without user intervention, such as for imaging spectroscopy analysis.

  17. A Compressed Sensing-based Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Solar Flare X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Simon; Bolzern, Roman; Battaglia, Marina

    2017-11-01

    One way of imaging X-ray emission from solar flares is to measure Fourier components of the spatial X-ray source distribution. We present a new compressed sensing-based algorithm named VIS_CS, which reconstructs the spatial distribution from such Fourier components. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm on synthetic and observed solar flare X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite and compare its performance with existing algorithms. VIS_CS produces competitive results with accurate photometry and morphology, without requiring any algorithm- and X-ray-source-specific parameter tuning. Its robustness and performance make this algorithm ideally suited for the generation of quicklook images or large image cubes without user intervention, such as for imaging spectroscopy analysis.

  18. Distinct Pattern of Solar Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays above a High Geomagnetic Cutoff Rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Clem, John; Evenson, Paul; Pyle, Roger; Mitthumsiri, Warit; Ruffolo, David; Sáiz, Alejandro; Nutaro, Tanin

    2018-05-01

    Solar modulation refers to Galactic cosmic-ray variations with the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle and ∼22 yr solar magnetic cycle and is relevant to the space radiation environment and effects on Earth’s atmosphere. Its complicated dependence on solar and heliospheric conditions is only roughly understood and has been empirically modeled in terms of a single modulation parameter. Most analyses of solar modulation use neutron monitor (NM) data from locations with relatively low geomagnetic cutoff rigidity, i.e., the threshold for cosmic rays to penetrate Earth’s magnetic field. The Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, has the world’s highest cutoff rigidity (≈17 GV) where observations span a complete solar modulation cycle (since late 2007). The pattern of solar modulation at Doi Inthanon during 2011–2014 was qualitatively very different from that at a low geomagnetic cutoff and is not well described by the same modulation parameter. At other times, NM count rates from Doi Inthanon and McMurdo, Antarctica (cutoff ∼1 GV), were linearly correlated and confirm the observation from latitude surveys in the previous solar cycle that the slope of the correlation changes with solar magnetic polarity. Low solar magnetic tilt angles (magnetic field, which is consistent with an increase in diffusion at high rigidity short-circuiting the effects of drifts and the heliospheric current sheet.

  19. Medium level of direct solar radiation and energetic potential of solar concentrator in Minas Gerais State, Brazil; Niveis medios de radiacao solar direta e potencial energetico dos concentradores solares em Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    Basic concepts of solar energy, technical description of solar concentrators, its orientation and methodology of direct solar radiation measurement are discussed. An comparison of different solar radiation measurements methods, its methodology and its calculation steps are reported. Calculus and tables of the electric and thermal energy generation potential, through solar concentrators, on the state of Minas Gerais are also presented. 18 figs., 90 tabs., 12 refs.

  20. X-ray observations of solar flares with the Einstein Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.H.M.M.; Fink, H.; Harnden, F.R. Jr.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA)

    1987-01-01

    The first Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) observations of solar flares are presented. These flares were detected in scattered X-ray light when the X-ray telescope was pointed at the sunlit earth. The propagation and scattering of solar X-rays in the earth's atmosphere are discussed in order to be able to deduce the solar X-ray flux incident on top of the atmosphere from scattered X-ray intensity measurements. After this correction, the scattered X-ray data are interpreted as full-disk observations of the sun obtained with the same instrumentation used for observations of flares on other stars. Employing the same data analysis and interpretation techniques, extremely good agreement is found between the physical flare parameters deduced from IPC observations and known properties of compact loop flares. This agreement demonstrates that flare observations with the IPC can reveal physical parameters such as temperature and density quite accurately in the solar case and therefore suggests that the interpretations of stellar X-ray flare observations are on a physically sound basis. 26 references

  1. Multi-spacecraft observations of solar hard X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    The role of multi-spacecraft observations in solar flare research is examined from the point of view of solar hard X-ray bursts and their implications with respect to models of the impulsive phase. Multi-spacecraft measurements provide a stereoscopic view of the flare region, and hence represent the only direct method of measuring directivity of X-rays. In absence of hard X-ray imaging instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, multi-spacecraft measurements provide the only means of determining the radial (vertical) structure of the hard X-ray source. This potential of the multi-spacecraft observations is illustrated with an analysis of the presently available observations of solar hard X-ray bursts made simultaneously by two or more of the following spacecraft: International Sun Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3), Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO), Helios-B and High Energy Astrophysical Observatory-A (HEAO-A). In particular, some conclusions have been drawn about the spatial structure and directivity of 50-100 keV X-rays from impulsive flares. Desirable features of future multi-spacecraft missions are briefly discussed followed by a short description of the hard X-ray experiment on the International Solar Polar Mission which has been planned specifically for multi-spacecraft observations of the Sun. (orig.)

  2. Energetic particles beyond the heliospheric shock: Anomalous Cosmic Rays (ACRs), Pick-Up Ions (PUIs) and the associated energetic neutral atoms (ENAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, Horst; Czechowski, Andrzej; Fahr, Hans J.; Lay, Guenter

    2000-01-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft is expected to encounter the heliospheric termination shock within the next decade. Besides the ongoing discussion how to possibly predict the time of this encounter, there is a growing interest into a more detailed description of the region beyond the heliospheric shock, i.e., the heliosheath. Refinements of the so far rather crude models will facilitate interpretation of forthcoming data. We report on results obtained with our model of the transport of ACRs in the heliosheath. In improvement of earlier approaches it is based on a solar wind background flow computed with a self-consistent large-scale model of the heliosphere. Besides these downstream ACR spectra, which will become accessible for in situ observation as soon as the Voyager spacecraft will have crossed the heliospheric shock, we study the potential of observations of the flux of ENAs to remotely explore the structure of the heliosheath. In particular, as part of a comparison of the various ENA sources, we will address the significance of the contribution of those ENAs resulting from a de-charging of PUIs

  3. Solar Cycle in the Heliosphere and Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-23

    at the source surface at 2.5 solar radii around the Sun. OMF shows a great variability both in solar cycle and on the centennial scale (see Fig. 3...It is important to note that the centennial variability is great (Lockwood et al. 1999; Solanki et al. 2000) comparable with or even greater than the...be identified as spikes in production of cosmogenic isotope (10Be and 14C) records on the centennial -millennial time scale (e.g., Usoskin and

  4. Comparison of nonflare solar soft x ray flux with 10.7-cm radio flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    The similarities and differences of the nonflare solar 1- to 8-A X ray flux and the daily 10.7-cm Ottawa solar radio flux are examined. The radio flux is shown to be much less sensitive than the soft X ray flux on the average to the coronal emission of active regions located near or beyond the solar chromospheric limb relative to regions near the center of the solar disk. This is caused by the solar soft X ray emission's being optically thin while much of the 10.7-cm active region emission is from optical depths of tauapprox.1. The radio flux includes a large quiet sun flux which is emitted mostly from the tenuous chromosphere-corona transition region (Tapprox.10 4 --10 6 0 K) and partly from the cooler portions of the quiet corona Tapprox.1.5 x 10 6 0 K. Conversely, the solar soft X ray flux has a very small quiet sun component

  5. Recurrent pulse trains in the solar hard X-ray flare of 1980 June 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiplinger, A.L.; Dennis, B.R.; Frost, K.J.; Orwig, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of the solar hard X-ray and γ-ray flare of 1980 June 7 as seen by the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer on SMM. The hard X-ray profile is most unusual in that it is characterized by an initial pulse train of seven intense hard X-ray spikes. However, the event is unique among the 6300 events observed by HXRBS in that the temporal signature of this pulse train recurs twice during the flare. Such signatures of temporal stability in impulsive solar flares have not been observed before. Examinations of the hard X-ray data in conjunction with radio and γ-ray observations show that the 28--480 keV X-ray emission is simultaneous with the 17 GHz microwave fluxes within 128 ms and that the 3.5--6.5 MeV prompt γ-ray line emission is coincident with secondary maxima of the microwave and X-ray fluxes. Studies of the temporal and spectral properties of the pulses indicate that the pulses are not produced by purely reversible processes, and that if the source is oscillatory, it is not a high quality oscillator. Although the absence of spatially resolved hard X-ray observations leaves other possibilities open, a parameterization of the event as a set of seven sequentially firing loops is presented that offers many satisfying explanations of the observations

  6. The Sun's X-ray Emission During the Recent Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Mirek; Gburek, Szymon; Siarkowski, Marek; Kuzin, Sergey; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

    2010-02-01

    The Sun recently underwent a period of a remarkable lack of major activity such as large flares and sunspots, without equal since the advent of the space age a half century ago. A widely used measure of solar activity is the amount of solar soft X-ray emission, but until recently this has been below the threshold of the X-ray-monitoring Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). There is thus an urgent need for more sensitive instrumentation to record solar X-ray emission in this range. Anticipating this need, a highly sensitive spectrophotometer called Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) was included in the solar telescope/spectrometer TESIS instrument package on the third spacecraft in Russia's Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun (CORONAS-PHOTON) program, launched 30 January 2009 into a near-polar orbit. SphinX measures X-rays in a band similar to the GOES longer-wavelength channel.

  7. Local protoplanetary disk ionisation by T Tauri star energetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, F.; Drake, J.; Cohen, O.; Garraffo, C.

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of protoplanetary disks is believed to be driven largely by viscosity. The ionization of the disk that gives rise to viscosity is caused by X-rays from the central star or by energetic particles released by shock waves travelling into the circumstellar medium. We have performed test-particle numerical simulations of GeV-scale protons traversing a realistic magnetised wind of a young solar mass star with a superposed small-scale turbulence. The large-scale field is generated via an MHD model of a T Tauri wind, whereas the isotropic (Kolmogorov power spectrum) turbulent component is synthesised along the particles' trajectories. We have combined Chandra observations of T Tauri flares with solar flare scaling for describing the energetic particle spectrum. In contrast with previous models, we find that the disk ionization is dominated by X-rays except within narrow regions where the energetic particles are channelled onto the disk by the strongly tangled and turbulent field lines; the radial thickness of such regions broadens with the distance from the central star (5 stellar radii or more). In those regions, the disk ionization due to energetic particles can locally dominate the stellar X-rays, arguably, out to large distances (10, 100 AU) from the star.

  8. Imaging Plasma Density Structures in the Soft X-Rays Generated by Solar Wind Charge Exchange with Neutrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.; Allen, R.; Aryan, H.; Bodewits, D.; Brandt, P.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Brown, G.; Carter, J. A.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Collier, M. R.; Connor, H. K.; Cravens, T. E.; Ezoe, Y.; Fok, M.-C.; Galeazzi, M.; Gutynska, O.; Holmström, M.; Hsieh, S.-Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Koutroumpa, D.; Kuntz, K. D.; Leutenegger, M.; Miyoshi, Y.; Porter, F. S.; Purucker, M. E.; Read, A. M.; Raeder, J.; Robertson, I. P.; Samsonov, A. A.; Sembay, S.; Snowden, S. L.; Thomas, N. E.; von Steiger, R.; Walsh, B. M.; Wing, S.

