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Sample records for rayleigh number theory

  1. Penetrative convection at high Rayleigh numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppaladoddi, Srikanth; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2018-04-01

    We study penetrative convection of a fluid confined between two horizontal plates, the temperatures of which are such that a temperature of maximum density lies between them. The range of Rayleigh numbers studied is Ra=[0.01 ,4 ]106,108 and the Prandtl numbers are Pr=1 and 11.6. An evolution equation for the growth of the convecting region is obtained through an integral energy balance. We identify a new nondimensional parameter, Λ , which is the ratio of temperature difference between the stable and unstable regions of the flow; larger values of Λ denote increased stability of the upper stable layer. We study the effects of Λ on the flow field using well-resolved lattice Boltzmann simulations and show that the characteristics of the flow depend sensitively upon it. For the range Λ = , we find that for a fixed Ra the Nusselt number, Nu, increases with decreasing Λ . We also investigate the effects of Λ on the vertical variation of convective heat flux and the Brunt-Väisälä frequency. Our results clearly indicate that in the limit Λ →0 the problem reduces to that of the classical Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  2. Rayleigh scattering in coupled microcavities: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Zoltán; Weihs, Gregor

    2014-12-03

    In this paper we theoretically study how structural disorder in coupled semiconductor heterostructures influences single-particle scattering events that would otherwise be forbidden by symmetry. We extend the model of Savona (2007 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 295208) to describe Rayleigh scattering in coupled planar microcavity structures, and find that effective filter theories can be ruled out.

  3. Turbulent boundary layer in high Rayleigh number convection in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Puits, Ronald; Li, Ling; Resagk, Christian; Thess, André; Willert, Christian

    2014-03-28

    Flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry measurements in the boundary layer of a Rayleigh-Bénard experiment are presented for the Rayleigh number Ra=1.4×1010. Our visualizations indicate that the appearance of the flow structures is similar to ordinary (isothermal) turbulent boundary layers. Our particle image velocimetry measurements show that vorticity with both positive and negative sign is generated and that the smallest flow structures are 1 order of magnitude smaller than the boundary layer thickness. Additional local measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry yield turbulence intensities up to I=0.4 as in turbulent atmospheric boundary layers. From our observations, we conclude that the convective boundary layer becomes turbulent locally and temporarily although its Reynolds number Re≈200 is considerably smaller than the value 420 underlying existing phenomenological theories. We think that, in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the transition of the boundary layer towards turbulence depends on subtle details of the flow field and is therefore not universal.

  4. Thermal convection at low Rayleigh number from concentrated sources in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickox, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    A simple mathematical theory is proposed for the analysis of natural convective motion, at low Rayleigh number, from a concentrated source of heat in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The theory consists of retaining only the leading terms of series expansions of the dependent variables in terms of the Rayleigh number, is thus linear, and is valid only in the limit of small Rayleigh number. Based on fundamental results for a variety of isolated sources, superposition is used to provide solutions for situations of practical interest. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of sub-seabed disposal of nuclear waste. 8 figures

  5. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  6. Three caveats for linear stability theory: Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenside, H.S.

    1984-06-01

    Recent theories and experiments challenge the applicability of linear stability theory near the onset of buoyancy-driven (Rayleigh-Benard) convection. This stability theory, based on small perturbations of infinite parallel rolls, is found to miss several important features of the convective flow. The reason is that the lateral boundaries have a profound influence on the possible wave numbers and flow patterns even for the largest cells studied. Also, the nonlinear growth of incoherent unstable modes distorts the rolls, leading to a spatially disordered and sometimes temporally nonperiodic flow. Finally, the relation of the skewed varicose instability to the onset of turbulence (nonperiodic time dependence) is examined. Linear stability theory may not suffice to predict the onset of time dependence in large cells close to threshold

  7. Plume structure in high-Rayleigh-number convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2005-10-01

    Near-wall structures in turbulent natural convection at Rayleigh numbers of 10^{10} to 10^{11} at A Schmidt number of 602 are visualized by a new method of driving the convection across a fine membrane using concentration differences of sodium chloride. The visualizations show the near-wall flow to consist of sheet plumes. A wide variety of large-scale flow cells, scaling with the cross-section dimension, are observed. Multiple large-scale flow cells are seen at aspect ratio (AR)= 0.65, while only a single circulation cell is detected at AR= 0.435. The cells (or the mean wind) are driven by plumes coming together to form columns of rising lighter fluid. The wind in turn aligns the sheet plumes along the direction of shear. the mean wind direction is seen to change with time. The near-wall dynamics show plumes initiated at points, which elongate to form sheets and then merge. Increase in rayleigh number results in a larger number of closely and regularly spaced plumes. The plume spacings show a common log normal probability distribution function, independent of the rayleigh number and the aspect ratio. We propose that the near-wall structure is made of laminar natural-convection boundary layers, which become unstable to give rise to sheet plumes, and show that the predictions of a model constructed on this hypothesis match the experiments. Based on these findings, we conclude that in the presence of a mean wind, the local near-wall boundary layers associated with each sheet plume in high-rayleigh-number turbulent natural convection are likely to be laminar mixed convection type.

  8. Rayleigh-Benard Natural Convection Cell Formation and Nusselt number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Je Young; Chung, Bum Jin

    2013-01-01

    The experimental results lie within the predictions of the existing heat transfer correlations for the Rayleigh-Benard natural convections even though the material properties were different. For shorter separation distances, the heat transfers enhance due to the active interaction between heated and cooled plumes. For a step temperature difference, the time dependent Nusselt number variations were investigated. Both experimental and numerical results showed that with time the Nusselt number decreases monotonically to a minimum point presenting the onset of convection. As the hot and cold plumes increase and convey the heat to the other plates, the Nusselt number increases to the local maximum point, presenting the vertical movements of the plumes. Then, the Nusselt number fluctuates with the formation of square cells and larger vortices. This also predicted by the mass transfer experiment. The experiments and calculations show similar trend but the timings were different. These discrepancies are caused by the disturbances inherent in both systems. The molten pool is formed in a hypothetical severe accident condition at the lower head of reactor vessel and is stratified into two layers by the density difference: an upper metallic layer and a lower oxide pool. Rayleigh-Benard natural convection occurs in the metallic layer of relocated molten pool. This study aimed at the investigation of the time-dependent cell formation and Nusselt number variation in Rayleigh-Benard natural convection. Time dependent variation of Nusselt number was also measured experimentally and analyzed numerically to investigate the relationship between the cell formation and Nusselt number. Based on the analogy, heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments using a sulfuric acid-copper sulfate (H 2 SO 4 -CuSO 4 ) electroplating system. Numerical analysis using the commercial CFD program FLUENT 6.3 were carried out with the same material properties and heating conditions

  9. Rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection at low Prandtl number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Guzman, Andres; Ostilla-Monico, Rodolfo; Clercx, Herman; Kunnen, Rudie

    2017-11-01

    Most geo- and astrophysical convective flows are too remote or too complex for direct measurements of the physical quantities involved, and thus a reduced framework with the main physical constituents is beneficial. This approach is given by the problem of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RRBC). For large-scale systems, the governing parameters of RRBC take extreme values, leading to the geostrophic turbulent regime. We perform Direct Numerical Simulations to investigate the transition to this regime at low Prandtl number (Pr). In low- Pr fluids, thermal diffusivity dominates over momentum diffusivity; we use Pr = 0.1 , relevant to liquid metals. In particular, we study the convective heat transfer (Nusselt number Nu) as a function of rotation (assessed by the Ekman number Ek). The strength of the buoyant forcing (Rayleigh number Ra) is Ra = 1 ×1010 to ensure turbulent convection. Varying Ek , we observe a change of the power-law scaling Nu Ekβ that suggests a transition to geostrophic turbulence, which is likely to occur at Ek = 9 ×10-7 . The thermal boundary layer thickness, however, may suggest a transition at lower Ekman numbers, indicating that perhaps not all statistical quantities show a transitional behaviour at the same Ek .

  10. Rotating thermal convection at very large Rayleigh numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stephan; van Gils, Dennis; Ahlers, Guenter; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2016-11-01

    The large scale thermal convection systems in geo- and astrophysics are usually influenced by Coriolis forces caused by the rotation of their celestial bodies. To better understand the influence of rotation on the convective flow field and the heat transport at these conditions, we study Rayleigh-Bénard convection, using pressurized sulfur hexaflouride (SF6) at up to 19 bars in a cylinder of diameter D=1.12 m and a height of L=2.24 m. The gas is heated from below and cooled from above and the convection cell sits on a rotating table inside a large pressure vessel (the "Uboot of Göttingen"). With this setup Rayleigh numbers of up to Ra =1015 can be reached, while Ekman numbers as low as Ek =10-8 are possible. The Prandtl number in these experiment is kept constant at Pr = 0 . 8 . We report on heat flux measurements (expressed by the Nusselt number Nu) as well as measurements from more than 150 temperature probes inside the flow. We thank the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for financial support through SFB963: "Astrophysical Flow Instabilities and Turbulence". The work of GA was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation through Grant DMR11-58514.

  11. Transitional boundary layer in low-Prandtl-number convection at high Rayleigh number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Joerg; Bandaru, Vinodh; Pandey, Ambrish; Scheel, Janet

    2016-11-01

    The boundary layer structure of the velocity and temperature fields in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard flows in closed cylindrical cells of unit aspect ratio is revisited from a transitional and turbulent viscous boundary layer perspective. When the Rayleigh number is large enough the boundary layer dynamics at the bottom and top plates can be separated into an impact region of downwelling plumes, an ejection region of upwelling plumes and an interior region (away from side walls) that is dominated by a shear flow of varying orientation. This interior plate region is compared here to classical wall-bounded shear flows. The working fluid is liquid mercury or liquid gallium at a Prandtl number of Pr = 0 . 021 for a range of Rayleigh numbers of 3 ×105 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  12. Convection in an ideal gas at high Rayleigh numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilgner, A

    2011-08-01

    Numerical simulations of convection in a layer filled with ideal gas are presented. The control parameters are chosen such that there is a significant variation of density of the gas in going from the bottom to the top of the layer. The relations between the Rayleigh, Peclet, and Nusselt numbers depend on the density stratification. It is proposed to use a data reduction which accounts for the variable density by introducing into the scaling laws an effective density. The relevant density is the geometric mean of the maximum and minimum densities in the layer. A good fit to the data is then obtained with power laws with the same exponent as for fluids in the Boussinesq limit. Two relations connect the top and bottom boundary layers: The kinetic energy densities computed from free fall velocities are equal at the top and bottom, and the products of free fall velocities and maximum horizontal velocities are equal for both boundaries.

  13. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-09

    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  14. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  15. Experimental demonstration of the Rayleigh acoustic viscous boundary layer theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón-Pita, J R; Castrejón-Pita, A A; Huelsz, G; Tovar, R

    2006-03-01

    Amplitude and phase velocity measurements on the laminar oscillatory viscous boundary layer produced by acoustic waves are presented. The measurements were carried out in acoustic standing waves in air with frequencies of 68.5 and 114.5 Hz using laser Doppler anemometry and particle image velocimetry. The results obtained by these two techniques are in good agreement with the predictions made by the Rayleigh viscous boundary layer theory and confirm the existence of a local maximum of the velocity amplitude and its expected location.

  16. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  17. Role of Rayleigh numbers on characteristics of double diffusive salt fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, F.; Singh, O. P.

    2018-05-01

    Double diffusion convection, driven by two constituents of the fluid with different molecular diffusivity, is widely applied in oceanography and large number of other fields like astrophysics, geology, chemistry and metallurgy. In case of ocean, heat (T) and salinity (S) are the two components with varying diffusivity, where heat diffuses hundred times faster than salt. Component (T) stabilizes the system whereas components (S) destabilizes the system with overall density remains stable and forms the rising and sinking fingers known as salt fingers. Recent observations suggest that salt finger characteristics such as growth rates, wavenumber, and fluxes are strongly depending on the Rayleigh numbers as major driving force. In this paper, we corroborate this observation with the help of experiments, numerical simulations and linear theory. An eigenvalue expression for growth rate is derived from the linearized governing equations with explicit dependence on Rayleigh numbers, density stability ratio, Prandtl number and diffusivity ratio. Expressions for fastest growing fingers are also derived as a function various non-dimensional parameter. The predicted results corroborate well with the data reported from the field measurements, experiments and numerical simulations.

  18. Self-similarity in high Atwood number Rayleigh-Taylor experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaeil, Mark; Suchandra, Prasoon; Pathikonda, Gokul; Ranjan, Devesh

    2017-11-01

    Self-similarity is a critical concept in turbulent and mixing flows. In the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, theory and simulations have shown that the flow exhibits properties of self-similarity as the mixing Reynolds number exceeds 20000 and the flow enters the turbulent regime. Here, we present results from the first large Atwood number (0.7) Rayleigh-Taylor experimental campaign for mixing Reynolds number beyond 20000 in an effort to characterize the self-similar nature of the instability. Experiments are performed in a statistically steady gas tunnel facility, allowing for the evaluation of turbulence statistics. A visualization diagnostic is used to study the evolution of the mixing width as the instability grows. This allows for computation of the instability growth rate. For the first time in such a facility, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry is used to resolve three-component velocity information in a plane. Velocity means, fluctuations, and correlations are considered as well as their appropriate scaling. Probability density functions of velocity fields, energy spectra, and higher-order statistics are also presented. The energy budget of the flow is described, including the ratio of the kinetic energy to the released potential energy. This work was supported by the DOE-NNSA SSAA Grant DE-NA0002922.

  19. Advanced number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Harvey

    1980-01-01

    ""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts

  20. Invitation to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ore, Oystein

    2017-01-01

    Number theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with the counting numbers, 1, 2, 3, … and their multiples and factors. Of particular importance are odd and even numbers, squares and cubes, and prime numbers. But in spite of their simplicity, you will meet a multitude of topics in this book: magic squares, cryptarithms, finding the day of the week for a given date, constructing regular polygons, pythagorean triples, and many more. In this revised edition, John Watkins and Robin Wilson have updated the text to bring it in line with contemporary developments. They have added new material on Fermat's Last Theorem, the role of computers in number theory, and the use of number theory in cryptography, and have made numerous minor changes in the presentation and layout of the text and the exercises.

  1. Efficient testing of the homogeneity, scale parameters and number of components in the Rayleigh mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehlik, M.; Ososkov, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The statistical problem to expand the experimental distribution of transverse momenta into Rayleigh distribution is considered. A high-efficient testing procedure for testing the hypothesis of the homogeneity of the observed measurements which is optimal in the sense of Bahadur is constructed. The exact likelihood ratio (LR) test of the scale parameter of the Rayleigh distribution is proposed for cases when the hypothesis of homogeneity holds. Otherwise the efficient procedure for testing the number of components in the mixture is also proposed

  2. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  3. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  4. Fundamentals of number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    1996-01-01

    This excellent textbook introduces the basics of number theory, incorporating the language of abstract algebra. A knowledge of such algebraic concepts as group, ring, field, and domain is not assumed, however; all terms are defined and examples are given - making the book self-contained in this respect.The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diopha

  5. Elementary theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw

    1988-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition of this work, considerable progress has been made in many of the questions examined. This edition has been updated and enlarged, and the bibliography has been revised.The variety of topics covered here includes divisibility, diophantine equations, prime numbers (especially Mersenne and Fermat primes), the basic arithmetic functions, congruences, the quadratic reciprocity law, expansion of real numbers into decimal fractions, decomposition of integers into sums of powers, some other problems of the additive theory of numbers and the theory of Gaussian

  6. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudley, Underwood

    2008-01-01

    Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta

  7. Algebraic theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  8. Ultimate regime of high Rayleigh number convection in a porous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Duncan R; Neufeld, Jerome A; Lister, John R

    2012-06-01

    Well-resolved direct numerical simulations of 2D Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a porous medium are presented for Rayleigh numbers Ra≤4×10(4) which reveal that, contrary to previous indications, the linear classical scaling for the Nusselt number, Nu~Ra, is attained asymptotically. The flow dynamics are analyzed, and the interior of the vigorously convecting system is shown to be increasingly well described as Ra→∞ by a simple columnar "heat-exchanger" model with a single horizontal wave number k and a linear background temperature field. The numerical results are approximately fitted by k~Ra(0.4).

  9. Rayleigh Number Criterion for Formation of A-Segregates in Steel Castings and Ingots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rad, M. Torabi; Kotas, Petr; Beckermann, C.

    2013-01-01

    A Rayleigh number-based criterion is developed for predicting the formation of A-segregates in steel castings and ingots. The criterion is calibrated using available experimental data for ingots involving 27 different steel compositions. The critical Rayleigh number above which A-segregates can b......, the primary reason for this over-prediction is persumed to be the presence of a central zone of equiaxed grains in the casting sections. A-segregates do not form when the grain structure is equiaxed. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2013...

  10. Experimental test of Neel's theory of the Rayleigh rule using gradually devitrified Co-based glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachowicz, H.K.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that gradually devitrified Co-based nonmagnetostrictive metallic glass is an excellent model material to verify Louis Neel's theory of the Rayleigh rule. In the course of the calculations, Neel showed that the parameter p=bH c /a (where H c is the coercivity, a and b are the coefficients of a quadratic polynomial expressing the Rayleigh rule) is expected to range between 0.6 (hard magnets) and 1.6 (soft). However, the experimental values of this parameter, reported in the literature for a number of mono- and poly-crystalline magnets, are much greater than those expected from the theory presented by Neel (in some cases even by two orders of magnitude). The measurements, performed for a series of Co-based metallic glass samples annealed at gradually increasing temperature to produce nanocrystalline structures with differentiated density and size of the crystallites, have shown that the calculated values of the parameter p fall within the range expected from Neel's theory

  11. Topics in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    2002-01-01

    Classic two-part work now available in a single volume assumes no prior theoretical knowledge on reader's part and develops the subject fully. Volume I is a suitable first course text for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Volume II requires a much higher level of mathematical maturity, including a working knowledge of the theory of analytic functions. Contents range from chapters on binary quadratic forms to the Thue-Siegel-Roth Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem. Includes numerous problems and hints for their solutions. 1956 edition. Supplementary Reading. List of Symb

  12. Prandtl-number Effects in High-Rayleigh-number Spherical Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvedahl, Ryan J.; Calkins, Michael A.; Featherstone, Nicholas A.; Hindman, Bradley W.

    2018-03-01

    Convection is the predominant mechanism by which energy and angular momentum are transported in the outer portion of the Sun. The resulting overturning motions are also the primary energy source for the solar magnetic field. An accurate solar dynamo model therefore requires a complete description of the convective motions, but these motions remain poorly understood. Studying stellar convection numerically remains challenging; it occurs within a parameter regime that is extreme by computational standards. The fluid properties of the convection zone are characterized in part by the Prandtl number \\Pr = ν/κ, where ν is the kinematic viscosity and κ is the thermal diffusion; in stars, \\Pr is extremely low, \\Pr ≈ 10‑7. The influence of \\Pr on the convective motions at the heart of the dynamo is not well understood since most numerical studies are limited to using \\Pr ≈ 1. We systematically vary \\Pr and the degree of thermal forcing, characterized through a Rayleigh number, to explore its influence on the convective dynamics. For sufficiently large thermal driving, the simulations reach a so-called convective free-fall state where diffusion no longer plays an important role in the interior dynamics. Simulations with a lower \\Pr generate faster convective flows and broader ranges of scales for equivalent levels of thermal forcing. Characteristics of the spectral distribution of the velocity remain largely insensitive to changes in \\Pr . Importantly, we find that \\Pr plays a key role in determining when the free-fall regime is reached by controlling the thickness of the thermal boundary layer.

  13. The multifractal nature of plume structure in high-Rayleigh-number convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthenveettil, Baburaj A.; Ananthakrishna, G.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2005-03-01

    The geometrically different planforms of near-wall plume structure in turbulent natural convection, visualized by driving the convection using concentration differences across a membrane, are shown to have a common multifractal spectrum of singularities for Rayleigh numbers in the range 1010-1011 at Schmidt number of 602. The scaling is seen for a length scale range of 25 and is independent of the Rayleigh number, the flux, the strength and nature of the large-scale flow, and the aspect ratio. Similar scaling is observed for the plume structures obtained in the presence of a weak flow across the membrane. This common non-trivial spatial scaling is proposed to be due to the same underlying generating process for the near-wall plume structures.

  14. Role of Shape and Numbers of Ridges and Valleys in the Insulating Effects of Topography on the Rayleigh Wave Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, J. P.; Kumar, Neeraj; Chauhan, Ranu

    2018-03-01

    This research work is inspired by the recently accepted concept that high frequency Rayleigh waves are generated in the epicentral zone of shallow earthquakes. Such high frequency Rayleigh waves with large amplitude may develop much of spatial variability in ground motion which in turn may cause unexpected damage to long-span structures like bridges, underground pipelines, dams, etc., in the hilly regions. Further, it has been reported that topography acts as an insulator for the Rayleigh waves (Ma et al. BSSA 97:2066-2079, 2007). The above mentioned scientific developments stimulated to quantify the role of shape and number of ridges and valleys falling in the path of Rayleigh wave in the insulating effect of topography on the Rayleigh waves. The simulated results reveals very large amplification of the horizontal component of Rayleigh wave near the top of a triangular ridge which may cause intensive landslides under favorable condition. The computed snapshots of the wave-field of Rayleigh wave reveals that the interaction of Rayleigh wave with the topography causes reflection, splitting, and diffraction of Rayleigh wave in the form of body waves which in turn provides the insulating capacity to the topography. Insulating effects of single valley is more than that of single ridge. Further this effect was more in case of elliptical ridge/valley than triangular ridge/valley. The insulating effect of topography was proportional to the frequency of Rayleigh wave and the number of ridges and valleys in the string. The obtained level of insulation effects of topography on the Rayleigh wave (energy of Rayleigh wave reduced to less than 4% after crossing a topography of span 4.5 km) calls for the consideration of role of hills and valleys in seismic hazard prediction, particularly in case of shallow earthquakes.

  15. Turbulent Superstructures in Rayleigh-Bénard convection at different Prandtl number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Jörg; Pandey, Ambrish; Ender, Martin; Westermann, Rüdiger; Scheel, Janet D.

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale patterns of the temperature and velocity field in horizontally extended cells can be considered as turbulent superstructures in Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC). These structures are obtained once the turbulent fluctuations are removed by a finite-time average. Their existence has been reported for example in Bailon-Cuba et al.. This large-scale order obeys a strong similarity with the well-studied patterns from the weakly nonlinear regime at lower Rayleigh number in RBC. In the present work we analyze the superstructures of RBC at different Prandtl number for Prandtl values between Pr = 0.005 for liquid sodium and 7 for water. The characteristic evolution time scales, the typical spatial extension of the rolls and the properties of the defects of the resulting superstructure patterns are analyzed. Data are obtained from well-resolved spectral element direct numerical simulations. The work is supported by the Priority Programme SPP 1881 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  16. Nusselt number and bulk temperature in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Weiss, Stephan; Shishkina, Olga; International CollaborationTurbulence Research Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We present an algorithm to calculate the Nusselt number (Nu) in measurements of the heat transport in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection under general non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) conditions. We further critically analyze the different ways to evaluate the dependences of Nu over the Rayleigh number (Ra) and show the sensitivity of these dependences to the reference temperatures in the bulk, top and bottom boundary layers (BLs). Finally we propose a method to predict the bulk temperature and a way to calculate the reference temperatures of the top and bottom BLs and validate them against the Göttingen measurements. The work is supported by the Max Planck Society and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh 405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship.

  17. Solute redistribution and Rayleigh number in the mushy zone during directional solidifi cation of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ling

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The interdendritic segregation along the mushy zone of directionally solidifi ed superalloy Inconel 718 has been measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersion analysis spectrometry (EDAXtechniques and the corresponding liquid composition profile was presented. The liquid density and Rayleigh number (Ra profi les along the mushy zone were calculated as well. It was found that the liquid density difference increased from top to bottom in the mushy zone and there was no density inversion due to the segregation of Nb and Mo. However carbide formation in the freezing range and the preferred angle of the orientated dendrite array could prompt the fl uid fl ow in the mushy zone although there was no liquid density inversion. The largest relative Rayleigh number appeared at 1,326 篊 for Inconel 718 where the fl uid fl ow most easily occurred.

  18. Elementary number theory with programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lewinter, Marty

    2015-01-01

    A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con

  19. 2016 Gainesville Number Theory Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Garvan, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Gathered from the 2016 Gainesville Number Theory Conference honoring Krishna Alladi on his 60th birthday, these proceedings present recent research in number theory. Extensive and detailed, this volume features 40 articles by leading researchers on topics in analytic number theory, probabilistic number theory, irrationality and transcendence, Diophantine analysis, partitions, basic hypergeometric series, and modular forms. Readers will also find detailed discussions of several aspects of the path-breaking work of Srinivasa Ramanujan and its influence on current research. Many of the papers were motivated by Alladi's own research on partitions and q-series as well as his earlier work in number theory.  Alladi is well known for his contributions in number theory and mathematics. His research interests include combinatorics, discrete mathematics, sieve methods, probabilistic and analytic number theory, Diophantine approximations, partitions and q-series identities. Graduate students and researchers will find th...

  20. Nonlinear theory of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability in equatorial spread F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, P.K.; Ossakow, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in equatorial Spread F by including a dominant two-dimensional nonlinearity. It is found that on account of this nonlinearity the instability saturates by generating damped higher spatial harmonics. The saturated power spectrum for the density fluctuations is discussed. A comparison between experimental observations and theory is presented

  1. Sequences, groups, and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rigo, Michel

    2018-01-01

    This collaborative book presents recent trends on the study of sequences, including combinatorics on words and symbolic dynamics, and new interdisciplinary links to group theory and number theory. Other chapters branch out from those areas into subfields of theoretical computer science, such as complexity theory and theory of automata. The book is built around four general themes: number theory and sequences, word combinatorics, normal numbers, and group theory. Those topics are rounded out by investigations into automatic and regular sequences, tilings and theory of computation, discrete dynamical systems, ergodic theory, numeration systems, automaton semigroups, and amenable groups.  This volume is intended for use by graduate students or research mathematicians, as well as computer scientists who are working in automata theory and formal language theory. With its organization around unified themes, it would also be appropriate as a supplemental text for graduate level courses.

  2. Littlewood and Number Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    improved by Selberg [4] in 1941 who showed that a pos- ... be seen by entries of his first letter to G H Hardy in ... tary in the technical sense of the word, employed com- ..... III: On the expression of a number as a sum of primes, Acta Math.,.

  3. The theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Harry

    1998-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.

  4. Fundamental number theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mollin, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    An update of the most accessible introductory number theory text available, Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition presents a mathematically rigorous yet easy-to-follow treatment of the fundamentals and applications of the subject. The substantial amount of reorganizing makes this edition clearer and more elementary in its coverage. New to the Second Edition           Removal of all advanced material to be even more accessible in scope           New fundamental material, including partition theory, generating functions, and combinatorial number theory           Expa

  5. Classical theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ribenboim, Paulo

    2001-01-01

    Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...

  6. Turbulent convection experiment at high Rayleigh number to support CAP1400 IVR strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Li, E-mail: mali@snptrd.com [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijing@snptrd.com [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Ji, Shui, E-mail: jishui@snptrd.com [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Chang, Huajian, E-mail: changhuajian@snptrd.com [State Nuclear Hua Qing(Beijing) Nuclear Power Technology R& D Centre Co., Ltd, Building A, State Nuclear Power Research Institute, Future Science & Technology Park, Changping Dist., Beijing 102209 (China); Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The facility reached high Ra number at 10{sup 12} of CAP1400 working condition. • The fitting formula Nu = 0.085 × Ra{sup 0.315} was established to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer at high Ra for the CAP1400. • The coupling method can accurately and safely predict the heat flow distribution of metal layer in high Ra number conditions. • The experiment results will predict the relationship between axial and radial heat transfer well. - Abstract: The characteristics of the heat transfer and the calculation of heat flux in metal layer are both the critical problems for in-vessel retention (IVR) strategy. Turbulent convection occurs in the metal layer when the Rayleigh number (Ra) becomes sufficient high. The Globe–Dropkin (G–D) correlation (Globe and Dropkin, 1959) and Chu–Churchill (C–C) correlation (Churchill and Chu, 1975) have been widely used to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer, where the valid range of the Ra is from 1.5 × 10{sup 5} to 6.8 × 10{sup 8} in G–D correlation and less than 10{sup 12} in C–C correlation. However, with the increase of reactor power, both the Rayleigh number and the rate of heat transfer below the bottom of metal layer of the molten pool will increase, and in this case the Rayleigh number even can reach 10{sup 11} for the China Advanced Passive Plant CAP1400. Accordingly, the G–D correlation is not suitable for the CAP1400. Therefore, our experiment purposes are to establish the appropriate correlation at high Ra for the CAP1400 and predict the axial and radial distribution of the heat transfer in the metal layer with the heat transfer behavior of metal layer experiment (HELM) facility. The experiments are divided into two parts. Each part concerns 39 runs and 47 experimental conditions. Its corresponding results are obtained at middle Prandtl number (Pr = 7 for water) and the Nusselt number is found to be proportional to Ra{sup 0.315} in the range 3.93 × 10{sup 8} < Ra < 3.57

  7. Turbulent convection experiment at high Rayleigh number to support CAP1400 IVR strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Li; Li, Jing; Ji, Shui; Chang, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The facility reached high Ra number at 10 12 of CAP1400 working condition. • The fitting formula Nu = 0.085 × Ra 0.315 was established to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer at high Ra for the CAP1400. • The coupling method can accurately and safely predict the heat flow distribution of metal layer in high Ra number conditions. • The experiment results will predict the relationship between axial and radial heat transfer well. - Abstract: The characteristics of the heat transfer and the calculation of heat flux in metal layer are both the critical problems for in-vessel retention (IVR) strategy. Turbulent convection occurs in the metal layer when the Rayleigh number (Ra) becomes sufficient high. The Globe–Dropkin (G–D) correlation (Globe and Dropkin, 1959) and Chu–Churchill (C–C) correlation (Churchill and Chu, 1975) have been widely used to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer, where the valid range of the Ra is from 1.5 × 10 5 to 6.8 × 10 8 in G–D correlation and less than 10 12 in C–C correlation. However, with the increase of reactor power, both the Rayleigh number and the rate of heat transfer below the bottom of metal layer of the molten pool will increase, and in this case the Rayleigh number even can reach 10 11 for the China Advanced Passive Plant CAP1400. Accordingly, the G–D correlation is not suitable for the CAP1400. Therefore, our experiment purposes are to establish the appropriate correlation at high Ra for the CAP1400 and predict the axial and radial distribution of the heat transfer in the metal layer with the heat transfer behavior of metal layer experiment (HELM) facility. The experiments are divided into two parts. Each part concerns 39 runs and 47 experimental conditions. Its corresponding results are obtained at middle Prandtl number (Pr = 7 for water) and the Nusselt number is found to be proportional to Ra 0.315 in the range 3.93 × 10 8 < Ra < 3.57 × 10 12 . Furthermore, the experiment

  8. Unsolved problems in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Richard K

    1994-01-01

    Unsolved Problems in Number Theory contains discussions of hundreds of open questions, organized into 185 different topics. They represent numerous aspects of number theory and are organized into six categories: prime numbers, divisibility, additive number theory, Diophantine equations, sequences of integers, and miscellaneous. To prevent repetition of earlier efforts or duplication of previously known results, an extensive and up-to-date collection of references follows each problem. In the second edition, not only extensive new material has been added, but corrections and additions have been included throughout the book.

  9. Linear theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the equatorial ionsophere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, D.A.; Ott, E.

    1979-01-01

    We present a liner theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the equatorial ionosphere. For a purely exponential density profile, we find that no unstable eigenmode solutions exist. For a particular model ionosphere with an F peak, unstable eigenmode solutions exist only for sufficiently small horizontal wave numbers. In the later case, purely exponential growth at a rate identical to that for the sharp boundary instability is found. To clarify the situation in the case that eigenmodes do not exist, we solve the initial value problem for the linearized ion equation of motion in the long time asymptotic limit. Ion inertia and ion-neutral collisions are included. Assuming straight magnetic field lines, we find that when eigenmodes do not exist the growth of the response to an impulse is slower than exponential viz, t=/sup -1/2/ exp (γ/sup t/) below the F peak and t/sup -3/2/ exp(γ/sup t/) above the peak; and we determine γ

  10. Distribution theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chung-Chun

    2008-01-01

    The book timely surveys new research results and related developments in Diophantine approximation, a division of number theory which deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. The book is appended with a list of challenging open problems and a comprehensive list of references. From the contents: Field extensions Algebraic numbers Algebraic geometry Height functions The abc-conjecture Roth''s theorem Subspace theorems Vojta''s conjectures L-functions.

  11. Kinetic energy and scalar spectra in high Rayleigh number axially homogeneous buoyancy driven turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Shashikant S.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2016-06-01

    Kinetic energy and scalar spectra from the measurements in high Rayleigh number axially homogeneous buoyancy driven turbulent flow are presented. Kinetic energy and concentration (scalar) spectra are obtained from the experiments wherein density difference is created using brine and fresh water and temperature spectra are obtained from the experiments in which heat is used. Scaling of the frequency spectra of lateral and longitudinal velocity near the tube axis is closer to the Kolmogorov-Obukhov scaling, while the scalar spectra show some evidence of dual scaling, Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling followed by Obukhov-Corrsin scaling. These scalings are also observed in the corresponding second order spatial structure functions of velocity and concentration fluctuations.

  12. Stabilization of ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to change of the Atwood number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Wenhua; He, X.T.; Zhang Weiyan

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiment [S.G. Glendinning et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3318 (1997)] showed that the measured growth rate of laser ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability with preheating is about 50% of the classic value and is reduced by about 18% compared with the simulated value obtained with the computer code LASNEX. By changing the temperature variation of the electron thermal conductivity at low temperatures, the density profile from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation is recovered in the simulation, and the simulated RT growth rate is in good agreement with the experimental value from Glendinning et al. The preheated density profile on ablative RT stablization is studied numerically. A change of the Atwood number in the preheating case also leads to RT stabilization. The RT growth formula γ=√(Akg/(1+AkL))-2kV a agrees well with experiment and simulation, and is appropriate for the preheating case

  13. Ground Boundary Conditions for Thermal Convection Over Horizontal Surfaces at High Rayleigh Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjalić, K.; Hrebtov, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present "wall functions" for treating the ground boundary conditions in the computation of thermal convection over horizontal surfaces at high Rayleigh numbers using coarse numerical grids. The functions are formulated for an algebraic-flux model closed by transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy, its dissipation rate and scalar variance, but could also be applied to other turbulence models. The three-equation algebraic-flux model, solved in a T-RANS mode ("Transient" Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes, based on triple decomposition), was shown earlier to reproduce well a number of generic buoyancy-driven flows over heated surfaces, albeit by integrating equations up to the wall. Here we show that by using a set of wall functions satisfactory results are found for the ensemble-averaged properties even on a very coarse computational grid. This is illustrated by the computations of the time evolution of a penetrative mixed layer and Rayleigh-Bénard (open-ended, 4:4:1 domain) convection, using 10 × 10 × 100 and 10 × 10 × 20 grids, compared also with finer grids (e.g. 60 × 60 × 100), as well as with one-dimensional treatment using 1 × 1 × 100 and 1 × 1 × 20 nodes. The approach is deemed functional for simulations of a convective boundary layer and mesoscale atmospheric flows, and pollutant transport over realistic complex hilly terrain with heat islands, urban and natural canopies, for diurnal cycles, or subjected to other time and space variations in ground conditions and stratification.

  14. Number theory and its history

    CERN Document Server

    Ore, Oystein

    1988-01-01

    A prominent mathematician presents the principal ideas and methods of number theory within a historical and cultural framework. Oystein Ore's fascinating, accessible treatment requires only a basic knowledge of algebra. Topics include prime numbers, the Aliquot parts, linear indeterminate problems, congruences, Euler's theorem, classical construction problems, and many other subjects.

  15. Additive theory of prime numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, L K

    2009-01-01

    Loo-Keng Hua was a master mathematician, best known for his work using analytic methods in number theory. In particular, Hua is remembered for his contributions to Waring's Problem and his estimates of trigonometric sums. Additive Theory of Prime Numbers is an exposition of the classic methods as well as Hua's own techniques, many of which have now also become classic. An essential starting point is Vinogradov's mean-value theorem for trigonometric sums, which Hua usefully rephrases and improves. Hua states a generalized version of the Waring-Goldbach problem and gives asymptotic formulas for the number of solutions in Waring's Problem when the monomial x^k is replaced by an arbitrary polynomial of degree k. The book is an excellent entry point for readers interested in additive number theory. It will also be of value to those interested in the development of the now classic methods of the subject.

  16. Turbulent thermal convection at high Rayleigh numbers for a Boussinesq fluid of constant Prandtl number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, G.; Koal, K.; Massaioli, F.; Sreenivasan, K.R.; Verzicco, R.

    2006-12-01

    The results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent Boussinesq convection are briefly presented. The flow is computed for a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio 1/2 in order to compare with the results from recent experiments. The results span eight decades of Ra from 2x10 6 to 2x10 14 and form the baseline data for a strictly Boussinesq fluid of constant Prandtl number (Pr=0.7). A conclusion is that the Nusselt number varies nearly as the 1/3 power of Ra for about four decades towards the upper end of the Ra range covered. (author)

  17. GPU Implementation of High Rayleigh Number Three-Dimensional Mantle Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, D. A.; Yuen, D. A.; Wright, G. B.; Barnett, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Although we have entered the age of petascale computing, many factors are still prohibiting high-performance computing (HPC) from infiltrating all suitable scientific disciplines. For this reason and others, application of GPU to HPC is gaining traction in the scientific world. With its low price point, high performance potential, and competitive scalability, GPU has been an option well worth considering for the last few years. Moreover with the advent of NVIDIA's Fermi architecture, which brings ECC memory, better double-precision performance, and more RAM to GPU, there is a strong message of corporate support for GPU in HPC. However many doubts linger concerning the practicality of using GPU for scientific computing. In particular, GPU has a reputation for being difficult to program and suitable for only a small subset of problems. Although inroads have been made in addressing these concerns, for many scientists GPU still has hurdles to clear before becoming an acceptable choice. We explore the applicability of GPU to geophysics by implementing a three-dimensional, second-order finite-difference model of Rayleigh-Benard thermal convection on an NVIDIA GPU using C for CUDA. Our code reaches sufficient resolution, on the order of 500x500x250 evenly-spaced finite-difference gridpoints, on a single GPU. We make extensive use of highly optimized CUBLAS routines, allowing us to achieve performance on the order of O( 0.1 ) µs per timestep*gridpoint at this resolution. This performance has allowed us to study high Rayleigh number simulations, on the order of 2x10^7, on a single GPU.

  18. Stream ciphers and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cusick, Thomas W; Renvall, Ari R

    2004-01-01

    This is the unique book on cross-fertilisations between stream ciphers and number theory. It systematically and comprehensively covers known connections between the two areas that are available only in research papers. Some parts of this book consist of new research results that are not available elsewhere. In addition to exercises, over thirty research problems are presented in this book. In this revised edition almost every chapter was updated, and some chapters were completely rewritten. It is useful as a textbook for a graduate course on the subject, as well as a reference book for researchers in related fields. · Unique book on interactions of stream ciphers and number theory. · Research monograph with many results not available elsewhere. · A revised edition with the most recent advances in this subject. · Over thirty research problems for stimulating interactions between the two areas. · Written by leading researchers in stream ciphers and number theory.

  19. Advanced number theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mollin, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    Algebraic Number Theory and Quadratic Fields Algebraic Number Fields The Gaussian Field Euclidean Quadratic Fields Applications of Unique Factorization Ideals The Arithmetic of Ideals in Quadratic Fields Dedekind Domains Application to Factoring Binary Quadratic Forms Basics Composition and the Form Class Group Applications via Ambiguity Genus Representation Equivalence Modulo p Diophantine Approximation Algebraic and Transcendental Numbers Transcendence Minkowski's Convex Body Theorem Arithmetic Functions The Euler-Maclaurin Summation Formula Average Orders The Riemann zeta-functionIntroduction to p-Adic AnalysisSolving Modulo pn Introduction to Valuations Non-Archimedean vs. Archimedean Valuations Representation of p-Adic NumbersDirichlet: Characters, Density, and Primes in Progression Dirichlet Characters Dirichlet's L-Function and Theorem Dirichlet DensityApplications to Diophantine Equations Lucas-Lehmer Theory Generalized Ramanujan-Nagell Equations Bachet's Equation The Fermat Equation Catalan and the A...

  20. The Role of Viscosity Contrast on the Plume Structure and Dynamics in High Rayleigh Number Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kr, Sreenivas; Prakash, Vivek N.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2010-11-01

    We study the plume structure in high Rayleigh number convection in the limit of large Prandtl numbers. This regime is relevant in Mantle convection, where the plume dynamics is not well understood due to complex rheology and chemical composition. We use analogue laboratory experiments to mimic mantle convection. Our focus in this paper is to understand the role of viscosity ratio, U, between the plume fluid and the ambient fluid on the structure and dynamics of the plumes. The PLIF technique has been used to visualize the structures of plumes rising from a planar source of compositional buoyancy at different regimes of U (1/300 to 2500). In the near-wall planform when U is one, a well-known dendritic line plume structure is observed. As U increases (U > 1; mantle hot spots), there is a morphological transition from line plumes to discrete spherical blobs, accompanied by an increase in the plume spacing and thickness. In vertical sections, as U increases (U > 1), the plume head shape changes from a mushroom-like structure to a "spherical-blob." When the U is decreased below one, (U<1; subduction regime), the formation of cellular patterns is favoured with sheet plumes. Both velocity and mixing efficiency are maximum when U is one, and decreases for extreme values of U. We quantify the morphological changes, dynamics and mixing variations of the plumes from experiments at different regimes.

  1. Analytic-continuation approach to the resummation of divergent series in Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihálka, Zsuzsanna É.; Surján, Péter R.

    2017-12-01

    The method of analytic continuation is applied to estimate eigenvalues of linear operators from finite order results of perturbation theory even in cases when the latter is divergent. Given a finite number of terms E(k ),k =1 ,2 ,⋯M resulting from a Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation calculation, scaling these numbers by μk (μ being the perturbation parameter) we form the sum E (μ ) =∑kμkE(k ) for small μ values for which the finite series is convergent to a certain numerical accuracy. Extrapolating the function E (μ ) to μ =1 yields an estimation of the exact solution of the problem. For divergent series, this procedure may serve as resummation tool provided the perturbation problem has a nonzero radius of convergence. As illustrations, we treat the anharmonic (quartic) oscillator and an example from the many-electron correlation problem.

  2. Detailed Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, J.; Andrews, Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    This project has two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. Also, studies of multi-layer mixing with the existing water channel facility. Over the last twelve (12) months there has been excellent progress, detailed in this report, with both tasks. As of December 10, 2004, the air/helium facility is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Currently experiments with air/helium up to Atwood numbers of 0.25 (the maximum is 0.75, but the highest Reynolds numbers are at 0.25) are being performed. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget, and we expect this to continue for 2005. With interest expressed from LLNL we have continued with initial condition studies using the water channel. This work has also progressed well, with one of the graduate Research Assistants (Mr. Nick Mueschke) visiting LLNL the past two summers to work with Dr. O. Schilling. Several journal papers are in preparation that describe the work. Two MSc.'s have been completed (Mr. Nick Mueschke, and Mr. Wayne Kraft, 12/1/03). Nick and Wayne are both pursuing Ph.D.s' funded by this DOE Alliances project. Presently three (3) Ph.D. graduate Research Assistants are supported on the project, and two (2) undergraduate Research Assistants. During the year two (2) journal papers and two (2) conference papers have been published, ten (10) presentations made at conferences, and three (3) invited presentations

  3. Number theory meets Higgs physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by results from modern number theory and algebraic geometry, a lot of progress has recently been made regarding the computation of multi-loop integrals and scattering amplitudes. I will discuss various new approaches to the computation of loop integrals, and illustrate them on the first computation of a quantity at N3LO in perturbative QCD, the soft-virtual part of the inclusive Higgs-boson cross section in gluon fusion at N3LO.

  4. Lattice Boltzmann analysis of effect of heating location and Rayleigh number on natural convection in partially heated open ended cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangawane, Krunal Madhukar; Bharti, Ram Prakash; Kumar, Surendra [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India)

    2015-08-15

    Natural convection characteristics of a partially heated open ended square cavity have been investigated numerically by using an in-house computational flow solver based on the passive scalar thermal lattice Boltzmann method (PS-TLBM) with D2Q9 (two-dimensional and nine-velocity link) lattice model. The partial part of left wall of the cavity is heated isothermally at either of the three different (bottom, middle and top) locations for the fixed heating length as half of characteristic length (H/2) while the right wall is open to the ambient conditions. The other parts of the cavity are thermally isolated. In particular, the influences of partial heating locations and Rayleigh number (103≤ Ra≤106) in the laminar zone on the local and global natural convection characteristics (such as streamline, vorticity and isotherm contours; centerline variations of velocity and temperature; and local and average Nusselt numbers) have been presented and discussed for the fixed value of the Prandtl number (Pr=0.71). The streamline patterns show qualitatively similar nature for all the three heating cases and Rayleigh numbers, except the change in the recirculation zone which is found to be largest for middle heating case. Isotherm patterns are shifted towards a partially heated wall on increasing Rayleigh number and/or shifting of heating location from bottom to top. Both the local and average Nusselt numbers, as anticipated, shown proportional increase with Rayleigh number. The cavity with middle heating location shown higher heat transfer rate than that for the top and bottom heating cases. Finally, the functional dependence of the average Nusselt number on flow governing parameters is also presented as a closure relationship for the best possible utilization in engineering practices and design.

