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Sample records for rayonnement synchrotron dans

  1. Interest of synchrotron radiation for the therapy of brain tumors: methodology and preclinical applications; Interet du rayonnement synchrotron dans la therapie des tumeurs cerebrales: methodologie et applications precliniques

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    Regnard, P

    2007-12-15

    Microbeam radiation (M.R.T.) and stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy (S.S.R.T.) are innovative techniques currently developed at the european Synchrotron radiation facility. these techniques led to promising, but rarely reproduced, results. the use of different tumoral models for each techniques limit comparisons. M.R.T. experiments on rats bearing 9L tumors 14 days after implantation displayed a double median survival time ( from 20 to 40 days) with a 200 {mu}m spacing irradiation, while a 100 {mu}m spacing irradiation tripled this median (67 days) but damaged normal tissue. the impact of the device dividing synchrotron beam into micro-beams, named multi sit collimator, was also demonstrated. combination of drugs with M.R.T. irradiation was tested. promising results (median survival time: 40 days and 30% of long term survivors) were obtained with an intratumoral injection of gadolinium coupled with a crossing M.R.T. irradiation at 460 Gy. Moreover, earlier M.R.T. irradiation (tumor at D10) quadrupled the median survival time (79 days) with 30% of long term survivors. A new imaging device to target the tumor before irradiation and an adapted collimator will increase the M.R.T. results. As the differences existing between tumoral models used in M.R.T. (9L models) and in S.S.R.T. (F98 models) are major, M.R.T./S.S.R.T. comparative experiments were realised on these two models. Results showed that the two techniques have the same efficacy on F98 model and that the M.R.T. is more effective on 9L model. This can help to define adapted tumor type for these techniques. (author)

  2. Gamma radiation in space and in the atmosphere; Rayonnement gamma dans l'espace et dans l'atmosphere

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    Rocchia, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    We have shown that the {gamma} radiation existing in the atmosphere is caused mainly by the Bremsstrahlung of the electrons of the electromagnetic cascades ({approx} 50 per cent of the measured radiation), by the 511 keV radiation produced by the annihilation of positrons created in cascades (8 per cent of the measured intensity) and by the Compton {gamma} degradation of this line (30 per cent of the measured intensity). The rest, slightly over 10 per cent, must be attributed to secondary causes such as the nuclear de-excitation {gamma} to the internal Bremsstrahlung of charged particles created in nuclear stars, and to charged particles crossing our detector, since the latter was not fitted with a device for rejecting these particles. Experiments carried out in rockets at Colomb-Bechar confirm these results and have made it possible to detect and measure a primary {gamma} radiation having an intensity of {approx} 2 {gamma} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} above 100 keV. The primary spectrum obeys an approximate E{sup -2} law. (author) [French] Nous avons montre que le rayonnement {gamma} existant dans l'atmosphere est provoque principalement por le bremsstrohlung des electrons des cascades electromagnetiques ({approx} 50 pour cent du rayonnement mesure), au rayonnement 511 keV provoque par l'annihilation des positrons crees dans les cascades (8 pour cent de l'intensite mesuree) et aux {gamma} de degradation Compton de cette raie (30 pour cent de l'intensite mesuree). Le reste, soit un peu plus de 10 pour cent, doit etre attribue a des causes secondaires telles que les {gamma} de desexcitation nucleaire, le bremsstrahlung interne des particules chargees creees dans les etoiles nucleaires, et aux particules chargees traversant notre detecteur car celui-ci ne comportait pas de dispositif de rejet de ces particules. Les experiences faites en fusees a Colomb-Bechar ont confirme ces resultats et permis de detecter et mesurer un rayonnement {gamma} primaire dont l

  3. Dosimetry techniques of thermal neutrons and {gamma} radiation in reactor cores; Techniques de dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques et du rayonnement {gamma} dans les piles

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    Sutton, J; Draganic, I; Hering, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Chemical studies under radiation done in the reactor cores require to be followed by dosimetry. When the irradiations are done in the reflector, one can limit to the measure of the {gamma} and the neutron radiation. For the dosimetry of the {gamma} radiation, a dosimeter of ferrous sulfate is convenient until doses of about 10{sup 6} rep. The use of aired oxalic acid solutions permits to reach 10{sup 7} rep. The dosimetry of thermal neutrons has been made with solutions of cobalt sulphate or paper filter impregnated with this salt. The total chemical effect of the {gamma} and of the slow neutrons radiation is obtained with solutions of ferrous sulfate added with lithium sulphate. (M.B.) [French] Les etudes de chimie sous radiation faites dans les piles exigent d'etre suivies par dosimetrie. Lorsque les irradiations sont effectues dans le reflecteur, on peut se limiter a doser le rayonnement {gamma} et les neutrons. Pour la dosimetrie du rayonnement {gamma}, un dosimetre a sulfate ferreux convient jusqu'a des doses d'environ 10{sup 6} rep. L'emploi de solutions aerees d'acide oxalique permet d'atteindre 10{sup 7} rep. La dosimetrie des neutrons thermiques a ete faite avec des solutions de sulfate de cotalt ou du papier filtre impregne de ce sel. L'effet chimique total du rayonnement {gamma} et des neutrons lents est obtenu avec des solutions de sulfate ferreux additionne de sulfate de lithium. (M.B.)

  4. Modelling solar radiation interception in row plantation. 3. Application to a traditional vineyard; Modélisation de l’interception des rayonnements solaires dans une culture en rangs. 3. Application à une vigne traditionnelle

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    Sinoquet, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Pointe a Pitre (France); Valancogne, C.; Lescure, A.; Bonhomme, R.

    1992-07-01

    A previously described model of solar radiation interception was applied to a spatially discontinuous canopy: that of a traditional vineyard in which the classical terms of the radiative balance and the spatial distribution of the radiation transmitted to the soil were measured. Comparison of measured and simulated data gave satisfactory agreement for reflected radiation (fig 4), but major discrepancies appeared for mean transmitted radiation (fig 5). The use of small stationary sensors for measuring the transmitted radiation explains the latter observation, since most of the time they measured radiation received on the ground in the sunflecks or in the shaded area rather than mean radiation. This was verified by comparing the measured and simulated spatial distribution of transmitted radiation (figs 7, 8). Finally, the influence of the woody parts which were not taken into consideration in the model was clearly identified : it significantly reduced the transmission of incident radiation (fig 9), and to a greater degrees the closer the sensor was to the vegetation row. (author) [French] Un modèle d’interception du rayonnement solaire décrit précédemment est appliqué à un couvert spatialement discontinu : une vigne traditionnelle sur laquelle ont été mesurés les termes classiques du bilan radiatif et la distribution spatiale du rayonnement transmis au sol. La comparaison des mesures au modèle révèle un ajustement satisfaisant pour le rayonnement réfléchi (fig 4), mais assez médiocre pour le rayonnement transmis moyen (fig 5). Ceci est expliqué par l’utilisation de capteurs ponctuels qui, en raison de leur taille, mesurent plus souvent le rayonnement reçu au sol dans les taches de soleil ou les zones d’ombre qu’un rayonnement moyen. Ceci est vérifié en comparant les distributions mesurées et calculées du rayonnement transmis au sol (figs 7 et 8). Enfin, l’influence des parties ligneuses, non prise en compte dans le modèle, est

  5. Synchrotron X-ray adaptative monochromator: study and realization of a prototype; Monochromateur adaptatif pour rayonnement X synchrotron: etude et realisation d`un prototype

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    Dezoret, D.

    1995-12-12

    This work presents a study of a prototype of a synchrotron X-ray monochromator. The spectral qualities of this optic are sensitive to the heat loads which are particularly important on third synchrotron generation like ESRF. Indeed, powers generated by synchrotron beams can reach few kilowatts and power densities about a few tens watts per square millimeters. The mechanical deformations of the optical elements of the beamlines issue issue of the heat load can damage their spectral efficiencies. In order to compensate the deformations, wa have been studying the transposition of the adaptive astronomical optics technology to the x-ray field. First, we have considered the modifications of the spectral characteristics of a crystal induced by x-rays. We have established the specifications required to a technological realisation. Then, thermomechanical and technological studies have been required to transpose the astronomical technology to an x-ray technology. After these studies, we have begun the realisation of a prototype. This monochromator is composed by a crystal of silicon (111) bonded on a piezo-electric structure. The mechanical control is a loop system composed by a infrared light, a Shack-Hartmann CDD and wave front analyser. This system has to compensate the deformations of the crystal in the 5 kcV to 60 kcV energy range with a power density of 1 watt per square millimeters. (authors).

  6. Dosimetry for synchrotron stereotactic radiotherapy: Monte Carlo simulations and radiosensitive gels; Dosimetrie pour la radiotherapie stereotaxique en rayonnement synchrotron: calculs Monte-Carlo et gels radiosensibles

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    Boudou, C

    2006-09-15

    High grade gliomas are extremely aggressive brain tumours. Specific techniques combining the presence of high atomic number elements within the tumour to an irradiation with a low x-rays (below 100 keV) beam from a synchrotron source were proposed. For the sake of clinical trials, the use of treatment planning system has to be foreseen as well as tailored dosimetry protocols. Objectives of this thesis work were (1) the development of a dose calculation tools based on Monte Carlo code for particles transport and (2) the implementation of an experimental method for the three dimensional verification of the dose delivered. The dosimetric tool is an interface between tomography images from patient or sample and the M.C.N.P.X. general purpose code. Besides, dose distributions were measured through a radiosensitive polymer gel, providing acceptable results compared to calculations.

  7. Uses of radioactive isotopes and radiation sources in biological studies in U. A. R; Utilisation des radioisotopes et des sources de rayonnement dans les etudes biologiques en RAU

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    Hashish, S. E. [Radiobiology Department, U. A. R. Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo, United Arab Republic (Egypt)

    1970-01-15

    An attempt is made to give examples rather than a review of the uses of radioactive isotopes and radiation sources in biological studies in U.A.R. Studies along these lines started early in 1955 and are still progressing. The prospects of future developments and improvements are unlimited. The studies are classified according to the radio technique adopted. The techniques so far used in U.A.R. include all the techniques known elsewhere. Some detailed modifications and combinations of more than one technique have been successfully introduced. Both in basic and applied biological studies, one or more of the following techniques have been applied, namely tracer technique, isotopic dilution analysis, autoradiography, radiochromatography and electrophoresis, double or multi-bioassays, radioactivation analysis, neutron absorption analysis, and use of different radiation source for somatic and/or genetic effect studies. Mass spectrometry for stable isotopic studies in the field of biology has been recently used. Studies undertaken in the applied fields of biology e. g, in medicine (diagnosis and therapy) and agriculture (soil, plant and animal) have proved extremely valuable from the practical and developmental points of view. (author) [French] Le mémoire a pour objet d'illustrer plutôt que d'exposer systématiquement les utilisations des radioisotopes et des sources de rayonnement dans des études biologiques en République Arabe Unie. Ces études, entreprises au début de 1955, se poursuivent. Les possibilités de développement et de perfectionnement sont illimitées. Les études sont classées d'après la radiotechnique adoptée. Les techniques régulièrement utilisées jusqu' à présent en République Arabe Unie couvrent toute la gamme des techniques connues ailleurs. On a réussi à apporter des modifications de détail et à combiner plusieurs techniques. Dans les études de biologie tant fondamentale qu' appliquée, une ou plusieurs des techniques suivantes

  8. Study of gamma radiation between 0.1 and 1.0 MeV in the earth's atmosphere; Etude du rayonnement gamma entre 0,1 et 1 Mev dans l'atmosphere terrestre

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    Boclet, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    The present work is devoted to some of the particular problems arising in the detection and localisation of sources of gamma radiation situated outside the earth's atmosphere. These weak sources can only be detected and localized if care is taken to eliminate gamma and particle radiations coming from other sources in the earth's atmosphere and in space. In order to separate the various sources of background noise, generally much stronger than the radiation under study, use is made of a directional detector whose characteristics are determined as described in the first part of the following report. The closest diffuse source considered is that constituted by the earth's atmosphere. Its detailed study will make it possible both to eliminate its effect when sources outside the earth are to be measured, and to predict the amount of secondary gamma radiation emitted by the same process in other celestial bodies, the moon in particular. This work considered in the 2. and 3. parts of the report. (author) [French] La presente etude est consacree a certains des problemes particuliers poses par la detection et la localisation des sources de rayonnement gamma situees hors de l'atmosphere terrestre. Ces sources faibles ne peuvent etre detectees et localisees que si l'on se protege des rayonnements gamma et particulaires provenant d'autres sources situees dans l'atmosphere terrestre et dans l'espace. Pour separer ces divers composants parasites, en general beaucoup plus intenses que le rayonnement a etudier, nous emploierons un detecteur directif dont nous determinons les caracteristiques dans la premiere partie de l'expose qui suit. La source diffuse la plus proche que nous considerons comme parasite est constituee par l'atmosphere terrestre. Son etude detaillee nous permettra d'une part de nous en proteger lorsque nous voudrons etudier les sources {gamma} extra-terrestres, d'autre part de prevoir le rayonnement gamma secondaire emis par le meme processus pour les autres corps

  9. Study of gamma radiation between 0.1 and 1.0 MeV in the earth's atmosphere; Etude du rayonnement gamma entre 0,1 et 1 Mev dans l'atmosphere terrestre

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    Boclet, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    The present work is devoted to some of the particular problems arising in the detection and localisation of sources of gamma radiation situated outside the earth's atmosphere. These weak sources can only be detected and localized if care is taken to eliminate gamma and particle radiations coming from other sources in the earth's atmosphere and in space. In order to separate the various sources of background noise, generally much stronger than the radiation under study, use is made of a directional detector whose characteristics are determined as described in the first part of the following report. The closest diffuse source considered is that constituted by the earth's atmosphere. Its detailed study will make it possible both to eliminate its effect when sources outside the earth are to be measured, and to predict the amount of secondary gamma radiation emitted by the same process in other celestial bodies, the moon in particular. This work considered in the 2. and 3. parts of the report. (author) [French] La presente etude est consacree a certains des problemes particuliers poses par la detection et la localisation des sources de rayonnement gamma situees hors de l'atmosphere terrestre. Ces sources faibles ne peuvent etre detectees et localisees que si l'on se protege des rayonnements gamma et particulaires provenant d'autres sources situees dans l'atmosphere terrestre et dans l'espace. Pour separer ces divers composants parasites, en general beaucoup plus intenses que le rayonnement a etudier, nous emploierons un detecteur directif dont nous determinons les caracteristiques dans la premiere partie de l'expose qui suit. La source diffuse la plus proche que nous considerons comme parasite est constituee par l'atmosphere terrestre. Son etude detaillee nous permettra d'une part de nous en proteger lorsque nous voudrons etudier les sources {gamma} extra-terrestres, d'autre part de prevoir le rayonnement gamma

  10. La diaspora, instrument de la politique de puissance et de rayonnement de l’Inde à l’île Maurice et dans le monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouck Carsignol-Singh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Les Persons of Indian Origin (PIO ont depuis le début du XXe siècle servi de levier à l’intelligentsia indienne pour rehausser l’image du pays et contribuer à son rayonnement culturel sur la scène internationale, en tant qu’ambassadeurs culturels de l’Inde dans leur pays de résidence. Aujourd’hui, les nouveaux liens établis entre New Delhi et les Non Resident Indians (NRI dépassent largement le cadre de la diplomatie culturelle, et leur mobilisation économique ou politique en faveur du traité nucléaire contribuent à l’affirmation de la puissance de l’Inde. Une analyse de la mobilisation des Indo-Mauriciens permet de mettre en lumière le double rôle du facteur diasporique dans l’émergence de l’Inde comme grande puissance régionale et internationale, en tant qu’instrument à la fois du Soft Power et de la Realpolitik de New Delhi.People of Indian Origin (PIOs have, since the beginning of the XXth century, been used by the Indian intelligentsia to promote the image of the sub-continent and diffuse India’s cultural values on the international stage, as cultural ambassadors of India in their host countries. Today, the new partnership between New Delhi and the Non Resident Indians (NRIs go beyond India’s cultural diplomacy, and the support of the Diaspora in favour of the nuclear deal plays a strategic part in the affirmation of India as an emerging power. An analysis of the mobilisation of Indo-Mauritians in line with the interests and values of India illustrates the double role of the diasporic factor in the emergence of India as a regional and global power, as a tool of New Delhi’s soft power and Realpolitik.

  11. Theoretical galactic cosmic ray electron spectrum obtained for sources of varying geometry; Spectre theorique des electrons du rayonnement cosmique dans la galaxie obtenu pour des sources a geometrie variable

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    Cohen, M E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Jokipii and Meyer have recently obtained an electron density energy spectrum of the cosmic rays, originating in the Galaxy, using integral solutions of the steady state transfer equations, by considering a circular cylindric galactic disc as source and approximating the resulting fourth order integral. In this report, we present general results, obtained by using an arbitrary circular cylindric source, without restricting ourselves to the galactic disc. The integrals are treated exactly. The conclusions of Jokipii and Meyer form special cases of these results. We also obtain an exponential energy variation which, at the moment, is not observed experimentally. The second part of this work deals with more complicated, but perhaps more realistic models of elliptic cylindric and ellipsoidal galactic disc sources. One may also note that a very large source concentrated in a very small region gives a spectrum not unlike that for a small source distributed throughout a large volume. Finally, it may be remarked that the model adopted is much less restrictive than the artificial conception of 'leakage time' followed by other workers. (author) [French] Jokipii et Meyer ont dernierement obtenu un spectre d'energie pour les electrons galactiques dans le rayonnement cosmique, en utilisant les solutions des equations de transfert, a l'etat stationnaire, ces dernieres etant sous forme d'integrales, en prenant une source completement diffusee dans le disque galactique, celui-ci etant hypothetiquement choisi comme circulaire et cylindrique et en faisant une approximation sur l'integrale du quatrieme degre. Dans ce rapport, nous presentons des resultats generaux obtenus en faisant appel a une source, diffusee dans un cylindre circulaire, arbitrairement choisi, c'est-a-dire sans nous restreindre au disque galactique comme source. Les integrales sont traitees d'une maniere exacte. Les conclusions de Jokipii et Meyer constituent des cas speciaux des resultats precedents. Nous obtenons

  12. Micro-irradiation experiments in MOS transistors using synchrotron radiation; Experiences de micro-irradiation de transistors MOS a l'aide d'un rayonnement synchrotron

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    Autran, J.L.; Masson, P.; Raynaud, C. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Lab. de Physique de la Matiere; Masson, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electronique et de Radio-Electricite, ENSERG/LPCS, 38 - Grenoble (France); Freud, N. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), CNDRI, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Riekel, C. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1999-07-01

    Spatially-resolved total-dose degradation has been performed in MOS transistors by focusing x-ray synchrotron radiation on the gate electrode with micrometer resolution. The influence of the resulting permanent degradation on device electrical properties has been analyzed using current-voltage and charge pumping measurements, in concert with optical characterization (hot-carrier luminescence) and one-dimensional device simulation. (authors)

  13. Development and application of the analyzer-based imaging technique with hard synchrotron radiation; Developpement et application d'une technique d'imagerie par rayonnement synchrotron basee sur l'utilisation d'un cristal analyseur

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    Coan, P

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this thesis is twofold: from one side the application of the analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging to study cartilage, bone and bone implants using ESRF synchrotron radiation sources and on the other to contribute to the development of the phase contrast techniques from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Several human samples have been studied in vitro using the analyser based imaging (ABI) technique. Examination included projection and computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional volume rendering of hip, big toe and ankle articular joints. X-ray ABI images have been critically compared with those obtained with conventional techniques, including radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histology, the latter taken as gold standard. Results show that only ABI imaging was able to either visualize or correctly estimate the early pathological status of the cartilage. The status of the bone ingrowth in sheep implants have also been examined in vitro: ABI images permitted to correctly distinguish between good and incomplete bone healing. Pioneering in-vivo ABI on guinea pigs were also successfully performed, confirming the possible use of the technique to follow up the progression of joint diseases, the bone/metal ingrowth and the efficacy of drugs treatments. As part of the development of the phase contrast techniques, two objectives have been reached. First, it has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time that the ABI and the propagation based imaging (PBI) can be combined to create images with original features (hybrid imaging, HI). Secondly, it has been proposed and experimentally tested a new simplified set-up capable to produce images with properties similar to those obtained with the ABI technique or HI. Finally, both the ABI and the HI have been theoretically studied with an innovative, wave-based simulation program, which was able to correctly reproduce experimental results. (author)

  14. Determination of the cross-sections of some nuclear reactions occurring as a result of cosmic radiation (1963); Determination des sections efficaces de quelques reactions nucleaires intervenant dans les effets ou rayonnement cosmique (1963)

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    Tamers, M A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The high energy reactions studied during this research are reactions liable to occur as a result of cosmic radiation. On the one hand the reaction {sup 16}O(p, 3p){sup 14}C was studied and its cross-section measured between 65 MeV and 2.7 GeV; a value of 2.3 mb {+-} 0.5 was found. These values have mode it possible to forecast measurable quantities of carbon-14 in meteorites and also to measure them. On the other hand the reactions {sup 12}C({sup 16}O...), {sup 12}C({sup 14}N...) and {sup 12}C({sup 12}C...) have been studied and an attempt has been made to explain the mechanism of these reactions. (author) [French] Les reactions a hautes energies qui ont ete etudiees au court de ce travail sont des reactions susceptibles de se produire sous l'effet du rayonnement cosmique. Il s'agit d'une part de la reaction {sup 16}O(p, 3p){sup 14}C dont on a mesure la section efficoce egale a 2,3 mb {+-} 0,5 entre 65 MeV et 2,7 GeV. Ces valeurs ont permis de prevoir des quantites mesurables de carbone 14 dans les meteorites et par suite de les determiner. D'autre part les reaction {sup 12}C({sup 16}O...), {sup 12}C({sup 14}N...) et {sup 12}C({sup 12}C...) ont ete etudiees et on a tente d'expliquer le mecanisme de ces reactions. (auteur)

  15. Agent principal de rayonnement et de mobilisation stratégiques (h/f ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans ce contexte, l'agent principal de rayonnement et de mobilisation stratégiques élabore des démarches qui permettent de mobiliser les chercheurs et les principaux utilisateurs de la recherche dans les régions visées, afin de faire en sorte qu'ils aient l'occasion de participer à la définition des besoins de recherche dans ...

  16. Polarization of Bremsstrahlung; Polarisation du rayonnement de freinage

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    Miller, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The numerical results for the polarization of Bremsstrahlung are presented. The multiple scattering of electrons in the target is taken into account. The angular-and photon energy dependences are seen on the curves for an incident 25 MeV electron energy. (Author) [French] Le taux de polarisation d'un spectre de rayonnement de freinage est calcule pour une cible d'epaisseur finie en tenant compte de la diffusion multiple des electrons dans la cible. Les courbes sont tracees pour les electrons incidents d'energie 25 MeV, pour differentes energies de photons, et a differents angles. (auteur)

  17. Theoretical and experimental study of a calorimetric technique for measuring energy deposition in materials caused by complex pile irradiation; Etude theorique et experimentale d'une technique calorimetrique de mesure des depots d'energie dans les materiaux dus au rayonnement complexe de pile

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    Mas, P; Sciers, P; Droulers, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1962-07-01

    Calorimetric methods may be used to measure gamma fluxes greater than 10{sup 6} r/h near the cores of swimming pool reactors. The theory, design, and properties of isothermal calorimeters are discussed, and experimental results obtained with two types are presented. Measurement of energy deposition in materials and the long term integration of energy depositions are other uses of these devices. Results of measurements on heat deposition in steel and water are given. Fluxes were also measured. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie traite de la theorie des calorimetres isothermes mis en oeuvre au C.K.N. Grenoble. La puissance deposee dans le calorimetre par les flux de rayonnement echauffe celui-ci. L'echauffement est mesure a l'aide d'un thermocouple. On montre que l'on a ainsi une mesure absolue de cette puissance. Une deuxieme partie traite de l'etude experimentale de: deux types d'appareils utilises: leur construction, les resultats experimentaux, leurs utilisations. Trois de celles-ci sont particulierement interessantes: - la mesure des hauts flux gamma, - la mesure du depot d'energie dans les materiaux, - l'integration pendant une longue duree des depots d'energie (un modele de calorimetre a fonctionne a ce jour 2 500 heures et a integre 9 x 10 puissance 10 rads gamma et 6 x 10 puissance 18 neutrons rapides). La troisieme partie est consacree a l'etude des qualites de l'appareil: robustesse, fidelite, precision, sensibilite, gamme de mesure. Enfin dans la derniere partie sont decrites deux applications de la methode calorimetrique a la mesure du depot d'energie dans un acier special et dans l'eau. (auteurs)

  18. Technical Developments in the USAEC Process Radiation Development Program; Etudes technologiques dans le cadre du programme de mise au point d'applications industrielles des rayonnements de la CEA-EU; Issledovaniya v oblasti promyshlennogo primeneniya izluchenij, vkhodyashchie v programmu komissii po atomnoj ehnergii USAEC; Progresos tecnicos en el programa de la USAEC para el fomento de la irradiacion industrial

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    Machurek, J. E.; Stein, M. H. [Division of Isotopes Development, USAEC, Washington, DC (United States)

    1963-11-15

    A broad range of researches have been undertaken in the USAEC 'Process radiation development program'. The primary objective of these studies is to foster development of technology leading to the productive industrial use of ionizing radiation. Results of fourteen of these investigations are reported.some in outline in this paper and some in detail in these Proceedings. The subjects included are researches on: (1) Preparation of wood-plastic combinations using gamma radiation to induce polymerization. (2) Use of fission-product beta radiation for the hydrogenation of coal and coal products to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. (3) Production of semi-conductor devices with the formation of predetermined spacial distribution impurity patterns via neutron transmutation doping. (4) Radiation-induced polymerization of ethylene and copolymers. (5) Basic studies in radiation-induced reaction mechanisms and kinetics. (6) Radiation chemistry involved in the fluorination of various aromatic compounds. (7) Use of polyfunctional monomers for enhanced radiation cross-linking of polyethylene, polypropylene, polyisobutylene and cellulose acetate. (8) Effect of swelling, strain and temperature on the physical and chemical properties of radiation produced polymers. (9) Radiation-induced changes in polymers leading to graft copolymerization as influenced by structural factors. (10) The utilization of nuclear radiation for the modification of textile materials. (11) Radiation-induced reactions utilizing krypton-85. (12) The preparation of a ''Radiation Handbook''. (13) Use of the organometallic bond in high level gamma radiation dosimetry. (14) The development of a solar cell dosimeter. (author) [French] Des recherches tres diverses ont ete entreprises dans le cadre du programme de mise au point d'applications industrielles des rayonnements execute par la CEA-EU. Ce programme a pour but essentiel de favoriser le developpement de la technologie en vue d'un emploi industriel productif

  19. The Importance of Dosimetry to the Medical Management of Persons Accidentally Exposed to High Levels of Radiation; Le Role de la Dosimetrie Dans les Soins Medicaux a Donner aux Personnes Accidentellement Exposees a de Fortes Doses de Rayonnement; 0417 041d 0410 0427 0414 ; Importancia de la Dosimetria para el Tratamiento Medico de las Personas Accidentalmente Expuestas a Dosis Elevadas de Radiaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, G. A.; Lushbaugh, C. C. [Medical Division, Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies (United States); Auxier, J. A. [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1965-06-15

    Radiation accidents continue to occur sporadically and it appears that there is no hope of eliminating them entirely. The management of patients exposed to large doses of radiation is constantly improving because of increasing ability to prevent and treat infection and to control haemorrhage. The possible effectiveness of temporary bone marrow grafts offers promise of a further reduction in mortality. The use of this growing biological information is closely related to, and to a large extent dependent upon, improvements in physical dosimetry for radiation accidents. (author) [French] Des accidents provoques par les rayonnements continuent a se produire de temps a autre et il ne semble guere que l'on puisse esperer les eliminer entierement. Toutefois, le traitement des sujets exposes a de fortes doses de rayonnement ne cesse de s'ameliorer; on parvient, en effet, dans une mesure croissante a empecher et a traiter l*infection ainsi qu'a arreter l'hemorragie. Comme la greffe temporaire de la moelle des os semble devoir donner des resultats, on peut s*attendre a une nouvelle reduction du taux de mortalite. L'application de ces connaissances biologiques sans cesse accrues est fonction, dans une large mesure, des ameliorations apportees a la dosimetrie physique des accidents nucleaires. (author) [Spanish] De vez en cuando se siguen produciendo accidentes de irradiacion y las perspectivas de evitarlos por completo parecen ser bastante remotas. El tratamiento de las victimas expuestas a dosis elevadas de radiaciones mejora constantemente debido a la creciente posibilidad de prevenir y tratar las infecciones, y de controlar las hemorragias. Tambien es posible que la eficacia de ios injertos temporales de medula osea se traduzca en una disminucion de la mortalidad. El aprovechamiento de estos conocimientos biologicos cada vez mas amplios guarda una estrecha relacion con los perfeccionamientos en materia de dosimetria fisica en caso de accidentes de irradiacion. (author

  20. On the honeybee resistance to gamma radiation; Sur la resistance au rayonnement gamma de l'abeille ouvriere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, G.; Lecomte, J. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Section des Applications des Radioelements, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay, Station de Recherches Apicoles, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    1960-07-01

    The honeybee, when irradiated by gamma radiations from a cobalt-60 source can stand a 18000 r dose without any apparent harm. Noticeable harm is observed for 90000 r. while immediate death of 100% of the individuals is obtained with a 200000 r dose. The physiological condition of the honeybee plays an important role in its resistance to gamma radiation. Reprint of a paper published in Annales de l'abeille, IV, 1959, p. 285-290 [French] L'Abeille butineuse irradiee par le rayonnement gamma issu d'une source de Cobalt 60 supporte sans dommages apparents une dose de 18000 r. Des dommages tres appreciables sont observes pour 90000 r. Une dose de 200000 r entraine la mort immediate de 100% des individus. L'etat physiologique de l'Abeille joue un role important dans la resistance au rayonnement gamma. Reproduction d'un article publie dans Annales de l'abeille, IV, 1959, p. 285-290.

  1. Détection de rayonnements et instrumentation nucléaire

    CERN Document Server

    Lyoussi, Abdallah

    2010-01-01

    La détection de rayonnements nucléaires passe obligatoirement par leur interaction avec le milieu détecteur. Ces interactions génèrent directement ou indirectement des charges électriques lesquelles, une fois collectées sont (pré)amplifiées et converties en signaux électriques. Cette opération est rendue possible grâce à la polarisation électrique du détecteur conduisant à l'établissement d'un champ électrique responsable du mouvement des charges produites et de leur collection. D'une manière générale la détection et la mesure de rayonnements est un processus à plusieurs étapes comme le montre le synoptique de la figure 1.1. Il s'agit dans un premier temps de faire interagir le rayonnement incident utile avec le milieu détecteur après qu'il ait franchi l'espace «source-détecteur». Ces interactions sont ensuite converties en impulsions électriques qui sont traitées électroniquement et acheminées vers une unité d'acquisition et d'analyse. On obtient ainsi un premier résultat a...

  2. Chemical Changes Induced by Irradiation in Meats and Meat Components; Transformations Chimiques Provoquees par les Rayonnements dans les Viandes et Leurs Constituants; Khimicheskie prevrashcheniya v myasnykh produktakh i ikh sostavnykh chastyakh pod vozdejstviem oblucheniya; Alteraciones Quimicas Producidas por Irradiacion de las Carnes y de sus Componentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, C. Jr. [Pioneering Research Division, United States Army Natick Laboratories, Natick, MA (United States)

    1966-11-15

    The acceptability of meats preserved by irradiation has been hampered by the formation of an irradiation flavour and odour. This flavour and odour is believed to be due to the volatile chemical compounds produced by radiation impact on the protein and lipid molecules. The analysis of the volatile compounds has been accomplished, employing programmed cryogenic temperature gas chromatography for separation of the complex mixtures obtained, and rapid scanning mass spectrometry for identification of the individually separated components. Comprehensive analyses of the volatiles from irradiated ground beef, pork, mutton, lamb, and veal, as well as the volatile irradiation degradation products of several amino acids and proteins, animal fats, methyl esters of fatty acids, and triglycerides have been made. The results of the analysis of the irradiated component meat substances are compared with those obtained from the irradiation of meat itself, and of separate meat fractions, thus establishing the contribution of each fraction to the total. Mechanisms are postulated for the formation of the volatile components from each fraction and for interactions among intermediates from different fractions. (author) [French] La comestibilite des viandes conservees par les rayonnements s'est trouvee diminuee a la suite de l'apparition dans celles-ci d'un gout et d'une odeur engendres par l'irradiation. On pense que ces derniers sont dus aux composes chimiques volatils qui sont formes par l'action des rayonnements sur les molecules des proteines et des lipides. Il a ete procede a l'analyse des composes volatils a l'aide d'un programme de chromatographie en phase gazeuse a temperature cryogenique visant a separer les constituants des melanges complexes obtenus, et par spectrometrie de masse a balayage rapide destinee a identifier les constituants separes. L'auteur a effectue des analyses completes des composes volatils emanant de viande hachee de boeuf, de porc, de mouton, d'agneau et de

  3. Collection efficiency of charges in ionization chambers in presence of constant or variable radiation intensity; Efficacite de la collection des charges dans les chambres d'ionisation en presence d'une intensite de rayonnement ionisant constante ou variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decuyper, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The theoretical and experimental study of the collection of carriers built up by ionization in standard chambers, is made by varying the value of different acting parameters. In the presence of constant ionization intensity and under a D.C. and A.C. voltage, the effect of geometry, recombination, diffusion and attachment is analyzed. The compensation of thermal neutron D.C. chambers is equally considered. Under a time dependent ionization intensity and D.C. voltage, is then studied the effect of recombination on current response, and on the collection efficiency of all formed charges. (author) [French] L'etude theorique et experimentale de la collection des porteurs crees par ionisation dans les chambres couramment utilisees est entreprise en fonction de la valeur des differents parametres agissants. En presence d'une ionisation constante et sous une tension d'alimentation d'abord continue puis alternative, on analyse l'influence de la geometrie, de la recombinaison, de la diffusion et de l'attachement. La compensation des chambres a courant continu de mesure neutronique est egalement examinee. Ensuite, sous une intensite d'ionisation variable dans le temps et en alimentation continue, on etudie l'effet de la recombinaison sur la reponse en courant et sur l'efficacite de la collection de la charge totale liberee. (auteur)

  4. Development and application of the analyzer-based imaging technique with hard synchrotron radiation; Developpement et application d'une technique d'imagerie par rayonnement synchrotron basee sur l'utilisation d'un cristal analyseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coan, P

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this thesis is twofold: from one side the application of the analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging to study cartilage, bone and bone implants using ESRF synchrotron radiation sources and on the other to contribute to the development of the phase contrast techniques from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Several human samples have been studied in vitro using the analyser based imaging (ABI) technique. Examination included projection and computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional volume rendering of hip, big toe and ankle articular joints. X-ray ABI images have been critically compared with those obtained with conventional techniques, including radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histology, the latter taken as gold standard. Results show that only ABI imaging was able to either visualize or correctly estimate the early pathological status of the cartilage. The status of the bone ingrowth in sheep implants have also been examined in vitro: ABI images permitted to correctly distinguish between good and incomplete bone healing. Pioneering in-vivo ABI on guinea pigs were also successfully performed, confirming the possible use of the technique to follow up the progression of joint diseases, the bone/metal ingrowth and the efficacy of drugs treatments. As part of the development of the phase contrast techniques, two objectives have been reached. First, it has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time that the ABI and the propagation based imaging (PBI) can be combined to create images with original features (hybrid imaging, HI). Secondly, it has been proposed and experimentally tested a new simplified set-up capable to produce images with properties similar to those obtained with the ABI technique or HI. Finally, both the ABI and the HI have been theoretically studied with an innovative, wave-based simulation program, which was able to correctly reproduce experimental results. (author)

  5. Effets des rayonnements de haute energie sur le cristallin de la souris

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paola, M; Bianchi, M; Bianchi, M no 1; Baarli, J no 1; Di Paola, M no 1

    1973-01-01

    L'opacification du cristallin après irradiation par des neutrons et d'autres rayonnements ionisants a été largement étudiée, vu l'importance de telles recherches en radioprotection et la possibilité offerte par ce système d'analyser les effets produits par de petites doses de rayonnement. Les neutrons de haute énergie sont d'un intéret particulier pour la radioprotection près des accélérateurs et dans l'espace, mais jusqu'à présent les études ont été limitées aux neutrons d'énergie inférieur à 14 MeV. L'opacification du cristallin chez la souris, après irradiation par des neutrons de 400 MeV produits par le Synchro-Cyclotron du CERN, a été étudiée. Le valeurs d'E.B.R. ont été déterminées par comparaison avec des rayons X de 250 kV. Une breve discussion des résultats obtenus est inclue dans la présentation.

  6. Radioprotection rayonnements, dosimétrie, protection

    CERN Document Server

    Marey, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Pour tous les travailleurs du nucléaire comme pour les étudiants des licences professionnelles et des BTS Environnement nucléaire et BTS radioprotection, l'ouvrage rassemble de façon progressive, claire et précise toutes les informations scientifiques et pratiques qui leur sont indispensables. Une première partie résume les données de base relatives à la structure de la matière, la stabilité des noyaux, les différents rayonnements, leur énergie et la décroissance radioactive. La deuxième partie constitue une approche progressive de la radioprotection s'appuyant sur l'influence des rayonnement sur la matière pour définir les notions de dose et aborder le dimensionnement des protections biologiques et des éléments de ventilation. Enfin, la dernière partie traite de la mise en oeuvre pratique de la radioprotection sur le terrain et de la gestion des déchets nucléaires en application de la technologie actuelle, de la réglementation et des directives imposées par l'exploitant qu'est EDF. De...

  7. Study of the magnetic characteristics of ferrites with a view to their application in a proton synchrotron; Etudes des caracteristiques magnetiques des ferrites en vue de leur application dans un synchrotron a protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, K C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-10-01

    In this report magnetic properties of some Ni Zn ferrites available in France are investigated for the purpose of their use in accelerating cavities of proton synchrotron. An attempt is made to measure permeability and quality factor of ferrite versus various physical parameters such as frequency F, the induction B, the magnetic bias field Hp and the temperature, the investigation ranges being: F {<=} 40 Mc/s; B {<=} 10{sup -2} Tesla; Hp {<=} 5000 AT/m; T {<=} 100 C. The measurements were carried out with the one hand, conventional impedance bridge (Q-meter, RX-meter) and on the other hand, with resonating method using an inductive ferrite loaded cavity in parallel with an external capacity. The latter method is of particular interest for the measurements in function of induction and magnetic bias field. (author) [French] Ce travail consiste a etudier les proprietes magnetiques d'un certain nombre de ferrites de Ni Zn disponibles sur le marche francais en vue de leur utilisation dans les cavites acceleratrices d'un synchrotron a protons. On se propose de mesurer la permeabilite et le facteur de qualite du ferrite en fonction de divers parametres physiques tels que la frequence F, l'induction B, le champ magnetique de polarisation Hp et la temperature T, avec: F {<=} 40 Mc/s; B {<=} 10{sup -2} Tesla; Hp {<=} 5000 AT/m; T {<=} 100 C. On effectue les mesures d'une part a l'aide des ponts d'impedance classiques (Q-metre, RX-metre) et d'autre part par la methode du resonateur qui consiste a mettre en parallele une cavite inductive chargee de ferrite et une capacite exterieure. Cette derniere methode est particulierement interessante pour les mesures en fonction de l'induction et du champ magnetique polarisant. (auteur)

  8. Une méthode pour estimer l’interception du rayonnement par un couvert bas : application au colza avant montaison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denoroy Pascal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans les modèles de simulation du fonctionnement des cultures, l’interception du rayonnement est une variable cruciale pour la prévision de la productivité en biomasse. D’autre part, la connaissance de l’interception du rayonnement par une culture permet de mieux analyser la réponse à un traitement en autorisant la distinction entre les effets morphogénétique et physiologique du traitement. Par exemple, dans l’étude de la fertilisation azotée du colza [1] on a pu faire la part de l’effet morphogénétique (accroissement de l’indice foliaire, donc de l’interception et de l’amélioration de la conversion photosynthétique du rayonnement absorbé. Dans un cas comme dans l’autre, une estimation correcte de l’interception du rayonnement est essentielle. Très souvent, un formalisme dérivé de la loi de Beer-Lambert est utilisé pour quantifier la part interceptée du rayonnement : PARi = epsiloni PAR (1 et epsiloni = 1 - e- k.IF (2, PAR représentant le rayonnement photosynthétiquement actif incident (exprimé en Joules ou en moles de photons, PARi la part de ce dernier interceptée par le couvert, epsiloni le coefficient (sans dimension d’interception, IF l’indice foliaire et k le coefficient d’extinction du rayonnement. Un formalisme un peu plus complexe doit être utilisé si on veut considérer le rayonnement absorbé [1, 2]. Pour des cultures couvrantes, la sensibilité de ces modèles à la valeur de k est faible pour les IF élevés, c’est pourquoi ces modèles sont souvent utilisés avec succès. Mais aux faibles IF, les modèles sont sensibles à k, d’où l’importance de l’estimation de ce paramètre pour les cultures présentant une longue période de faible couverture du sol, tel le colza peu fertilisé en phase hivernale. De plus, pour les cultures discontinues, c’est-à-dire présentant des zones où le sol n’est pas du tout couvert par la végétation, comme les inter-rangs, on doit

  9. Application of Radiation for the Control of Salmonellae in Various Foods; Destruction des Salmonellae par les Rayonnements dans Divers Produits Alimentaires; Primenenie izluchenij dlya unichtozheniya salmonell v razlichnykh pishchevykh produktakh; Empleo de las Radiaciones Ionizantes en la Lucha Contra las Salmonellae de Diferentes Aumentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, F. J. [Wantage Research Laboratory (A.E.R.E.), Wantage, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1966-11-15

    Microbiological studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the elimination of Salmonellae from various foods have demonstrated that a wide variety of factors can influence the radiation sensitivity of the organisms. These factors include the nature of the food itself and the temperature during irradiation, e.g. whether frozen or unfrozen. The difference in resistance of different serotypes of Salmonellae irradiated under the same conditions has also been well established. Dose/survival curves constructed for the purpose of making a choice of dose for a particular application must therefore be established for the practical conditions envisaged and be based on the most resistant serotype present. Since these conditions can never be exactly reproduced in the laboratory, the choice of dose should be confirmed by a substantial amount of work with the naturally-contaminated material. It is apparent that the doses required for the treatment of various foods lie within the' range 0.5 to 1.0 Mrad, achieving a reduction in numbers of initial populations by a factor of between 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 7} . The most promising processes are those considered for frozen and dried-egg products, frozen meats and animal feedingstuffs. (author) [French] A la suite d'etudes microbiologiques sur la possibilite d'employer des rayonnements ionisants pour detruire les Salmonellaedans divers produits alimentaires, il est apparu que la radio- sensibiliteide ces organismes depend de nombreux facteurs, en particulier de la nature du produit et de sa temperature (produit congele ou non) pendant l'irradiation. On a egalement reconnu que diverses varietes serologiques de Salmonellae, irradiees dans les memes conditions, ont une radioresistance differente. Des,courbes de survie en fonction de la dose, construites en vue de determiner la dose necessaire poiir Un traitement' donne, doivent donc etre etablies pour les conditions pratiques envisagees et compte tenu de la plus resistante des varietes

  10. Experimental studies on the X-radiation from a high-intensity annular discharge; Etudes experimentales sur le rayonnement X d'une decharge annulaire a forte intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etievant, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Under certain conditions, a very penetrating X-radiation is emitted at the start of a stabilised annular discharge. A number of experimental observations have been made using a pyrex toroid filled with deuterium or argon. The value of the stabilising magnetic field and the pressure have a very important influence on the intensity of the X-radiation emitted. The placing of an obstacle such as a magnetic mirror at a point of the torus can prevent the acceleration of runaway electrons during successive revolutions, and X-ray emission disappears. (author) [French] Un rayonnement X tres penetrant est emis dans certaines conditions au debut d'une decharge annulaire stabilisee. Un certain nombre d'observations experimentales ont ete faites a l'aide d'un tore en pyrex rempli de deuterium ou d'argon. La valeur du champ magnetique stabilisateur et la pression jouent un role tres important sur l'intensite du rayonnement X emis. La disposition d'un obstacle tel qu'un miroir magnetique en un point du tore peut empecher l'acceleration d'electrons decouples au cours de revolutions successives et l'emission de rayonnement X disparait. (auteur)

  11. Composes inter-halogenes sous pression: etude des transformations structurales dans le monobromure d'iode sous forme dense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Alexandre

    La famille des composes halogenes et inter-halogenes representent des solides moleculaires adoptant des phases denses communes avec des solides moleculaires diatomiques comme l'azote et l'hydrogene. Parmi les transformations structurales et electroniques induites sous haute pression et observees dans ces solides, on note, entre autres, la dissociation moleculaire et la metallisation. De plus, l'etude des phases denses de l'iode a permis recemment l'observation d'une structure cristalline possedant une modulation dite incommensurable, c'est-a-dire une modulation possedant une periodicite differente de celle de la structure cristalline, jetant ainsi une lumiere nouvelle sur le processus de dissociation moleculaire dans les solides halogenes. Dans ce memoire, on propose d'etudier les changements structuraux dans monobromure d'iode (IBr), un compose inter-halogene possedant des proprietes structurales semblables a celles de deux composes halogenes, soit l'iode (I 2) et le brome (Br2) sous leur forme solide. Des experiences de diffraction des rayons X de poudres en utilisant un rayonnement synchrotron ont ete realisees a temperature ambiante sur l'IBr en variant la pression jusqu'aux environs de 60 GPa. La nature chimique particuliere du compose IBr a necessite la mise au point de techniques de chargement d'echantillon destinees a preserver l'integrite chimique de la substance utilisee. On rapporte egalement l'observation d'une phase de l'IBr presentant une modulation incommensurable. Les phases observees dans l'IBr permettent d'etablir des paralleles avec les phases denses rapportees dans I2 et Br2 par le biais d'un modele phenomenologique decrivant la sequence structurale des solides halogenes sous forme condensee.

  12. Synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, C

    1974-01-01

    The production of synchrotron radiation as a by-product of circular high-energy electron (positron) accelerators or storage rings is briefly discussed. A listing of existing or planned synchrotron radiation laboratories is included. The following properties are discussed: spectrum, collimation, polarization, and intensity; a short comparison with other sources (lasers and X-ray tubes) is also given. The remainder of the paper describes the experimental installations at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) and DORIS storage rings, presents a few typical examples out of the fields of atomic, molecular, and solid-state spectroscopy, and finishes with an outlook on the use of synchrotron radiation in molecular biology. (21 refs).

  13. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, C.; Quinn, P.; Blake, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on Synchrotron Radiation contains the appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report 1987/88. The appendix is mainly devoted to the scientific progress reports on the work at the Synchrotron Radiation Source in 1987/8. The parameters of the Experimental Stations and the index to the Scientific Reports are also included in the appendix. (U.K.)

  14. Radioisotopes and Radiation in Animal and Plant Insect Pest Control; Emploi des radioisotopes et des rayonnements dans la lutte contre les insectes nuisibles aux plantes et aux animaux; Ispol'zovanie radioizotopov i radiashchi v bor'be s nasekomymi-vreditelyami rastenij i zhivotnykh; Utilizacion de los radioisotopos y de las radiaciones en la lucha contra los insectos nocivos para las plantas y los animales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, S. V.; Martens, B. K.; Samojlova, V. A.; Molchanova, Z. I. [Vsesoyuznyj Institut Zashchity Rastenij, Leningrad, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1963-09-15

    degrees of stability when subjected to the action of herbicides. Pesticides containing trace quantities of isotopes with short half-lives can be used as a means of judging the merits of various spraying systems for treating seeds and agricultural crops with pesticides; this method also provides information about the optimum doses. Experiments have shown that ionizing radiations can be used to increase the virulence of insect nosophytes (Beauveria vassiana Unill.) and thus improve the efficiency of microbiological insect-pest-control methods. The sterilizing and lethal effects of ionizing radiations are also useful in combatting insect pests. Gamma-ray experiments have made it possible to establish sterilizing doses for a number of insect pests which attack crops and stored products (Calandra granaria L., Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, Pectinophora malvella Hb., Leptinotarsa decemlineota Say, Chloridea obsoleta F.). The data obtained in these investigations will be used to develop and improve the methods of insect-pest control used in agriculture. (author) [French] Le probleme de la lutte contre les parasites des cultures presente une grande importance pour l'economie nationale. Il importe, pour le resoudre, de tirer parti des realisations scientifiques les plus recentes. Pour rationaliser les methodes actuelles de lutte contre les insectes nuisibles et accroitre l'efficacite de ces methodes, on a fait appel aux radioisotopes et aux rayonnements. Grace a remploi des radioisotopes et des rayonnements, il est possible de rationaliser dans une large mesure les methodes utilisees et d'augmenter leur efficacite. A cet effet, il est indispensable d'etudier a fond les problemes d'ecologie, de toxicologie, etc. Dans le domaine de l'ecologie, la methode du radiomarquage des insectes est particulierement prometteuse. L'emploi de radioisotopes pour le marquage des insectes ravageurs des cereales (Eurygaster integriceps Put. et Hadena sordida Skh.) et de leurs parasites (Meniscus

  15. Synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  16. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, J.R.; Walker, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed account of the research work associated with the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, United Kingdom, in 1984/85, is presented in the Appendix to the Laboratory's Annual Report. (U.K.)

  17. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallmeier, K.H.; Meisel, A.; Ranft, J.

    1982-01-01

    The physical background and the properties of synchrotron radiation are described. The radiation offers many useful applications in the fields of spectroscopy and structural investigations. Some examples are given

  18. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has had a revolutionary effect on a broad range of scientific studies, from physics, chemistry and metallurgy to biology, medicine and geoscience. The situation during the last decade has been one of very rapid growth, there is a great vitality to the field and a capability has been given to a very broad range of scientific disciplines which was undreamed of just a decade or so ago. Here we will discuss some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that makes it so interesting and something of the sources in existence today including the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the new facilities built specifically for synchrotron radiation research and the model that was developed there for involvement of the scientific community is a good one which provides some good lessons for these facilities and others

  19. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, M.W.; Lea, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    A report is given on the work involving the Synchrotron Radiation Division of the Daresbury Laboratory during the period January 1981 - March 1982. Development of the source, beamlines and experimental stations is described. Progress reports from individual investigators are presented which reveal the general diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the research which benefits from access to synchrotron radiation and the associated facilities. Information is given on the organisation of the Division and publications written by the staff are listed. (U.K.)

  20. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.; Walker, R.P.; Durham, P.J.; Ridley, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on synchrotron radiation is the appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) annual report, 1985/86. The bulk of the volume is made up of the progress reports for the work carried out during the year under review using the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at Daresbury. The Appendix also contains: the scientific programmes at the the SRS, progress on beamlines, instrumentation and computing developments, and activities connected with accelerator development. (U.K.)