    2018-06-01

    Both heliophysics and planetary physics seek to understand the complex nature of the solar wind's interaction with solar system obstacles like Earth's magnetosphere, the ionospheres of Venus and Mars, and comets. Studies with this objective are frequently conducted with the help of single or multipoint in situ electromagnetic field and particle observations, guided by the predictions of both local and global numerical simulations, and placed in context by observations from far and extreme ultraviolet (FUV, EUV), hard X-ray, and energetic neutral atom imagers (ENA). Each proposed interaction mechanism (e.g., steady or transient magnetic reconnection, local or global magnetic reconnection, ion pick-up, or the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) generates diagnostic plasma density structures. The significance of each mechanism to the overall interaction (as measured in terms of atmospheric/ionospheric loss at comets, Venus, and Mars or global magnetospheric/ionospheric convection at Earth) remains to be determined but can be evaluated on the basis of how often the density signatures that it generates are observed as a function of solar wind conditions. This paper reviews efforts to image the diagnostic plasma density structures in the soft (low energy, 0.1-2.0 keV) X-rays produced when high charge state solar wind ions exchange electrons with the exospheric neutrals surrounding solar system obstacles. The introduction notes that theory, local, and global simulations predict the characteristics of plasma boundaries such the bow shock and magnetopause (including location, density gradient, and motion) and regions such as the magnetosheath (including density and width) as a function of location, solar wind conditions, and the particular mechanism operating. In situ measurements confirm the existence of time- and spatial-dependent plasma density structures like the bow shock, magnetosheath, and magnetopause/ionopause at Venus, Mars, comets, and the Earth. However, in situ

  9. THE VERY UNUSUAL INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTION OF 2012 JULY 23: A BLAST WAVE MEDIATED BY SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C. T. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Leske, R. A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mason, G. M. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Von Rosenvinge, T. T. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gomez-Herrero, R. [University of Alcala, E-28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Klassen, A. [Kiel University, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, K. D. C., E-mail: ctrussell@igpp.ucla.edu [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The giant, superfast, interplanetary coronal mass ejection, detected by STEREO A on 2012 July 23, well away from Earth, appears to have reached 1 AU with an unusual set of leading bow waves resembling in some ways a subsonic interaction, possibly due to the high pressures present in the very energetic particles produced in this event. Eventually, a front of record high-speed flow reached STEREO. The unusual behavior of this event is illustrated using the magnetic field, plasma, and energetic ion observations obtained by STEREO. Had the Earth been at the location of STEREO, the large southward-oriented magnetic field component in the event, combined with its high speed, would have produced a record storm.

  10. Solar Flares and the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are the biggest explosions in the solar system. They are important both for understanding explosive events in the Universe and for their impact on human technology and communications. The satellite-based HESSI is designed to study the explosive release of energy and the acceleration of electrons, protons, and other charged particles to high energies in solar flares. HESSI produces "color" movies of the Sun in high-energy X rays and gamma rays radiated by these energetic particles. HESSI's X-ray and gamma-ray images of flares are obtained using techniques similar to those used in radio interferometry. Ground-based radio observations of the Sun provide an important complement to the HESSI observations of solar flares. I will describe the HESSI Project and the high-energy aspects of solar flares, and how these relate to radio astronomy techniques and observations.

  11. Solar energetic particle flux enhancement as a predictor of geomagnetic activity in a neural network-based model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valach, F.; Revallo, M.; Bochníček, Josef; Hejda, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, April (2009), S04004/1-S04004/7 ISSN 1542-7390 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608; GA AV ČR 1QS300120506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : neural networks * coronal mass ejections * energetic particles * flares * radio emissions * magnetic storms Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.845, year: 2009

  12. Wide Field-of-View Soft X-Ray Imaging for Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B. M.; Collier, M. R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Snowden, S. L.; Carter, J. A.; Collado-Vega, Y.; Connor, H. K.; Cravens, T. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Soft X-ray imagers can be used to study the mesoscale and macroscale density structures that occur whenever and wherever the solar wind encounters neutral atoms at comets, the Moon, and both magnetized and unmagnetized planets. Charge exchange between high charge state solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals results in the isotropic emission of soft X-ray photons with energies from 0.1 to 2.0 keV. At Earth, this process occurs primarily within the magnetosheath and cusps. Through providing a global view, wide field-of-view imaging can determine the significance of the various proposed solar wind-magnetosphere interaction mechanisms by evaluating their global extent and occurrence patterns. A summary of wide field-of-view (several to tens of degrees) soft X-ray imaging is provided including slumped micropore microchannel reflectors, simulated images, and recent flight results.

  13. Microwave and X-Ray emission during a isentropic expansion and its application to solar bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    The gyro-synchrotron emission in microwaves and the free-free emission in X-rays of a plasma enclosed in a cylinder coincident with a magnetic force tube were calculated for an isentropic self-similar expansion, with plane and cylindrical symmetries. This expansion model was applied to a region of the low solar corona, and the results were compared to the emission observed in some simple solar events of low intensity. The calculations show satisfactory coincidence with the events in X-rays for energies around 10 29 ergs. The solar events analyzed in microwaves, which are not the same that were studied in X-rays, in general do not fit the theoretical results. The origin of the discrepancy is probably the formulation of the processes of emission applied to the expansion. (Author) [pt

  14. The collective acceleration mechanism of solar cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtein, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    The collective acceleration mechanism of protons and nuclei in solar flares, which lies in the fact that nuclei are trapped by electron bunches moving along the opened lines of force of the decreasing magnetic field of solar sports, is discussed. The proposed mechanism explains in a natural way the electron and nucleus energy ratio observed during flares. Electron acceleration in the current layers up to energies of the order of a MeV is discussed as a mechanism of electron pulsed injection. The collective acceleration mechanism can be realized at a comparatively small density of accelerated electrons nsub(e) approximately equal to 10 2 10 4 cm -3

  15. Solar wind velocity and daily variation of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, H.S.; Riker, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    Recently parameters applicable to the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have become much better defined. Superior quality of data bases that are now available, particularly for the post-1971 period, make it possible to believe the long-term trends in the data. These data are correlated with the secular changes observed in the diurnal variation parameters obtained from neutron monitor data at Deep River and underground muon telescope data at Embudo (30 MEW) and Socorro (82 MWE). The annual mean amplitudes appear to have large values during the epochs of high speed solar wind streams. Results are discussed

  16. The first X-ray imaging spectroscopy of quiescent solar active regions with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannah, Iain G.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Smith, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first observations of quiescent active regions (ARs) using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), a focusing hard X-ray telescope capable of studying faint solar emission from high-temperature and non-thermal sources. We analyze the first directly imaged and spectrally...... resolved X-rays above 2 keV from non-flaring ARs, observed near the west limb on 2014 November 1. The NuSTAR X-ray images match bright features seen in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays. The NuSTAR imaging spectroscopy is consistent with isothermal emission of temperatures 3.1-4.4 MK and emission...

  17. MULTI-VIEWPOINT OBSERVATIONS OF A WIDELY DISTRIBUTED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT: THE ROLE OF EUV WAVES AND WHITE-LIGHT SHOCK SIGNATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouloumvakos, A.; Patsourakos, S.; Nindos, A. [Section of Astrogeophysics, Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vourlidas, A. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Anastasiadis, A.; Sandberg, I. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Penteli (Greece); Hillaris, A. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15783 Athens (Greece)

    2016-04-10

    On 2012 March 7, two large eruptive events occurred in the same active region within 1 hr from each other. Each consisted of an X-class flare, a coronal mass ejection (CME), an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave, and a shock wave. The eruptions gave rise to a major solar energetic particle (SEP) event observed at widely separated (∼120°) points in the heliosphere. From multi-viewpoint energetic proton recordings we determine the proton release times at STEREO B and A (STB, STA) and the first Lagrange point (L1) of the Sun–Earth system. Using EUV and white-light data, we determine the evolution of the EUV waves in the low corona and reconstruct the global structure and kinematics of the first CME’s shock, respectively. We compare the energetic proton release time at each spacecraft with the EUV waves’ arrival times at the magnetically connected regions and the timing and location of the CME shock. We find that the first flare/CME is responsible for the SEP event at all three locations. The proton release at STB is consistent with arrival of the EUV wave and CME shock at the STB footpoint. The proton release time at L1 was significantly delayed compared to STB. Three-dimensional modeling of the CME shock shows that the particle release at L1 is consistent with the timing and location of the shock’s western flank. This indicates that at L1 the proton release did not occur in low corona but farther away from the Sun. However, the extent of the CME shock fails to explain the SEP event observed at STA. A transport process or a significantly distorted interplanetary magnetic field may be responsible.

  18. Proceedings of the 21. European Cosmic Ray Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiraly, P.; Kudela, K.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-09-01

    Scientific symposium deals with problems of cosmic ray. The Symposium included the following sessions: (1): Relationship of cosmic rays to the environment; (2) Energetic particles and the magnetosphere of the Earth; (3) Energetic particles in the heliosphere; (4) Solar-terrestrial effects on different time scales; (5) Cosmic rays below the knee; (6) Cosmic rays above the knee (7) High energy interactions; (8) GeV and TeV gamma ray astronomy; (9) European projects related to cosmic rays; Future perspectives. Proceedings contains 122 papers dealing with the scope of INIS.

  19. Soft X-ray spectrographs for solar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in soft X-ray spectrometery are reviewed, with emphasis on techniques for studying the windowless region from roughly 1-100 A. Recent technological developments considered include multilayer mirrors, large-format CCD detectors which are sensitive to X-rays, position-sensitive photon counting detectors, new kinds of X-ray films, and optical systems based on gratings with nonuniform ruling spacings. Improvements in the extent and accuracy of the atomic physics data sets on which the analysis of spectroscopic observatons depend are also discussed.

  20. Galactic Cosmic-Ray Energy Spectra and Composition during the 2009-2010 Solar Minimum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, K. A.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; deNolfo, G. A.; Israel, M. H..; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report new measurements of the elemental energy spectra and composition of galactic cosmic rays during the 2009-2010 solar minimum period using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer. This period of time exhibited record-setting cosmic-ray intensities and very low levels of solar activity. Results are given for particles with nuclear charge 5 solar minimum and 2001-2003 solar maximum are also given here. For most species, the reported intensities changed by less than approx. 7%, and the relative abundances changed by less than approx. 4%. Compared with the 1997-1998 solar minimum relative abundances, the 2009-2010 abundances differ by less than 2sigma, with a trend of fewer secondary species observed in the more recent time period. The new 2009-2010 data are also compared with results of a simple "leaky-box" galactic transport model combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model. We demonstrate that this model is able to give reasonable fits to the energy spectra and the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe. These results are also shown to be comparable to a GALPROP numerical model that includes the effects of diffusive reacceleration in the interstellar medium.

  1. The WATCH solar X-ray burst catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crosby, N.; Lund, Niels; Vilmer, N.

    1998-01-01

    The WATCH experiment aboard the GRANAT satellite provides observations of the Sun in the deka-keV range covering the years 1990 through mid-1992. An introduction to the experiment is given followed by an explanation of how the WATCH solar burst catalogue was created. The different parameters list...

  2. Coordinated soft X-ray and H-alpha observation of solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarro, D. M.; Canfield, R. C.; Metcalf, T. R.; Lemen, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, Ca XIX, and H-alpha observations obtained for a set of four solar flares in the impulsive phase are analyzed. A blue asymmetry was observed in the coronal Ca XIX line during the soft-Xray rise phase in all of the events. A red asymmetry was observed simultaneously in chromospheric H-alpha at spatial locations associated with enhanced flare heating. It is shown that the impulsive phase momentum of upflowing soft X-ray plasma equalled that of the downflowing H-alpha plasma to within an order of magnitude. This supports the explosive chromospheric evaporation model of solar flares.

  3. Chemical Impact of Solar Energetic Particle Event From The Young Sun: Implications for the Origin of Prebiotic Chemistry and the Fain Young Sun Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, V.; Gronoff, G.; Hébrard, E.; Danchi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how the simple molecules present on the early Earth and possibly Mars may have set a path for complex biological molecules, the building blocks of life, represents one of greatest unsolved questions. Here we present a new model of the rise of the abiotic nitrogen fixation and associated pre-biotic chemistry in the early Earth and Mars atmosphere mediated by solar eruptive events. Our physical models of interaction of magnetic clouds ejected from the young Sun with magnetospheres of the early Earth show significant perturbations of geomagnetic fields that produce extended polar caps. These polar caps provide pathways for energetic particles associated with magnetic clouds to penetrate into the nitrogen-rich weakly reducing atmosphere and initiate the reactive chemistry by breaking molecular nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane and producing hydrogen cyanide, the essential compound for life. The model also shows that contrary to the current models of warming of early Earth and Mars, major atmospheric constituents, CO2 and CH4 will be destroyed due to collisional dissociation with energetic particles. Instead, efficient formation of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide, as a by-product of these processes is expected. This mechanism can consistently explain the Faint Young Sun's paradox for the early atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Our new model provides insight into how life may have initiated on Earth and Mars and how to search for the spectral signatures on planets "pregnant" with the potential for life.

