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Sample records for ray erwin baber

  1. Erwin Schrodinger

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Erwin Schrodinger. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 92-103 Classics. The Fundamental Idea of Wave Mechanics · Erwin Schrodinger · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  2. Erwin Schroedinger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D.

    1984-01-01

    Erwin Schroedinger (1887-1961) belongs without doubt to the most outstanding physicists of our century. His name is inseparably connected with the development of quantum theory with the formulation of his famous wave equation being his greatest achievement. This relation became generally known as the Schroedinger equation and its understanding was fundamental to the progress of modern quantum theory. In 1933 Schroedinger's work was honoured by the award of the Nobel Prize in physics. In the booklet Schroedinger's life, work and philosophical views are outlined against the social and physico-historical background of his time

  3. Architecture student Meredith Baber wins Kohn Pedersen Fox Traveling Fellowship

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2009-01-01

    Meredith Baber of Cartersville, Va., a fourth-year honors architecture student in the School of Architecture + Design, is the first student in the history of Virginia Tech to win a prestigious Kohn Pederson Fox (KPF) Associates Travelling Fellowship.

  4. Erwin Gabathuler (1933 - 2016)

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    It was with great sadness that we learned last week that Erwin Gabathuler passed away on 29 August.   Erwin Gabathuler discussing the NA2 experiment in 1977. A native of Belfast, Gabathuler embarked on a research career into the study of atmospheric gases at Queen’s University in the mid-1950s. It is particle physics’ gain and atmospheric science’s loss that he commuted his PhD studies to an MSc after one year and moved to Glasgow to study pions at Glasgow’s 300 MeV synchrotron. In 1961, with his doctorate under his belt, he moved to Cornell University as a research associate, returning to the UK in 1964 where he joined the Daresbury laboratory and played a major role in establishing the experimental programme at the laboratory’s 5 GeV synchrotron, NINA. Gabathuler’s association with CERN began in 1974, when he came to the laboratory to work on a proposal to do physics with a 300 GeV muon beam in the North Area. This proposal became the ...

  5. A life of Erwin Schroedinger; Erwin Schroedinger. Eine Biographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Walter J.

    2012-07-01

    Erwin Schroedinger (1887-1961) was a pioneer of quantum physics, one of the most important scientists of the 20th century at all and - a charming Austrian. He was a man with a passionate interest in people and ideas. Mostly known he became by his representation of quantum theory in the form of wave mechanics, for which he got the Nobel prize for physics and naturally by the famous thought experiment ''Schroedinger's cat''. Walter Moore's biography is very close to the person of Schroedinger and presents his scientific work in the context of his private friendships, his interest in mysticism, and in front of the moving background of the political events in Germany and Austria.

  6. A life of Erwin Schroedinger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Erwin Schroedinger (1887-1961) was a pioneer of quantum physics, one of the most important scientists of the 20th century at all and - a charming Austrian. He was a man with a passionate interest in people and ideas. Mostly known he became by his representation of quantum theory in the form of wave mechanics, for which he got the Nobel prize for physics and naturally by the famous thought experiment ''Schroedinger's cat''. Walter Moore's biography is very close to the person of Schroedinger and presents his scientific work in the context of his private friendships, his interest in mysticism, and in front of the moving background of the political events in Germany and Austria.

  7. Tribute to Erwin Felix Lewy-Bertaut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Erwin Lewy (alias Felix Bertaut) was born in 1913 in Germany, he emigrated to France where he undertook graduate studies in chemistry. Then, he joined the powder central laboratory where he learnt how to use international tables for structure determination. His thesis work was the X-ray study of the statistical distribution of the size of iron grains. The method Bertaut developed is still a reference in powder granulometry. Bertaut was also interested in the nascent neutron diffraction method and he flew to the United-States to improve his knowledge on this topic. Felix Bertaut created the neutron diffraction laboratory in the atomic research center in Grenoble and later he headed the CNRS' crystallography laboratory till 1982. Felix Bertaut and his laboratories became internationally renowned in crystallography, neutron diffraction and magnetism. He favored the scientific cooperation between France and Germany that led to the creation of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The ILL became European and was a key partner for building the European Synchrotron Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble. Bertaut was elected as a full member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1979, he died in 2003. (A.C.)

  8. Tribute to Erwin Felix Lewy-Bertaut; Hommage a Erwin Felix Lewy-Bertaut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Erwin Lewy (alias Felix Bertaut) was born in 1913 in Germany, he emigrated to France where he undertook graduate studies in chemistry. Then, he joined the powder central laboratory where he learnt how to use international tables for structure determination. His thesis work was the X-ray study of the statistical distribution of the size of iron grains. The method Bertaut developed is still a reference in powder granulometry. Bertaut was also interested in the nascent neutron diffraction method and he flew to the United-States to improve his knowledge on this topic. Felix Bertaut created the neutron diffraction laboratory in the atomic research center in Grenoble and later he headed the CNRS' crystallography laboratory till 1982. Felix Bertaut and his laboratories became internationally renowned in crystallography, neutron diffraction and magnetism. He favored the scientific cooperation between France and Germany that led to the creation of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). The ILL became European and was a key partner for building the European Synchrotron Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble. Bertaut was elected as a full member of the French Academy of Sciences in 1979, he died in 2003. (A.C.)

  9. A life of Erwin Schroedinger. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Walter J.

    2015-01-01

    Erwin Schroedinger (1887-1961) was a pioneer of quantum physics, one of the most important scientist of the 20th century at all and a charming Austrian. He was a man with a passionate interest for men and ideas. Mostly known he became by his representation of quantum theory in the form of wave mechanics, for which he obtained the Nobel prize for physics and naturally by the famous thought experiment ''Schroedingers cat''. Walter Moore's biography is quite near to the person of Schroedinger and presents his scientific work in the context of his friendships, his interset for mysticism, and in front of the moving background of the political events in Germany and Austria.

  10. Erwin Schrödinger's Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronieva, Tzveta

    2014-03-01

    Many of the major figures in the history of science have produced literary works, but the relationship between their poetic texts and their scientific work is often underestimated. This paper illuminates the poetry of Erwin Schrödinger—one of the premier figures in twentieth-century science, and an accomplished poet in both English and his native German. It discusses existing perceptions of his poetry and challenges the assumptions that his poetic work was a mere hobby unrelated to his other achievements by focusing on the interplay between poetic images and scientific ideas in his German-language poems. It emphasizes that more research is needed on the understated role of bilingualism and of—often marginalized—writing in an adopted language in science and in poetry, with the premise that this feature of Schrödinger's life deserves more study. It argues that Schrödinger's literary imagination and his bilingualism are an integral part of his approach to reality and considers Schrödinger's literary work to be an important aspect of his intellectual heritage.

  11. A life of Erwin Schroedinger. 2. ed.; Erwin Schroedinger. Eine Biographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Walter J.

    2015-07-01

    Erwin Schroedinger (1887-1961) was a pioneer of quantum physics, one of the most important scientist of the 20th century at all and a charming Austrian. He was a man with a passionate interest for men and ideas. Mostly known he became by his representation of quantum theory in the form of wave mechanics, for which he obtained the Nobel prize for physics and naturally by the famous thought experiment ''Schroedingers cat''. Walter Moore's biography is quite near to the person of Schroedinger and presents his scientific work in the context of his friendships, his interset for mysticism, and in front of the moving background of the political events in Germany and Austria.

  12. Erwin Piscator's Russia's Day: Agitprop between History and Myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bregović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work of Erwin Piscator as a theatre director is marked by attempts to introduce communist ideology into theatre, which was reflected in various aspects of his theatrical practice. This paper focuses on the agitprop productions staged by his Proletarian Theatre, which propagated the communist narrative of class struggle by the use of an irrational aesthetics. These performances embodied the contradiction that can be found in communist practice, which appealed to the scientifically rational analysis of history as class struggle, but in practice abolished criticism and transformed class struggle into a myth. Piscator’s production of Russia’s Day staged the conflict between the capitalist and the proletarian class according to the scientific analysis of history as class struggle, but the irrational aesthetics of the performance immersed the audience into the staged history, transforming the communist narrative into a myth.Keywords: Erwin Piscator, agitprop, Proletarian Theatre, Russia’s Day, myth, historical materialism, rationality, emotion

  13. Existence and Life. Erwin Straus’s Criticism of Heidegger’s Daseinsanalytik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE GIOVANNI, LUCA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Existence and Life. Erwin Straus’s Criticism of Heidegger’s Daseinsanalytik Erwin Straus was a German psychiatrist and phenomenologist generally known as the author of Vom Sinn der Sinne, a book published in 1935. However, in what follows I will rely almost exclusively on Psychiatry and Philosophy, an essay he wrote in 1963, almost thirty years later. My main goal is to present Straus’s contribution to a phenomenological ontology of life. I will begin by presenting Straus’s criticism of Heidegger’s notion of Dasein and then I will try to sketch Straus’s positive contribution to a phenomenological theory of the living.

  14. Erwin van Loo, ‘Eenige wakkere jongens’. Nederlandse oorlogsvliegers in de Britse luchtstrijdkrachten, 1940-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dierikx

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Erwin van Loo, ‘Eenige wakkere jongens’. Nederlandse oorlogsvliegers in de Britse luchtstrijdkrachten, 1940-1945 (Proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam 2013; Amsterdam: Boom, 2013, 515 pp., isbn 978 94 6105 926 0.

  15. ERWIN2: User's manual for a computer model to calculate the economic efficiency of wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wees, F.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    During the last few years the Business Unit ESC-Energy Studies of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) developed calculation programs to determine the economic efficiency of energy technologies, which programs support several studies for the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. All these programs form the so-called BRET programs. One of these programs is ERWIN (Economische Rentabiliteit WINdenergiesystemen or in English: Economic Efficiency of Wind Energy Systems) of which an updated manual (ERWIN2) is presented in this report. An outline is given of the possibilities and limitations to carry out calculations with the model

  16. [WAR AND WORLD OF ERWIN CHARGAFF (DEDICATED TO 110 ANNIVERSARY OF BIRTH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, R A; Rudenko, S S

    2016-01-01

    The article shortly describes the life path of Erwin Chargaff, one of the most famous figures in the history of molecular biology and genetics. Chargaff was born in Chernivtsi (Austria-Hungary, now Ukraine) but during the First World War his family was forced to move to Vienna. After graduating from the University of Vienna, Chargaff worked in Berlin, where he studied bacterial lipids. Due to Nazis coming to power in Germany, Chargaff moved to Paris and later (1935) emigrated to the USA and obtained a position at Columbia University, where he initially investigated the role of phospholipids in blood clotting. In 1944, applying novel methods Chargaff initiated intensive investigation of the chemical composition of nucleic acids from taxonomically distant species and established two rules which were later named after him. The first Chargaff's rule provided a significant support to Watson and Crick in construction of their double helical DNA model. The explosion of atomic bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki forced Chargaff to think about the moral responsibility of researchers and science to mankind. He begins to raise these issues in the press and manifests himself as a talented journalist, who criticized the bureaucratization of science and its transformation into a way of earning money. Despite decades of life in America, spiritually Erwin Chargaff always remained a European, who never forgot his roots and always remembered his native land.

  17. Erwin Schrödinger's color theory translated with modern commentary

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the most complete translation to date of Erwin Schrödinger’s work on colorimetry. In his work Schrödinger proposed a projective geometry of color space, rather than a Euclidean line-element. He also proposed new (at the time) colorimetric methods – in detail and at length - which represented a dramatic conceptual shift in colorimetry. Schrödinger shows how the trichromatic (or Young-Helmholtz) theory of color and the opponent-process (or Hering) theory of color are formally the same theory, or at least only trivially different. These translations of Schrödinger’s bold concepts for color space have a fresh resonance and importance for contemporary color theory.

  18. Erwin Schroedinger and the rise of wave mechanics. I. Schroedinger's scientific work before the creation of wave mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper, the first part of a three-part article, gives an account of Erwin Schroedinger's growing up and studies in Vienna, his scientific work--first in Vienna from 1911 to 1920, then in Zurich from 1920 to 1925--on the dielectric properties of matter, atmospheric electricity and radioactivity, general relativity, color theory and physiological optics, and on kinetic theory and statistical mechanics

  19. The life and achievements of Erwin-Félix Lewy-Bertaut (1913-2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Férey, Gérard; Hodeau, Jean-Louis

    2015-02-01

    Erwin-Félix Lewy-Bertaut was initially a lawyer. He left Germany for France when the Nazis rose to power, having been born into a German Jewish family. He became a French citizen in 1936 and embarked upon a scientific career, first in organic chemistry in Bordeaux. The troubles associated with World War II obliged him to move to Grenoble under the protection of Louis Néel. In addition to his creative activity in the new field of inorganic solid state chemistry, he rapidly became a crystallographer and a physicist of magnetism, noted for his impressive activity in both of these domains. He became a pioneer of neutron diffraction and was pivotal to the creation of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Owing to the impact of his work, he was involved in the key international organizations responsible for shaping crystallography and physics. A member of the French Academy of Sciences, Monsieur Bertaut received many international awards. He was a very kind man of culture.

  20. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel: the head injury that may have prolonged the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Heather A; Mullin, Jeffrey P; Sloffer, Chris A

    2016-07-01

    War-related head injury, indeed neurological injury in general, has been a part of the history of humankind for as long as there has been warfare. Such injuries can result in the removal of the individual from combat, thus eliminating any subsequent contribution that he or she might have made to the battle. However, at times, the injuries can have more wide-reaching effects. In the case of commanders or leaders, the impact of their injuries may include the loss of their influence, planning, and leadership, and thus have a disproportionate effect on the battle, or indeed the war. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel was a talented military strategist and leader who was respected by friends and foes alike. He held an honored reputation by the German people and the military leadership. His head injury on July 17, 1944, resulted in his being removed from the field of battle in northern France, but also meant that he was not able to lend his stature to the assassination attempt of Adolph Hitler on July 20. It is possible that, had he been able to lend his stature to the events, Hitler's hold on the nation's government might have been loosened, and the war might have been brought to an end a year earlier. The authors review Rommel's career, his injury, the subsequent medical treatment, and his subsequent death.

  1. The life and achievements of Erwin-Félix Lewy-Bertaut (1913–2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Férey, Gérard; Hodeau, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Erwin-Félix Lewy-Bertaut was initially a lawyer. He left Germany for France when the Nazis rose to power, having been born into a German Jewish family. He became a French citizen in 1936 and embarked upon a scientific career, first in organic chemistry in Bordeaux. The troubles associated with World War II obliged him to move to Grenoble under the protection of Louis Néel. In addition to his creative activity in the new field of inorganic solid state chemistry, he rapidly became a crystallographer and a physicist of magnetism, noted for his impressive activity in both of these domains. He became a pioneer of neutron diffraction and was pivotal to the creation of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Owing to the impact of his work, he was involved in the key international organizations responsible for shaping crystallography and physics. A member of the French Academy of Sciences, Monsieur Bertaut received many international awards. He was a very kind man of culture. (invited comment)

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA-86-381-1934, Nuclear Fuel Services, Erwin, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thun, M.J.; Schober, S.

    1988-10-01

    In response to a request from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a study was made of excessive kidney disease at Nuclear Fuel Services, Erwin, Tennessee. This facility was the sole producer of nuclear fuel rods for the United States Navy. The major operations involved the production of highly enriched uranium fuel for naval nuclear reactors and the recovery from scrap of low enriched uranium for commercial light water reactors. Highly enriched uranium-hexafluoride was converted to oxides and ultimately into finished nuclear fuel. A medical questionnaire revealed more frequent kidney stones (19%) and urinary tract infections (28%) among the workers than among the guards used as a comparison group, 7 and 12%, respectively. Dairy farmers from a nearby town used as an additional comparison group reported kidney stones more frequently (26 versus 21%) and infections less frequently (20 versus 30%) than the current and former senior workers at the nuclear facility. Kidney function was similar in both groups. Workers in both groups had frequent risk factors for kidney stones, particularly high calcium, oxalate, sodium, uric-acid, phosphorus and low urinary volume on testing. The authors conclude that the urinary tract disorders in the nuclear workers were not the result of occupational hazards at this site

  3. Analýza vybraných metod štíhlé výroby v podniku Erwin Junker

    OpenAIRE

    LÁNOVÁ, Jana

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the analyses of selected methods of lean production. The main aim of the theoretical part is to describe management of production, conception of lean enterprise, what is the lean production, the types of waste and the elements of lean manufacturing as lean workplace, Kanban system, Kaizen and other. The main goal of the practical part of this thesis is to analyse the production system of Erwin Junker Grinding technology a.s. and the mode of production of selected...

  4. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Theory meets Industry (Erwin-Schrödinger-Institute (ESI), Vienna, Austria, 12 14 June 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Jürgen

    2008-02-01

    their application to key areas of condensed matter physics. Researchers from industry mainly focused on challenges arising from applied industrial research; contributions describing successful applications of DFT techniques to industrial problems were more scarce. Progress during the last decade has been very fast. The ESF research program has been renewed under the much bolder title 'Towards Computational Materials Design' and is now approaching the end of this second funding period. Due to the development of accurate, efficient and stable software packages for ab initio simulations, DFT-based techniques are now routinely used in many industrial laboratories worldwide. It was therefore considered timely to organize a second 'Theory meets Industry' workshop. The meeting took place between 12-14 June 2007 at the Erwin-Schrödinger-Institute (ESI) for Mathematical Physics in Vienna (Austria). It was sponsored by the Universität Wien through the VASP (Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Program) project, the Center for Computational Materials Science Vienna, the Erwin-Schrödinger-Institute and the ESF Program 'Towards Computational Materials Design'. The program of the workshop was decided by an international advisory board consisting of Ryoji Asahi (Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratory), Risto Nieminen (Helsinki University of Technology), Herve Toulhoat (Institut Français du Pétrole), Erich Wimmer (Materials Design Inc.), Chris Wolverton (Ford Motor Co. and Northwestern University) and Jürgen Hafner (Universität Wien). The 35 invited talks presented at the meeting were divided equally between researchers from academia and from industry. The contributions from academia concentrated on a wide range of new developments in DFT and post-DFT simulations (with contributions from the developers of leading software packages for ab initio simulations), as well as on applications in front-line materials research. In contrast to the first workshop nine years ago, all

  5. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Theory meets Industry (Erwin-Schrödinger-Institute (ESI), Vienna, Austria, 12-14 June 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Jürgen

    2008-02-13

    and their application to key areas of condensed matter physics. Researchers from industry mainly focused on challenges arising from applied industrial research; contributions describing successful applications of DFT techniques to industrial problems were more scarce. Progress during the last decade has been very fast. The ESF research program has been renewed under the much bolder title 'Towards Computational Materials Design' and is now approaching the end of this second funding period. Due to the development of accurate, efficient and stable software packages for ab initio simulations, DFT-based techniques are now routinely used in many industrial laboratories worldwide. It was therefore considered timely to organize a second 'Theory meets Industry' workshop. The meeting took place between 12-14 June 2007 at the Erwin-Schrödinger-Institute (ESI) for Mathematical Physics in Vienna (Austria). It was sponsored by the Universität Wien through the VASP (Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Program) project, the Center for Computational Materials Science Vienna, the Erwin-Schrödinger-Institute and the ESF Program 'Towards Computational Materials Design'. The program of the workshop was decided by an international advisory board consisting of Ryoji Asahi (Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratory), Risto Nieminen (Helsinki University of Technology), Herve Toulhoat (Institut Français du Pétrole), Erich Wimmer (Materials Design Inc.), Chris Wolverton (Ford Motor Co. and Northwestern University) and Jürgen Hafner (Universität Wien). The 35 invited talks presented at the meeting were divided equally between researchers from academia and from industry. The contributions from academia concentrated on a wide range of new developments in DFT and post-DFT simulations (with contributions from the developers of leading software packages for ab initio simulations), as well as on applications in front-line materials research. In contrast to the first workshop nine years ago

  6. Las Revoluciones Científicas - ¿Porqué el Premio Nobel 1991? Erwin Neher y el “Patch Clamp”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo de Francisco Zea

    1992-03-01

    que Thomas S. Kuhn en su clasico libro “Estructura de las Revoluciones Científicas”, publicado en 1962, señalaba como hitos, modelos ó paradigmas de las ciencias...