  1. JHF synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) consists of two synchrotrons and an injector linac. First, we will present a brief review of the specifications and lattice of the synchrotrons; one is 3 GeV booster and the other is 50 GeV main ring. Secondly, some detailed results of design study will be discussed, together with the present status of the R and D programs in progress. Among them, an estimate of beam loss is one of critical issues in beam dynamics. The development of a high gradient RF cavity is also crucial for a high intensity machine. (author)

  2. Study of {gamma} radiation from uranium rods during deactivation; Etude du rayonnement {gamma} des barres d'uranium en court de desactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestic, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The classical formulae giving the {gamma} activities of the fission products contained in a uranium rod after unloading from the pile are reviewed without being proved. The knowledge of these activities makes it possible, by means of the method proposed here, to determine the intensities of ionisation at a point outside the rod, and thus to establish {gamma} radiation diagrams. The different parameters introduced in the calculation are geometric (dimensions of the bars and coordinates of the point considered), energetic (power at which the bar has been irradiated) and temporal (duration of the irradiation and deactivation). A numerical example follows the demonstration of the general formulae, {gamma} flux measurements carried out in the deactivation well of P2 (Saclay pile) define the accuracy of the method. In conclusion, it is suggested that radiation diagrams be used in (planning the use of) industrial irradiators for radiochemical polymerisation or the preservation of food products. (author) [French] On rappelle sans demonstration les formules classiques donnant les activites {gamma} des produits de fission contenus dans une barre d'uranium apres defournement. La connaissance de ces activites permet par la methode proposee de passer aux intensites d'ionisation en un point exterieur a la barre et d'etablir ainsi des diagrammes de rayonnement {gamma}. Les differents parametres introduits dans le calcul sont d'ordre geometrique (dimensions des barres et coordonnees du point considere), d'ordre energetique (puissance a laquelle la barre a ete irradiee) et fonction du temps (duree d'irradiation et de desactivation). Un exemple numerique fait suite a la demonstration des formules generales. Des mesures de flux {gamma} effectuees au puits de desactivation de P2 (pile de Saclay) fixent le degre d'approximation de la methode. En conclusion, on suggere l'utilisation des diagrammes de rayonnement dans l'etablissement de projets d'irradiateurs industriels pour les

  3. The distribution of a pure beta-emitter in the human body. Problems and preliminary results of Bremsstrahlung measurements in vivo; La repartition d'un emetteur beta pur dans l'organisme humain. Problemes poses par les mesures in vivo du rayonnement de freinage et premiers resultats obtenus; Raspredelenie chistogo beta-izluchatel ya v chelovecheskom organizme Problemy i predvaritel'ny e rezul'taty izmerenij tormoznogo izlucheniya v zhivom organizme; Distribucion de un emisor beta puro en el organisme humano. Problemas planteados por las mediciones in vivo de la radiacion de frenado y resultados preliminares obtenidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehl, H G [Strahleninstitut der Freien Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    1959-07-01

    In vivo measurements of the distribution of a pure beta-emitter in the human body were previously limited to the localization of radioactivity in superficial tissues only, owing to the short range of the beta particles in tissue. During die last few years the analysis has been extended by means of bremsstrahlung measurements to activities in deep-lying tissues. The present paper deals with problems and results of this new technique. On the basis of an analysis of the physical nature of this radiation, the construction of suitable detection devices is discussed. The theoretical and experimental work done in this field are reviewed. In order to make a proper interpretation of the results obtained, it is necessary to analyse the various factors involved. These include particularly the area ''seen'' by the detector, the specific activity of the tissue seen and the depth of the organ under consideration, A discussion of the results of such measurements already published will permit an assessment of the present situation and of the nature of the problems still unsolved. (author) [French] Les mesures in vivo de la repartition d'un emetteur beta pur dans l'organisme humain se limitaient autrefois a la localisation de la radioactivite dans les tissus superficiels, en raison du faible parcours des particules beta dans l'organisme. Depuis quelques armees, il est possible, grace aux mesures du rayonnement de freinage, d'etudier egalement la radioactivite dans les tissus profonds. L'auteur examine les problemes poses par cette technique nouvelle et les resultats qu'elle permet d'obtenir. Il indique des procedes de detection fondes sur les caracteristiques physiques de ce rayonnement. Il decrit les recherches theoriques et experimentales qui ont ete faites dans ce domaine. Pour interpreter correctement les resultats obtenus, il importe d'analyser les differents facteurs qui interviennent, notamment la surface par le detecteur, l'activite specifique du tissu observe et

  4. Transversal effects of the space charge in an electrified particle beam (the proton synchrotron Saturne) (1963); Les effets transversaux de la charge d'espace dans les faisceaux de particules electrisees (synchrotron a protons Saturne) (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, J; Gouttefangeas, M; Levy-Mandel, R; Vienet, R; Lago, B; Loeb, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This is a study of the repulsive electrostatic forces existing inside a proton beam focused by the magnetic field of a circular accelerator. The general equation that rules the variation of beam density versus time can be rewritten by a fairly simple reasoning, A numerical method to solve this equation is then developed. The next step is then to find an optimum beam, a gaussian distribution of density being proposed allowing to find an analytical solution to the problem. (authors) [French] On etudie l'action des forces electrostatiques de repulsion qui existent dans un faisceau de protons focalise par le champ magnetique d'un accelerateur circulaire. L'equation generale qui regit la variation de densite du faisceau au cours du temps est retrouvee par un raisonnement simple. On developpe une methode numerique de resolution de cette equation. On pose le probleme de la recherche d'un faisceau optimal et on propose une loi de repartition gaussienne de densite qui permet de trouver une solution analytique au probleme. (auteurs)

  5. Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfour, F.I

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotron light is produced by electron accelerators combined with storage rings. This light is generated over a wide spectral region; from infra-red (IR) through the visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), and into the X-ray region. For relativistic electrons (moving nearly with the speed of light), most radiation is concentrated in a small cone with an opening angle of 1/gamma(some 0.1 to 1 milliradian),where gamma is the electron energy in units of rest energy (typically 10 3 -10 4 ). In synchrotron radiation sources (storage rings) highly relativistic electrons are stored to travel along a circular path for many hours. Radiation is caused by transverse acceleration due to magnetic forces(bending magnets). The radiation is emitted in pulses of 10-20 picosecond, separated by some 2 nanosecond or longer separation

  6. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farge, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is produced by electrons accelerated near the velocity of light in storage rings, which are used for high energy Physics experiments. The radiation light exhibits a wide spread continuous spectrum ranging from 01 nanometre to radiofrequency. This radiation is characterized by high power (several kilowatts) and intense brightness. The paper recalls the emission laws and the distinctive properties of the radiation, and gives some of the numerous applications in research, such as molecular spectroscopy, X ray diffraction by heavy proteins and X ray microlithography in LVSI circuit making [fr

  7. An Assessment of those Metabolites Considered to be of Value in the Diagnosis of Exposure to Radiation; Evaluation des Metabolites Consideres Comme Utiles dans le Diagnostic des Expositions aux Rayonnements; 041e 0426 0414 ; Evaluacion de los Metabolitos Considerados Utiles para Diagnosticar la Exposicion a las Radiaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.; Bates, T. H. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Chapelcross, Annan, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1965-06-15

    Certain metabolites excreted in urine have been examined in cases of human beings exposed to X- and y-irradiation for therapeutic reasons. These patients were receiving doses of up to 5000 r over a period of three to five weeks. Urinary excretion of creatinine, creatine, total {alpha}-amino-nitrogen, {beta}-amino-isobutyric acid, pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and indoxyl-sulphate were followed quantitatively during the whole course of treatment. None of the patients were exposed to total-body irradiation but it is apparent that changes in metabolic function as a result of radiation-induced damage can be reflected in urinary excretion. The biochemical rationale and interpretation of these excretion patterns is discussed in relation to that part of the body irradiated, but it is concluded at this stage of the investigation that quantitative assessment of biological damage is not possible. However, such tests can be useful as a guide to the clinician on the form of therapy. Preliminary tests on changes in certain plasma metabolites in rats exposed to single sub-lethal doses of X-irradiation are worthy of extrapolation to human studies. Plasma concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine, uric acid, SGOT, SGPT, globulin fractions of protein, creatine phosphokinase, leucine aminopeptidase, lysyl aminopeptidase, kallikrein, kallidin, zinc and manganese have been measured. Qualitative yet significant changes were observed in plasma levels of uric acid, leucine aminopeptidase, lysyl aminopeptidase and manganese after irradiation. The significance of this data is discussed. Emphasis in these studies has been placed upon methods which are simple and quick to perform. (author) [French] On a examine certains metabolites excretes dans l'urine par des etres humains exposes, a des fins therapeutiques, aux rayons X et gamma. Ces sujets recevaient des doses allant jusqu'a 5000 r pendant une periode de trois a cinq semaines. Pendant toute la duree du traitement, on

  8. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattison, P.; Quinn, P.

    1990-01-01

    This report details the activities in synchrotron radiation and related areas at Daresbury Laboratory during 1989/90. The number and scope of the scientific reports submitted by external users and in-house staff is a reflection of the large amount of scheduled beamtime and high operating efficiency achieved at the Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) during the past year. Over 4000 hours of user beam were available, equivalent to about 80% of the total scheduled time. Many of the reports collected here illustrate the increasing technical complexity of the experiments now being carried out at Daresbury. Provision of the appropriate technical and scientific infrastructure and support is a continuing challenge. The development of the Materials Science Laboratory together with the existing Biological Support Laboratory will extend the range of experiments which can be carried out on the SRS. This will particularly facilitate work in which the sample must be prepared or characterised immediately before or during an experiment. The year 1989/90 has also seen a substantial upgrade of several stations, especially in the area of x-ray optics. Many of the advantages of the High Brightness Lattice can only be exploited effectively with the use of focusing optics. As the performance of these stations improves, the range of experiments which are feasible on the SRS will be extended significantly. (author)

  9. Study and industrial applications of the external slowing-down {beta}{sup -} radiation of the yttrium - 90; Etude et applications industrielles du rayonnement de freinage externe des {beta}{sup -} de l'yttrium - 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P; Martinelli, P; Chauvin, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Inelastic scattering of the {beta}{sup -} particles on the nucleus gives place to the emission of a X-ray Bremsstrahlung radiation. In view of possible industrial applications, we studied the slowing-down radiation of {sup 90}(Sr + Y) sources in various materials. This pure {beta}{sup -} emitter of long period is in the fission products of uranium. Among of the industrial applications, these sources of weak X-rays energy can be used for the radiography of thin pieces, for measuring the thickness, or for the analysis by fluorescence. (M.B.) [French] La diffusion inelastique des particules {beta}{sup -} sur les noyaux donne lieu a l'emission d'un rayonnement X de freinage. En vue de possibles applications industrielles, nous avons etudie le rayonnement de freinage des sources {sup 90}(Sr + Y) dans divers materiaux. Cet emetteur {beta}{sup -} pur a longue periode se trouve dans les produits de fission de l'uranium. Parmi les applications industrielles a l'etude, ces sources de rayons X de faible energie peuvent etre utilisees pour la radiographie de pieces minces, la mesure d'epaisseurs, ou encore pour l'analyse par fluorescence. (M.B.)

  10. The reactor Melusine - radiation measurements carried out at the start of operation and during the first ascents to power; Pile Melusine - mesures de rayonnement effectuees au demarrage et pendant les premieres montees en puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutrot, V; Delpuech, J; Fitoussi, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    This report gives the results of radiation measurements carried out on the first C.E.A. swimming-pool pile, Melusine. The purpose of these measurements, which were carried out during the starting-up period and the first ascents to 1 MW power, is to check the radiation intensity levels near the pile and from this to verify the safety calculation methods used. In addition certain special measurements, such as those performed in and above the water of the swimming-pool, in the channels and outside them etc..., should make it possible eventually to define the conditions under which the pile may be used for special jobs with less protection. In the first part of the report are given the results of radiation measurements carried out during runs at low power plateaux not exceeding 500 W: in particular measurements at variable water levels in the water of the swimming-pool and on the axis of the open channels. The results given in the second part deal with radiation measurements performed in various parts of the premises, studies on the activation of the plugs in the experimental channels and of the materials in the forward compartment, and also of the radioactivity of the swimming-pool water and the air used to cool the channels. (author) [French] Le present rapport a pour but de donner les resultats des mesures de rayonnement effectuees aupres de la premiere pile piscine du C.E.A.: la pile Melusine. Le but de ces mesures, effectuees pendant la periode de demarrage et les premieres montees a la puissance de 1 MW, est de controler les niveaux d'intensite de rayonnement aupres de la pile et par la de juger des methodes de calculs de protection utilisees. D'autre part, certaines mesures plus particulieres, telles que celles effectuees dans l'eau et au-dessus de l'eau de la piscine, dans les canaux et a l'exterieur de ceux-ci, etc..., doivent permettre de definir ulterieurement les conditions d'utilisation de la pile pour des fonctionnements particuliers avec des protections

  11. Synchrotron-radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of radiation from synchrotron sources has started a renaissance in materials, physics, chemistry, and biology. Synchrotron radiation has advantages over conventional x rays in that its source brightness is a thousand times greater throughout a continuous energy spectrum, and resonances are produced with specific electron energy levels. Two major synchrotron radiation sources are operated by DOE: the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC, and the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven

  12. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, E.A.; Reid, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Work at the Daresbury SRS has of necessity been interrupted this year (1991/92) due to the incorporation of Wiggler II. However, considerable beamtime was awarded before the shutdown and the major part of this appendix is concerned with the progress reports of the research undertaken then. The reports have been organised under the following broad headings: Molecular Science (19 papers), Surface and Materials Science (169 papers), Biological Science (85 papers), Instrumental and Technique Developments (13 papers) and Accelerator Physics (3 papers). It is hoped that in time the number of contributions on accelerator physics will grow to reflect the in-house activity on, for example, accelerator improvement and design. The research reports are preceded by the Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, which outlines the research highlights identified by that Committee (also included are details of the current membership of the SRFC and the chairmen of the Beamtime Allocation Panels). Following the reports are the specifications for the beamlines and stations. This year Section 3 contains 289 reports (nearly 100 more than last year) and the number of publications, generated by scientists and engineers who have used or are associated with Daresbury Laboratory facilities, has topped 500 for the first time. (author)

  13. Microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau : faisabilité et intérêt pour la biologie d'un instrument de laboratoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, J. F.; Moy, J. P.

    2005-06-01

    La biologie étudie des structures ou des phénomènes sub-cellulaires. Pour cela la microscopie est la technique d'observation privilégiée. La résolution spatiale de la microscopie optique s'avère bien souvent insuffisante pour de telles observations. Les techniques plus résolvantes, comme la microscopie électronique par transmission sont souvent destructrices et d'une complexité peu adaptée aux besoins des biologistes. La microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau permet l'imagerie rapide de cellules dans leur milieu naturel, nécessite peu de préparation et offre des résolutions de quelques dizaines de nanomètres. De plus, il existe un bon contraste naturel entre les structures carbonées (protéines, lipides) et l'eau. Actuellement cette technique est limitée aux centres de rayonnement synchrotron, ce qui impose une planification et des déplacements incompatibles avec les besoins de la biologie. Un tel microscope fonctionnant avec uns source de laboratoire serait d'une grande utilité. Ce document présente un état de l'art de la microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau. Un cahier des charges détaillé pour un appareil de laboratoire ayant les performances optiques requises par les biologistes est présenté et confronté aux microscopes X de laboratoire déjà existants. Des solutions concernant la source et les optiques sont également discutées.

  14. Modification of non metallic materials under the influence of the radiation and thermal retrogradation of these modifications; Modification de materiaux non metalliques sous l'influence des rayonnements et retrogradation thermique de ces modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, G; Perio, P; Gigon, J; Tournarie, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The action of the radiation on solids constitute an extremely vast domain of study, which the CEA hardly begins. There is not a very long time, indeed, that we have relatively intense fluxes (6.10{sup 12} thermal neutrons by cm{sup 2}.s{sup -} {sup 1} in the center of the reactor core of Saclay). Materials submitted to radiations, were followed by the evolution of a certain number of physical properties. The study of thermal retrogradation, at moderate temperature, of the modifications provoked by the irradiation were also followed. We will limit, in this report, to expose our experiences on graphite and lithium fluoride. (M.B.) [French] L'action des rayonnements sur les solides constitue un domaine extremement vaste dont l'etude, au Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, commence a peine. Il n'y a pas tres longtemps, en effet, que nous disposons de flux relativement intenses (6.10{sup 12} neutrons thermiques par cm{sup 2}.s{sup -1} au centre de la pile de Saclay). Dans les materiaux soumis au rayonnement nous suivons l'evolution d'un certain nombre de proprietes physiques et nous etudions la retrogradation thermique, a temperature moderee, des modifications provoquees par l'irradiation. Nous nous bornerons ici a exposer nos experiences sur le graphite et le fluorure de lithium. (M.B.)

  15. Study of the radiation in divertor plasmas; Etude du rayonnement dans les plasmas de divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, F

    2000-10-19

    We have studied the cooling of the edge plasma by radiation in the divertor volume, in order to optimize the extraction of power in tokamaks and to limit the wall erosion. In attached divertor plasmas experiments, the concentration of intrinsic impurities at the edge is related to the response of the wall to the incident energy flow of plasma, depending on a phenomenological law. We carried out an analysis of the radiation according to this law and to the control parameters of the discharges. The largest radiated fraction and best synergy are obtained when the concentration of intrinsic impurities strongly increases with the energy of incident plasma. On the other hand, the erosion of the wall is stronger. In detached plasmas, we proved that the performances in terms of incident plasma energy loss and pressure loss are optimal when the density of the slowest neutrals is strong at the edge and when their radial penetration is small. On Tore Supra, we highlighted the correlations between the maximum Mach number of incident plasma flow, the radiation front and the penetration of the neutrals. A simple diagnostic based on the localization of the maximum Mach number proves that detached mode is not optimal on Tore Supra, because the radial penetration of the slowest neutrals is not sufficiently small. In the last part, we obtained the three-dimensional topology of the radiation in the ergodic divertor using a spectral analysis code and boundary conditions consistent with the temperature distribution on the wall. The radiation is maximum in front of the divertor modules. As a consequence, radiated power is underestimated by standards measurements of Tore Supra that are located between the modules. We finally showed that the profiles of temperature along the field lines are modulated, this is specific to the ergodic divertor. (author)

  16. Transferts radiatifs dans les récepteurs-réacteurs solaires à haute température

    OpenAIRE

    Caliot , Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Les projets de recherche, sur les nouveaux procédés de conversion de l'énergie solaire concentrée, doivent relever le défi de la simulation des récepteurs solaires. En effet, des mécanismes complexes de couplage écoulement/rayonnement/réaction chimique/croissance de particules doivent être simulés pour développer les connaissances et les applications. Dans ce mémoire, l'influence du rayonnement a été étudiée dans un réacteur solaire de craquage du méthane pour la production d'hydrogène et de ...

  17. Synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Synchrotron radiation research in Australia is entering a new era with the commencement of the Australian synchrotron project, which will construct a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron facility at Monash University in Victoria. To date Australian scientists have used overseas facilities, primarily those managed by the Australian Synchrotron Research Program in Japan and the USA. A fast developing and maturing Australian synchrotron user program has developed around these overseas facilities. The field of synchrotron radiation and its importance to a wide range of research will be introduced and Australia's current involvement and facilities will be described. The current status and technical specifications of the Australian synchrotron will be presented. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  18. Microprobe analysis of teeth by synchrotron radiation: environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Carvalho, M.L.; Casaca, C.; Barreiros, M.A.; Cunha, A.S.; Chevallier, P.

    1999-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence set-up with microprobe capabilities, installed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique (LURE) synchrotron (France) was used for elemental determination in teeth. To evaluate the influence of living habits in dental elemental composition nine teeth collected post-mortem were analysed, five from a miner and four from a fisherman. All teeth from the fisherman were healthy. From the miner some teeth were carious and one of them was filled with metallic amalgam. Teeth were sliced under the vertical plane and each slice was scanned from the root to the enamel for elemental profile determination. The synchrotron microprobe resolution was of 100 μm and incident photons of 18 keV energy were used. The elemental concentration values found suggest heterogeneity of the teeth material. Moreover, the distinct profiles for Mn, Sr, Br and Pb were found when teeth from the miner and from the fisherman are compared which can be associated with dietary habits and environmental influence. Higher concentrations of Mn and Sr were found for the fisherman teeth. In addition, Br was only observed in this group of teeth. Pb levels are higher for the miner teeth in particular for dentine regions. The influence of amalgam, such as, increase of Zn and Hg contents in the teeth material, is only noticed for the immediate surroundings of the treated cavity

  19. Synchrotron radiation facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Particularly in the past few years, interest in using the synchrotron radiation emanating from high energy, circular electron machines has grown considerably. In our February issue we included an article on the synchrotron radiation facility at Frascati. This month we are spreading the net wider — saying something about the properties of the radiation, listing the centres where synchrotron radiation facilities exist, adding a brief description of three of them and mentioning areas of physics in which the facilities are used.

  20. Contribution to the study of the action of electromagnetic fields on the angular correlations of nuclear radiation (1960); Contribution a l'etude de l'action des champs electromagnetiques sur les correlations angulaires des rayonnements nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-01-15

    This work deals with the study of interaction of E.M. fields with nuclear moments of nuclei emitting gamma rays. We describe first experiments on delayed angular correlation showing the role played by statistic quadrupole interaction. We have measured the magnetic moment of the second excited state of {sup 19}F using an external magnetic field. In the case of {sup 19}O, experiments of angular distributions and angular correlations of gamma -rays taking into account the possibility of perturbations, allow us to determine the spin and parities of the three first levels. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne l'etude de l'interaction des champs electromagnetiques et des moments nucleaires de noyaux emettant des rayonnements gamma. Nous decrivons des experiences de correlation angulaire differee dont l'interpretation met en coincidence le role joue par les interactions quadrupolaires statiques. Nous avons mesure le moment magnetique de {sup 19}F dans un etat excite en utilisant un champ magnetique exterieur a la source radioactive. Enfin, dans le cas de {sup 19}O, nous montrons l'utilite d'un examen des possibilites de perturbations dans l'interpretation des resultats fournis par des correlations ou des distributions angulaires. (auteur)

  1. Contribution to the study of the action of electromagnetic fields on the angular correlations of nuclear radiation (1960); Contribution a l'etude de l'action des champs electromagnetiques sur les correlations angulaires des rayonnements nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-01-15

    This work deals with the study of interaction of E.M. fields with nuclear moments of nuclei emitting gamma rays. We describe first experiments on delayed angular correlation showing the role played by statistic quadrupole interaction. We have measured the magnetic moment of the second excited state of {sup 19}F using an external magnetic field. In the case of {sup 19}O, experiments of angular distributions and angular correlations of gamma -rays taking into account the possibility of perturbations, allow us to determine the spin and parities of the three first levels. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne l'etude de l'interaction des champs electromagnetiques et des moments nucleaires de noyaux emettant des rayonnements gamma. Nous decrivons des experiences de correlation angulaire differee dont l'interpretation met en coincidence le role joue par les interactions quadrupolaires statiques. Nous avons mesure le moment magnetique de {sup 19}F dans un etat excite en utilisant un champ magnetique exterieur a la source radioactive. Enfin, dans le cas de {sup 19}O, nous montrons l'utilite d'un examen des possibilites de perturbations dans l'interpretation des resultats fournis par des correlations ou des distributions angulaires. (auteur)

  2. The World of Synchrotrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    de Ciencias Fisicas,. Universidad Nacional. Autonoma de Mexico. Sameen Ahmed Khan. A summary of results on synchrotron radiation is presented along with notes on its properties and applications. Quantum aspects are briefly mentioned. Synchrotron radiation facilities are described briefly with a detailed coverage of ...

  3. Synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of the exponential growth of the utilization of synchrotron radiation for research in the domain of the material sciences, atomic and molecular physics, biology and technology, a major construction activity has been generated towards new dedicated electron storage rings, designed optimally for synchrotron radiation applications, also, expansion programs are underway at the existing facilities, such as DORIS, SPEAR, and VEPP. In this report the basic properties of synchrotron radiation will be discussed, a short overview will be given of the existing and new facilities, some aspects of the optimization of a structure for a synchrotron radiation source will be discussed and the addition of wigglers and undulators for spectrum enhancement will be described. Finally, some parameters of an optimized synchrotron radiation source will be given.

  4. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature

  5. Chemistry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preses, J.; Grover, J.R.; White, M.G.; Kvick, A.

    1990-01-01

    An accidental by-product of high-energy physics, synchrotron radiation, has emerged as one of the most powerful tools for the understanding of chemical reactions. Advances made by using synchrotron radiation in physical chemistry are reviewed herein. Descriptions of experiments exploiting the many ways that synchrotron radiation can be manipulated are presented. These manipulations include intensification of the radiation and compression or shifting of its spectral structure. Combinations of the use of synchrotron radiation, which provides access to very short wavelengths and is, at the same time, continuously and easily tunable, with laser radiation, which offers much higher resolution and much more intense radiation per pulse, but is difficult to tune in the ultraviolet region of the spectra, gives the chemist a way to map a molecule's potential energy curve, to note the lengths and strengths of chemical bonds, and to predict and explain novel reactions of more complex molecules. The use of diffraction of x-rays to study the spacing of atoms in crystals is discussed. Various applications of synchrotron radiation to studies of the fluorescence of hydrocarbons and to the chiral dichroism studies of other natural products like DNA and RNA are described. Methods for enhancing synchrotron light sources by insertion devices, such as wigglers and undulators, that increase the available photo flux and construction of new sources of synchrotron radiation are mentioned

  6. Synchrotron radiation at Trieste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-06-15

    The fast developing field of synchrotron radiation has its origins in the mastery of storage rings in high energy physics and is a prime example of spinoff from pure science. Intense electromagnetic radiation streams off when beams of high energy electrons are bent or shaken. This synchrotron radiation was once an annoying waste of energy in particle storage rings, but now the wheel has turned full circle, with dedicated machines supplying this radiation for a wide range of science. The astonishing growth rate in this field was highlighted at an International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy from 7-11 April.

  7. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source comprises two high intensity electron storage rings for the generation of intense fluxes of synchrotron radiation in the vuv wavelength domain (700 MeV e - ring) and in the x-ray wavelength domain (2.5 GeV e - ring). A description is presented of the basic facility and the characteristics of the synchrotron radiation sources. The present plans for specific beam lines will be enumerated and the planned use of beam wigglers and undulators will be discussed

  8. Synchrotron radiation at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The fast developing field of synchrotron radiation has its origins in the mastery of storage rings in high energy physics and is a prime example of spinoff from pure science. Intense electromagnetic radiation streams off when beams of high energy electrons are bent or shaken. This synchrotron radiation was once an annoying waste of energy in particle storage rings, but now the wheel has turned full circle, with dedicated machines supplying this radiation for a wide range of science. The astonishing growth rate in this field was highlighted at an International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation, held at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy from 7-11 April

  9. Establishment and Study of Dose Fields for the Irradiation of Experimental Animals with High-Energy Protons; Creation et Etude de Champs de Rayonnements pour l'Irradiation d'Animaux de Grande Taille par des Protons de Haute Energie; Sozdanie i issledovanie doznykh polej dlya oblucheniya ehksperimental'nykh zhivotnykh protonami bol'shoj ehnergii; Produccion y Estudio de Campos Radia Torios para la Exposicion de Animales de Laboratorio a Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanas' ev, V. P.; Keirim-Markus, I. B.; Kuznecova, S. S.; Litvinova, Je. G.; Sokolova, I. K.; Stukina, L. E.

    1964-03-15

    Present-day accelerators make it possible to obtain beams of protons which have adequate intensity but are not suitable for the general irradiation of large experimental animals. Using the synchrotron of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research it has been shown that with the aid of absorbers it is possible to expand a proton beam to the dimensions required, without introducing the accompanying radiations. Dose fields, uniform within {+-} 10%, in which primary protons constitute between 99 and 88% of the tissue dose, were obtained for irradiation of dogs with protons of energy 510, 250 and 120 MeV. The tissue doses and the radiation composition were studied in a dog phantom. Irradiation conditions for ensuring uniform radiation of the dog's body are proposed. Various questions of high-energy proton dosimetry are discussed, and the use of different types of dosimeter are considered in this connection. The paper also describes a method of determining the contribution of cascade neutrons to the proton flux, using activation detectors. (author) [French] Les accelerateurs actuels permettent d'obtenir des faisceaux de protons d'une intensite suffisante mais impropres a l'irradiation generale de grands animaux d'experience. A l'aide du synchrocyclotron OIAI, on a montre que le recours aux absorbants permet d'elargir le faisceau de protons jusqu'aux dimensions voulues sans y introduire de rayonnements secondaires. Pour irradier des chiens par des protons de 510, 250 et 120 MeV, on a pu ainsi realiser des champs de rayonnements uniformes a {+-}10% pres, dans lesquels les protons primaires constituaient 99 a 88% de la dose tissulaire. Les auteurs ont etudie des doses tissulaires et la composition du rayonnement a l'interieur d'un fantome de chien. Ils indiquent dans quelles conditions on assure une irradiation uniforme du corps de l'animal. Les auteurs examinent plusieurs questions relatives a la dosimetrie des neutrons de grande energie. Ils justifient l'emploide divers

  10. Coincidence measurements with the use of detectors measuring the energy of the radiances (proportional meters and scintillation counter); Mesures de coincidences avec utilisation de detecteurs mesurant l'energie des rayonnements (compteurs proportionnels et compteur a scintillations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartory, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    In the setting of the realization of a set of installations permitting of the measures of coincidences between sorted radiances according to their energies, an installation understanding a proportional counter and a scintillation counter has been constructed and optimized. It has been used to do some measures of coincidences between X{sub K} photons and photons {gamma} issued at the time of the radioactive transformation of the selenium 75 (electronic capture). The efficiency of the proportional meter has been determined roughly. Besides, a proportional counter of solid angle neighboring of 4{pi} was able to achieve measures of coincidences while only doing one selection of amplitudes: indeed, the simultaneity of the detection of two radiances appear by an impulse whose amplitude is the sum of the amplitudes of the impulses resulting from each of the studied radiations. This method, applied to the coincidences between X-rays, permitted to bring the information on the diagram of decay of the arsenic 73. Besides, the coefficient of internal conversion of a consecutive transition to this decay has been valued. (author) [French] Dans le cadre de la realisation d'une serie de montages permettant des mesures de coincidences entre rayonnements tries d'apres leurs energies, un montage comprenant un compteur proportionnel et un compteur a scintillations a ete construit et mis au point. Il a ete utilise pour effectuer quelques mesures de coincidences entre photons X{sub K} et photons {gamma} emis lors de la transformation radioactive du selenium 75 (capture electronique). L'efficacite du compteur proportionnel a ete approximativement determinee. De plus, un compteur proportionnel d'angle solide voisin de 4{pi} a pu etre utilise pour realiser des mesures de coincidences en n'effectuant qu'une selection d'amplitudes: en effet, la simultaneite de la detection de deux rayonnements se manifeste par une impulsion dont l'amplitude est la somme des amplitudes des impulsions

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1991-04-01

    This report discussion research being conducted at the National Synchrotron light source. In particular, this report contains operations summaries; symposia, workshops, and projects; NSLS highlights; and abstracts of science at the NSLS

  12. Uses of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence has long been used as a technique for elemental analysis. X-ray fluorescence techniques have a number of features that make them attractive for application to biomedical samples. In the past few years synchrotron radiation x-ray sources have been developed and, because of their properties, their use can improve the sensitivity for trace element analysis by two to three orders of magnitude. Also, synchrotron radiation will make possible an x-ray microprobe with resolution in the micrometer range. The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), a dedicated synchrotron radiation source recently built at Brookhaven National Laboratory, will have a facility for trace element analysis by x-ray fluorescence and will be available to all interested users

  13. The Australian synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, R.

    2005-06-01

    This document recalls the historical aspects of the Australian Synchrotron which will be implemented in 2007. It presents then the objectives of this program, the specifications of the ring and the light lines. (A.L.B.)

  14. Inauguration of Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    On 5 February 1960, the Proton Synchrotron (PS) was formally inaugurated. The great Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, releases a bottle of champagne against a shielding block to launch the PS on its voyage in physics.

  15. Contribution to the study of the ionization and heating of gases by laser radiation; Contribution a l'etude de l'ionisation et du chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement d'un laser declenche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrie, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-01-01

    The ionization and heating of gases by the concentrated radiation of a neodymium laser is studied. The power is 300 MW, the gas studied is primarily deuterium between 300 mm and 2280 mm. The first part concerns a certain number of experimental results on the absorption of the radiation and on changes produced in the plasma as a function of time. From these results are deduced a certain number of consequences, amongst which may be mentioned the definition of a pre-ionization threshold. These experimental results are interpreted in the second part. A calculation is made of the length of the period during which the electrons multiply up to when the absorption becomes measurable. The last phase corresponds to the hydrodynamics evolution, the calculations are compared with the experiments. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory for the different phases. (author) [French] On etudie l'ionisation et le chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement concentre d'un laser au neodyme. La puissance est de 300 MW, le gaz etudie est principalement le deuterium entre 300 mm et 2280 mm. La premiere partie concerne un certain nombre de resultats experimentaux. Il s'agit de l'absorption du rayonnement et de l'evolution chronologique du plasma. De ces resultats on deduit un certain nombre de consequences parmi lesquelles il faut citer la definition d'un seuil de preionisation. Ces resultats experimentaux sont interpretes dans la deuxieme partie. On calcule la duree de la phase pendant laquelle se multiplient les electrons jusqu'a ce que l'absorption soit mesurable. La derniere phase correspond a l'evolution hydrodynamique. Les calculs sont confrontes avec l'experience. L'accord entre theorie et experience est satisfaisant pour les differentes phases. (auteur)

  16. Contribution to the study of the ionization and heating of gases by laser radiation; Contribution a l'etude de l'ionisation et du chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement d'un laser declenche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veyrie, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Limeil-Brevannes (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1968-01-01

    The ionization and heating of gases by the concentrated radiation of a neodymium laser is studied. The power is 300 MW, the gas studied is primarily deuterium between 300 mm and 2280 mm. The first part concerns a certain number of experimental results on the absorption of the radiation and on changes produced in the plasma as a function of time. From these results are deduced a certain number of consequences, amongst which may be mentioned the definition of a pre-ionization threshold. These experimental results are interpreted in the second part. A calculation is made of the length of the period during which the electrons multiply up to when the absorption becomes measurable. The last phase corresponds to the hydrodynamics evolution, the calculations are compared with the experiments. The agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory for the different phases. (author) [French] On etudie l'ionisation et le chauffage des gaz par le rayonnement concentre d'un laser au neodyme. La puissance est de 300 MW, le gaz etudie est principalement le deuterium entre 300 mm et 2280 mm. La premiere partie concerne un certain nombre de resultats experimentaux. Il s'agit de l'absorption du rayonnement et de l'evolution chronologique du plasma. De ces resultats on deduit un certain nombre de consequences parmi lesquelles il faut citer la definition d'un seuil de preionisation. Ces resultats experimentaux sont interpretes dans la deuxieme partie. On calcule la duree de la phase pendant laquelle se multiplient les electrons jusqu'a ce que l'absorption soit mesurable. La derniere phase correspond a l'evolution hydrodynamique. Les calculs sont confrontes avec l'experience. L'accord entre theorie et experience est satisfaisant pour les differentes phases. (auteur)

  17. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  18. Detection of high energy gamma radiations with liquid rare gases as scintillators; Detection des rayonnements Gamma de grande energie avec les gaz rares liquides comme scintillateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Phan Xuan

    1965-11-25

    This research thesis reports the study of a sensor based on a liquid scintillator for the detection of high energy (10 to 30 MeV) gamma radiations. The scintillator is a liquefied argon or xenon rare gas. The author first studies the process of energy transfer from the particle to the sensing medium. He addresses the different involved elements and phenomena: electromagnetic radiations (Compton Effect, photoelectric effect, pair production, and total gamma absorption), charged particles (braking radiation, collisions) and application to gamma spectrometry. He describes and discusses the scintillation mechanisms (scintillation of organic and inorganic materials), the general characteristics of scintillators (impurities, converters), and then reports the practical realisation of the sensor. Results are presented and discussed [French] Dans ce travail, nous nous proposons d'etudier une technique. Il s'agit d'un detecteur a scintillateur liquide pour la detection des rayonnements gamma energiques (10 a 30 MeV). Le scintillateur utilise est un gaz rare liquefie argon ou xenon. Nous examinerons d'abord les processus de transfert de l'energie de la particule au milieu detecteur puis les mecanismes de scintillation en general pour pouvoir exploiter au mieux les phenomenes favorables. Nous presenterons ensuite la realisation pratique du detecteur. Ses qualites (et defauts) trouveront leur place dans la fin de ce memoire. Bien qu'a l'heure actuelle, par la methode de Kyropoulos, on puisse faire pousser des gros cristaux d'iodure de sodium, l'utilisation des 'gaz rares' liquefies comme scintillateurs est, grace a la brievete de la scintillation, tres utile lorsqu'on recherche un fort taux de comptage (jusqu'a 10 impulsions par seconde) ou lorsqu'on veut resoudre certains problemes de coincidence. Les cristaux NaI(Tl) de grandes dimensions sont d'un montage facile mais leur manipulation requiert beaucoup de precautions du fait qu'ils supportent tres mal les chocs thermiques

  19. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  20. Australian synchrotron radiation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Radiation Program, ASRP, has been set up as a major national research facility to provide facilities for scientists and technologists in physics, chemistry, biology and materials science who need access to synchrotron radiation. Australia has a strong tradition in crystallography and structure determination covering small molecule crystallography, biological and protein crystallography, diffraction science and materials science and several strong groups are working in x-ray optics, soft x-ray and vacuum ultra-violet physics. A number of groups whose primary interest is in the structure and dynamics of surfaces, catalysts, polymer and surfactant science and colloid science are hoping to use scattering methods and, if experience in Europe, Japan and USA can be taken as a guide, many of these groups will need third generation synchrotron access. To provide for this growing community, the Australian National Beamline at the Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan, has been established since 1990 through a generous collaboration with Japanese colleagues, the beamline equipment being largely produced in Australia. This will be supplemented in 1997 with access to the world's most powerful synchrotron x-ray source at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Some recent experiments in surface science using neutrons as well as x-rays from the Australian National Beamline will be used to illustrate one of the challenges that synchrotron x-rays may meet

  1. Radioinitiation of Chain Branched Reactions and its Sensitization; Amorcage sous rayonnement des reactions par ramification en chaine; sensibilisation du processus; Radiatsionnoe initsiirovanie tsennykh razvetvlennykh reaktsij i ego sensibilizatsiya; Radioiniciacion de reacciones en cadena ramificadas y medios para aumentar su sensibilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barelko, E V; Kartashova, L I; Komarov, P N; Proskurnin, M A [Karpov Physico-Chemical Institute, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1960-07-15

    This paper describes the results of experiments by the writers with radioinitiation of chain branched reactions of the oxidation of organic compounds. The function of radiation as an initiating agent is described with reference to the oxidation of several unsaturated hydrocarbons and butanol. The reaction is self-accelerating and proceeds spontaneously after radiation has ceased. A detailed investigation was made of a process from oxidizing benzene, which has a high radiation resistance. The writers devised a method of sensitizing the radioinitiation of the oxidation of radiation-resistant substances by chemically inert but non-radiation-resistant substances. The main quantitative features of the process for the radiooxidation of benzene are stated to be the accumulation of various reaction products, and the effect of temperature, pressure, power and radiation dosage on the process of such accumulation. Information was obtained about the mechanism of the process. The design of circulating equipment is described. (author) [French] Dans ce memoire, les auteurs presentent les resultats d'une etude consacree a l'amorcage sous rayonnement de reactions, d'oxydation des composes organiques, par ramification en chaine. Ils montrent le role des rayonnements en tant qu'agents d'amorcage de la reaction, en citant comme exemples l'oxydation de certains hydrocarbures non satures et du butanol. La reaction possede un caractere d'auto-acceleration et continue spontanement lorsque l'action des rayonnements a cesse. La reaction d'oxydation du benzene a ete etudiee en detail; elle est caracterisee par la haute stabilite de la substance vis-a-vis de l'action des rayonnements. Les auteurs formulent les principes de la sensibilisation, par l'action de substances instables vis-a-vis des rayonnements de l'amorcage sous rayonnement de la reaction d'oxydation de substances stables vis-a-vis des rayonnements et chimiquement inertes. Le memoire fournit les caracteristiques quantitatives

  2. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Properties of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materlik, G.

    1982-01-01

    This paper forms the introductory chapter to a book concerning the use of synchrotron radiation for investigation of the structure and mechanism of biological macromolecules. After a historical section, the physics of synchrotron radiation is summarized so that the most promising experiments may be extrapolated. Irradiated power and intensity, polarization and angular distribution, brilliance of a real source, and developments such as wigglers and undulators are briefly dealt with. The paper includes a tabulated compilation of proposed and operating machines in 1982, with some of their characteristics. (U.K.)

  4. Reflectometry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Fischer, Andreas; Gottwald, Alexander; Kroth, Udo; Scholze, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the reflectivity for VUV, XUV, and X-radiation at the PTB synchrotron radiation sources is described. The corresponding data of the used beams are presented. Results of experiments on a Cu-Ni double-layer, SiO 2 , Si, and MgF 2 are presented. (HSI)

  5. Coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoh, Tomonori

    2006-01-01

    This article presents basic properties of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) with numerical examples and introduces the reader to important aspects of CSR in future accelerators with short bunches. We show interesting features of the single bunch instability due to CSR in storage rings and discuss the longitudinal CSR field via the impedance representation. (author)

  6. Characteristics of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics and production of synchrotron radiation are qualitatively discussed. The spectral properties of wigglers and undulators are briefly described. Possible applications in condensed matter physics are outlined. These include atomic and molecular studies, crystallography, impurities in solids and radiographic imaging

  7. Synchrotron radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the many varied application fields of accelerators, synchrotron radiation ranks as one of the most valuable and widely useful tools. Synchrotron radiation is produced in multi-GeV electron synchrotrons and storage rings, and emerges tangentially in a narrow vertical fan. Synchrotron radiation has been used extensively for basic studies and, more recently, for applied research in the chemical, materials, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries. Initially, the radiation was a byproduct of high energy physics laboratories but the high demand soon resulted in the construction of dedicated electron storage rings. The accelerator technology is now well developed and a large number of sources have been constructed, with energies ranging from about 1.5 to 8 GeV including the 6 GeV European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) source at Grenoble, France. A modern third-generation synchrotron radiation source has an electron storage ring with a complex magnet lattice to produce ultra-low emittance beams, long straights for 'insertion devices', and 'undulator' or 'wiggler' magnets to generate radiation with particular properties. Large beam currents are necessary to give high radiation fluxes and long beam lifetimes require ultra high vacuum systems. Industrial synchrotron radiation research programmes use either Xray diffraction or spectroscopy to determine the structures of a wide range of materials. Biological and pharmaceutical applications study the functions of various proteins. With this knowledge, it is possible to design molecules to change protein behaviour for pharmaceuticals, or to configure more active proteins, such as enzymes, for industrial processes. Recent advances in molecular biology have resulted in a large increase in protein crystallography studies, with researchers using crystals which, although small and weakly diffracting, benefit from the high intensity. Examples with commercial significance include the study of

  8. CORNELL: Synchrotron 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A recent celebration marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Cornell Electron Synchrotron. The major milestone in the commissioning of the synchrotron was on October 11, 1967 when Helen Edwards, Boyce McDaniel, and Maury Tigner achieved a 7 GeV beam, a worldrecord energy for electron synchrotrons at that time. Like so many advances in experimental physics, this occurred early in the morning - 3 a.m.! The transition from accelerator commissioning to high energy physics operation was extremely rapid; 7 GeV operation for data collection was routine just five weeks later. Throughout its life as a source of photon and electron beams for fixed target experiments, the synchrotron maintained energy leadership for circular electron machines. Originally designed for operation at 10 GeV, eventually it consistently provided beams for experiments at energies up to 11.6 GeV. It now operates at 5 GeV, serving as the injector for the CESR electron-positron storage ring. Robert Wilson was director of the laboratory during the design and most of the construction of the machine. He left near the end of the construction to become the first director of Fermilab and was replaced by Boyce McDaniel, who guided the laboratory from the completion of the synchrotron to the construction and early operation of CESR. Wilson recalled how the laboratory had originally proposed a 3 GeV turnkey machine to be built entirely by industry and would fit in the space previously occupied by earlier Cornell accelerators. However, members of the laboratory realized that 3 GeV would not open new physics frontiers, that the construction of the accelerator was much of the fun of doing high energy physics experiments, and that a more challenging project was needed. This led to the proposal for the 10 GeV synchrotron which was built in the ''Cornell Style'' with many of the components fabricated and nearly all of the assembly done at Cornell

  9. CORNELL: Synchrotron 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    A recent celebration marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Cornell Electron Synchrotron. The major milestone in the commissioning of the synchrotron was on October 11, 1967 when Helen Edwards, Boyce McDaniel, and Maury Tigner achieved a 7 GeV beam, a worldrecord energy for electron synchrotrons at that time. Like so many advances in experimental physics, this occurred early in the morning - 3 a.m.! The transition from accelerator commissioning to high energy physics operation was extremely rapid; 7 GeV operation for data collection was routine just five weeks later. Throughout its life as a source of photon and electron beams for fixed target experiments, the synchrotron maintained energy leadership for circular electron machines. Originally designed for operation at 10 GeV, eventually it consistently provided beams for experiments at energies up to 11.6 GeV. It now operates at 5 GeV, serving as the injector for the CESR electron-positron storage ring. Robert Wilson was director of the laboratory during the design and most of the construction of the machine. He left near the end of the construction to become the first director of Fermilab and was replaced by Boyce McDaniel, who guided the laboratory from the completion of the synchrotron to the construction and early operation of CESR. Wilson recalled how the laboratory had originally proposed a 3 GeV turnkey machine to be built entirely by industry and would fit in the space previously occupied by earlier Cornell accelerators. However, members of the laboratory realized that 3 GeV would not open new physics frontiers, that the construction of the accelerator was much of the fun of doing high energy physics experiments, and that a more challenging project was needed. This led to the proposal for the 10 GeV synchrotron which was built in the ''Cornell Style'' with many of the components fabricated and nearly all of the assembly done at Cornell.

  10. Thermal and radiation induced polymerisation of carbon sub-oxide; Polymerisation thermique et sous rayonnement du sous-oxyde de carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Michel

    1964-03-15

    This research thesis addresses the study of the polymerisation of carbon sub-oxide (C{sub 3}O{sub 2}) in gaseous phase. As this work is related to other researches dealing with the reactions of the graphite-CO{sub 2} system which occur in graphite-moderated nuclear reactors, a first intention was to study the behaviour of C{sub 3}O{sub 2} when submitted to radiations. Preliminary tests showed that the most remarkable result of this action was the formation of a polymer. It was also noticed that the polymerisation of this gas was spontaneous however slower at room temperature. The research thus focused on this polymerisation, and on the formula of the obtained polymer. After some generalities, the author reports the preparation, purification and storage and conservation of the carbon sub-oxide. The next parts report the kinetic study of thermal polymerisation, the study of polymerisation under γ rays, the study of the obtained polymer by using visible, UV and infrared spectroscopy, electronic paramagnetic resonance, and semi-conductivity measurements [French] Le but de ce travail est l'etude de la polymerisation du sous-oxyde de carbone, C{sub 3}O{sub 2}, en phase gazeuse. Ce travail est en relation avec d'autres recherches concernant les reactions du systeme graphite-CO{sub 2} qui se produisent dans les reacteurs nucleaires de la filiere moderee au graphite. Notre premiere intention etait donc d'etudier le comportement de C{sub 3}O{sub 2} sous l'action des rayonnements. Or des essais preliminaires nous ont rapidement montre que le resultat le plus marquant de cette action etait l'obtention d'un polymere. On a egalement remarque que ce gaz polymerisait spontanement - quoique moins rapidement - a la temperature ambiante. Notre etude s'est donc circonscrite a cette polymerisation, avec ou sans rayonnements, ainsi qu'a son aboutissement: le polymere, dont nous avons tente d'eclaircir la formule. Au terme de cette etude, bien que certains points ne soient pas encore

  11. Coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsuka, Takao; Hiranaka, Yukio; Takeda, Tohru; Hyodo, Kazuyuki.

    1990-01-01

    Invasive coronary angiography is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Recently, the application of synchrotron radiation in coronary angiography has been investigated in the world, with the aim of developing the noninvasive technique for visualizing the heart. In this article, backgrounds and present situation of coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation are reviewed. Firstly, visual imaging techniques of the cardiovascular system are discussed in terms of angiography and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Conventional temporal, energy, and hybrid subtraction modes used in DSA are referred to. Secondly, the application of synchrotron radiation is presented, focusing on the property of synchrotron radiation and K-edge subtraction angiography. Two kinds of synchrotron radiation beam methods are outlined. Interpretation of image data and various subtraction procedures remain unestablished. There is much to be done before coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation comes into a clinical practice. (N.K.)

  12. The place of ionizing radiation in the cancer genesis; La place des rayonnements ionisants dans la genese des cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J. [Societe Francaise d' Energie Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-12-15

    Two different fields are considered: the field of high radiation doses (over 1 Sv), the contribution of ionizing radiation in the carcinogenesis is doubtless and the linear dose-effect relationship is unshakable. but this high doses area is rare ( major accident of civil nuclear, radiotherapy, war with use of nuclear weapon) and escapes to usual standards. The field of low dose irradiation (inferior to 100 MSv) we cannot assure the absence of carcinogen risk of ionizing radiation. We can tell that this risk is very low, very inferior to 5% by sievert accepted by the ICRP in conformance with the precautionary principle. In any case, very inferior to the risk in relation with the big causes of cancer that are addiction to smoking, (30% of cancers), food (30% of cancers), chronic diseases (11% of cancers) and hormonal processes (10% of cancers). (N.C.)

  13. Studies on radiation-image detectors; Etudes sur les detecteurs a images de rayonnements; Izuchenie detektorov izobrazheniya radiatsii; Estudios sobre detectores de radiaciones productores de imagenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiffel, L [Armour Research Foundation, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1962-04-15

    data also germane to scintillation-chamber technology. Possible imaging detectors using thick blocks of material which are capable of significant energy storage and stimulated phosphorescence upon irradiation are discussed briefly along with read-out methods using optical scanning beams to eliminate resolution loss due to finite phosphor thickness. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit les travaux qui ont ete entrepris sur des detecteurs de rayonnements capables de fournir des informations tout a fait exactes sur la distribution spatiale. Il s'agit avant tout de determiner des distributions d'intensites dans un plan, ou eventuellement sur un cylindre. Cette categorie de problemes comprend la diffraction des neutrons, la radiographie des neutrons, ainsi que la radiographie aux rayons X ou {gamma} ou les etudes de diffusion avec ces rayons. L'auteur s'occupe surtout des detecteurs a images de rayonnements, fondes sur la distribution des etincelles et sur la luminescence Ou la phosphorescence stimulee. Le laboratoire de Armour Research a mis au point de tres grands compteurs a etincelles, pesant plus de 100 livres et comportant des zones sensibles de l'ordre de 2000 cm{sup 2}, definies par des assemblages de plans comprenant chacun jusqu'a 400 fils d'anode et de cathode, les anodes et les cathodes etant respectivement disposees en quinconce. Un compteur a courant gazeux contenant de l'air ou un melange d'argon et de methane constitue un systeme sensible aux rayonnements alpha; la detection des neutrons lents se fait avec des plaques en {sup 10}B enrichi. Avec d'autres gaz de remplissage l'appareil est sensible aux protons et aux electrons. La lecture de la distribution d'intensite se fait par enregistrement photographique de la distribution des etincelles. Des diagrammes de taches de Laue ont pu etre enregistres en dix minutes a l'aide du reacteur d'Armour Research fonctionnant a faible puissance; le flux de crete dans le coeur etait de 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} s et le

  14. The design and construction of a scintillation pair spectrometer for the detection of {gamma}-rays in the energy range 2-20 MeV; Realisation d'un spectrometre a scintillations et a paires pour la detection des rayonnements {gamma} d'energie comprise entre 2 et 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longequeue, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-15

    The scintillation pair spectrometer is designed to allow the measurement of the energy of {gamma} rays in the range 2 to 20 MeV. Such an instrument is chosen because of its main features: high energy resolution and ease of working. Against this, however, the efficiency is low. It was possible to tolerate this low efficiency because of the facts that the {gamma}-rays studied emanated from (p, {gamma}) reactions and that the two electrostatic acceleration available could provide beams of 500 {mu}A having energy maxima at 300 and 600 keV. We used the {gamma} rays produced by the reactions {sup 23}Na (p, {gamma}) {sup 24}Mg, {sup 19}F (p, {alpha} {gamma}) {sup 16}O and {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be as well as the {gamma} rays emitted by sources of RTh and of {sup 24}Na. Under these conditions the spectrometer attained a resolving power of 6,5 {+-} 0,5 per cent at 6,1 MeV and it was able to separate the 14,8 and 17,6 MeV lines produced by the reaction {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be. As well as this, the efficiency which varied from 2.10{sup -4} to 1,7.10{sup -3} between 2 and 20 MeV was well above the efficiencies already obtained with this type of instrument. (author) [French] Le spectrometre a scintillations et a paires presente dans cette these a pour but de mesurer l'energie des rayonnements {gamma} dans la bande de 2 a 20 MeV. Le choix d'un tel appareil est du a ses caracteristiques essentielles: bonne resolution en energie et maniabilite. Par contre, son efficacite est faible. Nous avons pu tolerer cette faible efficacite car les rayonnements {gamma} que nous avons etudies provenaient de reactions (p, {gamma}) et les deux accelerateurs electrostatiques dont nous disposions pouvaient fournir des faisceaux de 500 {mu}A avec des energies maximum de 300 et 600 keV. Nous avons utilise les rayonnements {gamma} produits par les reactions {sup 23}Na (p, {gamma}) {sup 24}Mg, {sup 19}F (p, {alpha} {gamma}) {sup 16}O et {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be ainsi que les

  15. Study of cerenkov radiation. Production of {gamma} rays by electron accelerators; Etude du rayonnement de freinage. Production de rayons {gamma} par des accelerateurs d'electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This study is a critical comparison of the theories of Bremsstrahlung. Experimental results obtained by the production of {gamma} radiation with electron accelerators are compared to the theoretical results in order to estimate the extent to which the various theories are valid. (author) [French] Cette etude est une synthese des theories du rayonnement de freinage. Des resultats experimentaux, obtenus par la production de rayonnements {gamma} avec des accelerateurs d'electrons, sont compares aux resultats theoriques afin d'evaluer les domaines de validite des diverses theories. (auteur)

  16. Compact synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Wang, T.; Tian, J.; Lin, Y.; Chen, S.; He, W.; Hu, Y.; Li, Q.

    1985-01-01

    A compact 800 MeV synchrotron radiation source is discussed. The storage ring has a circumference of 30.3 m, two 90 degree and four 45 degree bending magnet sections, two long straight sections and four short straight sections. The radius of the bending magnet is 2.224m. The critical wave length is 24A. The injector is a 15 Mev Microtron Electrons are accelerated from 15 Mev to 800 Mev by ramping the field of the ring. The expected stored current will be around 100 ma

  17. The synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, P.

    1994-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation is a fantastic source of electromagnetic radiation the energy spectrum of which spreads continuously from the far infrared to hard X-rays. For this reason a wide part of the scientific community, fundamentalists as well as industry, is concerned by its use. We shall describe here the main properties of this light source and give two examples of application in the field of characterization of materials: EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) and X-ray fluorescence. (author). 8 figs., 21 refs

  18. Synchrotron Moessbauer reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, D.L.; Bottyan, L.; Deak, L.; Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (Hungary); Spiering, H. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie (Germany); Dekoster, J.; Langouche, G. [K.U. Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica (Belgium)

    2000-07-15

    Grazing incidence nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation can be applied to perform depth-selective phase analysis and to determine the isotopic and magnetic structure of thin films and multilayers. Principles and recent experiments of this new kind of reflectometry are briefly reviewed. Methodological aspects are discussed. Model calculations demonstrate how the orientations of the sublattice magnetisation in ferro- and antiferromagnetic multilayers affect time-integral and time-differential spectra. Experimental examples show the efficiency of the method in investigating finite-stacking, in-plane and out-of-plane anisotropy and spin-flop effects in magnetic multilayers.

