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Sample records for rawlings outlines poverty

  1. Outline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Outline. Cotton trends in India. The need for Bollgard cotton. Evaluation & approval. Safety; Field evaluation. Key statistics. Input Costs, Pesticide spend, Profit per acre; Area, Production, Productivity, etc. Value generated. 2005; 2006 Estimates. Summary.

  2. Filsafat Multikulturalisme John Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Rehayati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terjadinya konflik horizontal yang mengatasnamakan identitas kelompok (etnis, suku, keyakinan dan seterusnya dikarenakan adanya phobia terhadap perbedaan. Padahal perbedaan suatu keniscayaan, karena manusia tidak akan mampu menyeragamkan atau menuntut orang lain untuk sama dengan dirinya, baik pada aspek pemikiran, keyakinan, etnis, suku, budaya, dan sebagainya. Filsafat multikulturalisme John Rawls merupakan alternatif tawaran politik kebudayaan untuk mengatasi konflik horizontal. Menurut Rawls, suatu masyarakat yang adil bukanlah hanya menjamin “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” yang selama ini terkenal dalam prinsip demokrasi. Tetapi, masyarakat yang adil menurutnya adalah adanya pengakuan dan penerimaan terhadap perbedaan dan keberagaman. Pendapatnya ini dia rangkai dalam pokok-pokok pemikirannya tentang keadilan, seperti: Justice as Fairness, Veil of Ignorance, Principle of Equal Liberty, Maximin Rule, Lexical Order dan Reflective Equilibrium.

  3. Rawls and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2014-01-01

    Renowned political philosopher John Rawls once expressed skepticism about the moral status of the European Union (EU). Yet generally EU scholars have either ignored Rawls or rather uncritically established positive links between his theory of domestic and international justice and the EU. This

  4. President's Pages / Craig Rawlings

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rawlings, Craig

    2006-01-01

    Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Rootsi-Eesti Kaubanduskoja president Anders Hedman, Prantsuse-Eesti äriklubi C.A.F.E. president Karl Jaanimägi, Briti-Eesti Kaubanduskoja president Märt Haamer ja Eesti-Ameerika Tööstuskoja president Craig Rawlings räägivad Eesti majanduse olukorrast, tööjõuprobleemist, konkurentsivõimest. President T. H. Ilves rõhutab ohtusid, mis kaasnevad kvalifitseerimata tööjõu sissetoomisega väljastpoolt Euroopa Liitu

  5. Justiça distributiva: a crítica de Sen a Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Álvaro de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available It is discussed to what extent Amartya Sen's normative approach to socioeconomic inequalities represents an improvement with respect to John Rawls's approach. Sen's critique of the equalisandum of Rawls's theory (the so-called "primary goods" and Sen's arguments for equality of capability are examined. It is argued that though Sen's metric seems particularly fitted to deal with poverty and destitution, this is not the case when inequalities above a minimally decent level of "capability to function" are in question. For the latter purpose, Rawls' metric of primary goods is preferable.

  6. Rawls on Dewey before the Dewey Lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    This article sheds light on John Rawls's views on John Dewey's philosophical temperament by investigating unpublished papers and lectures that Rawls wrote and delivered across the late 1940s, the 1950s, the 1960s, and the early 1970s. Moreover, the article shows that Rawls's rejection of Kant's dualisms predates by at least three decades the "Dewey Lectures" (1980) and that Dewey's notion of deliberation as "dramatic rehearsal in imagination" might have had an impact on Rawls's development of the notion of "reflective equilibrium" as a state of affairs that we strive to reach in ethical reflection.

  7. John Rawls in Light of the Archive: Introduction to the Symposium on the Rawls Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevir, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This symposium calls attention to the archival papers of the political philosopher John Rawls. As the symposium papers show, the archive illuminates the development of Rawls's philosophical and political visions, showing the varied intellectual traditions on which he drew. The papers portray Rawls as a naturalist who believed that moral and political arguments should be made in light of facts about natural human capacities and propensities. The papers explore Rawls's engagement with Wittgenstein, Dewey, and game theory. And the papers present conflicting accounts of Rawls's democratic society and the role of democratic debate in the justification of a political vision.

  8. La doble originalidad de Rawls The double originality of rawls

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    Van Parijs Phillipe

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una introducción crítica a una de las principales respuestas sistemáticas sobre la cuestión de la justicia dentro del pensamiento contemporáneo: el liberalismo igualitario de Rawls. Para Van Parijs, la filosofía política debe ser pertinente, es decir, debe responder a los problemas del mundo sin renunciar al espíritu. En cumplimiento de ese propósito, considera necesario estudiar las fuentes del pensamiento solidarista –marxismo, el utilitarismo y liberalismo igualitario- para responder a los desafíos del libertarianismo, punta de lanza filosófica del pensamiento neoliberal. El texto no se limita a la interpretación: profundiza los diferentes argumentos, contrasta y critica las distintas hipótesis, explora las implicaciones de unas y otras, aclara los puntos en controversia y adapta una actitud de simpatía critica frente a libertarianos y marxistas, liberales y comunitarios. Todo ello para que haya dialogo, sin renunciar a las convicciones personales y sin caer en la invectiva ni en la exégesis.This article is a critical introduction to one of the principal
    systematic answers on the question of justice in contemporary thought: Rawls' egalitarian liberalismo For Van Parijs, political philosophy must have relevance, i.e. it must respond to the problems of the world without ignoring the human spirit. Therefore, he says that we need to study the sources of the solidarity schools of thought -marxism, utilitarianism and egalitarian liberalism- to answer the
    challenge of libertarianism, the philosophical spearhead of neoliberal thinking. The text does not restrict itself to interpretation: it goes deeply into each argument, contrasting and criticizing the various hypotheses made, exploring the implications of each, drawing out points of controversy and adopting an attitude of critical sympathy to libertarians and marxists, liberals and communitarians. He does this to sustain dialogue, wi thout abandoning his

  9. John Rawls: The Political Education

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    Elnora Gondim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rawls defines education as the training and development of abilities and aptitudes, a civic, constitutional teaching, as a means for making a living and developing a cooperation sense. To understand the role of education in Rawls’ work we need to understand the concept of a well-ordered society. It is related to primary goods. In them political freedoms are given priority; and through them citizens —in developing their expression and meeting abilities, in enjoying freedom of thought— may get to enhance their self-esteem; guaranteeing citizens’ personal and social life enrichment. From this perspective, education plays a central role in society, as it helps to develop autonomy, allowing for individuals’ actions to be reflected by the principles they would accept as rational, reasonable, equal and free beings. As a consequence, education enables citizens for public debate. According to the theory of justice as fairness, differently from utilitarianism, citizenship development is a fundamental element; politics and education are intertwined aspects.

  10. El constitucionalismo según John Rawls

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    Roberto Gargarella

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El término “democracia” se encuentra completamente ausente del famoso libro de John Rawls, Teoría de la justicia. En Liberalismo político, en cambio, Rawls discute varios de los muchos temas sobre los que el concepto de democracia nos invita a reflexionar. En este escrito concentro mi atención en una de esas discusiones: la tensión entre constitucionalismo y democracia. Más específicamente, procuro examinar de qué modo Rawls trata de afirmar el doble compromiso que toda constitución quiere honrar, esto es, el compromiso con el ideal de la autonomía individual, y el compromiso con el ideal del auto-gobierno colectivo.

  11. Marcurse y Rawls sobre la tolerancia

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    Diego Mauricio Hernández Guzmán

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo plantea un diálogo de complementariedad y antagonismo entre John Rawls y Herbert Marcuse a propósito de la tolerancia en cuanto categoría filosófico- política. La hipótesis central es que la perspectiva marcusiana adelanta las elaboraciones rawlsianas y las supera. El escrito inicia retomando los argumentos trazados por Rawls en Liberalismo político y en Una teoría de la justicia, para definir el contenido y el sentido de la tolerancia. Posteriormente, recupera la crítica de Marcuse a la tolerancia liberal planteada en “Tolerancia Represiva”. Con base en dichas fuentes, se construye un diálogo entre ambos autores, llevando a Marcuse más allá de Rawls.

  12. Legitimacy and consensus in Rawls' political liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I analyze the theory of legitimacy at the core of John Rawls’ political liberalism. Rawls argues that a political system is well grounded when it is stable. This notion of stability embodies both pragmatic and moral elements, each of which constitutes a key desideratum of Rawlsian

  13. Rawls: The Problem of Autonomy and Coherentism

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    Elnora Gondim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the idea of autonomy into that of justice as equality modifies the work of Rawls taken as a whole. Thus, while in the Theory of Justice, a Kantian- type of autonomy is adopted, in Political Liberalism, autonomy is extended to the sphere of the political.

  14. IMAGING A PRESIDENT: RAWLINGS IN THE GHANAIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rawlings, burst onto the political scene through a coup. After a return to ... (CDA), the media texts in Ghana offer a very fertile area for research. This is so because the ..... the process of state and development in order to escape the excessive ...

  15. La herencia igualitarista de John Rawls

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    Puyol González, Ángel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the indisputable achievements of John Rawls work has been the revitalisation of the concept of equality in the ethics and political philosophy of the last few years. He has removed it from the monopoly of the ideologies that have had better or worse luck throughout the entire twentieth century and returned it to the analytical and conceptual rigor of philosophy. Moreover, he has done so with the added virtue of harmonising the value of equality with the values of freedom and efficiency, which is an effort that is not always valued with sufficient understanding. There is no doubt about the influence of Rawls theory of justice on current egalitarian thinking that, in some way, has been, and is still being, built -following -or diverging from the wake opened by the philosopher from Harvard. In this article, I analyse the main debates that are going on about Rawlsian egalitarianism and I point out some possible future orientation. In the first place, I set out the two great egalitarian arguments in Rawls work stemming, respectively, from a person's moral conception and the moral arbitrariness of the individual' s social and natural contingencies. Afterwards, I explore the problems of both arguments insisting, on one hand, on the inadequacy of the Kantian moral personality as a foundation for an egalitarian theory and, on the other hand, on the inconsistency of luck egalitarianism as an egalitarian extension of Rawls theory. In third place, I demonstrate that the main egalitarian problem in Rawls work comes from the concept of equality and equity void of solidarity. I conclude, finally, that justice as fairness should be contrasted with justice as fraternity.

    Uno de los logros indiscutibles de la obra de John Rawls ha sido la revitalización del concepto de igualdad en la ética y la filosofía política de los últimos años, desmonopolizándolo de las ideologías que han recorrido con mejor o peor fortuna todo el siglo xx y devolvi

  16. The Fundamentals of Civil Disobedience in John Rawls

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    Eduardo Baldissera Carvalho Salles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigating civil disobedience from a liberal perspective, the working thread through the thought of John Rawls, exposed in the work A Theory of Justice, presenting the phenomenon as a kind of political resistance as well as the theoretical framework that legitimizes as processing instrument contemporary society and guarantor of individual rights. Thus, discusses the duty to obey unjust laws defining what the justification of civil disobedience, designed to Rawls just almost just, democratic and orderly.