  5. A study of the required Rayleigh number to sustain dynamo with various inner core radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Y.; Katoh, Y.; Matsui, H.; Kumamoto, A.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the geomagnetic field is sustained by thermal and compositional driven convections of a liquid iron alloy in the outer core. The generation process of the geomagnetic field has been studied by a number of MHD dynamo simulations. Recent studies of the ratio of the Earth's core evolution suggest that the inner solid core radius ri to the outer liquid core radius ro changed from ri/ro = 0 to 0.35 during the last one billion years. There are some studies of dynamo in the early Earth with smaller inner core than the present. Heimpel et al. (2005) revealed the Rayleigh number Ra of the onset of dynamo process as a function of ri/ro from simulation, while paleomagnetic observation shows that the geomagnetic field has been sustained for 3.5 billion years. While Heimpel and Evans (2013) studied dynamo processes taking into account the thermal history of the Earth's interior, there were few cases corresponding to the early Earth. Driscoll (2016) performed a series of dynamo based on a thermal evolution model. Despite a number of dynamo simulations, dynamo process occurring in the interior of the early Earth has not been fully understood because the magnetic Prandtl numbers in these simulations are much larger than that for the actual outer core.In the present study, we performed thermally driven dynamo simulations with different aspect ratio ri/ro = 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 to evaluate the critical Ra for the thermal convection and required Ra to maintain the dynamo. For this purpose, we performed simulations with various Ra and fixed the other control parameters such as the Ekman, Prandtl, and magnetic Prandtl numbers. For the initial condition and boundary conditions, we followed the dynamo benchmark case 1 by Christensen et al. (2001). The results show that the critical Ra increases with the smaller aspect ratio ri/ro. It is confirmed that larger amplitude of buoyancy is required in the smaller inner core to maintain dynamo.

  6. Numerical simulations of thermal convection in a rotating spherical fluid shell at high Taylor and Rayleigh numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Schubert, G.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we carry out numerical simulations of thermal convection in a rapidly rotating spherical fluid shell at high Taylor number Ta and Rayleigh number R with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent, spectral-transform code. The parameters used in the simulations are chosen to be in a range which allows us to study two different types of convection, i.e., single column and multi-layered types, and the transition between them. Numerical solutions feature highly time-dependent north--south open columnar convective cells. The cells occur irregularly in longitude, are quasi-layered in cylindrical radius, and maintain alternating bands of mean zonal flow. The complex convective structure and the banded mean zonal flow are results of the high Taylor and Rayleigh numbers. The transition between the two types of convection appears to occur gradually with increasing Rayleigh and Taylor numbers. At a Taylor number of 10 7 the differential rotation pattern consists of an inner cylindrical region of subrotation and an outer cylindrical shell of superrotation manifest at the outer boundary as an equatorial superrotation and a high latitude subrotation. The differential rotation pattern is similar at Ta=10 8 and low Rayleigh number. Cylindrical shells of alternately directed mean zonal flow begin to develop at Ta=10 8 and R=50R c and at Ta=10 9 and R=25R c . This pattern is seen on the outer surface as a latitudinally-banded zonal flow consisting of an equatorial superrotation, a middle and high latitude subrotation, and a polar superrotation. At Ta=10 9 and R=50R c the differential rotation appears at the surface as a broad eastward flow in the equatorial region with alternating bands of westward and eastward flow at high latitudes. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. Comparison of the GHSSmooth and the Rayleigh-Rice surface scatter theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James E.; Pfisterer, Richard N.

    2016-09-01

    The scalar-based GHSSmooth surface scatter theory results in an expression for the BRDF in terms of the surface PSD that is very similar to that provided by the rigorous Rayleigh-Rice (RR) vector perturbation theory. However it contains correction factors for two extreme situations not shared by the RR theory: (i) large incident or scattered angles that result in some portion of the scattered radiance distribution falling outside of the unit circle in direction cosine space, and (ii) the situation where the relevant rms surface roughness, σrel, is less than the total intrinsic rms roughness of the scattering surface. Also, the RR obliquity factor has been discovered to be an approximation of the more general GHSSmooth obliquity factor due to a little-known (or long-forgotten) implicit assumption in the RR theory that the surface autocovariance length is longer than the wavelength of the scattered radiation. This assumption allowed retaining only quadratic terms and lower in the series expansion for the cosine function, and results in reducing the validity of RR predictions for scattering angles greater than 60°. This inaccurate obliquity factor in the RR theory is also the cause of a complementary unrealistic "hook" at the high spatial frequency end of the predicted surface PSD when performing the inverse scattering problem. Furthermore, if we empirically substitute the polarization reflectance, Q, from the RR expression for the scalar reflectance, R, in the GHSSmooth expression, it inherits all of the polarization capabilities of the rigorous RR vector perturbation theory.

  8. Experimental study of Rayleigh scattering with a ruby laser beam: relative variation of scattered light with the number of scattering center and the gases nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Charles

    1973-06-01

    The experimental variation of the scattered light with the number of scattering centers and with the refraction index of gases is in agreement with the theoretical Rayleigh scattering. A direct calibration System gives the absolute value of the Rayleigh ratio. The experimental value appears to be half of the theoretical one. (author) [fr

  9. Number-theory dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Kazunori [Theory Center, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-05-23

    We propose that the stability of dark matter is ensured by a discrete subgroup of the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry, Z{sub 2}(B-L). We introduce a set of chiral fermions charged under the U(1){sub B-L} in addition to the right-handed neutrinos, and require the anomaly-cancellation conditions associated with the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry. We find that the possible number of fermions and their charges are tightly constrained, and that non-trivial solutions appear when at least five additional chiral fermions are introduced. The Fermat theorem in the number theory plays an important role in this argument. Focusing on one of the solutions, we show that there is indeed a good candidate for dark matter, whose stability is guaranteed by Z{sub 2}(B-L).

  10. Number-theory dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2011-01-01

    We propose that the stability of dark matter is ensured by a discrete subgroup of the U(1) B-L gauge symmetry, Z 2 (B-L). We introduce a set of chiral fermions charged under the U(1) B-L in addition to the right-handed neutrinos, and require the anomaly-cancellation conditions associated with the U(1) B-L gauge symmetry. We find that the possible number of fermions and their charges are tightly constrained, and that non-trivial solutions appear when at least five additional chiral fermions are introduced. The Fermat theorem in the number theory plays an important role in this argument. Focusing on one of the solutions, we show that there is indeed a good candidate for dark matter, whose stability is guaranteed by Z 2 (B-L).

  11. Number theory III Diophantine geometry

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    From the reviews of the first printing of this book, published as Volume 60 of the Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences: "Between number theory and geometry there have been several stimulating influences, and this book records of these enterprises. This author, who has been at the centre of such research for many years, is one of the best guides a reader can hope for. The book is full of beautiful results, open questions, stimulating conjectures and suggestions where to look for future developments. This volume bears witness of the broad scope of knowledge of the author, and the influence of several people who have commented on the manuscript before publication ... Although in the series of number theory, this volume is on diophantine geometry, and the reader will notice that algebraic geometry is present in every chapter. ... The style of the book is clear. Ideas are well explained, and the author helps the reader to pass by several technicalities. Reading and rereading this book I noticed that the topics ...

  12. Topics in Number Theory Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George; Ono, Ken

    1999-01-01

    From July 31 through August 3,1997, the Pennsylvania State University hosted the Topics in Number Theory Conference. The conference was organized by Ken Ono and myself. By writing the preface, I am afforded the opportunity to express my gratitude to Ken for beng the inspiring and driving force behind the whole conference. Without his energy, enthusiasm and skill the entire event would never have occurred. We are extremely grateful to the sponsors of the conference: The National Sci­ ence Foundation, The Penn State Conference Center and the Penn State Depart­ ment of Mathematics. The object in this conference was to provide a variety of presentations giving a current picture of recent, significant work in number theory. There were eight plenary lectures: H. Darmon (McGill University), "Non-vanishing of L-functions and their derivatives modulo p. " A. Granville (University of Georgia), "Mean values of multiplicative functions. " C. Pomerance (University of Georgia), "Recent results in primality testing. " C. ...

  13. Effects of initial radius of the interface and Atwood number on nonlinear saturation amplitudes in cylindrical Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wanhai; Yu, Changping; Li, Xinliang

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear saturation amplitudes (NSAs) of the first two harmonics in classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in cylindrical geometry for arbitrary Atwood numbers have been analytically investigated considering nonlinear corrections up to the fourth-order. The NSA of the fundamental mode is defined as the linear (purely exponential) growth amplitude of the fundamental mode at the saturation time when the growth of the fundamental mode (first harmonic) is reduced by 10% in comparison to its corresponding linear growth, and the NSA of the second harmonic can be obtained in the same way. The analytic results indicate that the effects of the initial radius of the interface (r 0 ) and the Atwood number (A) play an important role in the NSAs of the first two harmonics in cylindrical RTI. On the one hand, the NSA of the fundamental mode first increases slightly and then decreases quickly with increasing A. For given A, the smaller the r 0 /λ (with λ perturbation wavelength) is, the larger the NSA of the fundamental mode is. When r 0 /λ is large enough (r 0 ≫λ), the NSA of the fundamental mode is reduced to the prediction of previous literatures within the framework of third-order perturbation theory [J. W. Jacobs and I. Catton, J. Fluid Mech. 187, 329 (1988); S. W. Haan, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2349 (1991)]. On the other hand, the NSA of the second harmonic first decreases quickly with increasing A, reaching a minimum, and then increases slowly. Furthermore, the r 0 can reduce the NSA of the second harmonic for arbitrary A at r 0 ≲2λ while increase it for A ≲ 0.6 at r 0 ≳2λ. Thus, it should be included in applications where the NSA has a role, such as inertial confinement fusion ignition target design

  14. Gauge invariance of the Rayleigh--Schroedinger time-independent perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.H.

    1977-08-01

    It is shown that the Rayleigh-Schroedinger time-independent perturbation theory is gauge invariant when the operator concerned is the particle's instantaneous energy operator H/sub B/ = (1/2m)[vector p - (e/c) vector A] 2 + eV 0 . More explicitly, it is shown that the energy perturbation corrections of each individual order of every state is gauge invariant. When the vector potential is curlless, the energy corrections of all orders are shown to vanish identically regardless of the explicit form of the vector potential. The relation between causality and gauge invariance is investigated. It is shown that gauge invariance guarantees conformity with causality and violation of gauge invariance implies violation of causality

  15. Cryptography and computational number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shparlinski, Igor; Wang, Huaxiong; Xing, Chaoping; Workshop on Cryptography and Computational Number Theory, CCNT'99

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains the refereed proceedings of the Workshop on Cryptography and Computational Number Theory, CCNT'99, which has been held in Singapore during the week of November 22-26, 1999. The workshop was organized by the Centre for Systems Security of the Na­ tional University of Singapore. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Singapore National Science and Technology Board under the grant num­ ber RP960668/M. The idea for this workshop grew out of the recognition of the recent, rapid development in various areas of cryptography and computational number the­ ory. The event followed the concept of the research programs at such well-known research institutions as the Newton Institute (UK), Oberwolfach and Dagstuhl (Germany), and Luminy (France). Accordingly, there were only invited lectures at the workshop with plenty of time for informal discussions. It was hoped and successfully achieved that the meeting would encourage and stimulate further research in information and computer s...

  16. DNS of buoyancy-driven flows and Lagrangian particle tracking in a square cavity at high Rayleigh numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puragliesi, R.; Dehbi, A.; Leriche, E.; Soldati, A.; Deville, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → 2D study of micro-size particle depletion driven by chaotic natural convective flows in square domains. → Description of velocity and temperature first and second moments with changing in the Rayleigh number. → Strong decoupling between the turbulent kinetic energy and the dissipation rate. → Particle recirculation sustained by the vertical hot boundary layer. → Deposition mostly induced by gravity, thermophoretic and lift forces are negligible. - Abstract: In this work we investigate numerically particle deposition in the buoyancy driven flow of the differentially heated cavity (DHC). We consider two values of the Rayleigh number (Ra = 10 9 , 10 10 ) and three values of the particle diameter (d p = 15, 25, 35 [μm]). We consider the cavity filled with air and particles with the same density of water ρ w = 1000 [kg/m 3 ] (aerosol). We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) for the continuous phase, and we solve transient Navier-Stokes and energy transport equations written in an Eulerian framework, under the Boussinesq approximation, for the viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid with constant Prandtl number (Pr = 0.71). First- and second-order statistics are presented for the continuous phase as well as important quantities like turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and temperature variance with the associated production and dissipation fields. The TKE production shows different behaviour at the two Rayleigh numbers. The Lagrangian approach has been chosen for the dispersed phase description. The forces taken into account are drag, gravity, buoyancy, lift and thermophoresis. A first incursion in the sedimentation mechanisms is presented. Current results indicate that the largest contribution to particle deposition is caused by gravitational settling, but a strong recirculating zone, which liftoffs and segregates particles, contributes to decrease settling. Deposition takes place mostly at the bottom wall. The influence of lift and thermophoretic

  17. DNS of buoyancy-driven flows and Lagrangian particle tracking in a square cavity at high Rayleigh numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puragliesi, R., E-mail: riccardo.puragliesi@psi.ch [Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratoire d' Ingenierie Numerique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Dehbi, A., E-mail: abdel.dehbi@psi.ch [Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Leriche, E., E-mail: emmanuel.leriche@univ-st-etienne.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, LMFA-UJM St-Etienne, CNRS UMR 5509 Universite de St-Etienne, 23 rue Docteur Paul Michelon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Soldati, A., E-mail: soldati@uniud.it [Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine, Universita di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, IT-33100 Udine (Italy); Deville, M.O., E-mail: michel.deville@epfl.ch [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie Numerique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > 2D study of micro-size particle depletion driven by chaotic natural convective flows in square domains. > Description of velocity and temperature first and second moments with changing in the Rayleigh number. > Strong decoupling between the turbulent kinetic energy and the dissipation rate. > Particle recirculation sustained by the vertical hot boundary layer. > Deposition mostly induced by gravity, thermophoretic and lift forces are negligible. - Abstract: In this work we investigate numerically particle deposition in the buoyancy driven flow of the differentially heated cavity (DHC). We consider two values of the Rayleigh number (Ra = 10{sup 9}, 10{sup 10}) and three values of the particle diameter (d{sub p} = 15, 25, 35 [{mu}m]). We consider the cavity filled with air and particles with the same density of water {rho}{sub w} = 1000 [kg/m{sup 3}] (aerosol). We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) for the continuous phase, and we solve transient Navier-Stokes and energy transport equations written in an Eulerian framework, under the Boussinesq approximation, for the viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid with constant Prandtl number (Pr = 0.71). First- and second-order statistics are presented for the continuous phase as well as important quantities like turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and temperature variance with the associated production and dissipation fields. The TKE production shows different behaviour at the two Rayleigh numbers. The Lagrangian approach has been chosen for the dispersed phase description. The forces taken into account are drag, gravity, buoyancy, lift and thermophoresis. A first incursion in the sedimentation mechanisms is presented. Current results indicate that the largest contribution to particle deposition is caused by gravitational settling, but a strong recirculating zone, which liftoffs and segregates particles, contributes to decrease settling. Deposition takes place mostly at the bottom wall. The influence of lift

  18. Thermal convection of a viscoplastic liquid with high Rayleigh and Bingham numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhansky, A.

    2009-10-01

    We consider the effect of yield stress on the Rayleigh-Bénard convection of a viscoplastic material. First we consider the model problem of convection in a differentially heated loop, which is described by the (modified) Lorenz equations. The presence of the yield stress significantly alters the dynamics of the system. In particular, the chaotic motion can stop suddenly (sometimes, after a period of chaotic oscillations). Guided by the model equations we performed direct numerical simulations of convection of the Bingham liquid in a square cavity heated from bellow. Our interest has been concentrated on the situation when both buoyancy and plastic forces are large. The obtained results are in a reasonable agreement with the predictions by the Lorenz equations.

  19. Rayleigh Scattering Density Measurements, Cluster Theory, and Nucleation Calculations at Mach 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey; Everhart, Joel L.

    2012-01-01

    In an exploratory investigation, quantitative unclustered laser Rayleigh scattering measurements of density were performed in the air in the NASA Langley Research Center's 31 in. Mach 10 wind tunnel. A review of 20 previous years of data in supersonic and Mach 6 hypersonic flows is presented where clustered signals typically overwhelmed molecular signals. A review of nucleation theory and accompanying nucleation calculations are also provided to interpret the current observed lack of clustering. Data were acquired at a fixed stagnation temperature near 990Kat five stagnation pressures spanning 2.41 to 10.0 MPa (350 to 1454 psi) using a pulsed argon fluoride excimer laser and double-intensified charge-coupled device camera. Data averaged over 371 images and 210 pixels along a 36.7mmline measured freestream densities that agree with computed isentropic-expansion densities to less than 2% and less than 6% at the highest and lowest densities, respectively. Cluster-free Mach 10 results are compared with previous clustered Mach 6 and condensation-free Mach 14 results. Evidence is presented indicating vibrationally excited oxygen and nitrogen molecules are absorbed as the clusters form, release their excess energy, and inhibit or possibly reverse the clustering process. Implications for delaying clustering and condensation onset in hypersonic and hypervelocity facilities are discussed.

  20. Control Systems and Number Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhuo Li

    2012-01-01

    and PID-controllers are applied successfully in the EV control by J.-Y. Cao and B.-G. Cao 2006 and Cao et al. 2007, which we may unify in our framework. Finally, we mention some similarities between control theory and zeta-functions.

  1. Muon number nonconservation in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.P.; Li, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The question of separate conservation of muon and electron number is considered in the context of unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. Theories with heavy neutral leptons, Higgs scalars, and doubly charged heavy leptons are discussed. 28 references

  2. Experimental characterization of initial conditions and spatio-temporal evolution of a small Atwood number Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueschke, N J; Andrews, M J; Schilling, O

    2005-09-26

    The initial multi-mode interfacial velocity and density perturbations present at the onset of a small Atwood number, incompressible, miscible, Rayleigh-Taylor instability-driven mixing layer have been quantified using a combination of experimental techniques. The streamwise interfacial and spanwise interfacial perturbations were measured using high-resolution thermocouples and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), respectively. The initial multi-mode streamwise velocity perturbations at the two-fluid density interface were measured using particle-image velocimetry (PIV). It was found that the measured initial conditions describe an initially anisotropic state, in which the perturbations in the streamwise and spanwise directions are independent of one another. The evolution of various fluctuating velocity and density statistics, together with velocity and density variance spectra, were measured using PIV and high-resolution thermocouple data. The evolution of the velocity and density statistics is used to investigate the early-time evolution and the onset of strongly-nonlinear, transitional dynamics within the mixing layer. The early-time evolution of the density and vertical velocity variance spectra indicate that velocity fluctuations are the dominant mechanism driving the instability development. The implications of the present experimental measurements on the initialization of Reynolds-averaged turbulent transport and mixing models and of direct and large-eddy simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability-induced turbulence are discussed.

  3. Conferences on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This proceedings volume is based on papers presented at the Workshops on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory (CANT), which were held at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 2011 and 2012. The goal of the workshops is to survey recent progress in combinatorial number theory and related parts of mathematics. The workshop attracts researchers and students who discuss the state-of-the-art, open problems, and future challenges in number theory.

  4. From Calculus to Number Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Raghuram

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... diverges to infinity. This means given any number M, however large, we can add sufficiently many terms in the above series to make the sum larger than M. This was first proved by Nicole Oresme (1323-1382), a brilliant. French philosopher of his times.

  5. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS/NUMBER THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Manju Devi*

    2017-01-01

    Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics such as integers, graphs, and statements do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as calculus and analysis. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by ...

  6. Topics from the theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Grosswald, Emil

    1984-01-01

    Many of the important and creative developments in modern mathematics resulted from attempts to solve questions that originate in number theory. The publication of Emil Grosswald’s classic text presents an illuminating introduction to number theory. Combining the historical developments with the analytical approach, Topics from the Theory of Numbers offers the reader a diverse range of subjects to investigate, including: * divisibility * congruences * the Riemann zeta function * Diophantine equations and Fermat’s conjecture * the theory of partitions Comprehensive in nature, Topics from the Theory of Numbers is an ideal text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students alike. "In my opinion it is excellent. It is carefully written and represents clearly a work of a scholar who loves and understands his subject. One can only wish more authors would take such pains and would be as good and honest expositors as Grosswald." — Marc Kac "This book is designed for use in a first course in number theory at...

  7. Rayleigh theory of ultrasound scattering applied to liquid-filled contrast nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegg, M B; Poole, C M; Whittaker, A K; Keen, I; Langton, C M

    2010-06-07

    We present a novel modified theory based upon Rayleigh scattering of ultrasound from composite nanoparticles with a liquid core and solid shell. We derive closed form solutions to the scattering cross-section and have applied this model to an ultrasound contrast agent consisting of a liquid-filled core (perfluorooctyl bromide, PFOB) encapsulated by a polymer shell (poly-caprolactone, PCL). Sensitivity analysis was performed to predict the dependence of the scattering cross-section upon material and dimensional parameters. A rapid increase in the scattering cross-section was achieved by increasing the compressibility of the core, validating the incorporation of high compressibility PFOB; the compressibility of the shell had little impact on the overall scattering cross-section although a more compressible shell is desirable. Changes in the density of the shell and the core result in predicted local minima in the scattering cross-section, approximately corresponding to the PFOB-PCL contrast agent considered; hence, incorporation of a lower shell density could potentially significantly improve the scattering cross-section. A 50% reduction in shell thickness relative to external radius increased the predicted scattering cross-section by 50%. Although it has often been considered that the shell has a negative effect on the echogeneity due to its low compressibility, we have shown that it can potentially play an important role in the echogeneity of the contrast agent. The challenge for the future is to identify suitable shell and core materials that meet the predicted characteristics in order to achieve optimal echogenity.

  8. Some functional equations originating from number theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Moreover, we will also study some stability problems of those equations. ... Wisconsin in which he discussed a number of important unsolved problems [18]. ... According to a well-known theorem in number theory, a positive integer of the form.

  9. Ground-state densities from the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and from density-functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaal, Simen; Helgaker, Trygve

    2015-11-14

    The relationship between the densities of ground-state wave functions (i.e., the minimizers of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle) and the ground-state densities in density-functional theory (i.e., the minimizers of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle) is studied within the framework of convex conjugation, in a generic setting covering molecular systems, solid-state systems, and more. Having introduced admissible density functionals as functionals that produce the exact ground-state energy for a given external potential by minimizing over densities in the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle, necessary and sufficient conditions on such functionals are established to ensure that the Rayleigh-Ritz ground-state densities and the Hohenberg-Kohn ground-state densities are identical. We apply the results to molecular systems in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. For any given potential v ∈ L(3/2)(ℝ(3)) + L(∞)(ℝ(3)), we establish a one-to-one correspondence between the mixed ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the mixed ground-state densities of the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle when the Lieb density-matrix constrained-search universal density functional is taken as the admissible functional. A similar one-to-one correspondence is established between the pure ground-state densities of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle and the pure ground-state densities obtained using the Hohenberg-Kohn variation principle with the Levy-Lieb pure-state constrained-search functional. In other words, all physical ground-state densities (pure or mixed) are recovered with these functionals and no false densities (i.e., minimizing densities that are not physical) exist. The importance of topology (i.e., choice of Banach space of densities and potentials) is emphasized and illustrated. The relevance of these results for current-density-functional theory is examined.

  10. String fields, higher spins and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    2018-01-01

    The book aims to analyze and explore deep and profound relations between string field theory, higher spin gauge theories and holography the disciplines that have been on the cutting edge of theoretical high energy physics and other fields. These intriguing relations and connections involve some profound ideas in number theory, which appear to be part of a unifying language to describe these connections.

  11. Study of the relationship between peaks scattering Rayleigh to Compton ratio and effective atomic number in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marcelo O.; Conti, Claudio de Carvalho; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a new method to correct the absorbed radiation (the mass attenuation coefficient curve) in low energy (E B O 3 , Na 2 CO 3 , CaCO 3 , Al 2 O 3 , K 2 SO 4 and MgO) of radiation produced by a gamma-ray source of Am-241(59.54 keV) also applied to certified biological samples of milk powder, hay powder and bovine liver (NIST 155 7B). In addition, six methods of effective atomic number determination were used as described in literature to determinate the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) , in order to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those obtained using the transmission method. The experimental results were in good agreement with transmission values suggesting that the method to correct radiation absorption presented in this paper is adequate for biological samples. (author)

  12. Fourier analysis in combinatorial number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkredov, Il'ya D

    2010-01-01

    In this survey applications of harmonic analysis to combinatorial number theory are considered. Discussion topics include classical problems of additive combinatorics, colouring problems, higher-order Fourier analysis, theorems about sets of large trigonometric sums, results on estimates for trigonometric sums over subgroups, and the connection between combinatorial and analytic number theory. Bibliography: 162 titles.

  13. Fourier analysis in combinatorial number theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkredov, Il' ya D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-09-16

    In this survey applications of harmonic analysis to combinatorial number theory are considered. Discussion topics include classical problems of additive combinatorics, colouring problems, higher-order Fourier analysis, theorems about sets of large trigonometric sums, results on estimates for trigonometric sums over subgroups, and the connection between combinatorial and analytic number theory. Bibliography: 162 titles.

  14. Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnington, Taylor; Poisson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.

  15. A conversational introduction to algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Gauss famously referred to mathematics as the "queen of the sciences" and to number theory as the "queen of mathematics". This book is an introduction to algebraic number theory, meaning the study of arithmetic in finite extensions of the rational number field \\mathbb{Q}. Originating in the work of Gauss, the foundations of modern algebraic number theory are due to Dirichlet, Dedekind, Kronecker, Kummer, and others. This book lays out basic results, including the three "fundamental theorems": unique factorization of ideals, finiteness of the class number, and Dirichlet's unit theorem. While these theorems are by now quite classical, both the text and the exercises allude frequently to more recent developments. In addition to traversing the main highways, the book reveals some remarkable vistas by exploring scenic side roads. Several topics appear that are not present in the usual introductory texts. One example is the inclusion of an extensive discussion of the theory of elasticity, which provides a precise w...

  16. An adventurer's guide to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedberg, Richard

    1995-01-01

    In this delightful guide, a noted mathematician and teacher offers a witty, historically oriented introduction to number theory, dealing with properties of numbers and with numbers as abstract concepts. Written for readers with an understanding of arithmetic and beginning algebra, the book presents the classical discoveries of number theory, including the work of Pythagoras, Euclid, Diophantus, Fermat, Euler, Lagrange and Gauss.Unlike many authors, however, Mr. Friedberg encourages students to think about the imaginative, playful qualities of numbers as they consider such subjects as primes

  17. Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    Sarıoğlu, Celal; Soulé, Christophe; Zeytin, Ayberk

    2017-01-01

    This lecture notes volume presents significant contributions from the “Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory” Summer School, held at Galatasaray University, Istanbul, June 2-13, 2014. It addresses subjects ranging from Arakelov geometry and Iwasawa theory to classical projective geometry, birational geometry and equivariant cohomology. Its main aim is to introduce these contemporary research topics to graduate students who plan to specialize in the area of algebraic geometry and/or number theory. All contributions combine main concepts and techniques with motivating examples and illustrative problems for the covered subjects. Naturally, the book will also be of interest to researchers working in algebraic geometry, number theory and related fields.

  18. Contributions to Analytic Number Theory | Lucht | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on some recent contributions to the theory of multiplicative arithmetic semigroups, which have been initiated by John Knopfmacher's work on analytic number theory. They concern weighted inversion theorems of the. Wiener type, mean-value theorems for multiplicative functions, and, Ramanujan

  19. History of the theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Leonard Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The three-volume series History of the Theory of Numbers is the work of the distinguished mathematician Leonard Eugene Dickson, who taught at the University of Chicago for four decades and is celebrated for his many contributions to number theory and group theory. This second volume in the series, which is suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, is devoted to the subject of diophantine analysis. It can be read independently of the preceding volume, which explores divisibility and primality, and volume III, which examines quadratic and higher forms.Featured topics include

  20. Theory of analogous force on number sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canessa, Enrique [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2003-08-01

    A general statistical thermodynamic theory that considers given sequences of x-integers to play the role of particles of known type in an isolated elastic system is proposed. By also considering some explicit discrete probability distributions p{sub x} for natural numbers, we claim that they lead to a better understanding of probabilistic laws associated with number theory. Sequences of numbers are treated as the size measure of finite sets. By considering p{sub x} to describe complex phenomena, the theory leads to derive a distinct analogous force f{sub x} on number sets proportional to ({partial_derivative}p{sub x}/{partial_derivative}x){sub T} at an analogous system temperature T. In particular, this yields to an understanding of the uneven distribution of integers of random sets in terms of analogous scale invariance and a screened inverse square force acting on the significant digits. The theory also allows to establish recursion relations to predict sequences of Fibonacci numbers and to give an answer to the interesting theoretical question of the appearance of the Benford's law in Fibonacci numbers. A possible relevance to prime numbers is also analyzed. (author)

  1. Relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Philippe; Poisson, Eric

    2014-06-01

    A relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers, which characterize the surface deformation of a body subjected to tidal forces, was initiated by Damour and Nagar. We revisit this effort in order to extend it, clarify some of its aspects, and simplify its computational implementation. First, we refine the definition of surficial Love numbers proposed by Damour and Nagar and formulate it directly in terms of the deformed curvature of the body's surface, a meaningful geometrical quantity. Second, we develop a unified theory of surficial Love numbers that applies equally well to material bodies and black holes. Third, we derive a compactness-dependent relation between the surficial and (electric-type) gravitational Love numbers of a perfect-fluid body and show that it reduces to the familiar Newtonian relation when the compactness is small. And fourth, we simplify the tasks associated with the practical computation of the surficial and gravitational Love numbers for a material body.

  2. Topics in the theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Erdős, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This rather unique book is a guided tour through number theory. While most introductions to number theory provide a systematic and exhaustive treatment of the subject, the authors have chosen instead to illustrate the many varied subjects by associating recent discoveries, interesting methods, and unsolved problems. In particular, we read about combinatorial problems in number theory, a branch of mathematics co-founded and popularized by Paul Erdös. Janos Suranyis vast teaching experience successfully complements Paul Erdös'ability to initiate new directions of research by suggesting new problems and approaches. This book will surely arouse the interest of the student and the teacher alike. Until his death in 1996, Professor Paul Erdös was one of the most prolific mathematicians ever, publishing close to 1,500 papers. While his papers contributed to almost every area of mathematics, his main research interest was in the area of combinatorics, graph theory, and number theory. He is most famous for proposing...

  3. Number theory and the periodicity of matter

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan C A

    2008-01-01

    Presents a fully scientific account of the use of the golden ratio and explores the observation that stable nucleides obey a number theory based general lawThe interest in number theory is worldwide and covers the entire spectrum of human knowledge. Those aspects covered here will not be immediately accessible to the general lay readership, but, scientists of all pursuations immediately appreciate the importance of the applications described hereThe well-known interest of engineers, medical practitioners and information technologists in popular scientific matters, should make this an attractive buy for such individuals. Undergraduate students in these disciplines should be equally interested.

  4. Number theory in the spirit of Ramanujan

    CERN Document Server

    Berndt, Bruce C

    2006-01-01

    Ramanujan is recognized as one of the great number theorists of the twentieth century. Here now is the first book to provide an introduction to his work in number theory. Most of Ramanujan's work in number theory arose out of q-series and theta functions. This book provides an introduction to these two important subjects and to some of the topics in number theory that are inextricably intertwined with them, including the theory of partitions, sums of squares and triangular numbers, and the Ramanujan tau function. The majority of the results discussed here are originally due to Ramanujan or were rediscovered by him. Ramanujan did not leave us proofs of the thousands of theorems he recorded in his notebooks, and so it cannot be claimed that many of the proofs given in this book are those found by Ramanujan. However, they are all in the spirit of his mathematics. The subjects examined in this book have a rich history dating back to Euler and Jacobi, and they continue to be focal points of contemporary mathematic...

  5. Some Functional Equations Originating from Number Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We will introduce new functional equations (3) and (4) which are strongly related to well-known formulae (1) and (2) of number theory, and investigate the solutions of the equations. Moreover, we will also study some stability problems of those equations.

  6. Number Theory and Applications : Proceedings of the International Conferences on Number Theory and Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishnan, B

    2009-01-01

    This collection of articles contains the proceedings of the two international conferences (on Number Theory and Cryptography) held at the Harish - Chandra Research Institute. In recent years the interest in number theory has increased due to its applications in areas like error-correcting codes and cryptography. These proceedings contain papers in various areas of number theory, such as combinatorial, algebraic, analytic and transcendental aspects, arithmetic algebraic geometry, as well as graph theory and cryptography. While some papers do contain new results, several of the papers are expository articles that mention open questions, which will be useful to young researchers.

  7. Seniority Number in Valence Bond Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Zhou, Chen; Wu, Wei

    2015-09-08

    In this work, a hierarchy of valence bond (VB) methods based on the concept of seniority number, defined as the number of singly occupied orbitals in a determinant or an orbital configuration, is proposed and applied to the studies of the potential energy curves (PECs) of H8, N2, and C2 molecules. It is found that the seniority-based VB expansion converges more rapidly toward the full configuration interaction (FCI) or complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) limit and produces more accurate PECs with smaller nonparallelity errors than its molecular orbital (MO) theory-based analogue. Test results reveal that the nonorthogonal orbital-based VB theory provides a reverse but more efficient way to truncate the complete active Hilbert space by seniority numbers.

  8. Degenerate RS perturbation theory. [Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.; Certain, P. R.

    1974-01-01

    A concise, systematic procedure is given for determining the Rayleigh-Schroedinger energies and wave functions of degenerate states to arbitrarily high orders even when the degeneracies of the various states are resolved in arbitrary orders. The procedure is expressed in terms of an iterative cycle in which the energy through the (2n + 1)-th order is expressed in terms of the partially determined wave function through the n-th order. Both a direct and an operator derivation are given. The two approaches are equivalent and can be transcribed into each other. The direct approach deals with the wave functions (without the use of formal operators) and has the advantage that it resembles the usual treatment of nondegenerate perturbations and maintains close contact with the basic physics. In the operator approach, the wave functions are expressed in terms of infinite-order operators which are determined by the successive resolution of the space of the zeroth-order functions.

  9. Small numbers in supersymmetric theories of nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graesser, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle interactions is a successful theory for describing the interactions of quarks, leptons and gauge bosons at microscopic distance scales. Despite these successes, the theory contains many unsatisfactory features. The origin of particle masses is a central mystery that has eluded experimental elucidation. In the Standard Model the known particles obtain their mass from the condensate of the so-called Higgs particle. Quantum corrections to the Higgs mass require an unnatural fine tuning in the Higgs mass of one part in 10 -32 to obtain the correct mass scale of electroweak physics. In addition, the origin of the vast hierarchy between the mass scales of the electroweak and quantum gravity physics is not explained in the current theory. Supersymmetric extensions to the Standard Model are not plagued by this fine tuning issue and may therefore be relevant in Nature. In the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model there is also a natural explanation for electroweak symmetry breaking. Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories also correctly predict a parameter of the Standard Model. This provides non-trivial indirect evidence for these theories. The most general supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model however, is excluded by many physical processes, such as rare flavor changing processes, and the non-observation of the instability of the proton. These processes provide important information about the possible structure such a theory. In particular, certain parameters in this theory must be rather small. A physics explanation for why this is the case would be desirable. It is striking that the gauge couplings of the Standard Model unify if there is supersymmetry close to the weak scale. This suggests that at high energies Nature is described by a supersymmetric Grand Unified Theory. But the mass scale of unification must be introduced into the theory since it does not coincide with the probable mass scale of strong quantum gravity. The subject

  10. String amplitudes: from field theories to number theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    In a variety of recent developments, scattering amplitudes hint at new symmetries of and unexpected connections between physical theories which are otherwise invisible in their conventional description via Feynman diagrams or Lagrangians. Yet, many of these hidden structures are conveniently accessible to string theory where gauge interactions and gravity arise as the low-energy excitations of open and closed strings. In this talk, I will give an intuitive picture of gravity as a double copy of gauge interactions and extend the web of relations to scalar field theories including chiral Lagrangians for Goldstone bosons. The string corrections to gauge and gravity amplitudes beyond their point-particle limit exhibit elegant mathematical structures and offer a convenient laboratory to explore modern number-theoretic concepts in a simple context. As a common theme with Feynman integrals, string amplitudes introduce a variety of periods and special functions including multiple zeta values and polylogarithms, orga...

  11. Elliptic Tales Curves, Counting, and Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ash, Avner

    2012-01-01

    Elliptic Tales describes the latest developments in number theory by looking at one of the most exciting unsolved problems in contemporary mathematics--the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture. The Clay Mathematics Institute is offering a prize of 1 million to anyone who can discover a general solution to the problem. In this book, Avner Ash and Robert Gross guide readers through the mathematics they need to understand this captivating problem. The key to the conjecture lies in elliptic curves, which are cubic equations in two variables. These equations may appear simple, yet they arise from

  12. Elementary number theory an algebraic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bolker, Ethan D

    2007-01-01

    This text uses the concepts usually taught in the first semester of a modern abstract algebra course to illuminate classical number theory: theorems on primitive roots, quadratic Diophantine equations, and the Fermat conjecture for exponents three and four. The text contains abundant numerical examples and a particularly helpful collection of exercises, many of which are small research problems requiring substantial study or outside reading. Some problems call for new proofs for theorems already covered or for inductive explorations and proofs of theorems found in later chapters.Ethan D. Bolke

  13. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z D n associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z D n into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively

  14. Conference on Number Theory and Arithmetic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph; Stevens, Glenn; Modular forms and Fermat’s last theorem

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains expanded versions of lectures given at an instructional conference on number theory and arithmetic geometry held August 9 through 18, 1995 at Boston University. Contributor's includeThe purpose of the conference, and of this book, is to introduce and explain the many ideas and techniques used by Wiles in his proof that every (semi-stable) elliptic curve over Q is modular, and to explain how Wiles' result can be combined with Ribet's theorem and ideas of Frey and Serre to show, at long last, that Fermat's Last Theorem is true. The book begins with an overview of the complete proof, followed by several introductory chapters surveying the basic theory of elliptic curves, modular functions, modular curves, Galois cohomology, and finite group schemes. Representation theory, which lies at the core of Wiles' proof, is dealt with in a chapter on automorphic representations and the Langlands-Tunnell theorem, and this is followed by in-depth discussions of Serre's conjectures, Galois deformations, ...

  15. Introduction to analytic and probabilistic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Tenenbaum, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a self contained, thorough introduction to the analytic and probabilistic methods of number theory. The prerequisites being reduced to classical contents of undergraduate courses, it offers to students and young researchers a systematic and consistent account on the subject. It is also a convenient tool for professional mathematicians, who may use it for basic references concerning many fundamental topics. Deliberately placing the methods before the results, the book will be of use beyond the particular material addressed directly. Each chapter is complemented with bibliographic notes, useful for descriptions of alternative viewpoints, and detailed exercises, often leading to research problems. This third edition of a text that has become classical offers a renewed and considerably enhanced content, being expanded by more than 50 percent. Important new developments are included, along with original points of view on many essential branches of arithmetic and an accurate perspective on up-to-...

  16. Analytic theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a uniform density plasma-filled ion diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussey, T.W.; Payne, S.S.

    1987-04-01

    The J-vector x B-vector forces associated with the surface current of a plasma-filled ion diode will accelerate this plasma fill toward the anode surface. It is well known that such a configuration with a high I is susceptible to the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in certain geometries. A number of ion diode plasma sources have been proposed, most of which have a falling density going away from the wall. A somewhat more unstable case, however, is that of uniform density. In this report we attempt to establish an upper limit on this effect with a simple analytic model in which a uniform-density plasma is accelerated by the magnetic field anticipated in a PBFA-II diode. We estimate the number of linear e-foldings experienced by an unstable surface as well as the most damaging wavelength initial perturbation. This model, which accounts approximately for stabilization due to field diffusion, suggests that even with a uniform fill, densities in excess of a few 10 15 are probably not damaged by the instability. In addition, even lower densities might be tolerated if perturbations near the most damaging wavelength can be kept very small

  17. Thermal convection for large Prandtl numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2001-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Bénard theory by Grossmann and Lohse [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000)] is extended towards very large Prandtl numbers Pr. The Nusselt number Nu is found here to be independent of Pr. However, for fixed Rayleigh numbers Ra a maximum in the Nu(Pr) dependence is predicted. We moreover offer

  18. Promoting Number Theory in High Schools or Birthday Problem and Number Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    The author introduces the birthday problem in this article. This can amuse willing members of any birthday party. This problem can also be used as the motivational first day lecture in number theory for the gifted students in high schools or in community colleges or in undergraduate classes in colleges.

  19. Number-Theory in Nuclear-Physics in Number-Theory: Non-Primality Factorization As Fission VS. Primality As Fusion; Composites' Islands of INstability: Feshbach-Resonances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Numbers: primality/indivisibility/non-factorization versus compositeness/divisibility /factor-ization, often in tandem but not always, provocatively close analogy to nuclear-physics: (2 + 1)=(fusion)=3; (3+1)=(fission)=4[=2 × 2]; (4+1)=(fusion)=5; (5 +1)=(fission)=6[=2 × 3]; (6 + 1)=(fusion)=7; (7+1)=(fission)=8[= 2 × 4 = 2 × 2 × 2]; (8 + 1) =(non: fission nor fusion)= 9[=3 × 3]; then ONLY composites' Islands of fusion-INstability: 8, 9, 10; then 14, 15, 16,... Could inter-digit Feshbach-resonances exist??? Applications to: quantum-information/computing non-Shore factorization, millennium-problem Riemann-hypotheses proof as Goodkin BEC intersection with graph-theory ``short-cut'' method: Rayleigh(1870)-Polya(1922)-``Anderson'' (1958)-localization, Goldbach-conjecture, financial auditing/accounting as quantum-statistical-physics;... abound!!!

  20. Computational study of the Rayleigh light scattering properties of atmospheric pre-nucleation clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Norman, Patrick; Bilde, Merete

    2014-01-01

    The Rayleigh and hyper Rayleigh scattering properties of the binary (H 2SO4)(H2O)n and ternary (H 2SO4)(NH3)(H2O)n clusters are investigated using a quantum mechanical response theory approach. The molecular Rayleigh scattering intensities are expressed using the dipole polarizability α...... and hyperpolarizability β tensors. Using density functional theory, we elucidate the effect of cluster morphology on the scattering properties using a combinatorial sampling approach. We find that the Rayleigh scattering intensity depends quadratically on the number of water molecules in the cluster and that a single...... ammonia molecule is able to induce a high anisotropy, which further increases the scattering intensity. The hyper Rayleigh scattering activities are found to be extremely low. This study presents the first attempt to map the scattering of atmospheric molecular clusters using a bottom-up approach...

  1. Modified large number theory with constant G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1983-01-01

    The inspiring ''numerology'' uncovered by Dirac, Eddington, Weyl, et al. can be explained and derived when it is slightly modified so to connect the ''gravitational world'' (cosmos) with the ''strong world'' (hadron), rather than with the electromagnetic one. The aim of this note is to show the following. In the present approach to the ''Large Number Theory,'' cosmos and hadrons are considered to be (finite) similar systems, so that the ratio R-bar/r-bar of the cosmos typical length R-bar to the hadron typical length r-bar is constant in time (for instance, if both cosmos and hadrons undergo an expansion/contraction cycle: according to the ''cyclical big-bang'' hypothesis: then R-bar and r-bar can be chosen to be the maximum radii, or the average radii). As a consequence, then gravitational constant G results to be independent of time. The present note is based on work done in collaboration with P.Caldirola, G. D. Maccarrone, and M. Pavsic

  2. Essays on the theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Dedekind, Richard

    1963-01-01

    Two classic essays by great German mathematician: one provides an arithmetic, rigorous foundation for the irrational numbers, the other is an attempt to give the logical basis for transfinite numbers and properties of the natural numbers.

  3. Analytic number theory an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, Paul T

    2004-01-01

    This valuable book focuses on a collection of powerful methods ofanalysis that yield deep number-theoretical estimates. Particularattention is given to counting functions of prime numbers andmultiplicative arithmetic functions. Both real variable ("elementary")and complex variable ("analytic") methods are employed.

  4. Number theory an introduction via the density of primes

    CERN Document Server

    Fine, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this textbook provides an introduction and overview of number theory based on the density and properties of the prime numbers. This unique approach offers both a firm background in the standard material of number theory, as well as an overview of the entire discipline. All of the essential topics are covered, such as the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, theory of congruences, quadratic reciprocity, arithmetic functions, and the distribution of primes. New in this edition are coverage of p-adic numbers, Hensel's lemma, multiple zeta-values, and elliptic curve methods in primality testing. Key topics and features include: A solid introduction to analytic number theory, including full proofs of Dirichlet's Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem Concise treatment of algebraic number theory, including a complete presentation of primes, prime factorizations in algebraic number fields, and unique factorization of ideals Discussion of the AKS algorithm, which shows that primality testing is...

  5. A Geometrical Application of Number Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Any quadruple of natural numbers {a, b, c, d} is called a "Pythagorean quadruple" if it satisfies the relationship "a[superscript 2] + b[superscript 2] + c[superscript 2]". This "Pythagorean quadruple" can always be identified with a rectangular box of dimensions "a greater than 0," "b greater than…

  6. Residue number systems theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, P V Ananda

    2016-01-01

    This new and expanded monograph improves upon Mohan's earlier book, Residue Number Systems (Springer, 2002) with a state of the art treatment of the subject. Replete with detailed illustrations and helpful examples, this book covers a host of cutting edge topics such as the core function, the quotient function, new Chinese Remainder theorems, and large integer operations. It also features many significant applications to practical communication systems and cryptography such as FIR filters and elliptic curve cryptography. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to the basics and leading up to current research trends that are not yet widely distributed in other publications, this book will be of interest to both researchers and students alike.

  7. Higher arithmetic an algorithmic introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    2008-01-01

    Although number theorists have sometimes shunned and even disparaged computation in the past, today's applications of number theory to cryptography and computer security demand vast arithmetical computations. These demands have shifted the focus of studies in number theory and have changed attitudes toward computation itself. The important new applications have attracted a great many students to number theory, but the best reason for studying the subject remains what it was when Gauss published his classic Disquisitiones Arithmeticae in 1801: Number theory is the equal of Euclidean geometry--some would say it is superior to Euclidean geometry--as a model of pure, logical, deductive thinking. An arithmetical computation, after all, is the purest form of deductive argument. Higher Arithmetic explains number theory in a way that gives deductive reasoning, including algorithms and computations, the central role. Hands-on experience with the application of algorithms to computational examples enables students to m...