    RESUMEN

    ¿Porqué el Premio Nobel 1991? Erwin Neher y el “Patch Clamp”

    (Con autorización especial del autor y de la revista “Consulta” de España.

    El profesor Erwin Neher es un científico alemán de cuarenta y cinco años que ideó la técnica conocida con las palabras inglesas “patch clamp”, que en castellano viene él significar “fijación de voltaje en parches de la membrana celular”. A veces, una nueva metodología facilita el avance científico de forma vertiginosa. Tal es el caso del “patch clamp”, que en la última década ha permitido catalogar decenas de canales iónicos de decenas de células excitables y no excitables, y ha hecho posible el análisis exhaustivo de las propiedades cinéticas de su apertura y cierre, de su regulación por neurotransmisores y hormonas, así como la identificación de la subunidades peptídicas implicadas en la estructura y función de muchos de esos canales.

    Recientemente, me comentaba un colega que los que nos dedicamos a este campo estamos encontrando en las células más canales que en Venecia. Dejando aparte ese comentario irónico, lo cierto es que hoy contamos por decenas los subtipos de canales de potasio, se han identificado ya media docena de canales de calcio y se están descubriendo otros nuevos de cloro o de sodio. Unos se activan e inactivan por cambios del potencial de membrana (los denominados canales voltaje-dependientes y otros por neurotransmisores específicos (los llamados canales operados por receptores.

    Esta variedad de canales abre múltiples caminos para el diseño de fármacos que modulen específicamente uno u otro canal y que, por consiguiente, tienen una notoria potencialidad terapéutica. ¿Cómo se llegó al

  7. Verification of the Accountability Method as a Means to Classify Radioactive Wastes Processed Using THOR Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming at the Studsvik Processing Facility in Erwin, Tennessee, USA - 13087

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olander, Jonathan [Studsvik Processing Facility Erwin, 151 T.C. Runnion Rd., Erwin, TN 37650 (United States); Myers, Corey [Studsvik, Inc., 5605 Glenridge Drive, Suite 705, Atlanta, GA 30342 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Studsviks' Processing Facility Erwin (SPFE) has been treating Low-Level Radioactive Waste using its patented THOR process for over 13 years. Studsvik has been mixing and processing wastes of the same waste classification but different chemical and isotopic characteristics for the full extent of this period as a general matter of operations. Studsvik utilizes the accountability method to track the movement of radionuclides from acceptance of waste, through processing, and finally in the classification of waste for disposal. Recently the NRC has proposed to revise the 1995 Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation (1995 BTP on CA) with additional clarification (draft BTP on CA). The draft BTP on CA has paved the way for large scale blending of higher activity and lower activity waste to produce a single waste for the purpose of classification. With the onset of blending in the waste treatment industry, there is concern from the public and state regulators as to the robustness of the accountability method and the ability of processors to prevent the inclusion of hot spots in waste. To address these concerns and verify the accountability method as applied by the SPFE, as well as the SPFE's ability to control waste package classification, testing of actual waste packages was performed. Testing consisted of a comprehensive dose rate survey of a container of processed waste. Separately, the waste package was modeled chemically and radiologically. Comparing the observed and theoretical data demonstrated that actual dose rates were lower than, but consistent with, modeled dose rates. Moreover, the distribution of radioactivity confirms that the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste form. The results of the study demonstrate: 1) the accountability method as applied by the SPFE is valid and produces expected results; 2) the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste; and 3) the SPFE can effectively control the

  8. Verification of the Accountability Method as a Means to Classify Radioactive Wastes Processed Using THOR Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming at the Studsvik Processing Facility in Erwin, Tennessee, USA - 13087

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, Jonathan; Myers, Corey

    2013-01-01

    Studsviks' Processing Facility Erwin (SPFE) has been treating Low-Level Radioactive Waste using its patented THOR process for over 13 years. Studsvik has been mixing and processing wastes of the same waste classification but different chemical and isotopic characteristics for the full extent of this period as a general matter of operations. Studsvik utilizes the accountability method to track the movement of radionuclides from acceptance of waste, through processing, and finally in the classification of waste for disposal. Recently the NRC has proposed to revise the 1995 Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation (1995 BTP on CA) with additional clarification (draft BTP on CA). The draft BTP on CA has paved the way for large scale blending of higher activity and lower activity waste to produce a single waste for the purpose of classification. With the onset of blending in the waste treatment industry, there is concern from the public and state regulators as to the robustness of the accountability method and the ability of processors to prevent the inclusion of hot spots in waste. To address these concerns and verify the accountability method as applied by the SPFE, as well as the SPFE's ability to control waste package classification, testing of actual waste packages was performed. Testing consisted of a comprehensive dose rate survey of a container of processed waste. Separately, the waste package was modeled chemically and radiologically. Comparing the observed and theoretical data demonstrated that actual dose rates were lower than, but consistent with, modeled dose rates. Moreover, the distribution of radioactivity confirms that the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste form. The results of the study demonstrate: 1) the accountability method as applied by the SPFE is valid and produces expected results; 2) the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste; and 3) the SPFE can effectively control the waste package

  9. Erwin Schroedinger, Francis Crick and epigenetic stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogryzko Vasily V

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Schroedinger's book 'What is Life?' is widely credited for having played a crucial role in development of molecular and cellular biology. My essay revisits the issues raised by this book from the modern perspective of epigenetics and systems biology. I contrast two classes of potential mechanisms of epigenetic stability: 'epigenetic templating' and 'systems biology' approaches, and consider them from the point of view expressed by Schroedinger. I also discuss how quantum entanglement, a nonclassical feature of quantum mechanics, can help to address the 'problem of small numbers' that led Schroedinger to promote the idea of a molecular code-script for explaining the stability of biological order.

  10. Albert and Erwin: decline and fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaire, Denis

    2015-04-01

    More than a century has passed since quantum theory began to pose teasing questions about how we interpret our world. Books abound that offer alternative views of the problems the theory raises, and Einstein's Dice and Schrödinger's Cat is another.

  11. Erwin Schroedinger, Francis Crick and epigenetic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogryzko, Vasily V

    2008-04-17

    Schroedinger's book 'What is Life?' is widely credited for having played a crucial role in development of molecular and cellular biology. My essay revisits the issues raised by this book from the modern perspective of epigenetics and systems biology. I contrast two classes of potential mechanisms of epigenetic stability: 'epigenetic templating' and 'systems biology' approaches, and consider them from the point of view expressed by Schroedinger. I also discuss how quantum entanglement, a nonclassical feature of quantum mechanics, can help to address the 'problem of small numbers' that led Schroedinger to promote the idea of a molecular code-script for explaining the stability of biological order.

  12. Cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, I.I.

    2014-01-01

    In this talk I will review results of cosmic ray observations at the highest energies. This year the new results on energy spectra, composition and the study of arrival directions of cosmic ray primaries came from the Telescope Array collaboration. I present these results in comparison with measurements done by other recent experiments and discuss their implications for the search of cosmic ray sources. Some related results in gamma-ray astronomy and selected recent advances in theory are also covered. (author)

  13. Cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfi, E.A.; Drury, L.O.C.; Voelk, H.J.; Webb, G.M.; Beck, R.; Biermann, P.; Heavens, A.; McKenzie, J.F.; Michel, F.C.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of diffusive shock acceleration was further developed with particular emphasis on the effects of time-dependence and wave-dissipation. Acceleration by pulsars and the production of gamma-ray bursts was also considered. (orig.)

  14. Erwin Schroedinger: Collected papers V. 1. Contributions to statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroedinger, E.

    1984-01-01

    38 publications reprinted in this volume show that the interest for statistical problems accompanied Schroedinger during his entire scientific career. Already in his second paper he worked on the magnetism of solid states. The classical considerations come close to the heart of diamagnetism and also to the origin of paramagnetism. In classical investigations of the specific heat Schroedinger helped through abstract theory but also by analysing a gigantic amount of experimental material. In 1926 he and F. Kohlrausch actually played the 'Urngame of Ehrenfest' as a model of the H-curve and published the results. Inclination towards experimenting, sequences of measurements and statistical evaluation of experimental data led to papers on the foundation of the theory of probability, where he tries to put the subjective probability concept on into a systematic framework. Two earlier papers on dynamics of the elastic chain remained particularly valuable. By solving the initial value problem with Bessel-functions this many-body-problem is led to an explicit discussion. These studies are likely to be the roots of another keynote in Schroedinger's thinking, namely, the irreversibility. 1945 a statistical theory of chain-reactions was published under the inconspicuous title of 'Probability Problems in Nuclear Chemistry'. In his last work Schroedinger turns off in a wrong direction: it is that energy should only be a statistical concept and should not be conserved in elementary processes, but somehow only in the mean. These short remarks only illuminate the diversity of the material in this volume, but testify Schroedinger's deep understanding in this field. (W.K.)

  15. Philosophy of Erwin Schroedinger: a diachronic view of Schroedinger's thoughts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melgar, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    There is no agreement within the scientific community about the philosophy of Schroedinger. Some people think that he was a realist, while others defend him as an idealist. In this paper we study a number of Schroedinger's works and we show that the epithets of realist and idealist do not do him justice. Toward the end we conclude that it would be more adequate to place him in the trend known as the philosophy of immanence

  16. Erwin Schroedinger, Philosophy and the birth of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitbol, M.; Darrigol, O.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this collection of articles is to highlight the relation between Schroedinger's less well known research and his thoughts on quantum mechanics: philosophy, statistical mechanics, general relativity, cosmology, unified field theories, etc. Some articles are devoted to contemporary extensions of his work, and in particular on current echoes of his interpretation of quantum mechanics

  17. Canal rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    For more than fifty years the German physicist Eugen Goldstein was engaged in an obscure fringe field of physics, on which he has impressed like no other: Electrical gas discharges. Goldstein describes in this book his discovery of canal rays, which has given important impulses for modern atomic physics. For his research Goldstein received the Prix Hebert of the Parisienne Academie des sciences, the Hughes medal, and was repeatedly proposed for the Nobel prize. In Germany for the Jewish scientist the acknowledgement remained far-reachingly refused until after the war.

  18. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  19. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  20. Ray converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    In a radiographic system a converter is used for changing image forming intensity distribution in a bundle of penetrating rays into a flow of electrically charged particles by electrodes located in a gas space and partly latticed (grids) which lie at potentials stepped from cathode to anode. The invention is particularly characterized by the provision of at least two grids extending between and parallel to the cathode and the anode. The electrical field which lies between two electrodes lies at least between the grids located closest to the cathode being to the extent of between 1 and 10 percent, in the average preferably 3 percent below the electrical break down field in the gas in a homogeneous electrical field

  1. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  2. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  4. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  6. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  7. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  9. ALICE Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernandez Tellez, A; Martinez Hernandez, M; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE underground cavern provides an ideal place for the detection of high energy atmospheric muons coming from cosmic ray showers. ACORDE detects cosmic ray showers by triggering the arrival of muons to the top of the ALICE magnet.

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, a radiologist ... about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  11. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  12. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  13. Rekordhind Man Ray eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Ameerika sürrealistliku fotograafi Man Ray 1926. a. Pariisis pildistatud foto 'Must ja valge, Pariis (positiiv ja negatiiv)', mis kujutab Ray armukese Kiki de Montparnasse'i portreed, maksis New Yorgi fotooksjonil 7, 3 miljonit Eesti krooni

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  16. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  18. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  19. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  20. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  1. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The first certain detection of celestial high energy gamma rays came from a satellite experiment flown on the third Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-111). A Gamma ray spark chamber telescope with substantively greater sensitivity and angular resolution (a few degrees) flown on the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-II) has now provided a better picture of the gamma ray sky, and particularly the galactic plane and pulsars. This paper will summarize the present picture of gamma ray astronomy as it has developed at this conference from measurements made with experiments carried out on balloons, those remaining on the ground, and ones flown on satellites. (orig.) [de

  2. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  3. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  4. Jyotiranjan S Ray

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Jyotiranjan S Ray. Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science. Volume 109 Issue 1 March 2000 pp 39-47. Emplacement of Amba Dongar Carbonatite-alkaline Complex at Cretaceous/Tertiary Boundary: Evidence from 40Ar-39Ar Chronology · Jyotiranjan S Ray ...

  5. Gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsen, W.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of the celestial gamma-ray fine-scale structure based on over half of the data which may ultimately be available from the COS-B satellite. A catalogue consisting of 25 gamma-ray sources measured at energies above 100 MeV is presented. (Auth.)

  6. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The book reviews the development of gamma ray astronomy over the past twenty five years. A large section of the book is devoted to the problems of background radiation and the design of detectors. Gamma rays from the sun, the galactic disc, the galaxy, and extra galactic sources; are also discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  8. Gamma-ray astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The most striking feature of the celestial sphere when viewed in the frequency range of γ-rays is the emission from the galactic plane, which is particularly intense in the galactic longitudinal region from 300 0 to 50 0 . The longitudinal and latitudinal distributions are generally correlated with galactic structural features and when studied in detail suggest a non-uniform distribution of cosmic rays in the galaxy. Several point γ-ray sources have now been observed, including four radio pulsars. This last result is particularly striking since only one radio pulsar has been seen at either optical or X-ray frequencies. Nuclear γ-ray lines have been seen from the Sun during a large solar flare and future satellite experiments are planned to search for γ-ray lines from supernovae and their remnants. A general apparently diffuse flux of γ-rays has also been seen whose energy spectrum has interesting implications; however, in view of the possible contribution of point sources and the observation of galactic features such as Gould's belt, its interpretation must await γ-ray experiments with finer spatial and energy resolution, as well as greater sensitivity. (Auth.)

  9. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  10. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  11. Primary cosmic ray flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor

    2001-05-01

    We discuss the primary cosmic ray flux from the point of view of particle interactions and production of atmospheric neutrinos. The overall normalization of the cosmic ray flux and its time variations and site dependence are major ingredients of the atmospheric neutrino predictions and the basis for the derivation of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  15. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  16. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  18. Basics of Gamma Ray Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venkataraman, Ram [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this training is to explain the origin of x-rays and gamma rays, gamma ray interactions with matter, detectors and electronics used in gamma ray-spectrometry, and features of a gamma-ray spectrum for nuclear material that is safeguarded.

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  1. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  2. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  3. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  4. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  5. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  6. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  7. Computer ray tracing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, P; Pawlowski, B

    1990-05-01

    The results of measuring the ray trace speed and compilation speed of thirty-nine computers in fifty-seven configurations, ranging from personal computers to super computers, are described. A correlation of ray trace speed has been made with the LINPACK benchmark which allows the ray trace speed to be estimated using LINPACK performance data. The results indicate that the latest generation of workstations, using CPUs based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) technology, are as fast or faster than mainframe computers in compute-bound situations.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  15. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  17. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  2. Cosmic ray acceleration mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1982-09-01

    We present a brief summary of some of the most popular theories of cosmic ray acceleration: Fermi acceleration, its application to acceleration by shocks in a scattering medium, and impulsive acceleration by relativistic shocks

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  4. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masswig, I.

    1986-01-01

    The tkb market survey comparatively evaluates the X-ray sources and replacement tubes for stationary equipment currently available on the German market. It lists the equipment parameters of 235 commercially available X-ray sources and their replacement tubes and gives the criteria for purchase decisions. The survey has been completed with December 1985, and offers good information concerning medical and technical aspects as well as those of safety and maintenance. (orig.) [de

  5. Cosmic rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2005-01-01

    Cosmos is a mysterious space by which many researchers are fascinated for many years. But, going into space means that we will receive extra exposure due to existence of cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are mainly composed of highly energetic protons. It was born in the last stage of stellar life. Understanding of cosmos will certainly bring right understanding of radiation energy, or energy itself. As no one could see the very early stage of cosmic rays, there is only a speculation. But it is better to speculate something based on certain side evidences, than to give up the whole. Such attitude shall be welcomed in the space researches. Anyway, cosmic rays were born in the last explosion of a star, which is called as Super Nova. After cosmic rays are emitted from the Super Nova, it will reach to the human surroundings. To indicate its intensity, special unit of ''dose rate'' is used. When a man climbs a mountain, cosmic ray intensity surely increases. It doubles as he goes up every 1500m elevation. It was ascertained by our own measurements. Then what happens when the goes up more? At aviation altitude, where airplanes fly, the dose rate will be increased up to 100times the high mountain cases. And what is expected when he goes up further more, up to space orbit altitude? In this case, the dose rate increases up to 10times the airplane cases. Geomagnetism affects the dose rate very much. As primary cosmic ray particles are charged particles, they cannot do well with existence of the magnetic field. In effect, cosmic rays can penetrate into the polar atmosphere along geomagnetic lines of forces which stand almost vertical, but penetration of low energy cosmic rays will be banned when they intend to penetrate crossing the geomagnetic lines of forces in equatorial region. Therefore, exposure due to cosmic rays will become large in polar region, while it remains small in equatorial region. In effect, airplanes which fly over the equator. Only, we have to know that the cosmos

  6. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  7. Anisotropic ray trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  8. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  9. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  10. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  13. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  15. 11. European cosmic ray symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The biannual Symposium includes all aspects of cosmic ray research. The scientific programme was organized under three main headings: Cosmic rays in the heliosphere, Cosmic rays in the interstellar and extragalactic space, Properties of high-energy interactions as studied by cosmic rays. Seven invited talks were indexed seprately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  16. Cosmic ray modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Hirosachi

    1974-01-01

    It is important to know the physical state of solar plasma region by the observation of intensity variation of cosmic ray which passed through the solar plasma region, because earth magnetosphere is formed by the interaction between geomagnetic field and solar plasma flow. The observation of cosmic ray intensity is useful to know the average condition of the space of 0.1--3 A.U., and gives the structure of the magnetic field in solar wind affecting the earth magnetosphere. The observation of neutron component in cosmic ray has been carried out at Norikura, Tokyo, Fukushima and Morioka. The lower limit of the energy of incident cosmic ray which can be observed at each station is different, and the fine structure of the variation can be known by comparison. The intensity of meson component in cosmic ray has been measured in underground, and the state of solar plasma region 2--3 A.U. from the earth can be known. The underground measurement has been made at Takeyama and Matsumoto, and a new station at Sakashita is proposed. The measurement at Sakashita will be made by proportional counters at the depth of 100m (water equivalent). Arrangement of detectors is shown. (Kato, T.)

  17. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  18. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  19. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  20. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  1. Cosmic Rays and Climate

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2007-01-01

    Among the most puzzling questions in climate change is that of solar-climate variability, which has attracted the attention of scientists for more than two centuries. Until recently, even the existence of solar-climate variability has been controversial—perhaps because the observations had largely involved correlations between climate and the sunspot cycle that had persisted for only a few decades. Over the last few years, however, diverse reconstructions of past climate change have revealed clear associations with cosmic ray variations recorded in cosmogenic isotope archives, providing persuasive evidence for solar or cosmic ray forcing of the climate. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Although this remains a mystery, observations suggest that cloud cover may be influenced by cosmic rays, which are modulated by the solar wind and, on longer time scales, by the geomagnetic fiel...