  17. Fair Biodiversity Politics With and Beyond Rawls

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    John Bernhard Kleba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The access and benefit-sharing regime (ABS of the Convention on Biological Diversity has been criticised for focusing on entitlements and asset exchanges. In this regard, the Nagoya Protocol provides little advance. This work introduces new paths of research and reasoning debating the tensions between the Rawlsian concept of justice and the realm of ABS. A new original position to debate fair biodiversity politics would include the concepts of justice of non-Western cultures. Taking the case of indigenous and traditional peoples, the issue of cultural minority rights is raised, challenging the institutionalisation of legal pluralism and political recognition. Against Bell, and with and beyond Rawls, arguments are provided favouring an environmental constitutionalism. The least advantaged concept shifts from an economical focus towards realising citizenship and applied to the ABS regime. Concerning the destination of benefits in ABS agreements, I advocate a complement between entitlements and the systemic aims of the Convention, prioritising the latter. Finally, controversies about the equity of benefit sharing are examined. Whereas the difference principle is helpful in tackling the economical and political asymmetries in ABS negotiations, it leaves core questions open. The Nagoya Protocol has advanced in providing legal tools to realise citizenship. However, political justice demands more. Concerns to benefit the least advantaged should be included in policy, bioprospecting project design and ABS contracts.

  18. Homenaje póstumo a John Rawls

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    Alútiz, Juan Carlos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows a global vision of the work of John Rawls, describing the evolution of his thought since his initial and original proposal of «Justice as Faimess», to his last contributions about Political Liberalism.

    El presente artículo trata de ofrecer una visión panorámica de la obra de John Rawls, describiendo la evolución de su pensamiento desde su inicial y original propuesta de «Justicia como equidad», hasta sus últimas aportaciones en tomo al Liberalismo político

  19. En genlæsning af John Rawls i lyset af hans diskussion af forholdet til fremtidige generationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübcke, Poul

    2009-01-01

    På grundlag af en konsekventialistisk rekonstruktion af Rawls' politiske position gøres der rede for Rawls eksplicitte og implicitte vurdering af vores ansvar over for fremtidige generationer......På grundlag af en konsekventialistisk rekonstruktion af Rawls' politiske position gøres der rede for Rawls eksplicitte og implicitte vurdering af vores ansvar over for fremtidige generationer...

  20. Kant and Rawls on the Cultivation of Virtue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Talbot

    2013-01-01

    In "Two Conceptions of Virtue," Thomas Hill reconstructs the conceptions of virtue, and of proper moral upbringing, found in Kant and Rawls. Here I offer some brief reflections on these conceptions of virtue and its cultivation. I argue that Kant's conception of virtue is grounded in a mistaken conception of desire, and that this…

  1. A humildade do universal: Habermas no espelho de Rawls The humbleness of the universal: Habermas in the mirror of Rawls

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    Adrián Gurza Lavalle

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Pontos básicos da trajetória intelectual de Habermas são reconstruidos à luz de seu confronto com Rawls. Assinalam-se os limites da pretensão habermasiana a uma universalidade superior à rawlsiana. Argumenta-se que o livro de 1962 sobre "mudanças estruturais da esfera pública" já encerra as questões que encontrarão desdobramento mais tarde, inclusive na "teoria da ação comunicativa" de 1981. O artigo vai no sentido de uma reconstrução crítica de alguns problemas centrais do programa de pesquisa de Habermas. No final, retoma-se o confronto com Rawls.Basic points of Habermas' intelectual trajectory are reconstructed from the standpoint of his debate with Rawls. The limits of Habermas ' claims to a greater universality of his theory as compared with Rawls' are pointed out. It is argued that already in his book of 1962 about the "structural transformations of the public sphere" may be found the questions to be further developed in his other works, including his "theory of communicative action" of 1981. The article aims at a critical reconstruction of some central problems of Habermas' research program.

  2. Gerechtigkeit denken. John Rawls' politische Philosophie aus sozialethischer Perspektive.

    OpenAIRE

    Frühbauer, Johannes J.

    2004-01-01

    John Rawls' "Eine Theorie der Gerechtigkeit" wird grundlegend dargestellt. Zentrale Begriffe und Konzeptionen werden benannt und erläutert; hierzu zählen der Urzustand, der Gerechtigkeitsbegriff, die Gerechtigkeitsgrundsätze, das Differenzprinzip, das Überlegungsgleichgewicht, die wohlgeordnete Gesellschaft, die politische Pflicht und der zivile Ungehorsam. In einem weiteren Schritt werden grundsätzliche Strömungen der Kritik (Libertarianismus, Kommunitarismus, Feminismus) und zwei herausra...

  3. Just Society as a Fair Game: John Rawls and Game Theory in the 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gališanka, Andrius

    2017-01-01

    I explore the influence of game theory on the political philosopher John Rawls as a way of analyzing the character of his democratic thought. Recent narratives bring Rawls closer to direct democracy as a result of game theory's influence. I argue that game theory prompted creative, organic developments in Rawls's political framework rather than shaping it. It prompted Rawls to emphasize autonomy and fairness, leading him to the analogy between a just society and a fair game. And it prompted thought experiments that analyzed our considered judgments. This was an idealized analysis unconnected to the vision of direct democracy.

  4. John Rawls\\'s Constructivism & the Theory of Constructional Perceptions

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    M Zamani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available John Rawls, American contemporary philosopher, has chosen the title of constructivism for his views on philosophy of ethics and politics. The base of his veiws is the same as the theory of social contract which has been discussed before by John Locke and Imanuel Kant. Rawls completes this view by the condition of impartiality and fairness , which is distinguished by ignorance about the position of self (the veil of ignorance in primary situation. Rawls criticises intutionism and utilitarianism and holds an antirealistic approach towards ethics . The theory that has been delivered by Allame Tabatabee (the constructional perception caused agreements and disagreements, but his idea seems to be new and effective in Islamic philosophy. Based on this idea many conceptions are constructive including goodness , badness and justice. The aim of this paper is to analyse and give a comparison between these ideas and studies similarities and differences with regard to topics such as antirealism, objectivity, criteria of justification and separation of science and ethics.

  5. John Rawls's Constructivism & the Theory of Constructional Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zamani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available John Rawls, American contemporary philosopher, has chosen the title of constructivism for his views on philosophy of ethics and politics. The base of his veiws is the same as the theory of social contract which has been discussed before by John Locke and Imanuel Kant. Rawls completes this view by the condition of impartiality and fairness , which is distinguished by ignorance about the position of self (the veil of ignorance in primary situation. Rawls criticises intutionism and utilitarianism and holds an antirealistic approach towards ethics . The theory that has been delivered by Allame Tabatabee (the constructional perception caused agreements and disagreements, but his idea seems to be new and effective in Islamic philosophy. Based on this idea many conceptions are constructive including goodness , badness and justice. The aim of this paper is to analyse and give a comparison between these ideas and studies similarities and differences with regard to topics such as antirealism, objectivity, criteria of justification and separation of science and ethics.

  6. From metaphysical to political: Does political culture make Rawls's principle of tolerance morally relativistic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze Rawls's conception of political (public culture, exploring whether his principle of tolerance (Political Liberalism falls in moral relativism. The analysis consists of three sections. Firstly, the author introduces different critical accounts on Rawls's theory and identifies where they go wrong. Secondly, the author delineates the intellectual tradition of social liberalism from which sprang Rawls's conception, showing that he significantly alters the key ideas of dominant liberal justice of the Western world. In the final section of the paper it is argued that Rawls's idea of political culture is a cornerstone of just society and the spring of tolerance, providing arguments in favor of the idea that Rawls's conception of political liberalism is not morally relativistic but it is, however, in line with liberal pluralism.

  7. Hegel en la obra y el pensamiento de John Rawls

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    Rodrigo Soto-Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se intenta mostrar cómo el filósofo de Berlín ha influido en la elaboración teórica de la justicia política de Rawls. Después de Una teoría de la justicia (1971, debido a la atención que el profesor de Harvard presta a las críticas y a su revisión, hay casi unanimidad entre los estudiosos de su obra en que se da un cambio en la forma de enfocar su doctrina de la justicia como equidad, por lo que a partir de Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory (1980 se empieza a notar un giro más pragmá- tico y menos universalista que quedará más sólidamente demostrado en Political Liberalism (1993, razón por la que se habla de un “segundo Rawls”. En su obra póstuma Lecciones sobre la historia de la filosofía moral, Rawls hace comentarios principalmente a la Filosofía del Derecho (Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts. Naturrecht und Staatswissenschaft de Hegel que dejan entrever la sintonía de ambos pensadores en lo referente al estudio de la realidad social, su tendencia antidualista y su visión del liberalismo clásico, aunque Rawls no abandone por ello el contractualismo. Por otra parte, se hace una breve referencia a la influencia de Hume y Dewey que sirve para terminar de situar el conjunto de pensadores modernos que marcan la teoría rawlsiana tanto en su forma como en su fondo.

  8. Paradojas de la filiación kantiana de Rawls

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    Serrano Marín, Vicente

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available While it is undeniably so in some aspects and in Rawls stated intention as well, the never quite resolved question of the Kantian leanings of his works is not free of controversy or rather of paradoxical situations which, to our understanding, illustrate the very sense of his work. The root of these paradoxes seems to lie with the fact that while his work follows the Anglo-Saxon tradition, the implicit ethical system which it forms part of is that of a type of utilitarianism which it never gives up completely. The most visible external expression of these paradoxical situations can be found in the very evolution of the theory, moving from its initial affirmation of Kantian morals toward a political, not metaphysical. formulation; nevertheless, it is precisely at this political moment when it is closest to Kantian morals. Perhaps with this, Rawls is offering us the key to another unresolved question of our times: that of the relationship between ethics and politics.

    Innegable en algunos aspectos y en la voluntad declarada de Rawls, la cuestión nunca resuelta de la filiación kantiana de su obra no está exenta de conflictos, o mejor de situaciones paradójicas que, a nuestro entender, iluminan el sentido mismo de su obra. La raíz de esas paradojas parece descansar en que la tradición a la que obedece es la anglosajona y la ética implícita de la que parte es la de un utilitarismo que nunca abandona del todo la expresión más externa y aparente de ese juego de paradojas se evidenciaría en la propia evolución de la teoría, desde su inicial afirmación de kantismo moral, hacia una formulación política y no metafísica, siendo, sin embargo, precisamente en ese momento político donde estaría más próxima al kantismo moral. Tal vez con ello Rawls nos está ofreciendo una clave para otro problema nunca resuelta de la modernidad: el de las relaciones entre ética y política.