  19. Synchrotron light beam and a synchrotron light experiment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masami

    1980-01-01

    In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, about two years ago, the requirements of synchrotron light beam in respective measuring instruments were discussed. Then, also the arrangement (lattice) of a storage ring, the nature of synchrotron light beam, a synchrotron light experiment facility and the arrangement of the beam lines were studied. During the period of two years since then, due to the changes in the circumstances, the design of the lattice was altered. Accordingly, the arrangement of the beam lines and of measuring instruments were largely changed. At this point, the results of discussions in various meetings are described, though they may still be subject to future changes, with due consideration to beam, environment and beam lines required for the design of the measuring instruments: (1) storage ring and synchrotron light beam, (2) requirements on small beam size and beam stability, (3) a synchrotron light experiment facility. (J.P.N.)

  20. Synchrotron Elettra. Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and the possibilities for its applications are shortly presented. Elettra, the third generation synchrotron, now under construction in Trieste, Italy, is briefly described and its main characteristics are given. Current activities in Slovenia, related to Elettra, are presented. (author) [sl

  1. Basis of medical accelerator. Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, Kiyomitsu

    2014-01-01

    On the synchrotron as a medical accelerator, this paper introduces the basic principle, basic techniques and the like. The accelerator, when synchrotron is adopted as an ion beam radiotherapy system, is the composite accelerator composed of ion sources, injector, and synchrotron. This paper introduces the overall structure of synchrotron, and conceptually explains the basic behavior of high-frequency waves and magnetic field of synchrotron, as well as the deflection electromagnet of medical synchrotron and the operation pattern of high-frequency acceleration system. The types of synchrotron can be classified to the function combination type and function separation type, and this paper introduces the features of each type and various types of synchrotrons. It also explains beam dynamics important for ensuring the stability of beams, with a focus on the coordinate system, vertical movement, and lateral movement. In addition, it explains the incidence and outgoing of beams that are important for properly operating the accelerator, with a focus on their techniques. (A.O.)

  2. Experience with synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.

    1987-01-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation sources is discussed, emphasizing characteristics important for x-ray microscopy. Bending magnets, wigglers and undulators are considered as sources of radiation. Operating experience at the national Synchrotron Light Source on the VUV and XRAY storage rings is reviewed, with particular consideration given to achieved current and lifetime, transverse bunch dimensions, and orbit stability. 6 refs., 3 figs

  3. Contribution to the detection of radioactivity as applied to regular testing and to protection; Contribution a la detection des rayonnements en vue du controle et de la protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmann,; Joffre,; Savouyaud, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    problemes les plus urgents concernaient la dosimetrie des rayonnements et la constitution d'un materiel electronique nombreux, donc assez bon marche, autant que possible. 3. Danspresente communication, nous exposerons sommairement notre contribution dans ce domaine et particulierement: - l'amelioration des methodes de dosimetrie {gamma} par films photographiques, - l'essai d'une technique simple et peu couteuse pour la dosimetrie et la spectrometrie {alpha}, - l'orientation donnee aux nouveaux materiels electroniques: chambre d'ionisation, compteurs, scintillateurs, - la mise au point d'un materiel special permettant de mesurer la valeur moyenne d'un flux de particules emis periodiquement pendant un temps tres court. (auteur)

  4. Proton synchrotron accelerator theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1977-01-01

    This is the text of a series of lectures given as part of the CERN Academic Training Programme and primarily intended for young engineers and technicians in preparation for the running-in of the 400 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Following the definition of basic quantities, the problems of betatron motion and the effect of momentum spread and orbital errors on the transverse motion of the beam are reviewed. Consideration is then given to multipole fields, chromaticity and non-linear resonances. After dealing with basic relations governing longitudinal beam dynamics, the space-charge, resistive-wall and other collective effects are treated, with reference to precautions in the SPS to prevent their occurrence. (Auth.)

  5. Synchrotron light source data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ''Synchrotron Light Source Data Book'' is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-ray Data Booklet, edited by D. Vaughan (LBL PUB-490), address the 'use' of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in 'practical units' and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices

  6. Biomedical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Galka, M.; Hanson, A.L.; Paluszkiewicz, Cz.; Cichocki, T.

    2001-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation techniques application in medical diagnostics have been presented especially for: trace element analysis in tissues, elemental mapping, chemical speciation at trace levels, chemical structure determination. Presented techniques are very useful for early cancer discovery

  7. Inverse comptonization vs. thermal synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    There are currently two radiation mechanisms being considered for gamma-ray bursts: thermal synchrotron and inverse comptonization. They are mutually exclusive since thermal synchrotron requires a magnetic field of approx. 10 12 Gauss whereas inverse comptonization cannot produce a monotonic spectrum if the field is larger than 10 11 and is too inefficient relative to thermal synchrotron unless the field is less than 10 9 Gauss. Neither mechanism can explain completely the observed characteristics of gamma-ray bursts. However, we conclude that thermal synchrotron is more consistent with the observations if the sources are approx. 40 kpc away whereas inverse comptonization is more consistent if they are approx. 300 pc away. Unfortunately, the source distance is still not known and, thus, the radiation mechanism is still uncertain

  8. Regions compete for French synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Ten regions in France have placed bids to host the planned national synchrotron Soleil. Leading contenders include a joint bid from Ile-de-France and Essonne for Orsay, offering FF 1 billion towards the construction costs (2 paragraphs).

  9. Reshuffle lifts French synchrotron hopes

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    2000-01-01

    The sacking of Claude Allegre as research minister has raised doubts over the level of France's promised participation in the construction of Diamond but reawakened French hopes that the synchrotron Soleil may now be built (1 page).

  10. Macromolecular crystallography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartunik, H.D.; Phillips, J.C.; Fourme, R.

    1982-01-01

    The use of synchrotron X-ray sources in macromolecular crystallography is described. The properties of synchrotron radiation relevant to macromolecular crystallography are examined. The applications discussed include anomalous dispersion techniques, the acquisition of normal and high resolution data, and kinetic studies of structural changes in macromolecules; protein data are presented illustrating these applications. The apparatus used is described including information on the electronic detectors, the monitoring of the incident beam and crystal cooling. (U.K.)

  11. The study of some thiazinic and indaminic dye syntheses induced by ionising radiation; Etude de quelques syntheses de colorants thianziniques et indaminiques amorcees par les rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestic, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-03-15

    grace a leur spectre d'absorption apres qu'ils aient ete separes du milieu reactionnel par chromatographie d'adsorption ou d'echange d'ions; d'autres produits de la radiolyse, chlorure d'ammonium et eau oxygenee, ont ete egalement caracterises. Au cours d'une etape ulterieure, une variation systematique des parametres physico-chimiques a permis de determiner les conditions les plus favorables a la radiosynthese; les rendements radiochimiques maximum obtenus ont pour valeurs respectives: G (Violet de Lauth) = 1,65; G (Bleu de Methylene) = 1,75. En outre, l'etude de l'influence sur le rendement radiochimique des reactifs amines differemment substitues a fait apparaitre la possibilite de synthetiser par voie radiochimique le Vert de Bindschedler et le Bleu de Wurster. Enfin la decouverte d'un compose intermediaire fondamental, le Rouge de Wurster, ainsi que l'etude cinetique de la synthese chimique du Bleu de Methylene ont permis de determiner les principales etapes du Bleu de Methylene reactionnel et de preciser la part qui revenait aux rayonnements ionisants dans le cas de la synthese par voie radiochimique. (auteur)

  12. Manufacturability of compact synchrotron mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Gary M.

    1997-11-01

    While many of the government funded research communities over the years have put their faith and money into increasingly larger synchrotrons, such as Spring8 in Japan, and the APS in the United States, a viable market appears to exist for smaller scale, research and commercial grade, compact synchrotrons. These smaller, and less expensive machines, provide the research and industrial communities with synchrotron radiation beamline access at a portion of the cost of their larger and more powerful counterparts. A compact synchrotron, such as the Aurora-2D, designed and built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. of japan (SHI), is a small footprint synchrotron capable of sustaining 20 beamlines. Coupled with a Microtron injector, with 150 MeV of injection energy, an entire facility fits within a 27 meter [88.5 ft] square floorplan. The system, controlled by 2 personal computers, is capable of producing 700 MeV electron energy and 300 mA stored current. Recently, an Aurora-2D synchrotron was purchased from SHI by the University of Hiroshima. The Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations Beamline Optics Group was approached by SHI with a request to supply a group of 16 beamline mirrors for this machine. These mirrors were sufficient to supply 3 beamlines for the Hiroshima machine. This paper will address engineering issues which arose during the design and manufacturing of these mirrors.

  13. Beta-Excited Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation; Sources de rayonnements electromagnetiques excites par des particules beta; Vozbuzhdennye beta-chastitsami istochniki ehlektromagnitnogo izlucheniya; Fuentes de radiacion electromagnetica excitadas por particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, J F; Rhodes, J R [Physics Group, Isotope Research Division, (AERE), Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    raison de leur longue periode, de leur bas prix, de leur facilite d'obtention et de leur activite specifique elevee. Pour la mise au point des sources excitees par les particules beta, on s'est efforce de realiser un compromis entre les exigences pratiques de la construction et celles du meilleur rendement theorique dans une zone energetique donnee. Dans le memoire presente, les auteurs explicitent par calcul le nombre de photons produits par particule beta et envisagent les corrections a apporter a ces calculs pour l'autoabsorption du rayonnement X produit. Ces calculs tiennent compte a la fois du rayonnement de freinage et du rayonnement caracteristique de {alpha}, l'emission maximum en rayonnement caracteristique se faisant pour des cibles de Z compris entre 40 et 60. Enfin ils constatent que dans la zone energetique souhaitee, on obtient le meilleur rendement en emission photonique avec des cibles dont l'epaisseurmoitie correspond a 1 ou 2 parcours beta. Du point de vue de la fabrication, l'aluminium, l'argent et l'or conviennent pour le gainage des sources. On a aussi constate que ces metaux donnaient des resultats satisfaisants en ce qui concerne l'emission et la distribution du rayonnement de freinage et des rayons X pour diverses zones energetiques dans la gamme de 1 a 200 keV, lorsqu'on les combinait correctement avec les emetteurs beta susmentionnes. Les auteurs donnent plusieurs spectres d'energie, ainsi que certaines courbes d'absorption dans l'aluminium et le fer pour les meilleures combinaisons source-cible. Ils ont constate qu'il n'y avait que peu de difference entre les sources constituees par des emetteurs beta inseres entre les feuilles de la cible et celles qui sont intimement melangees a la cible. Le memoire contient des tableaux destines a servir de guide pour determiner la meilleure source a utiliser pour un absorbeur d'une gamme d'epaisseur determinee. (author) [Spanish] En este trabajo los autores describen fuentes de radiaciones

  14. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry; Sur la mesure et l'analyse des rayonnements de haute energie par detecteurs a activation. Application a la dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklavenitis, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    This work is concerned with the possibility of measurement and analysis of radiation fluences within objects of small volume submitted to a high energy proton beam. The first part, consecrated to the establishment of a method of analysis, comprises a detailed study of the radiation nature and energy spectra as well as of the various dosimetry methods. In order to select a group of detectors, high energy nuclear reactions were systematically studied and for some of them cross sections were measured or calculated: for example the cross section of the reaction {sup 11}B (p,n) {sup 11}C between 150 and 3000 MeV and of the reaction {sup 34}S (p,2pn) {sup 32}P between 50 and 3000 MeV. The second part is relative to the application of the fore-mentioned analysis to radiation within a tissue equivalent phantom irradiated by 3 GeV protons. This analysis is sufficiently detailed to allow the reconstitution of the absorbed doses, the dose equivalent and, contingent on a better knowledge of the dose due to heavy particles, the quality factors. It allowed also to follow the evolution of the various dosimetric data as a function of the depth inside the phantom and to verify calculations already done by other researchers. The comparison of the measured doses and the corresponding detector activities revealed the possibility that some detectors could give directly the absorbed dose, or even the dose equivalent, by a simple activity measurement. (author) [French] Le travail porte sur la possibilite de mesure et d'analyse, a l'aide de detecteurs a activation, des fluences de rayonnements a l'interieur d'un objet de petit volume soumis a un faisceau de protons de tres haute energie. La premiere partie, consacree a la mise au point de la methode d'analyse des fluences, comporte une etude detaillee de la nature des rayonnements et de leurs spectres energetiques ainsi que des differentes methodes de dosimetrie. Pour arriver au choix d'un groupe de

  15. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry; Sur la mesure et l'analyse des rayonnements de haute energie par detecteurs a activation. Application a la dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklavenitis, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    This work is concerned with the possibility of measurement and analysis of radiation fluences within objects of small volume submitted to a high energy proton beam. The first part, consecrated to the establishment of a method of analysis, comprises a detailed study of the radiation nature and energy spectra as well as of the various dosimetry methods. In order to select a group of detectors, high energy nuclear reactions were systematically studied and for some of them cross sections were measured or calculated: for example the cross section of the reaction {sup 11}B (p,n) {sup 11}C between 150 and 3000 MeV and of the reaction {sup 34}S (p,2pn) {sup 32}P between 50 and 3000 MeV. The second part is relative to the application of the fore-mentioned analysis to radiation within a tissue equivalent phantom irradiated by 3 GeV protons. This analysis is sufficiently detailed to allow the reconstitution of the absorbed doses, the dose equivalent and, contingent on a better knowledge of the dose due to heavy particles, the quality factors. It allowed also to follow the evolution of the various dosimetric data as a function of the depth inside the phantom and to verify calculations already done by other researchers. The comparison of the measured doses and the corresponding detector activities revealed the possibility that some detectors could give directly the absorbed dose, or even the dose equivalent, by a simple activity measurement. (author) [French] Le travail porte sur la possibilite de mesure et d'analyse, a l'aide de detecteurs a activation, des fluences de rayonnements a l'interieur d'un objet de petit volume soumis a un faisceau de protons de tres haute energie. La premiere partie, consacree a la mise au point de la methode d'analyse des fluences, comporte une etude detaillee de la nature des rayonnements et de leurs spectres energetiques ainsi que des differentes methodes de dosimetrie. Pour arriver au choix d'un groupe de detecteurs, une etude systematique des

  16. Emergency measures and treatment in the event of accidental aver exposure to radiation or of radioactive contamination; Mesures d'urgence et traitement en cas de surexposition accidentelle aux rayonnements ou en cas de contamination radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In the first part the author presents an overall view of emergency measures to be applied in the case of internal or external radioactive contamination. He states in particular, in these two cases, the methods by which it is possible to eliminate the contaminating radioactive substances from the organism. The author then considers the therapeutic methods to be adopted in the case of an accident of overexposure to radiation, distinguishing between the case of a partial irradiation and that of an acute total irradiation. There will be essentially three methods used depending on the physical measures carried out (irradiation, conditions, estimation of the dose received) and of the clinical data collected: particular treatments, treatment for helping the organism during its return to normal activity, temporary or permanent replacement of the organs affected. (author) [French] L'auteur presente, en une premiere partie, une vue d'ensemble des mesures d'urgence a appliquer en cas de contamination radioactive externe ou interne. Il fait etat en particulier, dans ces deux cas, des methodes permettant de debarrasser l'organisme des substances radioactives contaminantes. L'auteur envisage, ensuite, la therapeutique a adopter lors d'un accident de surexposition aux rayonnements, distinguant le cas d'une irradiation partielle et celui d'une irradiation totale aigue. Trois traitements seront essentiellement mis en oeuvre en fonction des mesures physiques effectuees (conditions d'irradiation, evaluation de la dose recue) et des donnees cliniques recueillies: traitements specifiques, traitement de soutien de l'organisme preparant la restauration, suppleance temporaire ou definitive d'organes defaillants. (auteur)

  17. Germanium junction detectors. Theoretical and practical factors governing their use in radiation spectrometry; Detecteurs a jonction au germanium. Elements theoriques et pratiques pour l'utilisation en spectrometrie de rayonnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hors, M; Philis, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Semi-conductor detectors have recently greatly increased the possibilities available to nuclear spectroscopists for the study of {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} radiations. Their use in radio-chemistry has encouraged us to study their principle, their mechanism and also the conditions under which they can be used. The first part, which is theoretical, consists of a summary of what should be known concerning the best use of junction detectors, in particular Ge (Li) detectors. The second part, which is experimental, summarizes the laboratory work carried out over a period of one year on Ge (Li) detectors. Stress is laid on the possibilities presented by the use of these detectors as photo-electric spectrometers, and also on the precautions required. Amongst the numerous results presented, the resolution of 2.52 keV obtained for the {gamma} radiation of 145.5 keV for {sup 141}Ce may be particularly noted. (authors) [French] Les detecteurs a semi-conducteurs ont recemment accru les possibilites offertes aux spectroscopistes nucleaires pour l'etude des radiations {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}. Leurs utilisations en radiochimie nous ont incite a en etudier le principe, le mecanisme et d'autre part les conditions d'emploi. La premiere partie, theorique, rappelle l'essentiel de ce qu'il est utile de connaitre pour une utilisation optimale des detecteurs a jonctions et en particulier des detecteurs Ge (Li). La deuxieme partie, experimentale, resume les travaux realises au laboratoire pendant un an avec des detecteurs Ge (Li). Nous insistons sur les possibilites offertes et les precautions a prendre dans l'utilisation de ces detecteurs comme spectrometres photoelectriques. Parmi les nombreux resultats presentes, citons la resolution de 2,52 keV obtenue pour le rayonnement {gamma} de 145 f5 keV du {sup 141}Ce. (auteurs)

  18. Emergency measures and treatment in the event of accidental aver exposure to radiation or of radioactive contamination; Mesures d'urgence et traitement en cas de surexposition accidentelle aux rayonnements ou en cas de contamination radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In the first part the author presents an overall view of emergency measures to be applied in the case of internal or external radioactive contamination. He states in particular, in these two cases, the methods by which it is possible to eliminate the contaminating radioactive substances from the organism. The author then considers the therapeutic methods to be adopted in the case of an accident of overexposure to radiation, distinguishing between the case of a partial irradiation and that of an acute total irradiation. There will be essentially three methods used depending on the physical measures carried out (irradiation, conditions, estimation of the dose received) and of the clinical data collected: particular treatments, treatment for helping the organism during its return to normal activity, temporary or permanent replacement of the organs affected. (author) [French] L'auteur presente, en une premiere partie, une vue d'ensemble des mesures d'urgence a appliquer en cas de contamination radioactive externe ou interne. Il fait etat en particulier, dans ces deux cas, des methodes permettant de debarrasser l'organisme des substances radioactives contaminantes. L'auteur envisage, ensuite, la therapeutique a adopter lors d'un accident de surexposition aux rayonnements, distinguant le cas d'une irradiation partielle et celui d'une irradiation totale aigue. Trois traitements seront essentiellement mis en oeuvre en fonction des mesures physiques effectuees (conditions d'irradiation, evaluation de la dose recue) et des donnees cliniques recueillies: traitements specifiques, traitement de soutien de l'organisme preparant la restauration, suppleance temporaire ou definitive d'organes defaillants. (auteur)

  19. Spin dynamics in electron synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Jan Felix

    2017-01-01

    Providing spin polarized particle beams with circular accelerators requires the consideration of depolarizing resonances which may significantly reduce the desired degree of polarization at specific beam energies. The corresponding spin dynamical effects are typically analyzed with numerical methods. In case of electron beams the influence of the emission of synchrotron radiation has to be taken into account. On short timescales, as in synchrotrons with a fast energy ramp or in damping rings, spin dynamics are investigated with spin tracking algorithms. This thesis presents the spin tracking code Polematrix as a versatile tool to study the impact of synchrotron radiation on spin dynamics. Spin tracking simulations have been performed based on the well established particle tracking code Elegant. The numerical studies demonstrate effects which are responsible for beam depolarization: Synchrotron side bands of depolarizing resonances and decoherence of spin precession. Polematrix can be utilized for any electron accelerator with minimal effort as it imports lattice files from the tracking programs MAD-X or Elegant. Polematrix has been published as open source software. Currently, the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA at Bonn University is the only electron synchrotron worldwide providing a polarized beam. Integer and intrinsic depolarizing resonances are compensated with dedicated countermeasures during the fast energy ramp. Polarization measurements from ELSA demonstrate the particular spin dynamics of electrons and confirm the results of the spin tracking code Polematrix.

  20. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs

  1. The synchrotron light source ROSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.; Buettig, H.; Dienel, S.; Glaeser, W.; Goetz, T.; Guratzsch, H.; Hartmann, B.; Janssen, D.; Krug, H.; Linnemann, J.; Matz, W.; Murphy, J.B.; Neumann, W.; Oehme, W.; Picard, M.; Plesko, M.; Proehl, D.; Schlenk, R.; Tomassini, D.; Tyrroff, H.

    1994-01-01

    ROSY, a 3rd generation synchrotron light source, has been proposed to be built at the Research Center Rossendorf/Dresden in Germany. With its low emittance and optimized space for installing insertion devices ROSY will be the first synchrotron radiation source in the 3 GeV range in Europe, dedicated to materials research and industrial application. The critical wavelength of the synchrotron radiation spectra was designed to be 0.15 nm corresponding to a critical photon energy of 8.4 keV. It is proposed to use a ''modified multiple bend achromat'' (MBA) lattice in order to get a compact machine as well as a low emittance. For 3 GeV an emittance smaller than 30π nm rad can be obtained. With a fourfold symmetry and two larger straight sections within the achromatic arcs the circumference is 148 m. 23% of the circumference can be used for installing insertion devices. (orig.)

  2. Synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics

    CERN Document Server

    Pechkova, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current state of research in both synchrotron radiation and structural proteomics from different laboratories worldwide. The book presents recent research results in the most advanced methods of synchrotron radiation analysis, protein micro- and nano crystallography, X-ray scattering and X-ray optics, coherent X-Ray diffraction, and laser cutting and contactless sample manipulation are described in details. The book focuses on biological applications and highlights important aspects such as radiation damage and molecular modeling.

  3. Atoms, molecules, clusters and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kui Rexi; Ju Xin

    1995-01-01

    The importance of synchrotron radiation, especially the third generation synchrotron radiation light source, in atomic, molecular and cluster physics is discussed and some views are presented on new methods which may become available for research in the above fields

  4. PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY USING A SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JACKSON, R.S.; MICHAELIAN, K.H.; HOMES, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the use of a synchrotron as a source for infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. A synchrotron has an intrinsically high radiance, which is beneficial when photoacoustic spectroscopy is applied to small samples, especially at long wavelengths

  5. High-Dose Ionizing Radiation Photographic Dosimetry; Mesure, par des Methodes Photogra Phiques, de Doses Elevees de Rayonnements Ionisants; 0424 041e 0422 041e 0413 0420 0414 ; Dosimetria Fotografica de Dosis Elevadas de Radiaciones Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trousil, J.; Bucina, I. [Institute for Research Production and Application of Radioisotopes Prague, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1965-06-15

    energy dependence and latent image fading on the accuracy of exposure measurement was determined. Finally the errors in film dosimetry of high-level doses, which were observed on,the basis of experimental work with the aid of mathematical statistics, are described. The increase over the error in the range of little and severe blackening is also considered. The errors associated with calibration, energy dependence, latent image fading, chemical processing and measurement of blackening are also taken into account. The error associated with the assumption that the dose assessed by the film badge corresponds to the whole-body dose is not considered. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent une methode photographique de mesure de doses de rayonnements comprises entre 10 mr et 1000 r (rayons gamma et rayons X de haute energie). Cette methode comporte l ' emploi de deux films a emulsions differentes, qui sont montes dans un meme boitier. Cette methode a pour caracteristique essentielle de permettre d' evaluer les doses comprises dans les limites indiquees ci-dessus sans savoir s' il y a eu exposition a une dose plus elevee, avec une precision superieure a {+-}25% dans toute l'etendue de mesure (fidelite de 95%); elle permet aussi d'evaluer de maniere assez approchee l'energie des rayonnements auxquels le film a ete expose. Le memoire traite des appareils, types de films et traitements chimiques qui rendent ces mesures possibles. Il decrit le principe de la construction d'un densitometre qui permet de mesurer avec la meme precision le noircissement du film dans une gamme allant de D = 0 a D = 6. Il est ainsi possible de tirer parti de toute la region ou le noircissement du film peut etre employe. Etant donne qu'aucun photomultiplicateur n' est utilise, les possibilites de surexposition sont reduites au minimum et l'appareil peut donc etre utilise pour les mesures normales. Le memoire indique egalement les caracteristiques que les films dosimetres doivent avoir pour etre utilises

  6. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Insects and Other Arthropods; Effet des rayonnements ionisants sur les insectes et autres arthropodes; Vozdejstvie ioniziruntsej radiatsii na nasekomykh i drugikh chlenistonogikh; Efectos de las radiaciones ionizantes sobre los insectos y otros artropodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, William E. [United States Department of Agriculture Laboratories, Mexico City, D.F (Mexico)

    1963-09-15

    -Star tick, Amblyomma americanum L., and ionizing radiation as a possible quarantine treatment for fruits and vegetables infested with fruit flies and mangoes infested with the mango weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae Fabricius, are also discussed. (author) [French] Des recherches sur la possibilite d'appliquer la methode de sterilization par les rayonnements pour l'eradication de populations d'insectes sont actuellement en cours pour un certain nombre d'insectes nuisibles a l'homme, aux animaux et a diverses cultures. Il ressort de ces recherches preliminaires que les rayonnements ionisants provoquent la sterilite, mais que les doses necessaires varient considerablement. Ces recherches donnent aussi a penser que les dommages radioinduits sont tels qu'il ne serait pas opportun d'appliquer cette methode a toutes les especes d'insectes. Une difficulte a laquelle on se heurte frequemment est l'absence de methodes pratiques d'elevage en masse. D'autre part, certaines populations d'insectes sont tellement nombreuses qu'il peut etre impossible de recourir a cette methode sans avoir au prealable applique dans la region infestee d'autres methodes de lutte de maniere a pouvoir atteindre les populations naturelles. Malgre ces difficultes, si les conditions sont favorables, il existe peu d'autres methodes qui puissent donner d'aussi bons resultats. On peut aussi envisager de recourir a la methode de sterilisation par les rayonnements pour retarder la pullulation des insectes jusqu'a la moisson des recoltes. Le memoire rend compte de l'influence des rayons gamma sur la capacite de reproduction, l'agressivite sexuelle, la vigueur et la longevite de divers insectes: mouche orientale des fruits Dacus dorsalis Hendel, mouche du melon Dacus cucurbitae Coq., mouche mediterraneenne des fruits Ceratitis capitata Wied, mouche mexicaine des fruits Anastrepha ludens Loew et Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say; il donne aussi les resultats d'experiences reelles de lacher de males steriles pour l

  7. Un think tank ouest-africain accroît son rayonnement et renforce ses ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 avr. 2016 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain · Ce que nous faisons · Financement · Ressources ...

  8. Study by electron spin resonance of the free radicals created under irradiation in glycine; Etude par la technique de resonance paramagnetique electronique des radicaux crees sous irradiation dans la glycine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomet, P; Rassat, A; Servoz-Gavin, P; Choudens, H de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The free radicals created by different radiations in glycine are measured by electron spin resonance and their number is evaluated in function of the absorbed dose. This number decreases when the LET of the radiations increases ; in other words,high LET radiations gives less radiochemical effects; in contrary with the fact that high LET radiations creates more damage in biological materials. The decreasing with time of the number of free radicals and the speed of this decrease is a function of temperature; by the study of the kinetics of this decrease, an attempt has been made to prove the presence of three radicals. (authors) [French] Les radicaux crees par divers rayonnements dans la glycine sont detectes par resonance paramagnetique electronique et leur nombre est evalue en fonction de la dose. Ce nombre varie dans le sens inverse du T.E.L moyen, c'est-a-dire que les rayonnements de T.E.L eleves donnent des effets radiochimiques plus petits alors que les effets radiobiologiques sont importants avec des T.E.L eleves. La decroissance dans le temps du nombre de radicaux est observee et la vitesse de diminution des radicaux est liee a la temperature. Etudiant la cinetique de recombinaison, on peut faire l'hypothese de l'existence de 3 radicaux. (auteurs)

  9. Synchrotron X-Ray Footprinting on Tour

    OpenAIRE

    Bohon, Jen; Ralston, Corie; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Gupta, Sayan; Chance, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray footprinting resources were investigated at a variety of beamlines and synchrotron facilities to understand their potential for a mobile general user. Results indicate that viable resources exist at each synchrotron investigated such that a prospective user need only provide a simple flow apparatus and sample handling accessories to perform this technique.

  10. DESY: Synchrotron and storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    An improvement programme has been under way for several years at the 7.5 GeV électron synchrotron at DESY. In particular it has been designed to increase the accelerated beam intensity, to achieve better quality of the ejected électron beams and photon beams and to improve machine reliability.

  11. Synchrotron radiation and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.

    1986-08-01

    In this lecture we describe the characteristics of Synchrotron radiation as a source of X rays. We discuss the properties of SR arc sources, wigglers, undulators and the use of backscattering of laser light. Applications to angiography, X ray microscopy and tomography are reviewed. 16 refs., 23 figs

  12. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filhol, J.M.; Chavanne, J.; Weckert, E.

    2001-01-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  13. The Australian synchrotron research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) was established in 1996 under a 5 year grant from the Australian Government, and is managed by ANSTO on behalf of a consortium of Australian universities and research organisations. It has taken over the operation of the Australian National Beamline Facility (ANBF) at the Photon Factory, and has joined two CATS at the Advanced Photon Source: the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation CAT (SRI-CAT) and the Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources (CARS). The ASRP thus manages a comprehensive range of synchrotron radiation research facilities for Australian science. The ANBF is a general purpose hard X-ray beamline which has been in operation at the Photon Factory since 1993. It currently caters for about 35 Australian research teams per year. The facilities available at the ANBF will be presented and the research program will be summarised. The ASRP facilities at the APS comprise the 5 sectors operated by SRI-CAT, BioCARS and ChemMatCARS. A brief description will be given of the ASRP research programs at the APS, which will considerably broaden the scope of Australian synchrotron science

  14. Tandems as injectors for synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    This is a review on the use of tandem electrostatic accelerators for injection and fitting of synchrotrons to accelerate intense beams of heavy ions to relativistic energies. The paper emphasizes the need of operating the tandems in pulsed mode for this application. It has been experimentally demonstrated that at present this type of accelerator still provides the most reliable and best performance. (orig.)

  15. Biological physics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filhol, J M; Chavanne, J [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38 - Grenoble (France); Weckert, E [Hasylab at Desy, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2001-07-01

    This conference deals with the applications of synchrotron radiation to current problems in biology and medicine. Seven sessions take stock on the subject: sources and detectors; inelastic scattering and dynamics; muscle diffraction; reaction mechanisms; macromolecular assemblies; medical applications; imaging and spectroscopy. The document presents the papers abstracts. (A.L.B.)

  16. Synchrotron radiation in material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotto, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review on the several experimental techniques (XRD, SAXS, EXAFS, IRRS, etc...) which, utilizing of synchrotron radiation can be applied in glass structural studies, is presented. The major part of these techniques can be also used for studies of other materials such as polymers, metals, etc... (L.C.) [pt

  17. Synchrotron Radiation and Faraday Rotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, George

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and its degree of linear polarization are powerful tracers of magnetic fields that are illuminated by cosmic ray electrons. Faraday rotation of the linearly polarized radiation is induced by intervening line-of-sight magnetic fields that are embedded in ionized plasmas. For

  18. Study of the texture of porous solids using a technique of {gamma} ray absorption; Application de l'absorption du rayonnement {gamma} a l'etude de la texture des solides poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    A technique, which enables us to measure locally total porosity, open porosity and pore size distribution is developed. The total porosity is calculated from the bulk density. A gamma absorption gauge is set up fitted with a Cs137 source. This enables the determination of the density by layers of carbonaceous samples in a practically automatic way. By taking adequate precautions it is possible to obtain the density with a maximum error {delta}{rho} {<=} 0,005 g/cm{sup 3}. The open porosity is evaluated by the absorption method after impregnation with bromoform. A new mercury porosimeter is developed using the absorption probe for the measurement of mercury infiltrated into the porous sample. Due to the localized character of exploration by this technique, the variations of porous texture in a heterogeneous sample can be studied. Used as a classical porosimeter, in the case of homogeneous samples, this apparatus is capable of exploring the equivalent diameters of pores between 500 {mu} and 0.14 {mu} with a maximum error {delta}P {<=} 0.002. The possibility of exploration of heterogeneous samples, with the facility of determination of porosities due to macro-pores combined with the non-limiting character of the method in the field of high pressures differentiates this apparatus from all the porosimeters of former conception. Examples of utilization of this technique in the case of graphite-gas reactions are presented. (author) [French] On a developpe une technique permettant la mesure localisee de la porosite totale, de la porosite ouverte et de la repartition de la taille de pores. La porosite totale est calculee a partir de la densite apparente. On a mis au point une jauge d'absorption du rayonnement gamma munie d'une source de Cs137. Celle-ci nous a permis de determiner la densite par couches d'echantillons cylindriques carbones d'une facon pratiquement automatique. En prenant les precautions adequates, il est possible d'obtenir la densite

  19. Study of the texture of porous solids using a technique of {gamma} ray absorption; Application de l'absorption du rayonnement {gamma} a l'etude de la texture des solides poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    A technique, which enables us to measure locally total porosity, open porosity and pore size distribution is developed. The total porosity is calculated from the bulk density. A gamma absorption gauge is set up fitted with a Cs137 source. This enables the determination of the density by layers of carbonaceous samples in a practically automatic way. By taking adequate precautions it is possible to obtain the density with a maximum error {delta}{rho} {<=} 0,005 g/cm{sup 3}. The open porosity is evaluated by the absorption method after impregnation with bromoform. A new mercury porosimeter is developed using the absorption probe for the measurement of mercury infiltrated into the porous sample. Due to the localized character of exploration by this technique, the variations of porous texture in a heterogeneous sample can be studied. Used as a classical porosimeter, in the case of homogeneous samples, this apparatus is capable of exploring the equivalent diameters of pores between 500 {mu} and 0.14 {mu} with a maximum error {delta}P {<=} 0.002. The possibility of exploration of heterogeneous samples, with the facility of determination of porosities due to macro-pores combined with the non-limiting character of the method in the field of high pressures differentiates this apparatus from all the porosimeters of former conception. Examples of utilization of this technique in the case of graphite-gas reactions are presented. (author) [French] On a developpe une technique permettant la mesure localisee de la porosite totale, de la porosite ouverte et de la repartition de la taille de pores. La porosite totale est calculee a partir de la densite apparente. On a mis au point une jauge d'absorption du rayonnement gamma munie d'une source de Cs137. Celle-ci nous a permis de determiner la densite par couches d'echantillons cylindriques carbones d'une facon pratiquement automatique. En prenant les precautions adequates, il est possible d'obtenir la densite avec une erreur maximale

  20. Research using synchrotron radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1982-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is now becoming operational with synchrotron radiation experiments beginning on the 700 MeV VUV electron storage ring. Commissioning of the 2.5 GeV x-ray storage ring has also begun with the experimental program expected to begin in 1983. The current status of the experimental program and instrumentation and the plans for future developments, will be discussed. Although some early results have been obtained on VUV beam lines no attempt will be made in this paper to describe them. Instead, an overview of the beam line characteristics will be given, with an indication of those already operational. In the oral presentation some initial experimental results will be discussed

  1. Rapid Estimation of Fast-Neutron Doses following Radiation Exposure in Criticality Accidents: The S{sup 32}(n, p)P{sup 32} Reaction in Body Hair; Prompte Evaluation des Doses de Neutrons Rapides apres une Exposition au Rayonnement a la Suite d'Accidents de Criticite: Reaction {sup 32}S(n, p){sup 32}P dans le Systeme Pileux; 0411 042b 0421 0414 ; Evaluacion Acelerada de Dosis de Neutrones Rapidos Despues de una Irradiacion Consecutiva a un Accidente de Criticidad: La Reaccion {sup 32}S(n, p){sup 32}P en el Pelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, D. F. [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1965-06-15

    information for comparison with average total-body neutron exposure estimates based on blood Na{sup 24} measurements. Fission yield estimates based on deduced geometries in each case were in good agreement with independent determinations of total fissions by more conventional analytical procedures. For rapid approximations of fast neutron dose, P{sup 32} activity in dpm/g hair at T = 0 from any counting system of known efficiency is simply multiplied by 0.49 to obtain ''sulphur-level'' neutron dose in rads. (author) [French] Etant donne sa composition chimique constante, sa situation anatomique fixe et sa facilite de prelevement, le systeme pileux de l'homme offre un materiau de choix permettant d'evaluer en peu de temps des doses de neutrons rapides recues par le personnel implique dans des accidents de criticite. La teneur en soufre du cheveu ou du poil est remarquablement constante, independente du sexe, de la couleur ou de la region ou il pousse; comme cette teneur est de 0,048 {+-} 0,005 g au gramme, on peut prendre le chiffre de 5% pour les estimations preliminaires de dose, sans avoir a proceder chaque fois a un dosage individuel du soufre. En l'absence d'une contamination externe facile a eliminer, le cheveu ou le poil contient moins de 0,025% de phosphore; etant donne que les sections efficaces d'activation du soufre et du phosphore sont semblables, l'absence virtuelle de phosphore permet d'utiliser le soufre du cheveu ou du poil comme un detecteur biologique a seuil pour la mesure du flux de neutrons de 2,5 MeV et plus, en appliquant la reaction {sup 32}S(n, p){sup 32}P. On a mis au point des methodes d'isolement rapide de {sup 32}P radiochimiquement pur pour permettre des estimations a des fins cliniques de l'exposition aux neutrons rapides des victimes des accidents de criticite. En l'absence d'une forte contamination par les produits de fission, on peut proceder aux evaluations dans les deux heures. Le procede plus complet qui comporte l'elimination des produits

  2. Radiation hazards in the neighbourhood of uranium reactors; Dangers des rayonnements aupres des piles a uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joffre, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    Radiation hazards near uranium reactors may be divided in two groups. Hazards when the reactor is normally operating: {gamma} radiation from hot uranium or air contamination by fission gases, {gamma} radiation or contamination by the coolant (air, nitrogen, heavy-water), {gamma} radiation from radioisotopes. Hazards in the case of an accident: presence of hot uranium in the atmosphere, soil contamination. (author) [French] Les dangers d'irradiation aupres des piles a uranium sont a classer essentiellement en deux groupes. Les dangers existant aupres d'une pile exploitee normalement: irradiation {gamma} par l'uranium irradie ou contamination de l'air par des gaz de fission, irradiation {gamma} ou contamination par les fluides de refroidissement (air, azote, eau lourde), irradiation {gamma} par les radioelements fabriques. Les dangers en cas d'accident survenant a un reacteur en fonctionnement, ayant pour consequence : la presence dans l'air d'uranium irradie, la contamination du sol. (auteur)

  3. Moessbauer spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, U.

    1994-01-01

    The short pulse nature of synchrotron radiation makes it possible to perform Moessbauer spectroscopy in the time domain, i.e. instead of measuring the transmitted intensity time integrated as a function of source/absorber velocity, the intensity of the scattered radiation is measured time differential. The resulting time spectrum is essentially source independent and complications in the data analysis which are related to the radioactive source are completely removed. Furthermore, the large brightness and well defined polarization of the synchrotron radiation can, e.g., speed up the data collection and facilitate studies of polarization phenomena. To illustrate these new spectroscopic possibilities, measurements of the temperature dependence and polarization dependence of forward scattering from alpha - sup 5 sup 7 Fe nuclei are presented and discussed 26 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  4. Australian synchrotron light source - (boomerang)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian National Synchrotron Light Source - (Boomerang) is to be installed at the Monash University in Victoria. This report provides some background to the proposed facility and discusses aspects of a prospective design. Recently, significant effort was devoted to refining the in principle design and a lattice providing an emittance od 18 nm rad was obtained with a distributed dispersion in the straight section of 0.29m. Exhaustive studies have been made of the economic benefits that would accrue to Australia to Australia following the installation of this facility. This design is a refinement of the design concept presented to the SRI -2000, Berlin (Boldeman, Einfeld et al), to the meeting of the 4th Asian Forum and the Preliminary Design Study presented to the Australian Synchrotron Research Program

  5. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1992-01-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic X-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become incrasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of X-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved. (orig.)

  6. Synchrotron radiation in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.

    1998-01-01

    Much of present understanding of atomic and molecular structure and dynamics was gained through studies of photon-atom interactions. In particular, observations of the emission, absorption, and scattering of X rays have complemented particle-collision experiments in elucidating the physics of atomic inner shells. Grounded on Max von Laue's theoretical insight and the invention of the Bragg spectrometer, the field's potential underwent a step function with the development of synchrotron-radiation sources. Notably current third-generation sources have opened new horizons in atomic and molecular physics by producing radiation of wide tunability and exceedingly high intensity and polarization, narrow energy bandwidth, and sharp time structure. In this review, recent advances in synchrotron-radiation studies in atomic and molecular science are outlined. Some tempting opportunities are surveyed that arise for future studies of atomic processes, including many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interactions, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. (author)

  7. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1991-10-01

    Ever since the first diagnostic x-ray was done in the United States on February 3, 1896, the application of ionizing radiation to the field of medicine has become increasingly important. Both in clinical medicine and basic research the use of x-rays for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy is now widespread. Radiography, angiography, CAT and PETT scanning, mammography, and nuclear medicine are all examples of technologies developed to image the human anatomy. In therapeutic applications, both external and internal sources of radiation are applied to the battle against cancer. The development of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has allowed exciting advances to take place in many of these applications. The new sources provide tunable, high-intensity monochromatic beams over a wide range of energies which can be tailored to specific programmatic needs. This paper surveys those areas of medical research in which synchrotron radiation facilities are actively involved

  8. Synchrotron X-radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabler, M.N.; Nagel, D.J.; Skelton, E.F.

    1990-05-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been involved in the exploitation of X rays since the 1920s. The report gives a brief description of the generation and characteristics of synchrotron radiation, and review highlights of current research. Research examples include soft-X-ray optics, semiconductor surface passivation, surface electron dynamics, space-charge dynamics on silicon, photochemistry on GaAs, local atomic structure, crystal structures from X-ray diffraction. The report then discusses emerging research opportunities

  9. Threedimensional microfabrication using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, W.

    1990-01-01

    For fabricating microstructures with extreme structural heights a technology has been developed which is based on deep-etch lithography and subsequent replication processes. A particularly high precision is achieved if the lithographic process is carried out by means of synchrotron radiation. Electroforming and molding processes are used for the replication of microstructures from a large variety of materials. The field of application comprises sensors, electrical and optical microconnectors, components for fluid technology, microfiltration systems and novel composite materials. (author)

  10. Synchrotron/crystal sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Applied Optics (CAO) of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) prepared this final report entitled 'Synchrotron/Crystal Sample Preparation' in completion of contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order No. 53. Hughes Danbury Optical Systems (HDOS) is manufacturing the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mirrors. These thin-walled, grazing incidence, Wolter Type-1 mirrors, varying in diameter from 1.2 to 0.68 meters, must be ground and polished using state-of-the-art techniques in order to prevent undue stress due to damage or the presence of crystals and inclusions. The effect of crystals on the polishing and grinding process must also be understood. This involves coating special samples of Zerodur and measuring the reflectivity of the coatings in a synchrotron system. In order to gain the understanding needed on the effect of the Zerodur crystals by the grinding and polishing process, UAH prepared glass samples by cutting, grinding, etching, and polishing as required to meet specifications for witness bars for synchrotron measurements and for investigations of crystals embedded in Zerodur. UAH then characterized these samples for subsurface damage and surface roughness and figure.

  11. Infrared microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, G.L.; Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source

    1997-09-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy with a high brightness synchrotron source can achieve a spatial resolution approaching the diffraction limit. However, in order to realize this intrinsic source brightness at the specimen location, some care must be taken in designing the optical system. Also, when operating in diffraction limited conditions, the effective spatial resolution is no longer controlled by the apertures typically used for a conventional (geometrically defined) measurement. Instead, the spatial resolution depends on the wavelength of light and the effective apertures of the microscope`s Schwarzchild objectives. The authors have modeled the optical system from the synchrotron source up to the sample location and determined the diffraction-limited spatial distribution of light. Effects due to the dependence of the synchrotron source`s numerical aperture on wavelength, as well as the difference between transmission and reflection measurement modes, are also addressed. Lastly, they examine the benefits (when using a high brightness source) of an extrinsic germanium photoconductive detector with cone optics as a replacement for the standard MCT detector.

  12. Radiation Treatment of Meat Products and Animal By-Products; Traitement par Rayonnements des Viandes et Derives et des Sous-Produits Animaux; Radiatsionnaya obrabotka myasnykh produktov i subproduktov zhivotnogo proiskhozhdeniya; Irradiacion de la Carne y sus Derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, P. -I.E. [Danish Meat Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1966-11-15

    Application of radiation in food technology can only be considered as an alternative to existing preservation methods when a higher quality product and/or a cheaper product will result, or in cases where no alternative methods exist. With this view in mind, work performed at the Danish Meat Research Institute on sliced bacon, canned hams, luncheon meat, and animal feeding stuffs, i.e. meat and bone meal and blood meal, is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion drawn from the experimental results is that the formation of off-flavours in irradiated meat products is a very serious problem and the most important obstacle to a successful application of irradiation in meat processing. It is, therefore, essential that future research should concentrate on finding means to reduce the irradiation flavour. A number of approaches to solve this problem are mentioned and the Danish work in this field which has been centred mainly on the use of very high dose-rates and of non-equal dose distribution in cans is reviewed, and the concepts briefly described. (author) [French] L'application des rayonnements dans l'industrie alimentaire ne saurait etre consideree en remplacement des methodes de conservation actuelles que s'il en resulte un produit de qualite superieure ou un produit meilleur marche, ou encore lorsqu'on ne peut utiliser aucune methode de rechange. Dans cet esprit, l'auteur examine et commente les travaux accomplis par l'Institut danois de recherches sur la viande concernant le lard en tranches, le jambon en conserve, les pates de viande en conserve (luncheon meat) et les aliments pour animaux, c'est-a-dire les farines de viande et d'os et la farine de sang. Il conclut des resultats experimentaux que la formation de gouts indesirables dans les viandes irradiees pose un probleme tres serieux et constitue l'obstacle le plus important au succes de l'application des rayonnements a la preparation des viandes. Il importe donc que les futures recherches portent avant tout sur

  13. Synchrotron Environmental Science-I Workshop Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Attendees of the Synchrotrons Environmental Science 1 (SES-1) workshop represented a broad spectrum of environmental science research areas and expertise in all of the current synchrotrons techniques (X-ray scattering and diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and two- and three-dimensional X-ray imaging). These individuals came together to discuss current measurement obstacles in environmental research and, more specifically, ways to overcome such obstacles by applying synchrotrons radiation techniques. Significant obstacles in measurement affect virtually all of the research issues described. Attendees identified synchrotrons approaches of potential value in their research. A number of the environmental research studies discussed are currently being addressed with some success by synchrotron-based approaches. Nevertheless, improvements in low-Z measurement capabilities are needed to facilitate the use of synchrotrons radiation methodologies in environmental research

  14. Synchrotron Environmental Science-I Workshop Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-08

    Attendees of the Synchrotrons Environmental Science 1 (SES-1) workshop represented a broad spectrum of environmental science research areas and expertise in all of the current synchrotrons techniques (X-ray scattering and diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and two- and three-dimensional X-ray imaging). These individuals came together to discuss current measurement obstacles in environmental research and, more specifically, ways to overcome such obstacles by applying synchrotrons radiation techniques. Significant obstacles in measurement affect virtually all of the research issues described. Attendees identified synchrotrons approaches of potential value in their research. A number of the environmental research studies discussed are currently being addressed with some success by synchrotron-based approaches. Nevertheless, improvements in low-Z measurement capabilities are needed to facilitate the use of synchrotrons radiation methodologies in environmental research.

  15. Installation for analytic chemistry under irradiation; Installation de chimie analytique sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradin, J; Azoeuf, P; Guillon, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    An installation has been set up for carrying out manipulations and chemical analyses on radioactive products. It is completely remote-controlled and is of linear shape, 15 metres long; it is made up of three zones: - an active zone containing the apparatus, - a rear zone giving access to the active zone, - a forward zone independent of the two others and completely protected from which the remote-control of the apparatus is effected. The whole assembly has been designed so that each apparatus corresponding to an analytical technique is set up in a sealed enclosure. The sealed enclosures are interconnected by a conveyor. After three years operation, a critical review is now made of the installation. (authors) [French] L'installation a ete realisee pour effectuer des manipulations et des analyses chimiques sur des produits radioactifs. Elle est totalement telecommandee et se presente sous une forme lineaire de 15 metres de longueur et comporte trois zones: - une zone active d'appareillage, - une zone arriere d'intervention, - une zone avant independante des deux premieres et totalement protegee, ou s'operent les telecommandes de l'appareillage. L'ensemble a ete concu de facon a ce que chaque appareillage correspondant a une technique d'analyse soit implante dans une enceinte etanche. Les enceintes etanches sont reliees entre elles par un convoyeur. Apres trois annees de fonctionnement nous faisons le bilan et les critiques de l'installation. (auteurs)

  16. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  17. Support for Synchrotron Access by Environmental Scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Michael; Madden, Andrew; Palumbo, Anthony; Qafoku, N.

    2006-01-01

    To support ERSP-funded scientists in all aspects of synchrotron-based research at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This support comes in one or more of the following forms: (1) writing proposals to the APS General User (GU) program, (2) providing time at MRCAT/EnviroCAT beamlines via the membership of the Molecular Environmental Science (MES) Group in MRCAT/EnviroCAT, (3) assistance in experimental design and sample preparation, (4) support at the beamline during the synchrotron experiment, (5) analysis and interpretation of the synchrotron data, and (6) integration of synchrotron experimental results into manuscripts

  18. Atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.; Wuilleumier, F.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses applications of synchrotron light in atomic and molecular physics. Use of the radiation from storage rings has expanded and lent access to new areas of absorption and photoemission spectroscopy and scattering experiments. Techniques applied in connection with synchrotron radiation are discussed including absorption spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Problem areas that are being studied by the techniques mentioned above are discussed. Synchrotron radiation has provided the means for measuring the threshold-excitation and interference effects that signal the breakdown of the two-step model of atomic excitation/deexcitation. Synchrotron radiation provides more means of excited-state photoionization measurements

  19. Synchrotron Radiation in Biology and Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelka, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    This work is focused on a present status of synchrotron radiation X-ray applications in medicine and biology to imaging, diagnostics, and radio- therapy. Properties of X-ray beams generated by synchrotron sources are compared with radiation produced by classical laboratory X-ray tubes. A list of operating and planned synchrotron facilities applicable to biomedical purposes is given, together with their basic characteristics. A concise overview of typical X-ray synchrotron techniques in biology and medicine is carried out with discussion of their specific properties and examples of typical results. (author)

  20. The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 20 years of synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantwell, K.

    1993-08-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is now operating as a fully dedicated light source with low emittance electron optics, delivering high brightness photon beams to 25 experimental stations six to seven months per year. On October 1, 1993 SSRL became a Division of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, rather than an Independent Laboratory of Stanford University, so that high energy physics and synchrotron radiation now function under a single DOE contract. The SSRL division of SLAC has responsibility for operating, maintaining and improving the SPEAR accelerator complex, which includes the storage ring and a 3 GeV injector. SSRL has thirteen x-ray stations and twelve VUV/Soft x-ray stations serving its 600 users. Recently opened to users is a new spherical grating monochromator (SGM) and a multiundulator beam line. Circularly polarized capabilities are being exploited on a second SGM line. New YB 66 crystals installed in a vacuum double-crystal monochromator line have sparked new interest for Al and Mg edge studies. One of the most heavily subscribed stations is the rotation camera, which has been recently enhanced with a MAR imaging plate detector system for protein crystallography on a multipole wiggler. Under construction is a new wiggler-based structural molecular biology beam line with experimental stations for crystallography, small angle scattering and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plans for new developments include wiggler beam lines and associated facilities specialized for environmental research and materials processing

  1. Sensitivities in synchrotron radiation TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianetta, P.; Baur, K.; Brennan, S.