  8. 13th Conference of the Canadian Number Theory Association

    CERN Document Server

    Alaca, Şaban; Williams, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The theory of numbers continues to occupy a central place in modern mathematics because of both its long history over many centuries as well as its many diverse applications to other fields such as discrete mathematics, cryptography, and coding theory. The proof by Andrew Wiles (with Richard Taylor) of Fermat’s last theorem published in 1995 illustrates the high level of difficulty of problems encountered in number-theoretic research as well as the usefulness of the new ideas arising from its proof. The thirteenth conference of the Canadian Number Theory Association was held at Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada from June 16 to 20, 2014. Ninety-nine talks were presented at the conference on the theme of advances in the theory of numbers. Topics of the talks reflected the diversity of current trends and activities in modern number theory. These topics included modular forms, hypergeometric functions, elliptic curves, distribution of prime numbers, diophantine equations, L-functions, Diophantine app...

  9. Introduction to number theory with cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, James S

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionDiophantine EquationsModular ArithmeticPrimes and the Distribution of PrimesCryptographyDivisibilityDivisibilityEuclid's Theorem Euclid's Original Proof The Sieve of Eratosthenes The Division Algorithm The Greatest Common Divisor The Euclidean Algorithm Other BasesLinear Diophantine EquationsThe Postage Stamp Problem Fermat and Mersenne Numbers Chapter Highlights Problems Unique FactorizationPreliminary Results The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic Euclid and the Fundamental Theorem of ArithmeticChapter Highlights Problems Applications of Unique Factorization A Puzzle Irrationality Proofs The Rational Root Theorem Pythagorean Triples Differences of Squares Prime Factorization of Factorials The Riemann Zeta Function Chapter Highlights Problems CongruencesDefinitions and Examples Modular Exponentiation Divisibility TestsLinear Congruences The Chinese Remainder TheoremFractions mod m Fermat's Theorem Euler's Theorem Wilson's Theorem Queens on a Chessboard Chapter Highlights Problems Cryptographic App...

  10. The mathematics of ciphers number theory and RSA cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Coutinho, S C

    1999-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the algorithmic aspects of number theory and its applications to cryptography, with special emphasis on the RSA cryptosys-tem. It covers many of the familiar topics of elementary number theory, all with an algorithmic twist. The text also includes many interesting historical notes.

  11. John Knopfmacher, [Abstract] Analytic Number Theory, and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In this paper some important contributions of John Knopfmacher to ' Analytic Number Theory' are described. This theory investigates semigroups with countably many generators (generalized 'primes'), with a norm map (or a 'degree map'), and satisfying certain conditions on the number of elements with norm less

  12. The Work of Lagrange in Number Theory and Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. The Work of Lagrange in Number Theory and Algebra. D P Patil, C R Pranesachar and Renuka RafJindran. (left) D P Patil got his Ph.D from the School of Math- ematics, TIFR and joined. IISc in 1992. His interests are commutative algebra, algebraic geometry and algebraic number theory. (right) C R ...

  13. Simulation of resonance hyper-Rayleigh scattering of molecules and metal clusters using a time-dependent density functional theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongwei; Autschbach, Jochen; Jensen, Lasse

    2014-09-28

    Resonance hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) of molecules and metal clusters have been simulated based on a time-dependent density functional theory approach. The resonance first-order hyperpolarizability (β) is obtained by implementing damped quadratic response theory using the (2n + 1) rule. To test this implementation, the prototypical dipolar molecule para-nitroaniline (p-NA) and the octupolar molecule crystal violet are used as benchmark systems. Moreover, small silver clusters Ag 8 and Ag 20 are tested with a focus on determining the two-photon resonant enhancement arising from the strong metal transition. Our results show that, on a per atom basis, the small silver clusters possess two-photon enhanced HRS comparable to that of larger nanoparticles. This finding indicates the potential interest of using small metal clusters for designing new nonlinear optical materials.

  14. On a connection of number theory with graph theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Somer, L.; Křížek, Michal

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2004), s. 465-485 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : Fermat numbers * Chinese remainder theorem * primality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.131, year: 2004

  15. The distribution of prime numbers and associated problems in number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, M.

    1991-01-01

    Some problems in number theory, namely the gaps between consecutive primes, the distribution of primes in arithmetic progressions, Brun-Titchmarsh theorem, Fermat's last theorem, The Thue equation, the gaps between square-free numbers are discussed

  16. Numerical simulation of nonstationary dissipative structures in 3D double-diffusive convection at large Rayleigh numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozitskiy, Sergey

    2018-05-01

    Numerical simulation of nonstationary dissipative structures in 3D double-diffusive convection has been performed by using the previously derived system of complex Ginzburg-Landau type amplitude equations, valid in a neighborhood of Hopf bifurcation points. Simulation has shown that the state of spatiotemporal chaos develops in the system. It has the form of nonstationary structures that depend on the parameters of the system. The shape of structures does not depend on the initial conditions, and a limited number of spectral components participate in their formation.

  17. CUNY Graduate Center Workshops on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Based on talks from the 2015 and 2016 Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory (CANT) workshops at the City University of New York, these proceedings offer 19 peer-reviewed and edited papers on current topics in number theory. Held every year since 2003, the workshop series surveys state-of-the-art open problems in combinatorial and additive number theory and related parts of mathematics. Sumsets, partitions, convex polytopes and discrete geometry, Ramsey theory, primality testing, and cryptography are among the topics featured in this volume. Each contribution is dedicated to a specific topic that reflects the latest results by experts in the field. Researchers and graduate students interested in the current progress in number theory will find this selection of articles relevant and compelling. .

  18. Alternative analysis: the prime numbers theory and an extension of the real numbers set

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhotin A.; Zvyagin M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we consider the theory of prime numbers at a new methodology. The theory of prime numbers is one of the most ancient mathematical branches. We found an estimate of the all prime numbers sum using the notions of infinite lager numbers and infinitely small numbers, farther we estimated the value of the maximal prime number. We proved that Hardy–Littlewood Hypothesis has the positive decision too. The infinite small numbers define a new methodology of the well–known function o(x) applicatio...

  19. On the instabilities of supersonic mixing layers - A high-Mach-number asymptotic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Thomas F.; Goldstein, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    The stability of a family of tanh mixing layers is studied at large Mach numbers using perturbation methods. It is found that the eigenfunction develops a multilayered structure, and the eigenvalue is obtained by solving a simplified version of the Rayleigh equation (with homogeneous boundary conditions) in one of these layers which lies in either of the external streams. This analysis leads to a simple hypersonic similarity law which explains how spatial and temporal phase speeds and growth rates scale with Mach number and temperature ratio. Comparisons are made with numerical results, and it is found that this similarity law provides a good qualitative guide for the behavior of the instability at high Mach numbers. In addition to this asymptotic theory, some fully numerical results are also presented (with no limitation on the Mach number) in order to explain the origin of the hypersonic modes (through mode splitting) and to discuss the role of oblique modes over a very wide range of Mach number and temperature ratio.

  20. [Computer modeling the dependences of the membrane potential for polymeric membrane separated non-homogeneous electrolyte solutions on concentration Rayleigh number].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Izabella H; Jasik-Slezak, Jolanta; Bilewicz-Wyrozumska, Teresa; Slezak, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of model equation describing the membrane potential delta psi(s) on concentration Rayleigh number (R(C)), mechanical pressure difference (deltaP), concentration polarization coefficient (zeta s) and ratio concentration of solutions separated by membrane (Ch/Cl), the characteristics delta psi(s) = f(Rc)(delta P, zeta s, Ch/Cl) for steady values of zeta s, R(C) and Ch/Cl in single-membrane system were calculated. In this system neutral and isotropic polymeric membrane oriented in horizontal plane, the non-homogeneous binary electrolytic solutions of various concentrations were separated. Nonhomogeneity of solutions is results from creations of the concentration boundary layers on both sides of the membrane. Calculations were made for the case where on a one side of the membrane aqueous solution of NaCl at steady concentration 10(-3) mol x l(-1) (Cl) was placed and on the other aqueous solutions of NaCl at concentrations from 10(-3) mol x l(-1) to 2 x 10(-2) mol x l(-1) (Ch). Their densities were greater than NaCl solution's at 10(-3) mol x l(-1). It was shown that membrane potential depends on hydrodynamic state of a complex concentration boundary layer-membrane-concentration boundary layer, what is controlled by deltaP, Ch/Cl, Rc and Zeta(s).

  1. Number Worlds: Visual and Experimental Access to Elementary Number Theory Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Zazkis, Rina; Liljedahl, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that many issues related to the structure of natural numbers and the relationship among numbers are not well grasped by students. In this article, we describe a computer-based learning environment called "Number Worlds" that was designed to support the exploration of elementary number theory concepts by…

  2. Selected papers on number theory and algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Nomizu, Katsumi

    1996-01-01

    This book presents papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal Sugaku from the Mathematical Society of Japan. The papers explore the relationship between number theory and algebraic geometry.

  3. 7th International Conference on Elementary and Analytic Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Steuding, Jörn; Steuding, Rasa

    2016-01-01

    This book collects more than thirty contributions in memory of Wolfgang Schwarz, most of which were presented at the seventh International Conference on Elementary and Analytic Number Theory (ELAZ), held July 2014 in Hildesheim, Germany. Ranging from the theory of arithmetical functions to diophantine problems, to analytic aspects of zeta-functions, the various research and survey articles cover the broad interests of the well-known number theorist and cherished colleague Wolfgang Schwarz (1934-2013), who contributed over one hundred articles on number theory, its history and related fields. Readers interested in elementary or analytic number theory and related fields will certainly find many fascinating topical results among the contributions from both respected mathematicians and up-and-coming young researchers. In addition, some biographical articles highlight the life and mathematical works of Wolfgang Schwarz.

  4. New topological structures of Skyrme theory: baryon number and monopole number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.M. [Chinese Academy of Science, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kimm, Kyoungtae [Seoul National University, Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Konkuk University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Pengming [Chinese Academy of Science, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-02-15

    Based on the observation that the skyrmion in Skyrme theory can be viewed as a dressed monopole, we show that the skyrmions have two independent topology, the baryon topology π{sub 3}(S{sup 3}) and the monopole topology π{sub 2}(S{sup 2}). With this we propose to classify the skyrmions by two topological numbers (m, n), the monopole number m and the shell (radial) number n. In this scheme the popular (non spherically symmetric) skyrmions are classified as the (m, 1) skyrmions but the spherically symmetric skyrmions are classified as the (1, n) skyrmions, and the baryon number B is given by B = mn. Moreover, we show that the vacuum of the Skyrme theory has the structure of the vacuum of the Sine-Gordon theory and QCD combined together, which can also be classified by two topological numbers (p, q). This puts the Skyrme theory in a totally new perspective. (orig.)

  5. Contributions to the founding of the theory of transfinite numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, Georg

    1955-01-01

    One of the greatest mathematical classics of all time, this work established a new field of mathematics which was to be of incalculable importance in topology, number theory, analysis, theory of functions, etc., as well as in the entire field of modern logic. It is rare that a theory of such fundamental mathematical importance is expressed so simply and clearly: the reader with a good grasp of college mathematics will be able to understand most of the basic ideas and many of the proofs.Cantor first develops the elementary definitions and operations of cardinal and ordinal numbers and analyzes

  6. Introduction to $p$-adic analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2002-01-01

    This book is an elementary introduction to p-adic analysis from the number theory perspective. With over 100 exercises included, it will acquaint the non-expert to the basic ideas of the theory and encourage the novice to enter this fertile field of research. The main focus of the book is the study of p-adic L-functions and their analytic properties. It begins with a basic introduction to Bernoulli numbers and continues with establishing the Kummer congruences. These congruences are then used to construct the p-adic analog of the Riemann zeta function and p-adic analogs of Dirichlet's L-functions. Featured is a chapter on how to apply the theory of Newton polygons to determine Galois groups of polynomials over the rational number field. As motivation for further study, the final chapter introduces Iwasawa theory.

  7. Influence of the Ringwoodite-Perovskite transition on mantle convection in spherical geometry as a function of Clapeyron slope and Rayleigh number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wolstencroft

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence on mantle convection of the negative Clapeyron slope ringwoodite to perovskite and ferro-periclase mantle phase transition, which is correlated with the seismic discontinuity at 660 km depth. In particular, we focus on understanding the influence of the magnitude of the Clapeyron slope (as measured by the Phase Buoyancy parameter, P and the vigour of convection (as measured by the Rayleigh number, Ra on mantle convection. We have undertaken 76 simulations of isoviscous mantle convection in spherical geometry, varying Ra and P. Three domains of behaviour were found: layered convection for high Ra and more negative P, whole mantle convection for low Ra and less negative P, and transitional behaviour in an intervening domain. The boundary between the layered and transitional domain was fit by a curve P = α Raβ where α = −1.05, and β = −0.1, and the fit for the boundary between the transitional and whole mantle convection domain was α = −4.8, and β = −0.25. These two curves converge at Ra ≈ 2.5 × 104 (well below Earth mantle vigour and P ≈ −0.38. Extrapolating to high Ra, which is likely earlier in Earth history, this work suggests a large transitional domain. It is therefore likely that convection in the Archean would have been influenced by this phase change, with Earth being at least in the transitional domain, if not the layered domain.

  8. An Integrated Theory of Whole Number and Fractions Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Thompson, Clarissa A.; Schneider, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes an integrated theory of acquisition of knowledge about whole numbers and fractions. Although whole numbers and fractions differ in many ways that influence their development, an important commonality is the centrality of knowledge of numerical magnitudes in overall understanding. The present findings with 11- and 13-year-olds…

  9. Fermi-Dirac statistics and the number theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kubasiak, A.; Korbicz, J.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-01-01

    We relate the Fermi-Dirac statistics of an ideal Fermi gas in a harmonic trap to partitions of given integers into distinct parts, studied in number theory. Using methods of quantum statistical physics we derive analytic expressions for cumulants of the probability distribution of the number of different partitions.

  10. Direct numerical simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with the spectral element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xu; Tan Duowang

    2009-01-01

    A novel method is proposed to simulate Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities using a specially-developed unsteady three-dimensional high-order spectral element method code. The numerical model used consists of Navier-Stokes equations and a transport-diffusive equation. The code is first validated with the results of linear stability perturbation theory. Then several characteristics of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are studied using this three-dimensional unsteady code, including instantaneous turbulent structures and statistical turbulent mixing heights under different initial wave numbers. These results indicate that turbulent structures of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are strongly dependent on the initial conditions. The results also suggest that a high-order numerical method should provide the capability of simulating small scale fluctuations of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities of turbulent flows. (authors)

  11. Phenomenology of muon number violation in spontaneously broken gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, O.U.

    1980-01-01

    The phenomenology of muon number violation in gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is studied. In the first chapter a brief introduction to the concept of muon number and to spontaneously broken gauge theories is given. A review of the phenomenology and experimental situation regarding different muon number violating processes is made in the second chapter. A detailed phenomenological study of the μe conversion process μ - + (A,Z) → e - + (A,Z) is given in the third chapter. In the fourth chapter some specific gauge theories incorporating spontaneously broken horizontal gauge symmetries between different fermion generations are discussed with special reference to muon number violation in the theories. The μe conversion process seems to be a good process to search for muon number violation if it occurs. The K/sub L/-K/sub S/ mass difference is likely to constrain muon number violating rates to lie far below present experimental limits unless strangeness changing neutral currents changing strangeness by two units are suppressed

  12. The large numbers hypothesis and a relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Y.K.; Prokhovnik, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A way to reconcile Dirac's large numbers hypothesis and Einstein's theory of gravitation was recently suggested by Lau (1985). It is characterized by the conjecture of a time-dependent cosmological term and gravitational term in Einstein's field equations. Motivated by this conjecture and the large numbers hypothesis, we formulate here a scalar-tensor theory in terms of an action principle. The cosmological term is required to be spatially dependent as well as time dependent in general. The theory developed is appled to a cosmological model compatible with the large numbers hypothesis. The time-dependent form of the cosmological term and the scalar potential are then deduced. A possible explanation of the smallness of the cosmological term is also given and the possible significance of the scalar field is speculated

  13. Anomalous quantum numbers and topological properties of field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychronakos, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    We examine the connection between anomalous quantum numbers, symmetry breaking patterns and topological properties of some field theories. The main results are the following: In three dimensions the vacuum in the presence of abelian magnetic field configurations behaves like a superconductor. Its quantum numbers are exactly calculable and are connected with the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem. Boundary conditions, however, play a nontrivial role in this case. Local conditions were found to be physically preferable than the usual global ones. Due to topological reasons, only theories for which the gauge invariant photon mass in three dimensions obeys a quantization condition can support states of nonzero magnetic flux. For similar reasons, this mass induces anomalous angular momentum quantum numbers to the states of the theory. Parity invariance and global flavor symmetry were shown to be incompatible in such theories. In the presence of mass less flavored fermions, parity will always break for an odd number of fermion flavors, while for even fermion flavors it may not break but only at the expense of maximally breaking the flavor symmetry. Finally, a connection between these theories and the quantum Hall effect was indicated

  14. Number theory an approach through history from Hammurapi to Legendre

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, André

    2007-01-01

    Number Theory or arithmetic, as some prefer to call it, is the oldest, purest, liveliest, most elementary yet sophisticated field of mathematics. It is no coincidence that the fundamental science of numbers has come to be known as the "Queen of Mathematics." Indeed some of the most complex conventions of the mathematical mind have evolved from the study of basic problems of number theory. André Weil, one of the outstanding contributors to number theory, has written an historical exposition of this subject; his study examines texts that span roughly thirty-six centuries of arithmetical work — from an Old Babylonian tablet, datable to the time of Hammurapi to Legendre’s Essai sur la Théorie des Nombres (1798). Motivated by a desire to present the substance of his field to the educated reader, Weil employs an historical approach in the analysis of problems and evolving methods of number theory and their significance within mathematics. In the course of his study Weil accompanies the reader into the worksho...

  15. Partial Fractions in Calculus, Number Theory, and Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackel, C. A.; Denny, J. K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the development of the method of partial fraction decomposition from elementary number theory through calculus to its abstraction in modern algebra. This unusual perspective makes the topic accessible and relevant to readers from high school through seasoned calculus instructors.

  16. On two functional equations originating from number theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On two functional equations originating from number theory. JAEYOUNG CHUNG1 and JEONGWOOK CHANG2,∗. 1Department of Mathematics, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, 573-701, Korea. 2Department of Mathematics Education, Dankook University, Yongin 448-701, Korea. *Corresponding author. E-mail: ...

  17. A Successful Senior Seminar: Unsolved Problems in Number Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The "Unsolved Problems in Number Theory" book by Richard Guy provides nice problems suitable for a typical math major. We give examples of problems that have worked well in our senior seminar course and some nice results that senior math majors can obtain.

  18. Women in numbers Europe II contributions to number theory and arithmetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ozman, Ekin; Johnson-Leung, Jennifer; Newton, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by the September 2016 conference of the same name, this second volume highlights recent research in a wide range of topics in contemporary number theory and arithmetic geometry. Research reports from projects started at the conference, expository papers describing ongoing research, and contributed papers from women number theorists outside the conference make up this diverse volume. Topics cover a broad range of topics such as arithmetic dynamics, failure of local-global principles, geometry in positive characteristics, and heights of algebraic integers. The use of tools from algebra, analysis and geometry, as well as computational methods exemplifies the wealth of techniques available to modern researchers in number theory. Exploring connections between different branches of mathematics and combining different points of view, these papers continue the tradition of supporting and highlighting the contributions of women number theorists at a variety of career stages. Perfect for students and researche...

  19. The large number hypothesis and Einstein's theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Kau Lau

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to reconcile the large number hypothesis (LNH) with Einstein's theory of gravitation, a tentative generalization of Einstein's field equations with time-dependent cosmological and gravitational constants is proposed. A cosmological model consistent with the LNH is deduced. The coupling formula of the cosmological constant with matter is found, and as a consequence, the time-dependent formulae of the cosmological constant and the mean matter density of the Universe at the present epoch are then found. Einstein's theory of gravitation, whether with a zero or nonzero cosmological constant, becomes a limiting case of the new generalized field equations after the early epoch

  20. Antieigenvalue analysis for continuum mechanics, economics, and number theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafson Karl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available My recent book Antieigenvalue Analysis, World-Scientific, 2012, presented the theory of antieigenvalues from its inception in 1966 up to 2010, and its applications within those forty-five years to Numerical Analysis, Wavelets, Statistics, Quantum Mechanics, Finance, and Optimization. Here I am able to offer three further areas of application: Continuum Mechanics, Economics, and Number Theory. In particular, the critical angle of repose in a continuum model of granular materials is shown to be exactly my matrix maximum turning angle of the stress tensor of the material. The important Sharpe ratio of the Capital Asset Pricing Model is now seen in terms of my antieigenvalue theory. Euclid’s Formula for Pythagorean triples becomes a special case of my operator trigonometry.

  1. Geometric invariant theory over the real and complex numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Wallach, Nolan R

    2017-01-01

    Geometric Invariant Theory (GIT) is developed in this text within the context of algebraic geometry over the real and complex numbers. This sophisticated topic is elegantly presented with enough background theory included to make the text accessible to advanced graduate students in mathematics and physics with diverse backgrounds in algebraic and differential geometry.  Throughout the book, examples are emphasized. Exercises add to the reader’s understanding of the material; most are enhanced with hints. The exposition is divided into two parts. The first part, ‘Background Theory’, is organized as a reference for the rest of the book. It contains two chapters developing material in complex and real algebraic geometry and algebraic groups that are difficult to find in the literature. Chapter 1 emphasizes the relationship between the Zariski topology and the canonical Hausdorff topology of an algebraic variety over the complex numbers. Chapter 2 develops the interaction between Lie groups and algebraic ...

  2. International Conference on Automorphic Forms and Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Baali, Mehiddin; Ibukiyama, Tomoyoshi; Rupp, Florian

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume presents a collection of carefully refereed articles covering the latest advances in Automorphic Forms and Number Theory, that were primarily developed from presentations given at the 2012 “International Conference on Automorphic Forms and Number Theory,” held in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. The present volume includes original research as well as some surveys and outlines of research altogether providing a contemporary snapshot on the latest activities in the field and covering the topics of: Borcherds products Congruences and Codes Jacobi forms Siegel and Hermitian modular forms Special values of L-series Recently, the Sultanate of Oman became a member of the International Mathematical Society. In view of this development, the conference provided the platform for scientific exchange and collaboration between scientists of different countries from all over the world. In particular, an opportunity was established for a close exchange between scientists and students of Germany, Oman, and J...

  3. Lepton number violation in theories with a large number of standard model copies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Ivan; Paes, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    We examine lepton number violation (LNV) in theories with a saturated black hole bound on a large number of species. Such theories have been advocated recently as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem and an explanation of the smallness of neutrino masses. On the other hand, the violation of the lepton number can be a potential phenomenological problem of this N-copy extension of the standard model as due to the low quantum gravity scale black holes may induce TeV scale LNV operators generating unacceptably large rates of LNV processes. We show, however, that this issue can be avoided by introducing a spontaneously broken U 1(B-L) . Then, due to the existence of a specific compensation mechanism between contributions of different Majorana neutrino states, LNV processes in the standard model copy become extremely suppressed with rates far beyond experimental reach.

  4. A random-matrix theory of the number sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, T; Nieder, A; Viswanathan, P; Dehaene, S

    2017-02-19

    Number sense, a spontaneous ability to process approximate numbers, has been documented in human adults, infants and newborns, and many other animals. Species as distant as monkeys and crows exhibit very similar neurons tuned to specific numerosities. How number sense can emerge in the absence of learning or fine tuning is currently unknown. We introduce a random-matrix theory of self-organized neural states where numbers are coded by vectors of activation across multiple units, and where the vector codes for successive integers are obtained through multiplication by a fixed but random matrix. This cortical implementation of the 'von Mises' algorithm explains many otherwise disconnected observations ranging from neural tuning curves in monkeys to looking times in neonates and cortical numerotopy in adults. The theory clarifies the origin of Weber-Fechner's Law and yields a novel and empirically validated prediction of multi-peak number neurons. Random matrices constitute a novel mechanism for the emergence of brain states coding for quantity.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The origins of numerical abilities'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Theory of wire number scaling in wire-array Z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjarlais, M.P.; Marder, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed-power-driven Z pinches, produced by imploding cylindrical arrays of many wires, have generated very high x-ray radiation powers (>200 TW) and energies (2 MJ). Experiments have revealed a steady improvement in Z-pinch performance with increasing wire number at fixed total mass and array radius. The dominant mechanism acting to limit the performance of these devices is believed to be the Rayleigh-Taylor instability which broadens the radially imploding plasma sheath and consequently reduces the peak radiation power. A model is presented which describes an amplification over the two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate brought about by kink-like forces on the individual wires. This amplification factor goes to zero as the number of wires approaches infinity. This model gives results which are in good agreement with the experimental data and provides a scaling for wire-array Z pinches. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  6. Very high Mach number shocks - Theory. [in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, Kevin B.

    1986-01-01

    The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results include the following: (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers depends sensitively on the upstream value of beta (the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) nonadiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyrorbit while transiting the shock.

  7. The large numbers hypothesis and the Einstein theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirac, P.A.M.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the relations between large dimensionless numbers leads to the belief that G, expressed in atomic units, varies with the epoch while the Einstein theory requires G to be constant. These two requirements can be reconciled by supposing that the Einstein theory applies with a metric that differs from the atomic metric. The theory can be developed with conservation of mass by supposing that the continual increase in the mass of the observable universe arises from a continual slowing down of the velocity of recession of the galaxies. This leads to a model of the Universe that was first proposed by Einstein and de Sitter (the E.S. model). The observations of the microwave radiation fit in with this model. The static Schwarzchild metric has to be modified to fit in with the E.S. model for large r. The modification is worked out, and also the motion of planets with the new metric. It is found that there is a difference between ephemeris time and atomic time, and also that there should be an inward spiralling of the planets, referred to atomic units, superposed on the motion given by ordinary gravitational theory. These are effects that can be checked by observation, but there is no conclusive evidence up to the present. (author)

  8. Conference on Representation Theory, Number Theory and Invariant Theory: on the Occasion of Roger Howe’s 70th Birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Ju-Lee; Zhu, Chen-Bo

    2017-01-01

    This book contains selected papers based on talks given at the "Representation Theory, Number Theory, and Invariant Theory" conference held at Yale University from June 1 to June 5, 2015. The meeting and this resulting volume are in honor of Professor Roger Howe, on the occasion of his 70th birthday, whose work and insights have been deeply influential in the development of these fields. The speakers who contributed to this work include Roger Howe's doctoral students, Roger Howe himself, and other world renowned mathematicians. Topics covered include automorphic forms, invariant theory, representation theory of reductive groups over local fields, and related subjects.

  9. Phenomenological aspects of theories for baryon and lepton number violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The renormalizable couplings of the Standard Model are invariant under two accidental global symmetries, which correspond to conserved baryon and lepton numbers. In this thesis, we discuss possible roles of these symmetries in extension of the Standard Model. Two approaches are considered: explicit violation of lepton number by two units in the renormalizable couplings of the Lagrangian, and promotion of the global symmetries to local gauge symmetries that are spontaneously broken. The former approach directly leads to Majorana neutrino masses and neutrinoless double beta decay. We discuss the interplay of the contributions to this decay in a one-loop neutrino mass model, the colored seesaw mechanism. We find that, depending on the parameters of the model, both the light Majorana neutrino exchange and the contribution of the new colored particles may be dominant. Additionally, an experimental test is presented, which allows for a discrimination of neutrinoless double beta decay from unknown nuclear background using only one isotope. In the latter approach, fascinating implications originate from the attempt to write down an anomaly-free and spontaneously broken gauge theory for baryon and lepton numbers, such as an automatically stable dark matter candidate. When gauging the symmetries in a left-right symmetric setup, the same fields that allow for an anomaly-free theory generate neutrino masses via the type III seesaw mechanism.

  10. Transportation optimization with fuzzy trapezoidal numbers based on possibility theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dayi; Li, Ran; Huang, Qi; Lei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a parametric method is introduced to solve fuzzy transportation problem. Considering that parameters of transportation problem have uncertainties, this paper develops a generalized fuzzy transportation problem with fuzzy supply, demand and cost. For simplicity, these parameters are assumed to be fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. Based on possibility theory and consistent with decision-makers' subjectiveness and practical requirements, the fuzzy transportation problem is transformed to a crisp linear transportation problem by defuzzifying fuzzy constraints and objectives with application of fractile and modality approach. Finally, a numerical example is provided to exemplify the application of fuzzy transportation programming and to verify the validity of the proposed methods.

  11. Symbolic Computation, Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Mourad

    2001-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the conference "Symbolic Computation, Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics" held at the Department of Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville, from November 11 to 13, 1999. The main emphasis of the conference was Com­ puter Algebra (i. e. symbolic computation) and how it related to the fields of Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics. A subject that is common to all of these fields is q-series. We brought together those who do symbolic computation with q-series and those who need q-series in­ cluding workers in Physics and Combinatorics. The goal of the conference was to inform mathematicians and physicists who use q-series of the latest developments in the field of q-series and especially how symbolic computa­ tion has aided these developments. Over 60 people were invited to participate in the conference. We ended up having 45 participants at the conference, including six one hour plenary speakers and 28 half hour speakers. T...

  12. Mathematical conversations multicolor problems, problems in the theory of numbers, and random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, E B

    2006-01-01

    Comprises Multicolor Problems, dealing with map-coloring problems; Problems in the Theory of Numbers, an elementary introduction to algebraic number theory; Random Walks, addressing basic problems in probability theory. 1963 edition.

  13. Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in supernova experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher, N. C.; Abarzhi, S. I.; Kuranz, C. C.; Arnett, D.; Hurricane, O.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    We report a scrupulous analysis of data in supernova experiments that are conducted at high power laser facilities in order to study core-collapse supernova SN1987A. Parameters of the experimental system are properly scaled to investigate the interaction of a blast-wave with helium-hydrogen interface, and the induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and Rayleigh-Taylor mixing of the denser and lighter fluids with time-dependent acceleration. We analyze all available experimental images of the Rayleigh-Taylor flow in supernova experiments and measure delicate features of the interfacial dynamics. A new scaling is identified for calibration of experimental data to enable their accurate analysis and comparisons. By properly accounting for the imprint of the experimental conditions, the data set size and statistics are substantially increased. New theoretical solutions are reported to describe asymptotic dynamics of Rayleigh-Taylor flow with time-dependent acceleration by applying theoretical analysis that considers symmetries and momentum transport. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is achieved of the experimental data with the theory and simulations. Our study indicates that in supernova experiments Rayleigh-Taylor flow is in the mixing regime, the interface amplitude contributes substantially to the characteristic length scale for energy dissipation; Rayleigh-Taylor mixing keeps order

  14. Algorithmic and experimental methods in algebra, geometry, and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Decker, Wolfram; Malle, Gunter

    2017-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art research and survey articles that highlight work done within the Priority Program SPP 1489 “Algorithmic and Experimental Methods in Algebra, Geometry and Number Theory”, which was established and generously supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) from 2010 to 2016. The goal of the program was to substantially advance algorithmic and experimental methods in the aforementioned disciplines, to combine the different methods where necessary, and to apply them to central questions in theory and practice. Of particular concern was the further development of freely available open source computer algebra systems and their interaction in order to create powerful new computational tools that transcend the boundaries of the individual disciplines involved.  The book covers a broad range of topics addressing the design and theoretical foundations, implementation and the successful application of algebraic algorithms in order to solve mathematical research problems. It off...

  15. Extreme Value Theory Applied to the Millennial Sunspot Number Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, F. J.; Gallego, M. C.; García, J. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we use two decadal sunspot number series reconstructed from cosmogenic radionuclide data (14C in tree trunks, SN 14C, and 10Be in polar ice, SN 10Be) and the extreme value theory to study variability of solar activity during the last nine millennia. The peaks-over-threshold technique was used to compute, in particular, the shape parameter of the generalized Pareto distribution for different thresholds. Its negative value implies an upper bound of the extreme SN 10Be and SN 14C timeseries. The return level for 1000 and 10,000 years were estimated leading to values lower than the maximum observed values, expected for the 1000 year, but not for the 10,000 year return levels, for both series. A comparison of these results with those obtained using the observed sunspot numbers from telescopic observations during the last four centuries suggests that the main characteristics of solar activity have already been recorded in the telescopic period (from 1610 to nowadays) which covers the full range of solar variability from a Grand minimum to a Grand maximum.

  16. Analytic number theory, approximation theory, and special functions in honor of Hari M. Srivastava

    CERN Document Server

    Rassias, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This book, in honor of Hari M. Srivastava, discusses essential developments in mathematical research in a variety of problems. It contains thirty-five articles, written by eminent scientists from the international mathematical community, including both research and survey works. Subjects covered include analytic number theory, combinatorics, special sequences of numbers and polynomials, analytic inequalities and applications, approximation of functions and quadratures, orthogonality, and special and complex functions. The mathematical results and open problems discussed in this book are presented in a simple and self-contained manner. The book contains an overview of old and new results, methods, and theories toward the solution of longstanding problems in a wide scientific field, as well as new results in rapidly progressing areas of research. The book will be useful for researchers and graduate students in the fields of mathematics, physics, and other computational and applied sciences.

  17. First measurement of the Rayleigh cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.; Ubachs, W.

    2000-01-01

    Rayleigh cross section for N2, Ar and SF6 was performed using the technique of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). The experiment was based on the assumption that scattering cross section is equal to the extinction in the absence of absorption. The theory explains the molecular origin of

  18. A modified large number theory with constant G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recami, Erasmo

    1983-03-01

    The inspiring “numerology” uncovered by Dirac, Eddington, Weyl, et al. can be explained and derived when it is slightly modified so to connect the “gravitational world” (cosmos) with the “strong world” (hadron), rather than with the electromagnetic one. The aim of this note is to show the following. In the present approach to the “Large Number Theory,” cosmos and hadrons are considered to be (finite) similar systems, so that the ratio{{bar R} / {{bar R} {bar r}} of the cosmos typical lengthbar R to the hadron typical lengthbar r is constant in time (for instance, if both cosmos and hadrons undergo an expansion/contraction cycle—according to the “cyclical bigbang” hypothesis—thenbar R andbar r can be chosen to be the maximum radii, or the average radii). As a consequence, then gravitational constant G results to be independent of time. The present note is based on work done in collaboration with P. Caldirola, G. D. Maccarrone, and M. Pavšič.

  19. Winding numbers in homotopy theory from integers to reals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhfi, M.

    1993-07-01

    In Homotopy Theory (HT) we define paths on a given topological space. Closed paths prove to be construction elements of a group (the fundamental group) Π 1 and carry charges, the winding numbers. The charges are integers as they indicate how many times closed paths encircle a given hole (or set of holes). Open paths as they are defined in (HT) do not possess any groups structure and as such they are less useful in topology. In the present paper we enlarge the concept of a path in such a way that both types of paths do possess a group structure. In this broad sense we have two fundamental groups the Π i = Z group and the SO(2) group of rotations but the latter has the global property that there is no periodicity in the rotation angle. There is also two charge operators W and W λ whose eigenvalues are either integers or reals depending respectively on the paths being closed or open. Also the SO(2) group and the real charge operator W λ are not independently defined but directly related respectively to the Π i group and to the integer charge operator W. Thus well defined links can be established between seemingly different groups and charges. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig

  20. Three-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor convection of miscible fluids in a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suekane, Tetsuya; Nakanishi, Yuji; Wang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Natural convection of miscible fluids in a porous medium is relevant for fields, such as geoscience and geoengineering, and for the geological storage of CO2. In this study, we use X-ray computer tomography to visualize 3D fingering structures associated with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability between miscible fluids in a porous medium. In the early stages of the onset of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, a fine crinkling pattern gradually appears at the interface. As the wavelength and amplitude increase, descending fingers form on the interface and extend vertically downward; moreover, ascending and highly symmetric fingers form. The adjacent fingers are cylindrical in shape and coalesce to form large fingers. Fingers appearing on the interface tend to become finer with increasing Rayleigh number, which is consistent with linear perturbation theory. If the Péclet number exceeds 10, the transverse dispersion increases the finger diameter and enhances finger coalescence, strongly impacting the decay in finger number density. When mechanical dispersion is negligible, the finger-extension velocity, the mass-transfer rate, and the onset time scale with Rayleigh number. Mechanical dispersion not only reduces the onset time but also enhances mass transport, which indicates that mechanical dispersion influences the long-term dissolution process of CO2 injected into aquifers.

  1. Continuous Transition between Brillouin-Wigner and Rayleigh-Schrödinger Perturbation Theory, Generalized Bloch Equation, and Hilbert Space Multireference Coupled Cluster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pittner, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 24 (2003), s. 10876-10889 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D23.001; GA ČR GA203/99/D009; GA AV ČR IAA4040108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : continuous transition * Brillouin-Wigner * Rayleigh-Schrödinger Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.950, year: 2003

  2. Large-scale patterns in Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardenberg, J. von; Parodi, A.; Passoni, G.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Rayleigh-Benard convection at large Rayleigh number is characterized by the presence of intense, vertically moving plumes. Both laboratory and numerical experiments reveal that the rising and descending plumes aggregate into separate clusters so as to produce large-scale updrafts and downdrafts. The horizontal scales of the aggregates reported so far have been comparable to the horizontal extent of the containers, but it has not been clear whether that represents a limitation imposed by domain size. In this work, we present numerical simulations of convection at sufficiently large aspect ratio to ascertain whether there is an intrinsic saturation scale for the clustering process when that ratio is large enough. From a series of simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection with Rayleigh numbers between 10 5 and 10 8 and with aspect ratios up to 12π, we conclude that the clustering process has a finite horizontal saturation scale with at most a weak dependence on Rayleigh number in the range studied

  3. Rayleigh reciprocity relations: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ju; Li Xiao-Lei; Wang Ning

    2016-01-01

    Classical reciprocity relations have wide applications in acoustics, from field representation to generalized optical theorem. In this paper we introduce our recent results on the applications and generalization of classical Rayleigh reciprocity relation: higher derivative reciprocity relations as a generalization of the classical one and a theoretical proof on the Green’s function retrieval from volume noises. (special topic)

  4. Rayleigh- and Prandtl-number dependence of the large-scale flow-structure in weakly-rotating turbulent thermal convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stephan; Wei, Ping; Ahlers, Guenter

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent thermal convection under rotation shows a remarkable variety of different flow states. The Nusselt number (Nu) at slow rotation rates (expressed as the dimensionless inverse Rossby number 1/Ro), for example, is not a monotonic function of 1/Ro. Different 1/Ro-ranges can be observed with different slopes ∂Nu / ∂ (1 / Ro) . Some of these ranges are connected by sharp transitions where ∂Nu / ∂ (1 / Ro) changes discontinuously. We investigate different regimes in cylindrical samples of aspect ratio Γ = 1 by measuring temperatures at the sidewall of the sample for various Prandtl numbers in the range 3 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  5. Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  6. Similarity Theory and Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, E.; Calderon, A.; Delgado-Vasallo, O.

    2009-01-01

    We present basic concepts underlying the so-called similarity theory that in our opinion should be explained in basic undergraduate general physics courses when dealing with heat transport problems, in particular with those involving natural or free convection. A simple example is described that can be useful in showing a criterion for neglecting…

  7. Computation and theory of Euler sums of generalized hyperharmonic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ce

    2017-01-01

    Recently, Dil and Boyadzhiev \\cite{AD2015} proved an explicit formula for the sum of multiple harmonic numbers whose indices are the sequence $\\left( {{{\\left\\{ 0 \\right\\}}_r},1} \\right)$. In this paper we show that the sums of multiple harmonic numbers whose indices are the sequence $\\left( {{{\\left\\{ 0 \\right\\}}_r,1};{{\\left\\{ 1 \\right\\}}_{k-1}}} \\right)$ can be expressed in terms of (multiple) zeta values, multiple harmonic numbers and Stirling numbers of the first kind, and give an explic...

  8. Gauge theory for baryon and lepton numbers with leptoquarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Michael; Fileviez Pérez, Pavel; Wise, Mark B

    2013-06-07

    Models where the baryon (B) and lepton (L) numbers are local gauge symmetries that are spontaneously broken at a low scale are revisited. We find new extensions of the standard model which predict the existence of fermions that carry both baryon and lepton numbers (i.e., leptoquarks). The local baryonic and leptonic symmetries can be broken at a scale close to the electroweak scale and we do not need to postulate the existence of a large desert to satisfy the experimental constraints on baryon number violating processes like proton decay.

  9. 3rd year final contractor report for: U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program Project Title: Detailed Measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm J. Andrews

    2006-01-01

    This project had two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. This report describes work done in the last twelve (12) months of the project, and also contains a summary of the complete work done over the three (3) life of the project. As of April 1, 2006, the air/helium facility (Task 1) is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Initial condition studies (Task 2) is also complete. Detailed experiments with air/helium with Atwood numbers up to 0.1 have been completed, and Atwood numbers of 0.25. Within the last three (3) months we have been able to successfully run the facility at Atwood numbers of 0.5. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget. We have finished the initial condition studies using the water channel, and this work has been accepted for publication on the Journal of Fluid Mechanics (the top fluid mechanics journal). Mr. Nick Mueschke and Mr. Wayne Kraft are continuing with their studies to obtain PhDs in the same field, and will also continue their collaboration visits to LANL and LLNL. Over its three (3) year life the project has supported two(2) Ph.D.'s and three (3) MS's, and produced nine (9) international journal publications, twenty four (24) conference publications, and numerous other reports. The highlight of the project has been our close collaboration with LLNL (Dr. Oleg Schilling) and LANL (Drs. Dimonte, Ristorcelli, Gore, and Harlow)

  10. From c-number to q-numbers the classical analogy in the history of quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Darrigol, Olivier

    1992-01-01

    The history of quantum theory is a maze of conceptual problems, through which Olivier Darrigol provides a lucid and learned guide, tracking the role of formal analogies between classical and quantum theory. From Planck's first introduction of the quantum of action to Dirac's formulation of quantum mechanics, Darrigol illuminates not only the history of quantum theory but also the role of analogies in scientific thinking and theory change. Unlike previous works, which have tended to focus on qualitative, global arguments, Darrigol's study follows the lines of mathematical reasoning and symbolizing and so is able to show the motivations of early quantum theorists more precisely—and provocatively—than ever before. Erudite and original, From c-Numbers to q-Numbers sets a new standard as a philosophically perceptive and mathematically precise history of quantum mechanics. For years to come it will influence historical and philosophical discussions of twentieth-century physics.

  11. Additive Number Theory Festschrift in Honor of the Sixtieth Birthday of Melvyn B Nathanson

    CERN Document Server

    Chudnovsky, David

    2010-01-01

    This impressive volume is dedicated to Mel Nathanson, a leading authoritative expert for several decades in the area of combinatorial and additive number theory. For several decades, Mel Nathanson's seminal ideas and results in combinatorial and additive number theory have influenced graduate students and researchers alike. The invited survey articles in this volume reflect the work of distinguished mathematicians in number theory, and represent a wide range of important topics in current research.

  12. The logical syntax of number words: theory, acquisition and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, Julien

    2009-04-01

    Recent work on the acquisition of number words has emphasized the importance of integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives [Musolino, J. (2004). The semantics and acquisition of number words: Integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives. Cognition93, 1-41; Papafragou, A., Musolino, J. (2003). Scalar implicatures: Scalar implicatures: Experiments at the semantics-pragmatics interface. Cognition, 86, 253-282; Hurewitz, F., Papafragou, A., Gleitman, L., Gelman, R. (2006). Asymmetries in the acquisition of numbers and quantifiers. Language Learning and Development, 2, 76-97; Huang, Y. T., Snedeker, J., Spelke, L. (submitted for publication). What exactly do numbers mean?]. Specifically, these studies have shown that data from experimental investigations of child language can be used to illuminate core theoretical issues in the semantic and pragmatic analysis of number terms. In this article, I extend this approach to the logico-syntactic properties of number words, focusing on the way numerals interact with each other (e.g. Three boys are holding two balloons) as well as with other quantified expressions (e.g. Three boys are holding each balloon). On the basis of their intuitions, linguists have claimed that such sentences give rise to at least four different interpretations, reflecting the complexity of the linguistic structure and syntactic operations involved. Using psycholinguistic experimentation with preschoolers (n=32) and adult speakers of English (n=32), I show that (a) for adults, the intuitions of linguists can be verified experimentally, (b) by the age of 5, children have knowledge of the core aspects of the logical syntax of number words, (c) in spite of this knowledge, children nevertheless differ from adults in systematic ways, (d) the differences observed between children and adults can be accounted for on the basis of an independently motivated, linguistically-based processing model [Geurts, B. (2003). Quantifying kids. Language

  13. Numerical Test of Analytical Theories for Perpendicular Diffusion in Small Kubo Number Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A., E-mail: husseinm@myumanitoba.ca, E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2017-04-20

    In the literature, one can find various analytical theories for perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence. Besides quasi-linear theory, there are different versions of the nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory and the unified nonlinear transport (UNLT) theory. For turbulence with high Kubo numbers, such as two-dimensional turbulence or noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, the aforementioned nonlinear theories provide similar results. For slab and small Kubo number turbulence, however, this is not the case. In the current paper, we compare different linear and nonlinear theories with each other and test-particle simulations for a noisy slab model corresponding to small Kubo number turbulence. We show that UNLT theory agrees very well with all performed test-particle simulations. In the limit of long parallel mean free paths, the perpendicular mean free path approaches asymptotically the quasi-linear limit as predicted by the UNLT theory. For short parallel mean free paths we find a Rechester and Rosenbluth type of scaling as predicted by UNLT theory as well. The original NLGC theory disagrees with all performed simulations regardless what the parallel mean free path is. The random ballistic interpretation of the NLGC theory agrees much better with the simulations, but compared to UNLT theory the agreement is inferior. We conclude that for this type of small Kubo number turbulence, only the latter theory allows for an accurate description of perpendicular diffusion.