  9. John Rawls: a economia moral da justiça

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    Hermano Roberto Thiry-Cherques

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, descrevo como o filósofo norte-americano John Rawls reformulou o pensamento moral contemporâneo, ao propor a subordinação da ética à justiça. Resumo a defesa que apresentou para uma moral fundada em um pacto que compensasse, sem tentar anulá-las, as assimetrias econômico-sociais do mundo em que vivemos. Concluo com uma discussão sobre as dificuldades teóricas que encontrou para absorver o pluralismo cultural, filosófico, político e religioso do Ocidente.In this article I describe how the North-American philosopher John Rawls has reformulated contemporary moral thinking in proposing subordination of ethics to justice. I synthesize his defense of a morality based on an agreement that compensates, without attempting to nullify, current socio-economic asymmetries. I conclude with a discussion of the theoretical difficulties he encountered in absorbing cultural, philosophical, political and religious Western pluralism in his theory.

  10. Justicia y legitimidad en el Derecho de Gentes de Rawls

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    Melero de la Torre, Mariano C.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper pretends to show the faults of Rawls's Law of Peoples, and then to establish in different terms the content of an international political theory with genuinely liberal spirit. The various changes here proposed lead to a model of international justice that includes both the protection all over the world of citizens basic rights and, restricted by this cosmopolitan scheme, the recognition of subglobal political units with self-determination rights. In short, the proposal is an ideal of global community based on a federation that involve a system of International Law more demanding than the principles of the diffuse Society of «reasonable» Peoples.

    El propósito del presente trabajo consiste en mostrar las deficiencias del Derecho de Gentes de John Rawls, para luego determinar de otro modo el contenido de una teoría política internacional de cuño genuinamente liberal. Las modificaciones que aquí se proponen conducen a un modelo de justicia internacional que incluye la protección de los derechos básicos de todos los ciudadanos del mundo y, restringido por esa estructura cosmopolita, el reconocimiento de los derechos de autodeterminación de las unidades políticas subglobales. En definitiva, la propuesta es un ideal de sociedad planetaria gobernada por un sistema de Derecho internacional más exigente que los principios de la difusa Sociedad de Pueblos «razonables».

  11. Reducing poverty through tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Bolwell, Dain; Weinz, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Outlines the background to poverty reduction approaches and how the ILO is involved within the context of Decent Work and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Recent developments in tourism and a vision for an inclusive, pro-poor tourism industry are summarized.

  12. Tres Formas de Libertad: Hayek, Berlín y Rawls

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    Carlos Gil de Gomez Perez-Aradros

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Artículo de reflexión. La libertad –su ejercicio y su titularidad– ha sido un tema recurrente en el pensamiento a lo largo de la Historia. No obstante, cada autor que se ha acercado a ella la ha interpretado de un modo distinto; incluso dentro de la misma escuela de pensamiento. Así las cosas, este estudio pretende contraponer y enfrentar la diferente visión que de la libertad han tenido tres de los intelectuales más influyentes del siglo XX: F. Hayek, Isaiah Berlin y J. Rawls. Esta contraposición doctrinal permitirá concluir que la libertad liberal bascula entre la autoderminación y el reconocimiento. A través de los principales tex- tos originales de los tres autores mencionados y de otros y utilizando una metodología analítica-comparativa, se logran perfilar los distintos contornos de la libertad liberal y sus vínculos con la autodeterminación y el reconocimiento debido. Palabras clave: Libertad, Ética, Coacción, Racionalismo. Abstract Freedom – its exercise and its ownership- has been a recurring theme throughout the history of thought. Nonetheless, each author who has approached it has interpreted it in a different way, even within the same school of thought. Thus, this study aims at comparing and contrasting the different visions of freedom of three of the most influential intellectuals of the twentieth century: F. Hayek, Isaiah Berlin and J. Rawls. This comparison of doctrines will lead to the conclusion that liberal freedom shifts between self-determination and recognition. Through the major texts of the three authors and others, and using an analytical-comparative methodology, the article manages to outline the different shapes of liberal freedom and its links with self-determination and recognition. Keywords: Freedom, Ethics, Coercion, Rationalism. Resumo A Liberdade -seu exercício e posse- tem sido um tema recorrente no pensamento ao longo da história. Entretanto, cada autor se aproximou

  13. Rawls's normative conception of the person: a kantian reinterpretation

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    Oliveira Junior, Nythamar Hilario Fernandes de

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de mostrar em que sentido a concepção normativa de pessoa em John Rawls pressupõe uma transformação semântica da concepção kantiana de subjetividade transcendental, em particular do seu ideal de personalidade (persönlichkeit. Uma reinterpretação kantiana da concepção normativa de pessoa logra explicar o dispositivo procedimental do equilíbrio reflexivo para responder a críticas comunitárias em defesa do individualismo inerente ao liberalismo político, concebido não mais como uma doutrina abrangente da auto-identidade mas como um construtivismo, num modelo coerentista de justificativa-moral

  14. Rawls versus Nozick: Teorie spravedlnosti jako slušnosti, a nebo oprávnění

    OpenAIRE

    PILNÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the different concepts of justice that are presented by works of John Rawls and Robert Nozick. Seeing that they are liberal authors, the first chapter is devoted to liberalism and its forms. Rawls is presented as a supporter of modern liberalism and Nozick is presented as a representative of classical liberalism, concretely libertarianism. The second chapter discusses how both authors describe natural state. The third chapter is devoted to it how Rawls and Nozick talk abo...

  15. Sattumuslikkus, hegemoonia ning õiglus: John Rawls ja radikaalne demokraatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeter Selg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Artikkel käsitleb kriitiliselt üht viimaste kümnendite vastandust poliitilises filosoofias — ‘poliitilise liberalismi’ (Rawls ja ‘radikaalse demokraatia’ (Laclau ja Mouffe vahel. Artikkel püüab käivitada potentsiaalset dialoogi nende kahe näiliselt lahkneva lähenemise vahel. Kokkuvõttes näitab artikkel, et vastandus on möödarääkimine vähemalt ühes fundamentaalses mõttes: mõlemad lähenemised jagavad ühiskonnastmõtlemisel sama aluseetost. Artiklis nimetatakse seda ‘sattumuslikkuse eetoseks’ ning väidetakse, et see on kõige fundamentaalsem alusveendumus nii Laclau ja Mouffe’i ‘radikaalse demokraatia’ kui ka Rawlsi ‘õigluse kui ausameelsuse’ idee jaoks. Artikkel osutab ka ühele kesksele kitsaskohale Laclau ja Mouffe’i lähenemises: nende suutmatusele kontseptualiseerida institutsioonilisi korraldusi tulenevalt nende ülemäärasest rõhuasetust demokraatia dekonstruktiivsele potentsiaalile. Selles suhtes osutatakse ka Rawlsi käsitluse ilmselgetele eelistele, kuna see pakub juhiseid organiseerimaks demokraatlikke institutsioone.

  16. Enhancing John Rawls's Theory of Justice to Cover Health and Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    2015-11-01

    The vast improvements in medical technology reviled the crucial role of social determinants of health for the etiology, prevalence and prognosis of diseases. This changed the content of the right to health concept from a demand of health services, to a claim of having access to all social determinants of health. Thus, the just allocation of scarce resources of health and social determinants of health became an issue of ethical theories. John Rawls developed a theory of justice. His theory suggests that the principles of justice should be determined by individuals in a hypothetic initial position. In the initial position, individuals agree on principles of justice. Rawls puts forth that the institutions of the society should be structured in compliance with these principles to reach a fair social system. Although Rawls did not justify right to health in his theory, the efforts to enlarge the theory to cover right to health flourished quite fast. In this paper first the basic components of Rawls theory is explained. Then the most outstanding approaches to enlarge his theory to cover right to health is introduced and discussed within the discourse of Rawls theory of justice.

  17. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  18. Understanding Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jerneck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies and strategies to fight global environmental degradation, gender inequality, and poverty are often inadequate, ineffective, or insufficient. In response, this article seeks potential synergies and leverage points between three significant interrelated discourses that are often treated separately—development, gender, and environment. Proceeding from a brief history of development thinking and poverty definitions, I describe indicators, strategies, and approaches to poverty reduction and gender equality. Second, I analyze how targeting, mainstreaming, and market-based initiatives all fail both to distinguish empirical from analytical gender and to incorporate environment and gender into development policy and action—despite their key role in meeting the normative goal of poverty reduction. Third, through a political-ecology lens, I suggest an integrated approach to poverty, inequality, and socioenvironmental challenges that arise at the intersections of development, gender, and environment, and for that, I draw examples from research on social and environmental change and action in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. John Rawls i la crítica republicana: Molt soroll per no res?

    OpenAIRE

    Balcells, Joan

    2008-01-01

    L’objectiu d’aquest article és analitzar el liberalisme polític de John Rawls a la llum de la crítica republicana que Quentin Skinner fa, a partir de l’anàlisi dels Discursos de Maquiavel, sobre el concepte de llibertat. La idea sostinguda per Skinner, que el concepte de llibertat emprat pel liberalisme no és prou robust i que no inclou les obligacions i responsabilitats necessàries per al seu propi manteniment, resulta inapropiada, si més no quant a la teoria de Rawls. En efecte, l’arquitect...

  20. Law's Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Modiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article adopts an analysis that explicitly politicises poverty and relates it to the concrete history of racialised capitalism and structural inequality that defined colonialism and apartheid and continues to persist and intensify in "post"-apartheid South Africa. Rather than formulating racialised poverty in legalist, economist or managerial terms, it should rather be understood as a form of oppression that comprises exploitation, marginalisation, powerlessness, cultural imperialism and violence. Such a formulation would make social structure, historical injustice and power central and would also allow for poverty to be grasped beyond a purely distributive logic by bringing to light the non-distributive, non-economic dimensions of poverty. Comprehending poverty in this way, as not only a question of economic distribution and empowerment, but also one of ethical, moral and even ontological recognition necessitates an enquiry into the emancipatory force of rights. Given their centrality in political and social discourse and in legal scholarship on poverty, it is worth considering whether and to what extent rights can be utilised in the struggle against (racialised poverty.

  1. The moral status of animals. A critical analysis of Rawls and Carruthers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackor, AR

    In this paper I deal with the moral and legal status of animals. I offer a critical analysis of Rawls' and Carruthers' arguments against ascribing moral claims to animals. I argue that none of their contractualist arguments are valid. However, Carruthers' claim that animals are incapable of

  2. The fool and the franchiser: formal justice in the political theories of Hobbes and Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Niklas Rolf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hobbes and John Rawls are usually portrayed in antagonistic terms. While Hobbes, one of the first scholars to translate Thucydides, is often held to be an archetypal realist, Rawls, a self-proclaimed follower of Kant, is frequently said to argue from an explicit normative position. In this paper, I try to demonstrate that the two philosophers have more in common than is generally thought. Drawing on Hobbes's answer to the fool and Rawls's analogy of the franchiser, I suggest that there is a powerful link between the two philosophers that can tell us something valuable about their theories of formal justice. Against Brian Barry's characterization of Hobbes as an advocate of justice as mutual advantage and Rawls as a proponent of both justice as mutual advantage and justice as impartiality, I argue that the two philosophers adhere to one and the same tradition of justice, justice as reciprocity, which bases obligations of reciprocity not only on explicit express, but also on tacit acceptance of benefits.