    2000-01-01

    This work describes the progress we achieved at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) in improving the sensitivity for both the transition metals and light elements such as Al and Na. The transition metal work has matured to the point where a facility exists at SSRL in which semiconductor companies are able to perform industrially relevant measurements at state of the art detection limits. This facility features clean wafer handling and automated data acquisition making routine analytical measurements possible. The best sensitivity demonstrated so far is 3.4 E7 atoms/cm 2 for a 5000 second count time corresponding to 7.6 E7 atoms/cm 2 for a standard 1000 second count time. This is more than a factor of 100 better than what can be achieved with conventional TXRF systems. The detection of light elements such as Al and Na is challenging due to the presence of the h stronger Si fluorescence peak. For traditional energy-dispersive detection only the tunability of synchrotron radiation to excitation energies below the Si-K absorption edge leads to an acceptable sensitivity for Al detection which is limited by a large background due to inelastic x-ray Raman scattering. An alternative approach to overcome the Raman contribution and the strong Si fluorescence is to use a wavelength-dispersive spectrometer for fluorescence detection. The benefits of such a multilayer spectrometer over a solid state detector are its higher energy resolution and greater dynamic range. This strategy allows primary excitation above the Si K absorption edge, eliminating the background due to Raman scattering, and a gracing emission geometry to guarantee high surface sensitivity. Studies testing this concept in combination with high flux synchrotron radiation are underway and first results will be presented. (author)

  2. Synchrotron light and its uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    It was known for a century that charged particles radiate when accelerated and that relativistic electrons in the energy range between 100 MeV and several GeV and constrained to travel in circular orbits emit concentrated, intense beams with broad continuous spectra that can cover the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared through hard x-rays. Recently the possible applications of this radiation were appreciated and electron synchrotrons and electron storage rings are now being used in many centers for studies of the properties of matter in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. 10 references

  3. Vacuum system for HIMAC synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, M.; Sudou, M.; Sato, K.

    1994-01-01

    HIMAC synchrotrons are now under construction, which require vacuum chambers of large aperture and high vacuum of about 10 -9 torr. Wide thin wall vacuum chamber of 0.3 mm thickness reinforced with ribs has been developed as the chamber at dipole magnet. We have just now started to evacuate the lower ring. The obtained average value was about 5x10 -8 torr with turbo-molecular and sputter ion pumps, and 1.1x10 -9 torr after baking. (author)

  4. Barrier rf systems in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Chandra M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, many interesting applications of the barrier RF system in hadron synchrotrons have been realized. A remarkable example of this is the development of longitudinal momentum mining and implementation at the Fermilab Recycler for extraction of low emittance pbars for the Tevatron shots. At Fermilab, we have barrier RF systems in four different rings. In the case of Recycler Ring, all of the rf manipulations are carried out using a barrier RF system. Here, the author reviews various uses of barrier rf systems in particle accelerators including some new schemes for producing intense proton beam and possible new applications

  5. Longitudinal tune control in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Dual rf systems that use fundamental and higher-harmonic cavities can be used to control the longitudinal tune in synchrotrons. The equations of motion and the Hamiltonian are defined for particle motion using dual rf systems. An example is considered using a second-harmonic system - it is shown, that as phi/sub s/ is increased, a substantial gain in bucket area over a single rf system can be realized by proper relative phasing of the first- and second-harmonic voltages

  6. Synchrotron radiation and fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    The development of fusion energy is approaching a stage where the capabilities of materials will be dictating the further progress and the time scale for the attainment of fusion power. EU has therefore funded the Fusion Energy Materials Science project Coordination Action (FEMaS - CA) with the intension to utilise the know-how in the materials community to help overcome the material science problems with the fusion related materials. The FEMaS project and some of the possible applications of synchrotron radiation for materials characterisation are described in this paper. (au)

  7. The third generation French synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This short paper gives a concise presentation of the SOLEIL project of the LURE synchrotron radiation national laboratory at Orsay (France). This new accelerator is devoted to replace the DCI and Super ACO rings of first and second generation, respectively. The main research domains of this project concern: the micro-fluorescence and micro-diffraction characterization of materials, and in particular the electronic components; the study of matter in extreme conditions (high temperature and high pressure); the bio-crystallography; the study of aggregates; and the manufacturing of micro-instruments for micro-electronics or medical applications. SOLEIL will be equipped with special magnetic wigglers to obtain very high brightness sources. The source will be a 336 m circumference ring for 2.5 GeV electron storage, able to produce a large spectrum synchrotron radiation. The injection system will comprise a low energy-high current linear electron accelerator and two electron beam transport lines. The installation will be buried at a 4 m depth to ensure the environmental protection and to limit vibrations. (J.S.)

  8. Photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.L.I.

    1980-01-01

    It is an epoch making event for photoemission spectroscopy that the light sources of continuous wavelength from vacuum ultra-violet to X-ray region have become available by the advent of synchrotron radiation. Specifically the progress after stable intense light has become obtainable from storage rings is very significant. One of the features of these synchrotron radiation is its extreme polarization of radiating pattern. Though the elementary processes of photoemission out of solids are the basic themes, phenomenalistic 3-stage model is usually applied to the analysis of experiments. In this model, the process of photoemission is considered by dividing into three stages, namely the generation of photoelectrons due to optical transition between electron status -- the transportation of photoelectrons to solid surfaces -- breaking away from the surfaces. The spectrometers, the energy analyzers of photoelectrons, and sample-preparing room used for photoemission spectroscopy are described. Next, energy distribution curves are explained. At the end, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, CFS (constant final energy spectroscopy) and CIS (constant initial energy spectroscopy), Auger yield and interatomic Auger yield, the determination of surface structure by normal emission CIS, and surface EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) are described. As seen above, the application specifically to surface physics is promising in the future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. Synchrotron-driven spallation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J

    1996-01-01

    The use of synchrotrons for pulsed neutron spallation sources is an example of scientific and technological spin-off from the accelerator development for particle physics. Accelerator-driven sources provide an alternative to the continuous-flux, nuclear reactors that currently furnish the majority of neutrons for research and development. Although the present demand for neutrons can be adequately met by the existing reactors, this situation is unlikely to continue due to the increasing severity of safety regulations and the declared policies of many countries to close down their reactors within the next decade or so. Since the demand for neutrons as a research tool is, in any case,expected to grow, there has been a corresponding interest in sources that are synchrotron-driven or linac-driven with a pulse compression ring and currently several design studies are being made. These accelerator-driven sources also have the advantage of a time structure with a high peak neutron flux. The basic requirement is for a...

  10. Sirepo for Synchrotron Radiation Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-25

    Sirepo is an open source framework for cloud computing. The graphical user interface (GUI) for Sirepo, also known as the client, executes in any HTML5 compliant web browser on any computing platform, including tablets. The client is built in JavaScript, making use of the following open source libraries: Bootstrap, which is fundamental for cross-platform web applications; AngularJS, which provides a model–view–controller (MVC) architecture and GUI components; and D3.js, which provides interactive plots and data-driven transformations. The Sirepo server is built on the following Python technologies: Flask, which is a lightweight framework for web development; Jinja, which is a secure and widely used templating language; and Werkzeug, a utility library that is compliant with the WSGI standard. We use Nginx as the HTTP server and proxy, which provides a scalable event-driven architecture. The physics codes supported by Sirepo execute inside a Docker container. One of the codes supported by Sirepo is the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW). SRW computes synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons in arbitrary magnetic fields and propagates the radiation wavefronts through optical beamlines. SRW is open source and is primarily supported by Dr. Oleg Chubar of NSLS-II at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  11. Use of alpha-radiation for the industrial measurement of surface weight; Utilisation du rayonnement alpha pour les mesures industrielles de poids superficiel; Primenenie al'fa-oblucheniya dlya promyshlennogo izmereniya vesa naruzhnogo pokrova; Empleo industrial de los rayos alfa para la medicion de pesos por unidad de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perette, J; Maugest, J [Compagnie d' Applications et Recherches Atomiques, Saint-Denis (France)

    1962-01-15

    The possibility of using alpha-radiation for industrial measurement of the surface weight of thin materials has been mentioned by several authors. The techniques have been adapted for industrial use thanks to research on new equipment which, while employing standard techniques, was specially designed for alpha-radiation. To compensate for variations in the absorbent capacity of the source-detector interval, a two-path differential method must be used. By alternate feeding of the ionization chambers, alternate amplification and detection circuits can be used without prior conversion of the ionization current. The measurement range is 6 to 55 g/m{sup 2} and measurement is accurate to 1% in conditions of perfect stability. The complete equipment used for continuous measurement on production machines is described. The technique can also be used with beta-radiation. (author) [French] Les possibilites d'emploi du rayonnement alpha pour les mesures industrielles de poids superficiel de materiaux minces ont deja ete citees par plusieurs auteurs. L'exploitation industrielle de ces techniques a pu se developper grace a l'etude de nouveaux appareils qui, bien qu'utilisant des techniques classiques, ont ete specialement concus pour l'utili sation du rayonnement alpha. L'emploi d'une methode differentielle a deux trajets est indispensable pour la compensation des variations de pouvoir absorbant de l'intervalle source-detecteur. L'alimentation en alternatif des chambres d'ionisation permet l'utilisation de circuits alternatifs d'amplification et de detection sans conversion prealable du courant d'ionisation. La gamme de mesure s'etend de 6 g a 55 g/m{sup 2} avec line precision de 1% dans des conditions de parfaite stabilite. On decrit le dispositif complet utilise pour les mesures en continu sur les machines de production. Cette technique est egalement utilisable pour les rayonnements beta. (author) [Spanish] Diversos investigadores ya han mencionado la posibilidad de emplear

  12. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A

    2006-07-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  13. Synchrotron applications in wood preservation and deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2003-01-01

    Several non-intrusive synchrotron techniques are being used to detect and study wood decay. The techniques use high intensity synchrotron-generated X-rays to determine the atomic structure of materials with imaging, diffraction, and absorption. Some of the techniques are X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS), X-ray...

  14. The Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESFR in Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haensel, R.

    1994-01-01

    The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESFR) is the first synchrotron radiation source of the 3-th generation for Roentgen radiations.It permits a new series of experiments in the domains of physics, chemistry, materials studies, micromechanics, biology, medicine and crystallography. The main part of device represents the 850 meter storage ring of 6 GeV electrons. (MSA)

  15. Current status of Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Masaki

    2000-01-01

    The Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center is a common facility for both research and education in the field of synchrotron radiation science. The role of the center is to promote original research, training of young scientists, international exchange and cooperative research with neighbouring universities, public organizations and industries. (author)

  16. Infrared spectroscopy by use of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanba, Takao

    1991-01-01

    During five years since the author wrote the paper on the utilization of synchrotron radiation in long wavelength region, it seems to be recognized that in synchrotron radiation, the light from infrared to milli wave can be utilized, and is considerably useful. Recently the research on coherent synchrotron radiation in this region using electron linac has been developed by Tohoku University group, and the high capability of synchrotron radiation as light source is verified. This paper is the report on the infrared spectroscopic research using incoherent synchrotron radiation obtained from the deflection electromagnet part of electron storage rings. Synchrotron radiation is high luminance white light source including from X-ray to micro wave. The example of research that the author carried out at UVSOR is reported, and the perspective in near future is mentioned. Synchrotron radiation as the light source for infrared spectroscopy, the intensity and dimensions of the light source, far infrared region and mid infrared region, far infrared high pressure spectroscopic experiment, and the heightening of luminance of synchrotron radiation as infrared light source are described. (K.I.)

  17. High pressure and synchrotron radiation satellite workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, J.; Guignot, N.; Morard, G.; Mezouar, M.; Andrault, D.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Sturhahn, W.; Daniel, I.; Reynard, B.; Simionovici, A.; Sanchez Valle, C.; Martinez, I.; Kantor, I.; Dubrovinsky, I.; Mccammon, C.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Kurnosiv, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Goncharenko, I.; Loubeyre, P.; Desgreniers, S.; Weck, G.; Yoo, C.S.; Iota, V.; Park, J.; Cynn, H.; Gorelli, F.; Toulemonde, P.; Machon, D.; Merlen, A.; San Miguel, A.; Amboage, M.; Aquilanti, G.; Mathon, O.; Pascarelli, S.; Itie, J.P.; Mcmillan, P.F.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Filipponi, A.; Kreisel, J.; Bouvier, P.; Dkhil, B.; Chaabane, B.; Rosner, H.; Koudela, D.; Schwarz, U.; Handestein, A.; Hanfland, M.; Opahle, I.; Koepernik, K.; Kuzmin, M.; Mueller, K.H.; Mydosh, J.; Richter, M.; Hejny, C.; Falconi, S.; Lundegaard, L.F.; Mcmahon, M.I; Loa, I.; Syassen, K.; Wang, X.; Roth, H.; Lorenz, T.; Farber Daniel, I.; Antonangeli Daniele, I.; Krisch, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Occelli, F.; Mao, W.L.; Mao, H.K.; Eng, P.; Kao, C.C.; Shu, J.F.; Hemley, R.J.; Tse, J.S.; Yao, Y.; Deen, P.P.; Paolasini, I.; Braithwaite, D.; Kernavanois, N.; Lapertot, G.; Rupprecht, K.; Leupold, O.; Ponkratz, U.; Wortmann, G.; Beraud, A.; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Antonangeli, D.; Aracne, C.; Zarestky, J.L.; Mcqueeney, R.; Mathon, O.; Baudelet, F.; Decremps, F.; Itie, J.P.; Nataf, I.; Pascarelli, S.; Polian, A.

    2006-01-01

    The workshop is dedicated to recent advances on science at high pressure at third generation synchrotron sources. A variety of experiments using synchrotron radiation techniques including X-ray diffraction, EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), inelastic X-ray scattering, Compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy of crystalline, liquid or amorphous samples, are reported. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  18. Funding problems threaten Middle East's synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).

  19. Medical applications with synchrotron radiation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T.; Itai, Y. [Univ. of Tsukuba, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Akatsuka, T. [Yamagata Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata (Japan); Uyama, C. [National Cardiovascular Centre, Suita (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    In Japan, various medical applications of synchrotron X-ray imaging, such as angiography, monochromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT), radiography and radiation therapy, are being developed. In particular, coronary arteriography (CAG) is quite an important clinical application of synchrotron radiation. Using a two-dimensional imaging method, the first human intravenous CAG was carried out at KEK in May 1996; however, further improvements of image quality are required in clinical practice. On the other hand, two-dimensional aortographic CAG revealed canine coronary arteries as clearly as those on selective CAG, and coronary arteries less than 0.2 mm in diameter. Among applications of synchrotron radiation to X-ray CT, phase-contrast X-ray CT and fluorescent X-ray CT are expected to be very interesting future applications of synchrotron radiation. For actual clinical applications of synchrotron radiation, a medical beamline and a laboratory are now being constructed at SPring-8 in Harima. 55 refs.

  20. Infrared synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.D.; Williams, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Simple and useful approximations, valid at infrared wavelengths, to the equations for synchrotron radiation are presented and used to quantify the brightness and power advantage of current synchrotron radiation light sources over conventional infrared broadband laboratory sources. The Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) and the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (vacuum ultraviolet) [NSLS(VUV)] storage rings are used as examples in the calculation of the properties of infrared synchrotron radiation. The pulsed nature of the emission is also discussed, and potential areas of application for the brightness, power, and time structure advantages are presented. The use of infrared free electron lasers and undulators on the next generation of storage ring light sources is briefly considered

  1. Protein Data Bank depositions from synchrotron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiansheng; Sweet, Robert M

    2004-07-01

    A survey and analysis of Protein Data Bank (PDB) depositions from international synchrotron radiation facilities, based on the latest released PDB entries, are reported. The results (http://asdp.bnl.gov/asda/Libraries/) show that worldwide, every year since 1999, more than 50% of the deposited X-ray structures have used synchrotron facilities, reaching 75% by 2003. In this web-based database, all PDB entries among individual synchrotron beamlines are archived, synchronized with the weekly PDB release. Statistics regarding the quality of experimental data and the refined model for all structures are presented, and these are analysed to reflect the impact of synchrotron sources. The results confirm the common impression that synchrotron sources extend the size of structures that can be solved with equivalent or better quality than home sources.

  2. Protein Data Bank Depositions from Synchrotron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.; Sweet, R.

    2004-01-01

    A survey and analysis of Protein Data Bank (PDB) depositions from international synchrotron radiation facilities, based on the latest released PDB entries, are reported. The results ( ) show that worldwide, every year since 1999, more than 50% of the deposited X-ray structures have used synchrotron facilities, reaching 75% by 2003. In this web-based database, all PDB entries among individual synchrotron beamlines are archived, synchronized with the weekly PDB release. Statistics regarding the quality of experimental data and the refined model for all structures are presented, and these are analysed to reflect the impact of synchrotron sources. The results confirm the common impression that synchrotron sources extend the size of structures that can be solved with equivalent or better quality than home sources

  3. Calculs de doses générées par les rayonnements ionisants principes physiques et codes de calcul

    CERN Document Server

    Vivier, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Cet ouvrage et les codes associés s’adressent aux utilisateurs de sources de rayonnements ionisants : techniciens, ingénieurs de sécurité, personnes compétentes en radioprotection, mais aussi médecins, chercheurs, concepteurs, décideurs… Les contraintes croissantes liées à la radioprotection rendent indispensables l’utilisation de codes de calcul permettant d’évaluer les débits de doses générées par ces sources et la façon dont on peut s’en protéger au mieux. De nombreux codes existent, dont certains restent des références incontournables, mais ils sont relativement complexes à mettre en oeuvre et restent en général réservés aux bureaux d’études. En outre, ces codes sont souvent des « boîtes noires » qui ne permettent pas de comprendre la physique sous-jacente. L’objectif de cet ouvrage est double : - Exposer les principes physiques permettant de comprendre les phénomènes à l’oeuvre lorsque la matière est irradiée par des rayonnements ionisants. Il devient al...

  4. Extinction correction and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suortti, P.

    1983-01-01

    The primary extinction factor ysub(p) is defined as the ratio of the integrated reflection from a coherently diffracting domain to the integrated kinematical reflection from the same domain. When ysub(p) is larger than 0.5 it may be approximated by ysub(p)= exp[-(αdelta) 2 ], where α is about 0.5 and delta the average size of the coherent domain when measured in units of the extinction length Λ, delta = D/Λ. Transfer equations are applied to symmetrical Laue diffraction, and the reflectivity per unit length, sigma(epsilon) is solved from the measured reflecting ratio as a function of the rocking angle epsilon = theta -thetasub(B). Measurements with conventional x-ray sources are made on single crystal slabs of Be and Si using AgKβ, MoKα 1 and CuKα radiation. The primary extinction factor ysub(p)(epsilon) is solved from a point-by-point comparison of two measurements where the extinction length Λ is changed by varying the polarization and/or wavelength of the x-ray beam. The results show that primary and secondary extinction are strongly correlated, and that the customary assumption of independent size and orientation distributions of crystal mosaics is unjustified. The structure factors for Be and Si show close agreement with other recent measurements and calculations. The limitations of the method are discussed in length, particularly the effects of beam divergences and incoherence of the rays in the crystal. It is concluded that under typical experimental conditions the requirements of the theory are met. Practical limitations arising from the use of characteristic wavelengths and unpolarized radiation prohibit the use of the full potential of the method. The properties of a synchrotron radiation source are compared with a conventional x-ray source, and it is demonstrated that the experimental limitations can be removed by the use of synchrotron radiation. A diffraction experiment with synchrotron radiation is outlined, as well as generalization of the

  5. Meet EPA's Dan Nelson

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Dan Nelson is the Director of the Human Research Protocol Office at the National Health and Environmental Effect Research Laboratory, Dan works to protect the rights and welfare of EPA’s research participants.

  6. Research trends in radiobiology since 40 years. a new approach: the enzymatic repair function of DNA, internal factor in evolution of biological systems under irradiation; Etude des tendances des recherches en radiologie depuis 40 ans. Une nouvelle voie de recherche: la fonction de reparation enzymatique de l'ADN, facteur interne d'evolution des systemes biologiques sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    'on croyait encore que les effets des rayonnements sur les systemes vivants etaient des effets directs, immediats, irreparables et definitifs. Depuis lors, on s'est rendu compte que les radiolesions pouvaient resulter d'effets indirects, etre tardives, reparables, et le plus souvent modifiables par des traitements chimiques ou biochimiques ad hoc. Cependant, la percee decisive en radiobiologie se situe entre 1962 et 1964, avec la decouverte que la cellule possede un mecanisme de defense active vis-a-vis de tout ce qui peut porter atteinte a l'integrite du patrimoine genetique inscrit dans la structure meme de l'ADN. L'existence d'une quatrieme fonction de l'ADN, celle d'auto-reparation, par voie enzymatique sous controle genetique, apporte enfin a la radiobiologie la base biologique moleculaire qui lui manquait pour sortir de la nuit 'phenomenologique' ou elle s'etait enfoncee apres l'abandon de la generalisation de la theorie de Lea, faute de preuve experimentale. Dans la seconde partie, cette fois prospective, de l'etude l'auteur tente une synthese elargie en considerant le role que peut jouer cette fonction de reparation de l'ADN non seulement du point de vue de la survie des systemes biologiques irradies en presence ou non d'agents modificateurs de dose ou mutagenes, mais aussi de celui de l'evolution naturelle ou artificielle de ces systemes sous rayonnement. Les donnees les plus recentes de la litterature sont en accord avec ce qui ne constitue encore qu'une hypothese generale de recherche. Des travaux portant sur les caracteres phenotypiques et genotypiques lies a l'acquisition de radioresistance gamma et UV, chez 'Escherichia coli K12', ont ete entrepris par l'auteur, en collaboration avec O. Tremeau en vue d'apporter une contribution experimentale nouvelle a cet egard. (auteur)

  7. Bahasa, Simbol, dan Religi

    OpenAIRE

    Supriyadi, Supriyadi

    1999-01-01

    Manusia sering disebut sebagai makhluk sosial, makhluk berakal, makhluk berseni, dan sebagainya. Tulisan ini secara tidak langsung membicarakan manusia sebagai makhluk berbahasa, bersimbol, dan bereligi . Meskipun demikian, titik tolaknya bukan pada manusia itu sendiri, tetapi pada bahasa, simbol, dan religinya, terutama pada hubungan di antara ketiganya . Hubungan antara bahasa dan simbol tidak diragukan lagi karena bahasa merupakan jenis simbol . Demikian juga hubungan antara simbol dengan ...

  8. High heat load synchrotron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Third generation synchrotron radiation sources currently being constructed worldwide will produce x-ray beams of unparalleled power and power density. These high heat fluxes coupled with the stringent dimensional requirements of the x-ray optical components pose a prodigious challenge to designers of x-ray optical elements, specifically x-ray mirrors and crystal monochromators. Although certain established techniques for the cooling of high heat flux components can be directly applied to this problem, the thermal management of high heat load x-ray optical components has several unusual aspects that may ultimately lead to unique solutions. This manuscript attempts to summarize the various approaches currently being applied to this undertaking and to point out the areas of research that require further development

  9. Rapid cycling superconducting booster synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.; Agapov, N.; Butenko, A.

    2001-01-01

    The existing set of Nuclotron heavy ion sources, such as duoplasmatron, polarized deuteron, laser and electron beam ion sources permits to have ion beams over a wide range of masses. The main problem for us now is to gain high intensity of accelerator particles. It can be solved by means of multiturn injection of the low current beams into the booster, acceleration up to the intermediate energies, stripping and transferring into the main ring. A design study of this accelerator - the 250 MeV/Amu Nuclotron booster synchrotron at 1 Hz repetition rate and circumference of 84 m, has been completed. The lattice dipole and quadrupole magnets have an iron yoke coils, made of hollow superconductor, are cooled by two-phase Helium flow, as well as the Nuclotron magnets. (authors)

  10. Medical application of Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Katsuyuki.

    1990-01-01

    The number of patients suffering from ischemic heart disease is also increasing rapidly in Japan. The standard method for assessing coronary artery diseases is the coronary angiography. Excellent images are taken by this method, however, it is an invasive method in which a catheter into a peripheral artery. The patients would obtain great benefit if the coronary arteries could be distinguished by intravenous injection of the contrast material. The K-edge subtraction method, which uses the K-edge discontinuity in the attenuation coefficient of the contrast material, is considered to be the most suitable method for coronary angiography by peripheral venous injection. Synchrotron Radiation (SR) is so intense that it allows selection of monochromatic X-rays, and studies on K-edge subtraction using SR has been started at some facilities. Recent activities K-edge subtraction method at the Accumulation Ring are briefly described here. (author)

  11. Synchrotron radiation and industrial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    Fundamental studies on the properties of many different materials are of prime importance to most industrial concerns. For Unilever, solids (crystalline and amorphous), soft solids and complex fluids are the materials of primary interest. Synchrotron radiation has proved of great value for the analysis of a variety of such materials, because the intense and highly collimated radiation source has enabled us to obtain structural information rapidly as well as in time-resolved mode. In this paper are outlined the types of materials problems faced, and how we use different techniques to elucidate structure (both short and long range order) in zeolites, amorphous solids, as well as in biomaterials such as skin and hair containing lipid phases. Both equilibrium and time-resolved studies are described. (orig.)

  12. Experience gained in gamma spectroscopy; Experience acquise dans la spectrometrie gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    type SAE 25 classe les impulsions selon leur amplitude. II est donc possible de distinguer des rayonnements {gamma} d'energie differente. 3) Une protection relativement tres legere, constituee par une epaisseur de 5 cm de plomb seulement, attenue les rayonnements {gamma} ambiants de facon satisfaisante pour la plupart des mesures. De plus, le cristal detecteur est place dans une sorte de puits en plomb. On obtient ainsi une certaine collimation qui permet d'effectuer des localisations grossieres et de ne pas etre tres gene dans les mesures par des contaminations externes. (auteur)

  13. Etude de la production de photons isolés dans les états finals hadroniques des collisions e+e- au LEP dans l'expérience ALEPH

    CERN Document Server

    Si Mohand, D

    Les photons isolés, observés dans les désintégrations hadroniques du bozon Z0 créé dans les annihilations électron-positron au LEP, proviennent essentiellement du rayonnement électromagnétique des quarks. Ces photons, qui ne sont pas affectés par la fragmentation, sont particulièrement sensibles à l'émission de gluons; leur étude, à l'aide d'algorithmes de simulation tels que JETSET, ARIADNE et HERWIG, constitue un moyen simple et précis de tester les différentes approches de QCD, en particulier dans la description de la compétition photon-gluon. Notre analyse a révélé que JETSET prédit (20±6)% moins de photons directs que le nombre mesuré expérimentalement. ARIADNE, en revanche, semble surestimer légèrement le taux de production de photons directs de (6±4)% alors que HERWIG reproduit fidèlement l'ensemble de nos mesures. Après correction des pertes d'acceptance et des effets d'hadronisation, le rapport d'embranchement du Z0 en hadrons plus photon, normalisé au rapport d'embranc...

  14. Application of synchrotron radiation to elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Hastings, J.B.; Howells, M.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Chen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The use of a synchrotron storage ring as a high brightness source for production of monoergic, variable energy, and highly polarized x-ray beams promises to revolutionize the field of elemental analysis. The results of exploratory work using the Cornell synchrotron facility, CHESS, will be described. Design considerations and features of the new X-Ray Microprobe Facility now under construction at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source will be presented. This facility will be used for bulk analysis and for microanalysis with an initial spatial resolution of the order of 30 μm

  15. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well

  16. Synchrotron radiation applications in biophysics and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burattini, E.

    1985-01-01

    The peculiar properties of synchrotron radiation are briefly summarized. A short review on the possible applications of synchrotron radiation in two important fields like Biophysics and Medicine is presented. Details are given on experiments both in progress and carried out in many synchrotron radiation facilities, all over the world, using different techniques like X-ray absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence microanalysis, X-ray microscopy and digital subtraction angiography. Some news about the photon-activation therapy are briefly reported too

  17. Synchrotron power supply of TARN II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shin-ichi.

    1991-07-01

    The construction and performance of synchrotron power supply of TARN II are described. The 1.1 GeV synchrotron-cooler TARN II has been constructed at Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Constructed power supply for the dipole magnets is 600 V, 2500 A operated in the mode of trapezoid wave form with the repetition cycle of 0.1 Hz. The stability of magnetic field within 10 -3 and tracking error of 10 -4 have been attained with the aid of computer control system. First trial of synchrotron acceleration of He 2+ beam has been done up to 600 MeV in April, 1991. (author)

  18. Étude de la production de rayonnement X par diffusion Compton sur l’installation ELSA

    OpenAIRE

    Chauchat , Anne-Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Compton scattering by collisions between relativistic electron beam and laser beam is a way to produce X-rays. Laser beam is seen as an undulator which gives electrons a periodic waved motion. This radiation emitted by electrons motion has some characteristics close to those of synchrotron radiation but can be produced by smaller machines. ELSA facility at CEA DAM DIF is a linear electron accelerator (17 MeV) running with a photoinjector and a laser (532 nm). Characteristics of electrons and ...

  19. Geological applications of synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C. M. B.; Cressey, G.; Redfern, S. A. T.

    1995-03-01

    Synchrotron-based, Earth sciences research carried out over the last 5 years is reviewed with special attention being given to X-ray absorption studies; X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence microprobe applications are considered more briefly. A comprehensive bibliography is included. The main part of the paper summarizes recent work carried out at the Daresbury SRS. K-edge XAS studies of glasses as models for silicate melts provide information on the local structural environments of Si, Fe 2+ and Fe 3+. By analogy with synthetic "leucites" which contain Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in tetrahedral framework sites, it seems that many model glasses also contain both oxidation states of Fe in the network, rather than as network modifiers. The structural sites occupied by the minor elements Mn, Zn and Ti in staurolite have been identified using XAFS; Mn and Zn substitute for Fe 2+ in the tetrahedral T2 site, while Ti occupies the distorted M2 octahedral site. L-edge spectroscopy is used to identify the valencies and electronic structures of Mn and Fe in minerals and the Fe 2+:Fe 3+ ratio in a natural spinel is determined. The polarized nature of the synchrotron beam is exploited in determining the Fe X-ray absorption anisotropy in single crystal tourmaline and epidote. XRD powder studies include Rietveld-refinement structure determination and compressibility studies. Synthetic "leucites" having the stoichiometry K 2MgSi 5O 12 have distinctly different structures. The dry-synthesized form is cubic Ia3d with Si and Mg fully disordered on tetrahedral framework sites, while the hydrothermally-synthesized polymorph is monoclinic P2 1/c with Si and Mg fully disordered on, respectively, 10 and 2 tetrahedral sites. The reversible tetragonal to orthorhombic phase transition in gillespite (BaFeSi 4O 10) has been studied in a diamond anvil cell using ED detection and found to occur at 1.2 ± 0.1 GPa. The anomalous compressibility observed has been interpreted in terms of ferroelastic and

  20. Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source (SSRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SSRL at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was built in 1974 to take and use for synchrotron studies the intense x-ray beams from the SPEAR storage ring that...

  1. Molecular photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truesdale, C.M.

    1983-04-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons and Auger electrons were measured by electron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations to interpret the electronic behavior of photoionization for molecular systems

  2. National synchrotron light source VUV storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, L.; Bittner, J.; Galayda, J.; Heese, R.; Krinsky, S.; Schuchman, J.; van Steenbergen, A.

    1979-01-01

    A 700 MeV electron storage ring designed for synchrotron radiation applications is described. Lattice and stability calculations are presented and the vacuum, correction and injection systems are discussed

  3. Applications of synchrotron radiation in Biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemski, G.

    1983-01-01

    A short introduction to the generation of the synchrotron radiation is made. Following, the applications of such a radiation in biophysics with emphasis to the study of the hemoglobin molecule are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Simulation of synchrotron motion with rf noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, B.T.; Forest, E.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    1986-08-01

    The theoretical formulation is described that is behind an algorithm for synchrotron phase-space tracking with rf noise and some preliminary simulation results of bunch diffusion under rf noise obtained by actual tracking

  5. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulbert, S.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the experiment done at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Most experiments discussed involves the use of the x-ray beams to study physical properties of solid materials. (LSP)

  6. Synchrotron light sources in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtingwa, Sekazi K.; Winick, Herman

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the role that synchrotron light sources, such as SESAME, could play in improving the socioeconomic conditions in developing countries. After providing a brief description of a synchrotron light source, we discuss the important role that they played in the development of several economically emerging countries. Then we describe the state of synchrotron science in South Africa and that country’s leadership role in founding the African Light Source initiative. Next, we highlight a new initiative called Lightsources for Africa, the Americas & Middle East Project, which is a global initiative led by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics and the International Union of Crystallography, with initial funding provided by the International Council for Science. Finally, we comment on a new technology called the multibend achromat that has launched a new paradigm for the design of synchrotron light sources that should be attractive for construction in developing countries.

  7. Synchrotrons are also devoted to the society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacoin, M.P.; Cornuejols, D.; Cotte, M.; Deblay, P.; Mitchell, E.P.; McCarthy, J.; Fraissard, F.

    2013-01-01

    The ESRF and the SOLEIL synchrotrons are not only scientific instruments but also active players in the cultural and economic fields. This document gathers 6 short articles. The 2 first present the actions of SOLEIL and ESRS scientific teams towards the spreading of scientific knowledge in the public. The third article is dedicated to the uses of synchrotron radiation to the study of cultural objects to learn more about their fabrication, present state or the remedial actions that could be used to renovate them. The fourth and fifth articles present the contributions of ESRF and SOLEIL to the industrial world, in fact these contributions are not limited to the research field but also appear for quality assurance or the control of aging processes. Partnerships have been signed between both synchrotrons and enterprises to develop industrial products based on instrumentation or on the use of synchrotron radiation. The last article describes the procedure to have access to both facilities. (A.C.)

  8. Synchrotrons are also devoted to society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacoin, M.P.; Cornuejols, D.; Cotte, M.; Deblay, P.; Mitchell, E.P.; McCarthy, J.; Fraissard, F.

    2013-01-01

    The ESRF and the SOLEIL synchrotrons are not only scientific instruments but also active players in the cultural and economic fields. This document gathers 6 short articles. The 2 first present the actions of SOLEIL and ESRS scientific teams towards the spreading of scientific knowledge in the public. The third article is dedicated to the uses of synchrotron radiation to the study of cultural objects to learn more about their fabrication, present state or the remedial actions that could be used to renovate them. The fourth and fifth articles present the contributions of ESRF and SOLEIL to the industrial world, in fact these contributions are not limited to the research field but also appear for quality assurance or the control of aging processes. Partnerships have been signed between both synchrotrons and enterprises to develop industrial products based on instrumentation or on the use of synchrotron radiation. The last article describes the procedure to have access to both facilities. (A.C.)

  9. Evaluation of the synchrotron close orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashmakov, Yu.A.; Karpov, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    The knowledge of the closed orbit position is an essential condition for the effective work of any accelerator. Therefore questions of calculations, measurements and controls have great importance. For example, during injection of particles into a synchrotron, the amplitudes of their betatron oscillations may become commensurable with the working region of the synchrotron. This makes one pay attention at the problem of formation of the optimum orbit with use of correcting optical elements. In addition, it is often necessary to calculate such an orbit at the end of the acceleration cycle when particles are deposited at internal targets or removed from the synchrotron. In this paper, the computation of the close orbit is reduced to a determination at an arbitrarily chosen azimuth of the eigenvector of the total transfer matrix of the synchrotron ring and to tracing with this vector desired orbit. The eigenvector is found as a result of an iteration

  10. Fiber structural analysis by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, J I; Kikutani, T

    2003-01-01

    Topics of fiber structural analysis by synchrotron radiation are explained. There are only three synchrotron radiation facilities in the world, SPring-8 (Super Photon ring-8) in Japan, APS (Advanced Photon Source) in U.S.A. and ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) in France. Online measurement of melt spinning process of PET and Nylon6 is explained in detail. Polypropylene and PBO (poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole) was measured by WAXD (Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction)/SAXS (Small Angle X-ray Scattering) at the same time. Some examples of measure of drawing process of fiber are described. The structure formation process of spider's thread was measured. Micro beam of X-ray of synchrotron facility was improved and it attained to 65nm small angle resolving power by 10 mu m beamsize. (S.Y.)

  11. Panel backs next-generation synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Service, R F

    1999-01-01

    A key federal panel recommended continued research into development of a fourth-generation synchrotron. It would be capable of creating x-ray pulses billions of times more intense than current designs (1 page).

  12. New theoretical results in synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G. [Tomsk State University, Lenin Avenue 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: bagrov@phys.tsu.ru; Gitman, D.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tlyachev, V.B. [Tomsk Institute of High Current Electronics, Akademicheskiy Avenue 4, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Jarovoi, A.T. [Tomsk State University, Lenin Avenue 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-15

    One of the remarkable features of the relativistic electron synchrotron radiation is its concentration in small angle {delta}{approx}1/{gamma} (here {gamma}-relativistic factor: {gamma}=E/mc{sup 2}, E - energy, m - electron rest mass, c - light velocity) near rotation orbit plane [V.G. Bagrov, V.A. Bordovitsyn, V.G. Bulenok, V. Ya. Epp, Kinematical projection of pulsar synchrotron radiation profiles, in: Proceedings of IV ISTC Scientific Advisory Commitee Seminar on Basic Science in ISTC Aktivities, Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk, April 23-27, 2001, p. 293-300]. This theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed feature is peculiar to total (spectrum summarized) radiating intensity. This angular distribution property has been supposed to be (at least qualitatively) conserved and for separate spectrum synchrotron radiation components. In the work of V.G. Bagrov, V.A. Bordovitsyn, V. Ch. Zhukovskii, Development of the theory of synchrotron radiation and related processes. Synchrotron source of JINR: the perspective of research, in: The Materials of the Second International Work Conference, Dubna, April 2-6, 2001, pp. 15-30 and in Angular dependence of synchrotron radiation intensity. http://lanl.arXiv.org/abs/physics/0209097, it is shown that the angular distribution of separate synchrotron radiation spectrum components demonstrates directly inverse tendency - the angular distribution deconcentration relatively the orbit plane takes place with electron energy growth. The present work is devoted to detailed investigation of this situation. For exact quantitative estimation of angular concentration degree of synchrotron radiation the definition of radiation effective angle and deviation angle is proposed. For different polarization components of radiation the dependence of introduced characteristics was investigated as a functions of electron energy and number of spectrum component.

  13. Experimental demonstration of the KEK induction synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Ken; Torikai, Kota; Shimosaki, Yoshito; Kono, Tadaaki; Iwashita, Taiki; Arakida, Yoshio; Nakamura, Eiji; Shirakata, Masashi; Sueno, Takeshi; Wake, Masayoshi; Otsuka, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    Recent progress in the KEK induction synchrotron is presented. In the recent experiment, by using a newly developed induction acceleration system instead of radio-wave acceleration devices, a single proton bunch injected from the 500 MeV Booster ring and captured by the barrier bucket created by the induction step-voltages was accelerated to 6 GeV in the KEK proton synchrotron

  14. Early British synchrotrons, an informal history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1997-02-01

    An historical account of the design and construction of early synchrotrons in the United Kingdom, based partly on personal reminiscences, is presented. Material is also drawn from archives at Birmingham and CERN. The document covers the period from plans for the world's first synchrotron at Malvern after the Second World War to work done at Harwell Laboratory for CERN in the period 1951-1953. (UK)

  15. Synchrotron control system of the HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, E.; Sato, K.; Itano, A.

    1994-01-01

    A structural design synopsis and the present status of the HIMAC synchrotron control system are described. The control system comprises of Timing System, (ring magnet) Power-supply Controller, Programmable Logic Controller, Static Var Compensator controller, Monitor Controller, RF control computer, Beam Transport control computer and the synchrotron main computer (denoted as CS, hereafter) that forms a local area cluster with man-machine interfacing computers, and communicates with HIMAC supervisor computer. (author)

  16. Recent Developments in Synchrotron Moessbauer Reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deak, L.; Bottyan, L.; Major, M.; Nagy, D. L. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (Hungary); Spiering, H. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Mainz, Institute fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie (Germany); Szilagyi, E.; Tancziko, F. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (Hungary)

    2002-12-15

    Synchrotron Moessbauer Reflectometry (SMR), the grazing incidence nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation, can be applied to perform depth-selective phase analysis and to determine the isotopic and magnetic structure of thin films and multilayers. Principles and methodological aspects of SMR are briefly reviewed. Off-specular SMR provides information from the lateral structure of multilayers. In anti-ferromagneticly coupled systems the size of magnetic domains can be measured.

  17. National Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation: technologic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.T.G. da; Rodrigues, A.R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The technological or industrial developments based on the accumulated experience by research group of condensed matter physics, in Brazil, are described. The potential of a National Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation for personnel training, absorption and adaptation of economically important technologies for Brazil, is presented. Examples of cooperations between the Laboratory and some national interprises, and some industrial applications of the synchrotron radiation are done. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Synchrotron radiation from spherically accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Spherical accretion onto a Schwartzchild black hole, of gas with frozen-in magnetic field, is studied numerically and analytically for a range of hole masses and accretion rates in which synchrotron emission is the dominant radiative mechanism. At small radii the equipartition of magnetic, kinetic, and gravitational energy is assumed to apply, and the gas is heated by dissipation of infalling magnetic energy, turbulent energy, etc. The models can be classified into three types: (a) synchrotron cooling negligible, (b) synchrotron cooling important but synchrotron self-absorption negligible, (c) synchrotron cooling and self-absorption important. In the first case gas temperatures become very high near the horizon but luminosity efficiencies (luminosity/mass-energy accretion rate) are low. In cases (b) and (c) the gas flow near the horizon is essentially isothermal and luminosity efficiencies are fairly high. The analysis and results for the isothermal cases (b) and (c) are valid only for moderate dissipative heating and synchrotron self-absorption. If self-absorption is very strong or if dissipated energy is comparable to infall energy, Comptonization effects, not included in the analysis, become important

  19. Starting up the Saturne synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvat, M.

    1958-02-01

    Illustrated by many drawings and graphs, this report describes and comments all operations and measurements to be performed for starting up the Saturne synchrotron until particle acceleration exclusively. The author reports the study of beam as it goes out of the Van de Graaff: experiment of position and stability of the beam axis, study of beam current and geometric characteristics (calibration of the induction probe), experiment of mass separation and proton percentage, and adjustment of regulation and Van de Graaff fall law. In a second part, he reports the optics alignment and the study of optics property (installation of the different sectors, study of inflector end voltage, and influence of inflector position in the chamber). The third part addresses the examination of phenomena associated with injection: injection method and definition of the initial instant, search for injection optimum conditions, study of particle lifetime and of phenomena on the inner probe. The fourth part proposes theoretical additional elements regarding the movement of particles at the injection in the useful area, and phenomena occurring on targets and on the inner probe

  20. ROSY - Rossendorf synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.; Matz, W.

    1993-11-01

    The electron energy of the storage ring will be 3 GeV and the emitted synchrotron radiation is in the hard X-ray region with a critical energy of the spectrum of E c =8,4 keV (λ c =0,14 nm). With a natural emittance of 28 π nm rad ROSY emits high brilliance radiation. Besides the radiation from bending magnets there will be the possibility for using radiation from wigglers and undulators. For the insertion devices 8 places are foreseen four of which are located in non-dispersion-free regions. The storage ring is of fourfold symmetry, has a circumference of 148 m and is designed in a modified FODO structure. An upgrade of ROSY with superconducting bending magnets in order to shift the spectrum to higher energy can easily be done. Part I contains the scientific case and a description of the planned use of the beam lines. Part II describes the design of the storage ring and its components in more detail. (orig.) [de

  1. Analisis Kebijakan dan Efektivitas Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syarifudin Kiwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan Peraturan Gubernur Nusa Tenggara Timur Nomor 8 Tahun 2011 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Unit Pelaksana Teknis Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah pada Dinas Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur adalah dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan efektivitas kerja organisasi pada UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk melihat dampak kebijakan organisasi terhadap efektivitas organisasi dengan menggunakan enam elemen variabel dari kebijakan dan praktik manajemen. Keenam elemen tersebut adalah penetapan tujuan strategis, pencarian dan pemanfaatan sumber daya, lingkungan prestasi, proses komunikasi, kepemimpinan dan pengambilan keputusan, serta adaptasi dan inovasi organisasi. Penelitian kualitatif ini menggunakan pendekatan studi kasus. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis data model Miles dan Huberman, yang terdiri atas reduksi data, display/penyajian data, dan kesimpulan/verifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efektivitas organisasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM belum berjalan secara baik, hal ini dapat dilihat dari beberapa hal antara lain, belum adanya tenaga spesialisasi pengelola diklat dan tenaga khusus (sarjana di bidang perkoperasian dan kondisi lingkungan kerja (lingkungan prestasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM yang belum efektif. Penempatan pegawai juga belum tepat, mutasi ke UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM tidak memperhatikan latar belakang pendidikan dan spesialisasi/keahlian pegawai sehingga membutuhkan waktu dalam proses penyesuaian serta menurunkan jumlah pelaksanaan diklat dikarenakan keterbatasan alokasi dana.

  2. Thermal And Gamma-Radiation Annealing Of The Iridium-192 Recoil Species In Crystalline Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O; Recuit Thermique et par Rayonnement Gamma de l'espece {sup 192}Ir de Recul dans des Cristaux de Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} * 6H{sub 2}O; 0422 0415 041f 041b 041e 0412 041e 0419 0418 0413 0410 041c 041c 0410 - 041e 0422 0416 0418 0413 041f 0420 041e 0414 0423 041a 0422 041e 0412 041e 0422 0414 0410 0427 0418 0418 0420 0418 0414 0418 042f -192 0412 041a 0420 0418 0421 0422 0410 041b 041b 0418 0427 0415 0421 041a 041e 041c Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O; Regeneracion Termica y por Irradiacion Gamma de las Especies de Retroceso del Iridio-192 en Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O Cristalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Rita; Herr, W. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich, Institut fuer Kernchemie der Universitaet Koeln, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-04-15

    }){sup 192}lr. Si la plupart de ces composes ont un caractere anionique, deux d'entre eux se comportent comme des cations marques avec {sup 192}Ir. Les auteurs ont analyse le comportement de ces composes sans entraineur a l'egard des agents de reduction et d'oxydation et leur vieillissement en solution. Ils ont etudie separement l'hydrolyse des complexes hexachloro d'iridium, tri-et quadrivalent, qui avaient ete marques avec {sup 36}Cl et {sup 192}Ir. La comparaison entre les deux series de resultats, corroboree par d'autres donnees obtenues au moyen de l'analyse par activation neutronique, permet d'identifier les produits de recul, qui pour la plupart sont des complexes octaedriques d'iridium (III) contenant une plus ou moins grande proportion des coordinats Cl{sup -}, H{sub 2}O et OH{sup -}. Evidemment, l'eau de cristallisation joue un role important dans la formation des especes chimiques de recul. Avec le recuit thermique de ces produits a 120 Degree-Sign C, les auteurs ont observe une diminution rapide des rendements en complexes aquochloro, hydroxychloro et aquohydroxychloro en faveur de la formation de la substance mere, sauf dans le cas du complexe pentachloro. Celui-ci ne diminue qu'apres une augmentation initiale, ce qui montre qu' il fait fonction de produit intermediaire dans le recuit d'autres produits d'accompagnement. Le recuit provoque par les rayonnements gamma presente de nombreuses phases distinctes, avec tendance generale a une transition des especes chimiques moins chlorees a d'autres especes plus chlorees, aboutissant finalement a la formation du complexe hexachloro. Le processus de recuit consiste donc en un retour d es atomes (ou ions) Cl dans la sphere des coordinats et un deplacement simultane de H{sub 2}O et de OH (OH{sup -}). (author) [Spanish] Por electroforesis sobre papel resulta posible separar hasta 13 diferentes compuestos de retroceso formados como consecuencia de la reaccion nuclear {sup 192}Ir(n, {gamma}) {sup 192}Ir aplicada al Na{sub 2

  3. Some Problems of Calculation and Design of High-Activity Gamma Units; Quelques aspects du calcul et de l'etablissement de projets d'installations puissantes emettrices de rayonnement gamma; Nekotorye voprosy rascheta i proektirovaniya moshchnykh gamma-ustanovok; Algunos aspectos del calculo y construccion de instalaciones de irradiacion gamma de elevada intensidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibergal, A V; Leshchinsky, N I; Margulis, U Ya; Khrushev, V G [Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1960-07-15

    The report describes the principal requirements for gamma units intended for various purposes. Several methods of calculating the dose fields for various forms of irradiators are given, as well as graphs, nomograms and formulae to estimate the amount of gamma-ray dose absorbed by the irradiated object from cobalt-60 and caesium-137. Some of the calculated data have been confirmed by experiment. The advantages of irradiators of various geometry employed in experimental and commercial units are discussed. The irradiation technique for various objects is analyzed and the optimum irradiation conditions (radiation utilization factor, dose field homogeneity, etc.) are discussed. Several rational shielding systems are suggested to simplify irradiation process and recharging, and to reduce the cost of design and operation. (author) [French] Resume Cette communication expose les conditions fondamentales auxquelles doivent satisfaire les installations emettrices de rayonnement gamma, destinees, a divers usages. Elle explique certaines methodes pour le calcul des champs recevant une dose determinee en fonction de la forme du dispositif d'irradiation; elle contient des courbes, des nomogrammes et des formules permettant de calculer la valeur de la dose de rayons gamma du cobalt-60 et du cesium-137 recue par l'echantillon soumis a l'irradiation. Certaines donnees etablies par le calcul ont ete confirmees experimentalement. On examine l'utilite d'employer des dispositifs d'irradiation de configurations variees dans des installations experimentales et des installations industrielles. Les auteurs examinent la technologie de l'irradiation de divers echantillons en vue de choisir les conditions optimales d'irradiation (facteur d'utilisation du rayonnement, uniformite du champ recevant une dose determinee, etc.). Quelques systemes rationnels de protection, simplifiant le processus d'irradiation, sont exposes ainsi que des methodes permettant un echange de charge dans les

  4. TANGKI SEPTIK DAN MASALAHNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Soewasti Soesanto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Manusia yang sehat tiap hari membuang tinja yang harus ditampung dan/atau diolah secara saniter. Meskipun Indonesia telah 55 tahun merdeka dan telah memiliki banyak ahli sanitasi/teknik penyehatan baik lulusan dalam maupun luar negeri, namun cara pengelolaan tinja yang ada kebanyakan masih belum memenuhi syarat kesehatan. Tangki septik dianggap sebagai cara penampungan tinja yang terbaik, padahal sebenarnya masih terjadi pencemaran tanah dan air melalui saluran perembesan.Tangki septik (septic tank merupakan salah satu macam sarana pengolahan tinja manusia yang pada garis besarnya terdiri dari sebuah tangki pembusukan lumpur (sludge digester dan saluran perembesan efluen. Tangki pembusukan harus memenuhi syarat mengenai perbandingan panjang dan lebar serta syarat kedalaman maksimum dan minimum, agar pembusukan lumpur dari tinja manusia dapat berjalan sempurna malahan tidak berbau busuk lagi.

  5. Some particular aspects of control in nuclear power reactors; Quelques aspects particuliers du controle dans les piles atomiques de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Pupponi, J [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    les differents laboratoires du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et de l'Electricite de France. A - Dans le domaine de l'instrumentation, ces etudes portent actuellement sur les technologies utilisees pour le developpement des detecteurs et cables susceptibles de fonctionner a haute temperature; sous rayonnement {gamma} eleve - et sur les techniques d'electronique rapide appliquees aux chambres a fissions qui permettent de faire des mesures de flux neutronique sous rayonnement {gamma} eleve (105 R/h). B - Dans le domaine general du controle et de la securite, les difficultes de redemarrage liees aux empoisonnements par les produits de fission conduisent a des etudes approfondies sur le comportement du reacteur en regime sous-critique. Les perturbations apportees aux mesures neutroniques par le mouvement des barres de controle necessitent une nouvelle organisation des chaines de mesure et de securite neutronique faisant intervenir au niveau de puissance des parametres correcteurs tels que: puissance thermique, temperature, activation Azote 16. En ce qui concerne les demarrages rapides, deux methodes nouvelles sont decrites liees essentiellement a la mesure du taux de fissions en fonction du temps, soit dans le cas d'une liberation continue a vitesse constante et elevee de reactivite, soit dans le cas d'une liberation de reactivite par paliers. Par ailleurs, l'application des techniques de deplacement automatique des detecteurs dans le cas des demarrages normaux semblent apporter une solution rationnelle au controle et a la securite. C - Dans le cadre des techniques ci-dessus, on decrit les dispositifs retenus pour la mesure et le controle de la puissance de la pile EDF III. (auteurs)

  6. DEPRESI DAN GANGGUAN TIDUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Eko Radityo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Depresi merupakan gangguan mood berupa kesedihan yang intens, berlangsung dalamwaktu lama, dan mengganggu kehidupan normal yang insidennya semakin meningkatseiring dengan meningkatnya tekanan hidup. Tahun 2020, depresi diperkirakanmenempati urutan kedua penyakit di dunia. Gejala-gejala depresi terdiri dari gangguanemosi, gangguan kognitif, keluhan somatik, gangguan psikomotor, dan gangguanvegetatif. Salah satu gejala depresi yang muncul adalah gangguan tidur yang bisaberupa insomnia, bangun secara tiba-tiba, dan hipersomnia. Hal ini disebabkan olehgangguan neurotransmiter dan regulasi hormon. Selain sebagai gejala depresi, gangguantidur juga bisa merupakan penyebab depresi. Beberapa penelitian memberikanhubungan gangguan tidur dapat meningkatkan risiko depresi di kemudian hari.