  4. Solar activity effects on cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic field variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, A.K.; Shukla, J.P.; Sharma, S.M.; Singh, R.L.; Agrawal, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis has been performed to statistically correlate the date of solar flare occurrence and its importance with the short term cosmic ray intensity decreases (observed by the high latitude neutron monitors) as well as with the geomagnetic field fluctuation indices (Asub(p) and Dsub(st)), during the period 1973-1976. This period has the particular advantage of being close to a solar minimum to avoid the ambiguity due to closely spaced solar flares. It is found that the intensity decrease starts at least 2-3 days after the date of bright solar flares of Imp 1B, 2B or 3B and the amplitude of the decrease increases with the importance of the solar flare. (author)

  5. Effect of multiple short highly energetic X-ray pulses on the synthesis of endoglucanase by a mutant strain of Trichoderma reesei-M7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemishev, Orlin; Markova, Maya; Savov, Valentin; Zapryanov, Stanislav; Blagoev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of cellulose-containing substrate to glucose represents an important area of modern biotechnology. Enzymes for the degradation of the polysaccharide part of biomass have been produced, mostly by fungi belonging to genus Trichoderma. Studies were carried out with the mutant strain Trichoderma reesei-M7, a cellulase producer. Spores of the enzyme producer were irradiated with different doses of characteristic X-ray radiation from metallic tungsten (mainly the W Ka1 and Ka2 lines) with a high dose rate. The latter is a specific property of the dense plasma focus (DPF) device, which has pulsed operation and thus gives short and highly energetic pulses of multiple types of rays and particles. In this case, we focused our study on the influence of hard X-rays. The doses of X-rays absorbed by the spores varied in the range of approximately 5-11,000 mSv measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The influence of the applied doses in combination with exceptionally high dose rates (in the order of tens of millisieverts per microsecond) on the activity of the produced endoglucanase, amount of biomass and extra-cellular protein, was studied in batch cultivation conditions. In the dose range of 200-1200 mSv, some enhancement of endoglucanase activity was obtained: around 18%-32%, despite the drop of the biomass amount, compared with the untreated material. Keywords: endoglucanase; X-ray pulses; thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD); dense plasma focus (DPF); Trichoderma reesei

  6. The possible effect of solar soft X rays on thermospheric nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, D.E.; Barth, C.A.; Cleary, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    A rocket measurement of thermospheric nitric oxide (NO) is used to evaluate the production of odd nitrogen by solar soft X rays (18-50 angstrom). The rocket observation was performed over White Sands Missile Range on November 9, 1981, at 1500 LT for solar maximum conditions (F10.7 = 233). The peak observed NO density was 6.3 x 10 7 cm -3 at 102 km. A photochemical model which included soft X rays was used for comparison with the data. The soft X rays create photoelectrons which lead to enhanced ionization of N 2 and thus increased odd nitrogen production. A good fit to the data was achieved using a soft X ray flux of 0.75 erg cm -2 s -1

  7. The solar modulation of galactic comic rays as described by a time-dependent drift model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, J.A.

    1990-09-01

    The modulation process is understood to be an interaction between cosmic rays and the solar wind. The heliosphere and the observed modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere was reviewed and the time-dependence nature of the long-term modulation of cosmic rays highligted. A two-dimensional time-dependent drift model that describes the long-term modulation of cosmic-rays is presented. Application of the time-dependent drift model during times of increased solar activity showed that drift should be reduced during such periods. Isolated Forbush decreases were also studied in an effort to explain some observed trends in the properties of the Forbush decrease as a function of radial distance. The magnitude of the Forbush decrease and its recovery time were therefore studied as a function of radial distance in the equatorial plane. 154 refs., 95 figs., 1 tab

  8. The spectrometer/telescope for imaging X-rays on board the ESA Solar Orbiter spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krucker, S.; Benz, A.O.; Hurford, G.J.; Arnold, N.G.; Orleański, P.; Gröbelbauer, H.-P.; Casadei, D.; Kobler, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H.J.; Csillaghy, A.; Etesi, L.; Hochmuth, N.; Battaglia, M.; Bednarzik, M.; Resanovic, R.; Grimm, O.; Viertel, G.; Commichau, V.; Howard, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar Orbiter is a Sun-observing mission led by the European Space Agency, addressing the interaction between the Sun and the heliosphere. It will carry ten instruments, among them the X-ray imaging spectrometer STIX. STIX will determine the intensity, spectrum, timing, and location of thermal and accelerated electrons near the Sun through their bremsstrahlung X-ray emission. This report gives a brief overview of the STIX scientific goals and covers in more detail the instrument design and challenges

  9. New Observations of Soft X-ray (0.5-5 keV) Solar Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Mason, J. P.; Jones, A. R.; Warren, H. P.

    2013-12-01

    The solar corona is the brightest source of X-rays in the solar system, and the X-ray emission is highly variable on many time scales. However, the actual solar soft X-ray (SXR) (0.5-5 keV) spectrum is not well known, particularly during solar quiet periods, as, with few exceptions, this energy range has not been systematically studied in many years. Previous observations include high-resolution but very narrow-band spectra from crystal spectrometers (e.g., Yohkoh/BCS), or integrated broadband irradiances from photometers (e.g., GOES/XRS, TIMED/XPS, etc.) that lack detailed spectral information. In recent years, broadband measurements with moderate energy resolution (~0.5-0.7 keV FWHM) were made by SphinX on CORONAS-Photon and SAX on MESSENGER, although they did not extend to energies below ~1 keV. We present observations of solar SXR emission obtained using new instrumentation flown on recent SDO/EVE calibration rocket underflights. The photon-counting spectrometer, a commercial Amptek X123 with a silicon drift detector and an 8 μm Be window, measures the solar disk-integrated SXR emission from ~0.5 to >10 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution and 1 s cadence. A novel imager, a pinhole X-ray camera using a cooled frame-transfer CCD (15 μm pixel pitch), Ti/Al/C filter, and 5000 line/mm Au transmission grating, images the full Sun in multiple spectral orders from ~0.1 to ~5 nm with ~10 arcsec/pixel and ~0.01 nm/pixel spatial and spectral detector scales, respectively, and 10 s cadence. These instruments are prototypes for future CubeSat missions currently being developed. We present new results of solar observations on 04 October 2013 (NASA sounding rocket 36.290). We compare with previous results from 23 June 2012 (NASA sounding rocket 36.286), during which solar activity was low and no signal was observed above ~4 keV. We compare our spectral and imaging measurements with spectra and broadband irradiances from other instruments, including SDO/EVE, GOES/XRS, TIMED

  10. Characteristics of hard X-ray double sources in impulsive solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, T.; Kosugi, T.; Masuda, S.; Yaji, K.; Inda-Koide, M.; Makishima, K.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging observations of solar flare hard X-ray sources with the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) aboard the Yohkoh satellite have revealed that hard X-ray emissions (greater than 30 ke V) originate most frequently from double sources. The double sources are located on both sides of the magnetic neutral line, suggesting that the bulk of hard X-rays is emitted from footpoints of flaring magnetic loops. We also found that hard X-rays from the double sources are emitted simultaneously within a fraction of second and that the weaker source tends to be located in the stronger magnetic field region, showing a softer spectrum. Physcial implications on the observed characteristics of the hard X-ray double sources are discussed.

  11. Solar support of the cold supply of an office building. Operation analysis and energetic evaluation; Solare Unterstuetzung der Kaelteversorgung eines Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeudes. Betriebsanalyse und energetische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Klaus; Bollin, Elmar; Scheck, Eva [Hochschule Offenburg (HSO) (Germany); Wiemken, Edo; Wewior, Jakub [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Eicker, Ursula; Pietruschka, Dirk; Dalibard, Antoine [Hochschule fuer Technik (HFT), Stuttgart (Germany); Meissner, Rolf; Kettner, Christiane [Paradigma Deutschland GmbH, Karlsbad (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Since July 2006 and in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy (Freiburg) and the Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences, the University Offenburg accompanies the solar supported air conditioning of Festo AG and Co. KG in Esslingen (Federal Republic of Germany). The plant was promoted by the Federal Ministry of the Environment (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) in the context of the research project 'Solarthermie2000plus'. The already existing adsorption refrigerant plant which so far was operated with compressor warmth and gas-fuelled boilers, was supplemented by a solar plant as a third heat supplier.

  12. Paraboloidal X-ray telescope mirror for solar coronal spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. A.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Franks, A.; Stedman, M.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The telescope mirror for the X-ray Spectrograph Spectrometer Telescope System is a sixty degree sector of an extreme off-axis paraboloid of revolution. It was designed to focus a coronal region 1 by 10 arc seconds in size on the entrance slit of the spectrometer after reflection from the gold surface. This paper discusses the design, manufacture, and metrology of the mirror, the methods of precision mechanical metrology used to focus the system, and the mounting system which locates the mirror and has proven itself through vibration tests. In addition, the results of reflection efficiency measurements, alignment tolerances, and ray trace analysis of the effects of misalignment are considered.

  13. The spectrometer/telescope for imaging X-rays on board the ESA Solar Orbiter spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krucker, S.; Benz, A. O.; Hurford, G.J.; Arnold, N.G.; Orleanski, P.; Groebelbauer, H.-P.; Casadei, D.; Kobler, S.; Iseli, L.; Wiehl, H.J.; Fárník, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 732, December (2013), s. 295-298 ISSN 0168-9002. [Vienna Conference on Instrumentation /13./. Vienna, 11.02.2013-15.02.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Fourier optics * X-ray imaging * solar flares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013

  14. Observations of recurrent cosmic ray decreases during solar cycles 22 and 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunzlaff, P.; Heber, B.; Kopp, A.; Rother, O.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Klassen, A.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.

    2008-01-01

    During solar cycle 22, the modulation of several hundred MeV galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) by recurrent and transient cosmic ray decreases was observed by the Ulysses spacecraft on its descent towards the solar south pole. In solar cycle 23, Ulysses repeated this trajectory segment during a similar phase of the solar cycle, but with opposite heliospheric magnetic field polarity. Since cosmic ray propagation in the heliosphere should depend on drift effects, we determine in this study the latitudinal distribution of the amplitude of recurrent cosmic ray decreases in solar cycles 22 and 23. As long as we measure the recurrent plasma structures in situ, we find that these decreases behave nearly the same in both cycles. Measurements in the fast solar wind, however, show differences: in cycle 22 (A>0) the recurrent cosmic ray decreases show a clear maximum near 25 and are still present beyond 40 , whereas we see in cycle 23 (A<0) neither such a pronounced maximum nor significant decreases above 40 . In other words: the periodicity in the cosmic ray intensity, which can be clearly seen in the slow solar wind, appears to vanish there. Theoretical models for drift effects, however, predict quite the opposite behaviour for the two solar cycles. To closer investigate this apparent contradiction, we first put the visual inspection of the data onto a more solid basis by performing a detailed Lomb (spectral) analysis. The next step consists of an analysis of the resulting periodicities at 1 AU in order to distinguish between spatial and temporal variations, so that we can obtain statements about the question in how far there is a correlation between the in-situ data at 1 AU and those measured by Ulysses at larger latitudes. We find a good correlation being present during cycle 22, but not for cycle 23. As one potential explanation for this behaviour, we suggest the difference in the coronal hole structures between the cycles 22 and 23 due to a large, stable coronal hole

  15. Neutron monitor latitude survey of cosmic ray intensity during the 1986/1987 solar minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraal, H.; Potgieter, M.S.; Stoker, P.H.; van der Walt, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    A latitude survey of the cosmic ray intensity at sea level was conducted during the 1986/1987 solar minimum period on commercial vessels of the South African Marine Corporation (SAFMARINE). The results show that the differential response function for the 1986/1987 solar minimum agrees well with that measured in 1965. Both these response functions are significantly lower than those for 1976 and 1954. This result supports the 22-year modulation cycle as predicted, for example, by models including drift effects of the charged cosmic ray particles in the large-scale interplanetary magnetic field. A crossover of the spectra at rigidities of about 7 GV was also observed. Such a crossover is necessary to explain both the stationary neutron monitor counting rates and the lower-energy balloon and space observations in consecutive solar cycles. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  16. FIRST IMAGES FROM THE FOCUSING OPTICS X-RAY SOLAR IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krucker, Säm; Glesener, Lindsay; Turin, Paul; McBride, Stephen; Glaser, David; Fermin, Jose; Lin, Robert [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christe, Steven [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka (Japan); Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kilaru, Kiranmayee [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Saito, Shinya [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, Sagamihara (Japan); Tajima, Hiroyasu [Solar-Terrestial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tanaka, Takaaki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); White, Stephen [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the first time on 2012 November 2, producing the first focused images of the Sun above 5 keV. To enable hard X-ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy via direct focusing, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. On its first flight, FOXSI observed several targets that included active regions, the quiet Sun, and a GOES-class B2.7 microflare. This Letter provides an introduction to the FOXSI instrument and presents its first solar image. These data demonstrate the superiority in sensitivity and dynamic range that is achievable with a direct HXR imager with respect to previous, indirect imaging methods, and illustrate the technological readiness for a spaceborne mission to observe HXRs from solar flares via direct focusing optics.