  3. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF JUSTICE THEORY BY JOHN RAWLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Hernawan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Conflict of interest between employee and employer has a complexity since its biopsychology and sosioeconomic in nature. As its implication, it is difficult to create a consensus between two different interest within a legal perspective. Justice theory by John Rawls has answered the respective problem by giving legal priority upon the group of people who have less capacity in sosial and economic. According to John Rawls, law shall give orientation toward marginalized group. In industrial relations, law shall take side upon the employee who are in subordinate position.   Pertentangan kepentingan antara pekerja dan pengusaha memiliki kompleksitas karena bersifat biopsikologis dan sosio-ekonomi. Sebagai implikasinya, sulit mempertemukan dua kepentingan yang berbeda tersebut dalam satu rumusan hukum. Teori keadilan dari John Rawls telah menjawab persoalan tersebut dengan memberi prioritas hukum kepada orang-orang yang secara sosial ekonomi kurang beruntung. Hukum menurut John Rawls harus berorientasi kepada kelompok marjinal. Dalam hubungan industrial, hukum harus berpihak kepada pekerja yang berada dalam posisi subordinat.

  4. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF JUSTICE THEORY BY JOHN RAWLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Hernawan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Conflict of interest between employee and employer has a complexity since its biopsychology and sosioeconomic in nature. As its implication, it is difficult to create a consensus between two different interest within a legal perspective. Justice theory by John Rawls has answered the respective problem by giving legal priority upon the group of people who have less capacity in sosial and economic. According to John Rawls, law shall give orientation toward marginalized group. In industrial relations, law shall take side upon the employee who are in subordinate position. Pertentangan kepentingan antara pekerja dan pengusaha memiliki kompleksitas karena bersifat biopsikologis dan sosio-ekonomi. Sebagai implikasinya, sulit mempertemukan dua kepentingan yang berbeda tersebut dalam satu rumusan hukum. Teori keadilan dari John Rawls telah menjawab persoalan tersebut dengan memberi prioritas hukum kepada orang-orang yang secara sosial ekonomi kurang beruntung. Hukum menurut John Rawls harus berorientasi kepada kelompok marjinal. Dalam hubungan industrial, hukum harus berpihak kepada pekerja yang berada dalam posisi subordinat.

  5. 2007 on Eesti majandusele mitmes mõttes kriitiline aasta / Craig Rawlings

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rawlings, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika Kaubanduskoja Eesti president Craig Rawling analüüsib Eesti majanduse nõrku ja tugevaid külgi ning kutsub üles valimistel hääletama meeskonna poolt, kel on parim strateegiline, mõistlikele äriprintsiipidele toetuv tegevuskava ja kes ei ohustaks Eesti majandust ning heaolu

  6. Rawls, Race, and Education: A Challenge to the Ideal/Nonideal Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Winston C.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, Winston C. Thompson questions the rigidity of the boundary between ideal and nonideal theory, suggesting a porosity that allows elements of both to be brought to bear upon educational issues in singularly incisive ways. In the service of this goal, Thompson challenges and extends John Rawls's theory of justice as fairness, bringing…

  7. IAEA TECDOC 055 Outline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Gregg Protection Services, Palm Beach Gardens, FL (United States)

    2015-07-13

    An outline of suggestions for updating a version of IAEA-TECDOC-1276 is provided. This update will become IAEA-TECDOC-055, titled ''IAEA handbook for designing and implementing physical protection systems for nuclear material and nuclear facilities.''

  8. An outline of ANPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Nero, G.

    1997-01-01

    The activities of the Italian National Agency for Environmental Protection(ANPA) is outlined including the following: the institutive law of ANPA; main tasks of ANPA; structure of ANPA; personnel of ANPA; provisional structure of ANPA; principal nuclear sites in Italy

  9. Théorie de la justice et idéologie : Hume et Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eléonore Le Jallé

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Les points d’accord entre Rawls et Hume vont au-delà du seul repérage des « circonstances de la justice ». Même si Hume se trouve attaché à la théorie utilitariste de l’impartialité que Rawls rejette, Hume n’est pas, selon Rawls, « à proprement parler » utilitariste : il a su reconnaître l’idée selon laquelle les institutions doivent fonctionner dans l’intérêt de chacun. L’idée d’une coopération sociale en vue de l’avantage mutuel est donc commune à ces deux auteurs. Ils partagent, en outre, une attitude similaire face au « problème de la confiance » en lien avec la stabilité de la justice : l’un et l’autre ajoutent ainsi à la solution extérieure qu’est l’institution étatique, un facteur intrinsèque de stabilité, à savoir, le sens de la justice. L’idée de « justice procédurale » et le rejet, corrélatif, d’un critère indépendant du juste, les relie également ; d’où, enfin, une certaine analogie des critiques respectivement adressées à ces deux auteurs.The specification of the “circumstances of justice” is not the only point on which Rawls agrees with Hume. If Rawls rejects the utilitarian theory of impartiality which is “reminiscent of Hume”, he does not consider him as “strictly speaking utilitarian”. Indeed, Rawls thinks that Hume has well understood that institutions have to be to the advantage of everyone. Besides, Hume and Rawls agree in thinking that the stability of justice involves a public sense of justice. Finally, the idea of “pure procedural justice” is shared by these authors: both have rejected any independent criterion for the right result, so that the ways they were criticized are rather similar.

  10. Da teoria moral à filosofia política: uma investigação do pensamento de John Rawls

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Azevedo Reis

    2012-01-01

    A dissertação investiga a passagem entre dois períodos do pensamento de John Rawls. No livro Uma teoria da justiça e nos artigos publicados durante a década de 1970, Rawls definiu o seu projeto filosófico como uma teoria moral, que visava formular uma teoria inspirada na estrutura deontológica da moral kantiana. Na dissertação, argumenta-se que Rawls identificou um problema interno a esse projeto e, durante as décadas de 80 e 90, desvinculou sua filosofia da teoria moral e passou a orientá-la...

  11. Correlations between Theories of Human Nature and Politics: A Search for a Relationship in the Work of Dewey and Rawls

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-08

    to fathom assertion, but at lest two qualifications should be made. First, we must not confuse the idea with egoism . Even though the parties are...14Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics 5. 3. 1131a25. 15Rawls, Theory of Justice, p. 156. 16Actually, we might argue for a three part division in Rawls: noumenal...nature/nurture portion of the self. pij BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CITED Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics . Dewey, John. Human Nature and Conduct: An

  12. Line facilities outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book deals with line facilities. The contents of this book are outline line of wire telecommunication ; development of line, classification of section of line and theory of transmission of line, cable line ; structure of line, line of cable in town, line out of town, domestic cable and other lines, Optical communication ; line of optical cable, transmission method, measurement of optical communication and cable of the sea bottom, Equipment of telecommunication line ; telecommunication line facilities and telecommunication of public works, construction of cable line and maintenance and Regulation of line equipment ; regulation on technique, construction and maintenance.

  13. Law's Poverty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    Due to the materiality of class, race and gender, for instance, as well as the shared - though not necessarily .... cultural imperialism and violence, which show more clearly how poverty is a composite part of the racial ..... technologies of violence,48 actual physical violence, killings, rapes, and beatings still remain part of the ...

  14. Una revisión de “Liberalismo político” de Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nussbaum

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La obra Liberalismo político de John Rawls ha sido objeto de una amplia y profunda literatura filosófica, la mayoría de una excelente calidad. En este escenario es difícil decir algo nuevo sobre los tópicos más relevantes de su trabajo y salir airosa de los debates por ella suscitados. Por tanto, he decidido concentrar mi atención en algunos tópicos donde existe la posibilidad de una aproximación alternativa que pueda generar lecturas remozadas del texto de Rawls: la distinción entre doctrinas comprehensivas “razonables” e “irrazonables”; los fundamentos psicológicos del liberalismo político; y la posibilidad de que el liberalismo político pueda extenderse más allá del pequeño grupo de sociedades occidentales que Rawls identificó como su centro de atención, según se desprende de sus referencias históricas. También he incluido un excurso sobre el polémico tema de la razón pública y la civilidad que difícilmente puede ser evitado dada su relevancia en el contexto de recepción del libro. El presente escrito debe leerse no como una descripción comprehensiva del trabajo de Rawls, sino como el intento personal por atrapar, de forma imperfecta e incompleta, la esencia de estos temas, tan caros para la filosofía y tan urgentes para la humanidad.

  15. FAIRNESS IN A DEMOCRACY: THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSES BETWEEN RAWLS AND DWORKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natercia Sampaio Siqueira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper works the fairness like the major criterion to build and live politics, economy and the social relationships, and the several possibilities for its development. To do this, this work deals with two important philosophers from politics and law, that thought the justice in democracy by fairness like its principal issue: John Rawls and Ronald Dworkin. In the beginning, it works the similitude between the two philosophers: the same semantic and the same importance that they give to equal liberties. After, this paper deals with the several consequences that Rawls and Dworkin attribute to fairness. In the time that Rawls understand that the fairness achieve yourself by just opportunity, Dworkin believes that for its development, is necessary the market and the neutrality of government about what is good in life. In the end, the conclusion is that both institutions are relevant to fairness; in this way, its necessary keep and observe the just opportunity, the market and the government neutrality in built a democracy.

  16. Outline of OMEGA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Hirokazu

    1989-01-01

    Attention has been paid to the research and development on the group partition and annihilation disposal technology which separates long life radioactive nuclides, rare stable nuclides and so on in high level radioactive wastes and utilizes those for respective suitable uses, or which searches for the possibility of promoting the nuclear disintegration of long life radioactive nuclides, as the basic research aiming at the further development of atomic energy. It was named 'OMEGA project' and its promotion has been carried out. The outline of the project and the international circumstances surrounding it are described. In the high level radioactive wastes generated from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, the alpha and beta-gamma radionuclides having long life are contained. Consequently, it is necessary to isolate them from human environment for very long period, and the basic method is the glass solidification and the disposal in deep strata, therefore the technical development has been advanced. The OMEGA project was decided in October, 1988, and the course of the research carried out so far, the international cooperation and the subjects of research and development are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Urban Poverty in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of important urban poverty questions. What defines urban poverty and how is urban poverty being measured? What other factors beyond consumption poverty need to be tackled? Who are the urban poor? What relations exist between urban poverty and city size? What linkages exist between urbanization, income, and urban poverty? What policy responses to urban poverty are implemented in selected Asian countries? The report served as a background study for the Internati...