  2. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  3. Educational Cosmic Ray Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluk, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade a great deal of interest has arisen in using sparse arrays of cosmic ray detectors located at schools as a means of doing both outreach and physics research. This approach has the unique advantage of involving grade school students in an actual ongoing experiment, rather then a simple teaching exercise, while at the same time providing researchers with the basic infrastructure for installation of cosmic ray detectors. A survey is made of projects in North America and Europe and in particular the ALTA experiment at the University of Alberta which was the first experiment operating under this paradigm

  4. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  5. Cosmic ray investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, Georgii T; Roganova, Tat'yana M

    2009-01-01

    The history of cosmic ray research at the Lebedev Institute beginning with the first work and continuing up to now is reviewed. The milestones and main avenues of research are outlined. Pioneering studies on the nuclear cascade process in extensive air showers, investigations of the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation, and some work on the origin of cosmic rays are discussed. Recent data on ultrahigh-energy particle detection at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiments are presented. (conferences and symposia)

  6. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deployment of detectors outside the deleterious effects of the atmosphere by sending them in space vehicles, has been explained. This has thrown open the entire spectrum of the electromagnetic and particle radiation to direct observations, thus enlarging the vistas of the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The discovery of strong emitters of X-rays such as SCO X-1, NorX-2, transient sources such as Cen X-2, Cen X-4, Cen X-1, Supernova remnants Tan X-1, etc., are reported. The background of the X-ray spectrum as measured during two rocket flights over Thumba, India is presented. (K.B.)

  7. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  8. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  9. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizza, L. J.

    Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest transient sources in the gamma-ray sky. Since their discovery in the late 1960s, the investigation of the astrophysical sys- tems in which these phenomena take place, and the physical mechanisms that drive them, has become a vast and prolific area of modern astrophysics. In this work I will briefly describe the most relevant observations of these sources, and the models that describe their nature, emphasizing on the in- vestigations about the progenitor astrophysical systems. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  11. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear gamma astronomy is presented, in particular the Gamma Ray Observatory, an enormous eight tonnes machine fitted with gamma telescopes, scheduled for launching around 1985. It is thereby hoped to study the natural nuclear reactions which occur when stars explode [fr

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  13. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, U.

    1979-11-01

    The author describes several possibilities for the production of X-radiation. Especially he discusses the use of bremsstrahlung at electron impact on solid targets and the synchrotron radiation. He presents some equations for the calculation of X-ray intensities. Especially the X-radiation from the DORIS storage ring is discussed. (HSI)

  14. Cosmic rays on earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allkofer, O.C.; Grieder, P.K.F.

    1984-01-01

    A data collection is presented that covers cosmic rays on earth. Included are all relevant data on flux and intensity measurements, energy spectra, and related data of all primary and secondary components of the cosmic radiation at all levels in the atmosphere, at sea level and underground. In those cases where no useful experimental data have been available, theoretical predictions were substituted. (GSCH)

  15. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Gui Ah Auu; Husaini Salleh; Idris Besar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Shaharuddin Mohd; Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader; Mahalatchimi Dave; Mohd Fazly Abdul Rahim; Ng Chee Moon; Ram Piari; Teoh Hoon Heng; Lee Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  16. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Inside the new chamber the CLOUD team will be able to recreate the conditions of any part of the atmosphere, from the polar stratosphere to the low level tropics (top). The new chamber safely in position in the East hall. Once carefully cleaned the chamber will be turned sideways onto its legs ready for the beam of 'cosmic rays' (bottom).

  17. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to ... You Sponsored by About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  18. Gamma ray calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.; Flaherty, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is in the field of gamma ray inspection devices for tubular products and the like employing an improved calibrating block which prevents the sensing system from being overloaded when no tubular product is present, and also provides the operator with a means for visually detecting the presence of wall thicknesses which are less than a required minimum. (author)

  19. Cosmic ray riddle solved?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Physicists from Japan and the United States have discovered a possible answer to the puzzle of the origin of high energy cosmic rays that bombard Earth from all directions in space. Using data from the Japanese/US X-ray astronomical satellite ASCA, physicists have found strong evidence for the production of cosmic particles in the shock wave of a supernova remnant, the expanding fireball produced by the explosion of a star. Primary cosmic rays, mostly electrons and protons, travel near the speed of light. Each second, approximately 4 such particles cross one square centimetre of space just outside the Earth's atmosphere. Subsequently, collisions of these primary particles with atoms in the upper atmosphere produce slower secondary particles. Ever since the discovery of cosmic rays early this century, scientists have debated the origin of these particles and how they can be accelerated to such high speeds. Supernova remnants have long been thought to provide the high energy component, but the evidence has been lacking until now. The international team of investigators used the satellite to determine that cosmic rays are generated profusely in the remains of the supernova of 1006 AD - which appeared to medieval viewers to be as bright as the Moon - and that they are accelerated to high velocities by an iterative process first suggested by Enrico Fermi in 1949. Using solid-state X-ray cameras, the ASCA satellite records simultaneous images and spectra of X-rays from celestial sources, allowing astronomers to distinguish different types of X-ray emission. The tell-tale clue to the discovery was the detection of two diametrically opposite regions in the rapidly expanding supernova remnant, the debris from the stellar explosion. The two regions glow intensely from the synchrotron radiation produced when fast-moving electrons are bent by a magnetic field. The remainder of the supernova remnant, in contrast, emits ordinary ''thermal'' X-rays

  20. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  1. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  2. Gamma-ray astronomy and cosmic-ray origin theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1973-01-01

    A theory of the origin of cosmic radiation is discussed in light of the advances made in gamma-ray astronomy. Arguments against metagalactic models for the origin of cosmic rays are emphasized. (U.S.)

  3. Irradiated ISM : Discriminating between cosmic rays and X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Israel, F. P.

    2006-01-01

    The interstellar medium ( ISM) at the centers of active galaxies is exposed to a combination of cosmic-ray, far-ultraviolet (FUV), and X-ray radiation. We apply photodissociation region (PDR) models to this ISM with both "normal" and highly elevated (5 x 10(-15) s(-1)) cosmic- ray (CR) rates and

  4. Resonance γ-ray polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonser, U.; Fischer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The topics are: Intensity and polarization of radiation in Moessbauer transitions, hyperfine interactions in 57 Fe, polarized γ-rays, polarimetry, γ-ray rotation polarimeters, Birefringence polarimetry. (WL)

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  9. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive ...

  18. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  19. X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The most common form of radio therapy is X-ray therapy, where a beam of photons or their parent electrons break down hydrogen bonds within the body's cells and remove certain DNA information necessary for cell multiplication. This process can eradicate malignant cells leading to complete recovery, to the remission of some cancers, or at least to a degree of pain relief. The radiotherapy instrument is usually an electron linac, and the electrons are used either directly in 'electrotherapy' for some 10% of patients, or the electrons bombard a conversion target creating a broad beam of high energy photons or 'penetration X-rays'. The simplest machine consists of several accelerating sections at around 3 GHz, accelerating electrons to 6 MeV; a cooled tungsten target is used to produce a 4 Gray/min X-ray field which can be collimated into a rectangular shape at the patient position. This tiny linac is mounted inside a rotating isocentric gantry above the patient who must remain perfectly still. Several convergent beams can also be used to increase the delivered dose. More sophisticated accelerators operate at up to 18 MeV to increase penetration depths and decrease skin exposure. Alternatively, electrotherapy can be used with different energies for lower and variable penetration depths - approximately 0.5 cm per MeV. In this way surface tissue may be treated without affecting deeper and more critical anatomical regions. This type of linac, 1 to 2 metres long, is mounted parallel to the patient with a bending magnet to direct the beam to the radiotherapy system, which includes the target, thick movable collimator jaws, a beam field equalizer, dose rate and optical field simulation and energy controls. There are over 2000 acceleratorbased X-ray treatment units worldwide. Western countries have up to two units per million population, whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, the density is only one per 100 million. Several

  20. X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucarias, A; Shepherd, J W

    1982-09-08

    An X-ray tube has a tubular envelope with a cathode for directing an electron beam onto a focal spot area of a spaced anode target to generate X-rays. The target is mounted for axial rotation on one end of a rotor disposed in an end portion of the envelope and encircled by a stator of an alternating current induction motor. An annular shield of high permeability magnetic material extends transversely between the electron beam and the stator of the induction motor for shunting stray or fringe electromagnetic fields established by the stator away from the electron beam to avoid consequent lateral deflections of the electron and corresponding lateral movements of the focal spot area.

  1. Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  2. Gamma ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-H.; Robbins, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    An Anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the Anger camera. The image intensifier tube has a negatively charged flat scintillator screen, a flat photocathode layer, and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen, all of which have the same dimension to maintain unit image magnification; all components are contained within a grounded metallic tube, with a metallic, inwardly curved input window between the scintillator screen and a collimator. The display screen can be viewed by an array of photomultipliers or solid state detectors. There are two photocathodes and two phosphor screens to give a two stage intensification, the two stages being optically coupled by a light guide. (author)

  3. Cosmic rays and climate

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The current understanding of climate change in the industrial age is that it is predominantly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, with relatively small natural contributions due to solar irradiance and volcanoes. However, palaeoclimatic reconstructions show that the climate has frequently varied on 100-year time scales during the Holocene (last 10 kyr) by amounts comparable to the present warming - and yet the mechanism or mechanisms are not understood. Some of these reconstructions show clear associations with solar variability, which is recorded in the light radio-isotope archives that measure past variations of cosmic ray intensity. However, despite the increasing evidence of its importance, solar-climate variability is likely to remain controversial until a physical mechanism is established. Estimated changes of solar irradiance on these time scales appear to be too small to account for the climate observations. This raises the question of whether cosmic rays may directly affect the climate, provi...

  4. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  5. Cathode ray tube screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockayne, B.; Robbins, D.J.; Glasper, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    An improved cathode ray tube screen is described which consists of a single- or a poly-crystalline slice of a material such as yttrium aluminium garnet in which dopants such as Tb 3 + , Eu 3 + , Ce 3 + or Tm 3 + are ion implanted to different depths or in different areas of the screen. Annealing the screen removes lattice damage caused by the ion implanting and assists the diffusion of the dopant into the crystal. (U.K.)

  6. Cathode ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A cathode ray tube comprises two electron lens means in combination to crossover the electron beam at a second crossover between the two electron lens means with one of the two lens means having a variable voltage applied thereto to control the location of the beam crossover in order to focus the beam onto a display screen at any location away from the screen center. (Auth.)

  7. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  8. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  9. Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

    2013-04-01

    Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

  10. Cosmic ray modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of cosmic rays to and inside the heliosphere, encounter an outward moving solar wind with cyclic magnetic field fluctuation and turbulence, causing convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. Cosmic ray counts from the ground ground-based neutron monitors at different cut of rigidity show intensity changes, which are anti-correlated with sunspot numbers. They also lose energy as they propagate towards the Earth and experience various types of modulations due to different solar activity indices. In this work, we study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-2014 for Beijing, Moscow and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations located at different cut off rigidity. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for low cutoff rigidity as compared to high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station as compared to the high cut off rigidity station on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days does not show any significant dependence on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of different cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics, amplitude, phase.

  11. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  12. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10 15 eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O 19 eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author)

  13. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  14. Radiation ray measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Ida, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a chained-radiation ray monitoring system which can be applied to an actual monitoring system of a nuclear power plant or the like. Namely, this device comprises a plurality of scintillation detectors. Each of the detectors has two light take-out ports for emitting light corresponding to radiation rays irradiated from the object of the measurement to optical fibers. In addition, incident light from the optical fiber by way of one of the light take-out optical ports is transmitted to the other of the ports and sent from the other optical port to the fibers. Plurality sets of measuring systems are provided in which each of the detectors are disposed corresponding to a plurality of objects to be measured. A signal processing device is (1) connected with optical fibers of plurality sets of measuring systems in conjunction, (2) detects the optical pulses inputted from the optical fibers to identify the detector from which the optical pulses are sent and (3) measures the amount of radiation rays detected by the identified detector. As a result, the device of the present invention can form a measuring system with redundancy. (I.S.)

  15. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Hip What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  19. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Ankle What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  20. Equipment for x- and gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following topics related to the equipment for x - and gamma ray radiography are discussed in this chapter. The topics are x-ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of x-ray, generation of x-ray, mechanism of x-ray production, x-ray equipment, power supply, distribution of x-ray intensity along the tube: gamma ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of gamma rays, gamma ray sources, gamma ray projectors on cameras, source changing. Care of Radiographic Equipments: Merits and Demerits of x and Gamma Rays

  1. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  2. Lunar based gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymes, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy represents the study of the universe on the basis of the electromagnetic radiation with the highest energy. Gamma ray astronomy provides a crucial tool for the understanding of astronomical phenomena, taking into account nucleosynthesis in supernovae, black holes, active galaxies, quasars, the sources of cosmic rays, neutron stars, and matter-antimatter annihilation. Difficulties concerning the conduction of studies by gamma ray astronomy are related to the necessity to perform such studies far from earth because the atmosphere is a source of gamma rays. Studies involving the use of gamma ray instruments in earth orbit have been conducted, and more gamma ray astronomy observations are planned for the future. Imperfections of studies conducted in low earth orbit could be overcome by estalishing an observatory on the moon which represents a satellite orbiting at 60 earth radii. Details concerning such an observatory are discussed. 5 references

  3. Gamma ray astronomy and the origin of galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabici, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration operating at expanding supernova remnant shells is by far the most popular model for the origin of galactic cosmic rays. Despite the general consensus received by the model, an unambiguous and conclusive proof of the supernova remnant hypothesis is still missing. In this context, the recent developments in gamma ray astronomy provide us with precious insights into the problem of the origin of galactic cosmic rays, since production of gamma rays is expected both during the acceleration of cosmic rays at supernova remnant shocks and during their subsequent propagation in the interstellar medium. In particular, the recent detection of a number of supernova remnants at TeV energies nicely fits with the model, but it still does not constitute a conclusive proof of it, mainly due to the difficulty of disentangling the hadronic and leptonic contributions to the observed gamma ray emission. The main goal of my research is to search for an unambiguous and conclusive observational test for proving (or disproving) the idea that supernova remnants are the sources of galactic cosmic rays with energies up to (at least) the cosmic ray knee. Our present comprehension of the mechanisms of particle acceleration at shocks and of the propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields encourages beliefs that such a conclusive test might come from future observations of supernova remnants and of the Galaxy in the almost unexplored domain of multi-TeV gamma rays. (author)

  4. Studies in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemalkhedkar, M.M.

    1974-03-01

    The investigation of the diurnal variation in the cosmic ray intensity on individual days has revealed a new class of diurnal variation showing a maximum around 09 hour direction in the interplanetary space. It is shown to occur during the recovery phase of Forbush decreases as well as during quiet periods. The rigidity spectrum of the anomalous diurnal variation has an exponent around zero, the same as that for the average diurnal variation exhibiting maximum around 18 hours in the interplanetary space. It is shown that the Forbush decreases associated with the diurnal variation exhibiting morning maximum, are 27 day recurrent in nature and are preceded by east limb solar flares on most of the occasions. A qualitative model of the transient modulation by solar corotating corpuscular streams of enhanced solar wind velocity, emanating from the active regions on the solar disc, is proposed to explain the anomalous diurnal anisotropy in the recovery phase of 27 day recurrent Forbush decreases. From this model, the cosmic ray diffusion coefficients, parallel and perpendicular to the interplanetary magnetic field inside the corotating stream, are derived and compared with the average values. To investigate the possibility of determining the energy spectra of cosmic ray intensity variations from a single station, a continuous record of neutron multiplicity spectrum has been obtained for the period October, 1967 - October, 1971, using the Gulmarg neutron monitor. The average multiplicity spectrum in the Gulmarg neutron monitor shows a mean multiplicity approximately equal to 1.4 for 12 Boron-tri-fluoride counters and is an increasing function of the number of counters used. The mean multiplicity measured in various other neutron monitors, when normalized to the cutoff rigidity of Gulmurg (11.91 GV), shows a systematic increase with the altitude of the station. (author)

  5. SMM x ray polychromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  6. Obstetric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwachi, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography of the pelvis should never be taken to diagnose early pregnancy, because of potential hazards of radiation damage to the growing foetus. the only indication occurs in the last week of pregnancy (37 weeks). Obstetric X-ray will help you answer like confirmation of malposition,multiple pregnancies; fetal abnormalities e.g. hydrocephalus, foetal disposition. The choice of radiographic projection will help give foetal presentation, disposition as well as foetal maturity. The search pattern helps you determine maternal and spine deformity, foetal spine and head , foetal presentation and any other anomalies

  7. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  8. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  9. 76 FR 16835 - Erwin E. Feldman, D.O.; Revocation of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... satisfies its prima facie burden, the burden then shifts to the registrant to demonstrate why he can be... statement to the Investigators, show that he cannot be trusted to faithfully comply with the obligations of...

  10. 77 FR 59994 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., Erwin, TN; Issuance of License Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment). If you do not have access to ADAMS or if there are problems in accessing the... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 70-143; NRC-2009-0435] Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc... No. SNM-124, to Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (the licensee), which authorizes the licensee to continue...

  11. Erwin Schroedinger: Collected papers V. 4. General scientific and popular papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroedinger, E.

    1984-01-01

    The present volume contains all of Schroedinger's papers, which did not fit naturally into his earlier volumes. It certainly does not contain only popular writings and is perhaps more so than the other volumes a testimony of the spiritual breadth of its author. Schroedinger occupied himself very extensively with the physiological optics. His papers reach from survey articles, where an enormous experimental material is being sifted, to theoretical explorations. A leitmotiv in Schroedinger's thinking, which never left him in peace, was the duality of particle and wave. He looked upon the wave-picture as the one more to the point and in this connection expressed various fruitful thoughts as e.g. that the state of macroscopic bodies would not be eigenstates of the number of particles. He objected against provisional formulations and thus controverted against quantum jumps, which suggest a discontinuous time-development. Schroedinger rejected the radical positivism, which tolerates only directly observable quantities in a theory and he did not look upon the Copenhagen interpretation as the complete solution to the problem. The collection of 59 papers is a goldmine for all pedagogues. Numerous popularizations of Schroedinger's spheres of interest, which go widely beyond his field of exploration prove how simple and clear a topic can be presented. Let it be astronomy or biology, theory of knowledge or Greek mythology, he always discovered the heart of the questions and illustrated it with simple means. He never pretends learning and deepness of thoughts by cryptical remarks and by vague or contradictory formulations. All writings show his way of thinking, which cannot be restricted by authority and objects to any claim of eternal validity. For instance, he analyses various epoche-making arguements of Galileo and finds that his plausible explanation of the tides is wrong. His conceptions on consciousness, free will and human soul are documented in some essays too. Especially this that for Schroedinger the socalled exact sciences are only a small stone in the greater edifice of a philosophical view of the world. (W.K.)

  12. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  13. X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.A.; Van Grieken, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the period under review, i.e, through 1984 and 1985, some 600 articles on XRS (X-ray spectrometry) were published; most of these have been scanned and the most fundamental ones are discussed. All references will refer to English-language articles, unless states otherwise. Also general books have appeared on quantitative EPXMA (electron-probe X-ray microanalysis) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as well as an extensive review on the application of XRS to trace analysis of environmental samples. In the period under review no radically new developments have been seen in XRS. However, significant improvements have been made. Gain in intensities has been achieved by more efficient excitation, higher reflectivity of dispersing media, and better geometry. Better understanding of the physical process of photon- and electron-specimen interactions led to complex but more accurate equations for correction of various interelement effects. Extensive use of micro- and minicomputers now enables fully automatic operation, including qualitative analysis. However, sample preparation and presentation still put a limit to further progress. Although some authors find XRS in the phase of stabilization or even stagnation, further gradual developments are expected, particularly toward more dedicated equipment, advanced automation, and image analysis systems. Ways are outlined in which XRS has been improved in the 2 last years by excitation, detection, instrumental, methodological, and theoretical advances. 340 references

  14. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, K.; Li, D.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Motizuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 1 97Au and 1 29Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 1 29Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  15. X-ray echoes from gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.; Hurley, K.C.; Hartmann, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The identification of an echo of reflected radiation in time histories of gamma-ray burst spectra can provide important information about the existence of binary companions or accretion disks in gamma-ray burst systems. Because of the nature of Compton scattering, the spectrum of the echo will be attenuated at gamma-ray energies compared with the spectrum of the primary burst emission. The expected temporal and spectral signatures of the echo and a search for such echoes are described, and implications for gamma-ray burst models are discussed. 35 refs

  16. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  17. Quantum electrodynamics and light rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1978-11-01

    Light is a quantum electrodynamic entity and hence bundles of rays must be describable in this framework. The duality in the description of elementary optical phenomena is demonstrated in terms of two-point correlation functions and in terms of collections of light rays. The generalizations necessary to deal with two-slit interference and diffraction by a rectangular slit are worked out and the usefulness of the notion of rays of darkness illustrated. 10 references

  18. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  19. Complex ray analysis for plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    An extension of ray tracing techniques is considered for a variety of cases in which the dispersion relation of the plasma medium is complex. The ray trajectories are permitted to begin and/or at least travel through complex space-time; the wave propagation process so characterized becomes significant only where the rays intersect real space-time. It is found that rules and guidelines can be established for limited application of this idea

  20. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  1. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  2. Cosmic ray synergies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    In laboratories, cosmic rays have been the subject of scientific research for many years. A more recent development is their appearance in schools, as educational tools. A recent workshop at CERN, organised by ASPERA in collaboration with EPPOG and EPPCN, had the goal of bringing together ideas and initiatives with a view to setting up a future common project.   Presentation at the workshop on 15 October. In research, as in education, you can sometimes get things done more rapidly and easily by joining forces. For roughly the past decade, physicists have been taking their particle detectors to secondary schools. “The challenge now is to bring all of these existing projects together in a network,” says Arnaud Marsollier, in charge of communication for the ASPERA network and organiser of the workshop. The workshop held on Friday, 15 October was attended by representatives of major European educational projects and members of the European Particle Physics Communication Network...