  7. Special concretes for protection in piles (1963); Les betons speciaux dans la protection des piles (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condat, M.J.; Lafore, P.; Rastoin, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    la mise en oeuvre, la stabilite dans le temps et la tenue aux rayonnements et a la chaleur. Des annexes et des tableaux donnent des precisions et des valeurs numeriques. L'annexe 1 traite de la question de l'eau dans les betons. L'annexe 2 donne une classification des betons basee principalement aur leur densite. Enfin dix tableaux donnent pour seize betons particulierement representatifs, les compositions ainsi que les valeurs des caracteristiques physiques et mecaniques. (auteurs)

  8. Special concretes for protection in piles (1963); Les betons speciaux dans la protection des piles (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condat, M J; Lafore, P; Rastoin, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    stabilite dans le temps et la tenue aux rayonnements et a la chaleur. Des annexes et des tableaux donnent des precisions et des valeurs numeriques. L'annexe 1 traite de la question de l'eau dans les betons. L'annexe 2 donne une classification des betons basee principalement aur leur densite. Enfin dix tableaux donnent pour seize betons particulierement representatifs, les compositions ainsi que les valeurs des caracteristiques physiques et mecaniques. (auteurs)

  9. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-01-01

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ''gold standards'' to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications

  10. Metrology of reflection optics for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.

    1985-09-01

    Recent years have seen an almost explosive growth in the number of beam lines on new and existing synchrotron radiation facilities throughout the world. The need for optical components to utilize the unique characteristics of synchrotron radiation has increased accordingly. Unfortunately, the technology to manufacture and measure the large, smooth, exotic optical surfaces required to focus and steer the synchrotron radiation beam has not progressed as rapidly as the operational demands on these components. Most companies do not wish to become involved with a project that requires producing a single, very expensive, aspheric optic with surface roughness and figure tolerances that are beyond their capabilities to measure. This paper will review some of the experiences of the National Synchrotron Light Source in procuring grazing incidence optical components over the past several years. We will review the specification process - how it is related to the function of the optic, and how it relates to the metrology available during the manufacturing process and after delivery to the user's laboratory. We will also discuss practical aspects of our experience with new technologies, such as single point diamond turning of metal mirrors and the use of SiC as a mirror material. Recent advances in metrology instrumentation have the potential to move the measurement of surface figure and finish from the research laboratory into the optical shop, which should stimulate growth and interest in the manufacturing of optics to meet the needs of the synchrotron radiation user community

  11. Synchrotron based spallation neutron source concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 20 years, rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) have been used very productively to generate short-pulse thermal neutron beams for neutron scattering research by materials science communities in Japan (KENS), the UK (ISIS) and the US (IPNS). The most powerful source in existence, ISIS in the UK, delivers a 160-kW proton beam to a neutron-generating target. Several recently proposed facilities require proton beams in the MW range to produce intense short-pulse neutron beams. In some proposals, a linear accelerator provides the beam power and an accumulator ring compresses the pulse length to the required ∼ 1 micros. In others, RCS technology provides the bulk of the beam power and compresses the pulse length. Some synchrotron-based proposals achieve the desired beam power by combining two or more synchrotrons of the same energy, and others propose a combination of lower and higher energy synchrotrons. This paper presents the rationale for using RCS technology, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of synchrotron-based spallation sources

  12. Synchrotron radiation and prospects of its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulipanov, G; Skrinskii, A

    1981-04-01

    Current and prospective applications are described of synchrotron radiation resulting from the motion of high-energy electrons or positrons in a magnetic field and covering a wide spectral range from the infrared to X-ray. The advantages of the synchrotron radiation include a big source luminance, a small angular divergence, the possibility of calculating the absolute intensity and the spectral distribution of the radiation. Special storage rings are most suitable as a source. Synchrotron radiation is applied in X-ray microscopy, energy diffractometry, atomic and molecular spectroscopy, in the structural analysis of microcrystals, very rapid diffractometry of biological objects and crystals, and in Moessbauer spectroscopy. The prospective applications include uses in metrology, medicine, X-ray lithography, elemental analysis, molecular microsurgery, and in radiation technology.

  13. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  14. Space-charge calculations in synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, S.

    1993-05-01

    One obvious bottleneck of achieving high luminosity in hadron colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), is the beam emittance growth, due to space-charge effects in low energy injector synchrotrons. Although space-charge effects have been recognized since the alternating-gradient synchrotron was invented, and the Laslett tune shift usually calculated to quantify these effects, our understanding of the effects is limited, especially when the Laslett tune shift becomes a large fraction of the integer. Using the Simpsons tracking code, which we developed to study emittance preservation issues in proton synchrotrons, we investigated space-charge effects in the SSC Low Energy Booster (LEB). We observed detailed dependence on parameters such as beam intensity, initial emittance, injection energy, lattice function, and longitudinal motion. A summary of those findings, as well as the tracking technique we developed for the study, are presented.

  15. Fifth school on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Beaurepaire, Eric; Scheurer, Fabrice; Kappler, Jean-Paul; Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation : New Trends

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Fifth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.

  16. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  17. Keragaman dan Peran Biologi Arthrophoda pada Sawah Irigasi dan Tegalan

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarno, Suwarno

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman arthropoda dan peran biologinya pada tanah sawah irigasi dan tegalan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di daerah persawahan di daerah Sragen pada bulan Maret – Mei 2016. Metode Penelitian dengan menggunakan pitfall trap atau perangkap jebakan yang diletakkan area persawahan dan tegalan. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan purposive sampling. Sampel arthropoda yang diperoleh diidentifikasi dan dianalisis di Laboratorium pendidikan Biologi. ...

  18. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation: Theory and Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novokhatski, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The physics of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by ultra-relativistic electron bunches, known since the last century, has become increasingly important with the development of high peak current free electron lasers and shorter bunch lengths in storage rings. Coherent radiation can be described as a low frequency part of the familiar synchrotron radiation in bending magnets. As this part is independent of the electron energy, the fields of different electrons of a short bunch can be in phase and the total power of the radiation will be quadratic with the number of electrons. Naturally the frequency spectrum of the longitudinal electron distribution in a bunch is of the same importance as the overall electron bunch length. The interest in the utilization of high power radiation from the terahertz and far infrared region in the field of chemical, physical and biological processes has led synchrotron radiation facilities to pay more attention to the production of coherent radiation. Several laboratories have proposed the construction of a facility wholly dedicated to terahertz production using the coherent radiation in bending magnets initiated by the longitudinal instabilities in the ring. Existing synchrotron radiation facilities also consider such a possibility among their future plans. There is a beautiful introduction to CSR in the 'ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter' N 35 (Editor C. Biscari). In this paper we recall the basic properties of CSR from the theory and what new effects, we can get from the precise simulations of the coherent radiation using numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. In particular, transverse variation of the particle energy loss in a bunch, discovered in these simulations, explains the slice emittance growth in bending magnets of the bunch compressors and transverse de-coherence in undulators. CSR may play same the role as the effect of quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation in damping rings. It can limit the minimum

  19. Synchrotron environmental laboratory (SUL) at Anka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denecke, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    A research facility dedicated to environmental/geochemical research, the Synchrotron Environmental Laboratory (SUL), is planned to be installed and operated at ANKA. ANKA is the new synchrotron facility at the Research Centre Karlsruhe (FZK), Karlsruhe, Germany. ANKA is now in commissioning and planning operations for the fall of 2000. As the Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE) at FZK conducts a vigorous synchrotron-based research programme, INE was instrumental in the original impetus for installing such a facility at ANKA. These research activities at INE concentrate on actinide speciation in nuclear waste forms, geological media and geochemical model systems. In order for INE to direct their synchrotron research activities to ANKA, equipment and licensing required for performing experiments on actinide-containing samples is required. One great advantage of performing experiments on actinide-containing samples at ANKA is that the INE radiological laboratories lie in the near vicinity of the facility. This will minimise transport hazards and costs and allow experiments to be performed on samples whose characteristics may change with time. Experiments on radioactive samples with activities below the exemption level, according to German regulations, will be possible at ANKA at the start of operations. Licensing for work on higher levels of activity will be applied for in the future. The decades of experience in radiological work at FZK will facilitate development of procedure and equipment as prerequisites to licensing. A consortium of synchrotron radiation-user groups with environmental research interests has specified their requirements and needs for this facility. This scientific case serves as the foundation for the SUL design and is the basis for an application for federal funding. The SUL design reflects the heterogeneity and complexity of challenges facing researchers in the environmental/geochemical sciences. X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS

  20. Overview of Industrial Synchrotron Radiation Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman, Stephen S.

    1996-03-01

    Relevant, reliable and accessible synchrotron radiation methods can play an important role in industrial activities. To date, the application of synchrotron radiation based materials characterization methods by industrial concerns has followed the path of laboratory based x-ray methods: early adoption, continuous improvement, and a high degree of specialization to meet specific goals, which may change over time. Like all x-ray methods, their applicability to segments of the biotechnology, chemical, electronics, medical and metallurgical industries arises from a need to develop sophisticated processes for precisely controlling microstructures. An increasing number of those processes are being developed in ways which can, in principle, be more effectively studied if synchrotron radiation based analyses are performed. Technical limitations confined the efforts of early synchrotron radiation users to long-range research investigations. Nowadays, progress in data collection methods, analysis algorithims, accelerator performance, and worker training, have removed many constraints. However, commercial technologies are being improved at steadily higher rates, shortening the time between research, development and manufacturing and, in many cases, blurring their distinctions. Certainly, rapid rates of innovation increase the opportunities for synchrotron radiation techniques to bring competitive advantage since they can be used to shrink development times, to maintain yields and, perhaps, as part of advanced manufacturing. At the same time, rapid rates of innovation also impose stringent criteria on the reliability and timeliness of the supporting methods. Successful conventional x-ray methods have resulted from efforts to create useful new capabilities that effectively balance such forces. Currently, synchrotron radiation users throughout the world are pursuing analogous goals.

  1. Analytical research using synchrotron radiation based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shambhu Nath

    2015-01-01

    There are many Synchrotron Radiation (SR) based techniques such as X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), SR-Fourier-transform Infrared (SRFTIR), Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. which are increasingly being employed worldwide in analytical research. With advent of modern synchrotron sources these analytical techniques have been further revitalized and paved ways for new techniques such as microprobe XRF and XAS, FTIR microscopy, Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. The talk will cover mainly two techniques illustrating its capability in analytical research namely XRF and XAS. XRF spectroscopy: XRF spectroscopy is an analytical technique which involves the detection of emitted characteristic X-rays following excitation of the elements within the sample. While electron, particle (protons or alpha particles), or X-ray beams can be employed as the exciting source for this analysis, the use of X-ray beams from a synchrotron source has been instrumental in the advancement of the technique in the area of microprobe XRF imaging and trace level compositional characterisation of any sample. Synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, has become competitive with the earlier microprobe and nanoprobe techniques following the advancements in manipulating and detecting these X-rays. There are two important features that contribute to the superb elemental sensitivities of microprobe SR induced XRF: (i) the absence of the continuum (Bremsstrahlung) background radiation that is a feature of spectra obtained from charged particle beams, and (ii) the increased X-ray flux on the sample associated with the use of tunable third generation synchrotron facilities. Detection sensitivities have been reported in the ppb range, with values of 10 -17 g - 10 -14 g (depending on the particular element and matrix). Keeping in mind its demand, a microprobe XRF beamline has been setup by RRCAT at Indus-2 synchrotron

  2. Proposal for a national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.

    1977-02-01

    Since 1971 discussions have been held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on the desirability of construction of a storage ring which would be used exclusively for production of intense beams of photons with wavelengths in the ultraviolet and X-ray ranges. A proposal is given which discusses in detail the machine, its characteristics, and its expected uses. The proposal includes: (1) characteristics of synchrotron radiation; (2) scientific justification for a synchrotron radiation facility; (3) facility design; (4) wiggler magnets; (5) experimental facilities; (6) buildings and utilities; (7) construction schedules, costs, and manpower; and (8) environmental assessment

  3. Challenges and opportunities in synchrotron radiation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, V.

    Design necessities germaine to advances in optics for experimentation with synchrotron radiation are explored. Objectives for development include improved beam-line performance using new mirror materials or coatings, filtering and order-sorting enhancement, and lower surface scattering. A summary is presented of optical systems currently in use, together with requirements imposed by storage rings and experimental design. Advances are recommended in intensity, collimation, focus, and spectral purity of synchrotron beam lines. Any new storage ring mirror is noted to be required to dissipate several hundred watts, something which polished Cu is mentioned as being capable of handling, while standard SiO2 mirrors cannot.

  4. Atomic collision experiments using pulsed synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikawa, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Tsutomu.

    1982-01-01

    High intensity and continuous nature of the synchrotron radiation are the properties that are fundamentally important for studies of some atomic collision experiments, and many processes have been investigated by using these characteristics. However, so far the property that the radiation is highly polarized and pulsed in time has not been exploited significantly in atomic physics. As an example of the atomic processes relevant to such polarized and pulsed features of the synchrotron radiation, collisions involving optically-allowed excited atoms and molecules will be presented. (author)

  5. 12 Experimental Techniques at Synchrotron Lightsource Beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter L [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office Basic Energy Sciences; Rhyne, James J [US Department of Energy Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of synchrotron radiation are its continuous spectrum, high flux and brightness, and high coherence, which make it an indispensable tool in the exploration of matter. The wavelengths of the emitted photons span a range of dimensions from the atomic level to biological cells, thereby providing incisive probes for advanced research in materials science, physical and chemical sciences, metrology, geosciences, environmental sciences, biosciences, medical sciences, and pharmaceutical sciences. The features of synchrotron radiation are especially well matched to the needs of nanoscience.

  6. RF control system of the HIMAC synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, M.; Sato, K.; Itano, A.

    1992-01-01

    An RF control system of the HIMAC synchrotron has been constructed. In this control system we have adopted a digital feed back system with a digital synthesizer (DS). Combining a high power system, performance of the control system have been tested in a factory (Toshiba) with a simulator circuit of the synchrotron oscillation. Following this test, We had beam acceleration test with this control system at TARN-II in INS (Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo). This paper describes the RF control system and its tested results. (author)

  7. Automation and Remote Synchrotron Data Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilski, M.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray crystallography is the natural choice for macromolecular structure determination by virtue of its accuracy, speed, and potential for further speed gains, while synchrotron radiation is indispensable because of its intensity and tuneability. Good X-ray crystallographic diffraction patterns are essential and frequently this is achievable through using the few large synchrotrons located worldwide. Beamline time on these facilities have long queues, and increasing the efficiency of utilization of these facilities will help in expediting the structure determination process. Automation and remote data collection are therefore essential steps in ensuring that macromolecular structure determination becomes a very high throughput process. (author)

  8. Bunch heating by coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.A.; Zolotorev, M.

    1995-10-01

    The authors discuss here effects which define the steady-state rms energy spread of a microbunch in a storage ring. It is implied that the longitudinal microwave instability is controlled by low α lattice. In this case the coherent synchrotron radiation, if exists, may be the main factor defining the bunch temperature. Another effect comes from the fact that a nonlinear momentum compaction of such lattices makes Haissinskii equation not applicable, and the coherent synchrotron radiation may effect not only bunch lengthening but the energy spread as well

  9. Technique of infrared synchrotron acceleration diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, A.A.; Mal'tsev, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques of measuring of current and geometric parameters and evaluating of energy parameters of the ring bunch of relativistic low-energy electrons have been presented. They have been based on using the synchrotron radiation effect in its infrared spectral part. Fast infrared detectors have provided radiation detection in the spectral range Δλ ≅ 0.3-45 μm. The descriptions of some data monitoring and measuring systems developed in JINR for the realization of techniques of the infrared synchrotron acceleration diagnostics have been given. Infrared optics elements specially developed have been used in these systems

  10. Preliminar plan of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscati, G.; Takahashi, J.; Miyao, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminar plan, with all the technical specifications, for the construction of a machine for the synchrotron radiation production to be done by the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory in Brazil is presented. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Synthesis of Graft Copolymers by Small Doses of Irradiation; Synthese des copolymeres greffes au moyen de petites doses de rayonnements; Sintez privitykh sopolimerov s pomoshch'yu malykh doz oblucheniya; Sintesis de copolimeros de injerto mediante pequenas dosis de radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobo, J; Somogyi, M; Kiss, L

    1960-07-15

    In addition to grafting, there is often an undesirable alteration in the properties of the original polymer when polymer monomer mixtures are irradiated. As a result of irradiation, grafting occurs not only on the original polymeric backbone, but also on the already grafted side-chains. The result is an acceleration of grafting. The effect is especially pronounced in the case of preformed polymers, if irradiation is carried out intermittently. The grafting of styrene can be accelerated by the addition of some solvents which suppress the protective effect of the styrene on the polymer. Grafting can be accelerated by other additives. The swelling properties of the irradiated films were investigated. (author) [French] Lorsque des melanges de polymeres et de monomeres sont soumis a des rayonnements, il se produit souvent, en meme temps que la greffe, une alteration facheuse des proprietes du polymere original. L'irradiation provoque une reaction de greffage, non seulement sur le polymere original, mais aussi sur les chaines laterales deja greffees. Il en resulte une acceleration du processus de greffage. L'effet est particulierement marque dans le cas des polymeres preformes, lorsque l'irradiation est effectuee par intermittence. On peut accelerer le processus de greffage du styrolene en ajoutant certains solvants qui suppriment l'action protectrice du styrolene sur le polymere. On peut aussi accelerer le processus a l'aide d'autres additifs. Les auteurs ont etudie les proprietes de gonflement des pellicules irradiees. (author) [Spanish] Simultaneamente con el injerto, bajo la accion de las radiaciones se produce frecuentemente una alteracion de las propiedades del polimero original, efecto que convendria evitar. Por lo tanto, quiza ofrezcan interes los elevados grados de injerto obtenidos en nuestros laboratorios con pequenas dosis de radiacion. La irradiacion no solo provoca una reaccion de injerto en la estructura polimerica original, sino tambien en las cadenas

  12. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi dan Teknologi Pengolahan pada Gabah dan Beras

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Susilo

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  13. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi Dan Teknologi Pengolahan Pada Gabah Dan Beras

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Susilo

    1982-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  14. The use aeroplanes and vehicles for prospecting. The technique of the detection radioactivity. The future opened up by the use of the discrimination of energies; Methodes de prospection autoportee et aeroportee. La technique de la detection des rayonnements. Les perspectives offertes par la discrimination des energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitton, J; Berbezier, J; Blangy, B; Lallemant, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The idea of installing activity detectors on aeroplanes and vehicles has been widely applied by the CEA since the start of prospecting in the arid and tropical regions of the Communaute Francaise. Three systems of detection have been developed and compared in a systematic manner: a group of 50 G.M. tubes; the sodium iodide scintillator; the plastic scintillator. The sodium iodide scintillator is used as a standard reference; the results are compared by graphical recording. Airborne prospecting is carried out in two stages: the initial flights, which follow a kilometre square network, make possible the discovery of the most likely zones; these likely zones are then examined in greater detail using light aeroplanes or helicopters. The two types of airborne scintillation measuring devices which have been developed by the CEA are described in this article. The practical results obtained during systematic and detailed airborne prospecting campaigns in the Hoggar are described. The difficulty in airborne uranium prospecting is to be able to immediately distinguish while in flight, anomalies caused by uranium from those caused by thorium. (author) [French] L'idee de monter des detecteurs de rayonnements sur des avions ou des vehicules a ete largement appliquee par le CEA des le debut des prospections dans les pays sahariens et tropicaux de la Communaute Fran ise. On a realise et compare d'une maniere systematique trois moyens de detection: groupe de 50 tubes GM; scintillateur d'iodure de sodium, scintillateur plastique. L'appareil de reference sera le scintillateur d'iodure de sodium; les resultats sont compares par enregistrement graphique. La prospection aeroportee se fait en deux etapes; les premiers vols systematiques suivant un quadrillage kilometrique permettent de reperer les zones interessantes; ces dernieres font l'objet d'examens plus detailles effectues en avion leger ou en helicoptere. Dans cet article, on decrit les deux types de scintillometres aeroportes

  15. Experimental study of the effect of an electric field on thermal exchanges under forced convection with gaseous carbon anhydride in presence of the radiation of the Melusine pile; Etude experimentale de l'effet d'un champ electrique sur les echanges thermiques en convection forcee avec l'anhydride carbonique gazeux en presence du rayonnement de la pile Melusine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perroud, P.; Rebiere, J.; Verdier, J.

    1961-01-21

    Previous studies showed that, under free or forced convection, the application of a non-uniform electric field with a sufficient intensity at the neighbourhood of the heating elements resulted in a significant improvement of the thermal exchange coefficient under some flow rate and pressure conditions. But these improvements first required the creation of ions in the gas (shock ionization and existence of a corona effect above a sufficient voltage). This document therefore report further studies performed at the neighbourhood of the Melusine atomic pile which would provide ionizing radiations of much greater intensity. The objectives were, on the one hand, a global verification of work hypotheses imagined for the exchange improvement mechanism, and, on the other hand, to obtain data on the conditions under which this exchange improvement mechanism could be used in channels of a reactor. The authors present the instrumentation (measurement cells, gas circuit, heating circuit, high voltage circuit), describe how physical values are measured (pressure, gas flow rate, temperature of the heating element, gas temperature, high voltage). They describe how they compare powers exchanged under forced convection between dioxide carbon and a heated wire with or without external ionizing radiations, and report the various performed calculations (power supplied to the gas, temperature shift, Nusselt and Reynolds numbers). They report and discuss experimental results obtained outside the pile without ionizing radiations, and within the pile in presence of a ionizing radiation [French] Les essais ont ete effectues dans les conditions suivantes: nombres de Reynolds variant de 20.000 a 80.000, pression de 11 a 21 kg/cm{sup 2}, temperatures moyennes de l'element chauffant de 200 a 600 deg. C, tension electrique de 0 a 30 kV eff et intensite maximum du rayonnement γ, 3x10{sup 7} roentgen/h. On a confirme, hors pile, que l'augmentation de la puissance echangee, au dessus du seuil d

  16. What is a synchrotron and why does Australia need one?

    CERN Document Server

    Nugent, K A

    2002-01-01

    Construction of a $157 million synchrotron will soon begin in Melbourne. The author describes what this facility means for Australian science. The Australian synchrotron is a third generation device. The facility would have the capacity to do a wide range of science and technology at the same time. A number of applications, which are the priority for the Australian synchrotron project are briefly described. The huge technological spin-offs of this knowledge have made synchrotrons an attractive proposition to state governments

  17. Design Experience on a Multi-Mecacurie Radiation Facility; Etudes et experiences concernant un emetteur de rayonnements de plusieurs megacuries; Opytnoe proektirovani e ustanovki, obladayushchej sverkhmoshchnym izlucheniem; Estudios sobre el proyecto de un dispositivo de irradiacion de varios megacuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunton, D C; Donovan, J; Voyvodic, L [Curtiss-Wright Corporation, Princeton, NJ (United States); Armour Research Foundation, 10 W. 35th Street, Chicago 10, IL (United States)

    1960-07-15

    This paper describes the research and development work on radiator design and engineering which has been carried out with respect to the design of the {sup H}igh Intensity Food Irradiator{sup .} The problems discussed are those common to all large, package irradiators. The first phase of the research and development work was devoted to achieving a clear understanding of plaque type radiators and the effect of changes in the design parameters on the performance of such a unit. Initially, the performance of a single plaque radiator was studied theoretically, experimentally and by computer analysis. The parameters studied were source size and specific activity, source thickness and cladding, target density and geometrical factors including source and target heights, lengths and widths, and size of air gap between source and target. The performance was examined with respect to capacity, dwell time in the unit, dose uniformity, unit efficiency, and overall cost. Simplified expressions for radiator performance have been developed and verified by experiment. A three dimensional code for applying a Monte Carlo type analysis to radiator performance has been developed and applied to this problem with good agreement with experimental measurements. The radiator design programme was expanded to include an investigation of multi-plaque, multi-pass systems and hence includes essentially the three dimensional matrix of sources as well as plaque type radiators. Engineering requirements with respect to conveyors for product handling are examined in conjunction with source design and effect on performance specifications. Source handling methods, safety systems and facility controls are likewise reviewed. Finally the preparation of the source material itself including measurement, encapsulation and leak testing is described. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit les travaux de recherche et de mise au point pour le dessin et la construction d'emetteurs de rayonnements, effectues en vue

  18. Synchrotron radiation and free electron laser activities in Novosibirsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchuganov, V.N.; Kulipanov, G.N.; Mezentsev, N.A.; Oreshkov, A.D.; Panchenko, V.E.; Pindyurin, V.F.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Sheromov, M.A.; Vinokurov, N.A.; Zolotarev, K.V.

    1994-01-01

    The results of studies realized in the Siberian synchrotron radiation centre within the frameworks of wide program of synchrotron radiation and free electron laser research are summarized. The technical information on the VEPP-2M, VEPP-3 and VEPP-4M storage rings used as synchrotron radiation sources is given. 10 refs.; 8 figs.; 12 tabs

  19. Coherence Inherent in an Incoherent Synchrotron Radio Source ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well known that synchrotron radiation mechanism does not allow MASER type coherent emission (Pacholczyk 1970). Here we show that coherence can naturally occur in a synchrotron ... cally thick region (Fig. 1), then divides the synchrotron spectrum into an incoherent. 1A thin flat circular unleavened Indian bread.

  20. Technical and Economic Considerations in the Preservation of Meats and Poultry by Ionizing Radiation; Considerations d'Ordre Technique et Economique sur la Conservation des Viandes et de la Volaille par les Rayonnements Ionisants; Tekhnicheskie i ehkonomicheskie soobrazheniya otnositel'no'konservatsii myasa i ptitsy s pomoshch'yu ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij; Consideraciones Tecnicas y Economicas Acerca de la Conservacion de Carnes y Volateria por Irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbain, W. M. [Department of Food Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1966-11-15

    Radiation-sterilized meats and poultry can be of a quality better than that obtained with thermal processing. Where the normal method of preservation of meat and poultry during distribution is refrigeration, radiation at sterilizing levels is not likely to replace it. A principal reason for this is cost. In such a civilian market, radiation-sterilized meats will serve primarily as convenience foods. Radiation-pasteurization could provide a significant product life extension for fresh meats and poultry by delaying microbial spoilage, especially in the centralized preparation of retail cuts. Other factors of meat spoilage of a chemical or physical nature, however, are not controlled by radiation; and until they are, there is no real marketing value in the use of radiation. For fresh or frozen poultry there is the possibility of Salmonella control, should this be needed. Costs for sterilization and pasteurization are estimated and are presented in a form to permit selection of specific conditions within a range for certain important variables. From a commercial viewpoint, it is important to determine the consumer acceptance of radiation- sterilized meats and poultry. The usual approach to such a determination is to market the products in question in a limited manner and to measure the acceptance under such market conditions. To accomplish this with radiation-sterilized foods, the next step appears to be to obtain a production capability to supply the products for test marketing. (author) [French] Les viandes et la volaille sterilisees par les rayonnements peuvent etre de meilleure qualite que celle obtenue par un traitement thermique; Lorsqu'on utilise la refrigeration comme methode normale de conservation de la viande et de la volaille en cours de distribution, il est peu probable qu'on lui substitue l'irradiation a des doses sterilisantes. La principale raison eri est le cout eleve de l'irradiation. Dans un marche destine a repondre aux besoins civils, les viandes

  1. Photonuclear physics at the Bonn synchrotrons. Present status and future plans at the Bonn synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, B.A.

    1983-11-01

    The activities in the field of photonuclear physics at the Bonn 500 MeV and 2.5 GeV synchrotrons are reviewed. The experiments concentrate on photodisintegration and pion-photoproduction reactions on light nuclei. (orig.)

  2. Wellcome Trust backs Rutherford to host synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Leder, N

    1999-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust has stated its preference for the site of the new Anglo-French synchrotron to be at RAL in Oxfordshire. But the statement coincides with an announcement from the UK government that a decision on the location of 'Diamond' will be delayed to allow two new reports on the canditate sites to be commissioned (1/2 page).

  3. Atomic physics research with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of synchrotron radiation to research in high-energy atomic physics are summarized. These lie in the areas of photoelectron spectrometry, photon scattering, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved measurements, resonance spectroscopy and threshold excitation, and future, yet undefined studies

  4. Nuclear Bragg diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, R.; Gerdau, E.; Grote, M.; Hollatz, R.; Roehlsberger, R.; Rueter, H.D.; Sturhahn, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Bragg diffraction with synchrotron radiation as source will become a powerful new X-ray source in the A-region. This source exceeds by now the brilliance of conventional Moessbauer sources giving hyperfine spectroscopy further momentum. As examples applications to yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and iron borate will be discussed. (author)

  5. Reflectometry with synchrotron radiation; Reflektometrie mit Synchrotronstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumrey, Michael [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Roentgenradiometrie' ; Cibik, Levent; Fischer, Andreas; Gottwald, Alexander; Kroth, Udo; Scholze, Frank

    2014-09-15

    The measurement of the reflectivity for VUV, XUV, and X-radiation at the PTB synchrotron radiation sources is described. The corresponding data of the used beams are presented. Results of experiments on a Cu-Ni double-layer, SiO{sub 2}, Si, and MgF{sub 2} are presented. (HSI)

  6. Internal magnetic target of proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachurin, V.V.; Kats, M.M.; Kondrat'ev, L.N.; Rogal', A.D.; Rusinov, V.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Proton extraction from a synchrotron by means of an internal target of magnetized iron is described. The particles that are aimed at the target pass directly through it and are deflected by the internal magnetic field of the target in the extraction direction. The general properties of magnetic targets are examined theoretically and a specific devices and results of its testing are described

  7. HIDE working groups: synchrotron based system: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.

    1978-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the work resulting from a one-week workshop on the use of synchrotrons in heavy ion fusion, i.e., a Heavy Ion Demonstration Experiment (HIDE). Topics discussed concerned the number of beams on target, space charge limitations, choice of ion charge state, and areas identified as needing further work

  8. Overview of United States synchrotron radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    There has been considerable activity within the past year involving the creation of new and the improvement of existing capabilities for research with synchrotron light. The purpose of this review is to summarize what has happened within the United States. Being a status report, some of the information necessarily has a date attached to it - the date, in this case, being early September 1983

  9. HIDE working groups. A. Synchrotron based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.

    1977-01-01

    A summary is given of a week's discussions on an ion source to target scenario for a synchrotron for heavy ion fusion. Topics considered include: the number of beams on the target; beam dynamics; and a number of areas explicitly identified as needing further work

  10. Materials science and technology by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikawa, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper, features of the Photon Factory, a facility for synchrotron research installed at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics in Japan, are outlined, and then the impact of the advent of synchrotron radiation is discussed in relation to its outcome during the past seven years. Prospects for future development of synchrotron radiation are also presented. The facility consists of an injector linac to accelerate electrons up to 2.5 GeV and a ring to store the accelerated electrons in a closed orbit. In the Photon Factory, a 400m-long linac has been constructed for use as injector for both the Photon Factory and the TRISTAN electron-positron collider. The storage ring is operated at the same electron energy of 2.5 GeV. The present report also describes some applications of synchrotron radiation, focusing on spectroscopy (X-ray fluorescence technique and time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy), diffraction and scattering (surface structure studies and protein crystallography), and photo-chemical processing. (N.K.)

  11. The profile of the electron beam in the PTB synchrotron, and its influence on radiometric measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaase, H.

    1976-01-01

    A simple method is described to determine the beam profile in an electron synchrotron; the measured results are compared with calculated values. Moreover, the influence of synchrotron- and betatron-oscillations on synchrotron radiation measurements is discussed, and a method is given to correct this. (orig.) [de

  12. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone; Evaluation par resonance paramagnetique electronique du nombre de radicaux libres produits dans l'os de rat irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G; Valderas, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [French] Le nombre de radicaux libres a vie longue crees par irradiation gamma dans l'os de rat a ete determine a partir du spectre de resonance paramagnetique electronique. Ce nombre decroit lentement avec le temps (demi-vie calculee {approx_equal} 24 jours). IL est proportionnel a la dose de rayonnement gamma delivree au rat. La methode pourra trouver en dosimetrie biologique des applications interessantes. (auteurs)

  13. Evaluation by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the number of free radicals produced in irradiated rat bone; Evaluation par resonance paramagnetique electronique du nombre de radicaux libres produits dans l'os de rat irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, G.; Valderas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The number of long half-life free radicals created by gamma irradiation in the bones of the rat has been determined from the electrons paramagnetic resonance spectrum. This number decreases slowly with time (calculated half life: 24 days). It is proportional to the dose of gamma radiation given to the rat. The method could find interesting applications in the field of biological dosimetry. (authors) [French] Le nombre de radicaux libres a vie longue crees par irradiation gamma dans l'os de rat a ete determine a partir du spectre de resonance paramagnetique electronique. Ce nombre decroit lentement avec le temps (demi-vie calculee {approx_equal} 24 jours). IL est proportionnel a la dose de rayonnement gamma delivree au rat. La methode pourra trouver en dosimetrie biologique des applications interessantes. (auteurs)

  14. Les oxydes d'azote dans l'environnement Nitrogen Oxides in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppeneau J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article expose les concentrations en oxydes d'azote rencontrées dans l'environnement et fait la part des origines naturelles et anthropogéniques. II présente une des manifestations les plus connues des interactions entre les oxydes d'azote, les molécules organiques, la vapeur d'eau et le rayonnement solaire le brouillard photochimique. Un certain nombre de données sur les effets d'oxydes d'azote sur l'homme et le milieu sont cités et il est mentionné que de nombreuses recherches sont à effectuer pour préciser les connaissances actuelles. Enfin, les réglementations présentes et futures sont décrites. This article describes concentrations of nitrogen oxides found in the environment and explains their natural and anthropogenic origins. It describes one of the best known examples of interactions between nitrogen oxides, organic molecules, water vaporand solorradiation, i. e. photochemical smog. Various data are brought outconcerning the effects of nitrogen oxides on man and the environment, and mention is mode of the many research projects being carried out ta specify current knowledge. Present and future regulations are also described.

  15. 50 years of synchrotrons. Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN. - The CERN synchrotrons. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.; Brianti, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the first report, 'Early synchrotrons in Britain, and early work for CERN', John Lawson gives an extended account of the material presented at the John Adams lecture, and at the same time a revised and shortened version of RAL report 97-011, which contains fuller archival references and notes. During the period covered by this report there was extensive work in Russia, where the principle of phase stability had been discovered in 1944 by Veksler. Unfortunately, all experimental work was kept secret until Veksler's talk at the first 'Atoms for Peace' conference at Geneva in August 1955. In the second lecture, 'The CERN Synchrotrons', Giorgio Brianti outlines the history of alternating-gradient synchrotrons from 1953/54 until today. In preparing this lecture he was confronted with a vast amount of material, while the time at his disposal was not even one minute per year, implying a time compression factor close to one million. Therefore, he had to exercise drastic choices, which led him to concentrate on CERN hadron synchrotrons and colliders and leave aside the Large Electron-Positron storage ring (LEP). Indeed, LEP was the subject of the John Adams Memorial Lecture in 1990, and it may be treated again in the future in connection with its energy upgrade. Even with these severe limitations, it was impossible to do justice to the number and variety of events and to the ingenuity of the people who have carved the history of CERN and of particle physics on the magnets, radiofrequency cavities, vacuum etc., and on the record performance of our machines. (orig./WL)

  16. Liever kraanwater dan bronwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Een test in het Restaurant van de Toekomst van de invloed van CO2-labels op het aankoopgedrag van consumenten, heeft nog geen duidelijk beeld opgeleverd. Wel pakten mensen vaker kraanwater dan bronwater.

  17. Dan Performer Mei Lanfang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The convention of performing female characters (dan characters) in Beijing opera, as practised by its most prominent male performer of female characters Mei Lanfang, and its and his cultural context and aesthetic aim...

  18. Ideas for future synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meddahi, M.

    1992-03-01

    Synchrotron light sources have advanced in the past two-to-three decades through three ''generations,'' from irritating parasitic sources on high-energy physics accelerators to dedicated electron and position storage rings of unprecedented low emittance, utilizing undulator and wiggler magnets. The evolution through these three generations followed a predicable, science-driven, course towards brighter beams of VUV- and x-radiation. The requirements of future light sources is not so clear. The limit on how emittance has certainly not been reached, and diffraction-limited sources at shorter wavelengths would be the natural progression from previous generations. However, scientists are now looking at other radiation characteristics that might better serve their needs, for example, more coherent power, fast switching polarization, ultra-short (sub-picosecond) time structure, and synchronized beams for pump-probe experiments. This paper discusses some current ideas that might drive the fourth-generation synchrotron light source

  19. Applications of Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandedkar, R.V.

    2003-01-01

    Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring. This is a soft X-ray and Vacuum Ultra Violet radiation source with the critical wavelength being 61 A. In this source, the first beam was stored in mid-1999 and was then made available, after initial storage and beam cleaning of the vacuum components, for beamline installation in the early 2000. Two beamlines are commissioned and are working. Other beamlines are in the advanced stage of commissioning. For Indus-1, the injection system consists of a 20 MeV classical microtron as a preinjector and a booster synchrotron that can go up to 700 MeV. For Indus-1, the injection into the storage ring is at full 450 MeV from this booster synchrotron

  20. The 400 GeV proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    A general account is given of the 400-GeV proton synchrotron, known as Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) at Geneva. A brief chapter on the history of the project covers the steps leading to the earlier plan for a 300-GeV accelerator at a new CERN laboratory elsewhere in Europe, abandoned in 1971 in favour of the present machine, and the progress of construction of the latter. The general features of the SPS design are outlined, illustrated by an aerial view of the CERN site, a plan of the SPS, and interior views of the SPS ring tunnel and main control room. (WSN)

  1. Materials science created by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    We survey the use of synchrotron radiation for studies on oxides. High luminosity enables the spectroscopy with high energy-resolution in soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet region. Element analysis is possible by examining absorption edge in the X-ray absorption spectra. Time-resolved measurements are possible due to the pulsed nature of the radiation. The radiation can bear linear or circular polarization. The feature of molecules adhered on a surface can be clarified by using linearly polarized radiation. The circularly polarized radiation, on the other hand, clarifies the magnetic structure. The structure information so far unknown can be obtained by using space- or time-coherent radiation. We show studies using synchrotron radiation on LSI gate oxide foils, variable resistance RAM, strongly correlated oxide foils, and the oxide as positive electrode of Li ion battery. (J.P.N.)

  2. The relativistic foundations of synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritondo, Giorgio; Rafelski, Johann

    2017-07-01

    Special relativity (SR) determines the properties of synchrotron radiation, but the corresponding mechanisms are frequently misunderstood. Time dilation is often invoked among the causes, whereas its role would violate the principles of SR. Here it is shown that the correct explanation of the synchrotron radiation properties is provided by a combination of the Doppler shift, not dependent on time dilation effects, contrary to a common belief, and of the Lorentz transformation into the particle reference frame of the electromagnetic field of the emission-inducing device, also with no contribution from time dilation. Concluding, the reader is reminded that much, if not all, of our argument has been available since the inception of SR, a research discipline of its own standing.

  3. Propagation of synchrotron radiation through nanocapillary structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjeoumikhov, A.; Bjeoumikhova, S.; Riesemeier, H.; Radtke, M.; Wedell, R.

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of synchrotron radiation through nanocapillary structures with channel sizes of 200 nm and periods in the micrometer size has been studied experimentally. It was shown that the propagation through individual capillary channels has a mode formation character. Furthermore it was shown that during the propagation through capillary channels the coherence of synchrotron radiation is partially conserved. Interference of beams propagating through different capillary channels is observed which leads to a periodically modulated distribution of the radiation intensity in a plane far from the exit of the structure. These investigations are of high relevance for the understanding of X-ray transmission through nanocapillaries and the appearance of wave properties at this size scale

  4. Synchrotron Applications of High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This workshop aims at discussing the scientific potential of X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy in magnetic fields above 30 T. Pulsed magnetic fields in the range of 30 to 40 T have recently become available at Spring-8 and the ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility). This document gathers the transparencies of the 6 following presentations: 1) pulsed magnetic fields at ESRF: first results; 2) X-ray spectroscopy and diffraction experiments by using mini-coils: applications to valence state transition and frustrated magnet; 3) R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}: an ideal system to be studied in X-ray under high magnetic field?; 4) high field studies at the Advanced Photon Source: present status and future plans; 5) synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies under extreme conditions; and 6) projects for pulsed and steady high magnetic fields at the ESRF.

  5. ANKA - new horizons with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, M.; Czolk, R.

    2001-01-01

    ANKA GmbH operates a state-of-the-art electron storage ring (2.5 GeV energy, 400 mA maximum current) for the production of high-intensity synchrotron radiation. The produced 'superlight' ranges from the hard X-ray to the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. To use the light for microfabrication and analysis a number of modern, high quality production and experimental facilities exist on this circular (diameter about 35 m) synchrotron radiation sources. The experimental facilities are consolidated by a young, experienced and highly motivated team of experts. For the patterning of polymers by deep X-ray lithography three end-stations (so-called beamlines) are available. For analytical tasks five beamlines are established where different experiments can be made based on X-ray methods such as X-ray absorption, diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as IR-spectroscopy. (orig.)

  6. Synchrotron radiation. Basics, methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobilio, Settimio; Meneghini, Carlo; Boscherini, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is today extensively used for fundamental and applied research in many different fields of science. Its exceptional characteristics in terms of intensity, brilliance, spectral range, time structure and now also coherence pushed many experimental techniques to previously un-reachable limits, enabling the performance of experiments unbelievable only few years ago. The book gives an up-to-date overview of synchrotron radiation research today with a view to the future, starting from its generation and sources, its interaction with matter, illustrating the main experimental technique employed and provides an overview of the main fields of research in which new and innovative results are obtained. The book is addressed to PhD students and young researchers to provide both an introductory and a rather deep knowledge of the field. It will also be helpful to experienced researcher who want to approach the field in a professional way.

  7. Single-mode coherent synchrotron radiation instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heifets

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The microwave instability driven by the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR has been previously studied [S. Heifets and G. V. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 054402 (2002] neglecting effect of the shielding caused by the finite beam pipe aperture. In practice, the unstable mode can be close to the shielding threshold where the spectrum of the radiation in a toroidal beam pipe is discrete. In this paper, the CSR instability is studied in the case when it is driven by a single synchronous mode. A system of equations for the beam-wave interaction is derived and its similarity to the 1D free-electron laser theory is demonstrated. In the linear regime, the growth rate of the instability is obtained and a transition to the case of continuous spectrum is discussed. The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode instability, both with and without synchrotron damping and quantum diffusion, is also studied.

  8. Structural analysis with high brilliance synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    The research subjects in diffraction and scattering of materials with high brilliance synchrotron radiation such as SPring-8 (Super Photon ring 8 GeV) are summarized. The SPring-8 project is going well and 10 public beamlines will be opened for all users in October, 1997. Three JAERI beamlines are also under construction for researches of heavy element science, physical and structural properties under extreme conditions such as high temperature and high pressure. (author)

  9. The Australian synchrotron - a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.; Jackson, A.; Seaborne, G.; Hobbs, R.; Garrett, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises progress with the development of the Australian Synchrotron. The facility is based on the Boomerang Storage Ring which has a DBA structure with 14 superperiods. The design objective was to achieve a low emittance in a relatively compact circumference that had an excellent dynamic aperture and was obust with respect to potential construction aberrations. The potential suite of beamline and instrument stations is discussed and some examples are given

  10. Trace element measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Mills, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of the application of synchrotron radiation to trace element determinations by x-ray fluorescence have been investigated using beams from the Cornell facility, CHESS. Fluoresced x rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector placed 4 cm from the target at 90 0 to the beam. Thick samples of NBS Standard Reference Materials were used to calibrate trace element sensitivity and estimate minimum detectable limits for this method

  11. Plasma diagnostics using synchrotron radiation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Granata, G.

    1995-09-01

    This report deal with the use of synchrotron radiation in tokamaks. The main advantage of this new method is that it enables to overcome several deficiencies, caused by cut-off, refraction, and harmonic overlap. It also makes it possible to enhance the informative contents of the familiar low harmonic scheme. The basic theory of the method is presented and illustrated by numerical applications, for plasma parameters of relevance in present and next step tokamaks. (TEC). 10 refs., 13 figs

  12. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  13. Review of beamloading and compensation in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.

    2001-10-01

    This paper discusses the theory and state-of-the-art applications of beam loading and compensation in synchrotrons. In particular it discusses the developments in the introduction of Magnetic Alloy (e.g. Finemet) cores and adoption of low Q cavities; e plus-e minus factories with very large current (e.g. KEKB, PEP II) and developments at p,p factories (e.g. LHC) and simulation codes

  14. Synchrotron radiation: its characteristics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, J.P.; Chasman, R.; Green, G.K.

    1977-01-01

    It has been known for a century that charged particles radiate when accelerated and that relativistic electrons in the energy range between 100 MeV and several GeV and constrained to travel in circular orbits emit concentrated, intense beams with broad continuous spectra that can cover the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared through hard X-rays. Recently the possible applications of this radiation have been appreciated and electron synchrotrons and electron storage rings are now being used in many centers for studies of the properties of matter in the solid, liquid and gaseous states. A brief history is presented of ''synchrotron radiation'' as it is now called. The basic properties of this radiation are described and the world-wide distribution is indicated of facilities for its production. Particular attention is given to the proposed facility at Brookhaven which will be the first major installation to be dedicated only to the production and use of synchrotron radiation. Finally, typical examples are given of applications in the areas of radiation absorption studies, techniques based on scattering of radiation, and advances based on X-ray lithography

  15. Tabletop synchrotron and its unique features

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, H

    2002-01-01

    Two synchrotrons, AURORA and MIRRORCLE, were built in Ritsumeikan University. MIRRORCLE-20 is the smallest normal conduction synchrotron (15 cm orbit radius and 1.2 m outer diameter) in the world. It uses 2/3 resonance method for electron beam incidence but is not optimized for X-ray generation. MIRRORCLE-6 shall be optimized for X-ray generation. X-ray generated by MIRRORCLE shows very flat white light, rich in hard X-ray, pulse with width changeable from a few mu s to a few ms , wide radiation angle of 25 mrad at MIRRORCLE-20 and 80 mrad at MIRRORCLE-8 and high coherence. The feature such as pulsed light and high coherence is expected to new application which photon radiation cannot practice. Imaging experiments by MIRRORCLE were carried out by Cu plate, Al plate, Teflon and acryl plate. We took a photograph of insect, electric lamp, connector, and cyclotron. New X-ray generation mechanism, X-ray strength, development of tabletop synchrotron and features of X-ray beam are explained. (S.Y.)

  16. Paraxial Green's functions in synchrotron radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Scheidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2005-02-01

    This work contains a systematic treatment of single particle synchrotron radiation and some application to realistic beams with given cross section area, divergence and energy spread. Standard theory relies on several approximations whose applicability limits and accuracy are often forgotten. We begin remarking that on the one hand, a paraxial approximation can always be applied without loss of generality and with ultra relativistic accuracy. On the other hand, dominance of the acceleration field over the velocity part in the Lienard-Wiechert expressions is not always guaranteed and constitutes a separate assumption, whose applicability is discussed. Treating synchrotron radiation in paraxial approximation we derive the equation for the slow varying envelope function of the Fourier components of the electric field vector. Calculations of Synchrotron Radiation properties performed by others showed that the phase of the Fourier components of the electric field vector differs from the phase of a virtual point source. In this paper we present a systematic, analytical description of this phase shift, calculating amplitude and phase of electric field from bending magnets, short magnets, two bending magnet system separated by a straight section (edge radiation) and undulator devices. We pay particular attention to region of applicability and accuracy of approximations used. Finally, taking advantage of results of analytical calculation presented in reduced form we analyze various features of radiation from a complex insertion device (set of two undulators with a focusing triplet in between) accounting for the influence of energy spread and electron beam emittance. (orig.)

  17. MICROANALYSIS OF MATERIALS USING SYNCHROTRON RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JONES,K.W.; FENG,H.

    2000-12-01

    High intensity synchrotron radiation produces photons with wavelengths that extend from the infrared to hard x rays with energies of hundreds of keV with uniquely high photon intensities that can be used to determine the composition and properties of materials using a variety of techniques. Most of these techniques represent extensions of earlier work performed with ordinary tube-type x-ray sources. The properties of the synchrotron source such as the continuous range of energy, high degree of photon polarization, pulsed beams, and photon flux many orders of magnitude higher than from x-ray tubes have made possible major advances in the possible chemical applications. We describe here ways that materials analyses can be made using the high intensity beams for measurements with small beam sizes and/or high detection sensitivity. The relevant characteristics of synchrotron x-ray sources are briefly summarized to give an idea of the x-ray parameters to be exploited. The experimental techniques considered include x-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Examples of typical experimental apparatus used in these experiments are considered together with descriptions of actual applications.

  18. Photoemission studies using laboratory and synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources, providing intense, polarized and stable beams of ultra violet soft and hard X-ray photons, are having great impact on physics, chemistry, biology materials science and other areas research. In particular synchrotron radiation has revolutionized photoelectron spectroscopy by enhancing its capabilities for investigating the electronic properties of solids. The first Indian synchrotron storage ring, Indus- 1 is in operation at RRCAT, Indore. The UGC-DAE CSR with the help of university scientist had designed and developed an angle integrated photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) beamline on this 450 MeV storage ring. A storage ring of this kind is most suitable for investigation in the energy range from few electron volts to around five hundred electron volts. In this lecture we will describe the details of PES beamline and its experimental station. Till date the different university users carried out photoemission measurements on variety of samples. Some of the spectra recorded by users will be presented in order to show the capability of this beamline. In the later part we will report a review of our recent research work carried out on dilute magnetic thin films using this beamline. (author)

  19. 50 Years of synchrotrons Adams' Memorial lecture

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, J D; CERN. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Fifty years ago Frank Goward of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment Group at Malvern converted a small American betatron to make the worldÕs first synchrotron. At the same time Marcus Oliphant was planning to build at Birmingham a large proton machine with a ring magnet and variable magnetic field. Ideas for this had come to him during night-shifts tending the electromagnetic separators at Oak Ridge during the war. Some seven years later, in 1953, a group gathered together in Geneva to build the PS. A major contributor to the design work which had made this possible was John Adams. An account of some of the achievements in these eventful years will be presented. CERN has built nine synchrotrons/colliders and two temporary test rings. Eight machines are still running. The review will start with the PS, the first proton synchrotron based on the alternating gradient principle invented in 1952 at BNL. The design work of the PS team, under the enlightened leadership of J.B. Adams, and the construction of the...

  20. Ultrafast molecular dynamics illuminated with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, John D.; Miron, Catalin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrafast molecular dynamics probed with synchrotron radiation. • Core-excitation as probe of ultrafast dynamics through core-hole lifetime. • Review of experimental and theoretical methods in ultrafast dynamics using core-level excitation. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool for studying molecular dynamics in small molecules in spite of the absence of natural matching between the X-ray pulse duration and the time scale of nuclear motion. Promoting core level electrons to unoccupied molecular orbitals simultaneously initiates two ultrafast processes, nuclear dynamics on the potential energy surfaces of the highly excited neutral intermediate state of the molecule on the one hand and an ultrafast electronic decay of the intermediate excited state to a cationic final state, characterized by a core hole lifetime. The similar time scales of these processes enable core excited pump-probe-type experiments to be performed with long duration X-ray pulses from a synchrotron source. Recent results obtained at the PLIEADES beamline concerning ultrafast dissociation of core excited states and molecular potential energy curve mapping facilitated by changes in the geometry of the short-lived intermediate core excited state are reviewed. High brightness X-ray beams combined with state-of-the art electron and ion-electron coincidence spectrometers and highly sophisticated theoretical methods are required to conduct these experiments and to achieve a full understanding of the experimental results.

  1. Tabletop synchrotron and its unique features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hironari

    2002-01-01

    Two synchrotrons, AURORA and MIRRORCLE, were built in Ritsumeikan University. MIRRORCLE-20 is the smallest normal conduction synchrotron (15 cm orbit radius and 1.2 m outer diameter) in the world. It uses 2/3 resonance method for electron beam incidence but is not optimized for X-ray generation. MIRRORCLE-6 shall be optimized for X-ray generation. X-ray generated by MIRRORCLE shows very flat white light, rich in hard X-ray, pulse with width changeable from a few μs to a few ms , wide radiation angle of 25 mrad at MIRRORCLE-20 and 80 mrad at MIRRORCLE-8 and high coherence. The feature such as pulsed light and high coherence is expected to new application which photon radiation cannot practice. Imaging experiments by MIRRORCLE were carried out by Cu plate, Al plate, Teflon and acryl plate. We took a photograph of insect, electric lamp, connector, and cyclotron. New X-ray generation mechanism, X-ray strength, development of tabletop synchrotron and features of X-ray beam are explained. (S.Y.)