  17. Solar X-rays from Axions: Rest-Mass Dependent Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Zioutas, Konstantin; Semertzidis, Yannis; Papaevangelou, Thomas; Gardikiotis, Antonios; Dafni, Theopisti; Anastassopoulos, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    The spectral shape of solar X-rays is a power law. The more active the Sun is, the less steep the distribution. This behaviour can be explained by axion regeneration to X-rays occurring ~400km deep into the photosphere. Their down-comptonization reproduces the measured spectral shape, pointing at axions with rest mass m_a~17 meV/c2, without contradicting astrophysical-laboratory limits. Directly measured soft X-ray spectra from the extremely quiet Sun during 2009 (SphinX mission), though hitherto overlooked, fitt the axion scenario.

  18. The Soft X-ray Telescope for Solar-A - Design evolution and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Marilyn E.

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Solar-A satellite mission's Soft X-ray Telescope uses grazing-incidence optics, a CCD detector, and a pair of filter wheels for wavelength selection. A coaxially-mounted visible-light lens furnished sunspot and magnetic plage images, together with aspect information which aids in aligning the soft X-ray images with those from the satellite's Hard X-ray Telescope. Instrument electronics are microprocessor-based, and imbedded in a tightly integrated distributed system. Control software is divided between the instrument microprocessor and the spacecraft control computer.

  19. Barbiturate End-Capped Non-Fullerene Acceptors for Organic Solar Cells: Tuning Acceptor Energetics to Suppress Geminate Recombination Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Ching-Hong

    2018-01-10

    We report the synthesis of two barbiturate end-capped non-fullerene acceptors and demonstrate their efficient function in high voltage output organic solar cells. The acceptor with the lower LUMO level is shown to exhibit suppressed geminate recombination losses, resulting in enhanced photocurrent generation and higher overall device efficiency.

  20. Barbiturate End-Capped Non-Fullerene Acceptors for Organic Solar Cells: Tuning Acceptor Energetics to Suppress Geminate Recombination Losses

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Ching-Hong; Gorman, Jeffrey; Wadsworth, Andrew; Holliday, Sarah; Subramaniyan, Selvam; Jenekhe, Samson A.; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain; Durrant, James

    2018-01-01

    We report the synthesis of two barbiturate end-capped non-fullerene acceptors and demonstrate their efficient function in high voltage output organic solar cells. The acceptor with the lower LUMO level is shown to exhibit suppressed geminate recombination losses, resulting in enhanced photocurrent generation and higher overall device efficiency.

  1. Method of separation of celestial gamma-ray bursts from solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, K.W.; White, R.S.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    We recently discovered 217 ''new'' celestial gamma-ray burst candidates from the ''new'' burst search of the PVO real time data base. 1 The burst search covered the time period from September 1978 to July 1988. Sixty were confirmed by at lest on other spacecraft, e.g., ISEE-3, V-11, V-12, etc. None triggered the PVO high time resolution memory. In this paper we describe a new algorithm based ont eh relationship between time width T w and hardness ratio HR, to distinguish cosmic gamma-ray bursts from solar flares without knowing the directions of the events. The criteria for identification as a gamma-ray burst candidate are: If T ww ≤a then HR≥bT w , or T w >a then HR>c. Otherwise, the event is a solar flare candidate. Here, a, b, and c are parameter which differ for different gamma-ray burst detectors. For PVO, a=18.8 s, b=(1.38/18.8) s -1 , and c=1.38. This algorithm was tested with 83 triggered and 60 nontriggered confirmed gamma-ray burst and 30 confirmed solar flares from PVO

  2. Columbia University OSO-8 instrument for stellar and solar X-ray spectroscopy and polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R S [Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Columbia Astrophysics Lab.

    1976-08-01

    A spectrometer and a polarimeter consisting of large-area panels of mosaic crystals have been constructed and prepared for use in the OSO-8 satellite. The instrumentation is planned for study of stellar and solar X-ray spectra between 1.8-8 keV and stellar X-ray polarization at 2.6 keV. Aspects of the design which enable the instrument to make measurements of the diverse range of stellar and solar phenomena are described. Some of the unique features, such as high sensitivity, high temporal resolution, and spectral range, are discussed. The applicability of the spectrometer and polarimeter to various current problems in X-ray astronomy is considered.

  3. Solar Drivers of 11-yr and Long-Term Cosmic Ray Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliver, E. W.; Richardson, I. G.; Ling, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    In the current paradigm for the modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), diffusion is taken to be the dominant process during solar maxima while drift dominates at minima. Observations during the recent solar minimum challenge the pre-eminence of drift: at such times. In 2009, the approx.2 GV GCR intensity measured by the Newark neutron monitor increased by approx.5% relative to its maximum value two cycles earlier even though the average tilt angle in 2009 was slightly larger than that in 1986 (approx.20deg vs. approx.14deg), while solar wind B was significantly lower (approx.3.9 nT vs. approx.5.4 nT). A decomposition of the solar wind into high-speed streams, slow solar wind, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs; including postshock flows) reveals that the Sun transmits its message of changing magnetic field (diffusion coefficient) to the heliosphere primarily through CMEs at solar maximum and high-speed streams at solar minimum. Long-term reconstructions of solar wind B are in general agreement for the approx. 1900-present interval and can be used to reliably estimate GCR intensity over this period. For earlier epochs, however, a recent Be-10-based reconstruction covering the past approx. 10(exp 4) years shows nine abrupt and relatively short-lived drops of B to value of approx.2.8 nT. A floor in solar wind B implies a ceiling in the GCR intensity (a permanent modulation of the local interstellar spectrum) at a given energy/rigidity. The 30-40% increase in the intensity of 2.5 GV electrons observed by Ulysses during the recent solar minimum raises an interesting paradox that will need to be resolved.

  4. Pair creation by very high-energy photons in gamma-ray bursts a unified picture for the energetics of GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Totani, T

    1999-01-01

    The extreme energetics of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 990123 have revealed that some GRBs emit quite a large amount of energy, and the total energy release from GRBs seems to change from burst to burst by a factor of 10/sup 2/-10/sup $9 3/ as E/sub gamma , iso/~10/sup 52-55/ erg, where E/sub gamma , iso/ is the observed GRB energy when the radiation is isotropic. If all GRBs are triggered by similar events, such a wide dispersion in energy release seems odd. The $9 author proposes a unified picture for the energetics of GRBs, in which all GRB events release roughly the same amount of energy E/sub iso/~10 /sup 55-56/ erg relativistic motion, with the baryon load problem almost resolved. A mild $9 dispersion in the initial Lorentz factor ( Gamma ) results in a difference of E/sub gamma , iso/ by up to a factor of m/sub p//m/sub e/~10/sup 3/. Protons work as `a hidden energy reservoir' of the total GRB energy, and E/sub gamma , $9 iso/ depends on the energy transfer efficiency from protons into electrons (or posit...

  5. MODULATION OF GALACTIC COSMIC RAY PROTONS AND ELECTRONS DURING AN UNUSUAL SOLAR MINIMUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heber, B.; Kopp, A.; Gieseler, J.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.; Potgieter, M. S.; Ferreira, S. E. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the latest Ulysses out-of-ecliptic orbit the solar wind density, pressure, and magnetic field strength have been the lowest ever observed in the history of space exploration. Since cosmic ray particles respond to the heliospheric magnetic field in the expanding solar wind and its turbulence, the weak heliospheric magnetic field as well as the low plasma density and pressure are expected to cause the smallest modulation since the 1970s. In contrast to this expectation, the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) proton flux at 2.5 GV measured by Ulysses in 2008 does not exceed the one observed in the 1990s significantly, while the 2.5 GV GCR electron intensity exceeds the one measured during the 1990s by 30%-40%. At true solar minimum conditions, however, the intensities of both electrons and protons are expected to be the same. In contrast to the 1987 solar minimum, the tilt angle of the solar magnetic field has remained at about 30 deg. in 2008. In order to compare the Ulysses measurements during the 2000 solar magnetic epoch with those obtained 20 years ago, the former have been corrected for the spacecraft trajectory using latitudinal gradients of 0.25% deg. -1 and 0.19% deg. -1 for protons and electrons, respectively, and a radial gradient of 3% AU -1 . In 2008 and 1987, solar activity, as indicated by the sunspot number, was low. Thus, our observations confirm the prediction of modulation models that current sheet and gradient drifts prevent the GCR flux to rise to typical solar minimum values. In addition, measurements of electrons and protons allow us to predict that the 2.5 GV GCR proton intensity will increase by a factor of 1.3 if the tilt angle reaches values below 10 deg.

  6. Statistical distribution of solar soft X-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, P; Piazza, L R; Schaal, R E [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica

    1979-03-01

    Nearly 1000 solar events with fluxes measured in 0.5-3A/sup 0/, 1-8A/sup 0/ and 8-20A/sup 0/ bands by Explorer 37 (US NRL Solrad) satellite are statistically analyzed. The differential distribution of peak fluxes can be represented by power laws with exponents -1.4, -2.2, -2.9 respectively, which are compared to 2-12A/sup 0/ results. For the 0.5-3A/sup 0/ band there is a suggested peak in the distribution. Autocorrelation analyses of the distribution have shown that in the harder band (0.5-3A/sup 0/) there is a concentration of events at preferred values multiplied of about 10x10/sup -5/erg cm/sup -2/S/sup -1/ of unknown origin.

  7. Statistical distribution of solar soft X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Piazza, L.R.; Schaal, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Nearly 1000 solar events with fluxes measured in 0.5-3A 0 , 1-8A 0 and 8-20A 0 bands by Explorer 37 (US NRL Solrad) satelite are statistically analysed. The differential distribution of peak fluxes can be represented by power laws with exponents -1.4, -2.2, -2.9 respectively, which are compared to 2-12A 0 results. At the 0.5-3A 0 band there is a suggested peak in the distribution. Autocorrelation analysis of the distribution have shown that in the harder band (0.5-3A 0 ) there is a concentration of events at preferred values multiplied of about 10x10 -5 erg cm -2 S -1 of unknown origin [pt

  8. The Role of Polymer Fractionation in Energetic Losses and Charge Carrier Lifetimes of Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya

    2015-08-10

    Non-radiative recombination reduces the open-circuit voltage relative to its theoretical limit and leads to reduced luminescence emission at a given excitation. Therefore it is possible to correlate changes in luminescence emission with changes in open-circuit voltage and in the charge carrier lifetime. Here we use luminescence studies combined with transient photovoltage and differential charging analyses to study the effect of polymer fractionation in indacenoedithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole (IDTBT):fullerene solar cells. In this system, polymer fractionation increases electroluminescence and reduces non-radiative recombination. High molecular weight and fractionated IDTBT polymers exhibit higher carrier lifetime-mobility product compared to their non-fractionated analogues, resulting in improved solar cell performance.