  3. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  4. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  5. Cosmic Ray Antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, space-born experiments have delivered new measurements of high energy cosmic-ray (CR) antiprotons and positrons, opening new frontiers in energy reach and precision. While being a promising discovery tool for new physics or exotic astrophysical phenomena, an irreducible background of antimatter comes from CR collisions with interstellar matter in the Galaxy. Understanding this irreducible source or constraining it from first principles is an interesting challenge: a game of hide-and-seek where the objective is to identify the laws of basic particle physics among the forest of astrophysical uncertainties. I describe an attempt to obtain such understanding, combining information from a zoo of CR species including massive nuclei and relativistic radioisotopes. I show that: (i) CR antiprotons most likely come from CR-gas collisions; (ii) positron data is consistent with, and suggestive of the same astrophysical production mechanism responsible for antiprotons and dominated by proton-proton c...

  6. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  7. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  8. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabelski, J. [Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10{sup 15} eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O{sup 19} eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author) 101 refs, 19 figs, 7 tabs

  9. γ ray astronomy with muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.; Stanev, T.; Yodh, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    Although γ ray showers are muon poor, they still produce a number of muons sufficient to make the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes observable also in muons. For sources with hard γ ray spectra there is a relative open-quotes enhancementclose quotes of muons from γ ray primaries as compared to that from nucleon primaries. All shower γ rays above the photoproduction threshold contribute to the number of muons N μ , which is thus proportional to the primary γ ray energy. With γ ray energy 50 times higher than the muon energy and a probability of muon production by the γ close-quote s of about 1%, muon detectors can match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector if their effective area is larger by 10 4 . The muons must have enough energy for sufficiently accurate reconstruction of their direction for doing astronomy. These conditions are satisfied by relatively shallow neutrino detectors such as AMANDA and Lake Baikal, and by γ ray detectors such as MILAGRO. TeV muons from γ ray primaries, on the other hand, are rare because they are only produced by higher energy γ rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy with the AMANDA, Lake Baikal, and MILAGRO detectors. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. X-ray filtration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an X-ray shielding support device. In spite of considerable development in X-ray taking techniques, a need still exists for effective shielding, inter alia, to compensate for variations in the thickness, density and the absorption properties of the object being studied. By appropriate shielding, the X-ray image produced is of sufficient detail, contrast and intensity over its entire area to constitute a useful diagnostic aid. It is also desirable to subject the patient to the smallest possible X-ray dosage. 4 figs

  11. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  12. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  14. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  15. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  19. Traditional x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of imaging x-rays, with particular reference to medicine, are reviewed. The history and nature of x-rays, their production and spectra, contrast, shapes and fine structure, image transducers, including fluorescent screens, radiography, fluoroscopy, and image intensifiers, image detection, perception and enhancement and clinical applications are considered. (U.K.)

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for ... organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  5. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  6. X-ray filter for chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of an X-ray filter comprised of a sheet of radiation absorbing material with an opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. The upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter. This filter will permit an acceptable density level of x-ray exposure for the lungs while allowing a higher level of x-ray exposure for the mediastinum areas of the body. (author)

  7. X-ray filter for chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Filter for use in medical x-ray apparatus to permit higher intensity x-ray exposure in the heart and mediastinum area while maintaining a normal level of x-ray exposure in other areas of the body, particlarly in the lung area. The filter comprises a sheet of radiation absorbing material having an opening therein, said opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. Accordingly, the upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter

  8. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  9. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.; Miller, R.C.; Nakamura, Nori; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Nishio, Shoji.

    1987-05-01

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60 Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60 Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  10. Apparatus for gamma ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Oga, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    This is the standard of Japan Non-Destructive Inspection Society, NDIS 1101-79, which stipulates on the design, construction and testing method of the apparatuses for gamma ray radiography used for taking industrial radiograms. The gamma ray apparatuses stipulated in this standard are those containing sealed radioactive isotopes exceeding 100 μCi, which emit gamma ray. The gamma ray apparatuses are classified into three groups according to their movability. The general design conditions, the irradiation dose rate and the sealed radiation sources for the gamma ray apparatuses are stipulated. The construction of the gamma ray apparatuses must be in accordance with the notification No. 52 of the Ministry of Labor, and safety devices and collimators must be equipped. The main bodies of the gamma ray apparatuses must pass the vibration test, penetration test, impact test and shielding efficiency test. The method of each test is described. The attached equipments must be also tested. The tests according to this standard are carried out by the makers of the apparatuses. The test records must be made when the apparatuses have passed the tests, and the test certificates are attached. The limit of guarantee by the endurance test must be clearly shown. The items to be shown on the apparatuses are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  11. X-ray and gamma ray waveguide, cavity and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vali, V.; Krogstad, R.S.; Willard, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    An x-ray and gamma ray waveguide, cavity, and method for directing electromagnetic radiation of the x-ray, gamma ray, and extreme ultraviolet wavelengths are described. A hollow fiber is used as the waveguide and is manufactured from a material having an index of refraction less than unity for these wavelengths. The internal diameter of the hollow fiber waveguide and the radius of curvature for the waveguide are selectively predetermined in light of the wavelength of the transmitted radiation to minimize losses. The electromagnetic radiation is obtained from any suitable source ad upon introduction into the waveguide is transmitted along a curvilinear path. The waveguide may be formed as a closed loop to create a cavity or may be used to direct the electromagnetic radiation to a utilization site

  12. X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Radiation Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed is a semiconductor radiation detector for detecting X-ray and / or gamma-ray radiation. The detector comprises a converter element for converting incident X-ray and gamma-ray photons into electron-hole pairs, at least one cathode, a plurality of detector electrodes arranged with a pitch...... (P) along a first axis, a plurality of drift electrodes, a readout circuitry being configured to read out signals from the plurality of detector electrodes and a processing unit connected to the readout circuitry and being configured to detect an event in the converter element. The readout circuitry...... is further configured to read out signals from the plurality of drift electrodes, and the processing unit is further configured to estimate a location of the event along the first axis by processing signals obtained from both the detector electrodes and the drift electrodes, the location of the event along...

  13. Detectors of Cosmic Rays, Gamma Rays, and Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamirano, A.; Navarra, G.

    2009-01-01

    We summarize the main features, properties and performances of the typical detectors in use in Cosmic Ray Physics. A brief historical and general introduction will focus on the main classes and requirements of such detectors.

  14. Cosmic Ray and Tev Gamma Ray Generation by Quasar Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Elihu; Loewenstein, Michael; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Results from new broadband (radio to X-ray) high-resolution imaging studies of the dormant quasar remnant cores of nearby giant elliptical galaxies are now shown to permit the harboring of compact dynamos capable of generating the highest energy cosmic ray particles and associated curvature radiation of TeV photons. Confirmation would imply a global inflow of interstellar gas all the way to the accretion powered supermassive black hole at the center of the host galaxy.

  15. Cosmic rays, clouds and climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensmark, Henrik [Danish Space Research Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    Changes in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays seems alter the Earth's cloudiness. A recent experiment has shown how electrons liberated by cosmic rays assist in making aerosols, the building blocks of cloud condensation nuclei, while anomalous climatic trends in Antarctica confirm the role of clouds in helping to drive climate change. Variations in the cosmic-ray influx due to solar magnetic activity account well for climatic fluctuations on decadal, centennial and millennial timescales. Over longer intervals, the changing galactic environment of the Solar System has had dramatic consequences, including Snowball Earth episodes.

  16. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  17. Women and x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkley, P A; Stewart, J H

    1976-01-01

    When a woman comes to an X-Ray Department it is usually necessary to know the present stage of her menstrual cycle. X-Rays may have an adverse effect on the embryo, especially in early pregnancy. However, exposure to X-Rays at any stage may be associated with a slightly increased incidence of malignant disease in childhood. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends that in women of child-bearing age (in some cases as young as 11 years), non-urgent diagnostic radiography be confined to the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle: that is, 14 days following the first day of the last menstrual period.

  18. Coherent γ-ray production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Sibilia, C.

    1985-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss a new approach for developing a coherent source of γ-rays. They offer a completely different scheme for development of the source that should overcome most of the problems encountered in ''classical γ-ray lasers,'' and in which the use of inverse Compton scattering of laser radiation onto a relativistic electron beam is made. This kind of interaction has been used to obtain γ-ray photons with good polarization and monochromaticity properties. The authors describe a new geometry of interaction which allows one to obtain coherent emission

  19. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken ... and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray may ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  2. Cosmic rays and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with ... or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the proper position. A lead apron ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. ... should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are ...

  5. X-ray guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, R.; Lezana, A.H.; Pedrosa, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is now a routine procedure in many X-ray Departments. This paper presents the authors' experience with this technique in chest, abdominal and skeletal lesions. (Auth.)

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  8. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  10. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a ... Images related ...

  19. Energy deposition by delta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigand, F.C.; Braby, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations for proton tracks were extended to projectile with more complex electronic structures which add additional delta ray production processes. An experimental apparatus was used to detect gas gain and resolution for H 2+ and 3 He ++

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ... the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | ...

  7. Interplanetary cosmic-ray scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toptygin, I N; Vasiliev, V N [Kalininskij Sel' skokhozyajstvennyj Inst. (USSR)

    1977-05-01

    The equation for the two-particles cosmic-ray distribution function is derived by means of the Boltzmann kinetic equation averaging. This equation is valid for arbitrary ratio of regular and random parts of the magnetic field. For small energy particles the guiding-center approximation is used. On the basis of the derived equation the dependence between power spectra of cosmic-ray intensity and random magnetic field is obtained. If power spectra are degree functions for high energy particles (approximately 10 GeV nucleon/sup -1/), then the spectral exponent ..gamma.. of magnetic field lies between rho and rho-2, where rho is the spectral exponent of cosmic-ray power spectra. The experimental data concerning moderate energy particles are in accordance with ..gamma..=rho, which demonstrates that the magnetic fluctuations are isotropic or cosmic-ray space gradient is small near the Earth orbit.

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a patient. View ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  15. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  16. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  17. X-ray luminescent glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray luminescent glasses comprising a divalent cation such as an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cations such as pb, cd, or zn, and certain rare earth metaphosphates are suitable as vitreous, x-ray phosphors or x-ray luminescent glass fibers in an x-ray intensifying screen. The glasses have the composition n(Mo X p2o5)((1-y)tb2o3 X yce2o3 X 3p2o5) wherein N is greater than zero but less than or equal to 16, M is an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cation such as pb, cd, or zn, and Y is greater than or equal to zero but less than one

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  20. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes

  1. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  2. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.

    1982-01-01

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ... the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  9. Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Paul G [Computer-Aided Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Isaacs, Eric D [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction uses the structural specificity of x-ray diffraction to probe complex magnetic structures at the length scales relevant to physical phenomena including domain dynamics and phase transitions. Conventional magnetic crystallography techniques such as neutron or x-ray diffraction lack this spatial resolution. The combination of both reciprocal space and real space resolution with a rich magnetic cross section allows new microscopy techniques to be developed and applied to magnetism at the scale of single domains. Potential applications include a wide range of magnetic problems in nanomagnetism, the interaction of strain, polarization and magnetization in complex oxides and spatially resolved studies of magnetic phase transitions. We present the physical basis for x-ray microdiffraction and magnetic scattering processes, review microdiffraction domain imaging techniques in antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials and discuss potential directions for studies. (topical review)

  10. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  11. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  12. Cosmic rays and Earth's climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    During the last solar cycle the Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation in phase with the cosmic ray flux. Assuming that there is a causal relationship between the two, it is expected and found that the Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in cosmic ray flux than other...... solar activity parameters. If the relationship is real the state of the Heliosphere affects the Earth's climate....

  13. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  14. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  15. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  16. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  17. X-ray data processing

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Harold R.

    2017-01-01

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most c...

  18. Humidity measurement using alpha-ray and beta-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki; Kobayashi, Hisanobu

    1981-01-01

    Two new hygrometers using radioisotopes were proposed, and the results of tests are described. The one is a dew-point hygrometer utilizing the backscattering phenomena of beta-ray by dew, and the other is a hygrometer by measuring the variation of ionization current by alpha ray due to humidity. The backscattering of beta-ray depends on the atomic number of scatters and the energy of beta-ray. Therefore, the backscattering from dew on a gold plate is different from that from the gold itself. The temperature dependence of the backscattering intensity was measured with a GM counter. Decrease of the intensity was seen at the dew point. A control circuit was designed to measure the dew point automatically. The error of the measurement was within 1 degree C. An alpha-ray ionization hygrometer was constructed. The dependence of ionization current on humidity was measured with an operational amplifier. The resolution of humidity measurement was within 5 percent. (Kato, T.)

  19. Cosmic gamma-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takamasa

    1985-01-01

    Ballon experiments for searching gamma-ray burst were carried out by employing rotating-cross modulation collimators. From a very long observation of total 315 hours during 1975 to 1979, three gamma-ray intensity anomalies were observed which were speculated as a gamma-ray burst. As for the first gamma-ray intensity anomaly observed in 1975, the burst source could be located precisely but the source, heavenly body, could not be specified. Gamma-ray burst source estimation was made by analyzing distribution of burst source in the celestial sphere, burst size distribution, and burst peak. Using the above-mentioned data together with previously published ones, apparent inconsistency was found between the observed results and the adopted theory that the source was in the Galaxy, and this inconsistency was found due to the different time profiles of the burst observed with instruments of different efficiency. It was concluded by these analysis results that employment of logN - logP (relation between burst frequency and burst count) was better than that of logN - logS (burst size) in the examination of gamma-ray burst because the former was less uncertain than the latter. Analyzing the author's observed gamma-ray burst data and the related published data, it was clarified that the burst distribution was almost P -312 for the burst peak value larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec. The author could indicate that the calculated celestial distribution of burst source was consistent with the observed results by the derivation using the logN - logP relationship and that the burst larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec happens about one thousand times a year, about ten times of the previous value. (Takagi, S.)

  20. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  1. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  2. On evolutionary ray-projection dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.; Roorda, Berend

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the ray-projection dynamics in evolutionary game theory by employing a ray projection of the relative fitness (vector) function, i.e., a projection unto the unit simplex along a ray through the origin. Ray-projection dynamics are weakly compatible in the terminology of Friedman

  3. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  4. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Neck Enlarged Adenoids Croup Sinusitis Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  5. Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, various classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei have been established as sources of high-energy radiation extending over a very broad range from soft gamma-rays (photon energies E~MeV) up to very-high-energy gamma-rays (E>100 GeV). These include blazars of different types, as well as young and evolved radio galaxies. The observed gamma-ray emission from such implies efficient particle acceleration processes taking place in highly magnetized and relativistic jets produced by supermassive black holes, processes that have yet to be identified and properly understood. In addition, nearby starforming and starburst galaxies, some of which host radio-quiet Seyfert-type nuclei, have been detected in the gamma-ray range as well. In their cases, the observed gamma-ray emission is due to non-thermal activity in the interstellar medium, possibly including also a contribution from accretion disks and nuclear outflows. Finally, the high-energy emission from clusters of galaxies remains elusive...

  6. Stellar X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.I.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO

    1988-01-01

    I Review some of the salient accomplishments of X-rap studies of compact objects. Progress in this field has closely followed the improvement of observational methods, particularly in angular resolution and duration of exposure. Luminous compact X-ray sources are accreting neutron stars or black holes. Accreting neutron stars may have characteristic temporal signatures, but the only way to establish that an X-ray source is a black hole is to measure its mass. A rough phenomenological theory is succesful, but the transport of angular momentum in accretion flows is not onderstood. A number of interesting complications have been observed, including precessing accretion discs, X-ray bursts, and the acceleration of jets in SS433. Many puzzles remain unsolved, including the excitation of disc precession, the nature of the enigmatic A- and gamma-ray source Cyg X-3, the mechanism by which slowly spinning accreting neutron stars lose angular momentum, and the superabundance of X-ray sources in globular clusters. 41 refs.; 5 figs

  7. Optical observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Fynbo, J.P.U.

    2004-01-01

    We briefly review the status and recent progress in the field of optical observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows. We will focus on the fundamental observational evidence for the relationship between gamma-ray bursts and the final evolutionary phases of massive stars. In particular, we will address (i) gamma-ray burst host galaxies, (ii) optically dark gamma-ray burst afterglows, (iii) the gamma-ray burst-supernova connection, and (iv) the relation between X-ray flashes, gamma-ray bursts, and supernovae

  8. X-ray cardiovascular examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An X-ray source is mounted in an enclosure for angulating longitudinally about a horizontal axis. An X-ray-permeable, patient-supporting table is mounted on the top of the enclosure for executing lateral and longitudinal movements. An X-ray image-receiving device such as an X-ray image intensifier is mounted above the table on a vertically movable arm which is on a longitudinally movable carriage. Electric control means are provided for angulating the X-ray source and image intensifier synchronously as the image intensifier system is shifted longitudinally or vertically such that the central ray from the X-ray source is kept intensifier

  9. Ultra high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdowczyk, J.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental data on ultra high energy γ-rays are reviewed and a comparison of the properties of photon and proton initiated shower is made. The consequences of the existence of the strong ultra high energy γ-ray sources for other observations is analysed and possible mechanisms for the production of ultra high energy γ-rays in the sources are discussed. It is demonstrated that if the γ-rays are produced via cosmic ray interactions the sources have to produce very high fluxes of cosmic ray particles. In fact it is possible that a small number of such sources can supply the whole Galactic cosmic ray flux

  10. Illumination system for X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray lithography system is described, comprising: a point source of X-Ray radiation; a wafer plane disposed in spaced relation to the point source of X-Ray radiation; a mask disposed between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane whereby X-Ray radiation from the point source of X-ray radiation passes through the mask to the water plane; and X-Ray absorbent means mounted between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane, the X-Ray absorbent means being of quadratically absorption from maximum absorption at the center to minimum absorption at the edge so as to have a radial absorption gradient profile to compensate for radial flux variation of the X-Ray radiation

  11. Transmission X-ray mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lairson, B.M.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission X-ray mirrors have been made from 400 A to 10 000 A thick soap films and have been shown to have novel properties. Using grazing angles of incidence, low energy X-rays were reflected from the front surface while more energetic X-rays were transmitted through the mirror largely unattenuated. A wide bandpass monochromator was made from a silicon carbide mirror followed by a soap film transmission mirror and operated in the white beam at the cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Bandpasses of ΔE/E=12% to 18% were achieved at 13 keV with peak efficiencies estimated to be between 55% and 75%, respectively. Several wide angle scattering photographs of stretched polyethylene and a phospholipid were obtained in 10 s using an 18% bandpass. (orig.)