  2. Synchrotron-radiation experiments with recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of atoms, ions and molecules with synchrotron radiation have generally focused on measurements of properties of the electrons ejected during, or after, the photoionization process. Much can also be learned, however, about the atomic or molecular relaxation process by studies of the residual ions or molecular fragments following inner-shell photoionization. Measurements are reported of mean kinetic energies of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell photoionization using white and monochromatic synchrotron x radiation. Energies are much lower than for the same charge-state ions produced by charged-particle impact. The results may be applicable to design of future angle-resolved ion-atom collision experiments. Photoion charge distributions are presented and compared with other measurements and calculations. Related experiments with synchrotron-radiation produced recoil ion, including photoionization of stored ions and measurement of shakeoff in near-threshold excitation, are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Overview and perspective of materials characterization by using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsubo, Hiromichi

    2009-01-01

    A peculiarity of techniques and the methods of synchrotron radiation are explained. It consists of five sections such as introduction, synchrotron radiation, interaction between X-ray and materials, analytical methods of materials using synchrotron radiation and perspective and problems. The second section described the principles of synchrotron orbit radiation, synchrotron light source, the main formulae and schematic drawing of undulator, and the synchrotron radiation facilities in Japan. The third section explained behavior of X-ray in materials, absorption, reflection, refraction and scattering of X-ray. The fourth section stated many analytical methods of materials; the surface diffractometer, powder diffractometer, high-energy X-ray diffraction, core-electron absorption spectroscopy, micro-beam diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and photoemission spectroscopy (PES). A characteristic feature of synchrotron radiation contains the large wave length ranges from infrared to X-ray, high directivity and brightness, linear (circular) polarization, pulsed light, good control and stability. The brightness spectra of Spring-8 and SAGA-LS, concept of synchrotron light source, undulator and wiggler, nine synchrotron radiation facilities in Japan, mass absorption coefficients of Cu and Au, and analysis of materials using synchrotron radiation are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  4. PREFERENSI PEMBIAYAAN USAHA MIKRO DAN KECIL : PERSPEKTIF GENDER DAN ENTREPRENEURABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaira Amalia Fachrudin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Preferensi pembiayaan dalam perusahaan besar lebih didasarkan pada karakteristik perusahaan tersebut.  Namun dalam usaha mikro dan kecil hal ini mungkin berbeda dan bergantung pada karakteristik pemiliknya seperti gender dan entrepreneurability.   Perbedaan gender mungkin juga membedakan entrepreneurability dan dukungan yang diterima.  Penelitian ini akan menguji apakah terdapat perbedaan preferensi pembiayaan berdasarkan gender, entrepreneurability berdasarkan gender dan berdasarkan preferensi pembiayaan, serta perbedaan dukungan berdasarkan gender.  Sampel dari usaha mikro dan kecil yang bergerak dalam bidang kuliner  diuji dengan uji beda Independent Sample t Test dan kemudian dengan Crosstabulation untuk lebih memperinci hasilnya.  Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan preferensi pembiayaan berdasarkan gender dan berdasarkan  entrepreneurability, namun entrepreneurability berbeda signifikan berdasarkan gender dan juga ditemukan bahwa dukungan moral, tenaga, dan modal yang diterima pemilik usaha pria dan wanita tidak berbeda signifikan (p value lebih kecil dari 0.05.   Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat kesetaraan gender dalam pembiayaan usaha dan entrepreneurability lebih tinggi pada pria.  Pria pemilik usaha juga mendapatkan dukungan tenaga kerja yang lebih banyak daripada wanita.  Dukungan tenaga ini adalah salah satu bentuk  financial bootstrapping karena dapat mengurangi pembiayaan usaha

  5. Energy balance of the cathode connection and calculation of the yield of caesium diodes; Bilan des energies dans la connexion de cathode et calcul du rendement dans les diodes a cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merard, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The cathode connection is one of the critical elements in the calculation of the yield of caesium diodes. In particular a study is made of the balance of the losses due to the Joule effect, to radiation and to thermal conduction as a function of the shape and the nature of the cathode connection. The internal voltage drop of the diode is obtained from the expression for the total Joule losses of the metallic conductors. The length of the cathode connection is calculated as a function of the losses and the yield is optimized as a function of the relationship existing between the cathodic losses due to thermal conduction and the Joule losses in the connection. The calculations lead to hyper-elliptic integrals which can only be manipulated by series development. The results obtained are approximate. (author) [French] Dans le calcul du rendement des diodes a cesium, la connexion de cathode est l'un des elements critiques. On etudie specialement le bilan des pertes par effet joule, rayonnement et conduction thermique, en fonction de la forme et de la nature de la connexion de cathode. On obtient la chute de tension interne de la diode a partir de l'expression des pertes joules totales dans les conducteurs metalliques. La longueur de la connexion de cathode est calculee en fonction des pertes et l'on optimise le rendement en fonction du rapport qui existe entre les pertes par conduction thermique de la cathode et les pertes joules dans la connexion. Les calculs conduisent a des integrales hyperelliptiques dont la manipulation n'est possible que par des developpements en serie. Les resultats cherches sont approximatifs. (auteur)

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source: vacuum system for National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchman, J.C.; Godel, J.B.; Jordan, W.; Oversluizen, T.

    1978-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), a 24 million dollar project under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is a research facility dedicated to the production of synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron radiation is that radiation produced by the acceleration of charged particles at near the speed of light. This facility will provide a continuous spectrum of radiation from the vacuum ultraviolet to the hard x-ray range. The radiation will be highly intense, 100% polarized, extremely well collimated and will have a pulsed time structure. The radiation will be produced in two electron storage rings at energies of 700 MeV and 2.5 GeV, respectively. A maximum of one ampere at 2 GeV, or one-half ampere at 2.5 GeV, of electron beam will be stored

  7. DETEKSI DAN MANAJEMEN REFEEDING SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Darmadi Darmadi; Riska Habriel Ruslie

    2012-01-01

    AbstrakRefeeding syndrome (RFS) dideskripsikan sebagai perubahan biokimiawi, manifestasi klinis dan komplikasi sebagai konsekuensi pemberian nutrisi pada pasien kurang gizi. Refeeding syndrome ini menyebabkan dampak buruk dan kematian. Sindroma ini lebih sering terjadi pada kelompok risiko. Refeeding syndrome merupakan suatu sindroma yang sering tak terdiagnosis oleh karena itu perlu peningkatan pengetahuan dan kesadaran dari tenaga medis untuk mengurangi morbiditas dan mortalitas dari RFS. K...

  8. Relativistic Turbulence with Strong Synchrotron and Synchrotron-Self-Compton Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdensky, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Many relativistic plasma environments in high-energy astrophysics, including pulsar wind nebulae, hot accretion flows onto black holes, relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, and giant radio lobes, are naturally turbulent. The plasma in these environments is often so hot that synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiative cooling becomes important. In this paper we investigate the general thermodynamic and radiative properties (and hence the observational appearance) of an optically thin relativistically hot plasma stirred by driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and cooled by radiation. We find that if the system reaches a statistical equilibrium where turbulent heating is balanced by radiative cooling, the effective electron temperature tends to attain a universal value θ = kT_e/m_e c^2 ˜ 1/√{τ_T}, where τT = neσTL ≪ 1 is the system's Thomson optical depth, essentially independent of the strength of turbulent driving and hence of the magnetic field. This is because both MHD turbulent dissipation and synchrotron cooling are proportional to the magnetic energy density. We also find that synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) cooling and perhaps a few higher-order IC components are automatically comparable to synchrotron in this regime. The overall broadband radiation spectrum then consists of several distinct components (synchrotron, SSC, etc.), well separated in photon energy (by a factor ˜ τ_T^{-1}) and roughly equal in power. The number of IC peaks is checked by Klein-Nishina effects and depends logarithmically on τT and the magnetic field. We also examine the limitations due to synchrotron self-absorption, explore applications to Crab PWN and blazar jets, and discuss links to radiative magnetic reconnection.

  9. New synchrotron radiation facility project. Panel on new synchrotron radiation facility project

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, S; Kimura, Y

    2003-01-01

    The project for constructing a new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to the science in VUV (or EUV) and Soft X-ray (SX) region has been discussed for these two years at the Panel on New Synchrotron Radiation Facility Project. The Panel together with the Accelerator Design Working Group (WG), Beamline Design WG and Research Program WG suggested to the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports the construction of a 1.8 GeV electron storage ring suitable for 'Top-Up' operation and beamlines and monochromators designed for undulator radiation. The scientific programs proposed by nationwide scientists are summarized with their requirements of the characteristics of the beam. (author)

  10. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MULTI-TURN EXTRACTION FROM THE PROTON SYNCHROTRON TO THE SUPER PROTON SYNCHROTRON

    CERN Document Server

    Abernethy, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Within CERN's accelerator complex, the extraction from the Proton Synchrotron to the Super Proton Synchrotron has been done using the so-called ``Continuous Transfer" (CT) method since the 1970's. A new technique, known as Multi-Turn Extraction (MTE), has now been implemented and is in full operation. This report examines a holistic performance analysis of the novel technique in multiple aspects of the accelerator complex, as well as a direct comparison with its predecessor, CT, from the implementation of MTE in 2010 until the end of 2015.

  11. CHESS-the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batterman, B.W.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1980-01-01

    The Wilson Laboratory at Cornell University has done pioneering work on development of high energy synchrotrons. In the last decade, the 12 GeV synchrotron has been the most energetic electron synchrotron in the world. In 1975 plans were formulated to build a 4-8 GeV storage ring in the same tunnel as the synchrotron and to use the latter as the injector for the storage ring. This small radius (the normal bend magnets have R = 87 m), coupled with the relatively high electron energy of the storage ring, makes these magnets potent sources of synchrotron radiation. In June of 1978 the National Science Foundation funded a project to create CHESS, the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. (orig./FKS)

  12. INOVASI DAN STRATEGI PENCAPAIANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Ferryanto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is the way of life of any institution to profitably sustain its life. It starts with empathy, the ability to reach outside of ourselves and walk in someone else’s shoes, and optimal implementation of the newly advanced technology. Innovation shows its results through continuously hard working efforts known as "10 Thousand Hours Rule". As world uncertainty creates complexity we, instead of predicting, should therefore anticipate the future by creating and managing real options on contingent projects or elements of alternative optimal strategies. This should reflect into our portfolio strategy. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Inovasi merupakan darah bagi suatu institusi untuk bisa hidup berkelanjutan serta menguntungkan. Inovasi berupa penemuan baru secara sistematis yang berawal dari empati, kemampuan untuk melihat dunia melalui mata orang lain, dan pemanfaatan secara optimal kemajuan teknologi yang ada. Inovasi baru menghasilkan buahnya melalui kerja keras, yaitu dengan mengikuti “Aturan 10 Ribu Jam” secara berkesinambungan. Ketidakpastian, interaksi, keterbatasan dan degradasi menciptakan kompleksitas tentang kebutuhan dan solusi di masa depan. Oleh sebab itu daripada meramalkan risiko yang bakal terjadi, kita sebaiknya memasang strategi berupa skenario untuk mereduksi akibat dari risiko masa depan yang tidak kita mengerti. Skenario ini dapat diperoleh lewat penciptaan dan penanganan beberapa pilihan nyata atas semua proyek antisipatif yang ada. Kata kunci: Inovasi, ketidakpastian dan kompleksitas, aturan 10 ribu jam, paradoks strategi, peta jalan, empati, kerja berkesinambungan.

  13. PENGELOLAAN PENELITIAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN KESEHATAN DI THAILAND, MYANMAR, DAN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital, SKM Anorital, SKM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam bulan Januari 1991 yang lalu, Sdr. Anorital, SKM (Ka. Subbag. Pengumpulan dan PengolahanData Badan Litbangkes dan H. Syafwani Mirin, SKM (Ka. Bag. Keuangan Badan Litbangkes memperoleh fellowship dari WHO untuk melakukan studi perbandingan ke institusi-institusi penelitian kesehatan di Thailand,Myanmar, dan India.Berikut di bawah ini tulisan bersangkutan yang menggambarkan secara garis besar pengelolaan penelitian dan pengembangan kesehatan pada masing-masing negara obyek studi. Semoga informasi yang terkandung pada tulisan ini dapat bermanfaat bagi pengembangan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan.

  14. Amorphous silicon cells for the measurement of photosynthetically active radiation; Utilisation des cellules au silicium amorphe pour la mesure du rayonnement photosynthétiquement actif (400-700 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, M. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Thiverval-Grignon (France); Bonchretien, P.; Allirand, J. M.; Gosse, G.

    1989-07-01

    Numerical simulation and experimental measurements from amorphous silicon cells in comparison with these now used in ecophysiology illustrate the interest of amorphous silicon cells for the measurement of PAR incident, reflected, and transmitted below the canopy [French] La simulation et la confrontation expérimentale ces réponses des cellules au silicium amorphe par rapport à celles des capteurs existants montrent l’intérêt des cellules au silicium amorphe pour la mesure du rayonnement PAR (exprimé en densité de flux de photons) incident, réfléchi et transmis sous un couvert végétal.

  15. Historical development of synchrotron x-ray diffraction topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawado, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    After a short history of X-ray diffraction topography, from the early stage of laboratory X-ray topography to recent synchrotron-radiation applications, is described, the development of science and technology for the synchrotron X-ray topography and its industrial applications are reviewed in more detail. In addition, the recent trend to synchrotron topography research is clarified on the basis of several data obtained from 256 papers which have been published since 2000. (author)

  16. Techniques for materials research with synchrotron radiation x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introductory survey is presented of the properties and generation of synchrotron radiation and the main techniques developed so far for its application to materials problems. Headings are:synchrotron radiation; X-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation (powder diffraction; X-ray scattering; EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure); X-ray fluorescent analysis; microradiography; white radiation topography; double crystal topography); future developments. (U.K.)

  17. Atomic photoelectron-spectroscopy studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrin, P.H.

    1983-02-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy combined with tunable synchrotron radiation has been used to study the photoionization process in several atomic systems. The time structure of the synchrotron radiation source at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) was used to record time-of-flight (TOF) photoelectron spectra of gaseous Cd, Hg, Ne, Ar, Ba, and Mn. The use of two TOF analyzers made possible the measurement of photoelectron angular distributions as well as branching ratios and partial cross sections

  18. Pulsed Irradiation Studies in Mice, Rats and Dogs; Etudes sur l'Exposition de la Souris, du Rat et du Chien a des Rayonnements Pulses; Impul'snoe obluchenie myshej, krys i sobak; Estudios sobre la Irradiacion Pulsante de Ratones, Ratas y Perros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Leong, G. F.; Kendall, K.; Alpen, E. L.; Albright, M. L. [US Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1964-05-15

    Radiation lethality as a function of radiation dose rate has been extensively explored over the range of less than one rad to a few hundreds of rad/min, but comparatively little is known of the biological consequences at exposure intensities of the order of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} rad/min. In the present experiments radiations produced by a TRIGA reactor have been used to study the comparative acute-mortality responses (LD{sub 50}/{sub 30}) of mice and dogs irradiated either at moderate dose rates (40 or 100 rad/min for mice and 23 rad/min for dogs) or by a single high dose-rate radiation pulse ({approx} 10{sup 6} rad/min for mice and {approx}2.0 X 10{sup 5} rad/min for dogs). In the mouse experiments, the LD{sub 50}/{sub 30} of animals exposed at the moderate dose rates of 40 rad of n/min or 100 rad for gamma-radiation/min was not significantly different from the LD{sub 50}/{sub 30} of animals exposed to the same radiation given as a pulsed exposure. Likewise, in acute mortality studies conducted with unilaterally neutron-irradiated dogs, no significant differences in LDso/sowere found between groups irradiated at 23 rad/min or exposed to pulsed dose rates in excess of 1.5 x 10{sup 5} rad/min. Other studies have been conducted to determine if recovery from radiation injury in mice, as estimated by the split-dose irradiation technique, is influenced by the rate at which the initial sublethal injury is produced. Recovery has been compared at 5 and 14 days post-irradiation in groups of animals exposed at either 40 or 9 x 10{sup 4} rad/min and no dose-rate dependency of recovery has been detected. (author) [French] La letalite due aux rayonnements en fonction du debit de dose a fait l'objet d'etudes approfondies dans la gamme des debits comprise entre moins de un rad et plusieurs centaines de rad/min, mais l 'on sait relativement peu de choses sur les consequences biologiques des debits de dose de l 'ordre de 10{sup 5} a 10{sup 6} rad/min. Les auteurs ont utilise les

  19. Planning study for advanced national synchrotron-radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of synchrotron-radiation sources based on insertion devices offers gains in photon-beam brilliance as large as the gains that present-day synchrotron sources provided over conventional sources. This revolution in synchrotron capability and its impact on science and technology will be as significant as the original introduction of synchrotron radiation. This report recommends that insertion-device technology be pursued as our highest priority, both through the full development of insertion-device potential on existing machines and through the building of new facilities

  20. SOFT: a synthetic synchrotron diagnostic for runaway electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, M.; Embréus, O.; Tinguely, R. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Stahl, A.; Fülöp, T.

    2018-02-01

    Improved understanding of the dynamics of runaway electrons can be obtained by measurement and interpretation of their synchrotron radiation emission. Models for synchrotron radiation emitted by relativistic electrons are well established, but the question of how various geometric effects—such as magnetic field inhomogeneity and camera placement—influence the synchrotron measurements and their interpretation remains open. In this paper we address this issue by simulating synchrotron images and spectra using the new synthetic synchrotron diagnostic tool SOFT (Synchrotron-detecting Orbit Following Toolkit). We identify the key parameters influencing the synchrotron radiation spot and present scans in those parameters. Using a runaway electron distribution function obtained by Fokker-Planck simulations for parameters from an Alcator C-Mod discharge, we demonstrate that the corresponding synchrotron image is well-reproduced by SOFT simulations, and we explain how it can be understood in terms of the parameter scans. Geometric effects are shown to significantly influence the synchrotron spectrum, and we show that inherent inconsistencies in a simple emission model (i.e. not modeling detection) can lead to incorrect interpretation of the images.

  1. Research trends in radiobiology since 40 years. a new approach: the enzymatic repair function of DNA, internal factor in evolution of biological systems under irradiation; Etude des tendances des recherches en radiologie depuis 40 ans. Une nouvelle voie de recherche: la fonction de reparation enzymatique de l'ADN, facteur interne d'evolution des systemes biologiques sous rayonnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    . Il y a moins d'une generation, l'on croyait encore que les effets des rayonnements sur les systemes vivants etaient des effets directs, immediats, irreparables et definitifs. Depuis lors, on s'est rendu compte que les radiolesions pouvaient resulter d'effets indirects, etre tardives, reparables, et le plus souvent modifiables par des traitements chimiques ou biochimiques ad hoc. Cependant, la percee decisive en radiobiologie se situe entre 1962 et 1964, avec la decouverte que la cellule possede un mecanisme de defense active vis-a-vis de tout ce qui peut porter atteinte a l'integrite du patrimoine genetique inscrit dans la structure meme de l'ADN. L'existence d'une quatrieme fonction de l'ADN, celle d'auto-reparation, par voie enzymatique sous controle genetique, apporte enfin a la radiobiologie la base biologique moleculaire qui lui manquait pour sortir de la nuit 'phenomenologique' ou elle s'etait enfoncee apres l'abandon de la generalisation de la theorie de Lea, faute de preuve experimentale. Dans la seconde partie, cette fois prospective, de l'etude l'auteur tente une synthese elargie en considerant le role que peut jouer cette fonction de reparation de l'ADN non seulement du point de vue de la survie des systemes biologiques irradies en presence ou non d'agents modificateurs de dose ou mutagenes, mais aussi de celui de l'evolution naturelle ou artificielle de ces systemes sous rayonnement. Les donnees les plus recentes de la litterature sont en accord avec ce qui ne constitue encore qu'une hypothese generale de recherche. Des travaux portant sur les caracteres phenotypiques et genotypiques lies a l'acquisition de radioresistance gamma et UV, chez 'Escherichia coli K12', ont ete entrepris par l'auteur, en collaboration avec O. Tremeau en vue d'apporter une contribution experimentale nouvelle a cet egard. (auteur)

  2. Contribution to the study of neutron propagation in cavities; Contribution a l'etude de la propagation des neutrons dans les cavites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselin, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In large size cavities where the dimensions of the holes are greater than the mean free path of the radiations, the neutron propagation calculations are carried out by taking into account the effect of the medium surrounding the hole using a reflection coefficient or albedo. In this work the fast neutron albedos are obtained for various materials and these results are applied for a Monte-Carlo propagation calculation. A comparison of this calculation with experimental results shows the validity of the method. (author) [French] Dans les cavites de grandes dimensions, ou les dimensions des vides sont superieures au libre parcours moyen des rayonnements, le calcul de la propagation des neutrons se fait en essayant de rendre compte de l'effet du milieu entourant le vide, par un coefficient de reflexion ou albedo. Dans cette etude, sont d'une part obtenus des albedo en neutrons rapides sur divers materiaux, d'autre part ces resultats sont appliques pour un calcul de MONTE-CARLO de propagation. La comparaison entre le calcul et l'experience montre la validite de la methode. (auteur)

  3. Study of bond-energy variations in molecular systems under irradiation; Etude de la variation de l'energie de liaison dans les systemes moleculaires irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, G; Passe, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    On the basis of experimental results selected from publications, the evolution of the bond energy of a molecular system under irradiation - leading to a more or less bound state - is studied. This variation of bond energy is then compared to the total bond energy of the initial system and to the energy absorbed in the system during the irradiation. This is done as a function of the nature of molecular system and the radiation spectrum and intensity. Our working method will first be explained, and the results obtained will then be given. (authors) [French] A l'aide de resultats experimentaux, selectionnes dans les publications, nous etudions l'evolution de l'energie de liaison d'un systeme moleculaire sous irradiation (evolution vers un etat plus ou moins lie), et nous comparons cette variation d'energie de liaison a l'energie totale de liaison du systeme initial et a l'energie absorbee dans le systeme au cours de l'irradiation. Ceci est fait en fonction de la nature du systeme moleculaire ainsi que du spectre et de l'intensite du rayonnement. Nous exposons d'abord notre methode de travail, puis les resultats obtenus. (auteurs)

  4. Contribution to the study of neutron propagation in cavities; Contribution a l'etude de la propagation des neutrons dans les cavites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselin, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In large size cavities where the dimensions of the holes are greater than the mean free path of the radiations, the neutron propagation calculations are carried out by taking into account the effect of the medium surrounding the hole using a reflection coefficient or albedo. In this work the fast neutron albedos are obtained for various materials and these results are applied for a Monte-Carlo propagation calculation. A comparison of this calculation with experimental results shows the validity of the method. (author) [French] Dans les cavites de grandes dimensions, ou les dimensions des vides sont superieures au libre parcours moyen des rayonnements, le calcul de la propagation des neutrons se fait en essayant de rendre compte de l'effet du milieu entourant le vide, par un coefficient de reflexion ou albedo. Dans cette etude, sont d'une part obtenus des albedo en neutrons rapides sur divers materiaux, d'autre part ces resultats sont appliques pour un calcul de MONTE-CARLO de propagation. La comparaison entre le calcul et l'experience montre la validite de la methode. (auteur)

  5. Bystander Effects During Synchrotron Imaging Procedures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueltke, Elisabeth; Nikkhah, Guido; Bewer, Brian; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Using monochromatic beam and synchrotron phase-contrast technique at the biomedical beamline of the Italian synchrotron facility Elettra (SYRMEP), we have shown in a small animal model of malignant brain tumor that it is possible to obtain high-resolution images of very small tumors when they have developed from implanted tumor cells loaded with colloidal gold nanoparticles (GNP). All previous experiments were conducted in post-mortem samples. We have now designed a cell culture experiment to investigate the effects of synchrotron radiation with an energy and dose profile similar to that expected in our first in vivo imaging studies according to the protocol developed at SYRMEP.Materials and Methods: Culture flasks containing either gold-loaded or naieve C6 glioma cells were exposed to a dose of 0.5 Gy at 24 keV. The irradiated medium was aspirated and replaced with fresh growth medium. Twenty-four hours later this non-irradiated medium exposed to irradiated cells was aspirated, then added to non-irradiated C6 cells in order to investigate whether bystander effects are seen under the conditions of our image acquisition protocol. The irradiated medium was added to a number of other non-irradiated cell cultures. Cell counts were followed until 72 hrs after irradiation. Western blots were conducted with H2AX antibodies. This experiment was one of the first biomedical experiments conducted at BMIT, the new biomedical imaging and therapy beamline of the Canadian Light Source.Results: No significant differences in proliferation were seen between cells that were directly irradiated, exposed to irradiated medium or exposed to the non-irradiated 24-hr-medium from the irradiated cells. However, there was a tendency towards a higher number of double strand breaks in previously irradiated cells when they were exposed to non-irradiated medium that had been in contact with irradiated cells for 24 hrs.

  6. Handbook on synchrotron radiation, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    Volume 2 of this series concentrates on the use of synchrotron radiation which covers that region of the electromagnetic spectrum which extends from about 10eV to 3keV in photon energy and is essentially the region where the radiation is strongly absorbed by atmospheric gases. It therefore has to make extensive use of a high vacuum to transport the radiation to the workstation where the presence of hard X-rays can cause extensive damage to both the optics and the targets used in the experimental rigs. The topics chosen for this volume have been limited to the disciplines of physics and chemi

  7. Bent approximations to synchrotron radiation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heald, S.

    1981-01-01

    Ideal optical elements can be approximated by bending flats or cylinders. This paper considers the applications of these approximate optics to synchrotron radiation. Analytic and raytracing studies are used to compare their optical performance with the corresponding ideal elements. It is found that for many applications the performance is adequate, with the additional advantages of lower cost and greater flexibility. Particular emphasis is placed on obtaining the practical limitations on the use of the approximate elements in typical beamline configurations. Also considered are the possibilities for approximating very long length mirrors using segmented mirrors

  8. Atomic electron spectrometry with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques of atomic electron spectrometry were applied to atoms in the gaseous and solid states to derive information about fundamental atomic properties. A new method was developed to measure Coster-Kronig yields in metals by photoionization with synchrotron radiation. Photon-energy sensitive Si L-VV Auger satellites were investigated via electron spectrometry. The krypton 1s photoionization spectrum was measured in an experiment which was motivated by the need to understand the krypton 1s satellite spectrum for calibration of an experiment to measure the mass of the electron antineutrino

  9. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V. G., E-mail: bagrov@phys.tsu.ru [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gitman, D. M., E-mail: gitman@if.usp.br [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levin, A. D., E-mail: alevin@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Loginov, A. S.; Saprykin, A. D. [Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-25

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory.

  10. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V. G.; Gitman, D. M.; Levin, A. D.; Loginov, A. S.; Saprykin, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory

  11. Effective spectrum width of the synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V.G. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); SB RAS, Institute of High Current Electronics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Levin, A.D. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Loginov, A.S.; Saprykin, A.D. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    For an exact quantitative description of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), the concept of effective width of the spectrum is introduced. In the most interesting case, which corresponds to the ultrarelativistic limit of SR, the effective width of the spectrum is calculated for the polarization components, and new physically important quantitative information on the structure of spectral distributions is obtained. For the first time, the spectral distribution for the circular polarization component of the SR for the upper half-space is obtained within classical theory. (orig.)

  12. Scanning photoemission microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Harald W.

    1992-08-01

    Progress in photoemission spectro-microscopy at various synchrotron radiation facilities is reviewed. Microprobe devices such as MAXIMUM at the SRC in Wisconsin, the X1-SPEM at the NSLS at BNL, as well as the ellipsoidal ring mirror microscope at DESY in Hamburg, recorded first images during the last few years. The present status of these devices which achieve their lateral resolution by focusing X-rays to a small spot is the primary focus of this paper, but work representing other approaches to spectro-microscopy is also discussed.

  13. Synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riglet, P.; Sauvage, M.; Petroff, J.F.; Epelboin, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program based on the Takagi-Taupin differential equations for X-ray propagation in distorted crystals has been developed in order to simulate dislocation images in the Bragg case. The program is valid both for thin and thick crystals. Simulated images of misfit dislocations formed either in a thin epilayer or in a thick substrate are compared with experimental images obtained by synchrotron-radiation plane-wave topography. The influence of the various strain components on the image features is discussed. (author)

  14. Femto-second pulses of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    A method capable of producing femto-second pulses of synchrotron radiation is proposed. It is based on the interaction of femto-second light pulses with electrons in a storage ring. The application of the method to the generation of ultra-short x-ray pulses at the Advance Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been considered. The same method can also be used for extraction of electrons from a storage ring in ultra-short series of microbunches spaced by the periodicity of light wavelength

  15. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernik, R J [Daresbury Lab., Warrington, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school.

  16. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  17. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation. Ch. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, J.C.; Gordon, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has a number of properties which make it uniquely suited for medical diagnostic imaging. The radiation is intense and can be readily monochromatized. With these highly intense, mono-chromatized X-ray beams, iodine K-edge di-chromatography can yield images which greatly enhance the visualization of iodine containing structures. As this technology continues to improve, the possibility of performing diagnostic cardiac, neuroradiological, and other vascular examinations with minimally invasive peripheral venous injections of iodinated contrast agent becomes increasingly practical. (author). 10 refs.; 6 figs

  18. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Marco

    2002-01-01

    We take a detour from the main theme of this volume and present a discussion of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the context of storage rings rather than single-pass systems. Interest in this topic has been revived by a series of measurements carried out at several light source facilities. There is strong evidence that the observed coherent signal is accompanied by a beam instability, possibly driven by CSR itself. In this paper we review a ''self-consistent'' model of longitudinal beam dynamics in which CSR is the only agent of collective forces. The model yields numerical solutions that appear to reproduce the main features of the observations

  19. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  20. 3D IMAGING USING COHERENT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Cloetens

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional imaging is becoming a standard tool for medical, scientific and industrial applications. The use of modem synchrotron radiation sources for monochromatic beam micro-tomography provides several new features. Along with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and improved spatial resolution, these include the possibility of quantitative measurements, the easy incorporation of special sample environment devices for in-situ experiments, and a simple implementation of phase imaging. These 3D approaches overcome some of the limitations of 2D measurements. They require new tools for image analysis.

  1. Coherent reflectivity using white synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panzner, Tobias; Sant, Tushar; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen (Germany). Festkoerperphysik

    2008-07-01

    Using coherent white synchrotron radiation in the hard X-ray region for reflectivity experiments one have access to sample properties on a nanometer scale in principle. To extract the wanted information from the performed measurements so called phase retrieval algorithms are necessary. The authors developed a straight forward simulation program based on a spatial limited atomic flat surface to evaluate the influence of different parameters on the coherent scattered signal in the detector plane. These simulations can explain some interesting features of the measurements and shows unexpected results for the influence of the so called illumination function.

  2. Microangiography in Living Mice Using Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Falei; Wang Yongting; Xie Bohua; Tang Yaohui; Guan Yongjing; Lu Haiyan; Yang Guoyuan; Xie Honglan; Du Guohao; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, there are no methods available to detect the fine morphologic changes of cerebrovasculature in small living animals such as rats and mice. Newly developed synchrotron radiation microangiography can achieve a fine resolution of several micrometers and had provided us with a powerful tool to study the cerebral vasculature in small animals. The purpose of this study is to identify the morphology of cerebrovasculature especially the structure of Lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs) in living mice using the synchrotron radiation source at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in Shanghai, China. Adult CD-1 mice weighing 35-40 grams were anesthetized. Nonionic iodine (Omnipaque, 350 mg I /mL) was used as a contrast agent. The study was performed at the BL13W1 beam line at SSRF. The beam line was derived from a storage ring of electrons with an accelerated energy of 3.5 GeV and an average beam current of 200 mA. X-ray energy of 33.3 keV was used to produce the highest contrast image. Images were acquired every 172 ms by a x-ray camera (Photonic-Science VHR 1.38) with a resolution of 13 μm/pixel. The optimal dose of contrast agent is 100 μl per injection and the injecting rate is 33 μl/sec. The best position for imaging is to have the mouse lay on its right or left side, with ventral side facing the X-ray source. We observed the lenticulostriate artery for the first time in living mice. Our result show that there are 4 to 5 lenticulostriate branches originating from the root of middle cerebral artery in each hemisphere. LSAs have an average diameter of 43±6.8 μm. There were no differences between LSAs from the left and right hemisphere (p<0.05). These results suggest that synchrotron radiation may provide a unique tool for experimental stroke research.

  3. Microangiography in Living Mice Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Falei; Wang, Yongting; Guan, Yongjing; Lu, Haiyan; Xie, Bohua; Tang, Yaohui; Xie, Honglan; Du, Guohao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Yang, Guo-Yuan

    2010-07-01

    Traditionally, there are no methods available to detect the fine morphologic changes of cerebrovasculature in small living animals such as rats and mice. Newly developed synchrotron radiation microangiography can achieve a fine resolution of several micrometers and had provided us with a powerful tool to study the cerebral vasculature in small animals. The purpose of this study is to identify the morphology of cerebrovasculature especially the structure of Lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs) in living mice using the synchrotron radiation source at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) in Shanghai, China. Adult CD-1 mice weighing 35-40 grams were anesthetized. Nonionic iodine (Omnipaque, 350 mg I /mL) was used as a contrast agent. The study was performed at the BL13W1 beam line at SSRF. The beam line was derived from a storage ring of electrons with an accelerated energy of 3.5 GeV and an average beam current of 200 mA. X-ray energy of 33.3 keV was used to produce the highest contrast image. Images were acquired every 172 ms by a x-ray camera (Photonic-Science VHR 1.38) with a resolution of 13 μm/pixel. The optimal dose of contrast agent is 100 μl per injection and the injecting rate is 33 μl/sec. The best position for imaging is to have the mouse lay on its right or left side, with ventral side facing the X-ray source. We observed the lenticulostriate artery for the first time in living mice. Our result show that there are 4 to 5 lenticulostriate branches originating from the root of middle cerebral artery in each hemisphere. LSAs have an average diameter of 43±6.8 μm. There were no differences between LSAs from the left and right hemisphere (p<0.05). These results suggest that synchrotron radiation may provide a unique tool for experimental stroke research.

  4. Glancing angle synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernik, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes in basic detail some of the techniques that can be used to study thin films and surfaces. These are all in the X-ray region and cover reflectivity, diffraction form polycrystalline films, textured films and single crystal films. Other effects such as fluorescence and diffuse scattering are mentioned but not discussed in detail. Two examples of the reflectivity from multilayers and the diffraction from iron oxide films are discussed. The advantages of the synchrotron for these studies is stressed and the experimental geometries that can be employed are described i detail. A brief bibliography is provided at the end to accompany this part of the 1996 Frascati school

  5. WE7000 network for KEK Proton Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Yagyu, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    A new PC-Based measurement system, WE7000, has been developed. The WE7000 is based on a new concept and the leading-edge technologies, such as 250 Mbps high speed optical fiber network and complete Plug and Play mechanism. This paper describes an application to the betatron oscillation monitor and a magnetic field monitor of beam extraction system for neutrino experiment at 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS) Accelerator in High Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK). It was found that these system are very effective in the operation of the accelerator. (author)

  6. Medical applications of synchrotron radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Australian synchrotron is being built at Monash University near Melbourne. The 3 GeV machine is well-suited to the mid X-ray region and will have nine beamlines in its initial phase. The high level of biomedical research in Australia has led to the demand for a beamline capable of supporting medical research in both imaging and therapy. The design features for a versatile imaging and hard X-ray beamline capable of operating in the energy range 10-120 keV are outlined here together with a short review of some of the science that is envisaged

  7. High resolution synchrotron light analysis at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Switka, Michael; Zander, Sven; Hillert, Wolfgang [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Elektronen-Stretcher Anlage ELSA-Facility (ELSA)

    2013-07-01

    The pulse stretcher ring ELSA provides polarized electrons with energies up to 3.5 GeV for external hadron experiments. In order to suffice the need of stored beam intensities towards 200 mA, advanced beam instability studies need to be carried out. An external diagnostic beamline for synchrotron light analysis has been set up and provides the space for multiple diagnostic tools including a streak camera with time resolution of <1 ps. Beam profile measurements are expected to identify instabilities and reveal their thresholds. The effect of adequate countermeasures is subject to analysis. The current status of the beamline development is presented.

  8. Synchrotron radiation research facility conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    A report is presented to define, in general outline, the extent and proportions, the type of construction, the schedule for accomplishment, and the estimated cost for a new Synchrotron Radiation Facility, as proposed to the Energy Research and Development Administration by the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The report is concerned only indirectly with the scientific and technological justification for undertaking this project; the latter is addressed explicitly in separate documents. The report does consider user requirements, however, in order to establish a basis for design development. Preliminary drawings, outline specifications, estimated cost data, and other descriptive material are included as supporting documentation on the current status of the project in this preconstruction phase

  9. Emittance growth from transient coherent synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.; Li, R.; Bisognano, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    If the energies of individual particles in a bunch change as the bunch traverses a bending system, even if it is achromatic, betatron oscillations can be excited. Consequently, the transverse emittance of the bunch will grow as it moves downstream. Short bunches may be particularly susceptible to emission of coherent synchrotron radiation which can act back on the particles to change their energies and trajectories. Because a bend spans a well-defined length and angle, the bunch-excited wakefield and its effect back on the bunch are inherently transient. We outline a recently developed theory of this effect and apply it to example bending systems

  10. Synchrotron radiation facilities in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, G.

    1996-01-01

    With the successful commissioning and achievement of significant milestones at both the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) and the 1.5- GeV Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, synchrotron radiation research capability in the United States holds the promise of many important discoveries in the decade to come. An overview of current accelerator commissioning performance at the American third-generation light sources, state-of-the-art developments at first- and second-generation sources, and a preview of fourth-generation source progress is presented

  11. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation effect in damping rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T

    2004-01-01

    Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) can play an important role by not only increasing the energy spread and emittance of a beam, but also leading to a potential instability. Previous studies of the CSR induced longitudinal instability were carried out for the CSR impedance due to dipole magnets. In this paper, the instability due to the CSR impedance from a wiggler is studied assuming a large wiggler parameter K. The primary consideration is a low frequency microwave-like instability in the damping rings of several linear collider projects. The threshold is determined by the instability with the longest possible wavelength

  12. Kinerja Dan Efisiensi Bank Pemerintah (Bumn) Dan Busn Yang Go Publik Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Sugeng

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini menganalisis kinerja dan tingkat efisiensi bank-bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go Publik di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Sample penelitian ini mengambil tiga bank BUMN Bank BNI 46, Bank Mandiri dan Bank BRI) dan tiga bank BUSN (Bank BCA, Bank Niaga dan Bank Panin) dengan periode analisis tahun 2005-2011. Varibael yang digunakan meliputi ROA, ROE, LAR. LDR, NPL dan BOPO. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah melihat dan menganalisis perbedaan kinerja antara Bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go public di...

  13. Kondisi oral higiene dan karies gigi pada vegetarian dan non vegetarian di Maha Vihara Maitreya Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Prawira, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Perbedaan pola makan antara vegetarian dan non vegetarian dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi oral higiene dan karies gigi pada umat vegetarian dan non vegetarian di Maha Vihara Maitreya Medan. Jenis penelitian adalah survei deskriptif. Sampel terdiri atas 74 vegetarian dan 65 non vegetarian. Pemeriksaan oral higiene dan karies gigi masing-masing menggunakan indeks OHIS Greene dan Vermillion dan indeks DMFT Klein, se...

  14. Effects of Radiation on Germ Cells of Insects: Dominant Lethals, Gamete Inactivation and Gonial-Cell Killing; Effets des rayonnements sur les cellules germinales des insectes: letalite dominante, inactivation des gametes et destruction des cellules des gonades; Vozdejstvie radiatsii na polovye kletki nasekomykh: dominantnye letali, inaktivatsiya gamet i umershchvlenie polovykh kletok; Efectos de las radiaciones sobre las celulas germinales de los insectos: elementos letales dominantes, inactivacion de los gametos y exterminacion de las celulas gonadicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Borstel, R. C. [Biology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1963-09-15

    : par l'un des modes d'induction d'une letalite dominante, par l'inactivation directe d'une fonction et par des manieres genetiquement indefinissable, liees ou non a la letalite dominante. Les agents chimiques de mutation paraissent egalement provoquer un accroissement curieux du pouvoir fertilisant du sperme. La radiosensibilite varie avec les divers stades de l'oogenese et de la spermatogenese; certaines cellules passent par des stades au cours desquels leur radiosensibilite peut varier dans un rapport de 1 a 50. Des comparaisons entre des diptetes, des hymenopteres et des coleopteres ont revele une similarite frappante dans la maniere dont ces especes reagissent aux rayonnements, tant en ce qui concerne la sensibilite aux divers stades de developpement que l'intensite de la reaction en fonction de la dose. Le ver a soie Bombyx mori (lepidoptere) semble avoir beaucoup de points communs avec les representants des autres ordres en ce qui concerne l'effet des rayonnements sur les cellules germinales, mais il en differe nettement pour ce qui est des facteurs letaux dominants induits. Les especes presentant des mecanismes genetiques anormaux (par exemple, le Planococcus citri, coccide hemiptere) constituent des cas particuliers et ils reagissent aux rayonnements de facon tres differente des autres especes. Dans la lutte contre les insectes par la methode de Tirradiation des males, la letalite dominante est aussi efficace pour les especes ou l'accouplement a lieu plusieurs fois que pour celles ou il a lieu une seule fois. On peut considerer l'inactivation du sperme et la destruction des cellules des gonades comme des facteurs de sterilite reelle; leur efficacite est maximum chez les especes ou l'accouplement n'a lieu qu'une seule fois. Pour le controle le plus efficace, il faudrait avoir recours a des doses provoquant la letalite dominante maximum, l'inactivation minimum du sperme et la destruction totale des cellules des gonades. Il est facile de determiner ces parametres

  15. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Cobas, Luis E.; Montero-Cabrera, María E.; Pardo, Lorena; Fuentes-Montero, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr) appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described. PMID:28787814

  16. Ferroelectrics under the Synchrotron Light: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fuentes-Cobas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, an intensive search for high-performance lead-free ferroelectric materials is taking place. ABO3 perovskites (A = Ba, Bi, Ca, K and Na; B = Fe, Nb, Ti, and Zr appear as promising candidates. Understanding the structure–function relationship is mandatory, and, in this field, the roles of long- and short-range crystal orders and interactions are decisive. In this review, recent advances in the global and local characterization of ferroelectric materials by synchrotron light diffraction, scattering and absorption are analyzed. Single- and poly-crystal synchrotron diffraction studies allow high-resolution investigations regarding the long-range average position of ions and subtle global symmetry break-downs. Ferroelectric materials, under the action of electric fields, undergo crystal symmetry, crystallite/domain orientation distribution and strain condition transformations. Methodological aspects of monitoring these processes are discussed. Two-dimensional diffraction clarify larger scale ordering: polycrystal texture is measured from the intensities distribution along the Debye rings. Local order is investigated by diffuse scattering (DS and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS experiments. DS provides information about thermal, chemical and displacive low-dimensional disorders. XAFS investigation of ferroelectrics reveals local B-cation off-centering and oxidation state. This technique has the advantage of being element-selective. Representative reports of the mentioned studies are described.

  17. Synchrotrons for hadron therapy: Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Badano, L; Bryant, P; Crescenti, M; Holy, P; Knaus, P; Maier, A; Pullia, M; Rossi, S

    1999-01-01

    The treatment of cancer with accelerator beams has a long history with betatrons, linacs, cyclotrons and now synchrotrons being exploited for this purpose. Treatment techniques can be broadly divided into the use of spread-out beams and scanned 'pencil' beams. The Bragg-peak behaviour of hadrons makes them ideal candidates for the latter. The combination of precisely focused 'pencil' beams with controllable penetration (Bragg peak) and high, radio-biological efficiency (light ions) opens the way to treating the more awkward tumours that are radio-resistant, complex in shape and lodged against critical organs. To accelerate light ions (probably carbon) with pulse-to-pulse energy variation, a synchrotron is the natural choice. The beam scanning system is controlled via an on-line measurement of the particle flux entering the patient and, for this reason, the beam spill must be extended in time (seconds) by a slow-extraction scheme. The quality of the dose intensity profile ultimately depends on the uniformity o...

  18. Analytical fits to the synchrotron functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouka, Mourad; Ouichaoui, Saad

    2013-06-01

    Accurate fitting formulae to the synchrotron function, F(x), and its complementary function, G(x), are performed and presented. The corresponding relative errors are less than 0.26% and 0.035% for F(x) and G(x), respectively. To this end we have, first, fitted the modified Bessel functions, K5/3(x) and K2/3(x). For all the fitted functions, the general fit expression is the same, and is based on the well known asymptotic forms for low and large values of x for each function. It consists of multiplying each asymptotic form by a function that tends to unity or zero for low and large values of x. Simple formulae are suggested in this paper, depending on adjustable parameters. The latter have been determined by adopting the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The proposed formulae should be of great utility and simplicity for computing spectral powers and the degree of polarization for synchrotron radiation, both for laboratory and astrophysical applications.

  19. Long term ground movement of TRISTAN synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Ohsawa, Y.; Miyahara, M.

    1989-01-01

    The long term ground movement is estimated through the geological survey before a big accelerator is planned. For the case of TRISTAN-MR (main ring), its site was surveyed to reflect the underground information to the building prior to the construction. The movement of the synchrotron magnet mainly results from the structure of the tunnel. If an individual movement of the magnet exceeds a certain threshold limit, it gives a significant effect on the particle behavior in a synchrotron. Height of the quadrupole magnets were observed periodically during past two years at the TRISTAN-MR and their height differences along the 3 km circumference of the accelerator ring were decomposed into the Fourier components depicting the causes of the movements. Results shows the movement of the tunnel foundation which was also observed by the simultaneous measurement of both magnets and fiducial marks on the tunnel wall. The long term movement of the magnets is summarized with the geological survey prior to construction. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Impact system for ultrafast synchrotron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Owens, C. T.; Ramos, K. J.; Yeager, J. D.; Saavedra, R. A.; Luo, S. N.; Hooks, D. E.; Iverson, A. J.; Fezzaa, K.

    2013-01-01

    The impact system for ultrafast synchrotron experiments, or IMPULSE, is a 12.6-mm bore light-gas gun (<1 km/s projectile velocity) designed specifically for performing dynamic compression experiments using the advanced imaging and X-ray diffraction methods available at synchrotron sources. The gun system, capable of reaching projectile velocities up to 1 km/s, was designed to be portable for quick insertion/removal in the experimental hutch at Sector 32 ID-B of the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne, IL) while allowing the target chamber to rotate for sample alignment with the beam. A key challenge in using the gun system to acquire dynamic data on the nanosecond time scale was synchronization (or bracketing) of the impact event with the incident X-ray pulses (80 ps width). A description of the basic gun system used in previous work is provided along with details of an improved launch initiation system designed to significantly reduce the total system time from launch initiation to impact. Experiments were performed to directly measure the gun system time and to determine the gun performance curve for projectile velocities ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 km/s. All results show an average system time of 21.6 ± 4.5 ms, making it possible to better synchronize the gun system and detectors to the X-ray beam.

  1. Mapping prehistoric ghosts in the synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, N.P.; Wogelius, R.A. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bergmann, U. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Linac Coherent Light Source, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Larson, P. [Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Inc., Hill City, SD (United States); Sellers, W.I. [University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Manning, P.L. [University of Manchester, School of Earth, Atmospheric, and Environmental Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, Manchester (United Kingdom); University of Pennsylvania, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The detailed chemical analysis of fossils has the potential to reveal great insight to the composition, preservation and biochemistry of ancient life. Such analyses would ideally identify, quantify, and spatially resolve the chemical composition of preserved bone and soft tissue structures, but also the embedding matrix. Mapping the chemistry of a fossil in situ can place constraints on mass transfer between the enclosing matrix and the preserved organism(s), and therefore aid in distinguishing taphonomic processes from original chemical zonation remnant within the fossils themselves. Conventional analytical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) have serious limitations in this case, primarily, an inability to provide large (i.e., decimeter) scale chemical maps. Additionally, vacuum chamber size and the need for destructive sampling preclude analysis of large and precious fossil specimens. However, the recent development of Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) allows the non-destructive chemical analysis and imaging of major, minor, and trace element concentrations of large paleontological and archeological specimens in rapid scanning times. Here we present elemental maps of a fossil reptile produced using the new SRS-XRF method. Our results unequivocally show that preserved biological structures are not simply impressions or carbonized remains, but possess a remnant of the original organismal biochemistry. We show that SRS-XRF is a powerful new tool for the study of paleontological and archaeological samples. (orig.)

  2. Synchrotron radiation from a Helical Wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irani, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The use of Wiggler magnets as an improved source of synchrotron radiation from high energy electron storage rings was proposed a few years ago. Since then it has also been suggested that synchrotron radiation from Wiggler magnets placed in proton machines can be used to monitor energy, dimensions and position of the beam and that this effect is even more interesting in proton storage rings where the need to see the beam is greater. Most of the calculations carried out so far consider radiation from a single particle in a Wiggler which is appropriate when the beam is radiating incoherently. In this paper a general formalism is developed for the case when the beam radiates coherently. These results are then applied to both electron and proton storage rings. For the electron case, an expression is derived for the length of the bunch to be used as a more intense coherent radiation source. For proton machines the radiation can be used to measure energy, current, transverse dimensions and longitudinal density variations in the beam

  3. Synchrotron radiation from a helical wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irani, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The use of wiggler magnets as an improved source of synchrotron radiation from high energy electron storage rings was proposed a few years age. Since then it has also been suggested that synchrotron radiation from wiggler magnets placed in proton machines can be used to monitor energy, dimensions and position of the beam and that this effect is even more interesting in proton storage rings where the need to see the beam is greater. Most of the calculations carried out so far consider radiation from a single particle in a wiggler which is appropriate when the beam is radiating incoherently. A general formalism is presented for the case when the beam radiates coherently. These results are applied to both electron and proton storage rings. For the electron case, an expression is derived for the length of the bunch to use it as a more intense coherent radiation source. For proton machines the radiation can be used to measure energy, current, transverse dimensions and longitudinal density variations in the beam

  4. Compact synchrotron radiation depth lithography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüppel, O.; Kadereit, D.; Neff, B.; Hormes, J.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray depth lithography allows the fabrication of plastic microstructures with heights of up to 1 mm but with the smallest possible lateral dimensions of about 1 μm. A resist is irradiated with ``white'' synchrotron radiation through a mask that is partially covered with x-ray absorbing microstructures. The plastic microstructure is then obtained by a subsequent chemical development of the irradiated resist. In order to irradiate a reasonably large resist area, the mask and the resist have to be ``scanned'' across the vertically thin beam of the synchrotron radiation. A flexible, nonexpensive and compact scanner apparatus has been built for x-ray depth lithography at the beamline BN1 at ELSA (the 3.5 GeV Electron Stretcher and Accelerator at the Physikalisches Institut of Bonn University). Measurements with an electronic water level showed that the apparatus limits the scanner-induced structure precision to not more than 0.02 μm. The whole apparatus is installed in a vacuum chamber thus allowing lithography under different process gases and pressures.

  5. Application of circular polarized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Kawata, Hiroshi

    1988-03-01

    The idea of using the polarizing property of light for physical experiment by controlling it variously has been known from old time, and the Faraday effect and the research by polarizing microscopy are its examples. The light emitted from the electron orbit of an accelerator has the different polarizing characteristics from those of the light of a laboratory light source, and as far as observing it within the electron orbit plane, it becomes linearly polarized light. By utilizing this property well, research is carried out at present in synchrotron experimental facilities. Recently, the technology related to the insert type light cources using permanent magnets has advanced remarkably, and circular polarized light has become to be producible. If the light like this can be obtained with the energy not only in far ultraviolet region but also to x-ray region at high luminance, new possibility should open. At the stage that the design of an insert type light source was finished, and its manufacture was started, the research on the method of evaluating the degree of circular polarization and the research on the utilization of circular polarized synchrotron radiation are earnestly carried out. In this report, the results of researches presented at the study meeting are summarized. Moreover, the design and manufacture of the beam lines for exclusive use will be carried out. (Kako, I.)

  6. Berkeley Lab's ALS generates femtosecond synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, A L

    2000-01-01

    A team at Berkeley's Advanced Light Source has shown how a laser time-slicing technique provides a path to experiments with ultrafast time resolution. A Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory team has succeeded in generating 300 fs pulses of synchrotron radiation at the ALS synchrotron radiation machine. The team's members come from the Materials Sciences Division (MSD), the Center for Beam Physics in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division and the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Although this proof-of principle experiment made use of visible light on a borrowed beamline, the laser "time-slicing" technique at the heart of the demonstration will soon be applied in a new bend magnet beamline that was designed specially for the production of femtosecond pulses of X-rays to study long-range and local order in condensed matter with ultrafast time resolution. An undulator beamline based on the same technique has been proposed that will dramatically increase the flux and brightness. The use of X-rays to study the c...

  7. Calibration of AXAF Mirrors Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graessle, D. E.; Fitch, J.; Harris, B.; Hsieh, P.; Nguyen, D.; Hughes, J.; Schwartz, D.; Blake, R.

    1995-12-01

    Over the past five years, the SAO AXAF Mission Support Team has been developing methods and systems to provide a tunable, narrow-energy-bandwidth calibration of the reflecting efficiency of the AXAF High Resolution Mirror Assembly. A group of synchrotron beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source was selected for this calibration. Measurements and analysis are now available for the 2-12 keV energy range. An X-ray beam with energy purity E/Delta E ~ 5000 has been used to calibrate several witness flats which were coated simultaneously with elements of the flight mirror. In the iridium-edge range, (2010-3200 eV), these may be the first measurements ever to be reported. Optical constants for the iridium have been derived from a fit of reflectance versus grazing angle to a Fresnel equation model for the 2-12 keV energy range. The eight AXAF HRMA elements are being coated individually; however reflectance results are quite consistent from coating run to coating run for the first few pieces. The measurement precision is approximately 0.2%-0.4%. Residuals of the fit are nearly always within 1.0% of the data values, in the angle ranges of interest to AXAF.

  8. Molecular environmental science and synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.E. Jr. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Molecular environmental science is a relatively new field but focuses on the chemical and physical forms of toxic and/or radioactive contaminants in soils, sediments, man-made waste forms, natural waters, and the atmosphere; their possible reactions with inorganic and organic compounds, plants, and organisms in the environment; and the molecular-level factors that control their toxicity, bioavailability, and transport. The chemical speciation of a contaminant is a major factor in determining its behavior in the environment, and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is one of the spectroscopies of choice to quantitatively determine speciation of heavy metal contaminants in situ without selective extraction or other sample treatment. The use of high-flux insertion device beam lines at synchrotron sources and multi-element array detectors has permitted XAFS studies of metals such as Se and As in natural soils at concentration levels as low as 50 ppm. The X-ray absorption near edge structure of these metals is particularly useful in determining their oxidation state. Examples of such studies will be presented, and new insertion device beam lines under development at SSRL and the Advanced Photon Source for molecular environmental science applications will be discussed.