  14. Numerical Test of Analytical Theories for Perpendicular Diffusion in Small Kubo Number Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the literature, one can find various analytical theories for perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence. Besides quasi-linear theory, there are different versions of the nonlinear guiding center (NLGC) theory and the unified nonlinear transport (UNLT) theory. For turbulence with high Kubo numbers, such as two-dimensional turbulence or noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, the aforementioned nonlinear theories provide similar results. For slab and small Kubo number turbulence, however, this is not the case. In the current paper, we compare different linear and nonlinear theories with each other and test-particle simulations for a noisy slab model corresponding to small Kubo number turbulence. We show that UNLT theory agrees very well with all performed test-particle simulations. In the limit of long parallel mean free paths, the perpendicular mean free path approaches asymptotically the quasi-linear limit as predicted by the UNLT theory. For short parallel mean free paths we find a Rechester and Rosenbluth type of scaling as predicted by UNLT theory as well. The original NLGC theory disagrees with all performed simulations regardless what the parallel mean free path is. The random ballistic interpretation of the NLGC theory agrees much better with the simulations, but compared to UNLT theory the agreement is inferior. We conclude that for this type of small Kubo number turbulence, only the latter theory allows for an accurate description of perpendicular diffusion.

  15. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Stein E., E-mail: stein.johansen@svt.ntnu.no [Institute for Basic Research, Division of Physics, Palm Harbor, Florida, USA and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Social Anthropology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-12-10

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems.

  16. Positive approach: Implications for the relation between number theory and geometry, including connection to Santilli mathematics, from Fibonacci reconstitution of natural numbers and of prime numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Stein E.

    2014-01-01

    The paper recapitulates some key elements in previously published results concerning exact and complete reconstitution of the field of natural numbers, both as ordinal and as cardinal numbers, from systematic unfoldment of the Fibonacci algorithm. By this natural numbers emerge as Fibonacci 'atoms' and 'molecules' consistent with the notion of Zeckendorf sums. Here, the sub-set of prime numbers appears not as the primary numbers, but as an epistructure from a deeper Fibonacci constitution, and is thus targeted from a 'positive approach'. In the Fibonacci reconstitution of number theory natural numbers show a double geometrical aspect: partly as extension in space and partly as position in a successive structuring of space. More specifically, the natural numbers are shown to be distributed by a concise 5:3 code structured from the Fibonacci algorithm via Pascal's triangle. The paper discusses possible implications for the more general relation between number theory and geometry, as well as more specifically in relation to hadronic mathematics, initiated by R.M. Santilli, and also briefly to some other recent science linking number theory more directly to geometry and natural systems

  17. Muon number violation in some horizontal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, O.

    1980-11-01

    Horizontal gauge models have been studied which have a mechanism for suppressing flavour changing processes involving only two flavours, i.e., processes like μ→eγ, μ→ ee anti e and the K 0 - anti K 0 transition. It is found that the rates for some muon-number violating processes, in particular for μe conversion and kaon decays, can be close to experimental upper limits. This is in contrast to horizontal gauge models in which the K 0 - anti K 0 transition is not suppressed. (auth)

  18. Rayleigh Pareto Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareema ‎ Abed Al-Kadim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Rayleigh Pareto distribution have  introduced denote by( R_PD. We stated some  useful functions. Therefor  we  give some of its properties like the entropy function, mean, mode, median , variance , the r-th moment about the mean, the rth moment about the origin, reliability, hazard functions, coefficients of variation, of sekeness and of kurtosis. Finally, we estimate the parameters  so the aim of this search  is to introduce a new distribution

  19. Technology Corner: Calculating the Number of Android Lock Patterns: An Unfinished Study in Number Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although one is unlikely to ever want to brute-force an Android lock pattern, many do wonder about the relative strength of the lock pattern versus a multi-digit personal identification number (PIN. It becomes obvious pretty quickly that there are many more lock patterns than the 10,000 possible four-digit PINs.(see PDF for full technology corner

  20. Extended Rayleigh Damping Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohiro Nakamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In dynamic analysis, frequency domain analysis can be used if the entire structure is linear. However, time history analysis is generally used if nonlinear elements are present. Rayleigh damping has been widely used in time history response analysis. Many articles have reported the problems associated with this damping and suggested remedies. A basic problem is that the frequency area across which the damping ratio is almost constant is too narrow. If the area could be expanded while incurring only a small increase in computational cost, this would provide an appropriate remedy for this problem. In this study, a novel damping model capable of expanding the constant frequency area by more than five times was proposed based on the study of a causal damping model. This model was constructed by adding two terms to the Rayleigh damping model and can be applied to the linear elements in the time history analysis of a nonlinear structure. The accuracy and efficiency of the model were confirmed using example analyses.

  1. Effects of shock waves on Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongtao; Shu Chiwang; Zhou Ye

    2006-01-01

    A numerical simulation of two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations using a high-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory finite difference shock capturing scheme is carried out in this paper, to study the effect of shock waves on the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Shocks with different Mach numbers are introduced ahead or behind the Rayleigh-Taylor interface, and their effect on the transition to instability is demonstrated and compared. It is observed that shock waves can speed up the transition to instability for the Rayleigh-Taylor interface significantly. Stronger shocks are more effective in this speed-up process

  2. Recent results in Rayleigh scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahane, S.; Shahal, O.; Moreh, R.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beer-Sheva

    1997-01-01

    New measurements of Rayleigh scattering, employing neutron capture γ rays are presented. Experimental conditions are achieved such that the Rayleigh contribution is dominant and much larger than other competing coherent process. A detailed comparison with the modified relativistic form factor approximation (MRFF) is made. It is found that MRFF overestimates the true cross sections by 3-4%. (author)

  3. Heat transfer and large scale dynamics in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlers, Günter; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2009-01-01

    The progress in our understanding of several aspects of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection is reviewed. The focus is on the question of how the Nusselt number and the Reynolds number depend on the Rayleigh number Ra and the Prandtl number Pr, and on how the thicknesses of the thermal and the

  4. Rayleigh-Taylor analysis in a laser-induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, R A; Gonzales, C A; Riascos, H

    2012-01-01

    We report the conditions (plasma parameters) under which the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) develops in an Al plasma produced by a Nd:Yag pulsed laser with a fluence range of 1 to 4 J/cm 2 , wavelength of 1064nm and 10Hz repetition rate. The used data correspond to different pressure values of the ambient N atmosphere. From previous works, we took the RTI growth rate form. From the perturbation theory the instability amplitude is proportional to e -ηt . Using the drag model, we calculated the plume dynamics equations integrating the instability term and plotted the instability growth profile with the delay time values to get critical numbers for it, in order to show under which conditions the RTI appears.

  5. A Theory of Evolving Natural Constants Based on the Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Dirac's Large Number Hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Huanwu

    2005-01-01

    Taking Dirac's large number hypothesis as true, we have shown [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703] the inconsistency of applying Einstein's theory of general relativity with fixed gravitation constant G to cosmology, and a modified theory for varying G is found, which reduces to Einstein's theory outside the gravitating body for phenomena of short duration in small distances, thereby agrees with all the crucial tests formerly supporting Einstein's theory. The modified theory, when applied to the usual homogeneous cosmological model, gives rise to a variable cosmological tensor term determined by the derivatives of G, in place of the cosmological constant term usually introduced ad hoc. Without any free parameter the theoretical Hubble's relation obtained from the modified theory seems not in contradiction to observations, as Dr. Wang's preliminary analysis of the recent data indicates [Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703]. As a complement to Commun. Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 42 (2004) 703 we shall study in this paper the modification of electromagnetism due to Dirac's large number hypothesis in more detail to show that the approximation of geometric optics still leads to null geodesics for the path of light, and that the general relation between the luminosity distance and the proper geometric distance is still valid in our theory as in Einstein's theory, and give the equations for homogeneous cosmological model involving matter plus electromagnetic radiation. Finally we consider the impact of the modification to quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, and arrive at a systematic theory of evolving natural constants including Planck's h-bar as well as Boltzmann's k B by finding out their cosmologically combined counterparts with factors of appropriate powers of G that may remain truly constant to cosmologically long time.

  6. Fermion number non-conservation and cold neutral fermionic matter in (V-A) gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.A.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tavkhelidze, A.N.; Tokarev, V.F.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that in four-dimensional abelian (V-A) theories, the ground state of cold neutral fermionic matter is an anomalous state containing domains of abnormal phase surrounded by the normal vacuum. Inside these domains, there exists a gauge field condensate which makes real fermions disappear both inside and outside the domains. In non-abelian theories, the abnormal matter is unstable in its turn, and the system rolls back down into the normal state with a small number of fermions above the topologically non-trivial vacuum. Thus, in several non-abelian gauge theories, the fermion number density of cold neutral matter cannot exceed some critical value. (orig.)

  7. Cryptographic applications of analytic number theory complexity lower bounds and pseudorandomness

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The book introduces new ways of using analytic number theory in cryptography and related areas, such as complexity theory and pseudorandom number generation. Key topics and features: - various lower bounds on the complexity of some number theoretic and cryptographic problems, associated with classical schemes such as RSA, Diffie-Hellman, DSA as well as with relatively new schemes like XTR and NTRU - a series of very recent results about certain important characteristics (period, distribution, linear complexity) of several commonly used pseudorandom number generators, such as the RSA generator, Blum-Blum-Shub generator, Naor-Reingold generator, inversive generator, and others - one of the principal tools is bounds of exponential sums, which are combined with other number theoretic methods such as lattice reduction and sieving - a number of open problems of different level of difficulty and proposals for further research - an extensive and up-to-date bibliography Cryptographers and number theorists will find th...

  8. Two-colour QCD at finite fundamental quark-number density and related theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hands, S.J.; Kogut, J.B.; Morrison, S.E.; Sinclair, D.K.

    2001-01-01

    We are simulating SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with four flavours of dynamical quarks in the fundamental representation of SU(2) 'colour' at finite chemical potential, μ for quark number, as a model for QCD at finite baryon number density. In particular we observe that for μ large enough this theory undergoes a phase transition to a state with a diquark condensate which breaks quark-number symmetry. In this phase we examine the spectrum of light scalar and pseudoscalar bosons and see evidence for the Goldstone boson associated with this spontaneous symmetry breaking. This theory is closely related to QCD at finite chemical potential for isospin, a theory which we are now studying for SU(3) colour

  9. Two-colour QCD at finite fundamental quark-number density and related theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hands, S. J.; Kogut, J. B.; Morrison, S. E.; Sinclair, D. K.

    2000-01-01

    We are simulating SU(2) Yang-Mills theory with four flavours of dynamical quarks in the fundamental representation of SU(2) colour at finite chemical potential, p for quark number, as a model for QCD at finite baryon number density. In particular we observe that for p large enough this theory undergoes a phase transition to a state with a diquark condensate which breaks quark-number symmetry. In this phase we examine the spectrum of light scalar and pseudoscalar bosons and see evidence for the Goldstone boson associated with this spontaneous symmetry breaking. This theory is closely related to QCD at finite chemical potential for isospin, a theory which we are now studying for SU(3) colour

  10. [Experimental Course in Elementary Number Theory, Cambridge Conference on School Mathematics Feasibility Study No. 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Mary Jacqueline

    In the winter of 1965, an experimental course in Elementary Number Theory was presented to a 6th grade class in the Hosmer School, Watertown, Massachusetts. Prior to the introduction of the present material, students had been exposed in class to such topics from the University of Illinois Arithmetic Project as lattices, number lines, frame…

  11. Describing Pre-Service Teachers' Developing Understanding of Elementary Number Theory Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ziv

    2012-01-01

    Although elementary number theory topics are closely linked to foundational topics in number and operations and are prevalent in elementary and middle grades mathematics curricula, little is currently known about how students and teachers make sense of them. This study investigated pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of…

  12. A simple analytic approximation to the Rayleigh-Bénard stability threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Bénard linear stability problem is solved by means of a Fourier series expansion. It is found that truncating the series to just the first term gives an excellent explicit approximation to the marginal stability relation between the Rayleigh number and the wave number of the

  13. Measurement of the stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karr, T.J.; Rushford, M.C.; Murray, J.R.; Morris, J.R.

    1989-04-01

    Growth of perturbations due to stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering was observed on a laser beam propagating in a 1 meter cell of CC14. Initial sinusoidal irradiance perturbations were seeded onto the laser leam, and their amplification in the cell was recorded by a near field camera. The perturbation growth rate is in agreement with analytical predictions of linearized propagation theory

  14. Assessment of a transitional boundary layer theory at low hypersonic Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the accuracy of a transitional boundary layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime. The theory is based upon the simultaneous numerical solution of the boundary layer partial differential equations for the mean motion and an integral form of the turbulence kinetic energy equation which controls the magnitude and development of the Reynolds stress. Comparisions with experimental data show the theory is capable of accurately predicting heat transfer and velocity profiles through the transitional regime and correctly predicts the effects of Mach number and wall cooling on transition Reynolds number. The procedure shows promise of predicting the initiation of transition for given free stream disturbance levels. The effects on transition predictions of the pressure dilitation term and of direct absorption of acoustic energy by the boundary layer were evaluated.

  15. Number theory and modular forms papers in memory of Robert A Rankin

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Robert A. Rankin, one of the world's foremost authorities on modular forms and a founding editor of The Ramanujan Journal, died on January 27, 2001, at the age of 85. Rankin had broad interests and contributed fundamental papers in a wide variety of areas within number theory, geometry, analysis, and algebra. To commemorate Rankin's life and work, the editors have collected together 25 papers by several eminent mathematicians reflecting Rankin's extensive range of interests within number theory. Many of these papers reflect Rankin's primary focus in modular forms. It is the editors' fervent hope that mathematicians will be stimulated by these papers and gain a greater appreciation for Rankin's contributions to mathematics. This volume would be an inspiration to students and researchers in the areas of number theory and modular forms.

  16. Analytic theory for the selection of 2-D needle crystal at arbitrary Peclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Saleh

    1989-01-01

    An accurate analytic theory is presented for the velocity selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal for arbitrary Peclet number for small values of the surface tension parameter. The velocity selection is caused by the effect of transcendentally small terms which are determined by analytic continuation to the complex plane and analysis of nonlinear equations. The work supports the general conclusion of previous small Peclet number analytical results of other investigators, though there are some discrepancies in details. It also addresses questions raised on the validity of selection theory owing to assumptions made on shape corrections at large distances from the tip.

  17. Analytic theory for the selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal at arbitrary Peclet number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, S.

    1989-01-01

    An accurate analytic theory is presented for the velocity selection of a two-dimensional needle crystal for arbitrary Peclet number for small values of the surface tension parameter. The velocity selection is caused by the effect of transcendentally small terms which are determined by analytic continuation to the complex plane and analysis of nonlinear equations. The work supports the general conclusion of previous small Peclet number analytical results of other investigators, though there are some discrepancies in details. It also addresses questions raised on the validity of selection theory owing to assumptions made on shape corrections at large distances from the tip.

  18. Rayleigh-Schrödinger series and Birkhoff decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Jean-Christophe; Paul, Thierry; Sauzin, David; Thibon, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    We derive new expressions for the Rayleigh-Schrödinger series describing the perturbation of eigenvalues of quantum Hamiltonians. The method, somehow close to the so-called dimensional renormalization in quantum field theory, involves the Birkhoff decomposition of some Laurent series built up out of explicit fully non-resonant terms present in the usual expression of the Rayleigh-Schrödinger series. Our results provide new combinatorial formulae and a new way of deriving perturbation series in quantum mechanics. More generally we prove that such a decomposition provides solutions of general normal form problems in Lie algebras.

  19. Rayleigh scattering in an emitter-nanofiber-coupling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shui-Jing; Gao, Fei; Xu, Da; Li, Yan; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Scattering is a general process in both fundamental and applied physics. In this paper, we investigate Rayleigh scattering of a solid-state-emitter coupled to a nanofiber, by S -matrix-like theory in k -space description. Under this model, both Rayleigh scattering and dipole interaction are studied between a two-level artificial atom embedded in a nanocrystal and fiber modes (guided and radiation modes). It is found that Rayleigh scattering plays a critical role in the transport properties and quantum statistics of photons. On the one hand, Rayleigh scattering produces the transparency in the optical transmitted field of the nanofiber, accompanied by the change of atomic phase, population, and frequency shift. On the other hand, the interference between two kinds of scattering fields by Rayleigh scattering and dipole transition modifies the photon statistics (second-order autocorrelation function) of output fields, showing a strong wavelength dependence. This study provides guidance for the solid-state emitter acting as a single-photon source and can be extended to explore the scattering effect in many-body physics.

  20. Integrality of the monopole number in SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory on R3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groisser, D.

    1984-01-01

    We prove that in classical SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theories on R 3 with a Higgs field in the adjoint representation, an integer-valued monopole number (magnetic charge) is canonically defined for any finite-action L 2 sub(1,loc) configuration. In particular the result is true for smooth configurations. The monopole number is shown to decompose the configuration space into path components. (orig.)

  1. Number Theory, Dialogue, and the Use of Spreadsheets in Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Abramovich

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the use of a spreadsheet in teaching topics in elementary number theory. It emphasizes both the power and deficiency of inductive reasoning using a number of historically significant examples. The notion of computational experiment as a modern approach to the teaching of mathematics is discussed. The paper, grounded in a teacher-student dialogue as an instructional method, is a reflection on the author’s work over the years with prospective teachers of secondary mathematics.

  2. Reference Frame Fields based on Quantum Theory Representations of Real and Complex Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Benioff, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A quantum theory representations of real (R) and complex (C) numbers is given that is based on states of single, finite strings of qukits for any base k > 1. Both unary representations and the possibility that qukits with k a prime number are elementary and the rest composite are discussed. Cauchy sequences of qukit string states are defined from the arithmetic properties. The representations of R and C, as equivalence classes of these sequences, differ from classical kit string state represe...

  3. Nonlinear saturation of the Rayleigh Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Mahajan, S.; Kaw, P.; Sen, A.; Benkadda, S.; Verga, A.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of the nonlinear saturation of the 2 dimensional Rayleigh Taylor instability is re-examined to put various earlier results in a proper perspective. The existence of a variety of final states can be attributed to the differences in the choice of boundary conditions and initial conditions in earlier numerical modeling studies. Our own numerical simulations indicate that the RT instability saturates by the self consistent generation of shear flow even in situations (with periodic boundaries) where, in principle, an infinite amount of gravitational energy can be tapped. Such final states can be achieved for suitable values of the Prandtl number. (author)

  4. Baryon and lepton number violation in the Weinberg-Salam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the concept of baryon and lepton number violation in the Weinberg-Salam theory. The topics discussed are: periodic vacua in quantum mechanics; tunnelling at finite temperature and classical thermal activation; calculation of the rate; an O(3) nonlinear sigma model; and the transition rate in the O(3) model

  5. A portable high-quality random number generator for lattice field theory simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, M.

    1993-09-01

    The theory underlying a proposed random number generator for numerical simulations in elementary particle physics and statistical mechanics is discussed. The generator is based on an algorithm introduced by Marsaglia and Zaman, with an important added feature leading to demonstrably good statistical properties. It can be implemented exactly on any computer complying with the IEEE-754 standard for single precision floating point arithmetic. (orig.)

  6. The queen of mathematics a historically motivated guide to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Jay R

    2004-01-01

    This book takes the unique approach of examining number theory as it emerged in the 17th through 19th centuries. It leads to an understanding of today's research problems on the basis of their historical development. This book is a contribution to cultural history and brings a difficult subject within the reach of the serious reader.

  7. Odd number of coupled antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains: Spin wave theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyoussef, A.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of the chain and perpendicular anisotropies on the energy gap for odd number of coupled quantum spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains is investigated using a spin wave theory. The energy gap opens above a critical anisotropic value. The known results of the isotropic case have been obtained. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs

  8. Mean-field theory of spin-glasses with finite coordination number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, I.; Sompolinsky, H.

    1987-01-01

    The mean-field theory of dilute spin-glasses is studied in the limit where the average coordination number is finite. The zero-temperature phase diagram is calculated and the relationship between the spin-glass phase and the percolation transition is discussed. The present formalism is applicable also to graph optimization problems.

  9. Modelling Problem-Solving Situations into Number Theory Tasks: The Route towards Generalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Iatridou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the way two 10th graders cope with a non-standard generalisation problem that involves elementary concepts of number theory (more specifically linear Diophantine equations) in the geometrical context of a rectangle's area. Emphasis is given on how the students' past experience of problem solving (expressed through interplay…

  10. The Effects of Number Theory Study on High School Students' Metacognition and Mathematics Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how the study of number theory might affect high school students' metacognitive functioning, mathematical curiosity, and/or attitudes towards mathematics. The study utilized questionnaire and/or interview responses of seven high school students from New York City and 33 high school students from Dalian,…

  11. An Instructional Model for Teaching Proof Writing in the Number Theory Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabel, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    I discuss an instructional model that I have used in my number theory classes. Facets of the model include using small group work and whole class discussion, having students generate examples and counterexamples, and giving students the opportunity to write proofs and make conjectures in class. The model is designed to actively engage students in…

  12. An application of the unifying theory of thermal convection in vertical natural convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chong Shen; Ooi, Andrew; Lohse, Detlef; Chung, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Using direct numerical simulations of vertical natural convection (VNC) at Rayleigh numbers 1 . 0 ×105 - 1 . 0 ×109 and Prandtl number 0 . 709 , we provide support for a generalised applicability of the Grossmann-Lohse (GL) theory, originally developed for horizontal natural (Rayleigh-Bénard) convection. In accordance with the theory, the boundary-layer thicknesses of the velocity and temperature fields in VNC obey laminar-like scaling, whereas away from the walls, the dissipation of the turbulent fluctuations obey the scaling for fully developed turbulence. In contrast to Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the direction of gravity in VNC is parallel to the mean flow. Thus, there no longer exists an exact relation linking the normalised global dissipations to the Nusselt, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers. Nevertheless, we show that the unclosed term, namely the global-averaged buoyancy flux, also exhibits laminar and turbulent scaling, consistent with the GL theory. The findings suggest that, similar to Rayleigh-Bénard convection, a pure power-law relationship between the Nusselt, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers is not the best description for VNC and existing empirical power-law relationships should be recalibrated to better reflect the underlying physics.

  13. Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection in glycerol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugiyama, K.; Calzavarini, E.; Grossmann, S.; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    We numerically analyze Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq (NOB) effects in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard flow in glycerol, which shows a dramatic change in the viscosity with temperature. The results are presented both as functions of the Rayleigh number Ra up to 108 (for fixed temperature difference �

  14. Treatment of the intrinsic Hamiltonian in particle-number nonconserving theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergert, H.; Roth, R.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the implications of using an intrinsic Hamiltonian in theories without particle-number conservation, e.g., the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation, where the Hamiltonian's particle-number dependence leads to discrepancies if one naively replaces the particle-number operator by its expectation value. We develop a systematic expansion that fixes this problem and leads to an a posteriori justification of the widely-used one- plus two-body form of the intrinsic kinetic energy in nuclear self-consistent field methods. The expansion's convergence properties as well as its practical applications are discussed for several sample nuclei.

  15. Universality in quasiperiodic Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, R.E.; Mainieri, R.; Sullivan, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    We study universal scaling properties of quasiperiodic Rayleigh-Benard convection in a 3 He--superfluid- 4 He mixture. The critical line is located in a parameter space of Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers using a transient-Poincare-section technique to identify transitions from nodal periodic points to spiral periodic points within resonance horns. We measure the radial and angular contraction rates and extract the linear-stability eigenvalues (Flouquet multipliers) of the periodic point. At the crossings of the critical line with the lines of fixed golden-mean-tail winding number we determine the universality class of our experimental dynamics using f(α) and trajectory-scaling-function analyses. A technique is used to obtain a robust five-scale approximation to the universal trajectory scaling function. Different methods of multifractal analysis are employed and an understanding of statistical and systematic errors in these procedures is developed. The power law of the inflection point of the map, determined for three golden-mean-tail winding numbers, is 2.9±0.3, corresponding to the universality class of the sine map

  16. Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki; Akamatsu, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface in an immiscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated using the mean field and Bogoliubov theories. Rayleigh-Taylor fingers are found to grow from the interface and mushroom patterns are formed. Quantized vortex rings and vortex lines are then generated around the mushrooms. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation can be observed in a trapped system.

  17. Scoping review identifies significant number of knowledge translation theories, models and frameworks with limited use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strifler, Lisa; Cardoso, Roberta; McGowan, Jessie; Cogo, Elise; Nincic, Vera; Khan, Paul A; Scott, Alistair; Ghassemi, Marco; MacDonald, Heather; Lai, Yonda; Treister, Victoria; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E

    2018-04-13

    To conduct a scoping review of knowledge translation (KT) theories, models and frameworks that have been used to guide dissemination or implementation of evidence-based interventions targeted to prevention and/or management of cancer or other chronic diseases. We used a comprehensive multistage search process from 2000-2016, which included traditional bibliographic database searching, searching using names of theories, models and frameworks, and cited reference searching. Two reviewers independently screened the literature and abstracted data. We found 596 studies reporting on the use of 159 KT theories, models or frameworks. A majority (87%) of the identified theories, models or frameworks were used in five or fewer studies, with 60% used once. The theories, models and frameworks were most commonly used to inform planning/design, implementation and evaluation activities, and least commonly used to inform dissemination and sustainability/scalability activities. Twenty-six were used across the full implementation spectrum (from planning/design to sustainability/scalability) either within or across studies. All were used for at least individual-level behavior change, while 48% were used for organization-level, 33% for community-level and 17% for system-level change. We found a significant number of KT theories, models and frameworks with a limited evidence base describing their use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Extension of anisotropic effective medium theory to account for an arbitrary number of inclusion types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Timothy D.; Peracchio, Aldo A.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to extend, to multi-components, a previously reported theory for calculating the effective conductivity of a two component mixture. The previously reported theory involved preferentially oriented spheroidal inclusions contained in a continuous matrix, with inclusions oriented relative to a principle axis. This approach was based on Bruggeman's unsymmetrical theory, and is extended to account for an arbitrary number of different inclusion types. The development begins from two well-known starting points; the Maxwell approach and the Maxwell-Garnett approach for dilute mixtures. It is shown that despite these two different starting points, the final Bruggeman type equation is the same. As a means of validating the developed expression, comparisons are made to several existing effective medium theories. It is shown that these existing theories coincide with the developed equations for the appropriate parameter set. Finally, a few example mixtures are considered to demonstrate the effect of multiple inclusions on the calculated effective property. Inclusion types of different conductivities, shapes, and orientations are considered and each of the aforementioned properties is shown to have a potentially significant impact on the calculated mixture property.

  19. Conjecture of twin primes (Still unsolved problem in Number Theory. An expository essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Rezgui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to gather as much results of advances, recent and previous works as possible concerning the oldest outstanding still unsolved problem in Number Theory (and the most elusive open problem in prime numbers called "Twin primes conjecture" (8th problem of David Hilbert, stated in 1900 which has eluded many gifted mathematicians. This conjecture has been circulating for decades, even with the progress of contemporary technology that puts the whole world within our reach. So, simple to state, yet so hard to prove. Basic Concepts, many and varied topics regarding the Twin prime conjecture will be cover.

  20. Recreations in the theory of numbers the queen of mathematics entertains

    CERN Document Server

    Beiler, Albert H

    1966-01-01

    Number theory, the Queen of Mathematics, is an almost purely theoretical science. Yet it can be the source of endlessly intriguing puzzle problems, as this remarkable book demonstrates. This is the first book to deal exclusively with the recreational aspects of the subject and it is certain to be a delightful surprise to all devotees of the mathematical puzzle, from the rawest beginner to the most practiced expert. Almost every aspect of the theory of numbers that could conceivably be of interest to the layman is dealt with, all from the recreational point of view. Readers will become acquainted with divisors, perfect numbers, the ingenious invention of congruences by Gauss, scales of notation, endless decimals, Pythagorean triangles (there is a list of the first 100 with consecutive legs; the 100th has a leg of 77 digits), oddities about squares, methods of factoring, mysteries of prime numbers, Gauss's Golden Theorem, polygonal and pyramidal numbers, the Pell Equation, the unsolved Last Theorem of Fermat, a...

  1. Periodic-orbit theory of the number variance Σ2(L) of strongly chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, R.; Steiner, F.

    1994-03-01

    We discuss the number variance Σ 2 (L) and the spectral form factor F(τ) of the energy levels of bound quantum systems whose classical counterparts are strongly chaotic. Exact periodic-orbit representations of Σ 2 (L) and F(τ) are derived which explain the breakdown of universality, i.e., the deviations from the predictions of random-matrix theory. The relation of the exact spectral form factor F(τ) to the commonly used approximation K(τ) is clarified. As an illustration the periodic-orbit representations are tested in the case of a strongly chaotic system at low and high energies including very long-range correlations up to L=700. Good agreement between 'experimental' data and theory is obtained. (orig.)

  2. Coding theory on the m-extension of the Fibonacci p-numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Manjusri; Prasad, Bandhu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new Fibonacci G p,m matrix for the m-extension of the Fibonacci p-numbers where p (≥0) is integer and m (>0). Thereby, we discuss various properties of G p,m matrix and the coding theory followed from the G p,m matrix. In this paper, we establish the relations among the code elements for all values of p (nonnegative integer) and m(>0). We also show that the relation, among the code matrix elements for all values of p and m=1, coincides with the relation among the code matrix elements for all values of p [Basu M, Prasad B. The generalized relations among the code elements for Fibonacci coding theory. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2008.09.030]. In general, correct ability of the method increases as p increases but it is independent of m.

  3. Anomalies, sphalerons and baryon number violation in electro-weak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mclerran, L.

    1989-01-01

    In series of three lectures, baryon number violation at high temperatures in the Weinberg-Salam model is discussed. The first lecture presents a discussion of anomalies, and how this is related to level crossing of energy levels in the Dirac equation for fermions in an external field. The second lecture discusses topological aspects of the Weinberg-Salam theory, and some related two dimensional models. The sphaleron solution of these theories is constructed. In the final lecture, the sphaleron is related to transition rates at finite temperature. In a simple quantum mechanics model, it is shown that sphalerons, not instantons, are responsible for transitions at high temperature. The sphaleron induced rate is then discussed in a solvable 1+1 dimensional model, which has many similarities to the Weinberg-Salam model. Finally, the result for the Weinberg-Salam model is derived and is shown to be large for temperatures T ≥ 1 TeV. 35 refs., 9 figs. (author)

  4. Baryon and lepton number violation in the electroweak theory at TeV energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.

    1990-01-01

    In the standard Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory baryon and lepton number (B and L) are NOT exactly conserved. The nonconservation of B and L can be traced to the existence of parity violation in the electroweak theory, together with the chiral current anomaly. This subtle effect gives negligibly small amplitudes for B and L violation at energies and temperatures significantly smaller than M w sin 2 θ w /α ∼ 10 TeV. However, recent theoretical work shows that the rate for B and L nonconservation is unsuppressed at higher energies. The consequences of this for cosmology and the baryon asymmetry of the universe, as well as the prospects for direct verification at the SSC are discussed. 13 refs., 3 figs

  5. Abelian Chern-Simons theory and linking numbers via oscillatory integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albeverio, S.; Schaefer, J.

    1994-06-01

    We introduce a rigorous mathematical model of abelian Chern-Simons theory based on the theory of infinite dimensional oscillatory integrals developed by Albeverio and Hoeegh-Krohn. We construct a gauge-fixed Chern-Simons path integral as a Fresnel integral in a certain Hilbert space. Wilson loop variables are defined as Fresnel integrable functions and it is shown in this context that the expectation value of products of Wilson loops w.r.t. the Chern-Simons path integral is a topological invariant which can be computed in terms of pairwise linking numbers of the loops, as conjectured by Witten. We also propose a lattice Chern-Simons action which converges to the continuum limit. (orig.)

  6. Theory of viscous transonic flow over airfoils at high Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, R. E.; Chow, R.; Mead, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper considers viscous flows with unseparated turbulent boundary layers over two-dimensional airfoils at transonic speeds. Conventional theoretical methods are based on boundary layer formulations which do not account for the effect of the curved wake and static pressure variations across the boundary layer in the trailing edge region. In this investigation an extended viscous theory is developed that accounts for both effects. The theory is based on a rational analysis of the strong turbulent interaction at airfoil trailing edges. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is employed to develop formal series solutions of the full Reynolds equations in the limit of Reynolds numbers tending to infinity. Procedures are developed for combining the local trailing edge solution with numerical methods for solving the full potential flow and boundary layer equations. Theoretical results indicate that conventional boundary layer methods account for only about 50% of the viscous effect on lift, the remaining contribution arising from wake curvature and normal pressure gradient effects.

  7. Lattice implementation of Abelian gauge theories with Chern-Simons number and an axion field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Daniel G.; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Real time evolution of classical gauge fields is relevant for a number of applications in particle physics and cosmology, ranging from the early Universe to dynamics of quark-gluon plasma. We present an explicit non-compact lattice formulation of the interaction between a shift-symmetric field and some U (1) gauge sector, a (x)FμνF˜μν, reproducing the continuum limit to order O (dxμ2) and obeying the following properties: (i) the system is gauge invariant and (ii) shift symmetry is exact on the lattice. For this end we construct a definition of the topological number density K =FμνF˜μν that admits a lattice total derivative representation K = Δμ+ Kμ, reproducing to order O (dxμ2) the continuum expression K =∂μKμ ∝ E → ṡ B → . If we consider a homogeneous field a (x) = a (t), the system can be mapped into an Abelian gauge theory with Hamiltonian containing a Chern-Simons term for the gauge fields. This allow us to study in an accompanying paper the real time dynamics of fermion number non-conservation (or chirality breaking) in Abelian gauge theories at finite temperature. When a (x) = a (x → , t) is inhomogeneous, the set of lattice equations of motion do not admit however a simple explicit local solution (while preserving an O (dxμ2) accuracy). We discuss an iterative scheme allowing to overcome this difficulty.

  8. Lattice implementation of Abelian gauge theories with Chern–Simons number and an axion field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Figueroa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Real time evolution of classical gauge fields is relevant for a number of applications in particle physics and cosmology, ranging from the early Universe to dynamics of quark–gluon plasma. We present an explicit non-compact lattice formulation of the interaction between a shift-symmetric field and some U(1 gauge sector, a(xFμνF˜μν, reproducing the continuum limit to order O(dxμ2 and obeying the following properties: (i the system is gauge invariant and (ii shift symmetry is exact on the lattice. For this end we construct a definition of the topological number density K=FμνF˜μν that admits a lattice total derivative representation K=Δμ+Kμ, reproducing to order O(dxμ2 the continuum expression K=∂μKμ∝E→⋅B→. If we consider a homogeneous field a(x=a(t, the system can be mapped into an Abelian gauge theory with Hamiltonian containing a Chern–Simons term for the gauge fields. This allow us to study in an accompanying paper the real time dynamics of fermion number non-conservation (or chirality breaking in Abelian gauge theories at finite temperature. When a(x=a(x→,t is inhomogeneous, the set of lattice equations of motion do not admit however a simple explicit local solution (while preserving an O(dxμ2 accuracy. We discuss an iterative scheme allowing to overcome this difficulty.

  9. Using random matrix theory to determine the number of endmembers in a hyperspectral image

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cawse, K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available apply our method to synthetic images, including a standard test image developed by Chein-I Chang, with good results for Gaussian independent noise. Index Terms— Hyperspectral Unmixing, Random Ma- trix Theory, Linear Mixture Model, Virtual Dimension... function, and K is the number of endmembers. We assume Gaussian noise following the methods of [1] [5]. The first step in unmixing the image is to determine how many endmembers or constituents are contained in the scene. This is known as the Virtual...

  10. Using dynamo theory to predict the sunspot number during solar cycle 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Scherrer, P. H.; Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    On physical grounds it is suggested that the polar field strength of the sun near a solar minimum is closely related to the solar activity of the following cycle. Four methods of estimating the polar magnetic field strength of the sun near solar minimum are employed to provide an estimate of the yearly mean sunspot number of cycle 21 at solar maximum of 140 + or - 20. This estimate may be considered a first-order attempt to predict the cycle activity using one parameter of physical importance based upon dynamo theory.

  11. Not always buried deep a second course in elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Number theory is one of the few areas of mathematics where problems of substantial interest can be fully described to someone with minimal mathematical background. Solving such problems sometimes requires difficult and deep methods. But this is not a universal phenomenon; many engaging problems can be successfully attacked with little more than one's mathematical bare hands. In this case one says that the problem can be solved in an elementary way. Such elementary methods and the problems to which they apply are the subject of this book. Not Always Buried Deep is designed to be read and enjoye

  12. Search for Rayleigh-Taylor instability in laser irradiated layered thin foil targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.; Hares, J.D.; Rumsby, P.T.

    1980-01-01

    An experiment to measure the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the vacuum-ablation surface of laser irradiated layered targets by time resolved x-ray spectroscopy is described. The time taken to burn through a layer of material is measured to be the same for massive targets as for thin foil accelerating targets. It is inferred that the thin foil targets might be Rayleigh-Taylor stable despite the values of γtauapproximately equal to15 calculated from classical theory. (author)

  13. Importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2011-01-01

    Rayleigh scattering is used frequently in Monte Carlo simulation of multiple scattering. The Rayleigh phase function is quite simple, and one might expect that it should be simple to importance sample it efficiently. However, there seems to be no one good way of sampling it in the literature....... This paper provides the details of several different techniques for importance sampling the Rayleigh phase function, and it includes a comparison of their performance as well as hints toward efficient implementation....

  14. Ortega y Gasset on Georg Cantor’s Theory of Transfinite Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi Lior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ortega y Gasset is known for his philosophy of life and his effort to propose an alternative to both realism and idealism. The goal of this article is to focus on an unfamiliar aspect of his thought. The focus will be given to Ortega’s interpretation of the advancements in modern mathematics in general and Cantor’s theory of transfinite numbers in particular. The main argument is that Ortega acknowledged the historical importance of the Cantor’s Set Theory, analyzed it and articulated a response to it. In his writings he referred many times to the advancements in modern mathematics and argued that mathematics should be based on the intuition of counting. In response to Cantor’s mathematics Ortega presented what he defined as an ‘absolute positivism’. In this theory he did not mean to naturalize cognition or to follow the guidelines of the Comte’s positivism, on the contrary. His aim was to present an alternative to Cantor’s mathematics by claiming that mathematicians are allowed to deal only with objects that are immediately present and observable to intuition. Ortega argued that the infinite set cannot be present to the intuition and therefore there is no use to differentiate between cardinals of different infinite sets.

  15. Number Theory : A Seminar held at the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York

    CERN Document Server

    Chudnovsky, Gregory; Cohn, Harvey; Nathanson, Melvyn

    1989-01-01

    The New York Number Theory Seminar was organized in 1982 to provide a forum for the presentation and discussion of recent advances in higher arithmetic and its applications. Papers included in this volume are based on the lectures presented by their authors at the Seminar at the Graduate Center of C.U.N.Y. in 1985-88. Papers in the volume cover a wide spectrum of number theoretic topics ranging from additive number theory and diophantine approximations to algebraic number theory and relations with algebraic geometry and topology.

  16. Temperature boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Emily S. C.; Emran, Mohammad S.; Horn, Susanne; Shishkina, Olga

    2017-11-01

    Classical boundary-layer theory for steady flows cannot adequately describe the boundary layer profiles in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection. We have developed a thermal boundary layer equation which takes into account fluctuations in terms of an eddy thermal diffusivity. Based on Prandtl's mixing length ideas, we relate the eddy thermal diffusivity to the stream function. With this proposed relation, we can solve the thermal boundary layer equation and obtain a closed-form expression for the dimensionless mean temperature profile in terms of two independent parameters: θ(ξ) =1/b∫0b ξ [ 1 +3a3/b3(η - arctan(η)) ] - c dη , where ξ is the similarity variable and the parameters a, b, and c are related by the condition θ(∞) = 1 . With a proper choice of the parameters, our predictions of the temperature profile are in excellent agreement with the results of our direct numerical simulations for a wide range of Prandtl numbers (Pr), from Pr=0.01 to Pr=2547.9. OS, ME and SH acknowledge the financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grants Sh405/4-2 (Heisenberg fellowship), Sh405/3-2 and Ho 5890/1-1, respectively.

  17. Potential Flow Model for Compressible Stratified Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydquist, Grant; Reckinger, Scott; Owkes, Mark; Wieland, Scott

    2017-11-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) is an instability that occurs when a heavy fluid lies on top of a lighter fluid in a gravitational field, or a gravity-like acceleration. It occurs in many fluid flows of a highly compressive nature. In this study potential flow analysis (PFA) is used to model the early stages of RTI growth for compressible fluids. In the localized region near the bubble tip, the effects of vorticity are negligible, so PFA is applicable, as opposed to later stages where the induced velocity due to vortices generated from the growth of the instability dominate the flow. The incompressible PFA is extended for compressibility effects by applying the growth rate and the associated perturbation spatial decay from compressible linear stability theory. The PFA model predicts theoretical values for a bubble terminal velocity for single-mode compressible RTI, dependent upon the Atwood (A) and Mach (M) numbers, which is a parameter that measures both the strength of the stratification and intrinsic compressibility. The theoretical bubble terminal velocities are compared against numerical simulations. The PFA model correctly predicts the M dependence at high A, but the model must be further extended to include additional physics to capture the behavior at low A. Undergraduate Scholars Program - Montana State University.

  18. Perturbation theory of the quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature and baryon number density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    At very high energy densities, hadronic matter becomes an almost ideal gas of quarks and gluons. In these circumstances, the effects of particle interactions are small, and to some order in perturbation theory are computable by methods involving weak coupling expansions. To illustrate the perturbative methods which may be used to compute the thermodynamic potential, the results and methods which are employed to compute to first order in α/sub s/ are reviewed. The problem of the plasmon effect, and the necessity of using non-perturbative methods when going beyond first order in α/sub s/ in evaluating the thermodynamic potential are discussed. The results at zero temperature and finite baryon number density to second order in α/sub s/ are also reviewed. The method of renormalization group improving the weak coupling expansions by replacing the expansion by an expansion in a temperature and baryon number density dependent coupling which approaches zero at high energy densities is discussed. Non-perturbative effects such as instantons are briefly mentioned and the breakdown of perturbation theory for the thermodynamical at order α/sub s/ 3 for finite temperature is presented

  19. Effects of modulation on Rayleigh-Benard convection. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Bhadauria

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear stability of a horizontal layer of fluid heated from below and above is considered. In addition to a steady temperature difference between the walls of the fluid layer, a time-dependent periodic perturbation is applied to the wall temperatures. Only infinitesimal disturbances are considered. Numerical results for the critical Rayleigh number are obtained at various Prandtl numbers and for various values of the frequency. Some comparisons have been made with the known results.

  20. Growth rates of the ablative Rayleigh endash Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, R.; Goncharov, V.N.; McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P.

    1998-01-01

    A simple procedure is developed to determine the Froude number Fr, the effective power index for thermal conduction ν, the ablation-front thickness L 0 , the ablation velocity V a , and the acceleration g of laser-accelerated ablation fronts. These parameters are determined by fitting the density and pressure profiles obtained from one-dimensional numerical simulations with the analytic isobaric profiles of Kull and Anisimov [Phys. Fluids 29, 2067 (1986)]. These quantities are then used to calculate the growth rate of the ablative Rayleigh endash Taylor instability using the theory developed by Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4665 (1996)]. The complicated expression of the growth rate (valid for arbitrary Froude numbers) derived by Goncharov et al. is simplified by using reasonably accurate fitting formulas. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  1. Measurement of Rayleigh Wave Beams Using Angle Beam Wedge Transducers as the Transmitter and Receiver with Consideration of Beam Spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuzeng; Li, Xiongbing; Jeong, Hyunjo

    2017-06-20

    A theoretical model, along with experimental verification, is developed to describe the generation, propagation and reception of a Rayleigh wave using angle beam wedge transducers. The Rayleigh wave generation process using an angle beam wedge transducer is analyzed, and the actual Rayleigh wave sound source distributions are evaluated numerically. Based on the reciprocity theorem and considering the actual sound source, the Rayleigh wave beams are modeled using an area integral method. The leaky Rayleigh wave theory is introduced to investigate the reception of the Rayleigh wave using the angle beam wedge transducers, and the effects of the wave spreading in the wedge and transducer size are considered in the reception process. The effects of attenuations of the Rayleigh wave and leaky Rayleigh wave are discussed, and the received wave results with different sizes of receivers are compared. The experiments are conducted using two angle beam wedge transducers to measure the Rayleigh wave, and the measurement results are compared with the predictions using different theoretical models. It is shown that the proposed model which considers the wave spreading in both the sample and wedges can be used to interpret the measurements reasonably.

  2. Vertical natural convection: application of the unifying theory of thermal convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, C.S.; Ooi, A.; Lohse, Detlef; Chung, D.

    2015-01-01

    Results from direct numerical simulations of vertical natural convection at Rayleigh numbers 1.0×10 5 –1.0×10 9 and Prandtl number 0.709 support a generalised applicability of the Grossmann–Lohse (GL) theory, which was originally developed for horizontal natural (Rayleigh–Bénard) convection. In

  3. Correlation of theory to wind-tunnel data at Reynolds numbers below 500,000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Raquel; Mcghee, Robert J.; Walker, Betty S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained from two airfoil analysis methods compared with previously published wind tunnel test data at chord Reynolds numbers below 500,000. The analysis methods are from the Eppler-Somers airfoil design/analysis code and from ISES, the Drela-Giles Airfoil design/analysis code. The experimental data are from recent tests of the Eppler 387 airfoil in the NASA Langley Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. For R not less than 200,000, lift and pitching moment predictions from both theories compare well with experiment. Drag predictions from both theories also agree with experiment, although to different degrees. However, most of the drag predictions from the Eppler-Somers code are accompanied with separation bubble warnings which indicate that the drag predictions are too low. With the Drela-Giles code, there is a large discrepancy between the computed and experimental pressure distributions in cases with laminar separation bubbles, although the drag polar predictions are similar in trend to experiment.