  12. Aerosols Produced by Cosmic Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    an experiment in order to investigate the underlying microphysical processes. The results of this experiment will help to understand whether ionization from cosmic rays, and by implication the related processes in the universe, has a direct influence on Earth’s atmosphere and climate. Since any physical...... mechanism linking cosmic rays to clouds and climate is currently speculative, there have been various suggestions of the role atmospheric ions may play; these involve any one of a number of processes from the nucleation of aerosols up to the collection processes of cloud droplets. We have chosen to start......Satellite observations have shown that the Earth’s cloud cover is strongly correlated with the galactic cosmic ray flux. While this correlation is indicative of a possible physical connection, there is currently no confirmation that a physical mechanism exists. We are therefore setting up...

  13. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.; Svensmark, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    cloud radiative properties. Thus, a moderate influence on atmospheric aerosol distributions from cosmic ray ionisation would have a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget. Historical evidence over the past 1000 years indicates that changes in climate have occurred in accord with variability......A correlation between a global average of low cloud cover and the flux of cosmic rays incident in the atmosphere has been observed during the last solar cycle. The ionising potential of Earth bound cosmic rays are modulated by the state of the heliosphere, while clouds play an important role...... in the Earth's radiation budget through trapping outgoing radiation and reflecting incoming radiation. If a physical link between these two features can be established, it would provide a mechanism linking solar activity and Earth's climate. Recent satellite observations have further revealed a correlation...

  14. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  15. Exponential x-ray transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazou, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    In emission computed tomography one wants to determine the location and intensity of radiation emitted by sources in the presence of an attenuating medium. If the attenuation is known everywhere and equals a constant α in a convex neighborhood of the support of f, then the problem reduces to that of inverting the exponential x-ray transform P/sub α/. The exponential x-ray transform P/sub μ/ with the attenuation μ variable, is of interest mathematically. For the exponential x-ray transform in two dimensions, it is shown that for a large class of approximate δ functions E, convolution kernels K exist for use in the convolution backprojection algorithm. For the case where the attenuation is constant, exact formulas are derived for calculating the convolution kernels from radial point spread functions. From these an exact inversion formula for the constantly attenuated transform is obtained

  16. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  17. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  18. X-ray of osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Osteoporosis, osteomalcia, fibro-osteoclasia and osteosclerosis are essential reactions to pathologicometabolic processes of the bone. The X-ray film shows precisely which changes have taken place in the bone structure, thus supplying the means for an analysis based on anatomic pathology. These phenomena are discussed in detail, special attention being paid to structural modifications. Attention is also focused on the problems connected with X-ray technology. The value of direct and indirect magnification of the skeleton of the hand for the identification and classification of esteopathies is explained. Phenomena observed in X-ray films, such as enosteal erosion, intracortical longitudinal stripes or tunnelisation, as well as subperiostal absorption, can be of pathognomonic importance for certain osteopathies. (orig.) [de

  19. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  20. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Baylon cardiel, J L; Wallace, K C; Anderson, T B; Copley, M

    The cosmic-ray energetics and mass (CREAM) investigation is designed to measure cosmic-ray composition to the supernova energy scale of 10$^{15}$ eV in a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004. The goal is to observe cosmic-ray spectral features and/or abundance changes that might signify a limit to supernova acceleration. The particle ($\\{Z}$) measurements will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector to minimize the effect of backscatter from the calorimeter. The particle energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector (TRD) for $\\{Z}$ > 3 and a sampling tungsten/scintillator calorimeter for $\\{Z}$ $\\geq$1 particles, allowing inflight cross calibration of the two detectors. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation are reported in this paper.

  1. Interpreting the cosmic ray composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'C Drury, L.; Ellisson, D.C; Meyer, J.-P.

    2000-01-01

    The detailed pattern of elemental abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays is well determined at energies of a few GeV per nucleon. After correction for propagation effects the inferred source composition shows significant deviations from the standard pattern of Galactic elemental abundances. These deviations, surprisingly overabundances of the heavy elements relative to Hydrogen, are clearly a significant clue to the origin of the cosmic rays, but one which has proven very difficult to interpret. We have recently shown that the 'standard' model for the origin of the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays, namely acceleration by the diffusive shock acceleration process at the strong shocks associated with supernova remnants, can quantitatively explain all features of the source composition if the acceleration occurs from a dusty interstellar medium. This success must be regarded as one of the stronger pieces of evidence in favour of the standard model

  2. Interpreting the cosmic ray composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' C Drury, L.; Ellisson, D.C; Meyer, J.-P

    2000-01-31

    The detailed pattern of elemental abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays is well determined at energies of a few GeV per nucleon. After correction for propagation effects the inferred source composition shows significant deviations from the standard pattern of Galactic elemental abundances. These deviations, surprisingly overabundances of the heavy elements relative to Hydrogen, are clearly a significant clue to the origin of the cosmic rays, but one which has proven very difficult to interpret. We have recently shown that the 'standard' model for the origin of the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays, namely acceleration by the diffusive shock acceleration process at the strong shocks associated with supernova remnants, can quantitatively explain all features of the source composition if the acceleration occurs from a dusty interstellar medium. This success must be regarded as one of the stronger pieces of evidence in favour of the standard model.

  3. Solar X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnov, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the popular form the consideration is given to the modern state tasks and results of X-ray spectrometry of solar bursts. The operation of X-ray spectroheliograph is described. Results of spectral and polarization measurings of X-ray radiation of one powerful solar burst are presented. The conclusion has been drawn that in the process of burst development three characteristic stages may be distingwished: 1) the initial phase; just in this period processes which lead to observed consequences-electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation are born; 2) the impulse phase, or the phase of maximum, is characterised by sharp increase of radiation flux. During this phase the main energy content emanates and some volumes of plasma warm up to high temperatures; 3) the phase of burst damping, during which plasma cools and reverts to the initial condition

  4. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  5. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  6. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, E.

    1984-11-01

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  7. Overutilization of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    In this article on the overutilization of x-rays the author defines the term overutilization as excessive irradiation per unit of diagnostic information, therapeutic impact, or health outcome. Three main factors are described which lead to overutilization of x-rays: excessive radiation per film; excessive films per examination; and excessive examinations per patient. Topics discussed which influence the excessive examinations per patient are: the physician's lack of knowledge; undue dependence; lack of screening by radiologists; the physician's need for action and certainty; patient demand; reimbursement policies; institutional requirements; preventive medicine; defensive medicine; and the practice of radiology by nonradiologists

  8. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events

  9. Multichannel X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabakhpashev, A

    1980-10-01

    A typical design is discussed of multiwire proportional counters and their characteristic feature is explained, ie., the possibility of showing one or two coordinates of the X-ray quantum absorption site. The advantages of such instruments are listed, such as increased sensitivity of determination, the possibility of recording radiations of a different intensity, the possibility of on-line data processing and of the digital display of results. The fields of application include X-ray structural analysis in solid state physics, crystallography, molecular biology, astronomy, materials testing, and medicine.

  10. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1978-02-01

    An outline is given of recent developments in particle and photon induced x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Following a brief description of the basic mechanism of semiconductor detector operation a comparison is made between semiconductor detectors, scintillators and gas filled proportional devices. Detector fabrication and cryostat design are described in more detail and the effects of various device parameters on system performance, such as energy resolution, count rate capability, efficiency, microphony, etc. are discussed. The main applications of these detectors in x-ray fluorescence analysis, electron microprobe analysis, medical and pollution studies are reviewed

  11. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  12. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components....... By knowing the spectral components and their amplitudes in each of the measured spectra one is able to extract more information from the data than possible with the methods used otherwise....

  13. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  14. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  15. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  16. X-ray data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Harold R

    2017-10-31

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most commonly used software in the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered 70 years ago but its origin remains an open question. The background to this problem is outlined and attempts to discover the origin of the most energetic and rarest group above 10 15 eV are described. Measurements of the energy spectrum and arrival direction pattern of the very highest energy particles, mean energy about 6 x 10 19 eV, are used to argue that these particles originate outside our galaxy. Recent evidence from the new field of ultra high energy γ-ray astronomy are discussed in the context of a galactic origin hypothesis for lower energy cosmic rays. (author)

  18. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  19. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  20. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  2. X-ray Sensitive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    TM 8772 5 Literature reports on BiI3/nylon composites used X-ray sources with a Mo target (Reference 18) or magnesium target (Reference 19). However...1981. Pp. D-155 to D-160. 22. G. Pretzsch, B. Dorschel, and T. Schonmuth. IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. EI -21, No.3, June 1986

  3. X-ray system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray system tester for measuring anode voltage, cathode voltage, anode current, filament current and line voltage in an X-ray system has a selector which couples one of these analog signals or one of a plurality of processing control signals entered by an operator from a control panel to a digitizing section selectively in accordance with control signals provided to the selector by a computing section. The digitizing section converts the selected signal into a train of pulses having a frequency proportional to the value of the selected signal. These pulses are counted, the counts being used by the computing section to determine the value of the selected signal. This computed value is stored in a computing memory section of the computing section. The computing section is adapted to store a plurality of the sets of signals produced during a corresponding sequence of operational intervals of the X-ray system and determines a measure of the deviation of any selected one of the stored electrical signals over the sequence of operating intervals. Each signal produced during the sequential operational intervals can be recalled to aid analysis of the operation of the X-ray system. (author)

  4. Cosmic-ray sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, Mads T.; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays; we show how they can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments, and to constrain specific models.

  5. X-ray image coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention aims at decreasing the effect of stray radiation in X-ray images. This is achieved by putting a plate between source and object with parallel zones of alternating high and low absorption coefficients for X-radiation. The image is scanned with the help of electronic circuits which decode the signal space coded by the plate, thus removing the stray radiation

  6. X-ray simulation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posey, L.D.; Tollefsrud, P.B.; Woodall, H.W.; McDaniel, D.H.; Allred, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Design modifications are discussed for an electron beam accelerator used as a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The primary goal of the program, to obtain a reliable 5 cal/gm exposure capability, can be accomplished with beam compression by an external magnetic guide field. Initial operating characteristics and performance improvements are presented

  7. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    The principle, instrument and procedure of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are described. It is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the trace analysis of elements from sodium to uranium in powder, liquid or metal samples. (M.G.B.)

  8. X-rays from stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2004-07-01

    Spectroscopic studies available from Chandra and XMM-Newton play a pivotal part in the understanding of the physical processes in stellar (magnetic and non-magnetic) atmospheres. It is now routinely possible to derive densities and to study the influence of ultraviolet radiation fields, both of which can be used to infer the geometry of the radiating sources. Line profiles provide important information on bulk mass motions and attenuation by neutral matter, e.g. in stellar winds. The increased sensitivity has revealed new types of X-ray sources in systems that were thought to be unlikely places for X-rays: flaring brown dwarfs, including rather old, non-accreting objects, and terminal shocks in jets of young stars are important examples. New clues concerning the role of stellar high-energy processes in the modification of the stellar environment (ionization, spallation, etc.) contribute significantly to our understanding of the "astro-ecology" in forming planetary systems. Technological limitations are evident. The spectral resolution has not reached the level where bulk mass motions in cool stars become easily measurable. Higher resolution would also be important to perform X-ray "Doppler imaging" in order to reconstruct the 3-D distribution of the X-ray sources around a rotating star. Higher sensitivity will be required to perform high-resolution spectroscopy of weak sources such as brown dwarfs or embedded pre-main-sequence sources. A new generation of satellites such as Constellation-X or XEUS should pursue these goals.

  9. Gamm-ray absorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    In this chapter the principles of gamma-ray absorption are described and important applications in plant and process techniques such as measurement of thickness of deposits on pipes, checking for voids in concrete, metal corrosion, measurement of the density of materials inside vessels in industrial radiography are discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  11. Chandra's X-ray Vision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1999-07-23

    Jul 23, 1999 ... CXO is 13.8 metres long and its solar arrays have a wingspan of. 19.5 metres as shown in ... the Universe (for example, coronae of stars, matter ejected from .... The telescope system and the scientific instruments were put through ..... solve the puzzle about the origin of cosmic X-ray background- one of the ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. ...

  13. Solar-cosmic-ray variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The maximum flux of particles from solar events that should be considered in designing the shielding for a space habitation is discussed. The activities of various radionuclides measured in the top few centimeters of lunar rocks are used to examine the variability of solar cosmic ray fluxes over the last five million years. 10 references

  14. X-rays and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques. (report on progress)

  15. Personnel monitoring for beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Johns, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The practical considerations which have to be taken into account in the design of personnel monitors intended to measure doses resulting from exposure to beta rays are discussed. These include the measurement of doses in situations involving either fairly uniform or non-uniform irradiation and of doses to the male gonads. (UK)

  16. X-ray examination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Griswa, P.J.; Halter, P. Jr.; Kidd, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray cardiovascular examination and which can also be used for general purpose examination is described. An advantage of the system is that there is no mechanical connection between the image intensifier and source to interfere with the medical examiner or emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  17. X-ray tube transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray generator is described which comprises a transmission line transformer including an electrical conductor with a cavity and a second electrical conductor including helical windings disposed along a longitudinal axis within the cavity of the first conductor. The windings have a pitch which varies per unit length along the axis. There is dielectric material in the cavity for insulation and to couple electromagnetically the two conductors in response to an electric current flowing through the conductors, which have an impedance between them; this varies with distance along the axis of the helix of the second conductor. An X-ray tube is disposed along the longitudinal axis within the cavity, for radiating X-rays. The invention increases the voltage of applied voltage pulses at the remote tube-head with a transformer formed by using a spiral delay line geometry to give a tapered-impedance coaxial high voltage multiplier for pulse voltage operation. This transformer is smaller and lighter than previous designs for the same high peak voltage and power ratings. This is important because the penetration capabilities of Flash X-ray equipment increase with voltage, particularly in heavy materials such as steel. (U.K.)

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft tissues around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most ... absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure ... diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part ...

  20. Proton exciting X ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1986-04-01

    The analyzing capability of proton exciting X ray analysis for different elements in organisms was discussed, and dealing with examples of trace element analysis in the human body and animal organisms, such as blood serum, urine, and hair. The sensitivity, accuracy, and capability of multielement analysis were discussed. Its strong points for the trace element analysis in biomedicine were explained

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ...

  3. X-ray absorption holography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Miloš; Lausi, A.; Bussetto, E.; Kub, Jiří; Savoia, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 18 (2002), s. 185503-1 - 185503-3 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray holography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  4. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  5. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  6. Calculation of cosmic ray induced single event upsets: Program CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, P.

    1983-09-01

    This report documents PROGRAM CRUP, COSMIC RAY UPSET PROGRAM. The computer program calculates cosmic ray induced single-event error rates in microelectronic circuits exposed to several representative cosmic-ray environments.

  7. Relation between X-Ray and γ-Ray Emissions for Fermi Blazars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Using γ-ray band data detected by Fermi Large Area Tele- scope (LAT) and X-ray band data for 78 blazars, we find a medium cor- relation between X-ray and γ-ray fluxes in the average state. A medium anticorrelation is also found between X-ray (1 KeV) mean spectral index αx and γ-ray mean spectral index αγ for ...

  8. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers

  9. X-ray diagnostic in gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suhe; Wang Dalun; Cui Gaoxian; Wang Mei; Fu Yibei; Zhang Xinwei; Zhang Wushou

    1995-01-01

    X rays were observed when the anomalous phenomenon in the metal loaded with deuterium studied by the gas-discharge method. Therefore the X-ray energy spectra were measured by the absorption method, the specific X-ray approach and the NaI scintillation counter, while X-ray intensity was estimated by using 7 Li thermoluminescent foils. The X-ray average energy measured by the absorption method is 27.6 +- 2.1 keV, which is fitted within the error extent to 26.0 +-2.4 keV monoenergetic X rays measured by the NaI scintillation counter

  10. Wide field X-ray telescopes: Detecting X-ray transients/afterglows related to gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf; Gorenstein, Paul; Rezek, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited field of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70ies but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster eye type are presented and discussed. Optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed

  11. Achromatic X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Marion

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents first results on the development of achromatic refractive X-ray lenses which can be used for scientific experiments at synchrotron sources. First of all the different requirements for achromatic X-ray lenses have been worked out. There are different types of lenses, one type can be used for monochromatized sources when the energy is scanned while the spot size should be constant. The other type can be used at beamlines providing a broad energy band. By a combination of focusing and defocusing elements we have developed a lens system that strongly reduces the chromatic aberration of a refractive lens in a given energy range. The great challenge in the X-ray case - in contrast to the visible range - the complex refractive index, which is very similar for the possible materials in the X-ray spectrum. For precise studies a numerical code has been developed, which calculates the different rays on their way through the lenses to the detector plane via raytracing. In this numerical code the intensity distribution in the detector plane has been analyzed for a chromatic and the corresponding achromatic system. By optimization routines for the two different fields of applications specific parameter combinations were found. For the experimental verification an achromatic system has been developed, consisting of biconcave SU-8 lenses and biconvex Nickel Fresnel lenses. Their fabrication was based on the LIGA-process, including a further innovative development, namely the fabrication of two different materials on one wafer. In the experiment at the synchrotron source ANKA the energy was varied in a specific energy range in steps of 0.1 keV. The intensity distribution for the different energies was detected at a certain focal length. For the achromatic system a reduction of the chromatic aberration could be clearly shown. Achromatic refractive X-ray lenses, especially for the use at synchrotron sources, have not been developed so far. As a consequence of the

  12. X-ray electromagnetic application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, particularly for X-ray electromagnetic application technology from January 2006 to December 2008. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and free-electron laser, Saga Synchrotron Project, X-ray waveguides and waveguide-based lens-less hard-X-ray imaging, X-ray nanofocusing for capillaries and zone plates, dispersion characteristics in photonics crystal consisting of periodic atoms for nanometer waveguides, electromagnetic characteristics of grid structures for scattering fields of nano-meter electromagnetic waves and X-rays, FDTD parallel computing of fundamental scattering and attenuation characteristics of X-ray for medical imaging diagnosis, orthogonal relations of electromagnetic fields including evanescent field in dispersive medium. (author)

  13. Ray Tracing for Ocean Acoustic Tomography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dushaw, Brian

    1998-01-01

    .... The Numerical Recipes software package provided the basis for much of this computer code. The ray equations are reviewed, and ray equations that include the effects of ocean current are derived...

  14. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  15. Soft x-ray Planetary Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to prototype a soft X-ray Imager for planetary applications that has the sensitivity to observe solar system sources of soft  X-ray emission. A strong...

  16. Stabilized x-ray generator power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Subimal; Purushotham, K.V.; Bose, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis are very much adopted in laboratories to determine the type and structure of the constituent compounds in solid materials, chemical composition of materials, stress developed on metals etc. These experiments need X-ray beam of fixed intensity and wave length. This can only be achieved by X-ray generator having highly stabilized tube voltage and tube current. This paper describes how X-ray tube high voltage and electron beam current are stabilized. This paper also highlights generation of X-rays, diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and their wide applications. Principle of operation for stabilizing the X-ray tube voltage and current, different protection circuits adopted, special features of the mains H.V. transformer and H.T. tank are described in this report. (author)

  17. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Characterising CCDs with cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher-Levine, M.; Nomerotski, A.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of cosmic ray muons make them a useful probe for measuring the properties of thick, fully depleted CCD sensors. The known energy deposition per unit length allows measurement of the gain of the sensor's amplifiers, whilst the straightness of the tracks allows for a crude assessment of the static lateral electric fields at the sensor's edges. The small volume in which the muons deposit their energy allows measurement of the contribution to the PSF from the diffusion of charge as it drifts across the sensor. In this work we present a validation of the cosmic ray gain measurement technique by comparing with radioisotope gain measurments, and calculate the charge diffusion coefficient for prototype LSST sensors

  19. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  20. Galactic cosmic ray iron composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherzer, R.; Enge, W.; Beaujean, R.