  18. Voluntary league of peoples vs. coercive world federative state (Völkerstaat/Staatenverein of peoples as states: Kant's and Rawls' considerations concerning international relations: Similarities and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Milorad J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although similar in some respects, Rawls' and Kant' visions of world order fall apart on the question of sovereignty. Rawls never advocates of an international single state with international authority. Kant, on the other hand, inspired by the project of Enlightenment, as a final form of international sovereignty sees federative state of states as a provider for eternal peace among peoples.

  19. Fuel poverty in Europe: a comparative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyet, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Notably based on various studies and reports, the author comments how the issue of fuel poverty is addressed in Europe. She first outlines the lack of a common definition of this problem or phenomenon: it is often equated to poverty; there is a lack of statistics which makes this phenomenon sometimes not visible; the institutional recognition of the problem differs from one country to the other. Then she shows that policies reveal to be inefficient. A table proposes a synthesis of how fuel poverty in addressed in Great-Britain, France, Germany, Hungary and Poland. It specifies the existence of a definition, available statistics, and existence of re-distributive or preventive arrangements

  20. Evaluación crítica de la teoría de la justicia de John Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Aranda Fraga

    Full Text Available Under the strong influence of the dominant Kantian legacy in much of the twentieth century ethics, Rawls designs a theory of justice whose highest aspiration is to be impartial, whereby theory attempts to refute the two dominant ethical currents in his time : utilitarianism and intuitionism. The neocontractualism of John Rawls arises in the spectrum of contemporary political philosophy as a broad-basedliberalism, whose main purpose is to provide a pluralistic framework, capable of regulating the delivery of justice in a well ordered society. In Rawls, the priority of the right over the good would be signaling a willingness to take a choice of ethics and justice and concurrent broad but lacking in substantive moral theory, in thespirit of an era devoid of anthropological content able to properly explain human and social reality.

  1. El concepto de persona en John Rawls: una mirada desde el Liberalismo político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Navarro Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl artículo aborda el ideal político de democracia propuesto por John Rawls en su libro Liberalismo político (1995 y desde el cual el documento sustenta en qué consiste el ideal político del concepto público de ciudadanía del autor en mención. Dicho supuesto exige entender de qué manera debemos conducirnos como ciudadanos democráticos, lo que incluye inevitablemente la comprensión de un ideal de razón pública. El objetivo final será entender que el concepto de ciudadanía rawlsiano adquiere toda su dimensión política en la medida en que contenga y exprese el elemento de lo público. AbstractThis paper addresses the political ideal of democracy proposed by John Rawls in his book Political Liberalism (1995 and from which standards on what constitutes the public concept of citizenship of such ideal are based. This assumption requires an understanding of how we should conduct ourselves as democratic citizens, which inevitably involves individuals’ awareness on the ideal of public reasoning. The ultimate goal will be to understand that the concept of citizenship according to Rawls reaches all its political dimension to the extent that it contains and expresses the public arena as the key element.

  2. Subjecte liberal i comunitat : Rawls i la unió social

    OpenAIRE

    Thiebaut, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Aquest article posa en relleu la importància que té per al liberalisme pensar la idea comunitat. L'anàlisi del model liberal de societat mostra com en tal proposta ha motius relacionats amb el bé comú, la qual cosa distància el liberalisme polític del llibertarisme. Ara bé , davant de la comunitat homogènia defensada pels comunitaristes, Rawls proposa una societat complexa i diferenciada que s'estructura no a partir d'una doctrina comprehensiva, sinó mitjançant una concepció compartida ...

  3. Sujeto liberal y comunidad : Rawls y la unión social

    OpenAIRE

    Thiebaut, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Este artículo pone de relieve la importancia que tiene para el liberalismo pensar la idea de comunidad. El análisis del modelo liberal de sociedad muestra como en tal propuesta hay motivos relacionados con el bien común, lo cual distancia el liberalismo político del libertarismo. Ahora bien, enfrente de la comunidad homogénea defendida por los comunitaristas, Rawls propone una sociedad compleja y diferenciada que se estructura no a partir de una doctrina comprehensiva, sino mediante una conce...

  4. From the individual isolate to the cohesive community Limits on freedom on Rawls and Aron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Garzón Vallejo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical development of John Rawls and Raymond Aron highlights a liberalism that acknowledges as its starting point the individual being free and isolated, which, because of the influence of internal and external constraints on individual liberties, encourages the construction of a cohesive political community. With such a perspective challenges the modern version of liberty as an absence of coercion and, at the same time, highlights the validity of the discussion about the limits of liberty in contemporary societies. This phenomenon can be described as the transition from liberalism to social democracy, or as revision of the negative conception of individual liberties.

  5. Los problemas desigualitarios de la Teoría de la Justicia de John Rawls. Una mirada desde Hannah Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benente, Mauro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo desarrollo los principios de justicia esbozados por el filósofo norteamericano John Rawls y presento las críticas que desde perspectivas igualitarias han efectuado Ronald Dworkin, Amartya Sen y Gerald Cohen. Finalmente presento las objeciones que podrían trazarse a la teoría de Rawls desde la obra de Hannah Arendt, críticas que no apuntan a los criterios de distribución de bienes sino al presupuesto de la sociedad entendida como sistema cerrado.

  6. International NGOs and their contribution to overcoming poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Hrachevska

    2014-04-01

    The article also characterizes existing strategies of combating poverty. It is argued that international non­governmental organizations, limited in their financial resources, cant be widely involved in them. Main challenges, facing international NGO in addressing problems of poverty, are also outlined.

  7. Outline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two applied questions: How are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles formed in diesel engines and interstellar space? What is the ignition delay for JP10 at a given T and P and how it can be reduced?

  8. John Stuart Mill, John Rawls y Amartya Sen, los tres nombres de la equidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Lopera

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Tres autores como John Stuart Mill, John Rawls y Amartia Sen son objeto de análisis en este artículo que estudia el tema de la equidad en un contexto que se caracteriza por el abandono casi generalizado del estudio de los valores en relación a los grandes problemas económicos; el artículo defiende como necesaria la recuperación de las preocupaciones éticas en la ciencia económica. La segunda parte, presenta una bibliografía reciente presentada como respuesta a la obra de John Rawls a partir de 1985, cuando este autor da el llamado giro desde su teoría de la justicia como equidad hacia un reciente liberalismo político, período de gran interés para comprender las discusiones actuales de la filosofía política y el futuro de la discusión interdisciplinaria con la economía.

  9. Rawls e a justificação da punição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Coitinho

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo central deste artigo é procurar compreender a concepção normativa híbrida usada por John Rawls para justificar moralmente a punição legal, fazendo uso de um recurso consequencialista, a fim de justificar a instituição da punição, isto é, a eficácia social e um recurso retributivista para justificar os atos punitivos particulares, ou seja, a culpa do agente. Analisaremos, especialmente, o artigo "Two Concepts of Rules" e o livro A Theory of Justice. Defenderemos que Rawls faz uso de uma visão liberal de punição, bem como utiliza o método de equilíbrio reflexivo, estipulando uma regra para aprovação da punição legal, a partir da coerência com nossos juízos morais ponderados, o que parece reconciliar a justiça retributiva com a justiça distributiva.2

  10. Razoabilidade e racionalidade a partir da obra "O liberalismo político" de John Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edegar Fronza Junior

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente paper tem como objetivo principal apresentar e discutir os conceitos de razoabilidade e racionalidade a partir da obra O Liberalismo Político, de John Rawls. Para tanto faz uma análise sistemática, levando em consideração alguns elementos fundamentais de sua teoria política. Partindo do fato do pluralismo presente na sociedade contemporânea, Rawls busca responder a necessidade da estabilidade das instituições democráticas diante das divergências presentes nesse contexto multifacetado. Na perspectiva rawlsiana a permanência do sistema depende do consenso social acerca de determinadas questões (overlaping consensus entre cidadãos livres e iguais. É nessa perspectiva que os conceitos de razoabilidade e racionalidade ganham destaque tendo em vista a autonomia desses cidadãos que através da razão prática buscam justificar publicamente suas argumentações e formulações nos diferentes contextos.

  11. THE PROBLEM OF SYRIAN REFUGEES IN EUROPE AND JOHN RAWLS'S THEORY OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Rigotti Furtado

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the painful problems of the current world reality is the situation of Syrian refugees, many of whom choose Europe as a destination. This migratory process is the result of a violent civil war, which devastates the population of Syria over the last six years. The Syrian conflict is part of an international scenario where geopolitical relations no longer behave as they were in the beginning of the process of globalization and human rights seek to survive as an essential instrument for maintaining civility. Thus, this study had as objective to analyze the questions around the migratory flow, in the light of the Theory of Justice of John Rawls, whose proposal alerts to the traps of the utilitarianism and preaches the cooperation between the human beings. As a response to the proposed comparison, it was observed the difficulty in extending the idea of justice, in the manner thought by Rawls, to the tension addressed, since the power of fraternity is precisely made.

  12. Hegel, Rawls e o tema da reconciliação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos, Cesar Augusto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo é analisar as relações de Rawls com o pensamento político de Hegel - considerado pelo primeiro como um "liberalismo da liberdade" - no que diz respeito ao tema da reconciliação. Primeiramente vamos analisar o conceito hegeliano de reconciliação. Em segundo lugar, procederemos a uma leitura de alguns aspectos da teoria rawlsiana a partir deste conceito para, finalmente, destacar a valorização do mesmo na obra de Rawls. Trata-se, portanto, de verificar de que forma a recepção crítica do tema hegeliano da reconciliação pode estimular um ajuste do liberalismo político às exigências da realidade histórica das sociedades liberais modernas, cobrindo, assim, um déficit do liberalismo político em relação às críticas comunitaristas, sobretudo, a questão do normativismo abstrato

  13. The Relation between Theory of Justice of John Rawls by Kant's Ethics and Hegel's philosophy of Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirbaz, A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the famous book on political philosophy of Karl Popper and in support of the liberal doctrine titled" Open society and its enemies", the most famous theory of John Rawls, the university of Harwaed professor in political philosophy in, which a book titled" A theory of justice "was published in 1971. This book includes several articles that eventually, has formed like a book has increased a wide audience in the university and professional journals, particularly in English –speaking countries. Rawls book, based on ethical approach –the political challenge with common issues, including comments utilitarianism payment. Rawl's theory of john Stuart Mill, David Hume and the ethical discussion sidgwick quit common and was considered beyond established based tradition of ethical contractivism and deontological ethics theory of Kant and Hegel's philosophy of right to and re-design concepts of his theory in the tradition of normative political philosophy west restored."Theory of justice" due to the boroad variety of social sciences, audience many attracted. Readers of this theory found a wide variety of disciplines ranging from psychology and economic to ethical issues. Selected topic for which it repeatedly Rawls in his book and his theory named the Kantian and did not name in Hegel, the Hegelian's philosophy of Right theory of the hidden angles of this article will focus on, as well as his abut influence on some views Interpreters.