  9. The Role of Polymer Fractionation in Energetic Losses and Charge Carrier Lifetimes of Polymer: Fullerene Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, Derya; Vezie, Michelle S; Gasparini, Nicola; Deledalle, Florent; Yao, Jizhong; Schroeder, Bob C.; Bronstein, Hugo; Ameri, Tayebeh; Kirchartz, Thomas; McCulloch, Iain; Nelson, Jenny; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-01-01

    Non-radiative recombination reduces the open-circuit voltage relative to its theoretical limit and leads to reduced luminescence emission at a given excitation. Therefore it is possible to correlate changes in luminescence emission with changes in open-circuit voltage and in the charge carrier lifetime. Here we use luminescence studies combined with transient photovoltage and differential charging analyses to study the effect of polymer fractionation in indacenoedithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole (IDTBT):fullerene solar cells. In this system, polymer fractionation increases electroluminescence and reduces non-radiative recombination. High molecular weight and fractionated IDTBT polymers exhibit higher carrier lifetime-mobility product compared to their non-fractionated analogues, resulting in improved solar cell performance.

  10. Multipoint observations of coronal mass ejection and solar energetic particle events on Mars and Earth during November 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Brain, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data to study ICMEs and SEPs at Earth, we present a detailed study of three CMEs and flares in late November 2001. In this period, Mars trailed Earth by 56 degrees solar longitude so that the two planets occupied interplanetary magnetic field lines...... not only ICME events but also SEP events at Mars, with good results providing a consistent picture of the events when combined with near-Earth data....

  11. Electronic charge transfer in cobalt doped fullerene thin films and effect of energetic ion impacts by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.; Kumar, Amit; Gautam, S.; Chae, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the electronic charge transfer in cobalt doped fullerene thin films by means of near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy measurement. Co-doped fullerene films were prepared by co-deposition technique and subjected to energetic ion irradiation (120 MeV Au) for possibly alignment or interconnect of randomly distributed metal particles. Polarization dependent NEXAFS spectra revealed the alignment of Co and C atoms along the irradiated ionic path. The structural changes in Co-doped as-deposited and ion irradiated fullerene films were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy measurements. Downshift of pentagonal pinch mode A g (2) in Raman spectroscopy indicated the electronic charge transfer from Co atom to fullerene molecules, which is further confirmed by NEXAFS at C K-edge for Co-doped fullerene films.

  12. Analyais of solar X-ray emission line profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burek, A.J.; Marrus, D.M.; Blake, R.L.; Fenimore, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    We report results of the analysis of the X-ray emission line profiles for the Ne X La and Fe XVII 4d 1 P 1 lines produced in an active region that was undergoing a radio and X-ray gradual rise and fall (GRF) in intensity. The spectra were obtained with collimated Bragg spectrometers launched on a rocket from White Sands Missile Range on 1976 March 26. Using a crystal of ammonium acid phthalate, we have fully resolved the Ne X La and Fe XVII 4d 1 P 1 lines, permitting an accurate determinination of the Ne X La intensity and allowing Doppler broadened profiles for lines formed from ions having greatly different atomic mass and charge to be measured. An isothermal model derived from the Ne IX/Ne X resonance line intensity ratio gives an electron temperature of 3.4 x 10 6 K. An isothermal model, however, fails to account for the intensities of all lines and continuum observed. All multitemperature models that do reproduce the observed relative line intensities require the presence of a hot plasma component with an electron temperature in excess of 5 x 10 6 K. The presence of a high temperature component is also suggested by the measured line to continuum ratio of 3.6 in the 12--15 A wavelength interval. Interpretation of the line profiles in terms of a multitemperature model requires an rms turbulence velocity of 48 +- 15 km s -1 for Fe XVII 1 P 1 and 74 +- 54 km s - 2exclamation for Ne X La at the 95% confidence level. Collimated scans across the active region show the presence of a compact source of intense X-ray emission close to the magnetic neutral line, which is very probably the GRF plasma

  13. Study of ultra-energetic cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory from particle detection to anisotropy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aublin, J.

    2006-09-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, still under construction in Argentina, is designed to study the cosmic rays with energies above a few EeV. The experiment combines two complementary techniques: the fluorescence light detection and the sampling of the shower with an array of detectors at ground, covering a surface of 3000 square kilometers. The calculation of the acceptance of the detector, which is of utmost importance to establish the energy spectrum, has been achieved. The method of computation of the acceptance is simple and reliable. The detection efficiency depends on the nature of primary cosmic rays, allowing to study the cosmic rays composition with the surface detector. The calculation of the cosmic rays energy spectrum has been performed, using different methods to estimate the energy of the events. A cross calibration between the fluorescence and the surface detector provides an estimation of the energy almost independent of hadronic interaction models. The study of large scale anisotropies in the cosmic rays angular distribution provides useful informations about the cosmic rays sources and the conditions of propagation. A new analysis method is presented, allowing to estimate the parameters of an underlying dipolar and quadrupolar anisotropy in the data. The method is applied to a preliminary Auger data set. (author)

  14. Search for Solar Axions with the CCD Detector and X-ray Telescope at CAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rosu, Madalin Mihai; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2015-06-09

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment that uses the world’s highest sensitivity Helioscope to date for solar Axions searches. Axions are weakly interacting pseudoscalar particles proposed to solve the so-called Strong Charge-Parity Problem of the Standard Model. The principle of detection is the inverse Primakoff Effect, which is a mechanism for converting the Axions into easily detectable X-ray photons in a strong transverse magnetic field. The solar Axions are produced due to the Primakoff effect in the hot and dense core of from the coupling of a real and a virtual photon. The solar models predict a peak Axion luminosity at an energy of 3 keV originating mostly from the inner 20% of the solar radius. Thus an intensity peak at an energy of 3 keV is also expected in the case of the X-ray radiation resulting from Axion conversion. CAST uses a high precision movement system for tracking the Sun twice a day with a LHC dipole twin aperture prototype magnet, 9.26 meters long and with a field of...

  15. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakała, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 10 47 cm –3 and 1.1 × 10 48 cm –3 . Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  16. SphinX Measurements of the 2009 Solar Minimum X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bakała, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 1047 cm-3 and 1.1 × 1048 cm-3. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  17. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland); Kuzin, S. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN), Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Farnik, F. [Astronomical Institute, Ondrejov Observatory (Czech Republic); Reale, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Italy, and INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Phillips, K. J. H., E-mail: js@cbk.pan.wroc.pl [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} cm{sup -3} and 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} cm{sup -3}. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  18. CdSe/beta-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures: Nanoscale semiconductor interfaces with tunable energetic configurations for solar energy conversion and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleville, Christopher C.

    This dissertation focuses on the formation and characterization of semiconductor heterostructures, consisting of light-harvesting cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) and single crystalline lead vanadium oxide nanowires (β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs), for the purpose of excited-state charge transfer and photocatalytic production of solar fuels. We reported two distinct routes for assembling CdSe/β-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures: linker-assisted assembly (LAA) mediated by a bifunctional ligand and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). In the former case, the thiol end of a molecular linker, cysteine (Cys) is found to bind to the QD surface, whereas a protonated amine moiety interacts electrostatically with the negatively charged NW surface. In the alternative SILAR route, the surface coverage of CdSe on the β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs is tuned by varying the number of successive precipitation cycles. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements revealed that the mid-gap states of β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs are closely overlapped in energy with the valence band edges of CdSe QDs, suggesting that hole transfer from the valence band of CdSe into the mid-gap states is possible. Preliminary evidence of hole transfer was obtained through photoluminescence quenching experiments. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on Cys-CdSe dispersions, mixed dispersions of Cys-CdSe QDs and β-Pb0.33V¬2O5 NWs, and mixed dispersions of Cys-CdS QDs and V2O5 revealed a greater extent of quenching of the emission of Cys-CdSe QDs by β Pb0.33V¬2O5 relative to V2O5. V2O5, devoid of mid-gap states, is unable to accept holes from CdSe and therefore should not quench emission to the same extent as β-Pb0.33V¬2O5. The additional quenching was dynamic, consistent with a mechanism involving the transfer of photogenerated holes from CdSe QDs to the mid-gap states of β Pb0.33V2O5. Transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) was used to probe the dynamics of interfacial

  19. Advanced Technology in Small Packages Enables Space Science Research Nanosatellites: Examples from the NASA Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    Nanosatellites, including the CubeSat class of nanosatellites, are about the size of a shoe box, and the CubeSat modular form factor of a Unit (1U is 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm) was originally defined in 1999 as a standardization for students developing nanosatellites. Over the past two decades, the satellite and instrument technologies for nanosatellites have progressed to the sophistication equivalent to the larger satellites, but now available in smaller packages through advanced developments by universities, government labs, and space industries. For example, the Blue Canyon Technologies (BCT) attitude determination and control system (ADCS) has demonstrated 3-axis satellite control from a 0.5-Unit system with 8 arc-second stability using reaction wheels, torque rods, and a star tracker. The first flight demonstration of the BCT ADCS was for the NASA Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat. The MinXSS CubeSat mission, which was deployed in May 2016 and had its re-entry in May 2017, provided space weather measurements of the solar soft X-rays (SXR) variability using low-power, miniaturized instruments. The MinXSS solar SXR spectra have been extremely useful for exploring flare energetics and also for validating the broadband SXR measurements from the NOAA GOES X-Ray Sensor (XRS). The technology used in the MinXSS CubeSat and summary of science results from the MinXSS-1 mission will be presented. Web site: http://lasp.colorado.edu/home/minxss/

  20. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  1. Cosmic ray intensity distribution in the vertical direction to solar equator plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosaka, Toru; Mori, Satoru; Sagisaka, Shuji.

    1983-01-01

    The data of the annual variation of cosmic ray intensity measured by neutron detectors were used to study the distribution of cosmic ray intensity vertical to the solar equator plane and its long term variation. The data used were obtained at Deep River, Kiel, Kerguelen Island, McMurdo, Ottawa, and Mt. Washington. All data showed annual variation. The patterns and degree of variation obtained in northern and southern hemisphere were similar. The summation dial representation of the annual variation and semi-annual variation of cosmic ray was obtained. The inversion of annual variation in 1958 - 1959 and 1968 - 1969 corresponded to the inversion of polarity of solar pole magnetic field. The semi-annual variation showed a complex behavior. The helio-latitudial distribution of cosmic ray intensity was obtained. The asymmetric distribution in relation to the solar equator was observed in the annual variation. The northward gradient of density in 1955 - 1958 and southward gradient in 1959 - 1968 were seen. (Kato, T.)

  2. Solar panels as air Cherenkov detectors for extremely high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchini, S.; D'Antone, I.; Degli Esposti, L.; Giacomelli, G.; Guerra, M.; Lax, I.; Mandrioli, G.; Parretta, A.; Sarno, A.; Schioppo, R.; Sorel, M.; Spurio, M.