  9. Performances of BNL high-intensity synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1998-03-01

    The AGS proton synchrotron was completed in 1960 with initial intensity in the 10 to the 10th power proton per pulse (ppp) range. Over the years, through many upgrades and improvements, the AGS now reached an intensity record of 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, the highest world intensity record for a proton synchrotron on a single pulse basis. At the same time, the Booster reached 2.2 x 10 13 ppp surpassing the design goal of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp due to the introduction of second harmonic cavity during injection. The intensity limitation caused by space charge tune spread and its relationship to injection energy at 50 MeV, 200 MeV, and 1,500 MeV will be presented as well as many critical accelerator manipulations. BNL currently participates in the design of an accumulator ring for the SNS project at Oak Ridge. The status on the issues of halo formation, beam losses and collimation are also presented

  10. IDE DAN DESAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilia Yunita Wijaya

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have seen many desain all around our everyday living. Design exist in the form of brochures%2C posters%2C banners%2C signages%2C book covers%2C and etcetera. Some are nice and easy to understand%2C some are ok%2C and some look like they are not fully develop and thought. A word that run across our mind whrn we enjoying a design is idea . A good design almost always associated with a good idea%2C is it tru? This paper is going to discuss about desain and its relationship to idea. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Banyak desain yang diamati dalam kehidupan kita sehari-hari. Desain hadir dalam bentuk brosur%2C poster%2C spanduk%2C tanda-tanda%2C sampul buku%2C dan lain sebagainya. Ada beberapa yang bagus dan mudah untuk dimengerti%2C beberapa yang biasa%2C dan beberapa yang tampak asal dibuat. Sebuah kata yang terlintas dalam pemikiran kita dalam menikmati sebuah desain adalah ide . Sebuah desain yang baik selalu di identikan dengan ide yang baik%2C benarkah hal ini? Apakah desain dan apa hubungannya dengan ide akan dibahas pada tulisan ini.

  11. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, A.M.; Janssens, K.; Artioli, G.; Young, M.L.; Casadio, F.; Schnepp, S.; Marvin, J.; Dunand, D.C.; Almer, J.; Fezzaa, K.; Lee, W.K.; Haeffner, D.R.; Reguer, S.; Dillmann, Ph.; Mirambet, F.; Susini, J.; Lagarde, P.; Pradell, T.; Molera, J.; Brunetti, B.; D'acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Padovani, S.; Sgamellotti, A.; Garges, F.; Etcheverry, M.P.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.; Marcus, M.A.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Grolimund, D.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Smith, A.D.; Jones, M.; Gliozzo, E.; Memmi-Turbanti, I.; Molera, J.; Vendrell, M.; Mcconachie, G.; Skinner, T.; Kirkman, I.W.; Pantos, E.; Wallert, A.; Kanngiesser, B.; Hahn, O.; Wilke, M.; NekaT, B.; Malzer, W.; Erko, A.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Farges, F.; Susini, J.; Menu, M.; Sandstrom, M.; Cotte, M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Wess, T.J.; Muller, M.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, M.A.; Burghammer, M.; Riekel, C.; Gunneweg, J.; Pantos, E.; Dik, J.; Tafforeau, P.; Boistel, R.; Boller, E.; Bravin, A.; Brunet, M.; Chaimanee, Y.; Cloetens, P.; Feist, M.; Hoszowska, J.; Jaeger, J.J.; Kay, R.F.; Lazzari, V.; Marivaux, L.; Nel, A.; Nemoz, C.; Thibault, X.; Vignaud, P.; Zabler, S.; Sciau, P.; Goudeau, P.; Tamura, N.; Doormee, E.; Kockelmann, W.; Adriaens, A.; Ryck, I. de; Leyssens, K.; Hochleitner, B.; Schreiner, M.; Drakopoulos, M.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Sanchez Del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Dooryhee, E.; Suarez, M.; Sodo, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Haro Poniatowski, E.; Picquart, M.; Lima, E.; Reguera, E.; Gunneweg, J.; Reiche, I.; Berger, A.; Bevers, H.; Duval, A.

    2005-01-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  12. National synchrotron light source basic design and project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1981-01-01

    A summary description and the basic design parameters of the National Synchrotron Light Source, a facility for the generation of intense synchrotron radiation in the vuv and x-ray range is presented, the parameters of the sources are given, the presently planned facility beam lines are tabulated and the status of the project is indicated

  13. Third generation synchrotron radiation applied to materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, E.N.; Yun, W.

    1993-01-01

    Utility of synchrotron radiation for characterization of materials and ramifications of availability of new third-generation, high-energy, high-intensity sources of synchrotron radiation are discussed. Examples are given of power of x-ray analysis techniques to be expected with these new machines

  14. Synchrotron radiation facilities at DESY, a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.E.

    1979-12-01

    A short summary of the developments which have led to the present extensive use of Synchrotron Radiation at DESY is presented and a description of the Synchrotron Radiation facilities presently available and under development is given with emphasis on the new HASYLAB project at the storage ring DORIS. (orig.) 891 HSI/orig. 892 MKO

  15. First turn simulations in the cooler synchrotron COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1991-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the first turn correction and related problems in particle accelerators of synchrotron type. The paper consists of two parts. The first part is a survey of the existing methods for first turn steering. The second part is entirely devoted to the first turn in the cooler synchrotron COSY which is under assembling in KFA-Julich, Germany. (orig.)

  16. A synchrotron radiation facility for x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for an x-ray optics test facility based at a synchrotron radiation source is presented. The facility would incorporate a clean preparation area, and a large evacuable test area. The advantages of using a synchrotron as the source of the test radiation are discussed. These include the a...

  17. Status of the National Synchrotron Light Source project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heese, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source is in its final stages of construction, and as the turn-on time for the 700 MeV vuv storage ring draws near, an overview of the project is presented. Emphasis is placed on the linac and booster synchrotron performance and the status of major subsystems

  18. Low frequency interference between short synchrotron radiation sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Méot

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed analytical formalism describing low frequency far-field synchrotron radiation (SR is applied to the calculation of spectral angular radiation densities from interfering short sources (edge, short magnet. This is illustrated by analytical calculation of synchrotron radiation from various assemblies of short dipoles, including an “isolated” highest density infrared SR source.

  19. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to ...

  20. Synchrotron radiation in art and archaeology SRA 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, A M; Janssens, K; Artioli, G; Young, M L; Casadio, F; Schnepp, S; Marvin, J; Dunand, D C; Almer, J; Fezzaa, K; Lee, W K; Haeffner, D R; Reguer, S; Dillmann, Ph; Mirambet, F; Susini, J; Lagarde, P; Pradell, T; Molera, J; Brunetti, B; D' acapito, F; Maurizio, C; Mazzoldi, P; Padovani, S; Sgamellotti, A; Garges, F; Etcheverry, M P; Flank, A M; Lagarde, P; Marcus, M A; Scheidegger, A M; Grolimund, D; Pallot-Frossard, I; Smith, A D; Jones, M; Gliozzo, E; Memmi-Turbanti, I; Molera, J; Vendrell, M; Mcconachie, G; Skinner, T; Kirkman, I W; Pantos, E; Wallert, A; Kanngiesser, B; Hahn, O; Wilke, M; NekaT, B; Malzer, W; Erko, A; Chalmin, E; Vignaud, C; Farges, F; Susini, J; Menu, M; Sandstrom, M; Cotte, M; Kennedy, C J; Wess, T J; Muller, M; Murphy, B; Roberts, M A; Burghammer, M; Riekel, C; Gunneweg, J; Pantos, E; Dik, J; Tafforeau, P; Boistel, R; Boller, E; Bravin, A; Brunet, M; Chaimanee, Y; Cloetens, P; Feist, M; Hoszowska, J; Jaeger, J J; Kay, R F; Lazzari, V; Marivaux, L; Nel, A; Nemoz, C; Thibault, X; Vignaud, P; Zabler, S; Sciau, P; Goudeau, P; Tamura, N; Doormee, E; Kockelmann, W; Adriaens, A; Ryck, I de; Leyssens, K; Hochleitner, B; Schreiner, M; Drakopoulos, M; Snigireva, I; Snigirev, A; Sanchez Del Rio, M; Martinetto, P; Dooryhee, E; Suarez, M; Sodo, A; Reyes-Valerio, C; Haro Poniatowski, E; Picquart, M; Lima, E; Reguera, E; Gunneweg, J; Reiche, I; Berger, A; Bevers, H; Duval, A

    2005-07-01

    Materials - bones, artifacts, artwork,.... - lie at the heart of both archaeology and art conservation. Synchrotron radiation techniques provide powerful ways to interrogate these records of our physical and cultural past. In this workshop we will discuss and explore the current and potential applications of synchrotron radiation science to problems in archaeology and art conservation. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  1. ÉTUDE de la Capture ÉLECTRONIQUE dans la DÉSINTÉGRATION du Nuclide 23Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpak, G.

    L'étude de 22Na est faite avec un compteur Geiger 4π. On met en évidence l'émission d'un rayonnement de très basse énergle, indépendant des rayons β+, complètement absorbé dans un film de quelques microgrammes par centimètre carré d'aluminium on de matière plastique LC 600 et attribué aux électrons Auger d'énergie maximum 0,85 keV, qui suivent la capture électronique. En raison du très faible parcours de ces électrons , nous sommes amené à discuter particulièrement une méthode simple de préparation de sources radloactives minces et uniformes. Nous obtenons la valeta du rapport [ Capture Λ/Emission β+ = (6,5±0,9) pour 100.

  2. URGENSI DAN PROSPEK PENGATURAN (IUS CONSTITUENDUM UU TENTANG CONTEMPT OF COURT UNTUK MENEGAKKAN MARTABAT DAN WIBAWA PERADILAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Mulyadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available UU Contempt of Court merupakan kebutuhan yang bersifat urgent, segera dan mendesak, sehingga perlu dilakukan kajian dan penelitian secara kritis, akademis dan bersifat komprehensif untuk menjaga keluhuran dan menegakkan martabat dan wibawa peradilan.

  3. Excitation of nuclear states by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olariu, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We study the excitation of nuclear states by gamma ray beams of energy up to 200 keV produced as synchrotron radiation. We consider the possibility to populate an excited state |i> in two steps, from the ground state |g> to an intermediary state |n> which decays by gamma emission or internal conversion to a lower state |i>. The aim of this study is to establish that the probability P 2 of the two-step transition |g> → |n> → |i> should be greater than the probability P 1 of the direct transition |g> → |i>. The probabilities P 1 and P 2 correspond to a radiation pulse of duration equal to the half-time of the state |i>. We have written a computer program in C++ which computes the probability P 2 , the ratio P 2 /P 1 and the rate C 2 of the two-step transitions for any nuclei and different configurations of states. The program uses a database which contains information on the energy levels, half-lives, spins and parities of nuclear states and on the relative intensities of the nuclear transitions. If the half-lives or the relative intensities are not known the program uses the Weisskopf estimates for the transition half-lives. An interpolation program of internal conversion coefficients has also been used. We listed the values obtained for P 2 , P 2 /P 1 and C 2 in a number of cases in which P 2 is significant from the 2900 considered cases. The states |i> and |n> have the energies E i and E n , the corresponding half-lives being t i and t n . The spectral density of the synchrotron radiation has been considered to be 10 12 photons cm -2 s -1 eV -1 . We listed only the cases for which the relative intensities of the transitions from levels |n> and |i> to lower states are known. The calculations carried out in this study allowed us to identify nuclei for which P 2 has relatively great values. In the listed cases P 2 /P 1 >>1, so that the two-step excitation by synchrotron radiation is more efficient than the direct excitation |g> → |i>. For a sample having 10

  4. Epistemologi dan Keterbatasan Teori Gravitasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.

  5. EPISTEMOLOGI DAN KETERBATASAN TEORI GRAVITASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.

  6. The Synchrotron Topography Project (STP) at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.; Hmelo, A.B.; Liu, J.M.; Herley, P.J.; Chen, H.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Illinois Univ., Urbana; Green, R.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The collaborators have participated in the Synchrotron Topography Project (STP) which has designed and developed instrumentation for an X-ray topography station at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The two principle instruments constructed consist of a White Beam Camera (WBC) and a Multiple Crystal Camera (MCC) with high planar collimation and wide area image coverage. It is possible to perform in situ studies in a versatile environmental chamber equipped with a miniature mechanical testing stage for both the WBC and MCC systems. Real-time video imaging plus a rapid feed cassette holder for high resolution photographic plates is available for recording topographs. Provisions are made for other types of photon detection as well as spectroscopy. The facilities for the entire station have been designed for remote operation using a LSI-11/23 plus suitable interfacing. These instruments will be described briefly and the current status of the program will be reviewed. (orig.)

  7. ISLAM DAN RADIKALISME: Upaya Antisipasi dan Penanggulangannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrus Ruslan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sejak tragedi pemboman WTC tanggal 11 September 2001 yang disusul dengan rangkaian peledakan bom di sejumlah negara, banyak orang non Muslim yang berasumsi bahwa ajaran Islam identik dengan radikalisme. Walaupun assumsi yang berkembang itu dapat dimaklumi, namun keyakinan tersebut tentu saja tidak sepenuhnya benar. Karena meskipun terdapat sekelompok orang Islam yang berbuat radikal, akan tetapi mayoritas Muslim justru bertentangan dengan mereka. Lagi pula, jika dicermati secara mendalam, sesungguhnya Islam sama sekali tidak mentolerir tindakan radikal. Ia adalah agama kasih sayang yang sangat mendodrong penganutnya untuk berbuat baik terhadap orang lain, termasuk kepada orang-orang non-Muslim. Artikel ini menawarkan beberapa upaya strategis dalam mengantisipasi dan menanggulangi bahaya radikalisme-terorisme.

  8. Plane grating monochromators for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The general background and theoretical basis of plane grating monochromators (PGM's) is reviewed and the particular case of grazing incidence PGM's suitable for use with synchrotron radiation is considered in detail. The theory of reflection filtering is described and the problem of the finite source distance is shown to be of special importance with high brightness storage rings. The design philosophy of previous instruments is discussed and a new scheme proposed, aimed at dealing with the problem of the finite source distance. This scheme, involving a parabolic collimating mirror fabricated by diamond turning, is considered in the context of Wolter-type telescopes and microscopes. Some practical details concerning an instrument presently under construction using the new design are presented

  9. 3D Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pennicard, D

    2009-01-01

    3D detectors are a novel variety of photodiode radiation detector, invented by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). Instead of having n- and p-type contacts on the front and back surfaces of a silicon substrate, like a standard photodiode, they have columns of doped material passing through the thickness of the silicon. This structure means that the detector can combine a reasonable substrate thickness with a very small electrode spacing, resulting in a low depletion voltage, fast charge collection and low charge sharing. These detectors have a couple of promising applications. Their fast charge collection and low depletion voltage should make them very radiation-tolerant. So, they could be used for future particle physics experiments at the Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC), where high levels of radiation damage are expected. Also, their low charge sharing means they could potentially improve X-ray diffraction measurements at synchrotrons such as Diamond Light Source. This would allow these experiments, for exa...

  10. Synchrotron radiation facilities for chemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) research is of great importance in understanding radiation chemistry, physics, and biology. It is also clearly recognized in the international chemical community that chemical applications of SR are greatly advanced and divided into 1) Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics Studies-Gases, Surfaces, and Condensed Matter- , 2) Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry, 3) X-ray Structural and XAFS Studies-Crystals, Surfaces, and Liquids- , 4) Analytical Chemistry, and 5) Synthesis or R and D of New Materials. In this paper, a survey is given of recent advances in the application of SR to the chemistry of excitation and ionization of molecules, i.e., SR chemistry, in the wavelength region between near-ultraviolet and hard X-rays. The topics will be chosen from those obtained at some leading SR facilities. (J.P.N.)

  11. Coherent synchrotron radiation experiments for the LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Russell, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe a coherent synchrotron radiation experiment planned at Los Alamos to support the design of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray FEL. Preliminary simulations of the LCLS compressors show that a clever tuning strategy can be used to minimize the electron's beam emittance growth due to noninertial space-charge forces by employing a delicate cancellation of these forces. The purpose of the Los Alamos experiment, using a sub-picosecond chicane compressor, is to benchmark these simulations tools. In this paper, the authors present detailed numerical simulations of the experiment, and point out unique signatures of this effect that are measurable. As predicted previously, the largest emittance growths and induced energy spreads result from the nonradiative components of this space-charge force

  12. Electron beam spectrum monitor using synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, D.; Hostetler, T.E.

    1979-03-01

    This instrument shows the positions, widths, and shapes of momentum spectra of SLAC beams. It uses synchrotron light produced when the beam is deflected by a magnet. Some of the light is focused on the face of an image splitter consisting of acrylic light pipes. The light pipes illuminate twelve photomultiplier tubes. Pulses from the PM tubes are integrated, multiplexed, and displayed on an oscilloscope. The resolution of the instrument is usually better than 0.2%. It has some advantages over the secondary emitter foil spectrum monitors (SEM's) currently in use at SLAC. It need never be put out of service to avoid disturbing the beam. It is as sensitive as the most sensitive SLAC SEM. (Its performance has been optimized for high-current beams; it can easily be made much more sensitive.) It provides information on a pulse-to-pulse basis and, with better cables, could indicate electron beam pulse shapes

  13. Optical substrate materials for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.; Paquin, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    The authors consider the materials choices available for making optical substrates for synchrotron radiation beam lines. They find that currently the optical surfaces can only be polished to the required finish in fused silica and other glasses, silicon, CVD silicon carbide, electroless nickel and 17-4 PH stainless steel. Substrates must therefore be made of one of these materials or of a metal that can be coated with electroless nickel. In the context of material choices for mirrors they explore the issues of dimensional stability, polishing, bending, cooling, and manufacturing strategy. They conclude that metals are best from an engineering and cost standpoint while the ceramics are best from a polishing standpoint. They then give discussions of specific materials as follows: silicon carbide, silicon, electroless nickel, Glidcop trademark, aluminum, precipitation-hardening stainless steel, mild steel, invar and superinvar. Finally they summarize conclusions and propose ideas for further research

  14. Microfabrication of crosslinked PTFE by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Daichi; Oshima, Akihiro; Washio, Masakazu; Katoh, Takanori; Aoki, Yasushi; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    Microfabrication of crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using synchrotron radiation (SR) has been demonstrated for production of micro-components applicable to radiation fields. The method of microfabrication was readily capable of obtaining a microstructure with aspect-ratio of 25 made of crosslinked PTFE. The etching rate of crosslinked PTFE was higher than that of non-crosslinked PTFE. The results show that the etching rate of crosslinked PTFE depends only on the degree of crosslinking. The effect of molecular motion on etching process was discussed from temperature dependence on etching rate. Moreover, in order to examine whether any change of chemical structures and crystallinity would be induced by SR-irradiation on PTFE, SR-irradiated PTFE was measured by NMR spectroscopy and DSC analysis. The results showed that the crosslinking reaction of PTFE would be induced by SR-irradiation in the solid state. (author)

  15. Channels in cell membranes and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Tian Liang; Zhang Xinyi

    2004-01-01

    For long time a lot of scientists have devoted to study how matter, such as water molecules and K + , Na + , Ca 2+ , Cl - ions, move through cell membranes and complete the matter exchange between the inside and outside of cells. Peter Agre discovered and characterized the first water channel protein in 1988 and Roderick MacKinnon elucidated the structural and mechanistic basis for ion channel function in 1998. These achievements have made it possible for us to 'see' these exquisitely designed molecular machines in action at the atomic level. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2003 is shared between these two scientists. In determining the high resolution 3D structure of these channels, the synchrotron X-ray diffraction plays an important role

  16. Synchrotron radiation total reflection for rainwater analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, Silvana M.; Matsumoto, Edson

    1999-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis excited with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF) has been used for rainwater trace element analysis. The samples were collected in four different sites at Campinas City, SP. Standard solutions with gallium as internal standard were prepared for the calibration system. Rainwater samples of 10 μl were putted onto Perspex reflector disk, dried on vacuum and analyzed for 100 s measuring time. The detection limits obtained for K-shell varied from 29 ng.ml -1 for sulfur to 1.3 ng.ml -1 for zinc and copper, while for L-shell the values were 4.5 ng.ml -1 for mercury and 7.0 ng.ml -1 for lead. (author)

  17. A guide to synchrotron radiation science

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Shigeru; Munro, Ian; Lodha, G S

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR), as a light source is now in use around the world to provide brilliant radiation from the infrared into the soft and hard X-ray regions. It is an indispensible and essential tool to establish the physic-chemical characteristics of materials and surfaces from an atomic and molecular view point. It is being applied to topics which range from mineralogy to protein crystallography, embracing research in areas from the physical to the life sciences. This new guide is a concise yet comprehensive and easily readable introduction to an expanding area of science. It presents in a readily assimilable form the basic concepts of SR science from its generation principles, through source design and operation to the principles of instruments for SR exploitation followed by a survey of its actual applications in selected research fields, including spectroscopy, diffractometry, microanalysis and chemical processing.

  18. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Park, S.Y.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude

  19. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  20. Mirrors for synchrotron-radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    The authors consider the role of mirrors in synchrotron-radiation beamlines and discuss the optical considerations involved in their design. They discuss toroidal, spherical, elliptical, and paraboloidal mirrors in detail with particular attention to their aberration properties. They give a treatment of the sine condition and describe its role in correcting the coma of axisymmetric systems. They show in detail how coma is inevitable in single-reflection, grazing-incidence systems but correctable in two-reflection systems such as those of the Wolter type. In an appendix, they give the theory of point aberrations of reflectors of a general shape and discuss the question of correct naming of aberrations. In particular, a strict definition of coma is required if attempts at correction are to be based on the sine condition

  1. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  2. A synchrotron radiation study of strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslen, E.N.; Spadaccini, N.; Ito, T.; Marumo, F.; Satow, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Electron deformation densities Δρ for SrTiO 3 have been determined from diffraction data measured using focused synchrotron radiation with λ = 0.7000 (2) A at the Photon Factory, KEK, Japan. Corrections for secondary extinction were estimated from the variation of diffraction intensity with path length, and checked from the λ-dependence of the strong intensities indicated by measurements using a weaker parallel beam with λ = 0.5000 (2) A. The 0.7 A study is more precise than earlier analyses with Mo Kα radiation. The difference density near the Ti nucleus is mildly anisotropic, and the Δρ topography is similar to those for closed-shell atoms in related perovskite structures. (orig.)

  3. Helical magnetized wiggler for synchrotron radiation laser

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Mei; Hirshfield, J L

    1999-01-01

    A helical magnetized iron wiggler has been built for a novel infrared synchrotron radiation laser (SRL) experiment. The wiggler consists of four periods of helical iron structure immersed in a solenoid field. This wiggler is to impart transverse velocity to a prebunched 6 MeV electron beam, and thus to obtain a desired high orbit pitch ratio for the SRL. Field tapering at beam entrance is considered and tested on a similar wiggler. Analytic and simulated characteristics of wigglers of this type are discussed and the performance of the fabricated wigglers is demonstrated experimentally. A 4.7 kG peak field was measured for a 6.4 mm air gap and a 5.4 cm wiggler period at a 20 kG solenoid field. The measured helical fields compare favorably with the analytical solution. This type of helical iron wigglers has the potential to be scaled to small periods with strong field amplitude.

  4. Application of synchrotron radiation in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Izumi [Science University of Tokyo, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Chemistry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    This paper reports current status of archaeological application of synchrotron radiation (SR). The advantages of SR in archaeological research and various application possibilities of X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses of objects and materials of cultural heritage value are demonstrated through a number of case studies from literatures. They include XPD characterizations of Egyptian cosmetic powder, Attic Black Gloss, and pigments in Gothic altarpieces, provenance analysis of Old-Kutani china wares by high energy XRF, and XAFS analyses to reveal to origin of red color in Satsuma copper-ruby glass and role of iron in Maya blue. (author)

  5. Illuminating magma shearing processes via synchrotron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Cai, Biao; Coats, Rebecca; Kendrick, Jackie E.; von Aulock, Felix W.; Wallace, Paul A.; Le Gall, Nolwenn; Godinho, Jose; Dobson, Katherine; Atwood, Robert; Holness, Marian; Lee, Peter D.

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of geomaterial behaviour and processes has long fallen short due to inaccessibility into material as "something" happens. In volcanology, research strategies have increasingly sought to illuminate the subsurface of materials at all scales, from the use of muon tomography to image the inside of volcanoes to the use of seismic tomography to image magmatic bodies in the crust, and most recently, we have added synchrotron-based x-ray tomography to image the inside of material as we test it under controlled conditions. Here, we will explore some of the novel findings made on the evolution of magma during shearing. These will include observations and discussions of magma flow and failure as well as petrological reaction kinetics.

  6. Gravitational perturbation theory and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, R A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Astrophysik

    1975-01-01

    This article presents methods and results for a gravitational perturbation theory which treats massless fields as linearized perturbations of an arbitrary gravitational vacuum background spacetime. The formalism is outlined for perturbations of type (22) spacetimes. As an application, high-frequency radiation emitted by particles moving approximately on relativistic circular geodesic orbits is computed. More precisely, the test particle assumption is made; throughout it is therefore assumed that the reaction of the radiation on the particle motion is negligible. In particular, these orbits are studied in the gravitational field of a spherically symmetric (Schwarzschild-) black hole as well as of a rotating (Kerr-) black hole. In this model, the outgoing radiation is highly focussed and of much higher fequency than the orbital frequency, i.e. one is dealing with 'gravitational synchrotron radiation'.

  7. Tune measurement in the NSLS booster synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, E.B.; Nawrocky, R.

    1993-01-01

    The NSLS booster synchrotron can accelerate an electron beam from approximately 80 to 750 MeV in 0.7 sec. The betatron tunes can change during acceleration by as much as 0.1 units, causing beam loss as they cross resonance lines. Precise measurements with a conventional swept spectrum analyzer have always been difficult because of the rapid variation of tune as the magnets are ramped. We are now using a system based on a Tektronix 3052 digital spectrum analyzer that can obtain a complete frequency spectrum over a 10 MHz bandwidth in 200 μsec. Betatron oscillations are stimulated for the measurements by applying white noise to the beam through stripline electrodes. We will describe the instrumentation, our measurements of tune as a function time during the acceleration cycle, and the resulting improvements to the booster operation

  8. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Graeme Douglas

    Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

  9. European synchrotron radiation facility at Risoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The results of the feasibility study on a potential European Synchrotron Radiation Facility site at Risoe, Denmark, can be summarized as follows: The site is located in a geologically stable area. The ground is fairly flat, free from vibrations and earth movements, and the foundation properties are considered generally good. The study is based upon the machine concept and main geometry as presented in the ESF feasibility study of May 1979. However, the proposed site could accomodate a larger machine (e.g. 900 m of circumference) or a multi-facility centre. The site is located in the vicinity of Risoe National Laboratory, a R and D establishment with 850 employees and a well-developed technical and scientific infrastructure, which can provide support to the ESRF during the plant construction and operation. In particular the possible combination of synchrotron radiation with the existing neutron scattering facilities in DR 3 is emphasized. The site is located 35 km west of Copenhagen with easy access to the scientific, technological and industrial organizations in the metropolitan area. The regional infrastructure ensures easy and fast communication between the ESRF and locations in the host country as well as abroad. The site is located 35 minutes drive from Copenhagen International Airport and on a main communication route out of Copenhagen. The estimated time duration for the design, construction and commissioning of ESRF phase 1 - taking into account national regulatory procedures - is consistent with that of the ESF feasibility study, i.e. approx. 6 years. The estimated captal costs associated with site-specific structures are consistent with those of the ESF feasibility study, taking into account price increase between 1979 and 1981. It should be emphasized that the study is based upon technical and scientific assessments only, and does not reflect any official position or approval from appropriate authorities. (author)

  10. Brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2014-12-01

    According to literature, while calculating the brightness of synchrotron radiation from wigglers, one needs to account for the so called 'depth-of-field' effects. In fact, the particle beam cross section varies along the wiggler. It is usually stated that the effective photon source size increases accordingly, while the brightness is reduced. Here we claim that this is a misconception originating from an analysis of the wiggler source based on geometrical arguments, regarded as almost self-evident. According to electrodynamics, depth-of-field effects do not exist: we demonstrate this statement both theoretically and numerically, using a well-known first-principle computer code. This fact shows that under the usually accepted approximations, the description of the wiggler brightness turns out to be inconsistent even qualitatively. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined procedure for computing the brightness from a wiggler source. We accomplish this task based on the use of a Wigner function formalism. In the geometrical optics limit computations can be performed analytically. Within this limit, we restrict ourselves to the case of the beam size-dominated regime, which is typical for synchrotron radiation facilities in the X-ray wavelength range. We give a direct demonstration of the fact that the apparent horizontal source size is broadened in proportion to the beamline opening angle and to the length of the wiggler. While this effect is well-understood, a direct proof appears not to have been given elsewhere. We consider the problem of the calculation of the wiggler source size by means of numerical simulations alone, which play the same role of an experiment. We report a significant numerical disagreement between exact calculations and approximations currently used in literature.

  11. Liquid metal cooling of synchrotron optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    The installation of insertion devices at existing synchrotron facilities around the world has stimulated the development of new ways to cool the optical elements in the associated x-ray beamlines. Argonne has been a leader in the development of liquid metal cooling for high heat load x-ray optics for the next generation of synchrotron facilities. The high thermal conductivity, high volume specific heat, low kinematic viscosity, and large working temperature range make liquid metals a very efficient heat transfer fluid. A wide range of liquid metals were considered in the initial phase of this work. The most promising liquid metal cooling fluid identified to date is liquid gallium, which appears to have all the desired properties and the fewest number of undesired features of the liquid metals examined. Besides the special features of liquid metals that make them good heat transfer fluids, the very low vapor pressure over a large working temperature range make liquid gallium an ideal cooling fluid for use in a high vacuum environment. A leak of the liquid gallium into the high vacuum and even into very high vacuum areas will not result in any detectable vapor pressure and may even improve the vacuum environment as the liquid gallium combines with any water vapor or oxygen present in the system. The practical use of a liquid metal for cooling silicon crystals and other high heat load applications depends on having a convenient and efficient delivery system. The requirements for a typical cooling system for a silicon crystal used in a monochromator are pumping speeds of 2 to 5 gpm (120 cc per sec to 600 cc per sec) at pressures up to 100 psi. No liquid metal pump with these capabilities was available commercially when this project was started, so it was necessary to develop a suitable pump in house

  12. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Susiana; Ali, Syamsu Alam; Rukminasari, Nita

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  13. Dynamic response of a typical synchrotron magnet/girder assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Smith, R.K.; Vogt, M.E.

    1993-06-01

    In the Advanced Photon Source, the synchrotron booster ring accelerates positrons to the required energy level of 7 GeV. The positrons are then injected into the storage ring where they continue to orbit for 10--15 h. The storage ring quadrupoles have very stringent vibration criteria that must be satisfied to ensure that beam emittance growth is within acceptable limits, viz., <10%. Because the synchrotron booster ring is not operated after particle insertion into the storage ring, its vibration response is not a critical issue relative to the performance of the storage ring beam. Nevertheless, the synchrotron pulses at a frequency of 2 Hz, and if a vibration response frequency of the synchrotron magnet/girder assembly were to coincide with the pulsation frequency or its near harmonics, large-amplitude motion could result, with the effect that it could compromise the operation of the synchrotron. Due to the complex dynamics of the synchrotron magnet/girder assembly, it is necessary to measure the dynamic response of a prototypic assembly and its components to ensure that the inherent dynamic response frequencies are not equal to 2 Hz or any near harmonics. Dynamic-response measurement of the synchrotron girder assembly and component magnets is the subject of this report

  14. Limitations of heavy ion synchrotron acceleration for inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berley, D.; Danby, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    The potential benefits from heavy ion inertial fusion motivate the rapid development of a program to test the principle. To define the program, accelerator parameters which have not hitherto been commonly considered must be studied interactively with basic questions of space charge limitations and charge exchange. Beam lifetime and power output efficiency may ultimately lead to a linear accelerator as the choice for an ignition device. For proof of principle, however, at power levels way beyond present inertial fusion experience, synchrotrons may have applicability at lower cost. The power and energy which can be delivered by the accelerating system to the reaction chamber are limited by space charge defocussing and intra beam charge exchange scattering, both of which are beam density dependent. These put constraints on linac injector energy, synchrotron aperture, synchrotron magnetic rigidity, acceleration time, ion species and charge to mass ratio. The accelerator system considered is classical. A linear accelerator injects into a synchrotron which accelerates the ion beam to the full energy delivered to the target. The maximum energy deliverable by a synchrotron is treated in section I. The targetting parameters and the energy gained through synchrotron acceleration completely determine the synchrotron aperture. These are discussed in sections II and III. The ion range in material is treated in section IV. The problem of intrabeam scattering is considered in section V. Finally, in section VI is a discussion of examples to meet specified goals

  15. Advances and synergy of high pressure sciences at synchrotron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T.; Crichton, W.; Aoki, K.

    2009-01-01

    Introductory overview to the special issue papers on high-pressure sciences and synchrotron radiation. High-pressure research in geosciences, materials science and condensed matter physics at synchrotron sources is experiencing growth and development through synergistic efforts around the world. A series of high-pressure science workshops were organized in 2008 to highlight these developments. One of these workshops, on 'Advances in high-pressure science using synchrotron X-rays', was held at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, on 4 October 2008. This workshop was organized in honour of Drs Jingzhu Hu and Quanzhong Guo in celebration of their retirement after up to 18 years of dedicated service to the high-pressure community as beamline scientists at X17 of NSLS. Following this celebration of the often unheralded role of the beamline scientist, a special issue of the Journal of Synchrotron Radiation on Advances and Synergy of High-Pressure Sciences at Synchrotron Sources was proposed, and we were pleased to invite contributions from colleagues who participated in the workshop as well as others who are making similar efforts at synchrotron sources worldwide.

  16. DAKWAH DAN PEMBERDAYAAN PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurmahyati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Da’wah is an attempt to persuade and influence others in realizing the teachings of Islam, to achieve worldly prosperity and welfare of the hereafter. The success was fueled by propaganda aspects are interrelated, anatara preachers, propaganda material, propaganda strategy, mad’u (target da’wah. The number of women in this country nearly half of people (49.36. therefore, it is important to empower women in da’wah to build their own people in consciousness and religious activities that provide the basics of life prosperous world and hereafter.   Dakwah merupakan suatu upaya untuk mengajak dan mempengaruhi orang lain dalam merealisasikan ajaran Islam, untuk mencapai tujuan kesejahteraan duniawi maupun kesejahteraan ukhrawi. Keberhasilan tersebut pun dipicu oleh berbagai aspek dakwah yang saling terkait, antara juru dakwah, materi dakwah, strategi dakwah, mad’u (sasaran dakwah. Jumlah kaum perempuan di negara ini hampir mencapai separuh dari jumlah masyarakatnya (49,36. Oleh karena itu, sangat penting sekali pemberdayaan perempuan dalam dakwah untuk membangun kaumnya sendiri dalam kesadaran dan aktivitas-aktivitas keagamaan yang memberikan dasar kehidupan sejahtera duniawi dan ukhrawi.

  17. ASIMETRI INFORMASI DAN UNDERPRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tety Anggita Safitri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh asimetri informasi terhadap underpricing. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel 63 perusahaan yang melakukan penawaran umum perdana di Bursa Efek Indonesia dalam kurun waktu 2005-2010. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linier berganda, yaitu menguji proksi asimetri informasi yang terdiri atas ukuran perusahaan, umur perusahaan, proporsi saham yang ditawarkan kepada masyarakat, reputasi underwriter dan reputasi auditor terhadap underpricing. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa reputasi underwriter dan reputasi auditor berpengaruh terhadap underpricing. Ukuran perusahaan, umur perusahaan dan proporsi saham yang ditawarkan tidak berpengaruh terhadap underpricing.The aim of this research is to examine the effect of assymetric information on underpricing. This research used a sample of 63 companies that make initial public offering on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period of 2005-2010. The data analysis is using multiple linear regression, which is testing the proxy of asymmetric information which consists of the firm size, the firm age, the proportion of shares offered to the public, underwriter reputation and auditor reputation on underpricing. This research indicates that underwriter reputation and auditor reputation have a significant effect on underpricing. The firm size, the firm age and the proportion of shares offered to the public have no significant effect on underpricing.

  18. Limitations on plasma acceleration due to synchrotron losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.A.; Lee, E.P.; Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.

    1999-01-01

    In this letter we consider the effect of synchrotron radiation losses due to the betatron motion of the electron beam in its self-induced magnetic field in a plasma accelerator taking into account the charge neutralization factor. The most favorable case is where the plasma density is smaller than the beam density. The contrary regime is strongly disfavored by the synchrotron radiation loss for beams with characteristics for TeV energies. In both cases we find that upon increasing the plasma density the synchrotron losses kill the acceleration process, so that there are limitations on the maximum allowable plasma density

  19. Power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupoles and sextupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-01-01

    This light source note will describe the power supplies for the injector synchrotron quadrupole and sextupole magnets. The injector synchrotron has two families of quadrupole magnets. Each family consists of 40 quadrupole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized by two phase-controlled, 12-pulse power supplies. Therefore, each power supply will be rated to deliver the necessary power to only 40 quadrupole magnets. The two families of sextupole magnets in the injector synchrotron each consists of 32 sextupole magnets connected in series, powered by a phase-controlled power supply. Thus, each power supply shall be capable of delivering power to only 32 sextupole magnets

  20. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 2. Mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    The process of reflection of VUV and x-radiation is summarized. The functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are described, which include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image, focusing, and collimation. Fabrication of optical surfaces for synchrotron radiation beamlines are described, and include polishing of a near spherical surface as well as bending a cylindrical surface to toroidal shape. The imperfections present in mirrors, aberrations and surface figure inaccuracy, are discussed. Calculation of the thermal load of a mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam and the cooling of the mirror are covered briefly. 50 refs., 7 figs

  1. 3 GeV Booster Synchrotron Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Helmut

    2009-06-02

    Synchrotron light cna be produced from a relativistic particle beam circulating in a storage ring at extremely high intensity and brilliance over a large spectral region reaching from the far infrared regime to hard x-rays. The particles, either electrons or positrons, radiate as they are deflected in the fields of the storage ring bending magnets or of magnets specially optimized for the production of synchrotron light. The synchrotron light being very intense and well collimated in the forward direction has become a major tool in a large variety of research fields in physics, chemistry, material science, biology, and medicine.

  2. Photoionization studies of atoms and molecules using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Photoionization studies of free atoms and molecules have undergone considerable development in the past decade, in large part due to the use of synchrotron radiation. The tunability of synchrotron radiation has permitted the study of photoionization processes near valence-and core-level ionization thresholds for atoms and molecules throught the Periodic Table. A general illustration of these types of study will be presented, with emphasis on a few of the more promising new directions in atomic and molecular physics being pursued with synchrotron radiation. (author) [pt

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on LAMPF II synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered at the workshop include: considerations for a staged approach to synchrotron construction; consideration of energy and cost for a kaon and/or antiproton factory; changing the transition energy in the main ring for the Fermilab antiproton beam; a lattice with 50% undispersed straight sections; bunch width considerations in a stretcher ring; a self-consistent longitudinal distribution; rapid-cycling tuned rf cavity for synchrotron use; considerations on a high-shunt impedance tunable RF cavity; rotating condensers; low extraction from the stretcher ring; an antiproton source for LAMPF II; synchrotron magnet circuit; power supply and ring magnet options; and notes for a kaon factory design

  4. SYNCHROTRON HEATING BY A FAST RADIO BURST IN A SELF-ABSORBED SYNCHROTRON NEBULA AND ITS OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula

  5. SYNCHROTRON HEATING BY A FAST RADIO BURST IN A SELF-ABSORBED SYNCHROTRON NEBULA AND ITS OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are mysterious transient sources. If extragalactic, as suggested by their relative large dispersion measures, their brightness temperatures must be extremely high. Some FRB models (e.g., young pulsar model, magnetar giant flare model, or supra-massive neutron star collapse model) suggest that they may be associated with a synchrotron nebula. Here we study a synchrotron-heating process by an FRB in a self-absorbed synchrotron nebula. If the FRB frequency is below the synchrotron self-absorption frequency of the nebula, electrons in the nebula would absorb FRB photons, leading to a harder electron spectrum and enhanced self-absorbed synchrotron emission. In the meantime, the FRB flux is absorbed by the nebula electrons. We calculate the spectra of FRB-heated synchrotron nebulae, and show that the nebula spectra would show a significant hump in several decades near the self-absorption frequency. Identifying such a spectral feature would reveal an embedded FRB in a synchrotron nebula.

  6. DAMPAK NEGATIF PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMATIKA DAN KOMUNIKASI DAN CARA ANTISIFASINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Ratnaya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sampai saat ini perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan telah menghantarkan masyarakat menuju babak baru yaitu babak yang memanfaatkan peralatan-peralatan yang merupakan hasil dari teknologi. Penggunaan tenaga manusia yang semakin hari semakin kecil volumenya sering kali menyebabkan orang kehilangan pekerjaannya karena tugasnya telah tergantikan oleh peralatan atau mesin. Sebagai sarana penyampaian informasi dan komunikasi, komputer bisa dipakai sebagai sarana berinternetan. Lewat internet orang bisa mencari bermacam-macam informasi dan berkomunikasi. Peran yang dapat diberikan oleh aplikasi teknologi informasi ini adalah mendapatkan informasi untuk kehidupan pribadi seperti informasi tentang kesehatan, hobi, rekreasi, dan rohani. Selain memberikan keuntungan, ternyata peralatan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi juga memberikan dampak negatif bagi penggunanya. Dampak negatif tersebut muncul sebagai akibat dari penggunaan yang salah atau tidak bertanggung jawab dari yang menggunakan. Beberapa dampak negatif tersebut adalah 1. Anak lebih banyak menghabiskan waktu menonton TV ketimbang melakukan hal lainnya (seperti belajar dan olah raga, 2. Anak kehilangan kemampuan berbaur dengan masyarakat dan cenderung nyaman dengan kehidupan online, 3 Adanya pelanggaran hak cipta, 4.  Kejahatan di internet, 5. Penyebaran virus komputer, dan 6. Pornografi, perjudian, penipuan, tayangan kekerasan. Adapun cara mengatasi dampak-dampak negatif tersebut adalah : 1. Gunakan teknologi untuk menjalin hubungan dengan orang yang sudah dikenal, 2. Cari komunitas positif  yang sering melakukan pertemuan didunia nyata, 3. Perlunya penegakkan hukum yang berlaku dengan dibentuknya polisi internet, 4. Menghindari pemakaian telepon seluler yang berfitur canggih oleh anak-anak dibawah umur dan lebih mengawasi penggunaan telepon seluler, 5. Perbanyak membaca buku-buku yang bersifat edukatif dan bersifat keimanan serta aplikasi komputer yang bersifat mendidik, dan 6. Perlunya pengaturan

  7. Synchrotron radiation. 4. Analyses of biological samples using synchrotron radiation. 3. Research on radiation damage to DNA using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, Kaoru

    1998-01-01

    This review described how the synchrotron radiation (SR) is used to solve problems unknown hitherto in radiation biology. Historically, the target substance of UV light in bacterial death was suggested to be nucleic acid in 1930. Researches on the radiation damage to DNA were begun at around 1960 and have mainly used UV light, X-ray and γray. Soft X-ray and vacuum UV whose energy covering from several eV to scores of keV have not been used since UV and X-ray lack the energy of this range. This is one of reasons why detailed process leading to radiation-induced death, carcinogenicity and mutation has not been known hitherto. RS possesses wide range of energy, i.e., from UV to hard X-ray, of high intensity, which is helpful for studying the unknown problems. The RS studies were begun in nineteen-seventies. Those include the action spectrum studies and atomic target studies. In the former, the course of the effect, e.g., the mechanism of DNA double strand breakage, can be elucidated. In the latter, photon of known energy can be irradiated to the specified atom like phosphorus in DNA which elucidating the precise physicochemical process of the breakage. Use of RS in these studies is thought still meaningful in future. (K.H.) 62 refs

  8. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Since 1980s, the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SRL) has been promoting the 'Super-SOR' project, the new synchrotron radiation facility dedicated to sciences in vacuum ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions. The University of Tokyo considered the project as one of the most important future academic plans and strongly endorsed to construct the new facility with an electron storage ring of third generation type in the Kashiwa campus. During last year, the design of the accelerator system was slightly modified to obtain stronger support of the people in the field of bio-sciences, such as medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, etc. The energy of the storage ring was increased to 2.4 GeV, which is determined to obtain undulator radiation with sufficient brightness in X-ray region for the protein crystallography experiments. The value was also optimised to avoid considerable degradation of undulator radiation in the VUV and soft X-ray regions. However, in October last year, the president office of the University found out that the promotion of the project was very difficult for financial reasons. The budget for the new facility project is too big to be supported by a single university. The decision was intensively discussed by the International Review Committee on the Institute for Solid State Physics (ISSP), which was held at ISSP from November 14 to 16. The committee understood that the restructuring of the University system in Japan would overstrain the financial resources of the University of Tokyo and accepted the decision by the University. Presently, SRL has inclined to install beamlines using undulator radiation in other SR facilities instead of constructing a facility with a light source accelerator. At new beamlines, SRL will promote advanced materials sciences utilizing high brilliance and small emittance of synchrotron radiation which have been considered in the Super-SOR project. They are those such as microscopy and time-resolved experiments, which will only be

  9. The behaviour of some polyatomic gases in nuclear reactors; Le comportement de quelques gaz polyatomiques dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    'influence des radiations. La radiolyse de NH{sub 3}, procede par un mecanisme complexe, et la cinetique obeit a une loi d'ordre 2,5 environ qui augmente avec le taux de decomposition. La decomposition de l'hydrogene sulfure est notablement plus rapide que celle de NH{sub 3}. Le seul produit gazeux de la reaction est l'hydrogene. Le soufre, qui se depose sur les parois des ampoules, est nettement perceptible a l'oeil. On a obtenu jusqu'ici des decompositions allant jusqu'a 84 pour cent. L'influence de la reaction {sup 32}S (n, p) {sup 32}P est consideree. La decomposition radiochimique du protoxyde d'azote N{sub 2}O se fait avec des rendements eleves. La reaction est compliquee des ses debuts par la formation d'oxydes superieurs de l'azote que nous identifions et mesurons. Le methane donne par decomposition radiochimique des quantites d'hydrocarbures superieurs. Certains de ces systemes gazeux pourraient trouver des applications dans la mesure de fortes doses de rayonnement. Ce probleme est discute en conclusion. (auteur)

  10. KETERGANTUNGAN ONLINE GAME DAN PENANGANANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Syahran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui perilaku yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermaian online game pada siswa SMP Negeri 1 Palu yang meliputi faktor-faktor penyebab kecanduan, keadaan psikologis yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game dan dampak-dampak yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game.Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian studi kasus dengan berdasarkan responden dan informan sebagai bahan sumber data. Dalam proses pengumpulan data digunakan teknik observasi dan wawancara, dimana setelah data diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis deskriptif kualitatif.Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, bahwa subyek (RZ dan (MT, kedua subyek penelitian menjadi ketergantungan atau kecanduan untuk bermain online game yang dikarenakan tersedianya beberapa fasilitas pendukung untuk bermain game di rumah, adanya faktor sosial dari pertemanan dengan teman bermain dan keingintahuan yang sangat besar terhadap suatu jenis game. Penanganan ketergantungan game online dengan bantuan dari berbagai pihak terutama pihak sekolah memberikan kepercayaan kepada konselor sekolah atau guru BK untuk mengadakan seminar kepada orang tua siswa tentang game online dan masalah yang akan ditimbulkan, mengatur waktu belajar dan bermain anak, memasukkan materi tentang game online dan dampaknya kepada siswa serta memberikan penyaluran yang baik dalam memilih game yang edukatif serta Menjalin komunikasi interpersonal agar anak dapat terbuka dengan orang tua.

  11. Activity report of Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    After moved from Tanashi to Kashiwa Campus in the spring of 2000, the Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SRL) has been promoting the High-brilliance Light Source project, Super SOR project, in cooperation with the nationwide user group as well as with the users of the University of Tokyo. In May of 2001, the project has met with a dramatic progress. The Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture organized the Advisory Board and started to discuss the future synchrotron radiation facilities in EUV and SX regime in Japan. Based on extensive discussion, they proposed the new facility consisting of a 1.8 GeV storage ring of 3rd generation type. The University of Tokyo approved to construct the proposed facility in the Kashiwa campus. The plan is supported not only by researchers in academic institutions but also bio- and chemical-industries. We strongly hope the plan will be realized in near future. On the other hand, SRL maintains a branch laboratory in the Photon Factory (PF) High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) at Tsukuba with a Revolver undulator, two beamlines and three experimental stations (BL-18A, 19A and 19B), which are and fully opened to the outside users. In the fiscal year of 2001, the operation time of the beamlines was more than 5000 hours and the number of the users was about 200. The main scientific interests and activities in the SRL at KEK-PF are directed to the electronic structures of new materials with new transport, magnetic and optical properties. The electronic structures of solid surfaces and interfaces are also intensively studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectron microscopy. The accelerator group of SRL is carrying out research works of the accelerator physics and developing the accelerator-related technology, many parts of which will be directly applied to the new light source project. This report contains the activities of the staff members of SRL and users of the three beamlines in FY2001. The status of

  12. Synchrotron Infrared Science: Physics, Biology, Environmental Science and Coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, infrared microscopy and spectroscopy has greatly benefited from a bright new source of light, namely synchrotrons. Synchrotrons provide a significant improvement in brightness, and therefore spatial resolution for mapping characteristic vibrational signatures of molecular species with high signal to noise. This has opened up new scientific directions for physicists, biologists, chemists, industrial applications, forensics, and more. I will present a brief overview of the technique followed by several scientific highlights of synchrotron infrared spectromicroscopy research being performed in Berkeley. I will then turn to the future by discussing our recent understanding of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). We are proposing a new ring which will use CSR to provide a far-infrared (THz) source having intensities between 7 and 10 orders of magnitude higher than present broadband sources. I will motivate and discuss the exciting capabilities of this revolutionary new source

  13. Synchrotrons and their applications in medical imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Australasia's first synchrotron is being built on the campus of Monash University near Melbourne. Is it of any relevance to the medical imaging and radiation therapy communities? The answer is an unequivocal yes. Synchrotrons overcome many of the problems with conventional X-ray sources and as a result make it possible to demonstrate extraordinary advances in both X-ray imaging and indeed in radio-therapy. Synchrotron imaging offers us a window into what is possible and the results are spectacular. Specific examples include lung images that reveal alveolar structure and computed tomography of single cells. For therapy treatments are being pioneered that seem to be effective on high grade gliomas. An overview of the status of medical applications using synchrotrons will be given and the proposed Australian medical imaging and therapy facilities will be described and some of the proposed research highlighted. Copyright (2004) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  14. Low Level RF Control System of J-PARC Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Fumihiko; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Nomura, Masahiro; Ohmori, Chihiro; Schnase, Alexander; Takagi, Akira; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept and the design of the low level RF (LLRF) control system of the J-PARC synchrotrons. The J-PARC synchrotrons are the rapid cycling 3-GeV synchrotron (RCS) and the 50-GeV main ring (MR) which require very precise and stable LLRF control systems to accelerate the ultra-high proton beam current. The LLRF system of the synchrotron is a full-digital system based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS). The functions of the system are (1) the multi-harmonic RF generation for the acceleration and the longitudinal bunch shaping, (2) the feedbacks for stabilizing the beam, (3) the feedforward for compensating the heavy beam loading, and (4) other miscellaneous functions such as the synchronization and chopper timing. The LLRF system of the RCS is now under construction. We present the details of the system. Also, we show preliminary results of performance tests of the control modules.

  15. Use of synchrotron radiation in radiation biology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takeshi

    1981-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) holds great expectation as a new research tool in the new areas of material science, because it has the continuous spectral distribution from visible light to X-ray, and its intensity is 10 2 to 10 3 times as strong as that of conventional radiation sources. In the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, a synchrotron radiation experimental facility has been constructed, which will start operation in fiscal 1982. With this SR, the photons having the wavelength in undeveloped region from vacuum ultraviolet to soft X-ray are obtained as intense mono-wavelength light. The SR thus should contribute to the elucidation of the fundamentals in the biological action of radiation. The following matters are described: synchrotron radiation, experimental facility using SR, electron storage ring, features of SR, photon factory plan and synchrotron radiation experimental facility, utilization of SR in radiation biology field. (J.P.N.)

  16. Open cell conducting foams for high synchrotron radiation accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Petracca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible use of open cell conductive foams in high synchrotron radiation particle accelerators is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are discussed, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  17. Stability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: characteristics of synchrotron radiation sources; stability of the orbits; orbit control; nonlinear dynamic stability; and coherent stability and control. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  18. White beam synchrotron fractography of molybdenum and niobium single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilello, J.C.; Hmelo, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a White Beam Synchrotron reflection technique can be used to characterize the fracture surface of Mo and Nb single crystals. This technique when used in conjunction with Berg-Barrett (or in the future monochromatic synchrotron topography) gives detailed information which correlates the internal defect structure to the cleavage surface morphology. In particular, synchrotron fractography has revealed the full extent of the plastic zone associated with a precursor crack, has clearly identified the nature of the initial crack where more than one precursor could have existed, and give detailed information on the extent of twinning and microtwinning. In comparison with other fractography methods for such semi-brittle metals the White Beam Synchrotron method not only achieves rapid data collection, but also provides internal defect structure correlation non-destructively. (author)

  19. Photoionization. Daresbury synchrotron radiation lecture note series No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.

    1973-11-15

    These lectures were given in November 1973 to experimental physicists using the Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Daresbury. The aim was a modest one, to survey the basic ideas of the subject and introduce some current theoretical developments.