  4. Fragmented metastable states exist in an attractive bose-einstein condensate for atom numbers well above the critical number of the Gross-Pitaevskii theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Lorenz S; Streltsov, Alexej I; Alon, Ofir E

    2008-02-01

    It is well known that attractive condensates do not posses a stable ground state in three dimensions. The widely used Gross-Pitaevskii theory predicts the existence of metastable states up to some critical number N(cr)(GP) of atoms. It is demonstrated here that fragmented metastable states exist for atom numbers well above N(cr)(GP). The fragments are strongly overlapping in space. The results are obtained and analyzed analytically as well as numerically. The implications are discussed.

  5. RAYLEIGH SCATTERING MODELS WITH CORRELATION INTEGRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Kolomiets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers one of possible approaches to the use of the classical correlation concept in Rayleigh scattering models. Classical correlation in contrast to three types of correlations corresponding to stochastic point flows opens the door to the efficient explanation of the interaction between periodical structure of incident radiation and discreet stochastic structure of distributed scatters typical for Rayleigh problems.

  6. Number Theory in Science and Communication With Applications in Cryptography, Physics, Digital Information, Computing, and Self-Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    "Number Theory in Science and Communication" is a well-known introduction for non-mathematicians to this fascinating and useful branch of applied mathematics . It stresses intuitive understanding rather than abstract theory and highlights important concepts such as continued fractions, the golden ratio, quadratic residues and Chinese remainders, trapdoor functions, pseudoprimes and primitive elements. Their applications to problems in the real world are one of the main themes of the book. This revised fifth edition is augmented by recent advances in coding theory, permutations and derangements and a chapter in quantum cryptography. From reviews of earlier editions – "I continue to find [Schroeder’s] Number Theory a goldmine of valuable information. It is a marvellous book, in touch with the most recent applications of number theory and written with great clarity and humor.’ Philip Morrison (Scientific American) "A light-hearted and readable volume with a wide range of applications to which the author ha...

  7. Analytic MHD Theory for Earth's Bow Shock at Low Mach Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.; Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    A previous MHD theory for the density jump at the Earth's bow shock, which assumed the Alfven M(A) and sonic M(s) Mach numbers are both much greater than 1, is reanalyzed and generalized. It is shown that the MHD jump equation can be analytically solved much more directly using perturbation theory, with the ordering determined by M(A) and M(s), and that the first-order perturbation solution is identical to the solution found in the earlier theory. The second-order perturbation solution is calculated, whereas the earlier approach cannot be used to obtain it. The second-order terms generally are important over most of the range of M(A) and M(s) in the solar wind when the angle theta between the normal to the bow shock and magnetic field is not close to 0 deg or 180 deg (the solutions are symmetric about 90 deg). This new perturbation solution is generally accurate under most solar wind conditions at 1 AU, with the exception of low Mach numbers when theta is close to 90 deg. In this exceptional case the new solution does not improve on the first-order solutions obtained earlier, and the predicted density ratio can vary by 10-20% from the exact numerical MHD solutions. For theta approx. = 90 deg another perturbation solution is derived that predicts the density ratio much more accurately. This second solution is typically accurate for quasi-perpendicular conditions. Taken together, these two analytical solutions are generally accurate for the Earth's bow shock, except in the rare circumstance that M(A) is less than or = 2. MHD and gasdynamic simulations have produced empirical models in which the shock's standoff distance a(s) is linearly related to the density jump ratio X at the subsolar point. Using an empirical relationship between a(s) and X obtained from MHD simulations, a(s) values predicted using the MHD solutions for X are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models commonly used for modeling observational data, and with the predictions of a

  8. Horizontal structures of velocity and temperature boundary layers in two-dimensional numerical turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Quan; Sugiyama, K.; Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Xia, K.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the structures of the near-plate velocity and temperature profiles at different horizontal positions along the conducting bottom (and top) plate of a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell, using two-dimensional (2D) numerical data obtained at the Rayleigh number Ra = 108 and the Prandtl

  9. On the continuum theory of the one-fluid solar wind for small Prandtl number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    The continuum theory for a single-species gas expanding into a vacuum (or near vacuum) is considered. The gas is assumed compressible, viscous and heat conducting with a constant Prandtl number and viscosity proportional to (temperature) sup(ω), ω > 1. The gas is under the influence of a gravitational field centred on the Sun. For small Prandtl number (which is realistic for the one-fluid solar wind), the method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to construct a solution describing the complete flow field from the surface of the Sun to infinity. The first two regions correspond to those found by Roberts and Soward (Proc. R. Soc. Lond.; A328:185 (1972)) for large thermal conductivity; the next involves the viscous terms, and in the fourth the viscous terms dominate. It it shown from the fourth region that either the flow remains supersonic but terminates at a finite point, or the flow becomes subsonic through a diffuse shock layer and approaches a non-zero pressure at infinity. It is seen that the existence of a critical point (subsonic/supersonic transition) together with a known pressure at infinity can uniquely determine the complete solution. However, to correspond with typical results near the Sun and at the Earth's orbit the pressure at infinity is found to be very much larger than that generally accepted. (author)

  10. Law of Large Numbers: the Theory, Applications and Technology-based Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D; Christou, Nicolas; Gould, Robert

    2009-03-01

    Modern approaches for technology-based blended education utilize a variety of recently developed novel pedagogical, computational and network resources. Such attempts employ technology to deliver integrated, dynamically-linked, interactive-content and heterogeneous learning environments, which may improve student comprehension and information retention. In this paper, we describe one such innovative effort of using technological tools to expose students in probability and statistics courses to the theory, practice and usability of the Law of Large Numbers (LLN). We base our approach on integrating pedagogical instruments with the computational libraries developed by the Statistics Online Computational Resource (www.SOCR.ucla.edu). To achieve this merger we designed a new interactive Java applet and a corresponding demonstration activity that illustrate the concept and the applications of the LLN. The LLN applet and activity have common goals - to provide graphical representation of the LLN principle, build lasting student intuition and present the common misconceptions about the law of large numbers. Both the SOCR LLN applet and activity are freely available online to the community to test, validate and extend (Applet: http://socr.ucla.edu/htmls/exp/Coin_Toss_LLN_Experiment.html, and Activity: http://wiki.stat.ucla.edu/socr/index.php/SOCR_EduMaterials_Activities_LLN).

  11. New phenomena in variable-density Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livescu, D; Ristorcelli, J R; Petersen, M R; Gore, R A, E-mail: livescu@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents several issues related to mixing and turbulence structure in buoyancy-driven turbulence at low to moderate Atwood numbers, A, found from direct numerical simulations in two configurations: classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability and an idealized triply periodic Rayleigh-Taylor flow. Simulations at A up to 0.5 are used to examine the turbulence characteristics and contrast them with those obtained close to the Boussinesq approximation. The data sets used represent the largest simulations to date in each configuration. One of the more remarkable issues explored, first reported in (Livescu and Ristorcelli 2008 J. Fluid Mech. 605 145-80), is the marked difference in mixing between different density fluids as opposed to the mixing that occurs between fluids of commensurate densities, corresponding to the Boussinesq approximation. Thus, in the triply periodic configuration and the non-Boussinesq case, an initially symmetric density probability density function becomes skewed, showing that the mixing is asymmetric, with pure heavy fluid mixing more slowly than pure light fluid. A mechanism producing the mixing asymmetry is proposed and the consequences for the classical Rayleigh-Taylor configuration are discussed. In addition, it is shown that anomalous small-scale anisotropy found in the homogeneous configuration (Livescu and Ristorcelli 2008 J. Fluid Mech. 605 145-80) and Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence at A=0.5 (Livescu et al 2008 J. Turbul. 10 1-32) also occurs near the Boussinesq limit. Results pertaining to the moment closure modelling of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence are also presented. Although the Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer width reaches self-similar growth relatively fast, the lower-order terms in the self-similar expressions for turbulence moments have long-lasting effects and derived quantities, such as the turbulent Reynolds number, are slow to follow the self-similar predictions. Since eddy diffusivity in the popular gradient transport hypothesis

  12. Neutrinoless double beta decay in chiral effective field theory: lepton number violation at dimension seven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, V.; Dekens, W.; de Vries, J.; Graesser, M. L.; Mereghetti, E.

    2017-12-01

    We analyze neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) within the framework of the Standard Model Effective Field Theory. Apart from the dimension-five Weinberg operator, the first contributions appear at dimension seven. We classify the operators and evolve them to the electroweak scale, where we match them to effective dimension-six, -seven, and -nine operators. In the next step, after renormalization group evolution to the QCD scale, we construct the chiral Lagrangian arising from these operators. We develop a power-counting scheme and derive the two-nucleon 0 νββ currents up to leading order in the power counting for each lepton-number-violating operator. We argue that the leading-order contribution to the decay rate depends on a relatively small number of nuclear matrix elements. We test our power counting by comparing nuclear matrix elements obtained by various methods and by different groups. We find that the power counting works well for nuclear matrix elements calculated from a specific method, while, as in the case of light Majorana neutrino exchange, the overall magnitude of the matrix elements can differ by factors of two to three between methods. We calculate the constraints that can be set on dimension-seven lepton-number-violating operators from 0 νββ experiments and study the interplay between dimension-five and -seven operators, discussing how dimension-seven contributions affect the interpretation of 0 νββ in terms of the effective Majorana mass m ββ .

  13. RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick a diabaticregime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.

  14. Linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an accelerated Newtonian fluid with finite width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriz, S. A.; Piriz, A. R.; Tahir, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    The linear theory of Rayleigh-Taylor instability is developed for the case of a viscous fluid layer accelerated by a semi-infinite viscous fluid, considering that the top interface is a free surface. Effects of the surface tensions at both interfaces are taken into account. When viscous effects dominate on surface tensions, an interplay of two mechanisms determines opposite behaviors of the instability growth rate with the thickness of the heavy layer for an Atwood number AT=1 and for sufficiently small values of AT. In the former case, viscosity is a less effective stabilizing mechanism for the thinnest layers. However, the finite thickness of the heavy layer enhances its viscous effects that, in general, prevail on the viscous effects of the semi-infinite medium.

  15. Stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to the spontaneous magnetic field in laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogasawara, Masatada; Takita, Masami.

    1981-08-01

    Spontaneous magnetic fields due to the temperature gradient nabla T 0 produced by a focussed laser beam on one point of a pellet are taken into account in deriving the dispersion relation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Growth rate γ decreases with time. Density fluctuation with wavelength shorter than 1.5(R/L sub(T)) x (n sub(s)/n 0 )sup(1/2) μm is remarkably stabilized, where R, L sub(T), n sub(s) and n 0 are the radius of a pellet, L sub(T)sup(-1) = + nabla T 0 /T 0 + , number densities of solid and the pellet. Validity condition of the theory is γt 0 >> 1 or in another form R >> L, where t 0 is the time of thermal expansion of a pellet and L -1 = + nabla n 0 /n 0 + . (author)

  16. Hyper-Rayleigh scattering in centrosymmetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mathew D.; Ford, Jack S.; Andrews, David L., E-mail: david.andrews@physics.org [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    Hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) is an incoherent mechanism for optical second harmonic generation. The frequency-doubled light that emerges from this mechanism is not emitted in a laser-like manner, in the forward direction; it is scattered in all directions. The underlying theory for this effect involves terms that are quadratic in the incident field and involves an even-order optical susceptibility (for a molecule, its associated hyperpolarizability). In consequence, HRS is often regarded as formally forbidden in centrosymmetric media. However, for the fundamental three-photon interaction, theory based on the standard electric dipole approximation, representable as E1{sup 3}, does not account for all experimental observations. The relevant results emerge upon extending the theory to include E1{sup 2}M1 and E1{sup 2}E2 contributions, incorporating one magnetic dipolar or electric quadrupolar interaction, respectively, to a consistent level of multipolar expansion. Both additional interactions require the deployment of higher orders in the multipole expansion, with the E1{sup 2}E2 interaction analogous in rank and parity to a four-wave susceptibility. To elicit the correct form of response from fluid or disordered media invites a tensor representation which does not oversimplify the molecular components, yet which can produce results to facilitate the interpretation of experimental observations. The detailed derivation in this work leads to results which are summarized for the following: perpendicular detection of polarization components both parallel and perpendicular to the pump radiation, leading to distinct polarization ratio results, as well as a reversal ratio for forward scattered circular polarizations. The results provide a route to handling data with direct physical interpretation, to enable the more sophisticated design of molecules with sought nonlinear optical properties.

  17. Number Theory in Science and Communication With Applications in Cryptography, Physics, Digital Information, Computing, and Self-Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Manfred R

    2006-01-01

    "Number Theory in Science and Communication" is a well-known introduction for non-mathematicians to this fascinating and useful branch of applied mathematics . It stresses intuitive understanding rather than abstract theory and highlights important concepts such as continued fractions, the golden ratio, quadratic residues and Chinese remainders, trapdoor functions, pseudoprimes and primitive elements. Their applications to problems in the real world are one of the main themes of the book. This revised fourth edition is augmented by recent advances in primes in progressions, twin primes, prime triplets, prime quadruplets and quintruplets, factoring with elliptic curves, quantum factoring, Golomb rulers and "baroque" integers. From reviews of earlier editions – "I continue to find [Schroeder’s] Number Theory a goldmine of valuable information. It is a marvellous book, in touch with the most recent applications of number theory and written with great clarity and humor.’ Philip Morrison (Scientific American...

  18. Acoustofluidic particle dynamics: Beyond the Rayleigh limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baasch, Thierry; Dual, Jürg

    2018-01-01

    In this work a numerical model to calculate the trajectories of multiple acoustically and hydrodynamically interacting spherical particles is presented. The acoustic forces are calculated by solving the fully coupled three-dimensional scattering problem using finite element software. The method is not restricted to single re-scattering events, mono- and dipole radiation, and long wavelengths with respect to the particle diameter, thus expanding current models. High frequency surface acoustic waves have been used in the one cell per well technology to focus individual cells in a two-dimensional wave-field. Sometimes the cells started forming clumps and it was not possible to focus on individual cells. Due to a lack of existing theory, this could not be fully investigated. Here, the authors use the full dynamic simulations to identify limiting factors of the one-cell-per-well technology. At first, the authors demonstrate good agreement of the numerical model with analytical results in the Rayleigh limiting case. A frequency dependent stability exchange between the pressure and velocity was then demonstrated. The numerical formulation presented in this work is relatively general and can be used for a multitude of different high frequency applications. It is a powerful tool in the analysis of microscale acoustofluidic devices and processes.

  19. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  20. Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering Puspendu Kumar Das Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012, India pkdas@ipc.iisc.ernet.in.

  1. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in accelerated elastic-solid slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriz, S. A.; Piriz, A. R.; Tahir, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    We develop the linear theory for the asymptotic growth of the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an accelerated solid slab of density ρ2, shear modulus G , and thickness h , placed over a semi-infinite ideal fluid of density ρ110.1007/s000330050121] to arbitrary values of AT and unveil the singular feature of an instability threshold below which the slab is stable for any perturbation wavelength. As a consequence, an accelerated elastic-solid slab is stable if ρ2g h /G ≤2 (1 -AT) /AT .

  2. Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum in special relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Perciante, A. L.; Garcia-Colin, L. S.; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum for a relativistic simple fluid according to three different versions available for a relativistic approach to nonequilibrium thermodynamics. An outcome of these calculations is that Eckart's version predicts that such spectrum does not exist. This provides an argument to question its validity. The remaining two results, which differ one from another, do provide a finite form for such spectrum. This raises the rather intriguing question as to which of the two theories is a better candidate to be taken as a possible version of relativistic nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The answer will clearly require deeper examination of this problem.

  3. Number theory Diophantine problems, uniform distribution and applications : festschrift in honour of Robert F. Tichy’s 60th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Grabner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to Robert F. Tichy on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Presenting 22 research and survey papers written by leading experts in their respective fields, it focuses on areas that align with Tichy’s research interests and which he significantly shaped, including Diophantine problems, asymptotic counting, uniform distribution and discrepancy of sequences (in theory and application), dynamical systems, prime numbers, and actuarial mathematics. Offering valuable insights into recent developments in these areas, the book will be of interest to researchers and graduate students engaged in number theory and its applications.

  4. Modeling of Rayleigh wave dispersion in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Badal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase and group velocities of 15–70 s Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian Peninsula have been transformed into local dispersion curves by linear inversion of travel times. The procedure permits that the waveform dispersion to be obtained as a continuous period-dependent velocity function at grid points belonging to the area probed by the waves, thus providing phase- and group-velocity contour maps for several periods within the interval of interest. The regionalization process rests on a homogeneous initial data set in which the number of observations remains almost constant for all periods of reference. Damped least-squares inversion of the local dispersion curves for shear-wave velocity structure is performed to obtain depth-dependent S-wave velocity profiles at the grid points covering the model region. The reliability of the results should improve significantly owing to the use of phase and group velocities simultaneously. On this basis, we have built horizontal depth sections that give an updated view of the seismic velocity structure of the peninsula at lithospheric and upper mantle depths (20–200 km. After averaging all the pure-path S-wave velocities previously determined at each grid point, the velocity-depth models so obtained for major tectonic units allow the comparison between the Hercynian basement and other areas of Mesozoic folding and Tertiary basins.

  5. Manipulating Rayleigh-Taylor Growth Using Adjoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kord, Ali; Capecelatro, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    It has been observed that initial interfacial perturbations affect the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. However, it remains to be seen to what extent the perturbations alter the RT growth rate. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) provide a powerful means for studying the effects of initial conditions (IC) on the growth rate. However, a brute-force approach for identifying optimal initial perturbations is not practical via DNS. In addition, identifying sensitivity of the RT growth to the large number of parameters used in defining the IC is computationally expensive. A discrete adjoint is formulated to measure sensitivities of multi-mode RT growth to ICs in a high-order finite difference framework. The sensitivity is used as a search direction for adjusting the initial perturbations to both maximize and suppress the RT growth rate during its non-linear regime. The modes that contribute the greatest sensitivity are identified, and optimized perturbation energy spectrum are reported. PhD Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

  6. Contribution from the interaction Hamiltonian to the expectation value of particle number with the non-equilibrium quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Ryuuichi; Morozumi, Takuya; Takata, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We develop the method analyzing particle number non-conserving phenomena with non-equilibrium quantum field-theory. In this study, we consider a CP violating model with interaction Hamiltonian that breaks particle number conservation. To derive the quantum Boltzmann equation for the particle number, we solve Schwinger-Dyson equation, which are obtained from two particle irreducible closed-time-path (2PI CTP) effective action. In this calculation, we show the contribution from interaction Hamiltonian to the time evolution of expectation value of particle number.

  7. Feedback control and heat transfer measurements in a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, M.; Hernández, R. H.

    2017-07-01

    We report experimental results on the heat transfer and instability onset of a Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell of aspect ratios 6:3:1 filled with a high Prandtl aqueous solution of glycerol under feedback control. We investigate the transient and stationary response of both local temperature readings and heat transfer fluxes on the Rayleigh Bénard cell in both conductive and convective states when we perform two independent feedback control actions on both hot and cold walls. We evaluate the performance of both controllers to maintain a temperature gradient independently if the system is below or above the convection threshold. As the convection cell can be rotated at 180° about the shorter axis of the cell, it was possible to perform transitions between thermal conduction and convection regimes and vice versa under a constant temperature difference maintained by both independent controllers. The experimental setup provided an accurate measurement of the critical Rayleigh number and the evolution of the Nusselt number as a function of the Rayleigh number in the moderately supercritical regime (R a cellular convection pattern formed by 6 transverse rolls throughout the range of Rayleigh numbers.

  8. Effect of periodic bottom plate heating on large scale flow in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuqali, M.; Babuin, Simone; Niemela, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2015), 483-489 ISSN 1735-3572 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Rayleigh-Bénard convection * Reynolds number Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.888, year: 2015

  9. Solution of the radiative transfer equation for Rayleigh scattering using the infinite medium Green's function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biçer, M.; Kaşkaş, A.

    2018-03-01

    The infinite medium Green's function is used to solve the half-space albedo, slab albedo and Milne problems for the unpolarized Rayleigh scattering case; these problems are the most classical problems of radiative transfer theory. The numerical results are obtained and are compared with previous ones.

  10. Distortions in the Rayleigh-Jeans region of the cosmic background radiation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zotti, G.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of the origin and evolution of distortions in the Rayleigh-Jeans region of the cosmic background radiation spectrum is reviewed. Some proposed experiments, designed to substantially improve our knowledge of that portion of the spectrum, are briefly described. (author)

  11. Existence of periodic solutions for Rayleigh equations with state-dependent delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehad O. Alzabut

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of periodic solutions for a Rayleigh-type equation with state-dependent delay. Our approach is based on the continuation theorem in degree theory, and some analysis techniques. An example illustrates that our approach to this problem is new.

  12. On Equality and Natural Numbers in Cantor-Lukasiewicz Set Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2013), s. 91-100 ISSN 1367-0751 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Lukasiewicz logic * Cantor set theory * full comprehension Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2013

  13. Determination of Love- and Rayleigh-Wave Magnitudes for Earthquakes and Explosions and Other Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-30

    09-C-0012 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) Jessie L. Bonner, Anastasia Stroujkova, Dale Anderson, Jonathan...AND RAYLEIGH-WAVE MAGNITUDES FOR EARTHQUAKES AND EXPLOSIONS Jessie L. Bonner, Anastasia Stroujkova, and Dale Anderson INTRODUCTION Since...MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ESTIMATION: APPLICATION TO MIDDLE EAST EARTHQUAKE DATA Anastasia Stroujkova and Jessie Bonner Weston Geophysical Corporation

  14. Rayleigh scattering from ions near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.C.; Gupta, S.K.S.; Kissel, L.; Pratt, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical studies of Rayleigh scattering of photons from neon atoms with different degrees of ionization, for energies both below and above the K-edges of the ions, are presented. Some unexpected structures both in Rayleigh scattering and in photoionization from neutral and weakly ionized atoms, very close to threshold, have been reported. It has recently been realized that some of the predicted structures may have a nonphysical origin and are due to the limitation of the independent-particle model and also to the use of a Coulombic Latter tail. Use of a K-shell vacancy potential - in which an electron is assumed to be removed from the K-shell - in calculating K-shell Rayleigh scattering amplitudes removes some of the structure effects near threshold. We present in this work a discussion of scattering angular distributions and total cross sections, obtained utilizing vacancy potentials, and compare these predictions with those previously obtained in other potential model. (author) [pt

  15. Chromo-Rayleigh interactions of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yang; Osborne, James

    2015-01-01

    For a wide range of models, dark matter can interact with QCD gluons via chromo-Rayleigh interactions. We point out that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), as a gluon machine, provides a superb probe of such interactions. In this paper, we introduce simplified models to UV-complete two effective dark matter chromo-Rayleigh interactions and identify the corresponding collider signatures, including four jets or a pair of di-jet resonances plus missing transverse energy. After performing collider studies for both the 8 TeV and 14 TeV LHC, we find that the LHC can be more sensitive to dark matter chromo-Rayleigh interactions than direct detection experiments and thus provides the best opportunity for future discovery of this class of models.

  16. Direct measurement of the Rayleigh scattering cross section in various gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneep, Maarten; Ubachs, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Using the laser-based technique of cavity ring-down spectroscopy extinction measurements have been performed in various gases straightforwardly resulting in cross sections for Rayleigh scattering. For Ar and N 2 measurements are performed in the range 470-490nm, while for CO 2 cross sections are determined in the wider range 470-570nm. In addition to these gases also for N 2 O, CH 4 , CO, and SF 6 the scattering cross section is determined at 532nm, a wavelength of importance for lidar applications and combustion laser diagnostics. In O 2 the cross section at 532nm is found to depend on pressure due to collision-induced light absorption. The obtained cross sections validate the cross sections for Rayleigh scattering as derived from refractive indices and depolarization ratios through Rayleigh's theory at the few %-level, although somewhat larger discrepancies are found for CO, N 2 O and CH 4

  17. Bivariate Rayleigh Distribution and its Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saeed Akhter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rayleigh (1880 observed that the sea waves follow no law because of the complexities of the sea, but it has been seen that the probability distributions of wave heights, wave length, wave induce pitch, wave and heave motions of the ships follow the Rayleigh distribution. At present, several different quantities are in use for describing the state of the sea; for example, the mean height of the waves, the root mean square height, the height of the “significant waves” (the mean height of the highest one-third of all the waves the maximum height over a given interval of the time, and so on. At present, the ship building industry knows less than any other construction industry about the service conditions under which it must operate. Only small efforts have been made to establish the stresses and motions and to incorporate the result of such studies in to design. This is due to the complexity of the problem caused by the extensive variability of the sea and the corresponding response of the ships. Although the problem appears feasible, yet it is possible to predict service conditions for ships in an orderly and relatively simple manner Rayleigh (1980 derived it from the amplitude of sound resulting from many independent sources. This distribution is also connected with one or two dimensions and is sometimes referred to as “random walk” frequency distribution. The Rayleigh distribution can be derived from the bivariate normal distribution when the variate are independent and random with equal variances. We try to construct bivariate Rayleigh distribution with marginal Rayleigh distribution function and discuss its fundamental properties.

  18. The number of elementary particles in a fractal M-theory of 11.2360667977 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, J.-H.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that there are 60 experimentally found particles. The standard model strongly predicts two more hypothetical particles, the Higgs and the graviton. This paper reveals other possible scenario for predicting 69 particles at different energy scales in 11+φ 3 fractal dimensions of a fractal M theory, where φ=(5-1)/2. A modified Newton's law is suggested to experimentally verify our predictions at extremely small quantum scales. The modified Newton's law is in harmony with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle

  19. Effect of polarization fatigue on the Rayleigh coefficients of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films: Experimental evidence and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, X. J.; Zhang, H. J.; Luo, Z. D.; Zhang, F. P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Q. D.; Fang, A. P.; Dkhil, B.; Zhang, M.; Ren, X. B.; He, H. L.

    2014-09-01

    The effect of polarization fatigue on the Rayleigh coefficients of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film was systematically investigated. It was found that electrical fatigue strongly affects the Rayleigh behaviour of the PZT film. Both the reversible and irreversible Rayleigh coefficients decrease with increasing the number of switching cycles. This phenomenon is attributed to the growth of an interfacial degraded layer between the electrode and the film during electrical cycling. The methodology used in this work could serve as an alternative way for evaluating the fatigue endurance and degradation in dielectric properties of ferroelectric thin-film devices during applications.

  20. Attractors of the periodically forced Rayleigh system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bazavan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous second order nonlinear ordinary differential equation(ODE introduced in 1883 by Lord Rayleigh, is the equation whichappears to be the closest to the ODE of the harmonic oscillator withdumping.In this paper we present a numerical study of the periodic andchaotic attractors in the dynamical system associated with the generalized Rayleigh equation. Transition between periodic and quasiperiodic motion is also studied. Numerical results describe the system dynamics changes (in particular bifurcations, when the forcing frequency is varied and thus, periodic, quasiperiodic or chaotic behaviour regions are predicted.

  1. Hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in cylindrical implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, C.S.; Roderick, N.F.; Wu, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in the (r,Θ) plane has been solved by the variational approach. Results are compared to the analytical solutions of two-region and three-region problems at the infinite radius. They show the magnetic stabilization effect. Growth rates in this plane are decreased by the effects of plasma shell thickness, plasma shell radius, magnetic tension, magnetic diffusion and finite density gradient of the plasma magnetic field interface. The most unstable mode number decreases when the radius of the plasma shell decreases

  2. Symmetry numbers for rigid, flexible, and fluxional molecules: theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Michael K; Irikura, Karl K

    2010-12-16

    The use of molecular simulations and ab initio calculations to predict thermodynamic properties of molecules has become routine. Such methods rely upon an accurate representation of the molecular partition function or configurational integral, which in turn often includes a rotational symmetry number. However, the reason for including the symmetry number is unclear to many practitioners, and there is also a need for a general prescription for evaluating the symmetry numbers of flexible molecules, i.e., for molecules with thermally active internal degrees of freedom, such as internal rotors. Surprisingly, we have been unable to find any complete and convincing explanations of these important issues in textbooks or the journal literature. The present paper aims to explain why symmetry numbers are needed and how their values should be determined. Both classical and quantum approaches are provided.

  3. Application of a transitional boundary-layer theory in the low hypersonic Mach number regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is made to assess the capability of a finite-difference boundary-layer procedure to predict the mean profile development across a transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the low hypersonic Mach-number regime. The boundary-layer procedure uses an integral form of the turbulence kinetic-energy equation to govern the development of the Reynolds apparent shear stress. The present investigation shows the ability of this procedure to predict Stanton number, velocity profiles, and density profiles through the transition region and, in addition, to predict the effect of wall cooling and Mach number on transition Reynolds number. The contribution of the pressure-dilatation term to the energy balance is examined and it is suggested that transition can be initiated by the direct absorption of acoustic energy even if only a small amount (1 per cent) of the incident acoustic energy is absorbed.

  4. Turbulent thermal superstructures in Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Blass, Alexander; Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    We report the observation of superstructures, i.e., very large-scale and long living coherent structures in highly turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection up to Rayleigh Ra=109 . We perform direct numerical simulations in horizontally periodic domains with aspect ratios up to Γ =128 . In the considered Ra number regime the thermal superstructures have a horizontal extend of six to seven times the height of the domain and their size is independent of Ra. Many laboratory experiments and numerical simulations have focused on small aspect ratio cells in order to achieve the highest possible Ra. However, here we show that for very high Ra integral quantities such as the Nusselt number and volume averaged Reynolds number only converge to the large aspect ratio limit around Γ ≈4 , while horizontally averaged statistics such as standard deviation and kurtosis converge around Γ ≈8 , the integral scale converges around Γ ≈32 , and the peak position of the temperature variance and turbulent kinetic energy spectra only converge around Γ ≈64 .

  5. Effect of Rayleigh accelerations applied to an initially moving fluid. [in circular cylinders under low gravity associated with space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, R. F.; Robertson, S. J.; Spradley, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    The General Interpolant Method computer code was used to analyze two-dimensional unsteady thermal convection in circular cylinders under variable low-g conditions associated with space flight. When an acceleration vector was applied parallel to the thermal gradient, in the case of a fluid at rest, no convection resulted for the stable direction, and an instability led to Rayleigh convection for the opposite direction. However, when the acceleration had a component orthogonal to the gradient, convection resulted at any Rayleigh number. The effect on convection of both types of acceleration, applied concurrently or sequentially, was investigated, including the case when the resultant vector varied in direction with time. An analysis of experimental results shows that for space flight conditions, the Rayleigh accelerations induce significant, but not dominating, changes in the established convection even when the Rayleigh number is less than critical.

  6. Sphalerons, small fluctuations, and baryon-number violation in electroweak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P.; McLerran, L.

    1987-01-01

    We study the formalism of the sphaleron approximation to baryon-number violation in the standard model at temperatures near 1 TeV. We investigate small fluctuations of the sphaleron, the competition of large-scale sphalerons with thermal fluctuations, and the damping of the transition rate in the plasma. We find a suppression of the rate due to Landau damping and due to factors arising from zero modes. Our approximations are valid in the regime 2M/sub W/(T) 2 . We find that the rate of baryon-number violation is still significantly larger than the expansion rate of the Universe

  7. Characterizing the Development of Specialized Mathematical Content Knowledge for Teaching in Algebraic Reasoning and Number Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Sherry L.; Rich, Beverly S.

    2011-01-01

    This article characterizes the development of a deep and connected body of mathematical knowledge categorized by Ball and Bass' (2003b) model of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), as Specialized Content Knowledge for Teaching (SCK) in algebraic reasoning and number sense. The research employed multiple cases across three years from two…

  8. Symbolic derivation of high-order Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation energies using computer algebra: Application to vibrational-rotational analysis of diatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, John M. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-01-01

    Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory is an effective and popular tool for describing low-lying vibrational and rotational states of molecules. This method, in conjunction with ab initio techniques for computation of electronic potential energy surfaces, can be used to calculate first-principles molecular vibrational-rotational energies to successive orders of approximation. Because of mathematical complexities, however, such perturbation calculations are rarely extended beyond the second order of approximation, although recent work by Herbert has provided a formula for the nth-order energy correction. This report extends that work and furnishes the remaining theoretical details (including a general formula for the Rayleigh-Schroedinger expansion coefficients) necessary for calculation of energy corrections to arbitrary order. The commercial computer algebra software Mathematica is employed to perform the prohibitively tedious symbolic manipulations necessary for derivation of generalized energy formulae in terms of universal constants, molecular constants, and quantum numbers. As a pedagogical example, a Hamiltonian operator tailored specifically to diatomic molecules is derived, and the perturbation formulae obtained from this Hamiltonian are evaluated for a number of such molecules. This work provides a foundation for future analyses of polyatomic molecules, since it demonstrates that arbitrary-order perturbation theory can successfully be applied with the aid of commercially available computer algebra software.

  9. A Non-Perturbative, Finite Particle Number Approach to Relativistic Scattering Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindesay, James V

    2001-05-11

    We present integral equations for the scattering amplitudes of three scalar particles, using the Faddeev channel decomposition, which can be readily extended to any finite number of particles of any helicity. The solution of these equations, which have been demonstrated to be calculable, provide a non-perturbative way of obtaining relativistic scattering amplitudes for any finite number of particles that are Lorentz invariant, unitary, cluster decomposable and reduce unambiguously in the non-relativistic limit to the non-relativistic Faddeev equations. The aim of this program is to develop equations which explicitly depend upon physically observable input variables, and do not require ''renormalization'' or ''dressing'' of these parameters to connect them to the boundary states.

  10. Theory and applications of ordered fuzzy numbers a tribute to professor Witold Kosiński

    CERN Document Server

    Czerniak, Jacek; Mikołajewski, Dariusz; Apiecionek, Łukasz; Ślȩzak, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This open access book offers comprehensive coverage on Ordered Fuzzy Numbers, providing readers with both the basic information and the necessary expertise to use them in a variety of real-world applications. The respective chapters, written by leading researchers, discuss the main techniques and applications, together with the advantages and shortcomings of these tools in comparison to other fuzzy number representation models. Primarily intended for engineers and researchers in the field of fuzzy arithmetic, the book also offers a valuable source of basic information on fuzzy models and an easy-to-understand reference guide to their applications for advanced undergraduate students, operations researchers, modelers and managers alike.

  11. Quasi-Decidability of a Fragment of the First-Order Theory of Real Numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franek, Peter; Ratschan, Stefan; Zgliczynski, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2016), s. 157-185 ISSN 0168-7433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP202/12/J060; GA MŠk OC10048; GA ČR GA15-14484S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : decidability * decision procedure * real numbers Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.636, year: 2016

  12. Quantum numbers of anti-grand-unified-theory Higgs fields from the quark-lepton spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froggatt, C.D.; Nielsen, H.B.; Smith, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    A series of Higgs field quantum numbers in the anti-grand-unification model, based on the gauge group SMG 3 xU(1) f , is tested against the spectrum of quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. A more precise formulation of the statement that the couplings are assumed of order unity is given. It is found that the corrections coming from this more precise assumption do not contain factors of the order of the number of colors, N c =3, as one could have feared. We also include a combinatorial correction factor, taking account of the distinct internal orderings within the chain Feynman diagrams in our statistical estimates. Strictly speaking our model predicts that the uncertainty in its predictions and thus the accuracy of our fits should be ±60%. Many of the best fitting quantum numbers give a higher accuracy fit to the masses and mixing angles, although within the expected fluctuations in a χ 2 . This means that our fit is as good as it can possibly be

  13. Bubble velocity in the nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor instability at a deflagration front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modestov, Mikhail; Bychkov, Vitaly; Betti, Riccardo; Eriksson, Lars-Erik

    2008-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability at a deflagration front is studied systematically using extensive direct numerical simulations. It is shown that, for a sufficiently large gravitational field, the effects of bubble rising dominate the deflagration dynamics. It is demonstrated both analytically and numerically that the deflagration speed is described asymptotically by the Layzer theory in the limit of large acceleration. In the opposite limit of small and zero gravitational field, intrinsic properties of the deflagration front become important. In that case, the deflagration speed is determined by the velocity of a planar front and by the Darrieus-Landau instability. Because of these effects, the deflagration speed is larger than predicted by the Layzer theory. An analytical formula for the deflagration speed is suggested, which matches two asymptotic limits of large and small acceleration. The formula is in good agreement with the numerical data in a wide range of Froude numbers. The present results are also in agreement with previous numerical simulations on this problem

  14. Fractal geometry and number theory complex dimensions of fractal strings and zeros of zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Lapidus, Michael L

    1999-01-01

    A fractal drum is a bounded open subset of R. m with a fractal boundary. A difficult problem is to describe the relationship between the shape (geo­ metry) of the drum and its sound (its spectrum). In this book, we restrict ourselves to the one-dimensional case of fractal strings, and their higher dimensional analogues, fractal sprays. We develop a theory of complex di­ mensions of a fractal string, and we study how these complex dimensions relate the geometry with the spectrum of the fractal string. We refer the reader to [Berrl-2, Lapl-4, LapPol-3, LapMal-2, HeLapl-2] and the ref­ erences therein for further physical and mathematical motivations of this work. (Also see, in particular, Sections 7. 1, 10. 3 and 10. 4, along with Ap­ pendix B. ) In Chapter 1, we introduce the basic object of our research, fractal strings (see [Lapl-3, LapPol-3, LapMal-2, HeLapl-2]). A 'standard fractal string' is a bounded open subset of the real line. Such a set is a disjoint union of open intervals, the lengths of which ...

  15. Measurement of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in targets driven by optically smoothed laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desselberger, M.; Willi, O.; Savage, M.; Lamb, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Growth rates of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability were measured in targets with imposed sinusoidal modulations irradiated by optically smoothed 0.53-μm laser beams. A hybrid optical smoothing technique utilizing induced-spatial-incoherence and random-phase-plate technology was used for the first time. The wave-number dependence and the nonlinear behavior of Rayleigh-Taylor growth were investigated by using targets with a range of modulation periodicities and depths. The results are compared to 2D hydrodynamic-code simulations

  16. Size invariance of the granular Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinningland, Jan Ludvig; Johnsen, Øistein; Flekkøy, Eirik G; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2010-04-01

    The size scaling behavior of the granular Rayleigh-Taylor instability [J. L. Vinningland, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 048001 (2007)] is investigated experimentally, numerically, and theoretically. An upper layer of grains displaces a lower gap of air by organizing into dense fingers of falling grains separated by rising bubbles of air. The dependence of these structures on the system and grain sizes is investigated. A spatial measurement of the finger structures is obtained by the Fourier power spectrum of the wave number k. As the size of the grains increases the wave number decreases accordingly which leaves the dimensionless product of wave number and grain diameter, dk, invariant. A theoretical interpretation of the invariance, based on the scaling properties of the model equations, suggests a gradual breakdown of the invariance for grains smaller than approximately 70 microm or greater than approximately 570 microm in diameter.

  17. The unified neutral theory of biodiversity: do the numbers add up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2006-06-01

    Hubbell's unified neutral theory is a zero-sum ecological drift model in which population sizes change at random in a process resembling genetic drift, eventually leading to extinction. Diversity is maintained within the community by speciation. Hubbell's model makes predictions about the distribution of species abundances within communities and the turnover of species from place to place (beta diversity). However, ecological drift cannot be tested adequately against these predictions without independent estimates of speciation rates, population sizes, and dispersal distances. A more practical prediction from ecological drift is that time to extinction of a population of size N is approximately 2N generations. I test this prediction here using data for passerine birds (Passeriformes). Waiting times to speciation and extinction were estimated from genetic divergence between sister populations and a lineage-through-time plot for endemic South American suboscine passerines. Population sizes were estimated from local counts of birds in two large forest plots extrapolated to the area of wet tropical forest in South America and from atlas data on European passerines. Waiting times to extinction (ca. 2 Ma) are much less than twice the product of average population size (4.0 and 14.4 x 10(6) individuals in South America and Europe) and generation length (five and three years) for songbirds, that is, 40 and 86 Ma, respectively. Thus, drift is too slow to account for turnover in regional avifaunas. Presumably, other processes, involving external drivers, such as climate and physiographic change, and internal drivers, such as evolutionary change in antagonistic interactions, predominate. Hubbell's model is historical and geographic, and his perspective importantly links local and regional process and pattern. Ecological reality can be added to the mix while retaining Hubbell's concept of continuity of communities in space and time.

  18. Effect of plumes on measuring the large scale circulation in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Clercx, H.J.H.; Lohse, Detlef

    2011-01-01

    We studied the properties of the large-scale circulation (LSC) in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) convection by using results from direct numerical simulations in which we placed a large number of numerical probes close to the sidewall. The LSC orientation is determined by either a cosine or a

  19. Experimental determination of heat transfer in a Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, R.; Abid, C.

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with an experimental study of heat transfer in a Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard flow. This situation corresponds to a mixed convection phenomenon in a horizontal rectangular channel uniformly heated from below. Flow visualisation and temperature measurements were achieved in order to describe the flow regimes and heat transfer behaviour. The classical measurement techniques such employing thermocouples give local measurement on one hand and on other hand they often disturb the flow. As the flow is three-dimensional, these techniques are not efficient. In order to not disturb the flow, a non-intrusive method is used for thermal measurement. The Planar laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) was implemented to determine thermal fields in the fluid. Experiments conducted for various Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers allow to determine the heat transfer and thus to propose correlation for Nusselt number for a mixed convection flow in Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard configuration. First a description of the use of this technique in water flow is presented and then the obtained results for various Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers allow to propose a correlation for the Nusselt number for such configuration of mixed convection. The comparison between the obtained heat transfer and the pure forced convection one confirms the well-known result that the convective heat transfer is greatly enhanced in mixed convection. Indeed, secondary flow induced by buoyant forces contributes to the refreshment of thermal boundary layers and so acts like mixers, which significantly enhances heat transfer.

  20. Vertex operators, semiclassical limit for soliton S-matrices and the number of bound states in Affine Toda Field Theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneipp, Marco A.C.

    1999-10-01

    Soliton time delays and the semiclassical limit for soliton S-matrices are calculated for non-simply laced Affine Toda Field Theories. The phase shift is written as a sum over bilinears on the soliton conserved charges. The results apply to any two solitons of any Affine Toda Field Theory. As a by-product, a general expression for the number of bound states and the values of the coupling in which the S-matrix can be diagonal are obtained. In order to arrive at these results, a vertex operator is constructed, in the principal gradation, for non-simply laced affine Lie algebras, extending the previous constructions for simply laced and twisted affine Lie algebras. (author)

  1. Analytic number theory in honor of Helmut Maier’s 60th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Rassias, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of research and survey papers written by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international community and is dedicated to Helmut Maier, whose own research has been groundbreaking and deeply influential to the field. Specific emphasis is given to topics regarding exponential and  trigonometric sums and their behavior in short intervals, anatomy of integers and cyclotomic polynomials, small gaps in sequences of sifted prime numbers, oscillation theorems for primes in arithmetic progressions, inequalities related to the distribution of primes in short intervals, the Möbius function, Euler’s totient function, the Riemann zeta function and the Riemann Hypothesis. Graduate students, research mathematicians, as well as computer scientists and engineers who are interested in pure and interdisciplinary research, will find this volume a useful resource. Contributors to this volume: Bill Allombert, Levent Alpoge, Nadine Amersi, Yuri Bilu, Régis de la Bretèche, Christian ...

  2. Relationship between ultrasonic Rayleigh waves and surface residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, L.; Cook, K.V.; Dewey, B.R.; King, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Local variations of Rayleigh (surface) circumferential ultrasonic wave velocity near a pipe-girth weld in large-diameter thin-wall type 316H stainless steel pipe were measured. The weldment was similar to those anticipated for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) piping systems. The residual stress distribution was estimated independently from shell theory for an elastic, infinite, thin shell with circumferential line loading. An upper bound on the magnitude of the residual stresses was estimated assuming the deformation of the shell was entirely elastic. The pattern of surface wave velocity variations matches the theoretical residual stress pattern closely. It is suggested that the monitoring of surface wave velocity variations might be used for characterizing residual stress patterns near critical welds in piping, aiding in design calculations, and for in-service monitoring of the state of stress of weldments

  3. Numerical simulation of anisotropic preheating ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lifeng; Ye Wenhua; Li Yingjun

    2010-01-01

    The linear growth rate of the anisotropic preheating ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability (ARTI) is studied by numerical simulations. The preheating model κ(T)=κ SH [1+f(T)] is applied, where f(T) is the preheating function interpreting the preheating tongue effect in the cold plasma ahead of the ablative front. An arbitrary coefficient D is introduced in the energy equation to study the influence of transverse thermal conductivity on the growth of the ARTI. We find that enhancing diffusion in a plane transverse to the mean longitudinal flow can strongly reduce the growth of the instability. Numerical simulations exhibit a significant stabilization of the ablation front by improving the transverse thermal conduction. Our results are in general agreement with the theory analysis and numerical simulations by Masse. (authors)

  4. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22: Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the dynamo theory method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  5. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22 - Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Using the 'dynamo theory' method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  6. Design Aspects of the Rayleigh Convection Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the long-term generation of planetary or stellar magnetic field requires complementary knowledge of the large-scale fluid dynamics pervading large fractions of the object's interior. Such large-scale motions are sensitive to the system's geometry which, in planets and stars, is spherical to a good approximation. As a result, computational models designed to study such systems often solve the MHD equations in spherical geometry, frequently employing a spectral approach involving spherical harmonics. We present computational and user-interface design aspects of one such modeling tool, the Rayleigh convection code, which is suitable for deployment on desktop and petascale-hpc architectures alike. In this poster, we will present an overview of this code's parallel design and its built-in diagnostics-output package. Rayleigh has been developed with NSF support through the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics and is expected to be released as open-source software in winter 2017/2018.