  14. Mainstreaming Children into National Poverty Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    The purpose of this paper is to assess how the needs of children are incorporated into Ethiopia¿s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)¿known as the Ethiopian Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme 2002-2005 (SDRDP) ¿and to develop policy recommendations for the second PRSP based...... on a comparative content analysis with other countries¿ PRSPs. The paper begins by identifying the key ingredients of a child-centred PRSP, including: consideration of childhood poverty in the document¿s poverty analysis; spaces for consultation with children; childspecific policies and programmes as well as child...... with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) principles of child survival, development, protection, equal treatment and participation. The paper concludes by drawing on the best practices of PRSPs in other countries and outlining how a child-focused PRSP could more effectively address...

  15. Momocs : outline analysis using R

    OpenAIRE

    Bonhomme, Vincent; PICQ, Sandrine; Claude, Julien; Gaucherel, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    We introduce here Momocs, a package intended to ease and popularize modern mor- phometrics with R, and particularly outline analysis, which aims to extract quantitative variables from shapes. It mostly hinges on the functions published in the book entitled Modern Morphometrics Using R by Claude (2008). From outline extraction from raw data to multivariate analysis, Momocs provides an integrated and convenient toolkit to students and researchers who are, or may become, interested in describing...

  16. Rawls´ legacy: a limited possibility of a non-speciesist environmental justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia T. Felipe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Publishing A Theory of Justice in 1971 John Rawls defined a conceptual realm of justice as that of a well-ordered society in which some principles of justice should be tested before seeking to apply them to distribute primary goods among co-operative representative subjects (considered as equals within the basic structure of society and other subjects, who are not necessarily co-operative, even if they are included in the contract of justice by the representatives through the indirect moral duties theory. Representative subjects were interested in possessing and preserving − for themselves and for their descendants − all kinds of goods: natural, primary, social and public ones. They are interested in maintaining economic and social distinctions obtained by fair work distribution, as well. In explaining his theory of a fair distribution of primary social goods, John Rawls does not include, at least explicitly, the kind of goods I am suggesting in this paper to be called natural environmental goods, the kind of goods which are indispensable to secure, with no exception, the survival of all organisms subjected to basic needs, including human needs. Natural environmental goods seems to have been forgotten by Rawls, or at least considered as not implicated in his model of a fair institutional distribution of primary social goods. Following what Michael S. PRITCHARD, Wade L. ROBISON, Russ MANNING, Brent A. SINGER, Daniel P. THERO and Troy W. HARTLEY have critically pointed in some of their articles, I am going firstly to show the lack of the concept of natural environmental goods in Rawls’ Theory of Justice, and secondly, I suggest considering natural environmental goods as part of a non-speciesist theory of justice. So, I hope to contribute to extend the philosophical legacy of A Theory of Justice, in order to include in our moral consideration needs and interests of all living beings. In other words, I will try to consider the issue of justice

  17. Poverty and Health: Defeating poverty by going to the roots

    OpenAIRE

    Anirudh Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is dynamic in nature: even as some people move out of poverty, other people simultaneously fall into poverty. The poverty pool is being simultaneously both depleted and refilled. Anirudh Krishna argues that efforts for poverty reduction tend to focus exclusively on raising people out of poverty, and therefore will not be very successful unless poverty creation is also addressed. Ill health and high healthcare expenses are the principal reasons associated with falling into poverty; the...

  18. Liberalism as a doctrine of public and private: Locke, Mill and Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lázaro Brito e Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to think the relationship between public and private space from the standpoint of John Locke, John Stuart Mill, and John Rawls, in order to show the ambivalence of the value of citizens as members of a liberal community. Since Locke, there is a principle that, in the typically English bourgeois cultural milieu, regulates social laws and behaviors, by praising the adequation of practices of the private forum to those of the public forum. Thus, the basis for thinking about legislation, ethics, and morals are established. This trend of thought culminates in significant variations which, however, always express the dualism of external / internal that is supposedly inherent to ordinary life. I will treat the basic genealogy of the liberal institutional conditions of the Western traditional democratic cultures, whose notion of citizenship is based on the relationship between public and private.

  19. El liberalismo político de John Rawls ¿otra utopía?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Faber Cuervo

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es explorar las posibilidades reales de aplicabilidad del modelo de liberalismo político propuesto por el filósofo norteamericano John Rawls. En la primera parte, el artículo expone la teoría procedimental de dicho pensador, respetando el orden metodológico de los conceptos introducidos y reconstruyendo lo esencial de esta propuesta, la cual busca asegurar las bases de una “sociedad como sistema equitativo de cooperación social”. En la segunda, el artículo presenta los tres aportes que, a juicio de su autor, hacen de la teoría una alternativa viable tanto para ser aplicada en sociedades bien ordenadas como para sociedades no-bien ordenadas (léase sociedades desarrolladas y semidesarrolladas respectivamente.

  20. Justiça e direito de propriedade em John Rawls

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Gilberto Karoly

    2007-01-01

    O Direito constitucional de propriedade e a sua função social são analisados na ótica política de John Rawls. Compara-se o texto constitucional pátrio com a doutrina do filósofo norte-americano. A propriedade, considerada como um bem primário, é um direito de liberdade e de igualdade. A liberdade trata-se de um princípio inegociável para o autor norte-americano, que identifica, no princípio da diferença, um mecanismo para concretizar e satisfazer Direito de propriedade. Neste contexto, busca-...

  1. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  2. PROPRIEDADE E MÉRITO NA TEORIA DA JUSTIÇA DE J. RAWLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João da Cruz Gonçalves Neto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Esse artigo visa a apresentar os argumentos de J. Rawls contra o mérito assumido como um critério moral válido e contra a propriedade assumida como um direito individual “puro”, em uma sociedade democrática e igualitária. A partir daqueles pressupostos, argumenta que a meritocracia institucionalizada legitima a violência social ao superpor um critério econômico ao critério ético, a eficiência à justiça, bem como subjuga as proteções jurídicas destinadas a organizar a sociedade a partir da justiça política, apoiando-se, para tanto, em interpretações restritivas da liberdade individual e da autonomia privada. Diante da redução do político ao moral, conclui que aos direitos humanos cabe a tarefa de assumir-se como teoria da justiça.Abstract: This paper presents the arguments of John Rawls against the merit assumed as a valid moral criterion and against property assumed as a pure individual right, in a democratic and egalitarian society. From that depart, consider that institutionalized meritocracy endorses social violence when superimposes the economic to ethic criterion, efficiency to justice, as well submits juridical protections to social organization, in restricting interpretation of individual liberty and private autonomy. In the fate of the reduction of the political to the moral, concludes that to human rights is proper to be a general theory of justice.

  3. Poverty Monitor 1999

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1999. The Poverty Monitor 1999 (Armoedemonitor 1999) presents as complete and up-to-date a picture as possible of poverty in the Netherlands, and thus provides a factual basis for the debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) have together collected and analysed a large amount of data on poverty. The findings are set out in this publication. The report also evaluates some aspects of the policy on povert...

  4. On 'Consistent' Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Rod Hick

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of poverty as ‘consistent’ poverty offers a solution to one of the primary problems of poverty measurement within Social Policy of the last three decades. Often treated as if they were synonymous, ‘indirect’ measures of poverty, such as low income measures, and ‘direct’ measures, such as indices of material deprivation, identify surprisingly different people as being poor. In response to this mismatch, a team of Irish researchers put forward a measure which identified responde...

  5. DWORKIN E A INTERPRETAÇÃO DE RAWLS COMO FILÓSOFO DO DIREITO DWORKIN AND THE RAWLS’ INTERPRETATION AS LEGAL PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS ROHLING

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A obra de Rawls é, certamente, um manancial de possibilidades e interpretações, no contexto da filosofia contemporânea. Dworkin, do mesmo modo, é um dos mais notáveis pensadores do direito. A propósito das críticas que sofreu Rawls de que teria dado pouco tratamento ao direito, Dworkin procura interpretar as principais contribuições do filósofo de Harvard à filosofia do direito. Nesse ínterim, confrontando o positivismo jurídico e o interpretativismo, sustenta que a teoria de Rawls estaria inclinada a recepcionar mais uma teoria do direito interpretativista do que uma positivista. Assim, o artigo apresenta a interpretação de Rawls como um filósofo jurídico levada a efeito por Dworkin avaliando se, realmente, a teoria de Rawls é mais compatível com o positivismo jurídico ou com o interpretativismo.Abstract: Rawls's work is certainly a walth of possibilities and interpretations in context of contemporary philosophy. Dworkin, likewise, is the most remarkable thinkers law. The purpose of the criticisms that Rawls suffered that would have given slightly treatment to law, Dworkin seeks to interpret the main contributioins of the Harvard philosopher to legal philosophy.Meanwhile, confronting legal positivism and interpretativism, argues that Rawls’s theory would be more inclined to greet an interpretive theory of Law than a positivist. Thus, this paper presents the interpretation of Rawls as a legal philosopher carried out by Dworkin assessing whether, indeed, Rawls’s theory is more compatible with legal positivism or with interpretativism.

  6. Momocs: Outline Analysis Using R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bonhomme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce here Momocs, a package intended to ease and popularize modern morphometrics with R, and particularly outline analysis, which aims to extract quantitative variables from shapes. It mostly hinges on the functions published in the book entitled Modern Morphometrics Using R by Claude (2008. From outline extraction from raw data to multivariate analysis, Momocs provides an integrated and convenient toolkit to students and researchers who are, or may become, interested in describing the shape and its variation. The methods implemented so far in Momocs are introduced through a simplistic case study that aims to test if two sets of bottles have different shapes.

  7. Poverty in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greever, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the topic of poverty and its effects upon student behavior and academic performance. Presented in this chapter of the review of the related literature will be: (a) description of poverty and the role of education, (b) effects of poverty on student behavior, (c) effects…

  8. Adolescents and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Vanessa R.

    2011-01-01

    More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

  9. Poverty Monitor 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1998. The Poverty Monitor 1998 (Armoedemonitor 1998) presents a complete and up-to-date picture of poverty in the Netherlands. It is intended to provide a factual basis for the current debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and

  10. Poverty Monitor 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1999. The Poverty Monitor 1999 (Armoedemonitor 1999) presents as complete and up-to-date a picture as possible of poverty in the Netherlands, and thus provides a factual basis for the debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP

  11. O princípio da universalização em Rawls e Habermas: uma avaliação crítica The principle of the universalization in Rawls and Habermas: a critical view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio de Oliveira Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma análise do chamado princípio de universalização como aparece nas obras de John Rawls e Jürgen Habermas. O universal é um conceito muito caro a quase todas as sociedades na medida em que significa uma prevalência do interesse geral sobre o particular. o universal se manifesta quando classes menos privilegiadas passam a ter acesso a algumas condições de vida das classes mais altas. essa ascensão, no entanto, pode ter uma contrapartida negativa: as elites intelectuais apresentam as normas que devem vigorar nos novos tempos através de um discurso abstrato, impedindo que aqueles que não têm acesso a esse capital simbólico se beneficiem das novas circunstâncias. Este artigo tentará mostrar que as obras de Rawls e Habermas podem ser caracterizadas por tal forma de universalização abstrata.The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of the so called principle of the universalization as it appears in the works of John Rawls and Jürgen Habermas. The universal is a revered concept in almost all societies as far as it means a prevalence of the general interests over the particular ones. It prevails under certain historical conditions when the less privileged classes have access to some of the patterns of life of the upper classes. This ascent however has a negative counterpart: The intellectual elites present the norms that must rule through an abstract discourse preventing those that do not have access to this form of symbolic capital to benefit from the new circumstances. This work will try to show that the works of rawls and habermas may be characterized as this form of abstract universalization.