    2000-01-01

    Increasing interest towards the observation of the highest energy cosmic rays has motivated the development of new detection techniques. The properties of the Cherenkov photon pulse emitted in the atmosphere by these very rare particles indicate low-cost semiconductor detectors as good candidates for their optical read-out. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the viability of solar panels for this purpose. The experimental framework resulting from measurements performed with suitably-designed solar cells and large conventional photovoltaic areas is presented. A discussion on the obtained and achievable sensitivities follows

  3. Study of solar activity by measuring cosmic rays with a water Cherenkov detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahena Bias, Angelica; Villasenor, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report on an indirect study of solar activity by using the Forbush effect which consists on the anti-correlation between the intensity of solar activity and the intensity of secondary cosmic radiation detected at ground level at the Earth. We have used a cylindrical water Cherenkov detector to measure the rate of arrival of secondary cosmic rays in Morelia Mich., Mexico, at 1950 m.a.s.l. We describe the analysis required to unfold the effect of atmospheric pressure and the search for Forbush decreases in our data, the latter correspond to more than one year of continuous data collection.

  4. X-ray photographs of a solar active region with a multilayer telescope at normal incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J. H.; Bruner, M. E.; Haisch, B. M.; Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    An astronomical photograph was obtained with a multilayer X-ray telescope. A 4-cm tungsten-carbon multilayer mirror was flown as part of an experimental solar rocket payload, and successful images were taken of the sun at normal incidence at a wavelength of 44 A. Coronal Si XII emission from an active region was recorded on film; as expected, the structure is very similar to that observed at O VIII wavelengths by the Solar Maximum Mission flat-crystal spectrometer at the same time. The small, simple optical system used in this experiment appears to have achieved a resolution of 5 to 10 arcsec.

  5. Applicability of X-ray reflectometry to studies of polymer solar cell degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Gevorgyan, Suren; Schleputz, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Although degradation of polymer solar cells is widely acknowledged, the cause, physical or chemical, has not been identified. The purpose of this work is to determine the applicability of X-ray reflectometry for in situ observation of physical degradation mechanisms. We find that the rough...... interfaces of the polymer solar cell constituent layers seriously obstruct the sensitivity of the technique, rendering it impossible to elucidate changes in the layer/interface structure at the sub-nanometer level. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Use of a solar panel as a directionally sensitive large-area radiation monitor for direct and scattered x-rays and gamma-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Majid, S

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of a 25.4 X 91 cm solar cell panel used as an x-ray and gamma-ray radiation monitor are presented. Applications for monitoring the primary x-ray beam are described at different values of operating currents and voltages as well as for directional dependence of scattered radiation. Other applications in gamma-ray radiography are also given. The detector showed linear response to both x-ray and gamma-ray exposures. The equipment is rigid, easy to use, relatively inexpensive and requires no power supply or any complex electronic equipment.

  7. A soft X-ray image of the Moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.H.M.M.; Aschenbach, B.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.; Predehl, P.; Truemper, J.; Snowden, S.L.; Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI

    1991-01-01

    A soft X-ray image of the Moon obtained by the Roentgen Observatory Satellite ROSAT clearly shows a sunlit crescent, demonstrating that the Moon's X-ray luminosity arises from backscattering of solar X-rays. The Moon's optically dark side is also X-ray dark, and casts a distinct shadow on the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. Unexpectedly, the dark side seems to emit X-rays at a level about one per cent that of the bright side; this emission very probably results from energetic solar-wind electrons striking the Moon's surface. (author)

  8. Source Regions of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Variability in Heavy-Ion Elemental Composition in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Dietrich, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events are those in which ions are accelerated to their observed energies by interactions with a shock driven by a fast coronal mass-ejection (CME). Previous studies have shown that much of the observed event-to-event variability can be understood in terms of shock speed and evolution in the shock-normal angle. But an equally important factor, particularly for the elemental composition, is the origin of the suprathermal seed particles upon which the shock acts. To tackle this issue, we (1) use observed solar-wind speed, magnetograms, and the PFSS model to map the Sun-L1 interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line back to its source region on the Sun at the time of the SEP observations; and (2) then look for correlation between SEP composition (as measured by Wind and ACE at approx. 2-30 MeV/nucleon) and characteristics of the identified IMF-source regions. The study is based on 24 SEP events, identified as a statistically-significant increase in approx. 20 MeV protons and occurring in 1998 and 2003-2006, when the rate of newly-emergent solar magnetic flux and CMEs was lower than in solar-maximum years and the field-line tracing is therefore more likely to be successful. We find that the gradual SEP Fe/O is correlated with the field strength at the IMF-source, with the largest enhancements occurring when the footpoint field is strong, due to the nearby presence of an active region. In these cases, other elemental ratios show a strong charge-to-mass (q/M) ordering, at least on average, similar to that found in impulsive events. These results lead us to suggest that magnetic reconnection in footpoint regions near active regions bias the heavy-ion composition of suprathermal seed ions by processes qualitatively similar to those that produce larger heavy-ion enhancements in impulsive SEP events. To address potential technical concerns about our analysis, we also discuss efforts to exclude impulsive SEP events from our event sample.

  9. Relation between gamma-ray emission, radio bursts, and proton fluxes from solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomichev, V.V.; Chertok, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Data on solar gamma-ray flares, including 24 flares with gamma-ray lines, recorded up to June 1982, are analyzed. It is shown that from the point of view of radio emission the differences between flares with and without gamma-ray lines has a purely quantitative character: the former are accompanied by the most intense microwave bursts. Meter type II bursts are not a distinctive feature of flares with gamma-ray lines. Pulsed flares, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma-ray lines, are not accompanied by significant proton fluxes at the earth. On the whole, contrary to the popular opinion in the literature, flares with gamma-ray lines do not display a deficit of proton flux in interplanetary space in comparison with similar flares without gamma-ray lines. The results of quantitative diagnostics of proton flares based on radio bursts are not at variance with the presence of flares without detectable gamma-ray emission in lines but with a pronounced increase in the proton flux at the earth. 23 references

  10. Revising the Local Bubble Model due to Solar Wind Charge Exchange X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robin L.

    2009-03-01

    The hot Local Bubble surrounding the solar neighborhood has been primarily studied through observations of its soft X-ray emission. The measurements were obtained by attributing all of the observed local soft X-rays to the bubble. However, mounting evidence shows that the heliosphere also produces diffuse X-rays. The source is solar wind ions that have received an electron from another atom. The presence of this alternate explanation for locally produced diffuse X-rays calls into question the existence and character of the Local Bubble. This article addresses these questions. It reviews the literature on solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-ray production, finding that SWCX accounts for roughly half of the observed local 1/4 keV X-rays found at low latitudes. This article also makes predictions for the heliospheric O VI column density and intensity, finding them to be smaller than the observational error bars. Evidence for the continued belief that the Local Bubble contains hot gas includes the remaining local 1/4 keV intensity, the observed local O VI column density, and the need to fill the local region with some sort of plasma. If the true Local Bubble is half as bright as previously thought, then its electron density and thermal pressure are 1/sqrt{2} as great as previously thought, and its energy requirements and emission measure are 1/2 as great as previously thought. These adjustments can be accommodated easily, and, in fact, bring the Local Bubble’s pressure more in line with that of the adjacent material. Suggestions for future work are made.

  11. NuSTAR Discovery Of A Young, Energetic Pulsar Associated with the Luminous Gamma-Ray Source HESS J1640-465

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Tomsick, J. A.; Halpern, J. P.; Gelfand, J. D.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Hailey, J. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV gamme-ray source HESS J1640-465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640-4631 lies within the shelltype supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3-0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P = 9.758(44) × 10(exp -13), yielding a spin-down luminosity E = 4.4 × 10(exp 36) erg s(exp -1), characteristic age tau(sub c) if and only if P/2 P = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B(sub s) = 1.4×10(exp 13) G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3-0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640-465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E. The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5-4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640-4631, but we find no gamma-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640-465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n approximately equal to 2, and that its initial spin period was P(sub 0) approximately 15 ms.

  12. NuSTAR discovery of a young, energetic pulsar associated with the luminous gamma-ray source HESS J1640–465

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Hailey, J. C. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027-6601 (United States); Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gelfand, J. D. [NYU Abu Dhabi, PO Box 129188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Stern, D. K. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, W. W., E-mail: eric@astro.columbia.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    We report the discovery of a 206 ms pulsar associated with the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1640–465 using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) X-ray observatory. PSR J1640–4631 lies within the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) G338.3–0.0, and coincides with an X-ray point source and putative pulsar wind nebula (PWN) previously identified in XMM-Newton and Chandra images. It is spinning down rapidly with period derivative P-dot = 9.758(44) × 10{sup –13}, yielding a spin-down luminosity E-dot = 4.4 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}, characteristic age τ{sub c}≡P/2 P-dot = 3350 yr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength B{sub s} = 1.4 × 10{sup 13} G. For the measured distance of 12 kpc to G338.3–0.0, the 0.2-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1640–465 is 6% of the pulsar's present E-dot . The Fermi source 1FHL J1640.5–4634 is marginally coincident with PSR J1640–4631, but we find no γ-ray pulsations in a search using five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. The pulsar energetics support an evolutionary PWN model for the broadband spectrum of HESS J1640–465, provided that the pulsar's braking index is n ≈ 2, and that its initial spin period was P {sub 0} ∼ 15 ms.

  13. CORRELATION OF HARD X-RAY AND WHITE LIGHT EMISSION IN SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm; Battaglia, Marina; Kleint, Lucia; Casadei, Diego [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Oliveros, Juan Carlos Martinez; Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A statistical study of the correlation between hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares is performed in order to search for a link between flare-accelerated electrons and white light formation. We analyze 43 flares spanning GOES classes M and X using observations from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. We calculate X-ray fluxes at 30 keV and white light fluxes at 6173 Å summed over the hard X-ray flare ribbons with an integration time of 45 s around the peak hard-X ray time. We find a good correlation between hard X-ray fluxes and excess white light fluxes, with a highest correlation coefficient of 0.68 for photons with energy of 30 keV. Assuming the thick target model, a similar correlation is found between the deposited power by flare-accelerated electrons and the white light fluxes. The correlation coefficient is found to be largest for energy deposition by electrons above ∼50 keV. At higher electron energies the correlation decreases gradually while a rapid decrease is seen if the energy provided by low-energy electrons is added. This suggests that flare-accelerated electrons of energy ∼50 keV are the main source for white light production.

  14. Structural mechanics of the solar-A Soft X-ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevich, B. K.; Bruner, M. E.; Gowen, K. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) is one of four major instruments that constitute the payload of the NASA-Japanese mission YOHKOH (formerly known as Solar-A), scheduled to be launched in August, 1991. This paper describes the design of the SXT, the key system requirements, and the SXT optical and structural systems. Particular attention is given to the design considerations for stiffness and dimensional stability, temperature compensation, and moisture sensitivyty control. Consideration is also given to the X-ray mirror, the aspect telescope, the entrance filters, the mechanical structure design, the aft support plate and mount, the SXT finite element model, and other subsystems.

  15. Design of solar cell materials via soft X-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Himpsel, F.J.; Cook, P.L.; de la Torre, G.

    2013-01-01

    This overview illustrates how spectroscopy with soft X-rays can assist the development of new materials and new designs for solar cells. The starting point is the general layout of a solar cell, which consists of a light absorber sandwiched between an electron donor and an electron acceptor....... There are four relevant energy levels that can be measured with a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy, as illustrated for an organic dye as absorber attached to a p-doped diamond film as donor. Systematic measurements of organometallic dyes (phthalocyanines and porphyrins......) as a function of the metal atom are presented for the metal 2p and N 1s absorption edges. In combination with density functional theory one can discern trends that are useful for tailoring absorber molecules. A customized porphyrin molecule is investigated that combines an absorber with a donor and a linker...

  16. Divergence of sun-rays by atmospheric refraction at large solar zenith angles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uhl

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available For the determination of photolysis rates at large zenith angles it has been demonstrated that refraction by the earth's atmosphere must be taken into account. In fact, due to the modified optical path the optical transmittance is thereby increased in most instances. Here we show that in addition the divergence of sun-rays, which is also caused by refraction but which reduces the direct solar irradiance, should not be neglected. Our calculations are based on a spherically symmetric atmosphere and include extinction by Rayleigh scattering, ozone, and background aerosol. For rays with 10km tangent altitude the divergence yields a reduction of about 10% to 40% at solar zenith angles of 91° to 96°. Moreover, we find that the divergence effect can completely cancel the relative enhancement caused by the increase of transmittance.