  7. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in multi-structured spherical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.; Lawande, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    An eigenvalue equation for the exponential growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is derived in spherical geometry. The free surface and jump boundary conditions are obtained from the eigenvalue equation. The eigenvalue equation is solved in the cases where the initial fluid density profile has a step function or exponential variation in space and analytical formulae for growth rate of the instability are obtained. The solutions for the step function are generalized for any number N of spherical zones forming an arbitrary fluid density profile. The results of the numerical calculations for N spherical zones are compared with the exact analytical results for exponential fluid density profile with N=10 and a good agreement is observed. The formalism is further used to study the effects of density gradients on Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry. Also analytical formulae are presented for a particular case of N=3 and shell targets. The formalism developed here can be used to study the growth of the instability in present day multi-structured shell targets. (author)

  8. Nonlinear theory of nonstationary low Mach number channel flows of freely cooling nearly elastic granular gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerson, Baruch; Fouxon, Itzhak; Vilenkin, Arkady

    2008-02-01

    We employ hydrodynamic equations to investigate nonstationary channel flows of freely cooling dilute gases of hard and smooth spheres with nearly elastic particle collisions. This work focuses on the regime where the sound travel time through the channel is much shorter than the characteristic cooling time of the gas. As a result, the gas pressure rapidly becomes almost homogeneous, while the typical Mach number of the flow drops well below unity. Eliminating the acoustic modes and employing Lagrangian coordinates, we reduce the hydrodynamic equations to a single nonlinear and nonlocal equation of a reaction-diffusion type. This equation describes a broad class of channel flows and, in particular, can follow the development of the clustering instability from a weakly perturbed homogeneous cooling state to strongly nonlinear states. If the heat diffusion is neglected, the reduced equation becomes exactly soluble, and the solution develops a finite-time density blowup. The blowup has the same local features at singularity as those exhibited by the recently found family of exact solutions of the full set of ideal hydrodynamic equations [I. Fouxon, Phys. Rev. E 75, 050301(R) (2007); I. Fouxon,Phys. Fluids 19, 093303 (2007)]. The heat diffusion, however, always becomes important near the attempted singularity. It arrests the density blowup and brings about previously unknown inhomogeneous cooling states (ICSs) of the gas, where the pressure continues to decay with time, while the density profile becomes time-independent. The ICSs represent exact solutions of the full set of granular hydrodynamic equations. Both the density profile of an ICS and the characteristic relaxation time toward it are determined by a single dimensionless parameter L that describes the relative role of the inelastic energy loss and heat diffusion. At L>1 the intermediate cooling dynamics proceeds as a competition between "holes": low-density regions of the gas. This competition resembles Ostwald

  9. Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering Puspendu Kumar Das Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012, India pkdas@ipc.iisc.ernet.in · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13.

  10. High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Ivanov, J.; Zeng, C.

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency (???2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

  11. On the Transfer of a Number of Concepts of Statistical Radiophysics to the Theory of One-dimensional Point Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agalar M. Agalarov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the possibility of using a bispectrum under the investigation of regular and chaotic behaviour of one-dimensional point mappings is discussed. The effectiveness of the transfer of this concept to nonlinear dynamics was demonstrated by an example of the Feigenbaum mapping. Also in the work, the application of the Kullback-Leibler entropy in the theory of point mappings is considered. It has been shown that this information-like value is able to describe the behaviour of statistical ensembles of one-dimensional mappings. In the framework of this theory some general properties of its behaviour were found out. Constructivity of the Kullback-Leibler entropy in the theory of point mappings was shown by means of its direct calculation for the ”saw tooth” mapping with linear initial probability density. Moreover, for this mapping the denumerable set of initial probability densities hitting into its stationary probability density after a finite number of steps was pointed out. 

  12. Centrifugally Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scase, Matthew; Hill, Richard

    2017-11-01

    The instability that develops at the interface between two fluids of differing density due to the rapid rotation of the system may be considered as a limit of high-rotation rate Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Previously the authors have considered the effect of rotation on a gravitationally dominated Rayleigh-Taylor instability and have shown that some growth modes of instability may be suppressed completely by the stabilizing effect of rotation (Phys. Rev. Fluids 2:024801, Sci. Rep. 5:11706). Here we consider the case of very high rotation rates and a negligible gravitational field. The initial condition is of a dense inner cylinder of fluid surrounded by a lighter layer of fluid. As the system is rotated about the generating axis of the cylinder, the dense inner fluid moves away from the axis and the familiar bubbles and spikes of Rayleigh-Taylor instability develop at the interface. The system may be thought of as a ``fluid-fluid centrifuge''. By developing a model based on an Orr-Sommerfeld equation, we consider the effects of viscosity, surface tension and interface diffusion on the growth rate and modes of instability. We show that under particular circumstances some modes may be stabilized. School of Mathematical Sciences.

  13. Mode coupling in nonlinear Rayleigh--Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofer, D.; Shvarts, D.; Zinamon, Z.; Orszag, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the interaction of a small number of modes in the two-fluid Rayleigh--Taylor instability at relatively late stages of development, i.e., the nonlinear regime, using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code incorporating a front-tracking scheme. It is found that the interaction of modes can greatly affect the amount of mixing and may even reduce the width of the mixing region. This interaction is both relatively long range in wave-number space and also acts in both directions, i.e., short wavelengths affect long wavelengths and vice versa. Three distinct stages of interaction have been identified, including substantial interaction among modes some of which may still be in their classical (single mode) ''linear'' phase

  14. Simulation of Rayleigh--Taylor flows using vortex blobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    An inviscid boundary-integral method is modified in order to study the single-scale Rayleigh--Taylor instability for arbitrary Atwood number. The primary modification uses vortex blobs to smooth the Green's function and suppress a finite time singularity in the curvature. Additional modifications to earlier codes such as using second-order central differences along the interface to accommodate spikes in the vorticity and spreading the nodes evenly along the interface to suppress clustering of nodes are designed to maintain resolution and accuracy. To achieve second-order accuracy in time when the nodes are spread, an extra predictor step is needed that shifts the nodes before the variables are advanced. The method successfully follows the development of a single mode to states with asymptotic velocities for the bubble and spike that depend on the Atwood number and are independent of the blob size. Incipient droplet formation is observed. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  15. Throughput and Delay Analysis of HARQ with Code Combining over Double Rayleigh Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2018-01-15

    This paper proposes the use of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with code combining (HARQ-CC) to offer reliable communications over double Rayleigh channels. The double Rayleigh fading channel is of particular interest to vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems as well as amplify-and-forward relaying and keyhole channels. This work studies the performance of HARQ-CC over double Rayleigh channels from an information theoretic perspective. Analytical approximations are derived for the $\\\\epsilon$-outage capacity, the average number of transmissions, and the throughput of HARQ-CC. Moreover, we evaluate the delay experienced by Poisson arriving packets for HARQ-CC. We provide analytical expressions for the average waiting time, the packets sojourn time, the average consumed power, and the energy efficiency. In our investigation, we take into account the impact of imperfect feedback on different performance metrics. Additionally, we explore the tradeoff between energy efficiency and the throughput. The proposed scheme is shown to maintain the outage probability below a specified threshold $\\\\epsilon$ which ensures the link reliability. Meanwhile, HARQ-CC adapts implicitly the transmission rate to the channel conditions such that the throughput is maximized. Our results demonstrate that HARQ-CC allows improving the achievable communication rate compared to fixed time diversity schemes. To maximize the throughput of HARQ-CC, the rate per HARQ round should be less than the rate required to meet the outage constraint. Our investigation of the performance of HARQ-CC over Rayleigh and double Rayleigh channels shows that double Rayleigh channels have a higher severity of fading and result in a larger degradation of the throughput. Our analysis reveals that HARQ with incremental redundancy (HARQ-IR) achieves a larger throughput compared to HARQ-CC, while HARQ-CC is simpler to implement, has a lower decoding

  16. Explaining the large numbers by a hierarchy of ''universes'': a unified theory of strong and gravitational interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldirola, P.; Recami, E.

    1978-01-01

    By assuming covariance of physical laws under (discrete) dilatations, strong and gravitational interactions have been described in a unified way. In terms of the (additional, discrete) ''dilatational'' degree of freedom, our cosmos as well as hadrons can be considered as different states of the same system, or rather as similar systems. Moreover, a discrete hierarchy can be defined of ''universes'' which are governed by force fields with strengths inversely proportional to the ''universe'' radii. Inside each ''universe'' an equivalence principle holds, so that its characteristic field can be geometrized there. It is thus easy to derive a whole ''numerology'', i.e. relations among numbers analogous to the so-called Weyl-Eddington-Dirac ''large numbers''. For instance, the ''Planck mass'' happens to be nothing but the (average) magnitude of the strong charge of the hadron quarks. However, our ''numerology'' connects the (gravitational) macrocosmos with the (strong) microcosmos, rather than with the electromagnetic ones (as, e.g., in Dirac's version). Einstein-type scaled equations (with ''cosmological'' term) are suggested for the hadron interior, which - incidentally - yield a (classical) quark confinement in a very natural way and are compatible with the ''asymptotic freedom''. At last, within a ''bi-scale'' theory, further equations are proposed that provide a priori a classical field theory of strong interactions (between different hadrons). The relevant sections are 5.2, 7 and 8. (author)

  17. Coulomb Fission in Multiply-Charged Ammonia Clusters: Accurate Measurements of the Rayleigh Instability Limit from Fragmentation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher; Stace, Anthony J

    2018-03-15

    A series of experiments have been undertaken on the fragmentation of multiply charged ammonia clusters, (NH 3 ) n z+ , where z ≤ 8 and n ≤ 850, to establish Rayleigh instability limits, whereby clusters at certain critical sizes become unstable due to Coulomb repulsion between the resident charges. Experimental results on size-selected clusters are found to be in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions of Rayleigh instability limits at all values of the charge. Electrostatic theory has been used to help identify fragmentation patterns on the assumption that the clusters separate into two dielectric spheres, and the predicted Coulomb repulsion energies used to establish pathways and the sizes of cluster fragments. The results show that fragmentation is very asymmetric in terms of both the numbers of molecules involved and the amount of charge each fragment accommodates. For clusters carrying a charge ≤+4, the results show that fragmentation proceeds via the loss of small, singly charged clusters. When clusters carry a charge of +5 or more, the experimental observations suggest a marked switch in behavior. Although the laboratory measurements equate to fragmentation via the loss of a large dication cluster, electrostatic theory supports an interpretation that involves the sequential loss of two smaller, singly charged clusters possibly accompanied by the extensive evaporation of neutral molecules. It is suggested that this change in fragmentation pattern is driven by the channelling of Coulomb repulsion energy into intermolecular modes within these larger clusters. Overall, the results appear to support the ion evaporation model that is frequently used to interpret electrospray experiments.

  18. Calculation of Rayleigh type sums for zeros of the equation arising in spectral problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostin, A. B.; Sherstyukov, V. B.

    2017-12-01

    For zeros of the equation (arising in the oblique derivative problem) μ J n ‧ ( μ ) cos α + i n J n ( μ ) sin α = 0 , μ ∈ ℂ , with parameters n ∈ ℤ, α ∈ [-π/2, π/2] and the Bessel function Jn (μ) special summation relationships are proved. The obtained results are consistent with the theory of well-known Rayleigh sums calculating by zeros of the Bessel function.

  19. Rayleigh wave tomography in North-China from ambient seismic noise

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    2008/2009 The theory and methodology of ambient noise tomography has been studied and applied to North-China successfully. Continuous vertical-component seismograms, spanning the period from January 1, 2007 to February 28, 2008 recorded by 190 broadband stations and 10 very broadband stations, have been used. The cross correlation technique has been applied to ambient noise data recorded by North-China Seismic Array for each station pairs of the array. Rayleigh wave group ve...

  20. Elementary theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    1990-01-01

    Superb introduction to Euclidean algorithm and its consequences, congruences, continued fractions, powers of an integer modulo m, Gaussian integers, Diophantine equations, more. Problems, with answers. Bibliography.

  1. Number Theory and Combinatorics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-02-24

    Feb 24, 2012 ... Primarily directed at students and teachers at the un- dergraduate .... ate good mathematics (irrespective of whether I could originally contribute to it or not). ..... The cyclotomic polynomials are useful in many ways and have.

  2. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, James S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Divisibility. Linear Diophantine Equations. Unique Factorization. Applications of Unique Factorization. Congruences. Fermat, Euler, Wilson. Cryptographic Applications. Order and Primitive Roots. More Cryptographic Applications. Quadratic Reciprocity. Primality and Factorization. Sums of Squares. Arithmetic Functions. Continued Fractions. Recent Developments. Appendices. Index.

  3. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  4. Surfactants and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of Couette type flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, A. L.; Halpern, D.; Schweiger, A. S.

    2011-11-01

    We study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of slow Couette- type flows in the presence of insoluble surfactants. It is known that with zero gravity, the surfactant makes the flow unstable to longwave disturbances in certain regions of the parameter space; while in other parametric regions, it reinforces the flow stability (Frenkel and Halpern 2002). Here, we show that in the latter parametric sectors, and when the (gravity) Bond number Bo is below a certain threshold value, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is completely stabilized for a finite interval of Ma, the (surfactant) Marangoni number: MaL Ma2. For Ma Ma2, and also for MaL Ma2 as functions of the Bond number. We note that (for an interval of the Bond number) there are two distinct criticalities with nonzero (and distinct) critical wavenumbers.

  5. Reynolds analogy for the Rayleigh problem at various flow modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A A; Butkovskii, A V

    2016-07-01

    The Reynolds analogy and the extended Reynolds analogy for the Rayleigh problem are considered. For a viscous incompressible fluid we derive the Reynolds analogy as a function of the Prandtl number and the Eckert number. We show that for any positive Eckert number, the Reynolds analogy as a function of the Prandtl number has a maximum. For a monatomic gas in the transitional flow regime, using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, we investigate the extended Reynolds analogy, i.e., the relation between the shear stress and the energy flux transferred to the boundary surface, at different velocities and temperatures. We find that the extended Reynolds analogy for a rarefied monatomic gas flow with the temperature of the undisturbed gas equal to the surface temperature depends weakly on time and is close to 0.5. We show that at any fixed dimensionless time the extended Reynolds analogy depends on the plate velocity and temperature and undisturbed gas temperature mainly via the Eckert number. For Eckert numbers of the order of unity or less we generalize an extended Reynolds analogy. The generalized Reynolds analogy depends mainly only on dimensionless time for all considered Eckert numbers of the order of unity or less.

  6. Thin layer model for nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, K. G.; Wang, L. F.; Xue, C.; Ye, W. H.; Wu, J. F.; Ding, Y. K.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2018-03-01

    On the basis of the thin layer approximation [Ott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1429 (1972)], a revised thin layer model for incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability has been developed to describe the deformation and nonlinear evolution of the perturbed interface. The differential equations for motion are obtained by analyzing the forces (the gravity and pressure difference) of fluid elements (i.e., Newton's second law). The positions of the perturbed interface are obtained from the numerical solution of the motion equations. For the case of vacuum on both sides of the layer, the positions of the upper and lower interfaces obtained from the revised thin layer approximation agree with that from the weakly nonlinear (WN) model of a finite-thickness fluid layer [Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 122710 (2014)]. For the case considering the fluids on both sides of the layer, the bubble-spike amplitude from the revised thin layer model agrees with that from the WN model [Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 052305 (2010)] and the expanded Layzer's theory [Goncharov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 134502 (2002)] in the early nonlinear growth regime. Note that the revised thin layer model can be applied to investigate the perturbation growth at arbitrary Atwood numbers. In addition, the large deformation (the large perturbed amplitude and the arbitrary perturbed distributions) in the initial stage can also be described by the present model.

  7. Rayleigh wave effects in an elastic half-space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of Rayleigh wave effects in a homogeneous isotropic linearly elastic half-space subject to an impulsive uniform disk pressure loading. An approximate formula is obtained for the Rayleigh wave effects. It is shown that the Rayleigh waves near the center of loading arise from the portion of the dilatational and shear waves moving toward the axis, after they originate at the edge of the load disk. A study is made of the vertical displacement due to Rayleigh waves at points on the axis near the surface of the elastic half-space.

  8. Saturation and postsaturation phenomena of Rayleigh-Taylor instability with adjacent modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegawa, Tadashi; Nishihara, Katsunobu

    2003-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear theory has been developed for the classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability with a finite bandwidth taken into account self-consistently. The theory includes up to third order nonlinearity, which results in the saturation of linear growth and determines subsequent weakly nonlinear growth. Analytical results are shown to agree fairly well with two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. There are generally many local peaks of a perturbation with a finite bandwidth due to the interference of modes. Since a local amplitude is determined from phases among the modes as well as the bandwidth, we have investigated an onset of the linear growth saturation and the subsequent weakly nonlinear growth for different bandwidths and phases. It is shown that the saturation of the linear growth occurs locally, i.e., each of the local maximum amplitudes (LMAs) grows exponentially until it reaches almost the same saturation amplitude. In the random phase case, the root mean square amplitude thus saturates with almost the same amplitude as the LMA, after most of the LMAs have saturated. The saturation amplitude of the LMA is found to be independent of the bandwidth and depends on the Atwood number. We derive a formula of the saturation amplitude of modes based on the results obtained, and discuss its relation with Haan's formula [Phys. Rev. A 39, 5812 (1989)]. The LMAs grow linearly in time after the saturation and their speeds are approximated by the product of the linear growth rate and the saturation amplitude. We investigate the Atwood number dependence of both the saturation amplitude and the weakly nonlinear growth

  9. Pseudospectral modeling and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Chen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of the most widely used techniques in environmental and engineering geophysics to determine shear-wave velocities and dynamic properties, which is based on the elastic layered system theory. Wave propagation in the Earth, however, has been recognized as viscoelastic and the propagation of Rayleigh waves presents substantial differences in viscoelastic media as compared with elastic media. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulation and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media to better understand Rayleigh-wave behaviors in the real world. We apply a pseudospectral method to the calculation of the spatial derivatives using a Chebyshev difference operator in the vertical direction and a Fourier difference operator in the horizontal direction based on the velocity-stress elastodynamic equations and relations of linear viscoelastic solids. This approach stretches the spatial discrete grid to have a minimum grid size near the free surface so that high accuracy and resolution are achieved at the free surface, which allows an effective incorporation of the free surface boundary conditions since the Chebyshev method is nonperiodic. We first use an elastic homogeneous half-space model to demonstrate the accuracy of the pseudospectral method comparing with the analytical solution, and verify the correctness of the numerical modeling results for a viscoelastic half-space comparing the phase velocities of Rayleigh wave between the theoretical values and the dispersive image generated by high-resolution linear Radon transform. We then simulate three types of two-layer models to analyze dispersive-energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media is relatively higher than in elastic media and the fundamental mode increases by 10-16% when the frequency is above 10. Hz due to the velocity dispersion of P

  10. Predictability of Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viecelli, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical experiments modeling the Rayleigh Taylor instability are carried out using a two-dimensional incompressible Eulerian hydrodynamic code VFTS. The method of integrating the Navier-Stokes equations including the viscous terms is similar to that described in Kim and Moin, except that Lagrange particles have been added and provision for body forces is given. The Eulerian method is 2nd order accurate in both space and time, and the Poisson equation for the effective pressure field is solved exactly at each time step using a cyclic reduction method. 3 refs., 3 figs

  11. A simple proposal for Rayleigh's scaterring experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano José Ortiz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an alternative proposal for Rayleigh's scattering experiment presented and discussed in Krapas and Santos (2002 in this journal. Besides being simple and low-cost, the proposal suggested here is also proposing to demonstrate experimentally other physical phenomena such as polarization of light from the sky, the rainbow and reflection on non-conductive surfaces, as well as determine the direction of these biases. The polarization will be observed with the aid of Polaroid obtained from liquid crystal displays taken from damaged electronic devices and the Polaroid polarization direction will be established by the observation of Brewester's angle in reflection experiment.

  12. Bayesian Predictive Models for Rayleigh Wind Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahirinia, Amir; Hajizadeh, Amin; Yu, David C

    2017-01-01

    predictive model of the wind speed aggregates the non-homogeneous distributions into a single continuous distribution. Therefore, the result is able to capture the variation among the probability distributions of the wind speeds at the turbines’ locations in a wind farm. More specifically, instead of using...... a wind speed distribution whose parameters are known or estimated, the parameters are considered as random whose variations are according to probability distributions. The Bayesian predictive model for a Rayleigh which only has a single model scale parameter has been proposed. Also closed-form posterior...... and predictive inferences under different reasonable choices of prior distribution in sensitivity analysis have been presented....

  13. Propagation and attenuation of sound waves as well as spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering in weakly ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopainsky, J.

    1975-01-01

    In weakly ionized plasmas the scattering of electromagnetic waves on free electrons (Thompson scattering) can be neglected as compared with the scattering on bound electrons (Rayleigh scattering). If the scattering process can be described by a fluid dynamical model it is caused by sound waves which are generated or annihilated by the incident electromagnetic wave. The propagation of sound waves results in a shift of the scattered line whereas their absorption within the plasma produces the broadening of the scattered line. The theory of propagation of sound in weakly ionized plasmas is developed and extended to Rayleigh scattering. The results are applied to laser scattering in a weakly ionized hydrogen plasma. (Auth.)

  14. Development of Theory of Mind in Mentally Retarded Students and its Relation with the Number of the Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abdollah-Zadeh Rafi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Theory of mind development of mental retarded students varies based on that type of task being used to assess. In total, the claim of Theory-Theory approach, that says theory of mind development is on the basis of necessary processes, could be accepted. Also those theories which are based on cultural-social approaches calming that experience with other people causes development of mind understanding need to be more examined.

  15. Ultrafast spectral interferometry of resonant secondary emission from quantum wells: From Rayleigh scattering to coherent emission from biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Shah, Jagdeep; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    1999-01-01

    Recent investigations of secondary emission from quantum well excitons following ultrafast resonant excitation have demonstrated an intricate interplay of coherent Rayleigh scattering and incoherent luminescence. We have very recently demonstrated that it is possible to isolate and time resolve...... the coherent field associated with Rayleigh component using ultrafast spectral interferometry or Tadpole, thus, obtaining substantial and new information of the nature of resonant secondary emission. Our observation demonstrates that Rayleigh scattering from static disorder is inherently a non-ergodic process...... invalidating the use of current theories using ensemble averages to describe our observations. Furthermore, we report here a new and hitherto unknown coherent scattering mechanism involving the two-photon coherence associated with the biexciton transition. The process leaves an exciton behind taking up...

  16. Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Colson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.

  17. Nonlinear Displacement Discontinuity Model for Generalized Rayleigh Wave in Contact Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, No Hyu; Yang, Seung Yong [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Imperfectly jointed interface serves as mechanical waveguide for elastic waves and gives rise to two distinct kinds of guided wave propagating along the interface. Contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) is known to plays major role in the generation of these interface waves called generalized Rayleigh waves in non-welded interface. Closed crack is modeled as non-welded interface that has nonlinear discontinuity condition in displacement across its boundary. Mathematical analysis of boundary conditions and wave equation is conducted to investigate the dispersive characteristics of the interface waves. Existence of the generalized Rayleigh wave(interface wave) in nonlinear contact interface is verified in theory where the dispersion equation for the interface wave is formulated and analyzed. It reveals that the interface waves have two distinct modes and that the phase velocity of anti-symmetric wave mode is highly dependent on contact conditions represented by linear and nonlinear dimensionless specific stiffness

  18. Nonlinear Displacement Discontinuity Model for Generalized Rayleigh Wave in Contact Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, No Hyu; Yang, Seung Yong

    2007-01-01

    Imperfectly jointed interface serves as mechanical waveguide for elastic waves and gives rise to two distinct kinds of guided wave propagating along the interface. Contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) is known to plays major role in the generation of these interface waves called generalized Rayleigh waves in non-welded interface. Closed crack is modeled as non-welded interface that has nonlinear discontinuity condition in displacement across its boundary. Mathematical analysis of boundary conditions and wave equation is conducted to investigate the dispersive characteristics of the interface waves. Existence of the generalized Rayleigh wave(interface wave) in nonlinear contact interface is verified in theory where the dispersion equation for the interface wave is formulated and analyzed. It reveals that the interface waves have two distinct modes and that the phase velocity of anti-symmetric wave mode is highly dependent on contact conditions represented by linear and nonlinear dimensionless specific stiffness

  19. Self-consistent model of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability in ablatively accelerated laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.V.; Golberg, S.M.; Liberman, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A self-consistent approach to the problem of the growth rate of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability in laser accelerated targets is developed. The analytical solution of the problem is obtained by solving the complete system of the hydrodynamical equations which include both thermal conductivity and energy release due to absorption of the laser light. The developed theory provides a rigorous justification for the supplementary boundary condition in the limiting case of the discontinuity model. An analysis of the suppression of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability by the ablation flow is done and it is found that there is a good agreement between the obtained solution and the approximate formula σ = 0.9√gk - 3u 1 k, where g is the acceleration, u 1 is the ablation velocity. This paper discusses different regimes of the ablative stabilization and compares them with previous analytical and numerical works

  20. Design and Performance Analysis of MISO-ORM-DCSK System over Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel chaotic communication system, named Orthogonality-based Reference Modulated-Differential Chaos Shift Keying (ORM-DCSK, is proposed to enhance the performance of RM-DCSK. By designing an orthogonal chaotic generator (OCG, the intrasignal interference components in RM-DCSK are eliminated. Also, the signal frame format is expanded so the average bit energy is reduced. As a result, the proposed system has less interference in decision variables. Furthermore, to investigate the bit error rate (BER performance over Rayleigh fading channels, the MISO-ORM-DCSK is studied. The BER expressions of the new system are derived and analyzed over AWGN channel and multipath Rayleigh fading channel. All simulation results not only show that the proposed system can obtain significant improvement but also verify the analysis in theory.

  1. Initial stage of cavitation in liquids and its observation by Rayleigh scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekker, M [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, United States of America (United States); Shneider, M N, E-mail: m.n.shneider@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, United States of America (United States)

    2017-06-15

    A theory is developed for the initial stage of cavitation in the framework of Zel’dovich–Fisher theory of nucleation in the field of negative pressure, while taking into account the surface tension dependence on the nanopore radius. A saturation mechanism is proposed that limits the exponential dependence of the nucleation rate on the energy required to create nanopores. An estimate of the saturated density of nanopores at the nucleation stage is obtained. It is shown that Rayleigh scattering can detect nanopores arising at the initial stage of cavitation development. (paper)

  2. Cell structures caused by settling particles in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changhoon; Park, Sangro

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent thermal convection is an important phenomenon frequently found in nature and industrial processes, often with laden particles. In the last several decades, the vast majority of studies have addressed single phase convective flow with focus on the scaling relation of flow parameters associated with heat transfer. Particle-laden Rayleigh-Bénard convection, however, has not been sufficiently studied. In this study, modulation of cell structures by settling particles in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a doubly periodic square channel is investigated using direct numerical simulation with a point particle approach. Flow parameters are fixed at Rayleigh number=106, Prandtl number=0.7, the aspect ratio=6, and Froude number=0.19. We report from the simulations that settling heavy particles modulate irregular large-scale thermal plume structures into organized polygonal cell structures. Different shapes of flow structures are obtained for different particle diameters and mass loadings. We found that polygonal cell structures arise due to asymmetric feedback force exerted by particles onto hot and cold plumes. Increasing the number of particles augments the asymmetry and the polygonal cell structures become smaller, eventually going to the hexagonal structures.

  3. Effect of resistivity on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an accelerated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, J.L.; Huerta, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    We study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in finite-conductivity accelerated plasma arcs of the type found in electromagnetic rail launchers. For a plasma of length l, acceleration a, and thermal speed v T we consider the case where v T 2 /al much-gt 1, which is valid when the projectile mass is large compared to the plasma mass. The conductivity σ enters via a magnetic Reynolds number R=σμ(al 3 ) 1/2 . The fourth-order mode equation is solved analytically using an asymptotic WKB expansion in 1/R. We find the first-order 1/R correction to the classical Rayleigh-Taylor dispersion relation for large wave number K but with K much-lt R 2 /l. The analytical results show good agreement with previous numerical calculations

  4. Gyrokinetic theory of fast-wave transmission with arbitrary parallel wave number in a non-uniformly magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Dendy, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    The gyrokinetic theory of ion cyclotron resonance is extended to include propagation at arbitrary angles to a straight equilibrium magnetic field with a linear perpendicular gradient in strength. The case of the compressional Alfven wave propagating in a D( 3 He) plasma is analyzed in detail, for arbitrary concentrations of the two species. A self-consistent local dispersion relation is obtained using a single mode description; this approach enables three-dimensional effects to be included and permits efficient calculation of the transmission coefficient. The dependence of this quantity on the species density ratio, minority temperature, plasma density, magnetic field and equilibrium scale length is obtained. A self-consistent treatment of the variation of the field polarization across the resonant region is included. Families of transmission curves are given as a function of the normalized parallel wave number for parameters relevant to Joint European Torus. Perpendicular absorption by the minority ions is also discussed, and shown to depend on a single parameter, the ratio of the ion thermal velocity to the Alfven speed. (author)

  5. The self-preserving size distribution theory. I. Effects of the Knudsen number on aerosol agglomerate growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Petrus J; Friedlander, Sheldon K

    2002-04-15

    Gas-phase synthesis of fine solid particles leads to fractal-like structures whose transport and light scattering properties differ from those of their spherical counterparts. Self-preserving size distribution theory provides a useful methodology for analyzing the asymptotic behavior of such systems. Apparent inconsistencies in previous treatments of the self-preserving size distributions in the free molecule regime are resolved. Integro-differential equations for fractal-like particles in the continuum and near continuum regimes are derived and used to calculate the self-preserving and quasi-self-preserving size distributions for agglomerates formed by Brownian coagulation. The results for the limiting case (the continuum regime) were compared with the results of other authors. For these cases the finite difference method was in good in agreement with previous calculations in the continuum regime. A new analysis of aerosol agglomeration for the entire Knudsen number range was developed and compared with a monodisperse model; Higher agglomeration rates were found for lower fractal dimensions, as expected from previous studies. Effects of fractal dimension, pressure, volume loading and temperature on agglomerate growth were investigated. The agglomeration rate can be reduced by decreasing volumetric loading or by increasing the pressure. In laminar flow, an increase in pressure can be used to control particle growth and polydispersity. For D(f)=2, an increase in pressure from 1 to 4 bar reduces the collision radius by about 30%. Varying the temperature has a much smaller effect on agglomerate coagulation.

  6. Nonlinear spectrum of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in laser-accelerated planar plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinen, M. J.; Schmitt, A.

    2007-01-01

    A model for the nonlinear spectrum of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in laser-accelerated planar plasmas has been developed for a wide range of Froude numbers and scale sizes. It is found that the spectrum can be characterized by an inverse power law with spectral index of approximately 2 in the limit of small-wavenumber spectrum cutoffs and small-scale density gradient scale lengths. Comparison of the model spectrum with recent experimental observations is made with good agreement

  7. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of a density transition layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, A.; Tskhakaya, D.D.; Tsintsadze, N.L.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of symmetry for the Rayleigh equation is found. For small Atwood number an analytic solution is obtained for a smoothly varying density profile. The spectra of unstable modes are defined. It is shown that a transition layer with finite width can undergo stratification, and velocity shear between new-formed sublayers forms. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar, E-mail: pcdsr@iacs.res.in [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-09-28

    We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.

  9. Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2015-09-28

    We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.

  10. Rayleigh's hypothesis and the geometrical optics limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfouhaily, Tanos; Hahn, Thomas

    2006-09-22

    The Rayleigh hypothesis (RH) is often invoked in the theoretical and numerical treatment of rough surface scattering in order to decouple the analytical form of the scattered field. The hypothesis stipulates that the scattered field away from the surface can be extended down onto the rough surface even though it is formed by solely up-going waves. Traditionally this hypothesis is systematically used to derive the Volterra series under the small perturbation method which is equivalent to the low-frequency limit. In this Letter we demonstrate that the RH also carries the high-frequency or the geometrical optics limit, at least to first order. This finding has never been explicitly derived in the literature. Our result comforts the idea that the RH might be an exact solution under some constraints in the general case of random rough surfaces and not only in the case of small-slope deterministic periodic gratings.

  11. On the structure of cellular solutions in Rayleigh-Benard-Marangoni flows in small-aspect-ratio containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Henk A.

    1992-01-01

    Multiple steady flow patterns occur in surface-tension/buoyancy-driven convection in a liquid layer heated from below (Rayleigh-Benard-Marangoni flows). Techniques of numerical bifurcation theory are used to study the multiplicity and stability of two-dimensional steady flow patterns (rolls) in rectangular small-aspect-ratio containers as the aspect ratio is varied. For pure Marangoni flows at moderate Biot and Prandtl number, the transitions occurring when paths of codimension 1 singularities intersect determine to a large extent the multiplicity of stable patterns. These transitions also lead, for example, to Hopf bifurcations and stable periodic flows for a small range in aspect ratio. The influence of the type of lateral walls on the multiplicity of steady states is considered. 'No-slip' lateral walls lead to hysteresis effects and typically restrict the number of stable flow patterns (with respect to 'slippery' sidewalls) through the occurrence of saddle node bifurcations. In this way 'no-slip' sidewalls induce a selection of certain patterns, which typically have the largest Nusselt number, through secondary bifurcation.

  12. Advection diffusion model for particles deposition in Rayleigh-Benard turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresta, P.; Lippolis, A.; Verzicco, R.; Soldati, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Lagrangian Particle Tracking are used to precisely investigate the turbulent thermally driven flow and particles dispersion in a closed, slender cylindrical domain. The numerical simulations are carried out for Rayleigh (Ra) and Prandtl numbers (Pr) equal to Ra = 2X10 8 and Pr = 0.7, considering three sets of particles with Stokes numbers, based on Kolmogorov scale, equal to St k 1.3, St k 0.65 and St k = 0.13. This data are used to calculate a priori the drift velocity and the turbulent diffusion coefficient for the Advection Diffusion model. These quantities are function of the Stokes, Froude, Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers only. One dimensional, time dependent, Advection- Diffusion Equation (ADE) is presented to predict particles deposition in Rayleigh-Benard flow in the cylindrical domain. This archetype configuration models flow and aerosol dynamics, produced in case of accident in the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of a nuclear reactor. ADE results show a good agreement with DNS data for all the sets of particles investigated. (author)

  13. A model for near-wall dynamics in turbulent Rayleigh Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerthan, S. Ananda; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    1998-10-01

    Experiments indicate that turbulent free convection over a horizontal surface (e.g. Rayleigh Bénard convection) consists of essentially line plumes near the walls, at least for moderately high Rayleigh numbers. Based on this evidence, we propose here a two-dimensional model for near-wall dynamics in Rayleigh Bénard convection and in general for convection over heated horizontal surfaces. The model proposes a periodic array of steady laminar two-dimensional plumes. A plume is fed on either side by boundary layers on the wall. The results from the model are obtained in two ways. One of the methods uses the similarity solution of Rotem & Classen (1969) for the boundary layer and the similarity solution of Fuji (1963) for the plume. We have derived expressions for mean temperature and temperature and velocity fluctuations near the wall. In the second approach, we compute the two-dimensional flow field in a two-dimensional rectangular open cavity. The number of plumes in the cavity depends on the length of the cavity. The plume spacing is determined from the critical length at which the number of plumes increases by one. The results for average plume spacing and the distribution of r.m.s. temperature and velocity fluctuations are shown to be in acceptable agreement with experimental results.

  14. Direct Numerical Simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livescu, D; Wei, T; Petersen, M R

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer is studied using data from an extensive new set of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), performed on the 0.5 Petaflops, 150k compute cores BG/L Dawn supercomputer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This includes a suite of simulations with grid size of 1024 2 × 4608 and Atwood number ranging from 0.04 to 0.9, in order to examine small departures from the Boussinesq approximation as well as large Atwood number effects, and a high resolution simulation of grid size 4096 2 × 4032 and Atwood number of 0.75. After the layer width had developed substantially, additional branched simulations have been run under reversed and zero gravity conditions. While the bulk of the results will be published elsewhere, here we present preliminary results on: 1) the long-standing open question regarding the discrepancy between the numerically and experimentally measured mixing layer growth rates and 2) mixing characteristics.

  15. QUADRO: A SUPERVISED DIMENSION REDUCTION METHOD VIA RAYLEIGH QUOTIENT OPTIMIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Ke, Zheng Tracy; Liu, Han; Xia, Lucy

    We propose a novel Rayleigh quotient based sparse quadratic dimension reduction method-named QUADRO (Quadratic Dimension Reduction via Rayleigh Optimization)-for analyzing high-dimensional data. Unlike in the linear setting where Rayleigh quotient optimization coincides with classification, these two problems are very different under nonlinear settings. In this paper, we clarify this difference and show that Rayleigh quotient optimization may be of independent scientific interests. One major challenge of Rayleigh quotient optimization is that the variance of quadratic statistics involves all fourth cross-moments of predictors, which are infeasible to compute for high-dimensional applications and may accumulate too many stochastic errors. This issue is resolved by considering a family of elliptical models. Moreover, for heavy-tail distributions, robust estimates of mean vectors and covariance matrices are employed to guarantee uniform convergence in estimating non-polynomially many parameters, even though only the fourth moments are assumed. Methodologically, QUADRO is based on elliptical models which allow us to formulate the Rayleigh quotient maximization as a convex optimization problem. Computationally, we propose an efficient linearized augmented Lagrangian method to solve the constrained optimization problem. Theoretically, we provide explicit rates of convergence in terms of Rayleigh quotient under both Gaussian and general elliptical models. Thorough numerical results on both synthetic and real datasets are also provided to back up our theoretical results.

  16. Dynamic stabilization of the imploding-shell Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    A method for dynamic stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability on the surface of an imploding fusion pellet is discussed. The driving laser beams are modulated in intensity so the ablation layer is subject to a rapidly and strongly oscillating acceleration. A substantial band of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability spectrum can be stabilized by this oscillation even though the time average acceleration vector lies in the destabilizing direction. By adjusting the frequency, structure, and amplitude of the modulation, the band of dynamically stabilized modes can be made to include the most unstable and dangerous modes. Thus considerably higher aspect ratio shells (i.e., thinner shells) could implode successfully than had been previously considered stable enough. Both theory and numerical simulations support this conclusion for the case of laser-driven pellet implosions. Similar modulation via transverse beam oscillations or parallel bunching should also work to stabilize the most dangerous surface Rayleigh-Taylor modes in relativistic electron-, ion- and heavy ion-pellet fusion schemes. (U.K.)

  17. Ablation front rayleigh taylor dispersion curve in indirect drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budil, K.S.; Lasinski, B.; Edwards, M.J.; Wan, A.S.; Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Glendinning, S.G.; Suter, L.; Stry, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, which occurs when a lower-density fluid accelerates a higher-density layer, is common in nature. At an ablation front a sharp reduction in the growth rate of the instability at short wave-lengths can occur, in marked contrast to the classical case where growth rates are highest at the shortest wavelengths. Theoretical and numerical investigations of the ablative RT instability are numerous and differ considerably on the level of stabilization expected. We present here the results of a series of laser experiments designed to probe the roll-over and cutoff region of the ablation-front RT dispersion curve in indirect drive. Aluminum foils with imposed sinusoidal perturbations ranging in wavelength from 10 to 70 pm were ablatively accelerated with a radiation drive generated in a gold cylindrical hohlraum. A strong shock wave compresses the package followed by an ∼2 ns period of roughly constant acceleration and the experiment is diagnosed via face-on radiography. Perturbations with wavelengths (ge) 20 (micro)m experienced substantial growth during the acceleration phase while shorter wavelengths showed a sharp drop off in overall growth. These experimental results compared favorably to calculations with a 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics code, however, the growth is significantly affected by the rippled shock launched by the drive. We performed numerical simulations to elucidate the influence of the rippled shock wave on the eventual growth of the perturbations, allowing comparisons to the analytic model developed by Betti et al. This combination of experiments, simulations and analytic modeling illustrates the qualitative simplicity yet quantitative complexity of the compressible RT instability. We have measured the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) dispersion curve for a radiatively-driven sample in a series of experiments on the Nova laser facility. Planar aluminum foils were ablatively-accelerated and the subsequent perturbation growth was

  18. Quasi-Rayleigh waves in transversely isotropic half-space with inclined axis of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.; Savina, L.S.

    2003-09-01

    A method for determination of characteristics of quasi-Rayleigh (qR) wave in a transversely isotropic homogeneous half-space with inclined axis of symmetry is outlined. The solution is obtained as a superposition of qP, qSV and qSH waves, and surface wave velocity is determined from the boundary conditions at the free surface and at infinity, as in the case of Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Though the theory is simple enough, a numerical procedure for the calculation of surface wave velocity presents some difficulties. The difficulty is conditioned by necessity to calculate complex roots of a non-linear equation, which in turn contains functions determined as roots of nonlinear equations with complex coefficients. Numerical analysis shows that roots of the equation corresponding to the boundary conditions do not exist in the whole domain of azimuths and inclinations of the symmetry axis. The domain of existence of qR wave depends on the ratio of the elastic parameters: for some strongly anisotropic models the wave cannot exist at all. For some angles of inclination qR wave velocities deviate from those calculated on the basis of the perturbation method valid for weak anisotropy, though they have the same tendency of variation with azimuth. The phase of qR wave varies with depth unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space, qR wave has three components - vertical, radial and transverse. Particle motion in horizontal plane is elliptic. Direction of the major axis of the ellipsis coincide with the direction of propagation only in azimuths 0 deg. (180 deg.) and 90 deg. (270 deg.). (author)

  19. Adapting a Fourier pseudospectral method to Dirichlet boundary conditions for Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Ramos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the adaptation to non-free boundary conditions of a pseudospectral method based on the (complex Fourier transform. The method is applied to the numerical integration of the Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations in a Rayleigh-Bénard cell with no-slip boundary conditions for velocity and Dirichlet boundary conditions for temperature. We show the first results of a 2D numerical simulation of dry air convection at high Rayleigh number (. These results are the basis for the later study, by the same method, of wet convection in a solar still. Received: 20 Novembre 2014, Accepted: 15 September 2015; Edited by: C. A. Condat, G. J. Sibona; DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.070015 Cite as: I C Ramos, C B Briozzo, Papers in Physics 7, 070015 (2015

  20. Seafloor age dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Karen E.; Dalton, Colleen A.; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2017-05-01

    Variations in the phase velocity of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves across the Indian Ocean are determined using two inversion approaches. First, variations in phase velocity as a function of seafloor age are estimated using a pure-path age-dependent inversion method. Second, a two-dimensional parameterization is used to solve for phase velocity within 1.25° × 1.25° grid cells. Rayleigh wave travel time delays have been measured between periods of 38 and 200 s. The number of measurements in the study area ranges between 4139 paths at a period of 200 s and 22,272 paths at a period of 40 s. At periods Rodriguez Triple Junction and the Australian-Antarctic Discordance and anomalously low velocities immediately to the west of the Central Indian Ridge.

  1. GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE FLAMES: RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRETCHING VERSUS TURBULENT WRINKLING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, E. P.; Rosner, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide support for the Rayleigh-Taylor-(RT)-based subgrid model used in full-star simulations of deflagrations in Type Ia supernovae explosions. We use the results of a parameter study of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of an RT unstable model flame to distinguish between the two main types of subgrid models (RT or turbulence dominated) in the flamelet regime. First, we give scalings for the turbulent flame speed, the Reynolds number, the viscous scale, and the size of the burning region as the non-dimensional gravity (G) is varied. The flame speed is well predicted by an RT-based flame speed model. Next, the above scalings are used to calculate the Karlovitz number (Ka) and to discuss appropriate combustion regimes. No transition to thin reaction zones is seen at Ka = 1, although such a transition is expected by turbulence-dominated subgrid models. Finally, we confirm a basic physical premise of the RT subgrid model, namely, that the flame is fractal, and thus self-similar. By modeling the turbulent flame speed, we demonstrate that it is affected more by large-scale RT stretching than by small-scale turbulent wrinkling. In this way, the RT instability controls the flame directly from the large scales. Overall, these results support the RT subgrid model.

  2. Filtered Rayleigh Scattering Measurements in a Buoyant Flow Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meents, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    Filtered Rayleigh Scattering (FRS) is a non-intrusive, laser-based flow characterization technique that consists of a narrow linewidth laser, a molecular absorption filter, and a high resolution camera behind the filter to record images...

  3. Rayleigh scattering and depolarization ratio in linear alkylbenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Zhou, Xiang; Huang, Wenqian; Zhang, Yuning; Wu, Wenjie; Luo, Wentai; Yu, Miao; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang

    2015-01-01

    It is planned to use linear alkylbenzene (LAB) as the organic solvent for the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) liquid scintillator detectors, due to its ultra-transparency. However, the current Rayleigh scattering length calculation for LAB disagrees with the experimental measurement. This paper reports for the first time that the Rayleigh scattering of LAB is anisotropic, with a depolarization ratio of 0.31±0.01(stat.)±0.01(sys.). We use an indirect method for Rayleigh scattering measurement with the Einstein–Smoluchowski–Cabannes formula, and the Rayleigh scattering length of LAB is determined to be 28.2±1.0 m at 430 nm

  4. Application of supersonic linear theory and hypersonic impact methods to three nonslender hypersonic airplane concepts at Mach numbers from 1.10 to 2.86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Aerodynamic predictions from supersonic linear theory and hypersonic impact theory were compared with experimental data for three hypersonic research airplane concepts over a Mach number range from 1.10 to 2.86. The linear theory gave good lift prediction and fair to good pitching-moment prediction over the Mach number (M) range. The tangent-cone theory predictions were good for lift and fair to good for pitching moment for M more than or equal to 2.0. The combined tangent-cone theory predictions were good for lift and fair to good for pitching moment for M more than or equal to 2.0. The combined tangent-cone/tangent-wedge method gave the least accurate prediction of lift and pitching moment. The zero-lift drag was overestimated, especially for M less than 2.0. The linear theory drag prediction was generally poor, with areas of good agreement only for M less than or equal to 1.2. For M more than or equal to 2.), the tangent-cone method predicted the zero-lift drag most accurately.