    1980-11-01

    We have studied the isotopic compostition of galactic cosmic ray iron in the energy interval 500-750 MeV/nucleon with a visual track detector system consisting of nuclear emulsion and cellulose-nitrate platic. Stopping iron nuclei were identified from ionization - range measurements in the two detector parts. Cone lengths were measured in the plastic sheets and the residual ranges of the particles were measured in plastic and in emulsion. We have determined the mass of 17 iron nuclei with an uncertainty of about 0.3 amu. The isotopic composition at the detector level was found to be 52 Fe: 53 Fe: 54 Fe: 55 Fe: 56 Fe: 57 Fe: 58 Fe = 0:1: 4:3:8:1:0. These numbers are not in conflict with the assumption that the isotopic composition of cosmic ray iron at the source is similar to the solar system composition. (author)

  1. High-energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Cronin, James Watson

    1996-01-01

    Recently two cosmic rays with energy in excess of 2 1020 eV have been recorded. These are some 108 times more energetic than the protons produced by accelerators on earth. There is no credible understanding of the mechanism of acceleration by known a Because of the short mean free path in the cosmic background radiation they must come from nearby distances on a cosmological scale (< 50 Mpc). Their magnetic rigidity suggests that they should point to their source. Lectures will cover the present available data on the highest energy cosmic rays, their detection, possible acceleration mechanisms, their propagation in the galaxy and in extra galactic space and design of new detectors where simulations of air show ers play an important role.

  2. X-ray tube arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  3. Smart X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michette, A G; Pfauntsch, S J; Sahraei, S; Shand, M; Morrison, G R; Hart, D; Vojnovic, B; Stevenson, T; Parkes, W; Dunare, C; Willingale, R; Feldman, C; Button, T; Zhang, D; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D; Wang, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes reflective adaptive/active optics for applications including studies of biological radiation damage. The optics work on the polycapillary principle, but use arrays of channels in thin silicon. For optimum performance the x-rays should reflect once off a channel wall in each of two successive arrays. This reduces aberrations since then the Abbe sine condition is approximately satisfied. Adaptivity is achieved by flexing the arrays via piezo actuation, providing further aberration reduction and controllable focal length.

  4. Development of quantitative x-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckman, H.W.; Dunsmuir, J.A.; D'Amico, K.L.; Ferguson, S.R.; Flannery, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have developed several x-ray microtomography systems which function as quantitative three dimensional x-ray microscopes. In this paper the authors describe the evolutionary path followed from making the first high resolution experimental microscopes to later generations which can be routinely used for investigating materials. Developing the instrumentation for reliable quantitative x-ray microscopy using synchrotron and laboratory based x-ray sources has led to other imaging modalities for obtaining temporal and spatial two dimensional information

  5. Gamma-Ray Astronomy Technology Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades gamma-ray observations have become a valuable tool for studying the universe. Progress made in diverse 8re1lS such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), nucleosynthesis, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has complimented and enriched our astrophysical understanding in many ways. We present an overview of current and future planned space y-ray missions and discussion technology needs for- the next generation of space gamma-ray instruments.

  6. X-ray diagnostics - benefits and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomaeus, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The brochure on benefits and risks of X-ray diagnostics discusses the following issues: X radiation - a pioneering discovery and medical sensation, fundamentals of X radiation, frequency of X-ray examinations in Germany in relation to CT imaging, radiation doses resulting from X-ray diagnostics, benefits of X-ray diagnostics - indication and examples, risks - measures for radiation exposure reductions, avoidance of unnecessary examinations.

  7. X rays from radio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to the radio binary systems CC Cas, AR Lac, β Per (Algol), β Lyr, b Per and Cyg X-1. It is stated that a thermal interpretation of the radiation from Algol requires a much larger x-ray flux than the observed value of 3.8 x 10 -11 erg/cm 2 /sec/keV in the 2 to 6 keV energy range. Observations of some non-thermal flares, together with the small size of the radio source in Algol, indicate that the radio emission is non-thermal in nature. The radio emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation and it is suggested that the observed x-ray emission is due to inverse Compton scattering of the light of the primary star by the radio electrons. The x-ray emission from other radio binaries is also calculated using this model. The energy for the radio electrons can arise from annihilation of magnetic lines connecting the binary stars, twisted by the rotation of the stars. (U.K.)

  8. Ray trajectories for Alcubierre spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Tom H; Mackay, Tom G; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2011-01-01

    The Alcubierre spacetime was simulated by means of a Tamm medium which is asymptotically identical to vacuum and has constitutive parameters which are continuous functions of the spatial coordinates. Accordingly, the Tamm medium is amenable to physical realization as a micro- or nanostructured metamaterial. A comprehensive characterization of ray trajectories in the Tamm medium was undertaken, within the geometric-optics regime. Propagation directions corresponding to evanescent waves were identified: these occur in the region of the Tamm medium which corresponds to the warp bubble of the Alcubierre spacetime, especially for directions perpendicular to the velocity of the warp bubble at high speeds of that bubble. Ray trajectories are acutely sensitive to the magnitude and direction of the warp bubble's velocity, but rather less sensitive to the thickness of the transition zone between the warp bubble and its background. In particular, for rays which travel in the same direction as the warp bubble, the latter acts as a focusing lens, most notably at high speeds

  9. X-ray area monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nintrakit, N.

    1983-01-01

    The X-ray area monitor is a nuclear electronic device that is essential in radiation protection in high radiation laboratories, e.g. in medical diagnosis using X-rays and in industrial X-radiography. Accidentally the level of X-radiator may arise above the safe permissible level and in such a case the alarm system of the area monitor will work and disconnect the ac power supply form the X-ray unit. Principally the device is a radiation counter using G.M.tube as radiation detector with high voltage supply variable form 200 to 2,000 volts. The maximum count rate of the scaler is 1.5 MHz and the total count is displayed on 4 digit LED's. A time base is used to control the counting time, the frequency multiplier, radiation safety limit, comparator and the radiation hazard warning signal. The reliability of the instrument is further enhanced through the addition of the random correction circuit, and it is applicable both in X- and γ -radiation

  10. Elemental composition of cosmic ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Shohei

    1987-01-01

    The report first summarizes some data that have been obtained so far from observation of isotopes and elements in cosmic rays in the low energy region. Then, objectives of studies planned to be carried out with Astromag are outlined and the number of incident particles expected to be measured by baloon observation is estimated. Heavy elements with atomic numbers of greater than 30 are considered to be formed through neutron absorption reactions by the s- or r-process. Observations show that products of the r-process is abundant in cosmic ray sources. The escape length depends on energy. In relation to this, it has been reported that the ratios Ar-Fe and Ca-Fe increase above 200 GeV-n while such a tendency is not observed for K, Sc, Ti or V. Thus, no satisfactory models are available at present which can fully explain the changes in the escape length. The ratio 3 He- 4 He in the range of 5 - 10 GeV-n is inconsistent with the general theory that interprets the escape length of heavy elements. Some models, including the supermetallicity model and Wolf Rayet theory, have been proposed to explain unusual ratios of isotopes in cosmic rays, but more measurements are required to verify them. It is expected that Astromag can serve to make observations that can clarify these points. (Nogami, K.)

  11. CAMAC gamma ray scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible gamma-ray scanning system, based on a LeCroy 3500 multichannel analyzer and CAMAC modules, is described. The system is designed for making simultaneous passive and active scans of objects of interest to nuclear safeguards. The scanner is a stepping-motor-driven carriage; the detectors, a bismuth-germanate scintillator and a high-purity germanium detector. A total of sixteen peaks in the two detector-produced spectra can be integrated simultaneously, and any scan can be viewed during data acquisition. For active scanning, the 2615-keV gamma-ray line from a 232 U source and the 4439-keV gamma-ray line from 9 Be(α,n) 12 C were selected. The system can be easily reconfigured to accommodate up to seven detectors because it is based on CAMAC modules and FORTRAN. The system is designed for field use and is easily transported. Examples of passive and active scans are presented

  12. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  13. Multifrequency Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, J.

    1995-01-01

    Neither a flaring nor a quiescent counterpart to a gamma-ray burst has yet been convincingly identified at any wavelength region. The present status of the search for counterparts of classical gamma-ray bursts is given. Particular emphasis is put on the search for flaring counterparts, i.e. emission during or shortly after the gamma-ray emission.

  14. Stellar Sources of Gamma-ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Luchkov, B. I.

    2011-01-01

    Correlation analysis of Swift gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby star locations (catalog Gliese) reveals 4 coincidences with good angular accuracy. The random probability is 4\\times 10^{-5}, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. Some additional search of stellar gamma-ray bursts is discussed.

  15. Gamma ray astronomy from satellites and balloons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of gamma ray astronomy topics presented at the Cosmic Ray Conference. The major conclusions at the Cosmic Ray Conference in the field of gamma ray astronomy are given. (1) MeV-emission of gamma-ray bursts is a common feature. Variations in duration and energy spectra from burst to burst may explain the discrepancy between the measured log N - log S dependence and the observed isotropy of bursts. (2) The gamma-ray line at 1.809 MeV from Al(26) is the first detected line from a radioactive nucleosynthesis product. In order to understand its origin it will be necessary to measure its longitude distribution in the Milky Way. (3) The indications of a gamma-ray excess found from the direction of Loop I is consistent with the picture that the bulk of cosmic rays below 100 GeV is produced in galactic supernova remnants. (4) The interpretation of the large scale distribution of gamma rays in the Milky Way is controversial. At present an extragalactic origin of the cosmic ray nuclei in the GeV-range cannot be excluded from the gamma ray data. (5) The detection of MeV-emission from Cen A is a promising step towards the interesting field of extragalactic gamma ray astronomy

  16. Transient soft X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Murakami, T.; Nagase, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamashita, K.

    1976-01-01

    A rocket observation of cosmic soft X-rays suggests the existence of transient, recurrent soft X-ray sources which are found variable during the flight time of the rocket. Some of the soft X-ray sources thus far reported are considered to be of this time. These sources are listed and their positions are shown. (Auth.)

  17. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source

  18. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  19. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emitting Products and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most x- ...

  20. Gamma-rays from deep inelastic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    My objective in this talk is to consider the question: 'What can be learned about deep inelastic collisions (DIC) from studying the associated gamma-rays'. First, I discuss the origin and nature of the gamma-rays from DIC, then the kinds of information gamma-ray spectra contain, and finally come to the combination of these two subjects. (orig./HSI)

  1. Automatic weld joint X-ray inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.U.; Linke, D.; Siems, K.D.; Kruse, H.; Schuetze, E.

    1990-01-01

    A gantry mounted robotic x-ray inspection unit has been developed for the series testing of small and medium sized welded components (pipe bends and nozzles). The unit features computer controlled positioning of the x-ray tube and x-ray image amplifier. Image quality classes 2 and even 1 could be achieved without difficulty. (author)

  2. Metamaterials for light rays: ray optics without wave-optical analog in the ray-optics limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Alasdair C; Courtial, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Volumes of sub-wavelength electromagnetic elements can act like homogeneous materials: metamaterials. In analogy, sheets of optical elements such as prisms can act ray-optically like homogeneous sheet materials. In this sense, such sheets can be considered to be metamaterials for light rays (METATOYs). METATOYs realize new and unusual transformations of the directions of transmitted light rays. We study here, in the ray-optics and scalar-wave limits, the wave-optical analog of such transformations, and we show that such an analog does not always exist. Perhaps, this is the reason why many of the ray-optical possibilities offered by METATOYs have never before been considered.

  3. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and prompt TeV gamma rays from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 789-792. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and prompt. TeV gamma rays from gamma ray bursts ... The origin of the observed ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) events with ... are proton and electron rest mass, respectively.

  4. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer for biological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi; Koyama, Ichiro [Tokyo Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoneyama, Akio [Hitachi Ltd., Advanced Research Laboratory, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The potential of phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer is discussed comparing with other phase-contrast X-ray imaging methods, and its principle of contrast generation is presented including the case of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. The status of current instrumentation is described and perspectives for practical applications are discussed. (author)

  5. Method for spatially modulating X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2015-03-10

    A method and apparatus are provided for spatially modulating X-rays or X-ray pulses using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based X-ray optics. A torsionally-oscillating MEMS micromirror and a method of leveraging the grazing-angle reflection property are provided to modulate X-ray pulses with a high-degree of controllability.

  6. X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect x-ray-drive implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Takayasu; Sakabe, Shuji; Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    1983-01-01

    X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect X-ray drive pellet implosion for inertial confinement fusion has been numerically analyzed. Attainable X-ray driven ablation pressure has been found to be coupled with X-ray irradiation uniformity. (author)

  7. X-ray diffraction device comprising cooling medium connections provided on the x-ray tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction device comprises a water-cooled X-ray tube which exhibits a line focus as well as, after rotation through 90 DEG , a point focus. Contrary to customary X-ray tubes, the cooling water is not supplied via the housing (12) in which the X-ray tube is mounted, but the cooling water

  8. Miniature x-ray point source for alignment and calibration of x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Boyle, M.J.; Glaros, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature x-ray point source of high brightness similar to that of Rovinsky, et al. is described. One version of the x-ray source is used to align the x-ray optics on the Argus and Shiva laser systems. A second version is used to determine the spatial and spectral transmission functions of the x-ray optics. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the x-ray emission from the x-ray point source are described. The physical constraints including size, intensity and thermal limitations, and useful lifetime are discussed. The alignment and calibration techniques for various x-ray optics and detector combinations are described

  9. Relativistic motion in gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolik, J.H.; Pier, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Three fundamental problems affect models of gamma-ray bursts, i.e., the energy source, the ability of high-energy photons to escape the radiation region, and the comparative weakness of X-ray emission. It is indicated that relativistic bulk motion of the gamma-ray-emitting plasma generically provides a solution to all three of these problems. Results show that, if the plasma that produces gamma-ray bursts has a bulk relativistic velocity with Lorentz factor gamma of about 10, several of the most troubling problems having to do with gamma-ray bursts are solved. 42 refs

  10. NIKOLA TESLA AND THE X-RAY

    OpenAIRE

    Rade R. Babic

    2005-01-01

    After professor Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen published his study of an x-ray discovery (Academy Bulletin, Berlin, 08. 11. 1895.), Nikola Tesla published his first study of an x-ray on the 11th of March in 1896. (X-ray, Electrical Review). Until the 11th of August in 1897 he had published ten studies on this subject. All Tesla,s x-ray studies were experimental, which is specific to his work. Studying the nature of the x-ray, he established a new medical branch-radiology. He wrote:” There’s no doubt...

  11. Einstein pictures the x-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartline, B.K.

    1979-01-01

    The second High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-2, Einstein) is revolutionizing x-ray astronomy just as its namesake revolutionized physics. Earlier x-ray observatories, including HEAO-1, were designed to scan the sky for x-ray emitters. With Einstein, the challenge has shifted from discovering x-ray sources to understanding the processes producing the x-rays. But having 500 times the sensitivity of previous detectors, Einstein makes more than its share of discoveries, too. For example, it sees distant quasars and clusters of galaxies that can barely be detected by the largest optical telescopes

  12. Propagation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)], E-mail: stanev@bartol.udel.edu

    2009-06-15

    We briefly describe the energy loss processes of ultrahigh-energy protons, heavier nuclei and {gamma}-rays in interactions with the universal photon fields of the Universe. We then discuss the modification of the accelerated cosmic-ray energy spectrum in propagation by the energy loss processes and the charged cosmic-ray scattering in the extragalactic magnetic fields. The energy lost by the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays goes into {gamma}-rays and neutrinos that carry additional information about the sources of highest energy particles. The new experimental results of the HiRes and the Auger collaborations are discussed in view of the predictions from propagation calculations.

  13. Picosecond x-ray streak camera studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasyanov, Yu.S.; Malyutin, A.A.; Richardson, M.C.; Chevokin, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Some initial results of direct measurement of picosecond x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas are presented. A PIM-UMI 93 image converter tube, incorporating an x-ray sensitive photocathode, linear deflection, and three stages of image amplification was used to analyse the x-ray radiation emanating from plasmas produced from solid Ti targets by single high-intensity picosecond laser pulses. From such plasmas, the x-ray emission typically persisted for times of 60psec. However, it is shown that this detection system should be capable of resolving x-ray phenomena of much shorter duration. (author)

  14. Si(Li) X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xianglin; Li Zhiyong; Hong Xiuse

    1990-08-01

    The fabrication technology of the 10∼80 mm 2 Si(Li) X-ray detectors are described and some problems concerning technology and measurement are discussed. The specifications of the detectors are shown as well. The Si(Li) X-ray detector is a kind of low energy X-ray detectors. Owing to very high energy resolution, fine linearity and high detection efficiency in the range of low energy X-rays, it is widely used in the fields of nuclear physics, medicine, geology and environmental protection, etc,. It is also a kernel component for the scanning electron microscope and X-ray fluorescence analysis systems

  15. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.

    1983-01-01

    A model is proposed for pulsar optical and gamma-ray emission where relativistic electrons beams: (i) scatter the blackbody photons from the polar cap surface giving inverse Compton gamma-rays and (ii) produce synchrotron optical photons in the light cylinder region which are then inverse Compton scattered giving other gamma-rays. The model is applied to the Vela pulsar, explaining the first gamma-ray pulse by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons near the light cylinder and the second gamma-ray pulse partly by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons and partly by inverse Compton scattering of the thermal blackbody photons near the star surface. (author)

  16. Remote planetary geochemical exploration with the NEAR X-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombka, J.I.; Boynton, W.V.; Brueckner, J.; Squyres, S.; Clark, P.E.; Starr, R.; Evans, L.G.; Floyd, S.R.; McClanahan, T.P.; Goldsten, J.; Mcnutt, R.; Schweitzer, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    The X-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer (XGRS) instrument onboard the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft will map asteroid 433 Eros in the 0.2 keV to 10 MeV energy region. Measurements of the discrete line X-ray and gamma-ray emissions in this energy domain can be used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative elemental composition maps of the asteroid surface. The NEAR X-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer (XGRS) was turned on for the first time during the week of 7 April 1996. Rendezvous with Eros 433 is expected during December 1998. Observations of solar X-ray spectra during both quiescent and active periods have been made. A gamma-ray transient detection system has been implemented and about three gamma-ray transient events a week have been observed which are associated with either gamma-ray bursts or solar flares

  17. High-speed X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckers, W.; Oppolzer, H.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of lattice defects in semiconductor crystals by conventional X-ray diffraction topography is very time-consuming. Exposure times can be reduced by using high-intensity X-rays and X-ray image intensifiers. The described system comprises a high-power rotating-anode X-ray tube, a remote-controlled X-ray topography camera, and a television system operating with an X-ray sensing VIDICON. System performance is demonstrated with reference to exploratory examples. The exposure time for photographic plates is reduced to 1/20 and for the X-ray TV system (resolution of the order of 30 μm) to 1/100 relative to that required when using a conventional topography system. (orig.) [de

  18. X-ray and gamma radiography devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    When we are using this technique, we also must familiar with the device and instrument that used such as gamma projector, crawler, x-ray tubes and others. So this chapter discussed detailed on device used for radiography work. For the x-ray and gamma, their characteristics are same but the source to produce is a big different. X-ray produced from the machine meanwhile, gamma produce from the source such as Co-60 and IR-192. Both are electromagnetic waves. So, the reader can have some knowledge on what is x-ray tube, discrete x-ray and characteristic x-ray, how the machine works and how to control a machine, what is source for gamma emitter, how to handle the projector and lastly difference between x-ray and gamma. Of course this cannot be with the theory only, so detailed must be learned practically.

  19. Exploring the X-Ray Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Frederick D.; Charles, Philip A.

    1995-11-01

    Exploring the X-Ray Universe describes the view of the stars and galaxies that is obtained through X-ray telescopes. X-rays, which are invisible to human sight, are created in the cores of active galaxies, in cataclysmic stellar explosions, and in streams of gas expelled by the Sun and stars. The window on the heavens used by the X-ray astronomers shows the great drama of cosmic violence on the grandest scale. This account of X-ray astronomy incorporates the latest findings from several observatories operating in space. These include the Einstein Observatory operated by NASA, and the EXOSAT satellite of the European Space Agency. The book covers the entire field, with chapters on stars, supernova remnants, normal and active galaxies, clusters of galaxies, the diffuse X-ray background, and much more. The authors review basic principles, include the necessary historical background, and explain exactly what we know from X-ray observations of the Universe.