  17. The size of coronal hard X-ray sources in solar flares: How big are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, F.; Krucker, S.; Rubio da Costa, F.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal hard X-ray sources are considered to be one of the key signatures of non-thermal particle acceleration and heating during the energy release in solar flares. In some cases, X-ray observations reveal multiple components spatially located near and above the loop top and even further up in the corona. Here, we combine a detailed RHESSI imaging analysis of near-limb solar flares with occulted footpoints and a multi-wavelength study of the flare loop evolution in SDO/AIA. We connect our findings to different current sheet formation and magnetic break-out scenarios and relate it to particle acceleration theory. We find that the upper and usually fainter emission regions can be underestimated in their size due to the majority of flux originating from the lower loops.

  18. Improving Soft X-Ray Spectral Irradiance Models for Use Throughout the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Thiemann, E.; Woods, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the effects of solar variability on planetary atmospheres has been hindered by the lack of accurate models and measurements of the soft x-ray (SXR) spectral irradiance (0-6 nm). Most measurements of the SXR have been broadband and are difficult to interpret due to changing spectral distribution under the pass band of the instruments. Models that use reference spectra for quiet sun, active region, and flaring contributions to irradiance have been made, but with limited success. The recent Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat made spectral measurements in the 0.04 - 3 nm range from June 2016 to May 2017, observing the Sun at many different levels of activity. In addition, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) has observed the Sun since May 2010, in both broad bands (including a band at 0-7 nm) and spectrally resolved (6-105 nm at 0.1 nm resolution). We will present an improved model of the SXR based on new reference spectra from MinXSS and SDO-EVE. The non-flaring portion of the model is driven by broadband SXR measurements for determining activity level and relative contributions of quiet and active sun. Flares are modeled using flare temperatures from the GOES X-Ray Sensors. The improved SXR model can be driven by any sensors that provide a measure of activity level and flare temperature from any vantage point in the solar system. As an example, a version of the model is using the broadband solar irradiance measurements from the MAVEN EUV Monitor at Mars will be presented.

  19. Periodicities in the X-ray Emission from the Solar Corona: SphinX and SOXS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steślicki, M.; Awasthi, A. K.; Gryciuk, M.; Jain, R.

    The structure and evolution of the solar magnetic field is driven by a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo operating in the solar interior, which induces various solar activities that exhibit periodic variations on different timescales. Therefore, probing the periodic nature of emission originating from the solar corona may provide insights of the convection-zone-photosphere-corona coupling processes. We present the study of the mid-range periodicities, between rotation period (˜27 days) and the Schwabe cycle period (˜11 yr), in the solar soft X-ray emission, based on the data obtained by two instruments: SphinX and SOXS in various energy bands.

  20. A Satellite Data Analysis and CubeSat Instrument Simulator Tool for Simultaneous Multi-spacecraft Measurements of Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannitsen, Jordan; Rizzitelli, Federico; Wang, Kaiti; Segret, Boris; Juang, Jyh-Ching; Miau, Jiun-Jih

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a Multi-satellite Data Analysis and Simulator Tool (MDAST), developed with the original goal to support the science requirements of a Martian 3-Unit CubeSat mission profile named Bleeping Interplanetary Radiation Determination Yo-yo (BIRDY). MDAST was firstly designed and tested by taking into account the positions, attitudes, instruments field of view and energetic particles flux measurements from four spacecrafts (ACE, MSL, STEREO A, and STEREO B). Secondly, the simulated positions, attitudes and instrument field of view from the BIRDY CubeSat have been adapted for input. And finally, this tool can be used for data analysis of the measurements from the four spacecrafts mentioned above so as to simulate the instrument trajectory and observation capabilities of the BIRDY CubeSat. The onset, peak and end time of a solar particle event is specifically defined and identified with this tool. It is not only useful for the BIRDY mission but also for analyzing data from the four satellites aforementioned and can be utilized for other space weather missions with further customization.

  1. Leakage Current Induced by Energetic Disorder in Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Comprehending the Ultrahigh Loss of Open-Circuit Voltage at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenchao; Luo, Yongsong; Guo, Pengfei; Sun, Haibin; Yao, Yao

    2017-04-01

    The open-circuit voltage (Voc ) of organic solar cells generally approaches its maximum obtainable values as the temperature decreases. However, recent experiments have revealed that the Voc may suffer from an ultrahigh loss at low temperatures. In order to verify this explanation and investigate the impacts of energetic disorder on the temperature-dependent behaviors of the Voc in general, we calculate the Voc-T plots with the drift-diffusion method under various device working parameters. With the disorder being incorporated into the device model by considering the disorder-suppressed (temperature-dependent) charge-carrier mobilities, it is found that the ultrahigh Voc losses cannot be reproduced under the Onsager-Braun-type charge generation rate. With the charge generation rate being constant or weakly dependent on temperature, for nonselective contacts, the Voc reduces drastically at low temperatures, while for selective contacts, the Voc increases monotonically with decreasing temperature. With higher carrier mobilities or smaller device thicknesses, the ultrahigh loss occurs at lower temperatures. The mechanism is that, since the disorder-suppressed charge mobilities give rise to both low charge-extraction efficiency and small bimolecular recombination rate, plenty of charge carriers can be extracted from the wrong electrode and can form a large leakage current, which counteracts the majority-carrier current and reduces the Voc at low temperatures. Our results thus highlight the essential role of charge-carrier kinetics, except for the charge-filling effect, on dominating the disorder-induced Voc losses.

  2. The Relation Between Magnetic Fields and X-ray Emission for Solar Microflares and Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, A. S.; Bogachev, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the result of a comparison between magnetic field parameters and the intensity of X-ray emission for solar microflares with Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) classes from A0.02 to B5.1. For our study, we used the monochromatic MgXII Imaging Spectroheliometer (MISH), the Full-disk EUV Telescope (FET), and the Solar PHotometer in X-rays (SphinX) instruments onboard the Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun-Photon CORONAS- Photon spacecraft because of their high sensitivity in soft X-rays. The peak flare flux (PFF) for solar microflares was found to depend on the strength of the magnetic field and on the total unsigned magnetic flux as a power-law function. In the spectral range 2.8 - 36.6 Å, which shows very little increase related to microflares, the power-law index of the relation between the X-ray flux and magnetic flux for active regions is 1.48 ±0.86, which is close to the value obtained previously by Pevtsov et al. ( Astrophys. J. 598, 1387, 2003) for different types of solar and stellar objects. In the spectral range 1 - 8 Å, the power-law indices for PFF(B) and PFF(Φ) for microflares are 3.87 ±2.16 and 3 ±1.6, respectively. We also make suggestions on the heating mechanisms in active regions and microflares under the assumption of loops with constant pressure and heating using the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling laws.

  3. Ray tracing for optimization of compound parabolic concentrators for solar collectors of enclosed design

    OpenAIRE

    YURCHENKO, VLADIMIR; YURCHENKO, EDUARD; ÇİYDEM, MEHMET; TOTUK, ONAT

    2015-01-01

    We present our developments in computer simulations and optimization of compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs) for solar heat collectors. Issues of both the optical and thermal optimization of CPC collectors of enclosed design are discussed. Ray tracing results for a CPC with a V-shaped absorber are presented. A range of optimal values for the apex angle of a V-shaped absorber is proposed for a CPC collector of typical design.

  4. Design of Molecular Solar Cells via Feedback from Soft X-ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himpsel, Franz J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Spectroscopy with soft X-rays was used to develop new materials and novel designs for solar cells and artificial photosynthesis. In order to go beyond the widely-used trial-and-error approach of gradually improving a particular design, we started from the most general layout of a solar cell (or a photo-electrochemical device) and asked which classes of materials are promising for best performance. For example, the most general design of a solar cell consists of a light absorber, an electron donor, and an electron acceptor. These are characterized by four energy levels, which were measured by a combination of spectroscopic X-ray techniques. Tuning synchrotron radiation to the absorption edges of specific elements provided element- and bond-selectivity. The spectroscopic results were complemented by state-of-the-art calculations of the electronic states. These helped explaining the observed energy levels and the orbitals associated with them. The calculations were extended to a large class of materials (for example thousands of porphyrin dye complexes) in order to survey trends in the energy level structure. A few highlights serve as examples: 1) Organic molecules combining absorber, donor, and acceptor with atomic precision. 2) Exploration of highly p-doped diamond films as inert, transparent electron donors. 3) Surface-sensitive characterization of nanorod arrays used as photoanodes in water splitting. 4) Computational design of molecular complexes for efficient solar cells using two photons.

  5. Millimeter and X-Ray Emission from the 5 July 2012 Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsap, Y. T.; Smirnova, V. V.; Motorina, G. G.; Morgachev, A. S.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Nagnibeda, V. G.; Ryzhov, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    The 5 July 2012 solar flare SOL2012-07-05T11:44 (11:39 - 11:49 UT) with an increasing millimeter spectrum between 93 and 140 GHz is considered. We use space and ground-based observations in X-ray, extreme ultraviolet, microwave, and millimeter wave ranges obtained with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Radio Solar Telescope Network, and Bauman Moscow State Technical University millimeter radio telescope RT-7.5. The main parameters of thermal and accelerated electrons were determined through X-ray spectral fitting assuming the homogeneous thermal source and thick-target model. From the data of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/SDO and differential-emission-measure calculations it is shown that the thermal coronal plasma gives a negligible contribution to the millimeter flare emission. Model calculations suggest that the observed increase of millimeter spectral flux with frequency is determined by gyrosynchrotron emission of high-energy (≳ 300 keV) electrons in the chromosphere. The consequences of the results are discussed in the light of the flare-energy-release mechanisms.

  6. Correlation of propagation characteristics of solar cosmic rays detected onboard the spatially separated space probes Mars-7 and Prognoz-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombosi, T.; Somogyi, A.J.; Kolesov, G.Ya.; Kurt, V.G.; Kuzhevskii, B.M.; Logachev, Yu.I.; Savenko, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    Solar flare generated particle fluxes during the period 3-5 November, 1973 are analysed using the data of the Mars 7 and Prognoz-3 spacecrafts. The intensity profiles registrated onboard these satellites were quite similar, although the space probes were spatially separated by 0.3 AU. The general characteristics of the event can well be understood in terms of the effect of a corotating streat-stream interaction region on the general behaviour of energetic charged particles. (author)

  7. Can a Bright and Energetic X-Ray Pulsar Be Hiding Amid the Debris of SN 1987A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paolo; Rea, Nanda; Lazzati, Davide; Matsuura, Mikako; Perna, Rosalba; Pons, José A.

    2018-04-01

    The mass of the stellar precursor of supernova (SN) 1987A and the burst of neutrinos observed at the moment of the explosion are consistent with the core-collapse formation of a neutron star. However, no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact object of any kind in SN 1987A has been found yet in any band of the electromagnetic spectrum, prompting questions on whether the neutron star survived and, if it did, on its properties. Beginning with an analysis of recent Chandra observations, here we appraise the current observational situation. We derived limits on the X-ray luminosity of a compact object with a nonthermal, Crab-pulsar-like spectrum of the order of ≈(1–5) × 1035 erg s‑1, corresponding to limits on the rotational energy loss of a possible X-ray pulsar in SN 1987A of ≈(0.5–1.5) × 1038 erg s‑1. However, a much brighter X-ray source cannot be excluded if, as is likely, it is enshrouded in a cloud of absorbing matter with a metallicity similar to that expected in the outer layers of a massive star toward the end of its life. We found that other limits obtained from various arguments and observations in other energy ranges either are unbinding or allow a similar maximum luminosity of the order of ≈1035 erg s‑1. We conclude that while a pulsar alike the one in the Crab Nebula in both luminosity and spectrum is hardly compatible with the observations, there is ample space for an “ordinary” X-ray-emitting young neutron star, born with normal initial spin period, temperature, and magnetic field, to be hiding inside the evolving remnant of SN 1987A.