  5. Rayleigh scattering under light-atom coherent interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Takamizawa, Akifumi; Shimoda, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Semi-classical calculation of an oscillating dipole induced in a two-level atom indicates that spherical radiation from the dipole under coherent interaction, i.e., Rayleigh scattering, has a power level comparable to that of spontaneous emission resulting from an incoherent process. Whereas spontaneous emission is nearly isotropic and has random polarization generally, Rayleigh scattering is strongly anisotropic and polarized in association with incident light. In the case where Rabi frequen...

  6. Kinetic simulations of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Howell, Jim; Staber, Alec; Strother, Terrance

    2014-01-01

    We report on an ongoing project to develop a large scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code. The code is primarily aimed towards applications in astrophysics such as simulations of core-collapse supernovae. It has been tested on shock wave phenomena in the continuum limit and for matter out of equilibrium. In the current work we focus on the study of fluid instabilities. Like shock waves these are routinely used as test-cases for hydrodynamic codes and are discussed to play an important role in the explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae. As a first test we study the evolution of a single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface of a light and a heavy fluid in the presence of a gravitational acceleration. To suppress small-wavelength instabilities caused by the irregularity in the separation layer we use a large particle mean free path. The latter leads to the development of a diffusion layer as particles propagate from one fluid into the other. For small amplitudes, when the instability is in the linear regime, we compare its position and shape to the analytic prediction. Despite the broadening of the fluid interface we see a good agreement with the analytic solution. At later times we observe the development of a mushroom like shape caused by secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities as seen in hydrodynamic simulations and consistent with experimental observations.

  7. Experimental study on ablative stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability of laser-irradiated targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemori, Keisuke; Sakaiya, Tatsuhiko; Otani, Kazuto; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nakai, Mitsuo; Azechi, Hiroshi; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Tamari, Yohei; Okuno, Kazuki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Nagatomo, Hideo; Murakami, Masakatsu; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Izawa, Yasukazu

    2004-09-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities are key issues of the physics of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. Among the instabilities, Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is the most important because it gives the largest growth factor in the ICF targets. Perturbations on the laser irradiated surface grow exponentially, but the growth rate is reduced by ablation flow. The growth rate γ is written as Takabe-Betti formula: γ = [kg/(1+kL)]1/2-βkm/pa, where k is wave number of the perturbation, g is acceleration, L is density scale-length, β is a coefficient, m is mass ablation rate per unit surface, and ρa is density at the ablation front. We experimentally measured all the parameters in the formula for polystyrene (CH) targets. Experiments were done on the HIPER laser facility at Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. We found that the β value in the formula is ~ 1.7, which is in good agreements with the theoretical prediction, whereas the β for certain perturbation wavelengths are larger than the prediction. This disagreement between the experiment and the theory is mainly due to the deformation of the cutoff surface, which is created by non-uniform ablation flow from the ablation surface. We also found that high-Z doped plastic targets have multiablation structure, which can reduce the RT growth rate. When a low-Z target with high-Z dopant is irradiated by laser, radiation due to the high-Z dopant creates secondary ablation front deep inside the target. Since, the secondary ablation front is ablated by x-rays, the mass ablation rate is larger than the laser-irradiated ablation surface, that is, further reduction of the RT growth is expected. We measured the RT growth rate of Br-doped polystyrene targets. The experimental results indicate that of the CHBr targets show significantly small growth rate, which is very good news for the design of the ICF targets.

  8. On the interaction of Rayleigh surface waves with structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, I.C.

    1976-12-01

    A two-dimensional soil-structure interaction analysis is carried out for transient Rayleigh surface waves that are incident on a structure. The structure is modelled by a three-degree of freedom rigid basemat to which is attached a flexible superstructure, modelled by a single mass-spring system. The structural responses to a given Rayleigh wave train are compared with those that would have been obtained if the free-field acceleration-time history had been applied as a normally incident body wave. The results clearly exhibit the 'frequency filtering' effects of the rigid basemat on the incident Rayleigh waves. It is shown that, if seismic excitation of a structure is, in fact, due to Rayleigh surface waves, then an analysis assuming normally incident body waves can considerably over-estimate structural response, both at basemat level for horizontal and vertical oscillations of the superstructure. However, in the examples considered here, relatively large rocking effects were induced by the Rayleigh waves, thus giving maximum horizontal accelerations in the superstructure that were of comparable magnitude for Rayleigh and normally incident body waves. (author)

  9. Ribosome formation from subunits studied by stopped-flow and Rayleigh light scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoun Ayman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Light scattering and standard stopped-flow techniques were used to monitor rapid association of ribosomal subunits during initiation of eubacterial protein synthesis. The effects of the initiation factors IF1, IF2, IF3 and buffer conditions on subunit association were studied along with the role of GTP in this process. The part of light scattering theory that is essential for kinetic measurements is high-lighted in the main text and a more general treatment of Rayleigh scattering from macromolecules is given in an appendix.

  10. Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the limit of an infinitely large density ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavin, P.; Almarcha, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    The instability of ablation fronts strongly accelerated toward the dense medium under the conditions of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is addressed in the limit of an infinitely large density ratio. The analysis serves to demonstrate that the flow is irrotational to first order, reducing the nonlinear analysis to solve a two-potential flows problem. Vorticity appears at the following orders in the perturbation analysis. This result simplifies greatly the analysis. The possibility for using boundary integral methods opens new perspectives in the nonlinear theory of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ICF. A few examples are given at the end of the paper. (authors)

  11. Strong stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability by material strength at Mbar pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H S; Lorenz, K T; Cavallo, R M; Pollaine, S M; Prisbrey, S T; Rudd, R E; Becker, R C; Bernier, J V; Remington, B A

    2009-11-19

    Experimental results showing significant reductions from classical in the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate due to high pressure effective lattice viscosity are presented. Using a laser created ramped drive, vanadium samples are compressed and accelerated quasi-isentropically at {approx}1 Mbar pressures, while maintaining the sample in the solid-state. Comparisons with simulations and theory indicate that the high pressure, high strain rate conditions trigger a phonon drag mechanism, resulting in the observed high effective lattice viscosity and strong stabilization of the RT instability.

  12. Direct numerical simulations of type Ia supernovae flames II: The Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Rendleman, C.A.; Woosley, S.E.; Zingale, M.

    2004-01-01

    A Type Ia supernova explosion likely begins as a nuclear runaway near the center of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf. The outward propagating flame is unstable to the Landau-Darrieus, Rayleigh-Taylor, and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, which serve to accelerate it to a large fraction of the speed of sound. We investigate the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable flame at the transition from the flamelet regime to the distributed-burning regime, around densities of 10e7 gm/cc, through detailed, fully resolved simulations. A low Mach number, adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code is used to achieve the necessary resolution and long time scales. As the density is varied, we see a fundamental change in the character of the burning--at the low end of the density range the Rayleigh-Taylor instability dominates the burning, whereas at the high end the burning suppresses the instability. In all cases, significant acceleration of the flame is observed, limited only by the size of the domain we are able to study. We discuss the implications of these results on the potential for a deflagration to detonation transition

  13. Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution in colliding-plasma-jet experiments with magnetic and viscous stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Colin Stuart [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes mixing in plasmas throughout the universe, from micron-scale plasmas in inertial confinement fusion implosions to parsec-scale supernova remnants. The evolution of this interchange instability in a plasma is influenced by the presence of viscosity and magnetic fields, both of which have the potential to stabilize short-wavelength modes. Very few experimental observations of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in plasmas with stabilizing mechanisms are reported in the literature, and those that are reported are in sub-millimeter scale plasmas that are difficult to diagnose. Experimental observations in well-characterized plasmas are important for validation of computational models used to make design predictions for inertial confinement fusion efforts. This dissertation presents observations of instability growth during the interaction between a high Mach-number, initially un-magnetized plasma jet and a stagnated, magnetized plasma. A multi-frame fast camera captures Rayleigh-Taylor-instability growth while interferometry, spectroscopy, photodiode, and magnetic probe diagnostics are employed to estimate plasma parameters in the vicinity of the collision. As the instability grows, an evolution to longer mode wavelength is observed. Comparisons of experimental data with idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations including a physical viscosity model suggest that the observed instability evolution is consistent with both magnetic and viscous stabilization. These data provide the opportunity to benchmark computational models used in astrophysics and fusion research.

  14. Coherent structures in ablatively compressed ICF targets and Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.C.; Desai, T.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major issues in laser induced inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a stable ablative compression of spherical fusion pellets. The main impediment in achievement of this objective is Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the pellet's ablation front. Under sufficiently high acceleration this instability can grow out of noise. However, it can also arise either due to non-uniform laser intensity distribution over the pellet surface or due to pellet wall areal mass irregularity. Coherent structures in the dense target behind the ablation front can be effectively utilised for stabilisation of the Rayleigh-Taylor phenomenon. Such coherent structures in the form of a super lattice can be created by doping the pellet pusher with high atomic number (Z) micro particles. A compressed-cool pusher under laser irradiation behaves like a strongly correlated non ideal plasma when compressed to sufficiently high density such that the non ideality parameter exceeds unity. Moreover, the nonideality parameter for high Z microinclusions may exceed a critical value of 180 and as a consequence they remain in the form of intact clusters, maintaining the superlattice intact during ablative acceleration. Micro-hetrogeneity and its superlattice plays an important role in stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, through a variety of mechanisms. (orig.)

  15. The dynamics of droplets in moist Rayleigh-Benard turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakar, Kamal Kant; van der Voort, Dennis; Kinney, Greg; Cantrell, Will; Shaw, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Clouds are an intricate part of the climate, and strongly influence atmospheric dynamics and radiative balances. While properties such as cloud albedo and precipitation rate are large scale effects, these properties are determined by dynamics on the microscale, such droplet sizes, liquid water content, etc. The growth of droplets from condensation is dependent on a multitude of parameters, such as aerosol concentration (nucleation sites) and turbulence (scalar fluctuations and coalescence). However, the precise mechanism behind droplet growth and clustering in a cloud environment is still unclear. In this investigation we use a facility called the Pi Chamber to generate a (miniature) cloud in a laboratory setting with known boundary conditions, such as aerosol concentration, temperature, and humidity. Through the use of particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) on the droplets generated in the cloud, we can investigate the dynamics of these cloud droplets in the convective (Rayleigh-Benard) turbulence generated through an induced temperature gradient. We show the influence of the temperature gradient and Froude number (gravity forces) on the changing turbulence anisotropy, large scale circulation, and small-scale dissipation rates. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant AGS-1623429.

  16. Modal model for the nonlinear multimode Rayleigh endash Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofer, D.; Alon, U.; Shvarts, D.; McCrory, R.L.; Verdon, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    A modal model for the Rayleigh endash Taylor (RT) instability, applicable at all stages of the flow, is introduced. The model includes a description of nonlinear low-order mode coupling, mode growth saturation, and post-saturation mode coupling. It is shown to significantly extend the range of applicability of a previous model proposed by Haan, to cases where nonlinear mode generation is important. Using the new modal model, we study the relative importance of mode coupling at late nonlinear stages and resolve the difference between cases in which mode generation assumes a dominant role, leading to the late time inverse cascade of modes and loss of memory of initial conditions, and cases where mode generation is not important and memory of initial conditions is retained. Effects of finite density ratios (Atwood number A<1) are also included in the model and the difference between various measures of the mixing zone penetration depth for A<1 is discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Increasing the Number of Replications in Item Response Theory Simulations: Automation through SAS and Disk Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Phill; Furlow, Carolyn; Ross, Terris

    2009-01-01

    In item response theory (IRT) simulation research, it is often necessary to use one software package for data generation and a second software package to conduct the IRT analysis. Because this can substantially slow down the simulation process, it is sometimes offered as a justification for using very few replications. This article provides…

  18. Enhancement in Evaluating Small Group Work in Courses with Large Number of Students. Machine Theory at Industrial Engineering Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi Nebot, Lluïsa; Pàmies-Vilà, Rosa; Català Calderon, Pau; Puig-Ortiz, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines new tutoring evaluation methods to be adopted in the course, Machine Theory, in the Escola Tècnica Superior d'Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya). These new methods have been developed in order to facilitate teaching staff work and include students in the evaluation process.…

  19. Characterizing G-Loading, Swirl Direction, and Rayleigh Losses in an Ultra Compact Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    low Mach numbers to avoid these pressure losses while burning. Radtke [25] used a modified version of the Anthenien et al. [9] rig to study pressure...losses in the combustor due to Rayleigh effects. Radtke saw this increase in Mach number when comparing reacting and non-reacting cases, seen in...Anderson, W., Radtke , J., King, P., Thornburg, H., Zelina, J., Sekar, B., “Effects of Main Swirl Direction on High-g Combustion,” 44th AIAA/ASME/SAE

  20. An Integrated Decision-Making Model for Transformer Condition Assessment Using Game Theory and Modified Evidence Combination Extended by D Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjie Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The power transformer is one of the most critical and expensive components for the stable operation of the power system. Hence, how to obtain the health condition of transformer is of great importance for power utilities. Multi-attribute decision-making (MADM, due to its ability of solving multi-source information problems, has become a quite effective tool to evaluate the health condition of transformers. Currently, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and Dempster–Shafer theory are two popular methods to solve MADM problems; however, these techniques rarely consider one-sidedness of the single weighting method and the exclusiveness hypothesis of the Dempster–Shafer theory. To overcome these limitations, this paper introduces a novel decision-making model, which integrates the merits of fuzzy set theory, game theory and modified evidence combination extended by D numbers, to evaluate the health condition of transformers. A four-level framework, which includes three factors and seventeen sub-factors, is put forward to facilitate the evaluation model. The model points out the following: First, the fuzzy set theory is employed to obtain the original basic probability assignments for all indices. Second, the subjective and objective weights of indices, which are calculated by fuzzy AHP and entropy weight, respectively, are integrated to generate the comprehensive weights based on game theory. Finally, based on the above two steps, the modified evidence combination extended by D numbers, which avoids the limitation of the exclusiveness hypothesis in the application of Dempster–Shafer theory, is proposed to obtain the final assessment results of transformers. Case studies are given to demonstrate the proposed modeling process. The results show the effectiveness and engineering practicability of the model in transformer condition assessment.

  1. On two-primary algebraic K-theory of quadratic number rings with focus on K_2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.; Østvær, Paul Arne

    1999-01-01

    We give explicit formulas for the 2-rank of the algebraic K-groups of quadratic number rings. A 4-rank formula for K2 of quadratic number rings given in [1] provides further information about the actual group structure. The K2 claculations are based on 2- and 4-rank formulas for Picard groups of

  2. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  3. Study of Rayleigh-Love coupling from Spatial Gradient Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. J.; Hosseini, K.; Donner, S.; Vernon, F.; Wassermann, J. M.; Igel, H.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new method to study Rayleigh-Love coupling. Instead of using seismograms solely, where ground motion is recorded as function of time, we incorporate with rotation and strain, also called spatial gradient where ground is represented as function of distance. Seismic rotation and strain are intrinsic different observable wavefield so are helpful to indentify wave type and wave propagation. A Mw 7.5 earthquake on 29 March 2015 occurred in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea recorded by a dense seismic array at PFO, California are used to obtaint seismic spatial gradient. We firstly estimate time series of azimuthal direction and phase velocity of SH wave and Rayleigh wave by analyzing collocated seismograms and rotations. This result also compares with frequency wavenumber methods using a nearby ANZA seismic array. We find the direction of Rayleigh wave fits well with great-circle back azimuth during wave propagation, while the direction of Love wave deviates from that, especially when main energy of Rayleigh wave arrives. From the analysis of cross-correlation between areal strain and vertical rotation, it reveals that high coherence, either positive or negative, happens at the same time when Love wave deparate from great-circle path. We also find the observed azimuth of Love wave and polarized particle motion of Rayleigh wave fits well with the fast direction of Rayleigh wave, for the period of 50 secs. We conclude the cause of deviated azimuth of Love wave is due to Rayleigh-Love coupling, as surface wave propagates through the area with anisotropic structure.

  4. Hot-spot dynamics and deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability of imploding inertial confinement fusion capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, R.; Umansky, M.; Lobatchev, V.; Goncharov, V.N.; McCrory, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    A model for the deceleration phase of imploding inertial confinement fusion capsules is derived by solving the conservation equations for the hot spot. It is found that heat flux leaving the hot spot goes back in the form of internal energy and pdV work of the material ablated off the inner shell surface. Though the hot-spot temperature is reduced by the heat conduction losses, the hot-spot density increases due to the ablated material in such a way that the hot-spot pressure is approximately independent of heat conduction. For direct-drive National Ignition Facility-like capsules, the ablation velocity off the shell inner surface is of the order of tens μm/ns, the deceleration of the order of thousands μm/ns2, and the density-gradient scale length of the order a few μm. Using the well-established theory of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability, it is shown that the growth rates of the deceleration phase instability are significantly reduced by the finite ablative flow and the unstable spectrum exhibits a cutoff for mode numbers of about l≅90

  5. Unified theory to evaluate the effect of concentration difference and Peclet number on electroosmotic mobility error of micro electroosmotic flow

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wentao; Lee, Yi Kuen

    2012-01-01

    Both theoretical analysis and nonlinear 2D numerical simulations are used to study the concentration difference and Peclet number effect on the measurement error of electroosmotic mobility in microchannels. We propose a compact analytical model

  6. A modification to linearized theory for prediction of pressure loadings on lifting surfaces at high supersonic Mach numbers and large angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    A new linearized-theory pressure-coefficient formulation was studied. The new formulation is intended to provide more accurate estimates of detailed pressure loadings for improved stability analysis and for analysis of critical structural design conditions. The approach is based on the use of oblique-shock and Prandtl-Meyer expansion relationships for accurate representation of the variation of pressures with surface slopes in two-dimensional flow and linearized-theory perturbation velocities for evaluation of local three-dimensional aerodynamic interference effects. The applicability and limitations of the modification to linearized theory are illustrated through comparisons with experimental pressure distributions for delta wings covering a Mach number range from 1.45 to 4.60 and angles of attack from 0 to 25 degrees.

  7. Unified theory to evaluate the effect of concentration difference and Peclet number on electroosmotic mobility error of micro electroosmotic flow

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wentao

    2012-03-01

    Both theoretical analysis and nonlinear 2D numerical simulations are used to study the concentration difference and Peclet number effect on the measurement error of electroosmotic mobility in microchannels. We propose a compact analytical model for this error as a function of normalized concentration difference and Peclet number in micro electroosmotic flow. The analytical predictions of the errors are consistent with the numerical simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Rayleigh scattering in few-mode optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Wu, Hao; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhao, Ningbo; Mo, Qi; Li, Guifang

    2016-10-24

    The extremely low loss of silica fibers has enabled the telecommunication revolution, but single-mode fiber-optic communication systems have been driven to their capacity limits. As a means to overcome this capacity crunch, space-division multiplexing (SDM) using few-mode fibers (FMF) has been proposed and demonstrated. In single-mode optical fibers, Rayleigh scattering serves as the dominant mechanism for optical loss. However, to date, the role of Rayleigh scattering in FMFs remains elusive. Here we establish and experimentally validate a general model for Rayleigh scattering in FMFs. Rayleigh backscattering not only sets the intrinsic loss limit for FMFs but also provides the theoretical foundation for few-mode optical time-domain reflectometry, which can be used to probe perturbation-induced mode-coupling dynamics in FMFs. We also show that forward inter-modal Rayleigh scattering ultimately sets a fundamental limit on inter-modal-crosstalk for FMFs. Therefore, this work not only has implications specifically for SDM systems but also broadly for few-mode fiber optics and its applications in amplifiers, lasers, and sensors in which inter-modal crosstalk imposes a fundamental performance limitation.

  9. The analysis of harmonic generation coefficients in the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Fan, Zhengfeng; Lu, Xinpei; Ye, Wenhua; Zou, Changlin; Zhang, Ziyun; Zhang, Wen

    2017-10-01

    In this research, we use the numerical simulation method to investigate the generation coefficients of the first three harmonics and the zeroth harmonic in the Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability. It is shown that the interface shifts to the low temperature side during the ablation process. In consideration of the third-order perturbation theory, the first three harmonic amplitudes of the weakly nonlinear regime are calculated and then the harmonic generation coefficients are obtained by curve fitting. The simulation results show that the harmonic generation coefficients changed with time and wavelength. Using the higher-order perturbation theory, we find that more and more harmonics are generated in the later weakly nonlinear stage, which is caused by the negative feedback of the later higher harmonics. Furthermore, extending the third-order theory to the fifth-order theory, we find that the second and the third harmonics coefficients linearly depend on the wavelength, while the feedback coefficients are almost constant. Further analysis also shows that when the fifth-order theory is considered, the normalized effective amplitudes of second and third harmonics can reach about 25%-40%, which are only 15%-25% in the frame of the previous third-order theory. Therefore, the third order perturbation theory is needed to be modified by the higher-order theory when ηL reaches about 20% of the perturbation wavelength.

  10. ASSOCIATION AMONG MATHEMATICAL CRITICAL THINKING SKILL, COMMUNICATION, AND CURIOSITY ATTITUDE AS THE IMPACT OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING AND COGNITIVE CONFLICT STRATEGY (PBLCCS) IN NUMBER THEORY COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Zetriuslita Zetriuslita; Wahyudin Wahyudin; Jarnawi Afgani Dahlan

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to find out the association amongMathematical Critical Thinking (MCT) ability, Mathematical Communication, and Mathematical Curiosity Attitude (MCA) as the impact of applying Problem-Based Learning Cognitive Conflict Strategy(PBLCCS) in Number Theory course. The research method is correlative study. The instruments include a test for mathematical critical thinking skill and communication, and questionnaire to obtain the scores of mathematical curiosity attitude. The finding...

  11. Time-dependent occupation numbers in reduced-density-matrix-functional theory: Application to an interacting Landau-Zener model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requist, Ryan; Pankratov, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    We prove that if the two-body terms in the equation of motion for the one-body reduced density matrix are approximated by ground-state functionals, the eigenvalues of the one-body reduced density matrix (occupation numbers) remain constant in time. This deficiency is related to the inability of such an approximation to account for relative phases in the two-body reduced density matrix. We derive an exact differential equation giving the functional dependence of these phases in an interacting Landau-Zener model and study their behavior in short- and long-time regimes. The phases undergo resonances whenever the occupation numbers approach the boundaries of the interval [0,1]. In the long-time regime, the occupation numbers display correlation-induced oscillations and the memory dependence of the functionals assumes a simple form.

  12. Restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction: theory and examples for multiple spin flips with odd numbers of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Bell, Franziska; Goldey, Matthew; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-10-28

    The restricted active space spin flip (RAS-SF) method is extended to allow ground and excited states of molecular radicals to be described at low cost (for small numbers of spin flips). RAS-SF allows for any number of spin flips and a flexible active space while maintaining pure spin eigenfunctions for all states by maintaining a spin complete set of determinants and using spin-restricted orbitals. The implementation supports both even and odd numbers of electrons, while use of resolution of the identity integrals and a shared memory parallel implementation allow for fast computation. Examples of multiple-bond dissociation, excited states in triradicals, spin conversions in organic multi-radicals, and mixed-valence metal coordination complexes demonstrate the broad usefulness of RAS-SF.

  13. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the spherical pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.B.; Hilko, B.; Panarella, E.

    1994-01-01

    The spherical pinch (SP) concept is an outgrowth of the inertial confinement model (ICF). Unlike the ICF where instabilities, especially the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, have been studied extensively, the instability study of the spherical pinch has just begun. The Raleigh-Taylor instability is investigated for the first time in the SP in the present work. By using the simple condition for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability ∇p · ∇p < O (density and pressure gradients have opposite direction), we have qualitatively identified the regions for development of instabilities in the SP. It is found that the explosion phase (central discharge) is stable and instabilities take place in the imploding phase. However, the growth rate for the instability is not in exponential form, and the appearance of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability does not prevent the main shock wave from converging to the center of the sphere

  14. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of cylindrical jets with radial motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang M. [GE Nuclear, Wilmington, NC (United States); Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.F. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an interface between fluids with different densities subjected to accelleration normal to itself has interested researchers for almost a century. The classic analyses of a flat interface by Rayleigh and Taylor have shown that this type of instability depends on the direction of acceleration and the density differences of the two fluids. Plesset later analyzed the stability of a spherically symmetric flows (and a spherical interface) and concluded that the instability also depends on the velocity of the interface as well as the direction and magnitude of radial acceleration. The instability induced by radial motion in cylindrical systems seems to have been neglected by previous researchers. This paper analyzes the Rayleigh-Taylor type of the spherical case, the radial velocity also plays an important role. As an application, the example of a liquid jet surface in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) reactor design is analyzed.

  15. Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mixing in SN 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisuzaki, T.; Shigeyama, T.; Nomoto, K.

    1989-01-01

    The stability of the supernova ejecta is compared with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability for a realistic model of SN 1987A. A linear analysis indicates that the layers around the composition interface between the hydrogen-rich and helium zones, and become Rayleigh-Taylor unstable between the helium and metal zones. In these layers, the pressure increases outward because of deceleration due to the reverse shock which forms when the blast shock hits the massive hydrogen-rich envelope. On the contrary, the density steeply decreases outward because of the preexisting nuclear burning shell. Then, these layers undergo the Raleigh-Taylor instability because of the opposite signs of the pressure and density gradients. The estimated growth rate is larger than the expansion rate of the supernova. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability near the composition interface is likely to induce mixing, which has been strongly suggested from observations of SN 1987A. 25 refs

  16. Nonlinear saturation of the Rayleigh endash Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Mahajan, S.; Kaw, P.; Sen, A.; Benkadda, S.; Verga, A.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed numerical simulation of the nonlinear state of the Rayleigh endash Taylor instability has been carried out. There are three distinct phases of evolution where it is governed by the (i) linear effects, (ii) effects arising from the conventional nonlinear terms and (iii) subtle nonlinear effects arising through the coupling terms. During the third phase of evolution, there is a self-consistent generation of shear flow which saturates the Rayleigh endash Taylor instability even in situations (with periodic boundaries) where, in principle, an infinite amount of gravitational energy can be tapped. The Galerkin approximation is presented to provide an understanding of our numerical findings. Last, there is an attempt to provide a comprehensive understanding of the nonlinear state of the Rayleigh endash Taylor instability by comparing and contrasting this work with earlier studies. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Direct simulation of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerner, M.

    1994-11-01

    The numerical results are analysed to investigate both the structures and mechanisms of convection and the statistical features of turbulence in natural convection of liquid metals. The simulations are performed with the finite volume code TURBIT which is extended by a semi-implicit time integration scheme for the energy equation. Due to the implicit treatment of thermal diffusion the computational time for simulation of natural convection in liquid metals is reduced by about one order of magnitude, as compared to the original fully explicit code version. Results for Rayleigh-Benard convection in liquid sodium with Prandtl number Pr=0.006 are given for four different Rayleigh numbers: Ra=3 000, Ra=6 000, Ra=12 000, and Ra=24 000. At the Rayleigh number Ra=3 000 the inertial convection is identified. It is characterized by large two-dimensional vortices, which rotate like a solid body. These vortices are also observed in the simulations for Ra=6 000, Ra=12 000 and Ra=24 000, but, they only exist in certain regions and for short time intervals. The appearance of these two-dimensional structures in three-dimensional, time-dependent and turbulent convection is explained by the relative importance of the non-linear terms in the momentum and energy equation, which is totally different in both equations, and by the coupling of these equations by the buoyancy and the convective term. In order to improve and validate statistical turbulence model for application to natural convection in liquid metals, budgets of turbulence kinetic energy, turbulent heat flux and temperature variance are calculated from the numerical results. For several unknown correlations closure assumptions used in standard turbulence models are analyzed and model coefficients are determined. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Rayleigh wave ellipticity across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez García, Clara; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Spectral amplitude ratios between horizontal and vertical components (H/V ratios) from seismic records are useful to evaluate site effects, predict ground motion and invert for S velocity in the top several hundred meters. These spectral ratios can be obtained from both ambient noise and earthquakes. H/V ratios from ambient noise depend on the content and predominant wave types: body waves, Rayleigh waves, a mixture of different waves, etc. The H/V ratio computed in this way is assumed to measure Rayleigh wave ellipticity since ambient vibrations are dominated by Rayleigh waves. H/V ratios from earthquakes are able to determine the local crustal structure at the vicinity of the recording station. These ratios obtained from earthquakes are based on surface wave ellipticity measurements. Although long period (>20 seconds) Rayleigh H/V ratio is not currently used because of large scatter has been reported and uncertainly about whether these measurements are compatible with traditional phase and group velocity measurements, we will investigate whether it is possible to obtain stable estimates after collecting statistics for many earthquakes. We will use teleseismic events from shallow earthquakes (depth ≤ 40 km) between 2007 January 1 and 2012 December 31 with M ≥ 6 and we will compute H/V ratios for more than 400 stations from several seismic networks across the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco for periods between 20 and 100 seconds. Also H/V ratios from cross-correlations of ambient noise in different components for each station pair will be computed. Shorter period H/V ratio measurements based on ambient noise cross-correlations are strongly sensitive to near-surface structure, rather than longer period earthquake Rayleigh waves. The combination of ellipticity measurements based on earthquakes and ambient noise will allow us to perform a joint inversion with Rayleigh wave phase velocity. Upper crustal structure is better constrained by the joint inversion compared

  19. Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in indirect laser drive with rugby-shaped hohlraums; Experiences d'instabilites Rayleigh-Taylor en attaque indirecte avec des cavites rugby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Huser, G.; Jadaud, J.P.; Richard, A.; Liberatore, S.; Vandenboomgaerde, M. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2009-07-01

    The mastering of the development of hydrodynamic instabilities like Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities is an important milestone on the way to perform efficient laser implosions. The complexity of these instabilities implies an experimental validation of the theoretical models and their computer simulations. An experimental platform involving the Omega laser has allowed us to perform indirect drive with rugby-shaped hohlraums. The experiments have validated the growth of 2- and 3-dimensional initial defects as predicted by theory. We have shown that the 3-dimensional defect saturates for an higher amplitude than the 2-dimensional one does. The experiments have been made by using a plastic shell doped with Germanium (CH:Ge). (A.C.)

  20. Transition to the Ultimate Regime in Two-Dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Mathai, Varghese; Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    The possible transition to the so-called ultimate regime, wherein both the bulk and the boundary layers are turbulent, has been an outstanding issue in thermal convection, since the seminal work by Kraichnan [Phys. Fluids 5, 1374 (1962), 10.1063/1.1706533]. Yet, when this transition takes place and how the local flow induces it is not fully understood. Here, by performing two-dimensional simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard turbulence covering six decades in Rayleigh number Ra up to 1 014 for Prandtl number Pr =1 , for the first time in numerical simulations we find the transition to the ultimate regime, namely, at Ra*=1013 . We reveal how the emission of thermal plumes enhances the global heat transport, leading to a steeper increase of the Nusselt number than the classical Malkus scaling Nu ˜Ra1 /3 [Proc. R. Soc. A 225, 196 (1954), 10.1098/rspa.1954.0197]. Beyond the transition, the mean velocity profiles are logarithmic throughout, indicating turbulent boundary layers. In contrast, the temperature profiles are only locally logarithmic, namely, within the regions where plumes are emitted, and where the local Nusselt number has an effective scaling Nu ˜Ra0.38 , corresponding to the effective scaling in the ultimate regime.

  1. Numerical simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poujade, O.; Lardjane, N.; Peybernes, M.; Boulet, M.

    2009-01-01

    Accelerations in actual Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are often variable. This article focuses on a particular class of variable accelerations where g(t) ∝ t n . A reference database is built from high resolution hydrodynamic numerical simulations. The successful comparison with a simple OD analytical model and the statistical 2SFK (2-Structure, 2-Fluid, 2-Turbulence) turbulence model is provided. Moreover, we show the difference between the mechanism at play in the Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing zone and Kolmogorov's in the self similar developed turbulent regime. (authors)

  2. Passive retrieval of Rayleigh waves in disordered elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larose, Eric; Derode, Arnaud; Clorennec, Dominique; Margerin, Ludovic; Campillo, Michel

    2005-01-01

    When averaged over sources or disorder, cross correlation of diffuse fields yields the Green's function between two passive sensors. This technique is applied to elastic ultrasonic waves in an open scattering slab mimicking seismic waves in the Earth's crust. It appears that the Rayleigh wave reconstruction depends on the scattering properties of the elastic slab. Special attention is paid to the specific role of bulk to Rayleigh wave coupling, which may result in unexpected phenomena, such as a persistent time asymmetry in the diffuse regime

  3. Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)

  4. Study on evaluation methods for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Tao, X.; Kayen, R.; Shi, H.; Yan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic is the key step for detecting S-wave velocity structure. By comparing the dispersion curves directly with the spectra analysis of surface waves (SASW) method, rather than comparing the S-wave velocity structure, the validity and precision of microtremor-array method (MAM) can be evaluated more objectively. The results from the China - US joint surface wave investigation in 26 sites in Tangshan, China, show that the MAM has the same precision with SASW method in 83% of the 26 sites. The MAM is valid for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic testing and has great application potentiality for site S-wave velocity structure detection.

  5. Rayleigh waves in elastic medium with double porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh KUMAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the propagation of Rayleigh waves in isotropic homogeneous elastic half-space with double porosity whose surface is subjected to stress-free boundary conditions. The compact secular equations for elastic solid half-space with voids are deduced as special cases from the present analysis. In order to illustrate the analytical developments, the secular equations have been solved numerically. The computer simulated results for copper materials in respect of Rayleigh wave velocity and attenuation coe¢ cient have been presented graphically.

  6. Measurement of effective atomic number of composite materials using scattering of γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.P.; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan

    2007-01-01

    In the present experiment, to determine the effective atomic number of composite materials, the scattering of 145 keV γ-rays is studied using a high-resolution HPGe semiconductor detector placed at 70 deg. to the incident beam. The experiment is performed on various elements of different atomic number, 6≤Z≤64, for 145 keV incident photons. The intensity ratio of Rayleigh to Compton scattered peaks, corrected for photo-peak efficiency of the γ-detector and absorption of photons in the target and air, is plotted as a function of atomic number and constituted a fit curve. From this fit curve, the respective effective atomic numbers of the composite materials are determined. The agreement of measured values of effective atomic number with the theory is found to be quite satisfactory

  7. Rayleigh-Bénard convection instability in the presence of temperature variation at the lower wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the two-dimensional viscous fluid flow between two parallel plates, where the lower plate is heated and the upper one is cooled. The temperature difference between the plates is gradually increased during a certain time period, and afterwards it is temporarily constant. The temperature distribution on the lower plate is not constant in x-direction, and there is longitudinal sinusoidal temperature variation imposed on the mean temperature. We investigate the wave number and amplitude influence of this variation on the stability of Rayleigh-Benard convective cells, by direct numerical simulation of 2-D Navier-Stokes and energy equation.

  8. Unusual features of long-range density fluctuations in glass-forming organic liquids: A Rayleigh and Rayleigh-Brillouin light scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patkowski, A.; Fischer, E. W.; Steffen, W.; Glaser, H.; Baumann, M.; Ruths, T.; Meier, G.

    2001-01-01

    A new feature of glass-forming liquids, i.e., long-range density fluctuations of the order of 100 nm, has been extensively characterized by means of static light scattering, photon correlation spectroscopy and Rayleigh-Brillouin spectroscopy in orthoterphenyl (OTP) and 1,1-di(4 # prime#-methoxy-5 # prime#methyl-phenyl)-cyclohexane (BMMPC). These long-range density fluctuations result in the following unusual features observed in a light scattering experiment, which are not described by the existing theories: (i) strong q-dependent isotropic excess Rayleigh intensity, (ii) additional slow component in the polarized photon correlation function, and (iii) high Landau-Placzek ratio. These unusual features are equilibrium properties of the glass-forming liquids and depend only on temperature, provided that the sample has been equilibrated long enough. The temperature-dependent equilibration times were measured for BMMPC and are about 11 orders of magnitude longer than the α process. It was found that the glass-forming liquid OTP may occur in two states: with and without long-range density fluctuations ('clusters'). We have characterized the two states by static and dynamic light scattering in the temperature range from T g to T g +200 K. The relaxation times of the α process as well as the parameters of the Brillouin line are identical in both OTP with and without clusters. The α process (density fluctuations) in OTP was characterized by measuring either the polarized (VV) or depolarized (VH) correlation function, which are practically identical and q-independent. This feature, which is commonly observed in glass-forming liquids, is not fully explained by the existing theories

  9. The application of cryogenics to high Reynolds number testing in wind tunnels. I - Evolution, theory, and advantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Dress, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    During the time which has passed since the construction of the first wind tunnel in 1870, wind tunnels have been developed to a high degree of sophistication. However, their development has consistently failed to keep pace with the demands placed on them. One of the more serious problems to be found with existing transonic wind tunnels is their inability to test subscale aircraft models at Reynolds numbers sufficiently near full-scale values to ensure the validity of using the wind tunnel data to predict flight characteristics. The Reynolds number capability of a wind tunnel may be increased by a number of different approaches. However, the best solution in terms of model, balance, and model support loads, as well as in terms of capital and operating cost appears to be related to the reduction of the temperature of the test gas to cryogenic temperatures. The present paper has the objective to review the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept and to describe its more important advantages.

  10. Nd:YAG Laser-Based Dual-Line Detection Rayleigh Scattering and Current Efforts on UV, Filtered Rayleigh Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otugen, M. Volkan; Popovic, Svetozar

    1996-01-01

    Ongoing research in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for variable density low speed flow applications and for supersonic flow measurements are described. During the past several years, the focus has been on the development and use of a Nd:YAG-based Rayleigh scattering system with improved signal-to-noise characteristics and with applicability to complex, confined flows. This activity serves other research projects in the Aerodynamics Laboratory which require the non-contact, accurate, time-frozen measurement of gas density, pressure, and temperature (each separately), in a fairly wide dynamic range of each parameter. Recently, with the acquisition of a new seed-injected Nd:YAG laser, effort also has been directed to the development of a high-speed velocity probe based on a spectrally resolved Rayleigh scattering technique.

  11. Depolarization Rayleigh scattering as a means of molecular concentration determination in plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, R.F.G.; Schram, D.C.; Jaegers, L.J.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The difference in polarization for Rayleigh scattered radiation on spherically and nonspherically symmetric scattering objects has been used to obtain molecular species concentrations in plasmas of simple composition. Using a Rayleigh scattering diagnostic, the depolarized component of the scattered

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of wings designed with a combined-theory method to cruise at a Mach number of 4.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    A wind-tunnel study was conducted to determine the capability of a method combining linear theory and shock-expansion theory to design optimum camber surfaces for wings that will fly at high-supersonic/low-hypersonic speeds. Three force models (a flat-plate reference wing and two cambered and twisted wings) were used to obtain aerodynamic lift, drag, and pitching-moment data. A fourth pressure-orifice model was used to obtain surface-pressure data. All four wing models had the same planform, airfoil section, and centerbody area distribution. The design Mach number was 4.5, but data were also obtained at Mach numbers of 3.5 and 4.0. Results of these tests indicated that the use of airfoil thickness as a theoretical optimum, camber-surface design constraint did not improve the aerodynamic efficiency or performance of a wing as compared with a wing that was designed with a zero-thickness airfoil (linear-theory) constraint.

  13. Correlation between catalytic activity and bonding and coordination number of atoms and molecules on transition metal surfaces: theory and experimental evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falicov, L.M.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Correlation between catalytic activity and low-energy local electronic fluctuation in transition metals is proposed. A theory and calculations are presented which indicate that maximum electronic fluctuants take place at high-coordination metal sites. Either (i) atomically rough surfaces that expose to the reactant molecules atoms with large numbers of nonmagnetic or weakly magnetic neighbors in the first or second layer at the surface or (ii) stepped and kinked surfaces are the most active in carrying out structure-sensitive catalytic reactions. The synthesis of ammonia from N 2 and H 2 over iron and rhenium surfaces, 1 H 2 / 2 H 2 exchange over stepped platinum crystal surfaces at low pressures, and the hydrogenolysis (C - C bond breaking) of isobutane at kinked platinum crystal surfaces are presented as experimental evidence in support of the theory

  14. Experimental investigation of quantum effects in time-resolved resonance Rayleigh scattering from quantum well excitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Dan; Shah, Jagdeep; Shchegrov, Andrei V.

    2000-01-01

    Resonant Rayleigh scattering from quantum well excitons is investigated using ultrafast spectral interferometry. We isolate the coherent Rayleigh scattering from incoherent luminescence in a single speckle. Averaging the resonant Rayleigh intensity over several speckles allows us to identify...... features in support of quantum corrections to the classical description of the underlying scattering process....

  15. Instantaneous Rayleigh scattering from excitons localized in monolayer islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang; Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    2000-01-01

    We show that the initial dynamics of Rayleigh scattering from excitons in quantum wells can be either instantaneous or delayed, depending on the exciton ensemble studied. For excitation of the entire exciton resonance, a finite rise time given by the inverse inhomogeneous broadening: of the exciton...

  16. Rayleigh-Taylor convective overturn in stellar collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruenn, S.W.; Buchler, J.R.; Livio, M.

    1979-01-01

    Rayleigh--Taylor convective overturn in collapsing stellar cores is modeled with a one-dimensional parametrization. The results of a numerical hydrodynamic study are very encouraging and indicate that such an overturn could well be a dominant feature in the supernova explosion mechanism

  17. The prediction and discovery of Rayleigh line fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabelinskii, Immanuil L

    2000-01-01

    The history of the theoretical prediction and experimental discovery of the Rayleigh line fine structure (which belongs to one of the most important phenomena in optics and physics of condensed matter) is discussed along with the history of first publications concerning this topic. (from the history of physics)

  18. Using the self-learning intellectual models for predicting the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuzhnyj, A.S.; Rozanov, V.B.; Stepanov, R.V.; Shumskij, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Stability of target compression in the laser thermonuclear synthesis is discussed. The process is determined by developing the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RNI). A program unit for description of the RNI evolution by its initial distributions is developed. The results of statistical analysis of the RT mixing calculations are given. The analysis is carried out by means of learning base system and is substantiated on the generalization of great number of data, fulfilled by means of the neural network methods [ru

  19. Optical force and torque on a dielectric Rayleigh particle by a circular Airy vortex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Musheng; Huang, Sujuan; Shao, Wei; Liu, Xianpeng

    2018-03-01

    Optical force and torque exerted on the Rayleigh particles by tightly focused circularly polarized circular Airy vortex beams (CAVB) in the far field are studied in this paper. The relation between parameters of circularly polarized CAVB and the trapping properties is numerically analyzed based on Rayleigh models and the Debye diffraction theory. The results show that both the high refractive index and low refractive index particles can be fully stably trapped in three dimensions by circularly polarized CAVB. The parameters of circularly polarized CAVB greatly affect the optical force. The longitudinal and transverse gradient force increase with the increase of decay factor and scaling factor, and decrease with the increase of the radius of the first primary ring and topological charges. The positions of the longitudinal stable equilibrium move toward the high numerical aperture lens when the scaling factor and the radius of the primary ring increase. The trapping range is broadened with the decrease of scaling factor. The optical orbital torque (OOT) of circularly polarized CAVB has circular symmetry and remains positive or negative. With the increase of topological charges, the peak value of OOT first increases and then decreases after reaches a maximum. These results are useful for optical trapping, optical levitation and particle acceleration.

  20. Theory and implementation of a very high throughput true random number generator in field programmable gate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yonggang, E-mail: wangyg@ustc.edu.cn; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-04-15

    The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications.

  1. Experimental investigation of acoustic streaming in a cylindrical wave guide up to high streaming Reynolds numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Valière, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of streaming velocity are performed by means of Laser Doppler Velocimetry and Particle Image Velociimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a cylindrical waveguide having one loudspeaker at each end for high intensity sound levels. The case of high nonlinear Reynolds number ReNL is particularly investigated. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the axial and to the transverse coordinates are compared to available Rayleigh streaming theory. As expected, the measured streaming velocity agrees well with the Rayleigh streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for high ReNL. When the nonlinear Reynolds number is increased, the outer centerline axial streaming velocity gets distorted towards the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes. This kind of behavior is followed by outer streaming cells only and measurements in the near wall region show that inner streaming vortices are less affected by this substantial evolution of fast streaming pattern. Measurements of the transient evolution of streaming velocity provide an additional insight into the evolution of fast streaming.

  2. Dynamic Systems with a Finite Degrees of Freedom Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ładziński Radosław

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking as a starting point the law of conservation of the total energy of the system, and introducing two basic state functions - the Lagrangian and the Rayleigh function, the general form of the equation of motion for any dynamic system with a finite number of degrees of freedom is derived. The theory is illustrated by considering the rotating - type electromechanical energy converter with six degrees of freedom being the model of all essentially important types of DC and AC machines, including rotating power amplifiers, induction - and synchronous type motors - all of them discussed from both, the steady-state and the transient point of view. In the next part of the paper there is described a simple electric circuit with its model characterized by the holonomic constraints of the velocity-type. Finally, there is presented the kinematics and dynamics of the interesting mechanical system - the gyroscope placed on the rotating Earth.

  3. Rayleigh-Benard convection in a Hele-Shaw cell - a numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, C.; Mueller, U.