  12. Individualization of poverty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2015-01-01

    The German Sociologist Ulrich Beck is best known for his book “Risk Society” which has been discussed extensively; however Beck’s claims about modern poverty have not received the same attention among poverty researchers. The individualization perspective views poverty as a relatively transient...... phenomenon and the democratization perspective views the risk of poverty as spread equally in the population. Both perspectives challenge the mainstream tradition of class analysis, and therefore both view poverty as largely independent of traditional stratification factors. In this article, I argue...

  13. Poverty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    Recently poverty has become an issue in Danish public debates and research after some quiet years with not much attention. The intention with this paper is to make a descriptive covering view of the Danish research on poverty since the year of 2000 until summer 2009. We see quite some...... differentiation in the methods, measurement and results though most accept the concept of relative poverty (see for instance Peter Townsend 2006). We see qualitative and quantitative studies; studies based on the median income, studies based on poverty lines from minimum budget definitions and surveys including...... questions on deprivation etc.. This paper will present all major studies of empirical poverty research and discuss strengths and inadequacies in the research of poverty and finally raise some perspectives from the current political and professional debates which question poverty research....

  14. The Relation between Theory of Justice of John Rawls by Kant's Ethics and Hegel's philosophy of Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazhir Mehri

    2010-12-01

    "Theory of justice" due to the boroad variety of social sciences, audience many attracted. Readers of this theory found a wide variety of disciplines ranging from psychology and economic to ethical issues. Selected topic for which it repeatedly Rawls in his book and his theory  named the Kantian and did not name in Hegel, the Hegelian's philosophy of Right theory of the hidden angles of this article will focus on, as well as his abut influence on some views Interpreters

  15. Poverty Relief or Poverty Eradication? | Kritzinger | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author challenges the reader to make two mindshifts: from a focus on poverty relief to an emphasis on poverty eradication; and from viewing the poor as the objects of poverty alleviation to accepting them as the subjects of poverty eradication. The case is argued and a practical approach towards poverty eradication is ...

  16. International Comparisons of Income Poverty and Extreme Income Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, McKinley L.

    1993-01-01

    Uses LIS data to study the sensitivity of cross-national income poverty comparisons to the method in which poverty is measured. Examined are the differences between using absolute and relative poverty comparisons as well as the consequence of lowering the real value of the poverty line to examine extreme poverty.

  17. Poverty in Edwardian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeley, Ian; Newell, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a newly discovered household budget data set for 1904. We use these data to estimate urban poverty among working families in the British Isles. Applying Bowley's poverty line, we estimate that at least 23 per cent of people in urban working households and 18 per cent of working households had income insufficient to meet minimum needs. This is well above Rowntree's estimate of primary poverty for York in 1899 and high in the range that Bowley found in northern towns in 1912–13. The skill gradient of poverty is steep; for instance, among labourers' households, the poverty rates are close to 50 per cent. Measures of the depth of poverty are relatively low in the data, suggesting that most poor male-headed working households were close to meeting Bowley's new standard.

  18. Shadow Economy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Nikopour, Hesam; Shah Habibullah, Muzafar

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the relationship between shadow economy and poverty by explaining the mechanism through which shadow economy affects poverty via its impact on government size and economic growth, and using the human poverty index (HPI) for developing and developed countries. In order to achieve this objective, the three-way interaction model is utilized using data of 139 developing and 23 developed countries separately during 1999-2007. For developing countries the dynamic ...

  19. Gender and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Haddad, Lawrence James; Peña, Christine

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the association between gender and poverty based on an empirical analysis of 11 data sets from 10 developing countries. The paper computes income- and expenditure-based poverty measures and investigates their sensitivity to the use of per capita and per adult equivalent units. It also tests for differences in poverty incidence between individuals in male- and female-headed households using stochastic dominance analysis. Stochastic dominance analysis reveals...

  20. Halving Poverty in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Auwalin, Ilmiawan

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the literature on relationship between economic growth, income inequalities, and poverty reduction. We discuss poverty reduction, using the case ofIndonesia, as one of the Millennium Development Goals declared by the United Nations General Assembly in September 2000. Using provincial level data of Indonesia from 1993 to 2000, we examine the required conditions in order to halve the poverty in Indonesia by2015. The result of analysis shows that Indonesia would need to achiev...

  1. System to outline the graduatestudents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Schanaider

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the system to outline the graduate students from the Post-Graduate Programs of CAPES Medicine III area. Method: it was analyzed the book of indicators and the Document of Area of the Post-Graduate Programs of Surgery, also checking the literature about this issue. Results: there was a paucity of data from most of the programs, as regards to the methods for evaluation of graduate students. The current system lacks a standard and an institutional support to outline the graduate students. In the public system there is a concentration of postgraduate students in Medicine; however, they represent a small part of those Brazilians students who finished their graduation courses in Medicine. In the current context, the quest for the post graduate courses and consequently for a research field or even a teaching career, has been replaced by the private sector jobs and the labor market, both in non-academic assistance activities. Conclusion: it is imperative to establish not only science and technology innovation policies but also educational and health policies acting harmoniously and stimulating the qualification and the teaching career, improving the post-graduate courses. It is necessary to develop a single form under the institutional guidance of CAPES with the conception of a National Program for Graduate Student in order to consolidate guidelines to mapping the graduate students of post-graduate programs in surgery, in our country.

  2. Outline of nuclear monitor report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The questionnaire investigation was conducted by the Science and Technology Agency about the atomic energy monitoring. The time of report was from March 4, 1978, to March 25, 1978. The number of answers for this questionnaire was 276, and the percentage of answers is 54%. This questionnaire was sent out to men and women of various occupations and ages. There are three questions in this questionnaire; The first question is ''Do you think the measures of the government are sufficient for nuclear power plant construction[ What is the point to be improved['', the second question is ''In what points do you feel uneasiness about the safety of nuclear power generation[ What do you want to know['', and the third question is ''Have you ever seen the official report on atomic energy published by the Science and Technology Agency[ Do you think this official report on atomic energy is effective or not[ What is the point to be improved[ The abstract of each answer is outlined as the investigated result. The reports on occasions were obtained separately. The number of these reports was 162. The contents of these reports were classified into the official report on atomic energy, the safety of atomic energy, the administration of atomic energy, the developing and utilization, the monitoring system, the Mutsu, the energy saving, the reprocessing, etc., and these contents are outlined. The composition of these monitors is shown. (Nakai, Y.)

  3. Sobre o Conceito de Justiça em John Rawls e Robert Nozick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keberson Bresolin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar o pensamento e o conceito de justiça como equidade presente na obra Uma Teoria da Justiça (1971 de John Rawls. Para isso, demonstraremos como o autor relaciona os conceitos de posição original e véu de ignorância como procedimento da escolha racional. Além disso, pretendemos apresentar também o conceito de justiça presente na obra Anarquia, estado e utopia (1974 de Robert Nozick. Por isso, abordaremos a concepção libertária nozickiana dos direitos individuais e o estado mínimo, o qual deve ser fundamentado para proteger estes direitos. Desta forma, procederemos expondo os princípios que subjazem no pensamento político de ambos os autores e como estes constroem seu arcabouço conceitual. Ao fazer isso, colocaremos as duas propostas em diálogo.

  4. Transforming data into decisions to optimize the recovery of the Saih Rawl Field in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dozier, G C [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); [Schlumberger Oilfield Services, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Giacon, P [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); [Petroleum Development of Oman (Oman)

    2006-07-01

    The Saih Rawl field of Oman has been producing for more than 5 years from the Barik and Miqrat Formations. Well productivity depends greatly on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing and other operating practices. Productivity is further complicated by the changing mechanical and reservoir properties related to depletion and intralayer communication. In this study, a systematic approach was used by a team of operators and service companies to optimize well production within a one-year time period. The approach involved a dynamic integration of historical data and new information technologies and engineering diagnostics to identify the key parameters that influence productivity and to optimize performance according to current analyses. In particular, historical pressure trends by unit were incorporated with theoretical assumptions validated by indirect field evidence. Onsite decision-making resulted in effective placement of fracture treatments. The approach has produced some of the highest producing wells in the field's history. It was concluded that optimization and maximization of well productivity requires multidiscipline inputs that should be managed through structured workflow that includes not only the classical simulation design inputs but entails the entire process from design to execution with particular emphasis on cleanup practices and induced fluid damage. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 25 figs.

  5. Poverty Mapping Project: Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality dataset consists of consumption-based poverty, inequality and related measures for subnational administrative...

  6. Pathways from Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Barbara, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Articles in this theme issue are based on presentations at the Pathways from Poverty Workshop held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on May 18-25, 1995. The event aimed to foster development of a network to address rural poverty issues in the Western Rural Development Center (WRDC) region. Articles report on outcomes from the Pathways from Poverty…

  7. Poverty and Aspirations Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.; Mani, A.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework to study the psychology of poverty and 'aspirations failure'. In our framework, the rich and the poor share the same preferences - and also a behavioral bias in setting aspirations. Greater downside risks imposed by poverty exacerbates the effects of this

  8. Poverty and aspirations failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.; Mani, A.

    We develop a theoretical framework to study the psychology of poverty and ‘aspirations failure’, defined as the failure to aspire to one’s own potential. In our framework, rich and the poor persons share the same preferences and same behavioral bias in setting aspirations. We show that poverty can

  9. Poverty Survey 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff; Ferdy Otten; Wim Bos e.o.

    2014-01-01

    In this joint publication, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research¦SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) present the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The development of the poverty rate is described for the Dutch population as a whole as well as for the main groups at

  10. Poverty Survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Armoedesignalement 2013 In this joint publication, Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and the Netherlands Institute for Social Research¦SCP present the most recent data on poverty in the Netherlands. The report describes the trend in the poverty rate for the Dutch population as a

  11. Poverty Survey 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Armoedesignalement 2012 In this joint publication, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) present the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The trend in the poverty rate is described for the population as a whole as

  12. Poverty monitor 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff; Ferdy Otten; Wim Bos

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2007. The Poverty Monitor 2007 contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP in collaboration with Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The report describes

  13. Poverty Survey 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Armoedesignalement 2011 In this joint publication, Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP present the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The trend in the poverty rate is described for the population as a whole and

  14. Poverty Monitor 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Henk-Jan Dirven; Stella Hoff; Ger Linden

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2003. The Poverty Monitor 2003 (Armoedemonitor 2003) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and

  15. Poverty and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the multiple ways in which the enduring, and increasing, problems associated with child poverty blight young people's educational opportunities in the school system. Current policies, supported by a sympathetic media, blame individuals for their poverty, and blame teachers when they fail to "close the…

  16. Poverty Monitor 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2001. The Poverty Monitor 2001 (Armoedemonitor 2001) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and

  17. Rethinking Education and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    In "Rethinking Education and Poverty," William G. Tierney brings together scholars from around the world to examine the complex relationship between poverty and education in the twenty first century. International in scope, this book assembles the best contemporary thinking about how education can mediate class and improve the lives of…

  18. Poverty Monitor 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2000. The Poverty Monitor 2000 (Armoedemonitor 2000) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of

  19. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  20. Trade, Growth, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Dollar, David; Kraay, Aart

    2001-01-01

    The evidence from individual cases and from cross-country analysis supports the view that globalization leads to faster growth and poverty reduction in poor countries. To determine the effect of globalization on growth, poverty, and inequality, the authors first identify a group of developing countries that are participating more in globalization. China, India, and several other large coun...