  20. Small scale soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; DiCicco, D.S.; Kim, D.; Voorhees, D.; Suckewer, S.

    1990-01-01

    The widespread application of soft x-ray laser technology is contingent on the development of small scale soft x-ray lasers that do not require large laser facilities. Progress in the development of soft x-ray lasers pumped by a Nd laser of energy 6-12J is reported below. Application of an existing soft x-ray laser to x-ray microscopy has begun. A soft x-ray laser of output energy 1-3 mJ at 18,2 nm has been used to record high resolution images of biological specimens. The contact images were recorded on photoresist which was later viewed in a scanning electron microscope. The authors present a composite optical x-ray laser microscope design

  1. X-ray photographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The X-ray photographic system is designed for medical applications. Two detectors are used for surveys in different planes, and produce electrical signals which are supplied to a comparator. The electron beams are examined according to a system of reference time steps. The apparatus includes a light source and a photo-detector and enables a reference signal to be produced against which the detected signals are compared. The beam source is formed from an electron gun, an extractor electrode and an anode; beam then passes through a collimator. (G.C.)

  2. International Conference on Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    W.O. LOCK

    1964-01-01

    Towards the end of last year the 8th International conference on cosmic rays, held under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (I.U.P.A.P.) and the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India, was held at Jaipur, India. Among the participants was W.O. Lock, head of CERN's Emulsion Group, who gave an invited talk on recent work in the field of what is normally known as high-energy physics — though in the context of this conference such energies seem quite low. In this article, Dr. Lock gives a general review of the conference and of the subjects discussed.

  3. Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is often the technique of choice in an environmental radioactivity laboratory. When measuring environmental samples associated activities are usually low so an important parameter that describes the performance of the spectrometer...... for a nuclide of interest is the minimum detectable activity (MDA). There are many ways for lowering the MDAs in gamma spectrometry. Recently, developments of fast and compact digital acquisition systems have led to growing number of multiple HPGe detector spectrometers. In these applications all detected...

  4. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  5. X-ray source array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Lanza, R.C.; Sohval, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    A circular array of cold cathode diode X-ray sources, for radiation imaging applications, such as computed tomography includes electrically conductive cathode plates each of which cooperates with at least two anodes to form at least two diode sources. In one arrangement, two annular cathodes are separated by radially extending, rod-like anodes. Field enhancement blades may be provided on the cathodes. In an alternative arrangement, the cathode plates extend radially and each pair is separated by an anode plate also extending radially. (author)

  6. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossomaier, T.R.J.; Sangway, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It is claimed that stabilization of X-ray intensifying screens against discolouration and hydrolysis of lanthanum or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphors can be achieved by incorporating into the phosphor/binder formulation a compound containing free epoxy groups. Suitable epoxy compounds include gamma glycidoxy trimethoxy silane and dimethyl di(m-glycidoxy methylphenyl) methane. The oxyhalide may be activated by Tb, Tm or Yb and may be mixed with other phosphors. Plasticisers and organo-tin stabilisers for the formulation are given. Many binders are specified, preferably these should not react with the free epoxy groups. (UK)

  7. High-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Thomas K. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: gaisser@bartol.udel.edu; Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-17

    After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the knee above 10{sup 15} eV and the ankle above 10{sup 18} eV. An important question is whether the highest-energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

  8. Haynes, Ray oral history interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Interviewee: Haynes, Ray; Interviewer: Walliser, Andrea; Interviewer: Bauder, Ken; Principal Investigator: Hall, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Ray Haynes is a former president of the BC Federation of Labour. As a young man Haynes worked at Hudson’s Bay Company Wholesale, a division of the Hudson’s Bay Company, where he reported earning a low wage and working in poor conditions. He then worked at Canadian White Pine sawmill where he learned about labour and other social issues from union members who were communist, Leninist, and Trotskyist. He worked at White Pine for only 18 months even though he was earning a high wage. Haynes told...

  9. Protonium X-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gotta, D

    1999-01-01

    The Lyman and Balmer transitions from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were studied extensively at the low-energy-antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. A first series of experiments $9 was performed with semiconductor and gaseous X-ray detectors. In the last years of LEAR operation using a Bragg crystal spectrometer, strong interaction parameters in the 2p states of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were measured $9 directly. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (39 refs).

  10. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the essential aspects of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenon, with emphasis on the more recent results. GRBs are introduced by their time histories, which provide some evidence for a compact object origin. The energy spectra of bursts are presented and they are seen to demonstrate practically unambiguously that the origin of some GRBs involves neutron stars. Counterpart searches are reviewed briefly and the statistical properties of bursters treated. This paper presents a review of the three known repeating bursters (the Soft Gamma Repeaters). Extragalactic and galactic models are discussed and future prospects are assessed

  11. X-ray calibration qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Since the recent publication of IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 374 ''Calibration of Dosimeters Used in Radiotheraphy'', there have been a number of queries about the origin of, and the rationale behind, the X-ray qualities recommended for calibration purposes. The simple answer is that these are the qualities derived at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in 1971 for calibration of therapy-level dosimeters and which are still in use for that purpose. As some SSDLs may have difficulties in adopting these exact combinations of kV and filtration. This paper discusses the basic ideas involved, and how to go about deriving a different series of qualities

  12. Field microcomputerized multichannel γ ray spectrometer based on notebook computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenyi; Wei Biao; Zhou Rongsheng; Li Guodong; Tang Hong

    1996-01-01

    Currently, field γ ray spectrometry can not rapidly measure γ ray full spectrum, so a field microcomputerized multichannel γ ray spectrometer based on notebook computer is described, and the γ ray full spectrum can be rapidly measured in the field

  13. Gamma-ray burst models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew

    2007-05-15

    I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts.

  14. Gamma ray emission from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati, M.; Massaro, E.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the production of gamma rays in a pulsar environment is presented, together with numerical computations fitted to the observations of PSR 0833-45. It is assumed that the primary particles are accelerated close to the star surface and then injected along the open field lines, which cause them to emit curvature radiation. The equation describing the particles' braking is integrated exactly up to the first order in the pulsar rotational frequency, and the transfer problem for the curvature photons is solved with the aberration, the Doppler shif, and the pair production absorption being taken into account. The latter effect is due not only to the transverse component of the magnetic field, but also to the electric field induced by the rotation. The synchrotron radiation emitted by the secondary particles is also included, subject to the 'on-the-spot' approximation. It is found that the observed gamma rays originate in the innermost regions of the magnetosphere, where the open lines' bundle is narrow and the geometrical beaming is effective. As shown by the computed pulse profiles, the duty cycle turns out to be equal to a few percent, comparable to the one of PSR 0833-45. The averaged spectra indicate that a substantial fraction of the primary photons do outlive the interaction with the magnetisphere; furthermore, the agreement in shape with the observational curves suggests that the acceleration output is fiarly close to a monoenergetic beam of particles. (orig.) [de

  15. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, Alastair; Celestre, Richard; Tamura, Nobumichi; Spolenak, Ralph; Valek, Bryan; Brown, Walter; Bravman, John; Padmore, Howard; Batterman, Boris; Patel, Jamshed

    2000-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The instrument is for instance, capable of probing a sub-micron size volume inside micron sized aluminum metal grains buried under a silicon dioxide insulating layer. The resulting Laue pattern is collected on a large area CCD detector and automatically indexed to yield the grain orientation and deviatoric (distortional) strain tensor of this sub-micron volume. A four-crystal monochromator is then inserted into the beam, which allows monochromatic light to illuminate the same part of the sample. Measurement of diffracted photon energy allows for the determination of d spacings. The combination of white and monochromatic beam measurements allow for the determination of the total strain/stress tensor (6 components) inside each sub-micron sized illuminated volume of the sample

  16. Dark gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia

    2017-03-01

    Many theories of dark matter (DM) predict that DM particles can be captured by stars via scattering on ordinary matter. They subsequently condense into a DM core close to the center of the star and eventually annihilate. In this work, we trace DM capture and annihilation rates throughout the life of a massive star and show that this evolution culminates in an intense annihilation burst coincident with the death of the star in a core collapse supernova. The reason is that, along with the stellar interior, also its DM core heats up and contracts, so that the DM density increases rapidly during the final stages of stellar evolution. We argue that, counterintuitively, the annihilation burst is more intense if DM annihilation is a p -wave process than for s -wave annihilation because in the former case, more DM particles survive until the supernova. If among the DM annihilation products are particles like dark photons that can escape the exploding star and decay to standard model particles later, the annihilation burst results in a flash of gamma rays accompanying the supernova. For a galactic supernova, this "dark gamma-ray burst" may be observable in the Čerenkov Telescope Array.

  17. Accelerator X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    2006-01-01

    This is the first monograph to cover in-depth the production of brilliant x-ray beams in accelerators, with emphasis on fourth generation designs, such as energy recovery linacs (ERL), fast cycling storage rings, and free electron lasers (FEL). Going beyond existing treatments of the influence of synchroton radiation on accelerator operation, special emphasis is placed on the design of undulator-based beam lines, and the physics of undulator radiation. Starting from the unified treatment of electron and photon beams both as bunches of particles and as waves, the author proceeds to analyse the main components, from electron gun, through linac and arc lattice, to the x-ray beam line. Designs are given for both an ERL and a more conventional storage ring complex, and their anticipated properties are compared in detail. Space charge effects are analysed with emphasis on coherent synchrotron radiation and emittance dilution. Beam diagnostics using synchrotron radiation or laser wire (Compton scattering) are also analysed in detail. Written primarily for general, particle, and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers. (orig.)

  18. The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, M.; Kelley, R.

    2017-10-01

    On 25 March 2016, the Japanese 6th X-ray astronomical satellite ASTRO-H (Hitomi), launched on February 17, lost communication after a series of mishap in its attitude control system. In response to the mishap the X-ray astronomy community and JAXA analyzed the direct and root cause of the mishap and investigated possibility of a recovery mission with the international collaborator NASA and ESA. Thanks to great effort of scientists, agencies, and governments, the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) are proposed. The recovery mission is planned to resume high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with imaging realized by Hitomi under the international collaboration in the shortest time possible, simply by focusing one of the main science goals of Hitomi Resolving astrophysical problems by precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy'. XARM will carry a 6 x 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly, and an aligned X-ray CCD camera covering the same energy band and wider field of view, but no hard X-ray or soft gamma-ray instruments are onboard. In this paper, we introduce the science objectives, mission concept, and schedule of XARM.

  19. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teegarden, B.J

    1999-02-11

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world.

  20. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world

  1. Development of confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using two X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Ding Xunliang

    2007-01-01

    A new confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument was developed. This instrument has two independent micro X-ray tubes with Mo targets. A full polycapillary X-ray lens was attached to each X-ray tube. Another half polycapillary lens was attached to a silicon drift X-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The effects of the excitation of two X-ray beams were investigated. The instrument enabled highly sensitive three-dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. We confirmed that the X-ray fluorescence intensity from the sample increased by applying the two independent X-ray tubes in confocal configuration. Elemental depth profiling of black wheat was demonstrated with the result that each element in the surface coat of a wheat grain showed unique distribution

  2. RAY: a ray tracing program in cold magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, A.; Souza, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the development of a ray tracing program, that is, the plot of an electromagnetic wave path in a cold magnetized plasma medium. The program was developed based on the validity of the geometrical optics laws to calculate the electromagnetic wave trajectory. This approximation is valid when the wave length is much smaller than the characteristic length of the medium. No hypothesis was made about a particular geometric configuration for the magnetic field, what enables the use of the program in any magnetic confinment scheme. The numerically obtained results were compared with an analytic solution for a particular case (cylindrically symmetric medium, uniform magnetostatic, field along the symmetry axis and ordinary wave) and have shown a satisfactory precision. (Author) [pt

  3. Equipment, components and production of x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris Besar

    2004-01-01

    The contents of this chapter are follows - Equipment, Components and Production of x-Ray: x-ray system, generator, control panel. x-ray tube, cathode, anode, envelope, housing, collimator, other components, x-ray production, Bremsstrahlung x-ray, characteristic x-ray, heat production

  4. X-ray imaging with compound refractive lens and microfocus X-ray tube

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Ladislav; Dudchik, Yury; Jelinek, Vaclav; Sveda, Libor; Marsik, Jiri; Horvath, Martin; Petr, Ondrej

    2008-01-01

    Compound refractive lenses (CRL), consisting of a lot number in-line concave microlenses made of low-Z material were studied. Lenses with focal length 109 mm and 41 mm for 8-keV X-rays, microfocus X-ray tube and X-ray CCD camera were used in experiments. Obtained images show intensity distribution of magnified microfocus X-ray source focal spot. Within the experiments, one lens was also used as an objective lens of the X-ray microscope, where the copper anode X-ray microfocus tube served as a...

  5. Summary of existing information on gamma-ray and X-ray attenuation coefficients of solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.; Gerward, Leif

    2002-01-01

    Accurate values of X-ray and gamma-ray attenuation coefficients of different chemicals are required in spectrometry as well as in many other scientific, engineering and medical disciplines involving photon radiation. The current state of knowledge of experimental and theoretical gamma-ray and X-r......-ray attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of salts is presented and exemplified by recent work. The results presented provide a basis for studying X-ray and gamma-ray photon interactions with ions in solution (hydrated ions) rather than ion compounds in solid form....

  6. Synchrotron x-ray microbeam characteristics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Noma, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron x-ray microprobe has become an indispensable technique for non-destructive micro-analysis. One of the most important parameters that characterize the x-ray microbeam system for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the beam size. For practical analysis, however, the photon flux, the energy resolution and the available energy range are also crucial. Three types of x-ray microbeam systems, including monochromatic and continuum excitation systems, were compared with reference to the sensitivity, the minimum detection limit and the applicability to various types of x-ray spectroscopic analysis. 16 refs., 5 figs

  7. Gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Murakami, Toshio; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Gunji, Shuichi; Kubo, Shin

    2013-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP: GAmma-ray burst Polarimeter), which had been almost handcrafted by scientists, has succeeded in working normally in interplanetary space, and in detecting the polarization of the gamma-ray from a mysterious astronomical object 'gamma-ray burst'. It is the first result of the detectors in the world exclusively aiming at detecting gamma-ray polarization. We mainly describe the hardware of our GAP equipment and show the method of preparing equipment to work in the cosmic space with a tight budget. The mechanical structure, the electronic circuits, the software on the equipment, the data analysis on the earth, and the scientific results gained by the observation just over one year, are presented after explaining the principle of gamma-ray polarization detection. Our design to protect equipment against mechanical shock and cosmic radiation may provide useful information for future preparation of compact satellite. (J.P.N.)

  8. LOBSTER - New Space X-Ray telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Simon, V.; Sveda, L.; Inneman, A.; Semencova, V.; Skulinova, M.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. For example, the Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science

  9. Guides for intraoral x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunsunlade, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    An h-shaped exterior guide for use in combination with a SNAP-A-RAY film holder for accurately aligning a beam from an X-ray cone with an X-ray film during the process of taking intraoral periapical dental X-rays of the maxillary and mandibular teeth is described comprising: a first guide arm laterally and detachably connectable through a housing means; a traverse arm extending from the midpoint of the first guide arm and parallel to the X-ray film; and a second guide arm extending perpendicularly from an end of the traverse arm toward a plane of the X-ray film and in parallel relation up to an end point of the first guide arm

  10. Sensors for x-ray astronomy satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi; Kondo, Ichiro; Nishioka, Yonero; Kameda, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Masaki.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of observing the cosmic X-ray, the cosmic X-ray astronomy satellite (CORSA-b, named ''Hakucho'', Japanese for cygnus,) was launched Feb. 21, 1979 by Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. The primary objectives of the satellite are: to perform panoramic survey of the space for X-ray bursts and to perform the spectral and temporal measurement of X-ray sources. The very soft X-ray sensor for X-ray observation and the horizon sensor for spacecraft attitude sensing were developed by Toshiba Corporation under technical support by University of Tokyo and Nagoya University for ''Hakucho''. The features of these sensors are outlined in this paper. (author)

  11. Handbook of X-Ray Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornack, Günter

    2007-01-01

    This sourcebook is intended as an X-ray data reference for scientists and engineers working in the field of energy or wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry and related fields of basic and applied research, technology, or process and quality controlling. In a concise and informative manner, the most important data connected with the emission of characteristic X-ray lines are tabulated for all elements up to Z = 95 (Americium). This includes X-ray energies, emission rates and widths as well as level characteristics such as binding energies, fluorescence yields, level widths and absorption edges. The tabulated data are characterized and, in most cases, evaluated. Furthermore, all important processes and phenomena connected with the production, emission and detection of characteristic X-rays are discussed. This reference book addresses all researchers and practitioners working with X-ray radiation and fills a gap in the available literature.

  12. Cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfendale, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    It is inevitable that there is a close connection between cosmic rays and the ISM insofar as the propagation of cosmic rays is conditioned by the magnetic field in the ISM and the cosmic rays interact with the gas (and photon fluxes) in this medium. This paper deals with both topics. Propagation effects manifest themselves as an anisotropy in arrival directions and a review is given of anisotropy measurements and their interpretation. The status of studies of cosmic ray interactions is examined whit particular reference to the information about the ISM itself which comes from observations of the flux of secondary γ-rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with gas, the situation regarding molecular as in the Inner Galaxy being of particular concern

  13. The X-ray imager on AXO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Kuvvetli, Irfan; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    2001-01-01

    DSRI has initiated a development program of CZT X-ray and gamma-ray detectors employing strip readout techniques. A dramatic improvement of the energy response was found operating the detectors as the so-called drift detectors. For the electronic readout, modern ASIC chips were investigated....... Modular design and the low-power electronics will make large area detectors using the drift strip method feasible. The performance of a prototype CZT system will be presented and discussed. One such detector system has been proposed for future space missions: the X-Ray Imager (XRI) on the Atmospheric X-ray...... Observatory (AXO), which is a mission proposed to the Danish Small Satellite Program and is dedicated to observations of X-ray generating processes in the Earth's atmosphere. Of special interest will be simultaneous optical and X-ray observations of sprites that are flashes appearing directly above an active...

  14. Cosmic ray physics goes to school

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    With the help of a CERN physicist, German Schools bring the Largest Cosmic Ray Detector in Europe one step closer to reality   Eric Berthier and Robert Porret (CERN, ST/HM), Frej Torp and Christian Antfolk from the Polytechnics Arcada in Finland, and Karsten Eggert, physicist at CERN who initiated this project, during the installation of cosmic ray detectors in the Pays de Gex, at point 4. Niina Patrikainen and Frej Torp, Finnish students from Rovaniemi and Arcada Polytechnics, installing cosmic ray counters at the Fachhochschule in Duesseldorf. The science of cosmic ray detection is growing, literally. Cosmic rays, energetic particles from space, strike our planet all the time. They collide with the air molecules in our upper atmosphere and initiate large showers of elementary particles (mainly electrons, photons, hadrons and muons) which rain down upon the earth. The shower size and the particle density in the showers reflect the initial energy of the cosmic ray particle, a detail which makes d...

  15. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2

  16. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2.