    1987-05-01

    Free convection in narrow vertical gaps heated from below gives rise to several different flow patterns as has been demonstrated by previous experimental investigations. A numerical study is presented aimed at simulating the observed flow phenomena in Hele-Shaw cells of small lateral extend. The numerical study is based on the assumption that the flow is essentially two-dimensional. This allows an approach using a one-term Galerkin approximation with respect to the direction perpendicular to the gap and a finite difference scheme with regard to the coordinates in the plane of the gap. The calculations result in realistic values of the critical Rayleigh numbers for the onset of steady and oscillatory convection. Most of the observed unsteady flow patterns can be simulated numerically. It is shown that five different stable flow patterns can occur at one particular Rayleigh number. The different stable flow patterns are coupled by a variety of complex transitions. Moreover the calculations show that a realistic description of the observed flow phenomena can not be obtained by a simplified model using the Darcy law in the momentum equation and implying slip flow at the small confining boundaries. (orig.) [de

  4. Ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    As shown elsewhere an ablatively imploded shell is hydrodynamically unstable, the dominant instability being the well known Rayleigh-Taylor instability with growth rate γ = √Akg where k = 2π/λ is the wave number, g is the acceleration and A the Attwood number (ρ hi - ρ lo )/(ρ hi + ρ lo ) where ρ hi is the density of the heavier fluid and ρ lo is the density of the lighter fluid. A theoretical understanding of ablative stabilization has gradually evolved, confirmed over the last five years by experiments. The linear growth is very well understood with excellent agreement between experiment and simulation for planar geometry with wavelengths in the region of 30--100μm. There is an accurate, albeit phenomenological dispersion relation. The non-linear growth has been measured and agrees with calculations. In this lecture, the authors go into the fundamentals of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the experimental measurements that show it is stabilized sufficiently by ablation in regimes relevant to ICF

  5. Thermal Rayleigh-Marangoni convection in a three-layer liquid-metal-battery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Thomas; Boeck, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-05-01

    The combined effects of buoyancy-driven Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RC) and surface tension-driven Marangoni convection (MC) are studied in a triple-layer configuration which serves as a simplified model for a liquid metal battery (LMB). The three-layer model consists of a liquid metal alloy cathode, a molten salt separation layer, and a liquid metal anode at the top. Convection is triggered by the temperature gradient between the hot electrolyte and the colder electrodes, which is a consequence of the release of resistive heat during operation. We present a linear stability analysis of the state of pure thermal conduction in combination with three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear turbulent evolution on the basis of a pseudospectral method. Five different modes of convection are identified in the configuration, which are partly coupled to each other: RC in the upper electrode, RC with internal heating in the molten salt layer, and MC at both interfaces between molten salt and electrode as well as anticonvection in the middle layer and lower electrode. The linear stability analysis confirms that the additional Marangoni effect in the present setup increases the growth rates of the linearly unstable modes, i.e., Marangoni and Rayleigh-Bénard instability act together in the molten salt layer. The critical Grashof and Marangoni numbers decrease with increasing middle layer thickness. The calculated thresholds for the onset of convection are found for realistic current densities of laboratory-sized LMBs. The global turbulent heat transfer follows scaling predictions for internally heated RC. The global turbulent momentum transfer is comparable with turbulent convection in the classical Rayleigh-Bénard case. In summary, our studies show that incorporating Marangoni effects generates smaller flow structures, alters the velocity magnitudes, and enhances the turbulent heat transfer across the triple-layer configuration.

  6. The new electromagnetic tetrads, infinite tetrad nesting and the non-trivial emergence of complex numbers in real theories of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garat, Alcides

    How complex numbers get into play in a non-trivial way in real theories of gravitation is relevant since in a unified structure they should be able to relate in a natural way with quantum theories. For a long time this issue has been lingering on both relativistic formulations and quantum theories. We will analyze this fundamental subject under the light of new group isomorphism theorems linking local internal groups of transformations and local groups of spacetime transformations. The bridge between these two kinds of transformations is represented by new tetrads introduced previously. It is precisely through these local tetrad structures that we will provide a non-trivial answer to this old issue. These new tetrads have two fundamental building components, the skeletons and the gauge vectors. It is these constructive elements that provide the mathematical support that allows to prove group isomorphism theorems. In addition to this, we will prove a unique new property, the infinite tetrad nesting, alternating the nesting with non-Abelian tetrads in the construction of the tetrad gauge vectors. As an application we will demonstrate an alternative proof of a new group isomorphism theorem.

  7. Dynamic evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor bubbles from sinusoidal, W-shaped, and random perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Rui; Zhang, You-Sheng; Tian, Bao-Lin

    2018-03-01

    Implicit large eddy simulations of two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability at different density ratios (i.e., Atwood number A =0.05 , 0.5, and 0.9) are conducted to investigate the late-time dynamics of bubbles. To produce a flow field full of bounded, semibounded, and chaotic bubbles, three problems with distinct perturbations are simulated: (I) periodic sinusoidal perturbation, (II) isolated W-shaped perturbation, and (III) random short-wave perturbations. The evolution of height h , velocity v , and diameter D of the (dominant) bubble with time t are formulated and analyzed. In problem I, during the quasisteady stage, the simulations confirm Goncharov's prediction of the terminal speed v∞=Fr√{A g λ /(1 +A ) } , where Fr=1 /√{3 π } . Moreover, the diameter D at this stage is found to be proportional to the initial perturbation wavelength λ as D ≈λ . This differed from Daly's simulation result of D =λ (1 +A )/2 . In problem II, a W-shaped perturbation is designed to produce a bubble environment similar to that of chaotic bubbles in problem III. We obtain a similar terminal speed relationship as above, but Fr is replaced by Frw≈0.63 . In problem III, the simulations show that h grows quadratically with the bubble acceleration constant α ≡h /(A g t2)≈0.05 , and D expands self-similarly with a steady aspect ratio β ≡D /h ≈(1 +A )/2 , which differs from existing theories. Therefore, following the mechanism of self-similar growth, we derive a relationship of β =4 α (1 +A ) /Frw2 to relate the evolution of chaotic bubbles in problem III to that of semibounded bubbles in problem II. The validity of this relationship highlights the fact that the dynamics of chaotic bubbles in problem III are similar to the semibounded isolated bubbles in problem II, but not to that of bounded periodic bubbles in problem I.

  8. Time-stepping approach for solving upper-bound problems: Application to two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Baole; Chini, Gregory P.; Kerswell, Rich R.; Doering, Charles R.

    2015-10-01

    An alternative computational procedure for numerically solving a class of variational problems arising from rigorous upper-bound analysis of forced-dissipative infinite-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, including the Navier-Stokes and Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations, is analyzed and applied to Rayleigh-Bénard convection. A proof that the only steady state to which this numerical algorithm can converge is the required global optimal of the relevant variational problem is given for three canonical flow configurations. In contrast with most other numerical schemes for computing the optimal bounds on transported quantities (e.g., heat or momentum) within the "background field" variational framework, which employ variants of Newton's method and hence require very accurate initial iterates, the new computational method is easy to implement and, crucially, does not require numerical continuation. The algorithm is used to determine the optimal background-method bound on the heat transport enhancement factor, i.e., the Nusselt number (Nu), as a function of the Rayleigh number (Ra), Prandtl number (Pr), and domain aspect ratio L in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection between stress-free isothermal boundaries (Rayleigh's original 1916 model of convection). The result of the computation is significant because analyses, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations have suggested a range of exponents α and β in the presumed Nu˜PrαRaβ scaling relation. The computations clearly show that for Ra≤1010 at fixed L =2 √{2 },Nu≤0.106 Pr0Ra5/12 , which indicates that molecular transport cannot generally be neglected in the "ultimate" high-Ra regime.

  9. Influence of gradual density transition and nonlinear saturation on Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, H.

    1984-08-01

    Linear theory of Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth at a density profile which varies exponentially between regions of constant density is discussed in detail. The exact theory provides an approximate but conservative simple formula for the growth constant and it shows that a hitherto widely used theory erroneously underestimates the growth constant. A simple but effective ''synthetical model'' of nonlinear bubble growth is obtained from a synthesis of linear theory and constant terminal bubble speed. It is applied to pusher shell break-up in an inertial confinement fusion pellet to determine the maximum allowable initial perturbations and the most dangerous wavelength. In a situation typical of heavy ion drivers it is found that the allowable initial perturbations are increased by a few orders of magnitude by the gradual density transition and another order of magnitude by nonlinear saturation of the bubble speed. The gradual density transition also shifts the most dangerous wavelength from about once to about four times the minimum pusher shell thickness. The following topics are treated briefly: Reasons conflicting with use of the synthetical model to decide whether the pusher shell in a certain simulation will be broken up; other nonlinear theories available in the literature; further realistic effects that might aggravate instability growth. (orig.) [de

  10. On Multiple Users Scheduling Using Superposition Coding over Rayleigh Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2013-02-20

    In this letter, numerical results are provided to analyze the gains of multiple users scheduling via superposition coding with successive interference cancellation in comparison with the conventional single user scheduling in Rayleigh blockfading broadcast channels. The information-theoretic optimal power, rate and decoding order allocation for the superposition coding scheme are considered and the corresponding histogram for the optimal number of scheduled users is evaluated. Results show that at optimality there is a high probability that only two or three users are scheduled per channel transmission block. Numerical results for the gains of multiple users scheduling in terms of the long term throughput under hard and proportional fairness as well as for fixed merit weights for the users are also provided. These results show that the performance gain of multiple users scheduling over single user scheduling increases when the total number of users in the network increases, and it can exceed 10% for high number of users

  11. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C.; Provasi, Patricio F.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 O, SiH 4 , PH 3 , SH 2 , C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , and C 2 H 6 . The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states

  12. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C., E-mail: mnzarycz@gmail.com; Provasi, Patricio F., E-mail: patricio@unne.edu.ar [Department of Physics, University of Northeastern - CONICET, Av. Libertad 5500, Corrientes W3404AAS (Argentina); Sauer, Stephan P. A., E-mail: sauer@kiku.dk [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2015-12-28

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, SiH{sub 4}, PH{sub 3}, SH{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states.

  13. On the ""early-time"" evolution of variables relevant to turbulence models for Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollin, Bertrand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Andrews, Malcolm J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We present our progress toward setting initial conditions in variable density turbulence models. In particular, we concentrate our efforts on the BHR turbulence model for turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Our approach is to predict profiles of relevant parameters before the fully turbulent regime and use them as initial conditions for the turbulence model. We use an idealized model of the mixing between two interpenetrating fluids to define the initial profiles for the turbulence model parameters. Velocities and volume fractions used in the idealized mixing model are obtained respectively from a set of ordinary differential equations modeling the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and from an idealization of the density profile in the mixing layer. A comparison between predicted initial profiles for the turbulence model parameters and initial profiles of the parameters obtained from low Atwood number three dimensional simulations show reasonable agreement.

  14. On the ""early-time"" evolution of variables relevant to turbulence models for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollin, Bertrand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Andrews, Malcolm J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We present our progress toward setting initial conditions in variable density turbulence models. In particular, we concentrate our efforts on the BHR turbulence model for turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Our approach is to predict profiles of relevant variables before fully turbulent regime and use them as initial conditions for the turbulence model. We use an idealized model of mixing between two interpenetrating fluids to define the initial profiles for the turbulence model variables. Velocities and volume fractions used in the idealized mixing model are obtained respectively from a set of ordinary differential equations modeling the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and from an idealization of the density profile in the mixing layer. A comparison between predicted profiles for the turbulence model variables and profiles of the variables obtained from low Atwood number three dimensional simulations show reasonable agreement.

  15. Power Laws and Similarity of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov Mixing Fronts at All Density Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alon, U.; Hecht, J.; Ofer, D.; Shvarts, D.

    1995-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of large structure in Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov bubble and spike fronts is studied numerically and explained theoretically on the basis of single-mode and two-bubble interaction physics at Atwood numbers (A). Multimode Rayleigh-Taylor bubble (spike) fronts are found as h B =α B Agt 2 [h s =α s (A)gt 2 ] with α B =0.05, while Richtmyer-Meshkov bubble (spike) fronts are found as h B =a B t θ B (h s =a s t θ s (A) ) with θ B =0.4 at all A's. The dependence of these scaling laws and parameters on A and on initial conditions is explained

  16. Linear theory of equatorial spread F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.K.; Kennel, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    A fluid dispersion relation for the drift and interchange (Rayleigh-Taylor) modes in a collisional plasma forms the basis for a linear theory of equatorial spread F. The collisional drift mode growth rate will exceed the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor mode at short perpendicular wavelengths and density gradient scale lengths, and the drift mode can grow on top side as well as on bottom side density gradients. However, below the F peak, where spread F predominates, it is concluded that both the drift and the Rayleigh-Taylor modes contribute to the total spread F spectrum, the Rayleigh-Taylor mode dominating at long and the drift mode at short perpendicular wavelengths above the ion Larmor radius

  17. Two-dimensional simulation of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an imploding foil plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, N.F.; Hussey, T.W.; Faehl, R.J.; Boyd, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Two-dimensional (r-z) magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the electromagnetic implosion of metallic foil plasmas show, for certain initial configurations, a tendency to develop large-amplitude perturbations characteristic of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability. These perturbations develop at the plasma magnetic field interface for plasma configurations where the density gradient scale length, the characteristic dimension for the instability, is short. The effects on the plasma dynamics of the implosion will be discussed for several initial foil configurations. In general, the growth rates and linear mode structure are found to be influenced by the plasma shell thickness and density gradient scale length, in agreement with theory. The most destructive modes are found to be those with wavelengths of the order of the plasma shell thickness

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in indirect laser drive with rugby-shaped hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Huser, G.; Jadaud, J.P.; Richard, A.; Liberatore, S.; Vandenboomgaerde, M.

    2009-01-01

    The mastering of the development of hydrodynamic instabilities like Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities is an important milestone on the way to perform efficient laser implosions. The complexity of these instabilities implies an experimental validation of the theoretical models and their computer simulations. An experimental platform involving the Omega laser has allowed us to perform indirect drive with rugby-shaped hohlraums. The experiments have validated the growth of 2- and 3-dimensional initial defects as predicted by theory. We have shown that the 3-dimensional defect saturates for an higher amplitude than the 2-dimensional one does. The experiments have been made by using a plastic shell doped with Germanium (CH:Ge). (A.C.)

  19. From symmetries to number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempesta, P.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the finite-operator calculus provides a simple formalism useful for constructing symmetry-preserving discretizations of quantum-mechanical integrable models. A related algebraic approach can also be used to define a class of Appell polynomials and of L series.

  20. GENERALIZATION OF RAYLEIGH MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD DESPECKLING FILTER USING QUADRILATERAL KERNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sridevi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Speckle noise is the most prevalent noise in clinical ultrasound images. It visibly looks like light and dark spots and deduce the pixel intensity as murkiest. Gazing at fetal ultrasound images, the impact of edge and local fine details are more palpable for obstetricians and gynecologists to carry out prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. A robust despeckling filter has to be contrived to proficiently suppress speckle noise and simultaneously preserve the features. The proposed filter is the generalization of Rayleigh maximum likelihood filter by the exploitation of statistical tools as tuning parameters and use different shapes of quadrilateral kernels to estimate the noise free pixel from neighborhood. The performance of various filters namely Median, Kuwahura, Frost, Homogenous mask filter and Rayleigh maximum likelihood filter are compared with the proposed filter in terms PSNR and image profile. Comparatively the proposed filters surpass the conventional filters.

  1. Rayleigh-Taylor/gravitational instability in dense magnetoplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S., E-mail: shahid.ali@ncp.edu.p [National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ahmed, Z. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Wah Campus (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Physics Department, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ahmad, I. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Physics, Islamabad Campus (Pakistan)

    2009-08-10

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated in a nonuniform dense quantum magnetoplasma. For this purpose, a quantum hydrodynamical model is used for the electrons whereas the ions are assumed to be cold and classical. The dispersion relation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability becomes modified with the quantum corrections associated with the Fermi pressure law and the quantum Bohm potential force. Numerically, it is found that the quantum speed and density gradient significantly modify the growth rate of RT instability. In a dense quantum magnetoplasma case, the linear growth rate of RT instability becomes significantly higher than its classical value and the modes are found to be highly localized. The present investigation should be useful in the studies of dense astrophysical magnetoplasmas as well as in laser-produced plasmas.

  2. Rayleigh-Taylor/gravitational instability in dense magnetoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Mirza, Arshad M.; Ahmad, I.

    2009-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated in a nonuniform dense quantum magnetoplasma. For this purpose, a quantum hydrodynamical model is used for the electrons whereas the ions are assumed to be cold and classical. The dispersion relation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability becomes modified with the quantum corrections associated with the Fermi pressure law and the quantum Bohm potential force. Numerically, it is found that the quantum speed and density gradient significantly modify the growth rate of RT instability. In a dense quantum magnetoplasma case, the linear growth rate of RT instability becomes significantly higher than its classical value and the modes are found to be highly localized. The present investigation should be useful in the studies of dense astrophysical magnetoplasmas as well as in laser-produced plasmas.

  3. Influence of velocity shear on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzdar, P.N.; Satyanarayana, P.; Huba, J.D.; Ossakow, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of a transverse velocity shear on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is investigated. It is found that a sheared velocity flow can substantially reduce the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in short wavelength regime (i.e., kL>1 where L is the scale length of the density inhomogeneity), and causes the growth rate to maximize at kL<1.0. Applications of this result to ionospheric phenomena [equatorial spread F (ESF) and ionospheric plasma clouds] are discussed. In particular, the effect of shear could account for, at times, the 100's of km modulation observed on the bottomside of the ESF ionosphere and the km scale size wavelengths observed in barium cloud prompt striation phenomena

  4. An Experimental Study on Rayleigh-Benard Natural Convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Je Young; Chung, Bum Jin

    2012-01-01

    Core melt in a severe accident condition, forms a molten pool in the reactor vessel lower head. The molten pool is divided by a metallic pool (top) and an oxide pool (bottom) by the density difference. Due to the decay heat generated in oxide pool, Rayleigh- Benard natural convection heated from below and cooled from above occurs in the metallic pool. Experiments were performed to investigate Rayleigh- Benard natural convection as a preparatory study before an in-depth severe accident study. The natural convection heat transfers were measured varying the plate separation distance and the area of plate with and without the side wall. Using the analogy concept, heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments. A cupric acid.copper sulfate (H 2 SO 4 -CuSO 4 ) electroplating system was adopted as the mass transfer system and the electric currents were measured rather than the heat

  5. Reduced-Order Modeling of 3D Rayleigh-Benard Turbulent Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Pedram; Grover, Piyush; Nabi, Saleh

    2017-11-01

    Accurate Reduced-Order Models (ROMs) of turbulent geophysical flows have broad applications in science and engineering; for example, to study the climate system or to perform real-time flow control/optimization in energy systems. Here we focus on 3D Rayleigh-Benard turbulent convection at the Rayleigh number of 106 as a prototype for turbulent geophysical flows, which are dominantly buoyancy driven. The purpose of the study is to evaluate and improve the performance of different model reduction techniques using this setting. One-dimensional ROMs for horizontally averaged temperature are calculated using several methods. Specifically, the Linear Response Function (LRF) of the system is calculated from a large DNS dataset using Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) and Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (FDT). The LRF is also calculated using the Green's function method of Hassanzadeh and Kuang (2016, J. Atmos. Sci.), which is based on using numerous forced DNS runs. The performance of these LRFs in estimating the system's response to weak external forcings or controlling the time-mean flow are compared and contrasted. The spectral properties of the LRFs and the scaling of the accuracy with the length of the dataset (for the data-driven methods) are also discussed.

  6. General Switch-and-Stay Combing for Space Diversity over Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawgeng A. Chau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three multibranch switch-and-stay combining (MSSC schemes are analyzed for Rayleigh fading channels, where different decision statistics for antenna switching (i.e., switch statistic are used. Let a and r denote the fading factor and the received baseband signal of a diversity branch, respectively. In contrast to the traditional MSSC that uses the faded signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of diversity branches as the corresponding switch statistic, to enhance the receiver performance, |r|, |ar|, and a new linear combination of a and |r| are used as switch statistics of the three MSSC schemes, respectively. For performance evaluation, the bit error rate (BER of BPSK is derived for the three MSSC schemes over both independent-and-identical distributed (i.i.d. and independent-and-nonidentical distributed (i.n.d. Rayleigh fading channels. To pursue optimal performance, the locally optimal switch threshold (ST of each MSSC scheme is obtained for general i.n.d. fading channels. In addition, the locally optimal ST becomes the globally optimal ST for i.i.d. channels. Numerical results based on the analysis and simulations are presented. In contrast to the MSSC over i.i.d. fading channels, we will show that the performance of MSSC schemes can be improved by increasing the number of branches, if i.n.d. channels are considered.

  7. The propagation of nonlinear rayleigh waves in layered elastic half-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmetolan, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the propagation of small but finite amplitude generalized Rayleigh waves in an elastic half-space covered by a different elastic layer of uniform and finite thickness is considered. The constituent materials are assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic, compressible hyperelastic. Excluding the harmonic resonance phenomena, it is shown that the nonlinear self modulation of generalized Rayleigh waves is governed asymptotically by a nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation. The stability of the solutions and the existence of solitary wave-type solutions a NLS are strongly depend on the sign of the product of the coefficients of the nonlinear and dipersion terms of the equation.Therefore the analysis continues with the examination of dependence of these coefficients on the nonlinear material parameters. Three different models have been considered which are nonlinear layer-nonlinear half space, linear layer-nonlinear half space and nonlinear layer-linear half space. The behavior of the coefficients of the NLS equation was also analyzed the limit as h(thickness of the layer) goes to zero and k(the wave number) is constant. Then conclusions are drawn about the effect of nonlinear material parameters on the wave modulation. In the numerical investigations both hypothetical and real material models are used

  8. On the MIMO Capacity for Distributed System under Composite Rayleigh/Rician Fading and Shadowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago González-Aurioles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless channels are commonly affected by short-term fading and long-term fading (shadowing. The shadowing effects must be taken into account also when mobility is present in the wireless scenario. Using a composite fading model, the total channel capacity can be studied for a scenario with short-term Rayleigh fading along with shadowing. This work provides quantitative results for these kinds of scenarios with Rayleigh fading and shadowing, considering also multiple-input and multiple-output systems, which have not been previously reported. In addition, the channel capacity has been studied in depth in its relation with the shadowing level, signal to noise ratio, and the number of elements in the multiple-input and multiple-output system. Moreover, the channel performance with shadowing has been compared to the one without it. Furthermore, Rician model with shadowing is studied and its results are reported. In addition, correlated and experimental results are provided. It is identified that the distributed MIMO systems can benefit from shadowing in Rician channels. This advantage has not been reported previously. This type of fading is proposed for massive MIMO by others and our results open the door to emulate massive MIMO on a reverberation chamber.

  9. Laser speckle velocimetry applied to Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyo, M.P.; Yonte, T.; Quintanilla, M.; Saviron, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    An application of speckle velocimetry technique to Rayleigh-Benard convection is presented. A 5-mW He-Ne laser allows precise determination of the two-dimensional velocity flow field, up to several mm/sec. The digital techniques used to analyze automatically the multiexposed photographs and to generate velocity and vorticity fields are described. The obtained results are in good agreement with previously reported data. The ability of the technique to cover other experimental conditions is discussed. 14 references

  10. Stochastic model of Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abarzhi, S.I.; Cadjan, M.; Fedotov, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a stochastic model to describe the random character of the dissipation process in Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing. The parameter alpha, used conventionally to characterize the mixing growth-rate, is not a universal constant and is very sensitive to the statistical properties of the dissipation. The ratio between the rates of momentum loss and momentum gain is the statistic invariant and a robust parameter to diagnose with or without turbulent diffusion accounted for

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an equal mass plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adak, Ashish, E-mail: ashish-adak@yahoo.com [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ghosh, Samiran, E-mail: sran-g@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Nikhil, E-mail: nikhil.chakrabarti@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-09-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an inhomogeneous pair-ion plasma has been analyzed. Considering two fluid model for two species of ions (positive and negative), we obtain the possibility of the existence of RT instability. The growth rate of the RT instability as usual depends on gravity and density gradient scale length. The results are discussed in context of pair-ion plasma experiments.

  12. Measurement of molecular polarizability on Rayleigh light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerushev, O.A.; Novopashin, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The installation for measuring the polarizability of atoms and molecules on Rayleigh light scattering is described. The measurements in gases with the known polarizability are used for a calibration. Test measurements are carried out on nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, vapours of water and acetone. The results of measurements are compared with the table data. The technique is used for measuring the polarizability of fullerene molecules. 6 refs., 2 figs

  13. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a visco-plastic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demianov, A Yu; Doludenko, A N; Son, E E; Inogamov, N A

    2010-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities of a visco-plastic fluid are discussed. The Bingham model is used as an effective rheological model which takes into account plastic effects. For the purposes of numerical simulation a one-mode disturbance of the contact surface between two fluids is considered. The main goal of this work is to construct numerical 2D and 3D models and to obtain the relationship between yield stress and the development of instability.

  14. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a visco-plastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demianov, A. Yu; Doludenko, A. N.; Inogamov, N. A.; Son, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities of a visco-plastic fluid are discussed. The Bingham model is used as an effective rheological model which takes into account plastic effects. For the purposes of numerical simulation a one-mode disturbance of the contact surface between two fluids is considered. The main goal of this work is to construct numerical 2D and 3D models and to obtain the relationship between yield stress and the development of instability.

  15. Dipping-interface mapping using mode-separated Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is a non-invasive geophysical technique that uses the dispersive characteristic of Rayleigh waves to estimate a vertical shear (S)-wave velocity profile. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section is constructed by aligning 1D S-wave velocity profiles at the midpoint of each receiver spread that are contoured using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. Based on the assumption that a dipping-layer model can be regarded as stepped flat layers, high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT) has been proposed to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate modes of Rayleigh waves from a multichannel record. With the mode-separation technique, therefore, a dispersion curve that possesses satisfactory accuracy can be calculated using a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. In this study, using synthetic models containing a dipping layer with a slope of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 30 degrees and a real-world example, we assess the ability of using high-resolution LRT to image and separate fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves from raw surface-wave data and accuracy of dispersion curves generated by a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that a dipping interface with a slope smaller than 15 degrees can be successfully mapped by separated fundamental waves using high-resolution LRT. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

  16. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  17. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of cylindrical jets with radial motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.M.; Schrock, V.E.; Peterson, P.F.

    1997-01-01

    Rayleigh-Taylor instability of an interface between fluids with different densities subjected to acceleration normal to itself has interested researchers for almost a century. The classic analyses of a flat interface by Rayleigh and Taylor have shown that this type of instability depends on the direction of acceleration and the density differences of the two fluids. Plesset later analyzed the stability of a spherically symmetric flows (and a spherical interface) and concluded that the instability also depends on the velocity of the interface as well as the direction and magnitude of radial acceleration. The instability induced by radial motion in cylindrical systems seems to have been neglected by previous researchers. This paper analyzes the Rayleigh-Taylor type of instability for a cylindrical surface with radial motions. The results of the analysis show that, like the spherical case, the radial velocity also plays an important role. As an application, the example of a liquid jet surface in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) reactor design is analyzed. (orig.)

  18. Stabilization of the Rayleigh - Taylor instability with convection in an ablatively accelerated laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.; Liberman, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    In the framework of WKB approximation the problem is studied of stabilizing the Rayleigh - Taylor instability with unhomogeneous convective flow, developing in the ablation zone during the ablative acceleration of the laser target plasma. The eigenvalue (instability growth rates) problem is reduced to solving an algebraic equation with the coefficients depending on the unperturbed profile structure of hydrodynamic variables. For the important case of the incompressible plasma subsonic flow, the instability growth rates is shown to vanish at k=k 0 =max(2(g|∇ ln p|) 1/2 /ν). The consistency condition of the model consists in the smallness of the local Froude number in the region of instability development. However, as seen from the comparison with the numerical calculations, the model is well appicable also for the case of the sufficiently abrupt density gradient provided the Froude number is of order of unity

  19. Performance of equal gain combining with quantized phases in rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rizvi, Umar H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the error probability of equal gain combining with quantized channel phase compensation for binary phase shift keying signalling over Rayleigh fading channels. The probability density and characteristic functions of the combined signal amplitude are derived and used to compute the analytic expressions for the bit error probability in dependance of the number of quantization levels L, the number of diversity branches N-R and the average received signal-to-noise ratio. The analysis is utilized to outline the trade-off between N-R and L and to compare the performance with non-coherent binary frequency shift keying and differential binary phase shift keying schemes under diversity reception. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. Rayleigh-Taylor instability of two superposed conducting Walters B' elastico-viscous fluids in hydromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.C.; Kumar, Pardeep

    1998-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability of two superposed electrically conducting Walters elastico-viscous fluids (Model B') of uniform densities when the whole system is immersed in a uniform horizontal magnetic field has been studied. The stability analysis has been carried out, for mathematical simplicity, for two highly viscoelastic fluids of equal kinematic viscosities and equal kinematic viscoelasticities. For the stable configuration as in hydrodynamic case, the system is found to be stable or unstable for the wave-number range k (2v') -12 depending on kinematic viscoelasticity v'. For the unstable configuration, the magnetic field has got stabilizing effect and completely stabilizes certain wave-number range which was always unstable in the absence of magnetic field. The behaviour of growth rates with respect kinematic viscosity and kinematic viscoelasticity parameters are examined analytically. (author)

  1. Time-dependent quantum many-body theory of identical bosons in a double well: Early-time ballistic interferences of fragmented and number entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiello, David J.; Reinhardt, William P.

    2007-01-01

    A time-dependent multiconfigurational self-consistent field theory is presented to describe the many-body dynamics of a gas of identical bosonic atoms confined to an external trapping potential at zero temperature from first principles. A set of generalized evolution equations are developed, through the time-dependent variational principle, which account for the complete and self-consistent coupling between the expansion coefficients of each configuration and the underlying one-body wave functions within a restricted two state Fock space basis that includes the full effects of the condensate's mean field as well as atomic correlation. The resulting dynamical equations are a classical Hamiltonian system and, by construction, form a well-defined initial value problem. They are implemented in an efficient numerical algorithm. An example is presented, highlighting the generality of the theory, in which the ballistic expansion of a fragmented condensate ground state is compared to that of a macroscopic quantum superposition state, taken here to be a highly entangled number state, upon releasing the external trapping potential. Strikingly different many-body matter-wave dynamics emerge in each case, accentuating the role of both atomic correlation and mean-field effects in the two condensate states

  2. Lateral movements in Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities due to frontiers. Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binda, L.; Fernández, D.; El Hasi, C.; Zalts, A.; D'Onofrio, A.

    2018-01-01

    Lateral movements of the fingers in Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities at the interface between two fluids are studied. We show that transverse movements appear when a physical boundary is present; these phenomena have not been explained until now. The boundary prevents one of the fluids from crossing it. Such frontiers can be buoyancy driven as, for example, the frontier to the passage of a less dense solution through a denser solution or when different aggregation states coexist (liquid and gaseous phases). An experimental study of the lateral movement velocity of the fingers was performed for different Rayleigh numbers (Ra), and when oscillations were detected, their amplitudes were studied. Liquid-liquid (L-L) and gas-liquid (G-L) systems were analysed. Aqueous HCl and Bromocresol Green (sodium salt, NaBCG) solutions were used in L-L experiments, and CO2 (gas) and aqueous NaOH, NaHCO3, and CaCl2 solutions were employed for the G-L studies. We observed that the lateral movement of the fingers and finger collapses near the interface are more notorious when Ra increases. The consequences of this, for each experience, are a decrease in the number of fingers and an increase in the velocity of the lateral finger movement close to the interface as time evolves. We found that the amplitude of the oscillations did not vary significantly within the considered Ra range. These results have an important implication when determining the wave number of instabilities in an evolving system. The wave number could be strongly diminished if there is a boundary.

  3. A robust variant of block Jacobi-Davidson for extracting a large number of eigenpairs: Application to grid-based real-space density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Leiter, K.; Eisner, C.; Breuer, A.; Wang, X.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we investigate a block Jacobi-Davidson (J-D) variant suitable for sparse symmetric eigenproblems where a substantial number of extremal eigenvalues are desired (e.g., ground-state real-space quantum chemistry). Most J-D algorithm variations tend to slow down as the number of desired eigenpairs increases due to frequent orthogonalization against a growing list of solved eigenvectors. In our specification of block J-D, all of the steps of the algorithm are performed in clusters, including the linear solves, which allows us to greatly reduce computational effort with blocked matrix-vector multiplies. In addition, we move orthogonalization against locked eigenvectors and working eigenvectors outside of the inner loop but retain the single Ritz vector projection corresponding to the index of the correction vector. Furthermore, we minimize the computational effort by constraining the working subspace to the current vectors being updated and the latest set of corresponding correction vectors. Finally, we incorporate accuracy thresholds based on the precision required by the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The net result is a significant reduction in the computational effort against most previous block J-D implementations, especially as the number of wanted eigenpairs grows. We compare our approach with another robust implementation of block J-D (JDQMR) and the state-of-the-art Chebyshev filter subspace (CheFSI) method for various real-space density functional theory systems. Versus CheFSI, for first-row elements, our method yields competitive timings for valence-only systems and 4-6× speedups for all-electron systems with up to 10× reduced matrix-vector multiplies. For all-electron calculations on larger elements (e.g., gold) where the wanted spectrum is quite narrow compared to the full spectrum, we observe 60× speedup with 200× fewer matrix-vector multiples vs. CheFSI.

  4. Preliminary study of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in wire-array Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kaihui; Feng Kaiming; Li Qiang; Gao Chunming

    2000-01-01

    It is important to research into the MHD Rayleigh-Taylor instability developed in Z-pinch implosion. A snowplough model of the single wire Z-pinch is presented. The perturbation amplitude of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the wire-array Z-pinch is analyzed quantitatively. Sheared axial flow is put forward to mitigate and reduce the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. And other approaches used to mitigate MHD instability in such a super-fast process are explored

  5. Some considerations about the symmetry and evolution of chaotic Rayleigh-Bénard convection: The flywheel mechanism and the ``wind'' of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappa, Marcello

    2011-09-01

    Rayleigh-Bénard convection in finite-size enclosures exhibits really intricate features when turbulent states are reached and thermal plumes play a crucial role in a number of them. This complex mechanism may be regarded as a "machine" containing many different working parts: boundary layers, mixing zones, jets, and a relatively free and isothermal central region. These parts are generally regarded as the constitutive "ingredients" whose interplay leads to the emergence of a macroscopic pattern with well-defined properties. Like the Lorenz model (but with the due differences) such a complex structure has a prevailing two-dimensional nature and can be oriented clockwise or anticlockwise (both configurations are equally likely to occur and the flow can exhibit occasional and irregular "reversals" from one to the other without a change in magnitude). It is usually referred to in the literature as "wind of turbulence" or "flywheel". The present article provides insights into the possible origin of such dynamics and related patterning behavior (supported by "ad hoc" novel numerical simulations carried out for Pr=15 and O(10)⩽Ra⩽O(10)) together with a short exposition of existing theories, also illustrating open points and future directions of research.

  6. Rayleigh radiance computations for satellite remote sensing: accounting for the effect of sensor spectral response function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua

    2016-05-30

    To understand and assess the effect of the sensor spectral response function (SRF) on the accuracy of the top of the atmosphere (TOA) Rayleigh-scattering radiance computation, new TOA Rayleigh radiance lookup tables (LUTs) over global oceans and inland waters have been generated. The new Rayleigh LUTs include spectral coverage of 335-2555 nm, all possible solar-sensor geometries, and surface wind speeds of 0-30 m/s. Using the new Rayleigh LUTs, the sensor SRF effect on the accuracy of the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation has been evaluated for spectral bands of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)-1, showing some important uncertainties for VIIRS-SNPP particularly for large solar- and/or sensor-zenith angles as well as for large Rayleigh optical thicknesses (i.e., short wavelengths) and bands with broad spectral bandwidths. To accurately account for the sensor SRF effect, a new correction algorithm has been developed for VIIRS spectral bands, which improves the TOA Rayleigh radiance accuracy to ~0.01% even for the large solar-zenith angles of 70°-80°, compared with the error of ~0.7% without applying the correction for the VIIRS-SNPP 410 nm band. The same methodology that accounts for the sensor SRF effect on the Rayleigh radiance computation can be used for other satellite sensors. In addition, with the new Rayleigh LUTs, the effect of surface atmospheric pressure variation on the TOA Rayleigh radiance computation can be calculated precisely, and no specific atmospheric pressure correction algorithm is needed. There are some other important applications and advantages to using the new Rayleigh LUTs for satellite remote sensing, including an efficient and accurate TOA Rayleigh radiance computation for hyperspectral satellite remote sensing, detector-based TOA Rayleigh radiance computation, Rayleigh radiance calculations for high altitude

  7. Finite-thickness effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in accelerated elastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriz, S. A.; Piriz, A. R.; Tahir, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    A physical model has been developed for the linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a finite-thickness elastic slab laying on top of a semi-infinite ideal fluid. The model includes the nonideal effects of elasticity as boundary conditions at the top and bottom interfaces of the slab and also takes into account the finite transit time of the elastic waves across the slab thickness. For Atwood number AT=1 , the asymptotic growth rate is found to be in excellent agreement with the exact solution [Plohr and Sharp, Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 49, 786 (1998), 10.1007/s000330050121], and a physical explanation is given for the reduction of the stabilizing effectiveness of the elasticity for the thinner slabs. The feedthrough factor is also calculated.

  8. Modeling of the thermal boundary layer in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emran, Mohammad; Shishkina, Olga

    2016-11-01

    We report modeling of the thermal boundary layer in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC), which incorporates the effect of turbulent fluctuations. The study is based on the thermal boundary layer equation from Shishkina et al., and new Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of RBC in a cylindrical cell of the aspect ratio 1, for the Prandtl number variation of several orders of magnitude. Our modeled temperature profiles are found to agree with the DNS much better than those obtained with the classical Prandtl-Blasius or Falkner-Skan approaches. The work is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under the Grant Sh405/4 - Heisenberg fellowship and SFB963, Project A06.

  9. Generalized Euler transformation for summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation series: the Zeeman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    A generalized Euler transformation (GET) is introduced which provides a powerful alternative method of accurately summing strongly divergent Rayleigh-Schroedinger (RS) perturbation series when other summability methods fail or are difficult to apply. The GET is simple to implement and, unlike a number of other summation procedures, requires no a priori knowledge of the analytic properties of the function underlying the RS series. Application of the GET to the difficult problem of the RS weak-field ground-state eigenvalue series of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field (quadratic Zeeman effect) yields sums of good accuracy over a very wide range of field strengths up to the most intense fields of 10 14 G. The GET results are compared with those obtained by other summing methods

  10. Observation of Self-Similar Behavior of the 3D, Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadot, O.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Delettrez, J.A.; Sangster, T.C.; Goncharov, V.N.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Betti, R.; Shvarts, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor unstable growth of laser-seeded, 3D broadband perturbations was experimentally measured in the laser-accelerated, planar plastic foils. The first experimental observation showing the self-similar behavior of the bubble size and amplitude distributions under ablative conditions is presented. In the nonlinear regime, the modulation σ rms grows as α σ gt 2 , where g is the foil acceleration, t is the time, and α σ is constant. The number of bubbles evolves as N(t)∝(ωt√(g)+C) -4 and the average size evolves as (t)∝ω 2 gt 2 , where C is a constant and ω=0.83±0.1 is the measured scaled bubble-merging rate

  11. Nonlinear traveling waves in rotating Rayleigh-Bacute enard convection: Stability boundaries and phase diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    We present experimental measurements of a sidewall traveling wave in rotating Rayleigh-Bacute enard convection. The fluid, water with Prandtl number about 6.3, was confined in a 1-cm-high cylindrical cell with radius-to-height ratio Γ=5. We used simultaneous optical-shadowgraph, heat-transport, and local temperature measurements to determine the stability and characteristics of the traveling-wave state for dimensionless rotation rates 60<Ω<420. The state is well described by the one-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation for which the linear and nonlinear coefficients were determined for Ω=274. The Eckhaus-Benjamin-Feir-stability boundary was established and the phase-diffusion coefficient and nonlinear group velocity were determined in the stable regime. Higher-order corrections to the CGL equation were also investigated. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  12. Air-mass flux measurement system using Doppler-shifted filtered Rayleigh scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, John A.; Winter, Michael

    1993-01-01

    An optical system has been investigated to measure mass flux distributions in the inlet of a high speed air-breathing propulsion system. Rayleigh scattered light from air is proportional to the number density of molecules and hence can be used to ascertain the gas density in a calibrated system. Velocity field measurements are achieved by spectrally filtering the elastically-scattered Doppler-shifted light with an absorbing molecular filter. A novel anamorphic optical collection system is used which allows optical rays from different scattering angles, that have different Doppler shifts, to be recorded separately. This is shown to obviate the need to tune the laser through the absorption to determine velocities, while retaining the ability to make spatially-resolved measurements along a line. By properly selecting the laser tuning and filter parameters, simultaneous density measurements can be made. These properties are discussed in the paper and experiments demonstrating the velocimetry capability are described.

  13. Rayleigh scattering of Moessbauer radiation in superionic conductor RbAg4I5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovanesyan, N.S.; Goffman, V.G.; Sokolov, V.B.; Tkachev, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    The dynamical properties of RbAg 4 I 5 has been investiaated by Rayleigh scattering of Moessbauer radiation (RSMR) with wave-length lambda = 0.86 A. The character of Ag + ion oscillatory motion and diffusion in RbAg 4 I 5 depending on temperature including the phase transitions region is studied. It is shown that in the superionic crystal RbAg 4 I 5 the diffusion process is strongly correlated, i.e. a great number of initial and final states at diffusion jumps coincides. The observed broadening can be less than the expected one by value orders. Diffusion correlation can strongly reduce the activation barrier and lead to anomalously high ionic conduction

  14. Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to kpR = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.

  15. On Lamb and Rayleigh wave convergence in viscoelastic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadic, Ivan Z; Urban, Matthew W; Aristizabal, Sara; Mitchell, Scott A; Humphrey, Tye C; Greenleaf, James F, E-mail: Nenadic.Ivan@mayo.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, 55905 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Characterization of the viscoelastic material properties of soft tissue has become an important area of research over the last two decades. Our group has been investigating the feasibility of using a shear wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry (SDUV) method to excite Lamb waves in organs with plate-like geometry to estimate the viscoelasticity of the medium of interest. The use of Lamb wave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry to quantify the mechanical properties of viscoelastic solids has previously been reported. Two organs, the heart wall and the spleen, can be readily modeled using plate-like geometries. The elasticity of these two organs is important because they change in pathological conditions. Diastolic dysfunction is the inability of the left ventricle (LV) of the heart to supply sufficient stroke volumes into the systemic circulation and is accompanied by the loss of compliance and stiffening of the LV myocardium. It has been shown that there is a correlation between high splenic stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease and strong correlation between spleen and liver stiffness. Here, we investigate the use of the SDUV method to quantify the viscoelasticity of the LV free-wall myocardium and spleen by exciting Rayleigh waves on the organ's surface and measuring the wave dispersion (change of wave velocity as a function of frequency) in the frequency range 40-500 Hz. An equation for Rayleigh wave dispersion due to cylindrical excitation was derived by modeling the excised myocardium and spleen with a homogenous Voigt material plate immersed in a nonviscous fluid. Boundary conditions and wave potential functions were solved for the surface wave velocity. Analytical and experimental convergence between the Lamb and Rayleigh waves is reported in a finite element model of a plate in a fluid of similar density, gelatin plate and excised porcine spleen and left-ventricular free-wall myocardium.

  16. Shear flow stabilization of the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, N.F.; Shumlak, U.; Douglas, M.; Peterkin, R.E. Jr.; Ruden, E.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical simulations have indicated that shear flow may help stabilize the hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in imploding plasma z-pinches. A simple extension to a model presented in Chandrasekhar has been developed to study the linear stability of incompressible plasma subjected to both a shear flow and acceleration. The model has been used to investigate the stability plasma implosion schemes using externally imposed velocity shear which develops from the plasma flow itself. Specific parameters were chosen to represent plasma implosions driven by the Saturn and PBFA-Z, pulsed power generators at Sandia National Laboratories. Results indicate a high shear is necessary to stabilize the z-pinch implosions studied

  17. Analytical evaluation of atomic form factors: Application to Rayleigh scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, L., E-mail: laleh.safari@ist.ac.at [IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria), Am Campus 1, 3400 Klosterneuburg (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Santos, J. P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Amaro, P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jänkälä, K. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Fratini, F. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Atomic form factors are widely used for the characterization of targets and specimens, from crystallography to biology. By using recent mathematical results, here we derive an analytical expression for the atomic form factor within the independent particle model constructed from nonrelativistic screened hydrogenic wave functions. The range of validity of this analytical expression is checked by comparing the analytically obtained form factors with the ones obtained within the Hartee-Fock method. As an example, we apply our analytical expression for the atomic form factor to evaluate the differential cross section for Rayleigh scattering off neutral atoms.

  18. Resonance scattering of Rayleigh waves by a mass defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, M.; Grecu, D.

    1978-06-01

    The resonance scattering of an incident Rayleigh wave by a mass defect extending over a small cylindrical region situated in the surface of a semi-infinite isotropic, elastic medium is investigated by means of the Green's function method. The form of the differential cross-section for the scattering into different channels exhibits a strong resonance phenomenon at two frequencies. The expression of the resonance frequencies as well as of the corresponding widths depends on the relative change in mass density. The main assumption that the wavelengths of incoming and scattered wave are large compared to the defect dimension implies a large relative mass-density change. (author)

  19. Multiwavelength ytterbium-Brillouin random Rayleigh feedback fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Wang, Zinan; Fan, Mengqiu; Li, Jiaqi; Meng, Qingyang; Xu, Dangpeng; Rao, Yunjiang

    2018-03-01

    In this letter, we experimentally demonstrate the multiwavelength ytterbium-Brillouin random fiber laser for the first time, in the half-open cavity formed by a fiber loop mirror and randomly distributed Rayleigh mirrors. With a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber and a long TrueWave fiber, the narrow linewidth Brillouin pump can generate multiple Brillouin Stokes lines with hybrid ytterbium-Brillouin gain. Up to six stable channels with a spacing of about 0.06 nm are obtained. This work extends the operation wavelength of the multiwavelength Brillouin random fiber laser to the 1 µm band, and has potential in various applications.

  20. Statistical approach of weakly nonlinear ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.; Masse, L.

    2005-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear model is proposed for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in presence of ablation and thermal transport. The nonlinear effects for a single-mode disturbance are computed, included the nonlinear correction to the exponential growth of the fundamental modulation. Mode coupling in the spectrum of a multimode disturbance is thoroughly analyzed by a statistical approach. The exponential growth of the linear regime is shown to be reduced by the nonlinear mode coupling. The saturation amplitude is around 0.1λ for long wavelengths, but higher for short instable wavelengths in the ablative regime