  20. Beam extraction control systems of the fast-cycling synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumanian, A.; Zapolski, N.; Nickogosian, V.; Ananian, A.; Kazarian, A.; Khoetsian, M.; Agababian, A.; Matevosian, A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact system controlling the extraction of different beams (gamma, electron, synchrotron radiation) in single and simultaneous operation modes at high electromagnetic disturbances level based on using one computer of IBM PC/AT type is described. (author)

  1. Staff accuse bosses of secrecy over British synchrotron plans

    CERN Multimedia

    Loder, N

    1999-01-01

    Scientific staff at Daresbury who have worked on the Diamond project for many years, believe senior management has kept them in the dark over discussions about the possible siting of the synchrotron at RAL (1 page).

  2. The application of synchrotron radiation to X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, E.; Eastman, D.E.; Feder, R.; Grobman, W.D.; Gudat, W.; Topalian, J.

    1976-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation from the German electron synchrotron DESY in Hamburg has been used for X-ray lithograpgy. Replications of different master patterns (for magnetic bubble devices, fresnel zone plates, etc.) were made using various wavelengths and exposures. High quality lines down to 500 A wide have been reproduced using very soft X-rays. The sensitivities of X-ray resists have been evaluated over a wide range of exposures. Various critical factors (heating, radiation damage, etc.) involved with X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation have been studied. General considerations of storage ring sources designed as radiation sources for X-ray lithography are discussed, together with a comparison with X-ray tube sources. The general conclusion is that X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation offers considerable promise as a process for forming high quality sub-micron images with exposure times as short as a few seconds. (orig.) [de

  3. The use of slow-cycling synchrotrons in injection systems

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    The PS improvement programme is concerned with increasing the potential of the PS for high energy physics. It involves developing the performance of the proton synchrotron itself and providing major items of experimental equipment to be used on the machine.

  4. CERN PSB Beam Tests of CNAO Synchrotron's Digital LLRF

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; De Martinis, C; Falbo, L; Findlay, A; Foglio, R; Hunt, S; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C

    2008-01-01

    The Italian National Centre for Oncological hAdrontherapy (CNAO), in its final construction phase, uses proton and carbon ion beams to treat patients affected by solid tumours. At the heart of CNAO is a 78- meter circumference synchrotron that accelerates particles to up to 400 MeV/u. The synchrotron relies on a digital LLRF system based upon Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This system implements cavity servoing and beam control capabilities, such as phase and radial loops. Beam tests of the CNAO synchrotron LLRF system were carried out at CERN's Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) in autumn 2007, to verify the combined DSP/FPGA architecture and the beam control capabilities. For this, a prototype version of CNAO's LLRF system was adapted to the PSB requirements. This paper outlines the prototype system layout and describes the tests carried out and their results. In particular, system architecture and beam control capabilities were successfully proven by comparison wit...

  5. Synchrotron radiation sources: general features and vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    In the last years the electron or positron storage rings, which were until 1970 only used for high energy physics experiments, begun to be built in several countries exclusively as electromagnetic radiation source (synchrotron radiation). The sources are generally made up by injector (linear accelerator or microtron), 'booster' (synchrotron), storage ring, insertions ('Wigglers' and ondulators) and light lines. The interest by these sources are due to the high intensity, large spectrum (from infrared to the X-rays), polarization and pulsed structure of the produced radiation. For the ultra-vacuum obtainement, necessary for the functioning storage rings (p=10 -9 Torr), several special procedures are used. In Brazil the Synchrotron Radiation National Laboratory of the CNPq worked out a conceptual project of synchrotron radiation source, whose execution should begin by the construction of the several components prototypes. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Synchrotron radiation use in some researchs in program in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha-Ellis, S.

    1983-01-01

    Physical and biological applications of the synchrotron radiation in some pure and applied research programs in progress in Brazil are presented, in special those related with crystallografic research. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Daresbury senses victory in battle for UK synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    Loder, N

    1999-01-01

    Scientists campaigning for the future synchrotron source, Diamond, to be sited at Daresbury rather than RAL, believe they have won their case following a meeting between the Office of Science & Technology and the director of the Welcome Trust (1 pg).

  8. Chemical Behaviour of C{sup 11} in Liquid Hydrocarbons; Comportement Chimique de {sup 11}C dans les Hydrocarbures Liquides; Khimicheskaya kharakteristika ugleroda-11 v zhidkikh uglevodorodakh; Comportamiento Quimico del {sup 11}C en Hidrocarburos Liquidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, A. F.; Clark, D. E.; Mesich, F. G. [Institute of Atomic Research and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (United States)

    1965-04-15

    valuable information regarding the energy at which stable bond formation can occur, and the nature of the Cu{sup 11} -containing group entering into the reaction. (author) [French] Le carbone-11 est produit par la reaction {sup 12}C({gamma}, n){sup 11}C dans le rayonnement de freinage d'un synchrotron a electrons de 70 MeV. Comme cible, les auteurs ont utilise des hydrocarbures liquides a 5 et 6 atomes de carbone, notamment les pentanes et hexanes normaux, ramifies et alicycliques ainsi que le benzene. Ils ont etudie le comportement de {sup 11}C en separant les produits par chromatographie gazeuse et en comptant le {sup 11}C dans le courant de gaz a l'interieur d'une cellule placee dans un compteur a scintillations a puits. Lors de chaque experience, ils ont compare les rendements en divers produits au rendement en acetylene, utilise comme etalon interne, et, soit a un dispositif de controle au tantale, soit a la mesure de la quantite totale de {sup 11}C produite dans l'ensemble de l'echantillon avant separation. Ils ont etalonne les compteurs a courant gazeux en tenant compte de la quantite totale de {sup 11}C qui est produite pendant les experiences au cours desquelles le carbone de l'echantillon est entierement transforme en CO{sub 2} par combustion, et qui passe dans un compteur de ce type. Les experiences que les auteurs avaient faites anterieurement ne portaient que sur les produits gazeux qui sont maintenant bien determines pour diverses molecules cibles dans differentes conditions de dosage. Les experiences en cours sur des molecules de produit d'une dimension semblable a celle de la cible se sont revelees tres utiles pour determiner les mecanismes de recombinaison des atomes de recul. Le rendement en produit comportant un atome de carbone de plus que la cible, qui est le resultat d'une reaction d'addition, revet un interet particulier. L'emplacement de l'atome supplementaire dans une molecule cible possedant plusieurs emplacements possibles pour l'addition de cet

  9. Research of synchrotron radiation by virtual photon and compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xianzhu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory to explain the synchrotron radiation. When charged particle does circular motion in the accelerator, the magnetic field of the accelerator can be taken as periodic, and equivalent to virtual photon. By Compton scattering of virtual photon and charged particle, the virtual photon can be transformed into photon to radiate out. According to this theory, the formula of photon wavelength in synchrotron radiation is found out, and the calculation results of wavelength is consonant with experimental data. (author)

  10. The physics design of the Australian synchrotron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.; Einfeld, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the physics design of the Australian Synchrotron Storage Ring--Boomerang, which is currently under construction on a site adjacent to Monash University in Melbourne, Victoria. It also includes brief historical notes on the development of the proposal, some background material on the Australian synchrotron research community and preliminary information on possible research programs on the new facility. The facility itself is now in the early stages of construction under the leadership of Seaborne and Jackson

  11. An introduction to synchrotron radiation techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Willmott, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted.

  12. X-ray fluorescence imaging with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The micro-distribution of trace elements is of great interest in fields such as geochemistry, biology and material science. The synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe provides a technique to quantitatively measure trace element compositions at individual points and to construct semiquantitative two dimensional maps of trace element compositions. This paper describes an x-ray fluorescence system used at the National Synchrotron Light Source

  13. Fundamentals of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Byrd, J.M.; Loftsdottir, A.; Martin, M.C.; Venturini, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present the fundamental concepts for producing stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The analysis includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), enhancing higher frequency coherent emission and limits to stable emission due to a microbunching instability excited by the SR. We use these concepts to optimize the performance of a source for CSR emission

  14. ''Use of synchrotron radiation in France: present status and perspectives''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, P.

    1996-01-01

    LURE (laboratory for the use of electromagnetic radiation) plays an important role as a research center, as a synchrotron radiation producer and as a leading pole about new light source studies. The necessity to maintain LURE at a high level of technological competitiveness implies to build a new facility called SOLEIL. This article describes the present equipment of LURE, its activity fields and draws the prospect of synchrotron radiation in France. (A.C.)

  15. On the polarized beam acceleration in medium energy synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture note reviews physics of spin motion in a synchrotron, spin depolarization mechanisms of spin resonances, and methods of overcoming the spin resonances during acceleration. Techniques used in accelerating polarized ions in the low/medium energy synchrotrons, such as the ZGS, the AGS, SATURNE, and the KEK PS and PS Booster are discussed. Problems related to polarized proton acceleration with snakes or partial snake are also examined

  16. On the polarized beam acceleration in medium energy synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-12-31

    This lecture note reviews physics of spin motion in a synchrotron, spin depolarization mechanisms of spin resonances, and methods of overcoming the spin resonances during acceleration. Techniques used in accelerating polarized ions in the low/medium energy synchrotrons, such as the ZGS, the AGS, SATURNE, and the KEK PS and PS Booster are discussed. Problems related to polarized proton acceleration with snakes or partial snake are also examined.

  17. Noise characteristics of U. S. synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.

    1986-01-01

    Noise characteristics of the U. S. x-ray synchrotron sources are compared in the 0--2.5-kHz region. In general, little difference is found in the characteristic frequencies of the noise on focused and unfocused beamlines of a particular source, but the magnitude and white-noise levels differ. The National Synchrotron Light Source shows the least characteristic noise and the noise that is observed is small in magnitude (2--3 times the white-noise level)

  18. National Synchrotron Light Source safety-analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1982-07-01

    This document covers all of the safety issues relating to the design and operation of the storage rings and injection system of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The building systems for fire protection, access and egress are described together with air and other gaseous control or venting systems. Details of shielding against prompt bremstrahlung radiation and synchrotron radiation are described and the administrative requirements to be satisfied for operation of a beam line at the facility are given

  19. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Grischa R.; Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M.; Bond, Charles S.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Androulakis, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community

  20. Operation of the Australian Store.Synchrotron for macromolecular crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Grischa R. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Aragão, David; Mudie, Nathan J.; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McGowan, Sheena; Bertling, Philip J.; Groenewegen, David; Quenette, Stevan M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bond, Charles S. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Buckle, Ashley M. [Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Androulakis, Steve, E-mail: steve.androulakis@monash.edu [Monash Bioinformatics Platform, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The Store.Synchrotron service, a fully functional, cloud computing-based solution to raw X-ray data archiving and dissemination at the Australian Synchrotron, is described. The service automatically receives and archives raw diffraction data, related metadata and preliminary results of automated data-processing workflows. Data are able to be shared with collaborators and opened to the public. In the nine months since its deployment in August 2013, the service has handled over 22.4 TB of raw data (∼1.7 million diffraction images). Several real examples from the Australian crystallographic community are described that illustrate the advantages of the approach, which include real-time online data access and fully redundant, secure storage. Discoveries in biological sciences increasingly require multidisciplinary approaches. With this in mind, Store.Synchrotron has been developed as a component within a greater service that can combine data from other instruments at the Australian Synchrotron, as well as instruments at the Australian neutron source ANSTO. It is therefore envisaged that this will serve as a model implementation of raw data archiving and dissemination within the structural biology research community.

  1. Synchrotron Intensity Gradients as Tracers of Interstellar Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarian, A.; Yuen, Ka Ho; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1507 (United States)

    2017-06-10

    On the basis of the modern understanding of MHD turbulence, we propose a new way of using synchrotron radiation: using synchrotron intensity gradients (SIGs) for tracing astrophysical magnetic fields. We successfully test the new technique using synthetic data obtained with 3D MHD simulations and provide the demonstration of the practical utility of the technique by comparing the directions of magnetic fields that are obtained with PLANCK synchrotron intensity data to the directions obtained with PLANCK synchrotron polarization data. We demonstrate that the SIGs can reliably trace magnetic fields in the presence of noise and can provide detailed maps of magnetic field directions. We also show that the SIGs are relatively robust for tracing magnetic fields while the low spatial frequencies of the synchrotron image are removed. This makes the SIGs applicable to the tracing of magnetic fields using interferometric data with single-dish measurement absent. We discuss the synergy of using the SIGs together with synchrotron polarization in order to find the actual direction of the magnetic fields and quantify the effects of Faraday rotation as well as with other ways of studying astrophysical magnetic fields. We test our method in the presence of noise and the resolution effects. We stress the complementary nature of the studies using the SIG technique and those employing the recently introduced velocity gradient techniques that trace magnetic fields using spectroscopic data.

  2. The national synchrotron: ray of hope or ring of fire?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, T.

    2002-01-01

    While most agree the synchrotron will be a boost for Australian science, the author reports on concerns about the cost of building and operating the project Biotech industry representatives want to know how that $100 million will be used and want to see the government's justification for pouring more than a third of its total technology budget for 2001/2 into the synchrotron. They, and the opposition, also want to know where the private money will come from to make up the balance or whether the state will ultimately have to pitch in the rest itself. Indeed, an Auditor-General's report released last week warned of the need for comprehensive financial risk management of the facility. The National Synchrotron, to be built at Monash University, will be a hollow ring of about 60 metres diameter and initially housing nine beamlines, each capable of performing independent experiments simultaneously. According to Dr Richard Garrett, director of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (http://www.ansto.gov.au/natfac/asrp.html) projection reports had indicated the local synchrotron user community would expand from about 350 researchers today to about 1200 by the time the National Synchrotron is built, with demand steadily increasing in the years following its completion

  3. Synchrotron Intensity Gradients as Tracers of Interstellar Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.; Yuen, Ka Ho; Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, J.

    2017-01-01

    On the basis of the modern understanding of MHD turbulence, we propose a new way of using synchrotron radiation: using synchrotron intensity gradients (SIGs) for tracing astrophysical magnetic fields. We successfully test the new technique using synthetic data obtained with 3D MHD simulations and provide the demonstration of the practical utility of the technique by comparing the directions of magnetic fields that are obtained with PLANCK synchrotron intensity data to the directions obtained with PLANCK synchrotron polarization data. We demonstrate that the SIGs can reliably trace magnetic fields in the presence of noise and can provide detailed maps of magnetic field directions. We also show that the SIGs are relatively robust for tracing magnetic fields while the low spatial frequencies of the synchrotron image are removed. This makes the SIGs applicable to the tracing of magnetic fields using interferometric data with single-dish measurement absent. We discuss the synergy of using the SIGs together with synchrotron polarization in order to find the actual direction of the magnetic fields and quantify the effects of Faraday rotation as well as with other ways of studying astrophysical magnetic fields. We test our method in the presence of noise and the resolution effects. We stress the complementary nature of the studies using the SIG technique and those employing the recently introduced velocity gradient techniques that trace magnetic fields using spectroscopic data.

  4. Discussions for the shielding materials of synchrotron radiation beamline hutches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Many synchrotron radiation facilities are now under operation such as E.S.R.F., APS, and S.P.ring-8. New facilities with intermediated stored electron energy are also under construction and designing such as D.I.A.M.O.N.D., S.O.L.E.I.L., and S.S.R.F.. At these third generation synchrotron radiation facilities, the beamline shielding as well as the bulk shield is very important for designing radiation safety because of intense and high energy synchrotron radiation beam. Some reasons employ lead shield wall for the synchrotron radiation beamlines. One is narrow space for the construction of many beamlines at the experimental hall, and the other is the necessary of many movable mechanisms at the beamlines, for examples. Some cases are required to shield high energy neutrons due to stored electron beam loss and photoneutrons due to gas Bremsstrahlung. Ordinary concrete and heavy concrete are coming up to shield material of synchrotron radiation beamline hutches. However, few discussions have been performed so far for the shielding materials of the hutches. In this presentation, therefore, we will discuss the characteristics of the shielding conditions including build up effect for the beamline hutches by using the ordinary concrete, heavy concrete, and lead for shielding materials with 3 GeV and 8 GeV class synchrotron radiation source. (author)

  5. Phase analysis and focusing of synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Chubar, O; Snigirev, A

    1999-01-01

    High accuracy calculations of synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted by a relativistic electron show that the phase of the frequency domain electric field of SR differs from the phase of radiation of a virtual point source. These differences may result in the reduction of focusing efficiency of diffraction-limited SR, if the focusing is performed by conventional optical components optimised for point sources. We show that by applying a phase correction locally, one may transform the phase of SR electric field at a desired polarisation to that of a point source. Such corrections are computed for undulator radiation (planar and helical) and bending magnet radiation (central part and edges). The focusing of the corrected SR wavefront can result in the increase of peak intensity in the focused spot up to several times compared to the focusing without correction. For non-diffraction-limited radiation, the effect of the phase corrections is reduced. Due to this reason, the use of the proposed phase corrections in exist...

  6. High contrast computed tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Yuji; Takeda, Tohoru; Akatsuka, Takao; Maeda, Tomokazu; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Uchida, Akira; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Kazama, Masahiro; Wu, Jin; Ando, Masami

    1995-02-01

    This article describes a new monochromatic x-ray CT system using synchrotron radiation with applications in biomedical diagnosis which is currently under development. The system is designed to provide clear images and to detect contrast materials at low concentration for the quantitative functional evaluation of organs in correspondence with their anatomical structures. In this system, with x-ray energy changing from 30 to 52 keV, images can be obtained to detect various contrast materials (iodine, barium, and gadolinium), and K-edge energy subtraction is applied. Herein, the features of the new system designed to enhance the advantages of SR are reported. With the introduction of a double-crystal monochromator, the high-order x-ray contamination is eliminated. The newly designed CCD detector with a wide dynamic range of 60 000:1 has a spatial resolution of 200 μm. The resulting image quality, which is expected to show improved contrast and spatial resolution, is currently under investigation.

  7. A spectral chart of synchrotron orbital radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Nobuyasu; Yoneda, Yasuharu

    1977-01-01

    This paper introduces a chart of the spectrum of synchrotron orbital radiation. The radiation from high energy electrons has been used for various purposes. The formulas to express the spectrum have been presented. The parameters which determine the spectrum are the acceleration energy E, the deflection radius R, the wavelength of photons, the photon energy, and the harmonics. The chart in this paper determines the field intensity H to be applied on an accelerator when E and R are freely selected, and either the wavelength or the harmonics is obtained from the other one. Then, the spectrum distribution can be obtained. A.A. Sokolov and I.M. Ternov modified the formula for the emitted energy from an electron which had been given by G.A. Schott. The modified formula is used to obtain the number of photons per 1 eV. The relation between R and the harmonics is expressed by parallel lines in a log-log graph. The relation among R, H and E is also expressed in the same graph by parallel lines. The spectroscopic intensity is also shown in the same graph by a curved line. (Kato, T.)

  8. Baking controller for synchrotron beamline vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, C.K.; Kane, S.R.; Dhamgaye, V.P.

    2003-01-01

    The 2.5 GeV electron storage ring Indus-2 is a hard X-ray Synchrotron Radiation (SR) Source. Nearly 27 beamlines will be installed on Indus-2 and they will cater to different experiments and applications. Most of the beamlines will be in Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) the only exception being hard X-rays beamlines. However the front ends of all the beamlines will be in UHV. Practicing UHV requires efforts and patience. Evacuating any chamber, volume gases can be removed easily. However, outgassing phenomena like desorption, diffusion and permeation restricts the system to attain UHV. All processes except the volume gas removal are temperature dependent. At ambient temperature, gas pressure decreases so slowly that outgassing limit (i.e. 10 -10 1/s/cm 2 ) can hardly be achieved on a practical time scale. Also there are three orders of magnitude difference in outgassing between baked and unbaked systems. Depending on the vacuum chamber and the components inside it, the thermal outgassing (baking) of system is required and can be done at various temperatures between 150 degC to 450 deg C. For whole baking cycle, constant monitoring and controlling of the systems is required which takes tens of hours. This paper describes the automation for such baking system, which will be used for SR beamlines

  9. A Remote and Virtual Synchrotron Beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. M.; Alp, E.; Sturhahn, W.

    2012-12-01

    National facilities offer one-of-a-kind opportunities to apply state-of-the-art experimental techniques to the pressing scientific problems of today. Yet, few students are able to experience research projects at national facilities due to limited accessibility caused in part by limited involvement in the local academic institution, constrained working areas at the experimental stations, and/or travel costs. We present a virtual and remote beam-line for Earth science studies using nuclear resonant and inelastic x-ray scattering methods at Sector 3 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Off-site students have the capability of controlling their measurements via secure internet connections and webcams. Students can access a 'view only mode' for ease of interaction and safety-control. More experienced users have exclusive control of the experiment and can remotely change variables within the experimental setup. Students may also access the virtual aspects these experiments by simulating certain conditions with our newly developed software. We evaluate such a tool by giving "before" and "after" assignments to students at different levels. These levels include high-school students from the Pasadena and greater Los Angeles area school districts, undergraduate students from Caltech's SURF/MURF program, and graduate students at Caltech. We specifically target underrepresented groups. Our results thus far show that the capabilities offered by our remote and virtual beamline show improved knowledge and understanding of applying experimental-based studies at the synchrotron to solve problems in the Earth sciences.

  10. Synchrotron radiation excited silicon epitaxy using disilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akazawa, Housei; Utsumi, Yuichi

    1995-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) excited chemical reactions provide new crystal growth methods suitable for low-temperature Si epitaxy. The growth kinetics and film properties were investigated by atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) and photochemical vapor deposition (CVD) modes using Si 2 H 6 . SR-ALE, isolating the surface growth channel mediated by photon stimulated hydrogen desorption, achieves digital growth independent of gas exposure time, SR irradiation time, and substrate temperature. On the other hand in SR-CVD, photolysis of Si 2 H 6 is predominant. In the nonirradiated region, Eley-Rideal type reaction between the photofragments and the surface deposit Si adatoms in a layer-by-layer fashion. In the irradiated region, however, multi-layer photolysis and rebounding occurs within the condensed Si 2 H 6 layer. The pertinent elementary processes were identified by using the high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. The SR-CVD can grow a uniform and epitaxial Si film down to 200degC. The surface morphology is controlled by the surfactant effect of hydrogen atoms. (author)

  11. Capillary concentrators for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heald, S.M.; Brewe, D.L.; Kim, K.H.; Brown, F.C.; Barg, B.; Stern, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Capillary concentrators condense x-rays by multiple reflections down a gradually tapering capillary. They can provide sub-micron beam spots, and are promising candidates for use in the next generation x-ray microprobe beamlines. The weak energy dependence of their properties make them especially useful for energy scanning applications such as micro-XAFS. This paper examines the potential performance of capillary optics for an x-ray microprobe, as well as some practical issues such as fabrication and alignment. Best performance at third generation sources requires long capillaries, and the authors have been using fiber optics techniques to fabricate capillaries up to one meter in length. The performance of shorter (less than about 0.5 m) capillaries has often been found to agree well with theoretical calculations, indicating the inner surface is a high quality x-ray reflector. These capillaries have been tested at the NSLS for imaging and micro-XAFS down to 2.6 microm resolution with excellent results. On an unfocused bend magnet line flux density approaching 10 6 ph/sec/microm 2 has been achieved. While nearly optimum profiles have been achieved for longer capillaries, the results have been disappointing, and alignment problems are suspected. The dramatic improvement in performance possible at third generation synchrotrons such as the APS is discussed along with improvements possible by using the capillaries in conjunction with coupling optics

  12. Time-resolved spectroscopy in synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, V.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1980-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) from large-diameter storage rings has intrinsic time structure which facilitates time-resolved measurements form milliseconds to picoseconds and possibly below. The scientific importance of time-resolved measurements is steadily increasing as more and better techniques are discovered and applied to a wider variety of scientific problems. This paper presents a discussion of the importance of various parameters of the SR facility in providing for time-resolved spectroscopy experiments, including the role of beam-line optical design parameters. Special emphasis is placed on the requirements of extremely fast time-resolved experiments with which the effects of atomic vibrational or relaxation motion may be studied. Before discussing the state-of-the-art timing experiments, we review several types of time-resolved measurements which have now become routine: nanosecond-range fluorescence decay times, time-resolved emission and excitation spectroscopies, and various time-of-flight applications. These techniques all depend on a short SR pulse length and a long interpulse period, such as is provided by a large-diameter ring operating in a single-bunch mode. In most cases, the pulse shape and even the stability of the pulse shape is relatively unimportant as long as the pulse length is smaller than the risetime of the detection apparatus, typically 1 to 2 ns. For time resolution smaller than 1 ns, the requirements on the pulse shape become more stringent. (orig./FKS)

  13. Breast tomography with synchrotron radiation: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, Silvia; Longo, Renata; Dreossi, Diego; Montanari, Francesco; Olivo, Alessandro; Arfelli, Fulvia; Bergamaschi, Anna; Poropat, Paolo; Rigon, Luigi; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Palma, Ludovico Dalla; Castelli, Edoardo

    2004-01-01

    A system for in vivo breast imaging with monochromatic x-rays has been designed and built at the synchrotron radiation facility Elettra in Trieste (Italy) and will be operational in 2004. The system design involves the possibility of performing both planar mammography and breast tomography. In the present work, the first results obtained with a test set-up for breast tomography are shown and discussed. Tomographic images of in vitro breasts were acquired using monochromatic x-ray beams in the energy range 20-28 keV and a linear array silicon pixel detector. Tomograms were reconstructed using standard filtered backprojection algorithms; the effect of different filters was evaluated. The attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissue were measured, and a quantitative comparison of images acquired at different energies was performed by calculating the differential signal-to-noise ratio of fibroglandular details in adipose tissue. All images required a dose comparable to the dose delivered in clinical, conventional mammography and showed a high resolution of the breast structures without the overlapping effects that limit the visibility of the structures in 2D mammography. A quantitative evaluation of the images proves that the image quality at a given dose increases in the considered energy range and for the considered breast sizes

  14. Characterization of Medipix3 With Synchrotron Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gimenez, E N; Marchal, J; Turecek, D; Ballabriga, R; Tartoni, N; Campbell, M; Llopart, X; Sawhney, K J S

    2011-01-01

    Medipix3 is the latest generation of photon counting readout chips of the Medipix family. With the same dimensions as Medipix2 (256 x 256 pixels of 55 mu m x 55 mu m pitch each), Medipix3 is however implemented in an 8-layer metallization 0.13 mu m CMOS technology which leads to an increase in the functionality associated with each pixel over Medipix2. One of the new operational modes implemented in the front-end architecture is the Charge Summing Mode (CSM). This mode consists of a charge reconstruction and hit allocation algorithm which eliminates event-by-event the low energy counts produced by charge-shared events between adjacent pixels. The present work focuses on the study of the CSM mode and compares it to the Single Pixel Mode (SPM) which is the conventional readout method for these kind of detectors and it is also implemented in Medipix3. Tests of a Medipix3 chip bump-bonded to a 300 mu m thick silicon photodiode sensor were performed at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron to evaluate the performan...

  15. High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolenak, R.; Tamura, N.; Valek, B. C.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-04-01

    The advent of third generation synchrotron light sources in combination with x-ray focusing devices such as Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors make Laue diffraction on a submicron length scale possible. Analysis of Laue images enables us to determine the deviatoric part of the 3D strain tensor to an accuracy of 2×10-4 in strain with a spatial resolution comparable to the grain size in our thin films. In this paper the application of x-ray microdiffraction to the temperature dependence of the mechanical behavior of a sputtered blanket Cu film and of electroplated damascene Cu lines will be presented. Microdiffraction reveals very large variations in the strain of a film or line from grain to grain. When the strain is averaged over a macroscopic region the results are in good agreement with direct macroscopic stress measurements. However, the strain variations are so large that in some cases in which the average stress is tensile there are some grains actually under compression. The full implications of these observations are still being considered, but it is clear that the mechanical properties of thin film materials are now accessible with new visibility.

  16. Shaped excitation current for synchrotron magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foss, M.; Praeg, W.

    1981-01-01

    A 500-MeV synchrotron at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) operates at 30 Hz with its beam spill locked to neutron choppers with a precision of +- 0.5 μs. The average beam will be increased by running the magnets at 45 Hz. Three 45-Hz circuits are discussed which differ greatly in overall cost and complexity. The first is a conventional 45-Hz sine wave circuit. The reduction in time for beam acceleration results in a costly increase in peak rf power. This problem is avoided in the other two circuits by making the field rise slowly and fall rapidly. The second circuit discussed is resonant at 45 Hz and 90 Hz. Exciting this circuit with a mixture of dc, 45 Hz, and 90 Hz can produce a magnetic field with the same maximum dB/dt as the present 30-Hz field. A third, and possibly least expensive, solution is a novel circuit which produces 30 Hz during acceleration and 90 Hz when the magnets are reset. The rf requirements are, of course, identical to present requirements during acceleration. Circuit details are given

  17. Measuring Cavitation with Synchrotron X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel; Kastengren, Alan; Powell, Chris; X-Ray Fuel Spray Group, Energy Systems Division Team

    2012-11-01

    Cavitation plays an important role in the formation of sprays from small nozzles such as those found in fuel injection systems. A sharp-edged inlet from the sac into the nozzle of a diesel fuel injector is shown to inititate a strong sheet-like cavitation along the boundary layer of the nozzle throat, which is difficult to measure and can lead to acoustic damage. To investigate this phenomenon, a diagnostic technique capable of mapping the density field of the nozzle through regions of intense cavitation is required. Available visible-light techniques are limited to qualitative observations of the outer extent of cavitation zones. However, brilliant X-rays from a synchrotron source have negligible refraction and are capable of penetrating the full extent of cavitation zones. We present the early results of a novel application of line-of-sight, time-resolved X-ray radiography on a cavitating model nozzle. Experiments were conducted at Sector 7-BM of the Advanced Photon Source. Density and vapor distribution are measured from the quantitative absorption of monochromatic X-rays. The density field can then be tomographically reconstructed from the projections. The density is then validated against a range of compressible and incompressible numerical simulations. This research was performed at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (DOE-EERE).

  18. SLC energy spectrum monitor using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.; Brunk, W.; Early, R.; Ross, M.; Tillmann, E.; Walz, D.

    1986-01-01

    The SLAC linac is being upgraded for the use in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The improved linac must accelerate electron and positron bunches from 1.2 GeV to 50 GeV while producing output energy spectra of about 0.2%. The energy spectra must be maintained during operation to provide for good beam transmission and to minimize chromatic effects in the SLC ARCs and Final Focus. The energy spectra of these beams are determined by the bunch length and intensity, the RF phase and waveform and the intra-bunch longitudinal wakefields. A non-destructive energy spectrum monitor has been designed using a vertical wiggler magnet located downstream of the horizontal beam splitter at the end of the SLC linac. It produces synchrotron radiation which is viewed in an off-axis x-ray position sensitive detector. The expected resolution is 0.08 %. The design considerations of this monitor are presented. A pair of these monitors is under construction with an installation data set for late summer 1986

  19. SLC energy spectrum monitor using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.; Brunk, W.; Early, R.; Ross, M.; Tillmann, E.; Walz, D.

    1986-04-01

    The SLAC Linac is being upgraded for the use in the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). The improved Linac must accelerate electron and positron bunches from 1.2 GeV to 50 GeV while producing output energy spectra of about 0.2%. The energy spectra must be maintained during operation to provide for good beam transmission and to minimize chromatic effects in the SLC ARCs and Final Focus. the energy spectra of these beams are determined by the bunch length and intensity, the RF phase and waveform and the intra-bunch longitudinal wakefields. A non-destructive energy spectrum monitor has been designed using a vertical wiggler magnet located downstream of the horizontal beam splitter at the end of the SLC Linac. It produces synchrotron radiation which is viewed in an off-axis x-ray position sensitive detector. The expected resolution is 0.08%. The design considerations of this monitor are presented in this paper. A pair of these monitors is under construction with an installation date set for late summer 1986. 5 refs., 6 figs

  20. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Gutierrez-Leon, A.; Castro, G.R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J. [Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, SpLine, B.P. 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Solis, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Fisica, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Sanchez-Hernandez, R. [INAH Subdireccion de Laboratorios y Apoyo Academico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Robles-Camacho, J. [INAH Centro Regional Michoacan, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rojas-Gaytan, J. [INAH Direccion de Salvamento Arqueologico, Naucalpan de Juarez (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few {mu}g of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as anil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue. (orig.)

  1. Synchrotron powder diffraction on Aztec blue pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Del Río, M.; Gutiérrez-León, A.; Castro, G. R.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Solís, C.; Sánchez-Hernández, R.; Robles-Camacho, J.; Rojas-Gaytán, J.

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of raw blue pigments coming from an archaeological rescue mission in downtown Mexico City have been characterized using different techniques. The samples, some recovered as a part of a ritual offering, could be assigned to the late Aztec period (XVth century). The striking characteristic of these samples is that they seem to be raw pigments prior to any use in artworks, and it was possible to collect a few μg of pigment after manual grain selection under a microscopy monitoring. All pigments are made of indigo, an organic colorant locally known as añil or xiuhquilitl. The colorant is always found in combination with an inorganic matrix, studied by powder diffraction. In one case the mineral base is palygorskite, a rare clay mineral featuring micro-channels in its structure, well known as the main ingredient of the Maya blue pigment. However, other samples present the minerals sepiolite (a clay mineral of the palygorskite family) and calcite. Another sample contains barite, a mineral never reported in prehispanic paints. We present the results of characterization using high resolution powder diffraction recorded at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BM25A, SpLine beamline) complemented with other techniques. All of them gave consistent results on the composition. A chemical test on resistance to acids was done, showing a high resistance for the palygorskite and eventually sepiolite compounds, in good agreement with the excellent resistance of the Maya blue.

  2. Two dimensional model for coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengkun; Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects in a bunch compressor requires an accurate model accounting for the realistic beam shape and parameters. We extend the well-known 1D CSR analytic model into two dimensions and develop a simple numerical model based on the Liénard-Wiechert formula for the CSR field of a coasting beam. This CSR numerical model includes the 2D spatial dependence of the field in the bending plane and is accurate for arbitrary beam energy. It also removes the singularity in the space charge field calculation present in a 1D model. Good agreement is obtained with 1D CSR analytic result for free electron laser (FEL) related beam parameters but it can also give a more accurate result for low-energy/large spot size beams and off-axis/transient fields. This 2D CSR model can be used for understanding the limitation of various 1D models and for benchmarking fully electromagnetic multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations for self-consistent CSR modeling.

  3. Phase calibration strategies for synchrotron RF signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, Aleksandr [TEMF, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Klingbeil, Harald [TEMF, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Lens, Dieter [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For the FAIR facility that is currently under construction, the beam quality requirements impose several demands on the low-level RF (LLRF) systems. For example the phase error of the gap voltage of a specific RF cavity must be less than 1 . The RF reference signals for the FAIR synchrotron RF cavity systems are generated by direct digital synthesis modules (DDS) mounted in one crate called Group-DDS. In order to allow performing various multi-harmonic operations, each DDS unit operates at a certain mode defined by the harmonic number that can be changed during the operation. Since the DDS modules generate reference RF signals for different LLRF systems, the precise calibration of units to compensate the different phase response is of importance. The currently used calibration procedure is done with a fixed harmonic number for each module and uses the DDS module configured to the highest harmonic number as a reference. If the harmonic number of the DDS module is changed, one then has to repeat the calibration for the new values. Therefore, a new calibration method with respect to the absolute phases of DDS modules is under development and will be presented.

  4. Golden Jubilee photos: The Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Energy record Standing before the CERN personnel in the Main Auditorium on 25 November 1959, John Adams held not a bottle of champagne but a bottle of vodka. It had been presented to him a few months earlier during a visit to Dubna in the Soviet Union, where the world's most powerful accelerator had just been commissioned. He had been given strict instructions not to open the bottle until Dubna's energy record of 10 GeV had been broken. On 24 November, the record was smashed by CERN's brand new machine, the Proton Synchrotron, which accelerated protons at 24 GeV, over twice the energy of the Dubna machine. Before sending the empty bottle back to the Soviet Union, John Adams, who had headed the accelerator's construction, placed the recording of the signal in it as proof of the record. More than 40 years later, the PS is still going strong, delivering beams with particle densities a thousand times greater than when it first started operation. Over the years, other accelerators have grown up around it and the...

  5. Determination of the 20 MeV linear accelerator, new injector for the synchrotron Saturne. Choice of the electrical and dynamical particle parameters; Determination de l'accelerateur lineaire de 20 MeV, nouvel injecteur du synchrotron Saturne. Choix des parametres electriques, dynamique des particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prome, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-15

    This report takes place in the general determination of the 20 MeV linear accelerator which will be the new Saturne injector; it deals with particle dynamics. Starting from beam requirements at the output of the linac, cells lengths with variable synchronous phase angle, buncher and de-buncher parameters, beam emittances at the output in several phase spaces are successively determined. (author) [French] Dans le contexte general de la determination de l'accelerateur lineaire de 20 MeV, nouvel injecteur du synchrotron Saturne, ce rapport traite de la partie relative au mecanisme de l'acceleration des particules; a partir des caracteristiques souhaitees pour le faisceau a la sortie de cet accelerateur, on determine successivement les longueurs des cellules, compte tenu du choix d'un angle de phase synchrone variable, les caracteristiques du groupeur et du degroupeur et les emittances du faisceau en sortie dans les differents plans de phase. (auteur)

  6. GAMBARAN JENIS DAN JUMLAH KONSUMSI FAST FOOD DAN SOFT DRINK PADA MAHASISWA OBESITAS DI UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanti, Rut; Jafar, Nurhaedar; Syam, Aminuddin

    2013-01-01

    Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink dapat menyebabkan kelebihan berat badan dan obesitas.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran jenis dan jumlah zat gizi makro dari konsumsi fast food dan soft drink pada mahasiswa yang obesitas.Jenis penelitian adalah deskriptif, dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei-Juni 2013 di Universitas Hasanuddin dengan jumlah responden 60 orang. Instrument penelitian adalah kuesioner identitas diri dan food frekuensiSemiQuantitatif fast food dan soft drink, food pictur...

  7. PERSEPSI DAN TRANSFORMASI VISI DAN MISI PADA CIVITAS AKADEMIKA STAIN PEKALONGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Khanafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mengukur tingkat persepsi visi dan misi civitas akademika STAIN Pekalongan, dan mengukur juga tingkat implementasi sebagai transformasi visi misi tersebut serta menemukan hubungan antara persepsi dengan implementasinya. Kajian ini memiliki signifikan yang strategis dalam konteks manajemen dan pengembangan Pendidikan di STAIN Pekalongan dan lembaga pendidikan lainnya. Hal ini karena posisi visi dan misi sebagai kerangka acuan (frame of reference yang mengarahkan dan menjelaskan kepada keseluruh unsur civitas akademika dalam setiap program kerjanya.

  8. High-pressure synchrotron infrared spectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemley, R.J.; Goncharov, A.F.; Lu, R.; Struzhkin, V.V.; Li, M.; Mao, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a synchrotron infrared facility for high-pressure spectroscopy and microspectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light-Source (NSLS). Located at beamline U2B on the VUV ring of the NSLS, the facility utilizes a commercial FT-IR together with custom-built microscope optics designed for a variety of diamond anvil cell experiments, including low- and high- temperature studies. The system contains an integrated laser optical/grating spectrometer for concurrent optical experiments. The facility has been used to characterize a growing number of materials to ultrahigh pressure and has been instrumental of new high-pressure phenomena. Experiments on dense hydrogen to >200 GPa have led to the discovery of numerous unexpected properties of this fundamental system. The theoretically predicted molecular-atomic transition of H 2 O ice to the symmetric hydrogen-bonded structure has been identified, and new classes of high-density clathrates and molecular compounds have been characterized. Experiments on natural and synthetic mineral samples have been performed to study hydrogen speciation, phase transformations, and microscopic inclusions in multiphase assemblages. Detailed information on the behavior of new materials, including novel high-pressure glasses and ceramics, has also been obtained

  9. The Use of Ionizing Radiation as a Means of Processing Foodstuffs for Storage: Present Status and Future Prospects; Utilisation des Rayonnements Ionisants pour la Conservation de Produits Alimentaires: Situation Actuelle et Perspectives; Sostoyanie i perspektivy primeneniya ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij dlya obrabotki pishchevykh produktov v svyazi s ikh khraneniem; Estado Actual y Perspectivas del Empleo de las Radiaciones Ionizantes para la Conservacion de los Productos Alimenticios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogachev, V. I. [Vsesojuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Institut Konservnoj i Ovoshesushil' noj Promyshlennosti Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-11-15

    The use of ionizing radiation for processing foodstuffs is being studied in the USSR, particularly in connection with the following: (a) prevention of sprouting in potatoes and onions; (b) disinfestation of foodstuffs; (c) suppression of microbe activity; either sterilization or partial inhibition of microflora activity to prolong the shelf life of various foodstuffs; and (d) alterations in the ripening time of fruits and vegetables after picking and/or harvesting. The paper reports the status of work performed in the USSR during recent years on each of these general topics and the prospects for the practical application of irradiation to a number of products are considered. Among the products in question are meat and meat products (raw and cooked semi-finished products, sausage products), domestic poultry, various fruits and vegetables, potatoes, grain, dehydrated products (dried fruits and vegetables, dried food concentrates). Practical methods of irradiating potatoes and onions to prevent sprouting during storage have already been developed, and very soon it will be possible to use radiation for the disinfestation of foodstuffs on an industrial scale. (author) [French] Les etudes sur l'utilisation des rayonnements ionisants pour la conservation des produits alimentaires se poursuivent en URSS.dans les domaines suivants: a) prevention de la germination des pommes de terre et des oignons; b) desinsection des produits alimentaires; c) elimination de l'activite biologique des micro-organismes en vue de la sterilisation ou de l'elimination partielle de l'activite biologique de la microflore en vue de prolonger les delais de conservation de divers produits alimentaires; et d) modifications des delais de maturite apres recolte des fruits et legumes. Pour chacun de ces domaines, l'auteur indique l'etat des travaux effectues en URSS pendant ces dernieres annees et examine les perspectives d'utilisation des rayonnements pour un certain nombre de produits. Au nombre de ces

  10. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Dennis Eugene [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of 57Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2±0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 11/2 natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei.

  11. 1994 activity report: Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantwell, K.; Dunn, L.

    1994-01-01

    The SSRL facility delivered 89% of the scheduled user beam to 25 experimental stations during 6.5 months of user running. Users from private industry were involved in 31% of these experiments. The SPEAR accelerator ran very well with no major component failures and an unscheduled down time of only 2.9%. In addition to this increased reliability, there was a significant improvement in the stability of the beam. The enhancements to the SPEAR orbit as part of a concerted three-year program were particularly noticeable to users. The standard deviation of beam movement (both planes) in the last part of the run was 80 microns, major progress toward the ultimate goal of 50-micron stability. This was a significant improvement from the previous year when the movement was 400 microns in the horizontal and 200 microns in the vertical. A new accelerator Personal Protection System (PPS), built with full redundancy and providing protection from both radiation exposure and electrical hazards, was installed in 1994. It is not possible to describe in this summary all of the scientific experimentation which was performed during the run. However, the flavor of current research projects and the many significant accomplishments can be realized by the following highlights: A multinational collaboration performed several experiments involving x-ray scattering from nuclear resonances; Studies related to nuclear waste remediation by groups from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratories continued in 1994; Diffraction data sets for a number of important protein crystals were obtained; During the past two years a collaboration consisting of groups from Hewlett Packard, Intel, Fisons Instruments and SSRL has been exploring the utility of synchrotron radiation for total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TRXRF); and High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments have continued to generate exciting new results from highly correlated and magnetic materials

  12. 1994 activity report: Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantwell, K.; Dunn, L. [eds.

    1994-01-01

    The SSRL facility delivered 89% of the scheduled user beam to 25 experimental stations during 6.5 months of user running. Users from private industry were involved in 31% of these experiments. The SPEAR accelerator ran very well with no major component failures and an unscheduled down time of only 2.9%. In addition to this increased reliability, there was a significant improvement in the stability of the beam. The enhancements to the SPEAR orbit as part of a concerted three-year program were particularly noticeable to users. The standard deviation of beam movement (both planes) in the last part of the run was 80 microns, major progress toward the ultimate goal of 50-micron stability. This was a significant improvement from the previous year when the movement was 400 microns in the horizontal and 200 microns in the vertical. A new accelerator Personal Protection System (PPS), built with full redundancy and providing protection from both radiation exposure and electrical hazards, was installed in 1994. It is not possible to describe in this summary all of the scientific experimentation which was performed during the run. However, the flavor of current research projects and the many significant accomplishments can be realized by the following highlights: A multinational collaboration performed several experiments involving x-ray scattering from nuclear resonances; Studies related to nuclear waste remediation by groups from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratories continued in 1994; Diffraction data sets for a number of important protein crystals were obtained; During the past two years a collaboration consisting of groups from Hewlett Packard, Intel, Fisons Instruments and SSRL has been exploring the utility of synchrotron radiation for total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TRXRF); and High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments have continued to generate exciting new results from highly correlated and magnetic materials.

  13. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of 57 Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2±0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1 1/2 natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei

  14. Perancangan dan Analisis Redistribution Routing Protocol OSPF dan EIGRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak OSPF (Open Shortest Path First dan EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol adalah dua routing protokol yang banyak digunakan dalam jaringan komputer. Perbedaan karakteristik antar routing protokol menimbulkan masalah dalam pengiriman paket data. Teknik redistribution adalah solusi untuk melakukan komunikasi antar routing protokol. Dengan menggunakan software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 pada penelitian ini dibuat simulasi OSPF dan EIGRP yang dihubungkan oleh teknik redistribution, kemudian dibandingkan kualitasnya dengan single routing protokol EIGRP dan OSPF. Parameter pengujian dalam penelitian ini adalah nilai time delay dan trace route. Nilai trace route berdasarkan perhitungan langsung cost dan metric dibandingkan dengan hasil simulasi. Hasilnya dapat dilakukan proses redistribution OSPF dan EIGRP. Nilai delay redistribution lebih baik 1% dibanding OSPF dan 2-3% di bawah EIGRP tergantung kepadatan traffic. Dalam perhitungan trace route redistribution dilakukan 2 perhitungan, yaitu cost untuk area OSPF dan metric pada area EIGRP. Pengambilan jalur utama dan alternatif pengiriman paket berdasarkan nilai cost dan metric yang terkecil, hal ini terbukti berdasarkan perhitungan dan simulasi. Kata kunci: OSPF, EIGRP, Redistribution, Delay, Cost, Metric. Abstract OSPF (Open Shortest Path First and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol are two routing protocols are widely used in computer networks. Differences between the characteristics of routing protocols pose a problem in the delivery of data packets. Redistribution technique is the solution for communication between routing protocols. By using the software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 in this study were made simulating OSPF and EIGRP redistribution linked by technique, then compared its quality with a single EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols. Testing parameters in this study is the value of the time delay and trace route. Value trace route based on direct calculation of cost

  15. Pengaruh Perebusan, Penggaraman Dan Penjemuran Pada Udang Dan Cumi Terhadap Pembentukan 7 Ketokolesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Riyanto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pengaruh perebusan, penggaraman dan penjemuran pada udang dan cumi terhadap pembentukan 7‑ketokolesterol telah dilakukan. Dalam penelitian ini, udang dan cumi masing ­masing dibagi dalam dua kelompok. Pada kelompok pertama diberikan perlakuan perebusan dalam air, dan pada kelompok kedua diberikan perlakuan perebusan dalam air garam (3% air garam untuk udang dan 20% air garam untuk cumi. Setelah perebusan, dilakukan pengeringan di bawah matahari (udang dikupas dahulu sebelum dijemur. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan saat kondisi segar, setelah direbus dan setelah dijemur. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kandungan 7‑ketokolesterol, kolesterol, nilai TBA, dan kadar air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perebusan, penggaraman dan penjemuran berpengaruh terhadap pembentukan 7‑ketokolesterol sampai konsentrasi 20,82 ppm pada udang dan 15,05 ppm pada cumi sebagai konsentrasi tertinggi produk hasil oksidasi kolesterol yang terbentuk. Penelitian ini dapat dijadikan bukti bahwa pemanasan (perebusan dan penjemuran, serta penggaraman berpengaruh dalam proses oksidasi kolesterol pada udang dan cumi.

  16. Applications of electron spin resonance to some problems of radiation chemistry; Applications de la resonance paramagnetique electronique a quelques problemes de chimie sous rayonnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachaty, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    specifique des radicaux de la matrice par rechauffement, resultent de la protonation des anions formes par capture des electrons a 77 K. Ainsi, dans le cas de solutions vitreuses de composes nitres, il se forme les radicaux R NO{sub 2}H caracterises par a{sub N} = 15 G (nitrobenzene) ou a{sub N} = 28 G (nitro-alcanes). On observe transitoirement ces memes radicaux par photolyse U.V. de solutions de composes nitres dans les alcools, a temperature ambiante, dans la cavite du spectrometre et l'on montre qu'ils sont les precurseurs de radicaux nitroxydes R - N - R (avec N - O) observes simultanement. Les solutions de pyridine et des trois diazines dans les alcools, irradiees a 77 K donnent les radicaux produits par addition d'hydrogene sur ces composes. Il semble que le proton supplementaire, dont la constante de couplage est de 7 a 10 G, soit lie a un azote dans l'etat d'hybridation sp{sup 2}. On montre que l'addition sur un carbone donnerait une constante de couplage beaucoup plus elevee, de l'ordre de 50 a 60 G, dans le cas de la pyridine. (auteur)

  17. A novel molecular synchrotron for cold collision and EDM experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shunyong; Wei, Bin; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2016-09-07

    Limited by the construction demands, the state-of-the-art molecular synchrotrons consist of only 40 segments that hardly make a good circle. Imperfections in the circular structure will lead to the appearance of unstable velocity regions (i.e. stopbands), where molecules of certain forward velocity will be lost from the structure. In this paper, we propose a stopband-free molecular synchrotron. It contains 1570 ring electrodes, which nearly make a perfect circle, capable of confining both light and heavy polar molecules in the low-field-seeking states. Molecular packets can be conveniently manipulated with this synchrotron by various means, like acceleration, deceleration or even trapping. Trajectory calculations are carried out using a pulsed (88)SrF molecular beam with a forward velocity of 50 m/s. The results show that the molecular beam can make more than 500 round trips inside the synchrotron with a 1/e lifetime of 6.2 s. The synchrotron can find potential applications in low-energy collision and reaction experiments or in the field of precision measurements, such as the searches for electric dipole moment of elementary particles.

  18. Intense synchrotron radiation from a magnetically compressed relativistic electron layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Nowak, D.A.; Garelis, E.; Condit, W.C.

    1975-10-01

    Using a simple model of a relativistic electron layer rotating in an axial magnetic field, energy gain by an increasing magnetic field and energy loss by synchrotron radiation were considered. For a typical example, initial conditions were approximately 8 MeV electron in approximately 14 kG magnetic field, at a layer radius of approximately 20 mm, and final conditions were approximately 4 MG magnetic field approximately 100 MeV electron layer energy at a layer radius of approximately 1.0 mm. In the final state, the intense 1-10 keV synchrotron radiation imposes an electron energy loss time constant of approximately 100 nanoseconds. In order to achieve these conditions in practice, the magnetic field must be compressed by an imploding conducting liner; preferably two flying rings in order to allow the synchrotron radiation to escape through the midplane. The synchrotron radiation loss rate imposes a lower limit to the liner implosion velocity required to achieve a given final electron energy (approximately 1 cm/μsec in the above example). In addition, if the electron ring can be made sufficiently strong (field reversed), the synchrotron radiation would be a unique source of high intensity soft x-radiation

  19. On the formation of an instantaneous orbit in a synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashmakov, Yu.A.; Karpov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the process of injection into a synchrotron amplitudes of particle betatron oscillations can be comparable with the dimensions of the synchrotron working region, which means that special attention should be paid to the formation of the optimum instantaneous orbit. Basides, a necessity to calculate the orbit frequently arises at the end of the acceleration cycle, when particle dump onto internal targets or their extraction from the synchrotron take place. In the paper the method for calculation of particle trajectories in the synchrotron is described. According to the method the program of numerical calculation of both separate particle trajectories and closed instantaneous orbit was developed. The method suggested is based on the presentation of the accelerator magnetic structure as a sequential set of discrete elements. All the elements can be divided into the following main groups: free rectilinear gaps, rectilinear gaps with stray magnetic field, magnetic sectors, rectilinear gaps with accelerating electric field. The calculations made according to the method described have shown its high efficiency. The program developed is used for the simulation of the injection into the ''Pakhra'' synchrotron

  20. Modelisation of synchrotron radiation losses in realistic tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albajar, F.; Johner, J.; Granata, G.

    2000-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation losses become significant in the power balance of high-temperature plasmas envisaged for next step tokamaks. Due to the complexity of the exact calculation, these losses are usually roughly estimated with expressions derived from a plasma description using simplifying assumptions on the geometry, radiation absorption, and density and temperature profiles. In the present article, the complete formulation of the transport of synchrotron radiation is performed for realistic conditions of toroidal plasma geometry with elongated cross-section, using an exact method for the calculation of the absorption coefficient, and for arbitrary shapes of density and temperature profiles. The effects of toroidicity and temperature profile on synchrotron radiation losses are analyzed in detail. In particular, when the electron temperature profile is almost flat in the plasma center, as for example in ITB confinement regimes, synchrotron losses are found to be much stronger than in the case where the profile is represented by its best generalized parabolic approximation, though both cases give approximately the same thermal energy contents. Such an effect is not included in present approximate expressions. Finally, we propose a seven-variable fit for the fast calculation of synchrotron radiation losses. This fit is derived from a large database, which has been generated using a code implementing the complete formulation and optimized for massively parallel computing. (author)