  17. Higher coherent x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Noboru; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2001-01-01

    X-ray lasers generated by an ultra short pulse laser have advantages such as monochromatic, short pulse duration, small beam divergence, high intensity, and coherence. Spatial coherence is most important for applications, we have investigated the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme x-ray laser lasing from Ne-like titanium (31.6 nm), Ne-like silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm). However, the spatial coherence was not so good with this scheme. We have been studying to improve the spatial coherence of the x-ray laser and have proposed to use coherent seed light tuned to the x-ray laser wavelength generated from higher harmonics generation (HHG), which is introduced to the x-ray laser medium (Ne-like titanium, Ni-like silver plasmas). We present about the theoretical study of the coupling efficiency HHG light with x-ray laser medium. (author)

  18. Cosmic Ray Physics with ACORDE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pagliarone, C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2x10^10 - 2x10^12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10^15 - 10^17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  19. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliarone, C; Fernandez-Tellez, A

    2008-01-01

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2·10 10 to 2· 10 12 eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10 15 to 10 17 eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program

  20. Cosmic ray physics with ACORDE at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarone, C [Universita degli Studi di Cassino and INFN Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3 - Pisa (Italy); Fernandez-Tellez, A [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: pagliarone@fnal.gov

    2008-05-15

    The use of large underground high-energy physics experiments, for comic ray studies, have been used, in the past, at CERN, in order to measure, precisely, the inclusive cosmic ray flux in the energy range from 2{center_dot}10{sup 10} to 2{center_dot} 10{sup 12} eV. ACORDE, ALICE Cosmic Rays DEtector, will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE apparatus, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 17} eV. This paper reviews the main detector features, the present status, commissioning and integration with other apparatus. Finally, we discuss the ACORDE-ALICE cosmic ray physics program.

  1. 75 FR 74099 - In the Matter of Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., Erwin, TN; Confirmatory Order Modifying License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... following: 1. NFS agreed that two examples of a violation of 10 CFR 70.9(a), occurred, which requires that... cause review, a Safety Culture Implications Review, organizational and process changes in response to... of the assessment. d. NFS agrees to develop and implement an appropriate safety culture improvement...

  2. RAY TRACING IMPLEMENTATION IN JAVA PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Aybars UĞUR; Mustafa TÜRKSEVER

    2002-01-01

    In this paper realism in computer graphics and components providing realism are discussed at first. It is mentioned about illumination models, surface rendering methods and light sources for this aim. After that, ray tracing which is a technique for creating two dimensional image of a three-dimensional virtual environment is explained briefly. A simple ray tracing algorithm was given. "SahneIzle" which is a ray tracing program implemented in Java programming language which ...

  3. Arrangement for X-ray shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    X-ray screen unit consisting of a light transmissive carrier onto which scintillation material is deposited, which is able to generate light under the influence of incident X-ray irradiation, characterised in that the X-ray screen comprises a number of sectors, wherein the surface with respect to the incident X-radiation is maintained at an acute angle. (G.C.)

  4. X-ray image intensifier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An improved real-time x-ray image intensifier tube of the proximity type used for medical x-ray fluoroscopy is described. It is claimed that this intensifier is of sufficient gain and resolution whilst remaining convenient to use and that the design is such that the patient dosage is minimized whilst the x-ray image information content at the scintillator-photocathode screen is maximized. (U.K.)

  5. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed

  6. The Livermore X-ray Laser Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    I will report on the status of x-ray laser development and its applications at Livermore. I will review some of our recent results and comment on where our future research is headed including plans for developing a compact x-ray laser users facility. Finally, I will briefly summarize the results of an X-ray Laser Applications Workshop that was held in San Francisco in January 1992

  7. Solar flares and the cosmic ray intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between the cosmic ray intensity and solar activity during solar cycle 20 is discussed. A model is developed whereby it is possible to simulate the observed cosmic ray intensity from the observed number of solar flares of importance >= 1. This model leads to a radius for the modulation region of 60-70 AU. It is suggested that high speed solar streams also made a small contribution to the modulation of cosmic rays during solar cycle 20. (orig.)

  8. Wavefront-ray grid FDTD algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİYDEM, MEHMET

    2016-01-01

    A finite difference time domain algorithm on a wavefront-ray grid (WRG-FDTD) is proposed in this study to reduce numerical dispersion of conventional FDTD methods. A FDTD algorithm conforming to a wavefront-ray grid can be useful to take into account anisotropy effects of numerical grids since it features directional energy flow along the rays. An explicit and second-order accurate WRG-FDTD algorithm is provided in generalized curvilinear coordinates for an inhomogeneous isotropic medium. Num...

  9. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  10. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  11. Gamma-ray pulsars and Geminga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderman, M.; Halpern, J.P.; Chen, K.; Cheng, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    Observed properties of γ-ray pulsars are related to those of the accelerators which power their radiation. It is argued that the relatively slowly spinning Geminga is a strong γ-ray source only because its magnetic dipole is more inclined than that of the more rapidly spinning Vela. This would also account for special Geminga properties including 180 degrees subpulse separation, soft X-ray spectra and intensities, and suppression of radio emission

  12. Sulphur mountain: Cosmic ray intensity records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, D.; Mathews, T.

    1985-01-01

    This book deals with the comic ray intensity registrations at the Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Laboratory. The time series of intensity form a valuable data-set, for studying cosmic ray intensity variations and their dependence on solar activity. The IGY neutron monitor started operating from July 1, 1957 and continued through 1963. Daily mean values are tabulated for the period and these are also represented in plots. This monitor was set up by the National Research Council of Canada

  13. Soft x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the development and of the current state of the art in picosecond soft x-ray streak camera technology. Accomplishments from a number of institutions are discussed. X-ray streak cameras vary from standard visible streak camera designs in the use of an x-ray transmitting window and an x-ray sensitive photocathode. The spectral sensitivity range of these instruments includes portions of the near UV and extends from the subkilovolt x- ray region to several tens of kilovolts. Attendant challenges encountered in the design and use of x-ray streak cameras include the accommodation of high-voltage and vacuum requirements, as well as manipulation of a photocathode structure which is often fragile. The x-ray transmitting window is generally too fragile to withstand atmospheric pressure, necessitating active vacuum pumping and a vacuum line of sight to the x-ray signal source. Because of the difficulty of manipulating x-ray beams with conventional optics, as is done with visible light, the size of the photocathode sensing area, access to the front of the tube, the ability to insert the streak tube into a vacuum chamber and the capability to trigger the sweep with very short internal delay times are issues uniquely relevant to x-ray streak camera use. The physics of electron imaging may place more stringent limitations on the temporal and spatial resolution obtainable with x-ray photocathodes than with the visible counterpart. Other issues which are common to the entire streak camera community also concern the x-ray streak camera users and manufacturers

  14. Atom-resolving x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, B.; Hiort, T.; Materlik, G.; Nishino, Y.; Novikov, D. V.

    2000-01-01

    The current state of atomic resolution x-ray holography is discussed on the basis of theory and experimental results. X-ray holography is theoretically described in quantum theory. Presently-used experimental implementations are shown together with the data analysis used. Reconstructions of experimental and simulated holograms are compared for a Cu 3 Au crystal structure. Rigorous experimental realizations of pure direct and reciprocal x-ray holography methods are demonstrated, and future developments and applications of the method are suggested

  15. New results from cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonwar, S. C.

    1980-07-01

    Behavior of elementary particles at very high energies and new phenomena observed are discussed in the light of results obtained by cosmic ray studies. Methods of determining hadron-nucleus inelastic cross-sections are described. Proton energy spectra are studied at 2000-50,000 GeV and the hadron-proton total cross section is deduced. Measurement of the cross-section by measurement of the intensity of transition radiation is described. The instrumental effects and the corrections effected are mentioned. The results obtained by different groups of investigators are compared. Observations on the scaling violation at high energies are reported. New particles or phenomena observed include: (i) the long flying component (ii) centauro events, (iii) delayed particles (iv) high energy cascades in underground experiments and (v) charm hadron production in hadron collisions. New experiments being planned for further research are mentioned.

  16. X-ray intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, G.W.; DeBoer, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray intensifying screen comprises a support which has a luminescent composition comprising an isotropic phosphor and a polymer having an index of refraction within 0.02 of that of the phosphor over at least 80 percent of its emission spectrum. The support has an index of refraction up to or equal to 0.05 units higher than that of the phosphor and has a reflection optical density of at least 1.7 to light emitted by the phosphor. A preferred luminescent composition comprises Kl:Tl, Rbl:Tl at BaSrFCl:Eu mixed with two monomers such as 1-naphthylmethylmethacrylate, S(1-naphthylmethyl) thioacrylate, 1-bromo-2-naphthylacrylate, and benzyl methacrylate, coated on black anodised Al and polymerised in situ. The ratio of monomers is adjusted to give the desired refractive index. Other phosphors, polymers and supports are specified together with the preparation of the monomers and polymers. (author)

  17. X-ray protective garment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claim relates to a protective apron. It incorporates material comprising an array of at least two superposed sheets prepared from a composition comprising a natural or synthetic polymeric material, optionally in combination with a plasticiser, and, as a filler, a material serving as an x-ray absorber, the outer, or the outer two sheets having on their outer surfaces a decorative and/or protective surface covering, for example, a layer of unfilled rubber or plastics material, the array of superposed sheets being bonded together round its edges, there being unbonded areas between the sheets in regions away from the edges. Bonding may be by welding, adhesion or stitching. (U.K.)

  18. Cerenkov radiation from cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turver, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    It is almost 40 years since it was suggested that Cerenkov radiations may be produced in the atmosphere by the passage of the cosmic radiation and account for a small part of the night sky brightness. The first detection of this visible Cerenkov radiation followed within a few years and by the 1960s the atmospheric Cerenkov radiation technique was established as a tool in high energy astrophysics. An exciting new field of astronomy, high energy gamma ray astronomy, has developed which relies on the atmospheric Cerenkov light. We here review the mechanism for the production of Cerenkov light in the atmosphere and summarize the contributions to high energy astrophysics made using the technique. (author)

  19. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendin, G.

    1979-01-01

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L 3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  20. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.K.; Skinner, G.K

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution several orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro arc seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the supermassive black holes in the center of active galaxies What then is precluding their immediate adoption Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed atmospheric absorption

  1. X-ray tomographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray tomographic system consists of a radiation source such as gamma or x radiation which produces a fan-shaped beam. The fan is wide enough to encompass the patient circle. The system further includes means for rotating the radiation source about the patient for less than a full rotation, and detectors for detecting the radiation at positions that surround the patient by 180 0 plus the angle of the fan beam plus the angle between adjacent fan detectors. Attenuation data from the detectors is sorted into detector fans of attenuation data, then processed. The convolved data is back-projected into an image memory and displayed on a video monitor

  2. Soft x-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  3. Acoustooptics of x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakhanov, M.V.; Pustovoyt, V.I.; Radzhabov, R.U.; Khabibullayev, P.K.

    Scattering of x-rays by acoustic phonons in crystals during excitation of a noise phonon flux thermodynamically at equilibrium is analyzed from the standpoint of the dynamic diffraction theory, emphasis being put on the differences with the conventional acoustooptic effect attributable to lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes. The structural peak and the diffusional peak are calculated from known relations for the intensity of scattering in each mode, assuming that the Laue condition is satisfied. Interaction of x-rays and an acoustic wave is considered, the conditions for a diffraction peak being determined by the relations between location of that peak and angular dimensions of the structural peak. Experiments were performed in crystals of photosensitive piezoelectric semiconductors with phonon generation. Rectangular or variable-shape voltage pulses with amplitudes up to 800 V were applied to 6-60 ..mu..m thick CdS crystals at repetition rates up to 800 Hz. The electron concentration was (1.3-4.5) x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ and the electron mobility, according to saturation of the current-voltage characteristics, was differentially in time. The results reveal sharp anisotropy of scattering, evident in the dependence of scattering intensity on the angle of crystal rotation and the resulting lobar scattering pattern. Structural scattering varies exponentially and diffusional scattering varies linearly with increasing amplitude of the applied voltage. According to the dependence of the spectral density of phonon generation on the concentration of charge carriers, the phase of the scattering effect changes upon transition from the structural range to the diffusional range. 8 references, 3 figures.

  4. X-ray microscopy in Aarhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uggerhoej, Erik; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna V.

    2000-01-01

    The Aarhus imaging soft X-ray microscope is now a busy multi-user facility. The optical set-up will be described and project highlights discussed. a) Metal-induced structural changes in whole cells in solution. The effects of aluminum, copper, nickel and zinc on protozoa investigated by using a combination of light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and X-ray microscopy. b) Botanical studies by X-ray microscopy used to compliment electron microscopy studies. c) Sludge morphology and iron precipitation in Danish freshwater plants by combining X-ray, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy

  5. X-ray speckle correlation interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, Rachel; Materlik, Gerhard

    2000-01-01

    Speckle Pattern Correlation Interferometry (SPCI) is a well-established technique in the visible-light regime for observing surface disturbances. Although not a direct imaging technique, SPCI gives full-field, high-resolution information about an object's motion. Since x-ray synchrotron radiation beamlines with high coherent flux have allowed the observation of x-ray speckle, x-ray SPCI could provide a means to measure strains and other quasi-static motions in disordered systems. This paper therefore examines the feasibility of an x-ray speckle correlation interferometer

  6. Phase-contrast X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [Hitachi Ltd., Saitama (Japan). Advanced Research Laboratory; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) enabling the observation of biological soft tissues without contrast enhancement has been developed. The X-ray phase shift caused by an object is measured and input to a standard CT reconstruction algorithm. A thousand times increase in the image sensitivity to soft tissues is achieved compared with the conventional CT using absorption contrast. This is because the X-ray phase shift cross section of light elements is about a thousand times larger than the absorption cross section. The phase shift is detected using an X-ray interferometer and computer analyses of interference patterns. Experiments were performed using a synchrotron X-ray source. Excellent image sensitivity is demonstrated in the observation of cancerous rabbit liver. The CT images distinguish cancer lesion from normal liver tissue and, moreover, visualize the pathological condition in the lesion. Although the X-ray energy employed and the present observation area size are not suitable for medical applications as they are, phase-contrast X-ray CT is promising for investigating the internal structure of soft tissue which is almost transparent for X-rays. The high sensitivity also provides the advantage of reducing X-ray doses. (author).

  7. Reverse ray tracing for transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hung

    2015-06-29

    Ray tracing is an important technique for predicting optical system performance. In the field of transformation optics, the Hamiltonian equations of motion for ray tracing are well known. The numerical solutions to the Hamiltonian equations of motion are affected by the complexities of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices of the optical device. Based on our knowledge, no previous work has been conducted on ray tracing for transformation optics with extreme inhomogeneity and anisotropicity. In this study, we present the use of 3D reverse ray tracing in transformation optics. The reverse ray tracing is derived from Fermat's principle based on a sweeping method instead of finding the full solution to ordinary differential equations. The sweeping method is employed to obtain the eikonal function. The wave vectors are then obtained from the gradient of that eikonal function map in the transformed space to acquire the illuminance. Because only the rays in the points of interest have to be traced, the reverse ray tracing provides an efficient approach to investigate the illuminance of a system. This approach is useful in any form of transformation optics where the material property tensor is a symmetric positive definite matrix. The performance and analysis of three transformation optics with inhomogeneous and anisotropic indices are explored. The ray trajectories and illuminances in these demonstration cases are successfully solved by the proposed reverse ray tracing method.

  8. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.

    1994-01-01

    The author's achievements in the title field are summarized and discussed. The following topics are dealt with: (i) principles of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis; (ii) mathematical methods in X-ray fluorescence analysis; (iii) Ross differential filters; (iv) application of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis in the coal industry (with emphasis on the determination of the ash content, sulfur content, and arsenic content of coal); and (v) evaluation of the X-ray fluorescence analyzer from the radiological safety point of view. (P.A.)

  9. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Alan Hap [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90° Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ~ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 Å) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been demonstrated as a

  10. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1998-01-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90 o Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ∼ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 (angstrom)) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been

  11. Cosmic-ray-veto detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Menlove, H.O.

    1992-12-01

    To reduce the cosmic-ray-induced neutron background, we are testing a cosmic-ray veto option with a neutron detector system that uses plastic scintillator slabs mounted on the outside of a 3 He-tube detector. The scintillator slabs eliminate unwanted cosmic-ray events, enabling the detector to assay low-level plutonium samples, for which a low-background coincident signature is critical. This report describes the design and testing of the prototype cosmic-ray-veto detector system

  12. Radio Observations of Gamma-ray Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Justin D.; Chomiuk, L.; Ribeiro, V.; project, E.-Nova

    2014-01-01

    Recent detection of gamma-ray emission from classical novae by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope surprised many in the astronomical community. We present results from radio observations, obtained using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of three gamma-ray novae: Mon2012, Sco2012, and Del2013. Radio observations allow for the calculation of ejecta masses, place limits on the distances, and provide information about the gamma-ray emission mechanism for these sources.

  13. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, D.R.; Cahn, R.; Cederstrom, B.; Danielsson, M.; Vestlund, J.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point

  14. X-ray Observations at Gaisberg Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Hettiarachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of X-rays at ground level due to cloud-to-ground flashes of upward-initiated lightning from Gaisberg Tower, in Austria, which is located at an altitude of 1300 m. This is the first observation of X-ray emissions from upward lightning from a tower top located at high altitude. Measurements were carried out using scintillation detectors installed close to the tower top in two phases from 2011 to 2015. X-rays were recorded in three subsequent strokes of three flashes out of the total of 108 flashes recorded in the system during both phases. In contrast to the observations from downward natural or triggered lightning, X-rays were observed only within 10 µs before the subsequent return stroke. This shows that X-rays were emitted when the dart leader was in the vicinity of the tower top, hence during the most intense phase of the dart leader. Both the detected energy and the fluence of X-rays are far lower compared to X-rays from downward natural or rocket-triggered lightning. In addition to the above 108 flashes, an interesting observation of X-rays produced by a nearby downward flash is also presented. The shorter length of dart-leader channels in Gaisberg is suggested as a possible cause of this apparently weaker X-ray production.

  15. X-ray fluorescence in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, C.V.; Gomes, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the X-ray fluorescence aplication in geology. It's showing the X-ray origin and excitation. About the instrumentation this work shows the following: X-ray tubes, colimators, analysers crystals, detectors, amplifiers, pulse height selector, and others electronic components. By X-ray fluorescente are done quantitative and qualitative geological analysis and this work shows this analysis and its detection limits. The problems determination is the example. In this work was done yet the comparative analysis of the various instrumental methods in geochemistry. (C.G.) [pt

  16. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  17. Improved backward ray tracing with stochastic sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seung Taek; Yoon, Kyung-Hyun

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique that enhances the diffuse interreflection with the concepts of backward ray tracing. In this research, we have modeled the diffuse rays with the following conditions. First, as the reflection from the diffuse surfaces occurs in all directions, it is impossible to trace all of the reflected rays. We confined the diffuse rays by sampling the spherical angle out of the reflected rays around the normal vector. Second, the traveled distance of reflected energy from the diffuse surface differs according to the object's property, and has a comparatively short reflection distance. Considering the fact that the rays created on the diffuse surfaces affect relatively small area, it is very inefficient to trace all of the sampled diffused rays. Therefore, we set a fixed distance as the critical distance and all the rays beyond this distance are ignored. The result of this research is that as the improved backward ray tracing can model the illumination effects such as the color bleeding effects, we can replace the radiosity algorithm under the limited environment.

  18. The Alba ray tracing code: ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Josep; Barla, Alessandro; Juanhuix, Jordi

    2013-09-01

    The Alba ray tracing code (ART) is a suite of Matlab functions and tools for the ray tracing simulation of x-ray beamlines. The code is structured in different layers, which allow its usage as part of optimization routines as well as an easy control from a graphical user interface. Additional tools for slope error handling and for grating efficiency calculations are also included. Generic characteristics of ART include the accumulation of rays to improve statistics without memory limitations, and still providing normalized values of flux and resolution in physically meaningful units.

  19. VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-01-22

    Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

  20. X-rays from supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Sutherland, P.; Mccray, R.; Ross, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the development of the X-ray spectrum of 1987A are presented using more realistic models for the supernova composition and density structure provided by Woosley. It is shown how the emergence of the X-ray spectrum depends on the parameters of the model and the nature of its central energy source. It is shown that the soft X-ray spectrum should be dominated by a 6.4 keV Fe K(alpha) emission line that could be observed by a sensitive X-ray telescope. 28 references