  8. Early evolution of an X-ray emitting solar active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfson, C.J.; Acton, L.W.; Leibacher, J.W.; Roethig, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    The birth and early evolution of a solar active region has been investigated using X-ray observations from the Lockheed Mapping X-Ray Heliometer on board the OSO-8 spacecraft. X-ray emission is observed within three hours of the first detection of Hα plage. At that time, a plasma temperature of 4 x 10 6 K in a region having a density of the order of 10 10 cm -3 is inferred. During the fifty hours following birth almost continuous flares or flare-like X-ray bursts are superimposed on a monotonically increasing base level of X-ray emission produced by plasma with a temperature of the order 3 x 10 6 K. If it is assumed that the X-rays result from heating due to dissipation of current systems or magnetic field reconnection, it can be concluded that flare-like X-ray emission soon after active region birth implies that the magnetic field probably emerges in a stressed or complex configuration. (Auth.)

  9. Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Inner Heliosphere over Solar Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z.-N.; Qin, G.

    2018-02-01

    The 11- and 22-year modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the inner heliosphere is studied using a numerical model developed by Qin and Shen in 2017. Based on the numerical solutions of Parker’s transport equations, the model incorporates a modified Parker heliospheric magnetic field, a locally static time-delayed heliosphere, and a time-dependent diffusion coefficients model in which an analytical expression of the variation of magnetic turbulence magnitude throughout the inner heliosphere is applied. Furthermore, during solar maximum, the solar magnetic polarity is determined randomly with the possibility of A > 0 decided by the percentage of the solar north polar magnetic field being outward and the solar south polar magnetic field being inward. The computed results are compared at various energies with several GCR observations, e.g., the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP 8), EPHIN on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Ulysses, and Voyager 1 and 2, and they show good agreement. We show that our model has successfully reproduced the 11- and 22-year modulation cycles.

  10. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-01-01

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ( 4 He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with 4 He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g αγγ -10 GeV -1 (95%C.L.) for m a =0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  11. A JET BREAK IN THE X-RAY LIGHT CURVE OF SHORT GRB 111020A: IMPLICATIONS FOR ENERGETICS AND RATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Zauderer, B. A.; Czekala, I.; Chornock, R.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Fox, D. B.; Podsiadlowski, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present broadband observations of the afterglow and environment of the short GRB 111020A. An extensive X-ray light curve from Swift/XRT, XMM-Newton, and Chandra, spanning ∼100 s to 10 days after the burst, reveals a significant break at δt ≈ 2 days with pre- and post-break decline rates of α X,1 ≈ –0.78 and α X,2 ∼ j ≈ 3°-8°. The resulting beaming-corrected γ-ray (10-1000 keV band) and blast-wave kinetic energies are (2-3) × 10 48 erg and (0.3-2) × 10 49 erg, respectively, with the range depending on the unknown redshift of the burst. We report a radio afterglow limit of c X , constrains the circumburst density to n 0 ∼ 0.01-0.1 cm –3 . Optical observations provide an afterglow limit of i ∼> 24.4 mag at 18 hr after the burst and reveal a potential host galaxy with i ≈ 24.3 mag. The subarcsecond localization from Chandra provides a precise offset of 0.''80 ± 0.''11 (1σ) from this galaxy corresponding to an offset of 5-7 kpc for z 0.5-1.5. We find a high excess neutral hydrogen column density of (7.5 ± 2.0) × 10 21 cm –2 (z = 0). Our observations demonstrate that a growing fraction of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are collimated, which may lead to a true event rate of ∼> 100-1000 Gpc –3 yr –1 , in good agreement with the NS-NS merger rate of ≈200-3000 Gpc –3 yr –1 . This consistency is promising for coincident short GRB-gravitational wave searches in the forthcoming era of Advanced LIGO/VIRGO.

  12. Determining the solar-flare photospheric scale height from SMM gamma-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A connected series of Monte Carlo programs was developed to make systematic calculations of the energy, temporal and angular dependences of the gamma-ray line and neutron emission resulting from such accelerated ion interactions. Comparing the results of these calculations with the Solar Maximum Mission/Gamma Ray Spectrometer (SMM/GRS) measurements of gamma-ray line and neutron fluxes, the total number and energy spectrum of the flare-accelerated ions trapped on magnetic loops at the Sun were determined and the angular distribution, pitch angle scattering, and mirroring of the ions on loop fields were constrained. Comparing the calculations with measurements of the time dependence of the neutron capture line emission, a determination of the He-3/H ratio in the photosphere was also made. The diagnostic capabilities of the SMM/GRS measurements were extended by developing a new technique to directly determine the effective photospheric scale height in solar flares from the neutron capture gamma-ray line measurements, and critically test current atmospheric models in the flare region.

  13. Atmospheric data over a solar cycle: no connection between galactic cosmic rays and new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particles affect the Earth's radiative balance by directly scattering and absorbing solar radiation and, indirectly, through their activation into cloud droplets. Both effects are known with considerable uncertainty only, and translate into even bigger uncertainties in future climate predictions. More than a decade ago, variations in galactic cosmic rays were suggested to closely correlate with variations in atmospheric cloud cover and therefore constitute a driving force behind aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Later, the enhancement of atmospheric aerosol particle formation by ions generated from cosmic rays was proposed as a physical mechanism explaining this correlation. Here, we report unique observations on atmospheric aerosol formation based on measurements at the SMEAR II station, Finland, over a solar cycle (years 1996–2008 that shed new light on these presumed relationships. Our analysis shows that none of the quantities related to aerosol formation correlates with the cosmic ray-induced ionisation intensity (CRII. We also examined the contribution of ions to new particle formation on the basis of novel ground-based and airborne observations. A consistent result is that ion-induced formation contributes typically significantly less than 10% to the number of new particles, which would explain the missing correlation between CRII and aerosol formation. Our main conclusion is that galactic cosmic rays appear to play a minor role for atmospheric aerosol formation events, and so for the connected aerosol-climate effects as well.

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and paramagnetic resonance evidence for shock-induced intramolecular bond breaking in some energetic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, F. J.; Sharma, J.

    1980-03-01

    Solid samples of 1,3,5, trinitro 1,3,5, triazacyclohexane (RDX), trinitrotoluene (TNT), and ammonium nitrate were subjected to shock pulses of strength and duration less than the threshold to cause detonation. The recovered shocked samples were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The results of these measurements indicate that the shock pulse either broke or altered the internal bonds of the molecules of the solid. The results of the shock decomposition are compared with measurements of the uv and slow thermal decomposition of these materials using the same experimental techniques.

  15. Influence of the Solar Cycle on Turbulence Properties and Cosmic-Ray Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.-L.; Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Hu, Q.; Feng, X. S.

    2018-04-01

    The solar cycle dependence of various turbulence quantities and cosmic-ray (CR) diffusion coefficients is investigated by using OMNI 1 minute resolution data over 22 years. We employ Elsässer variables z ± to calculate the magnetic field turbulence energy and correlation lengths for both the inwardly and outwardly directed interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We present the temporal evolution of both large-scale solar wind (SW) plasma variables and small-scale magnetic fluctuations. Based on these observed quantities, we study the influence of solar activity on CR parallel and perpendicular diffusion using quasi-linear theory and nonlinear guiding center theory, respectively. We also evaluate the radial evolution of the CR diffusion coefficients by using the boundary conditions for different solar activity levels. We find that in the ecliptic plane at 1 au (1), the large-scale SW temperature T, velocity V sw, Alfvén speed V A , and IMF magnitude B 0 are positively related to solar activity; (2) the fluctuating magnetic energy density , residual energy E D , and corresponding correlation functions all have an obvious solar cycle dependence. The residual energy E D is always negative, which indicates that the energy in magnetic fluctuations is larger than the energy in kinetic fluctuations, especially at solar maximum; (3) the correlation length λ for magnetic fluctuations does not show significant solar cycle variation; (4) the temporally varying shear source of turbulence, which is most important in the inner heliosphere, depends on the solar cycle; (5) small-scale fluctuations may not depend on the direction of the background magnetic field; and (6) high levels of SW fluctuations will increase CR perpendicular diffusion and decrease CR parallel diffusion, but this trend can be masked if the background IMF changes in concert with turbulence in response to solar activity. These results provide quantitative inputs for both turbulence transport models and CR

  16. Rocket studies of solar corona and transition region. [X-Ray spectrometer/spectrograph telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Brown, W. A.; Nobles, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The XSST (X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectrograph Telescope) rocket payload launched by a Nike Boosted Black Brant was designed to provide high spectral resolution coronal soft X-ray line information on a spectrographic plate, as well as time resolved photo-electric records of pre-selected lines and spectral regions. This spectral data is obtained from a 1 x 10 arc second solar region defined by the paraboloidal telescope of the XSST. The transition region camera provided full disc images in selected spectral intervals originating in lower temperature zones than the emitting regions accessible to the XSST. A H-alpha camera system allowed referencing the measurements to the chromospheric temperatures and altitudes. Payload flight and recovery information is provided along with X-ray photoelectric and UV flight data, transition camera results and a summary of the anomalies encountered. Instrument mechanical stability and spectrometer pointing direction are also examined.

  17. Studies of solar flares: Homology and X-ray line broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranns, Neale David Raymond

    This thesis starts with an introduction to the solar atmosphere and the physics that governs its behaviour. The formation processes of spectral lines are presented followed by an explanation of employed plasma diagnostic techniques and line broadening mechanisms. The current understanding on some principle concepts of flare physics are reviewed and the topics of flare homology and non-thermal line broadening are introduced. The many solar satellites and instrumentation that were utilised during this thesis are described. Analysis techniques for some instruments are also presented. A series of solar flares that conform to the literature definition for homologous flares are examined. The apparent homology is shown to be caused by emerging flux rather than continual stressing of a single, or group of, magnetic structure's. The implications for flare homology are discussed. The analysis of a solar flare with a rise and peak in the observed non-thermal X-ray line broadening (Vnt) is then performed. The location of the hot plasma within the flare area is determined and consequently the source of Vnt is located to be within and above the flare loops. The flare footpoints are therefore discarded as a possible source location. Viable source locations are discussed with a view to determining the dominant mechanism for the generation of line broadening. The timing relationships between the hard X-ray (HXR) flux and Vnt in many solar flares are then examined. I show that there is a causal relationship between these two parameters and that the HXR rise time is related to the time delay between the maxima of HXR flux and Vnt. The temporal evolution of Vnt is shown to be dependent upon the shape of the HXR burst. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of determining the line broadening mechanism and the limitations of the data. A summary of the results in this thesis is then presented together with suggestions for future research.

  18. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) SMEX Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, S.; Shih, A. Y.; Krucker, S.; Glesener, L.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Caspi, A.; Allred, J. C.; Battaglia, M.; Chen, B.; Drake, J. F.; Gary, D. E.; Goetz, K.; Gburek, S.; Grefenstette, B.; Hannah, I. G.; Holman, G.; Hudson, H. S.; Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Kontar, E.; Kowalski, A. F.; Massone, A. M.; Piana, M.; Ramsey, B.; Schwartz, R.; Steslicki, M.; Turin, P.; Ryan, D.; Warmuth, A.; Veronig, A.; Vilmer, N.; White, S. M.; Woods, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    We present FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager), a Small Explorer (SMEX) Heliophysics mission that is currently undergoing a Phase A concept study. FOXSI will provide a revolutionary new perspective on energy release and particle acceleration on the Sun. FOXSI is a direct imaging X-ray spectrometer with higher dynamic range and better than 10x the sensitivity of previous instruments. Flown on a 3-axis-stabilized spacecraft in low-Earth orbit, FOXSI uses high-angular-resolution grazing-incidence focusing optics combined with state-of-the-art pixelated soli