  1. The poverty elasticity of growth

    OpenAIRE

    Heltberg, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    How much does economic growth contribute to poverty reduction? I discuss analytical and empirical approches to assess the poverty elasticity of growth, and emphasize that the relationship between growth and poverty change is non-constant. For a given poverty measure, it depends on initial inequality and on the location of the poverty line relative to mean income. In most cases, growth is more important for poverty reduction than changes in inequality, but this does not tender inequality unimp...

  2. Institutions and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution.

  3. Decisions in poverty contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Eldar

    2017-12-01

    The circumstances surrounding poverty-tight financial challenges, instability of income and expenses, low savings, no insurance, and several other stressors-translate into persistent and cognitively taxing hardship for people in poverty contexts. Thoughts about money and expenses loom large, shape mental associations, interfere with other experiences, and are difficult to suppress. The persistent juggling of insufficient resources affects attention, cognitive resources, and ensuing decisions. Despite the demanding struggle with challenging circumstances, people in poverty encounter disdain rather than admiration, and obstacles rather than support. Societal appreciation for the power of context, along with behaviorally informed programs designed to facilitate life under poverty, are essential for those in poverty contexts to be able to make the most of their challenging circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  5. Poverty culture and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koković Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An individual and social groups do not have to be only affected by poverty in economic way, but in a cultural way as well. There is an expression 'poverty culture', which leads to the development of the theory of cultural deprivation. The use of the term poverty culture implies that behavioral patterns of the poor are adopted through education; adopted behavioral patterns are resistant to changes - and, as it is known, education of people, among other, should imply accepting changes. The inveteracy of the poverty culture implies living your own life, which is secluded from identified and dominant life of the ruling culture. Enforcement of poverty and social-economic conditioning influence the tendencies for specific behavioral patterns.

  6. Poverty, social stress & mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S

    2007-10-01

    While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.

  7. John Rawls and the theory of modernization. A retrospective analysis John Rawls y la teoría de la modernización. Una retrospectiva analítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bula Jorge Iván

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the value of the theory of modernization and describes the scope and limitations of Rawls' Theory of Justice. The theory of modernization has a strong darwinist legacy: the biological evolution from simple to complex forms is applied to the social context and the transition from traditional to modern forms becomes a linear process. Rawls' most recent work link the concept of justice to that of social order, and his principIes become relevant when the principle of difference become the principIe of the least difference, as the basis of all political freedoms. The author holds that there are a number of roads to modernization and, following Bidet, he states that different models of society may come to exist within the matrix of modernization, including capitalism, socialism and all points between.En este trabajo se discute la validez de la teoría de la modernización y se identifican los alcances y las limitaciones de la Teoría de la Justicia de Rawls. La teoría de la modernización tiene una profunda herencia darwinistas: la evolución biológica de lo simple a lo complejo se traslada a lo social como un paso de lo tradicional a lo moderno y, en últimas, lleva a imitar a las sociedades más desarrolladas. Los nuevos enfoques critican la distinción entre lo tradicional y lo moderno y la visión unilineal del proceso de modernización. Los últimos trabajos de Rawls vinculan el concepto de la justicia al concepto de orden social y sus principios adquieren pertenencia cuando el principio de la diferencia se transforma en el de la menor diferencia, fundamento de todas las libertades políticas. El autor sostiene que hay varios caminos para la modernización y, siguiendo a Bidet, afirma que dentro de la matriz de la modernidad pueden desarrollarse distintos modelos de sociedad: capitalismo, socialismo o cualquier otra solución intermedia.

  8. [The religious convictions in the argumentation bioethics. Two different secularists perspectives: Sádaba and Habermas-Rawls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos Velasco, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the position of two secularized theories on the role of religious beliefs in bioethical reasoning. The excluding laicism of Sádaba rejects the rationality of religious fact and extend a general suspicion about the bioethical reasoning of believer. Contrary, the open position of Habermas-Rawls considers reasonable religions as one of the typical comprehensive views of liberal State, encourage secularized citizens to value his contributions and urge to secular and, then, neutral, State not to impose to all citizens a secularized cosmo-vision. Only the second perspective put the bases for a fruitful and calm dialogue in the bioethical area.

  9. Poverty and Depression among Men: The Social Class Worldview Model and Counseling Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, William M.

    This paper outlines a theory for understanding social class in men's lives, and argues that poverty and depression are a function of social class and internalized classism. It begins by defining poverty, then explains the Social Class Worldview Model, which is a subjective social class model, and the Modern Classism Theory, which allows clinicians…

  10. Amartya Sen e a escolha social: uma extensão da teoria da justiça de John Rawls? Amartya Sen and the social choice: is it an extension of John Rawls's theory of justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Regina Marin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é apresentar a visão de Amartya Sen quanto à possibilidade da escolha social como um exercício comparativo e reflexivo com indivíduos comprometidos, tendo como ponto de partida a justiça como equidade de John Rawls. O argumento é o de que o agir por comprometimento e as várias identidades sociais estabelecidas pelos diferentes indivíduos durante suas vidas - considerando um conceito de indivíduo que não é o racional e autointeressado da Economia tradicional - são formas de desenvolver o pensamento seniano no que se refere ao processo de escolha social via raciocínio público, sem necessitar do conceito de racionalismo estrito como proposto na Economia.This paper presents Amartya Sen's view on the possibility of social choice as a comparative and reflexing exercise with committed individuals, having as starting point John Rawls' Justice as equity. The argument is that to act by commitment and the various social identities one develops during his/her life - considering a concept of individual that is not the rational and self-interested individual of traditional Economics - are ways for developing Sen's thinking related to process of social choice through public reasoning, without to adopt the concept of restrict rationalism like is proposed in Economics.

  11. Demystifying Poverty Measurement in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Demombynes, Gabriel; Hoang Vu, Linh

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of poverty measurement issues in Vietnam for the non-specialist. Vietnam has two main approaches to measuring poverty. An income-based approach is used by the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs to generate a classification used for determining anti-poverty program eligibility as well as poverty monitoring over the short term. A separate consumpt...

  12. [African neurosurgery. 1: Historical outline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Khamlichi, A

    1996-01-01

    This outline of the history of African Neurosurgery explains the role that North Africa has played in the Middle Ages in the development of Neurosurgery, the origins of the development of the latter in twentieth century, and the delay that African Neurosurgery still shows at the present time in the majority of African countries. On the papyrus of the pharaonic era, we have found the description of some neurosurgical procedures such as trephination and brain aspiration by a transphenoidal approach used before mummification. It is particularly trephination which summarizes the ancient history of African neurosurgery, as it was widely used throughout the continent, practised and taught by healers in African tribes. The technical concepts of trephination are based, to a great extent, on the descriptions of Arab physicians of the Middle Ages. It was at that time (Middle Ages) that several Arab physicians such as Avicenne, Rhazes, and Avenzhoer described many types of nervous system diseases and the techniques to treat them. But it was mainly Abulkassim Al Zahraoui (Abulkassis) who was the pioneer of neurosurgery as he devoted one volume of his treatise (made up of 30 volumes) to neurosurgery, a precise description of many aspects of neurosurgical pathology, its treatment, instruments and neurosurgical techniques. We have reported in this article five original extracts in Arabic which deal with skull fractures and their treatment, vertebro-medullary traumas and their treatment, hydrocephalus and its treatment, tumors of the skull vault and their treatment, and finally the basic knowledge of anatomy which is of great interest for a surgeon. The medical knowledge of that time which gave birth to medical schools and hospitals was transmitted progressively to Europe and played an important role in the development of medicine during the European Renaissance in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. During colonization, neurosurgical practice started and developed in many

  13. ¿Cuán liberal es la teoría de las relaciones internacionales de Rawls? = Quão liberal é a teoria das relações internacionais de Rawls? = How liberal is the theory of internacional relations Rawls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loewe, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com este artigo, a extensão realizada por Rawls de sua concepção de justiça doméstica ao contexto das relações internacionais contradiz as premissas básicas de sua própria teoria da justiça. Uma extensão da teoria doméstica consistente com suas próprias premissas deveria levar a considerar uma classe maior de demandas, tais como os direitos humanos, e a aceitar algum princípio de distribuição global

  14. Cambodia: Country Poverty Analysis 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia’s new national poverty lines show higher historical poverty rates and a dramatic decline in poverty during the 2007–2009 global financial crisis. With 18.9% of the population being poor in 2012, Cambodia now counts among the countries with the most rapid poverty reduction in the world. However, many people moved only slightly above the poverty line—remaining highly vulnerable—and poverty is increasing both in urban areas and according to the international poverty line of $2 per day. ...

  15. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  16. How we see poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Morduch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How we think about poverty is colored by how we measure it. For economists, that often means seeing poverty through quantities measured in large, representative surveys.  The surveys give a comprehensive view, but favor breadth over depth. Typical economic surveys are limited in their ability to tease out informal activity, and, while they capture yearly sums, they offer little about how the year was actually lived by families. Year-long financial diaries provide a complementary way of seeing poverty, with a focus on week by week choices and challenges. The result is a re-framing of poverty and its relationship to money, calling for greater attention to financial access and a broader notion of how finance matters.

  17. Growth and Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Leyaro, Vincent; Mahrt, Kristi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter considers the evolution of welfare of the Tanzanian population using a multi-dimensional approach. It also employs a detailed economy-wide model of the Tanzanian economy to explore growth and monetary poverty reduction scenarios from 2007 to 2015. This approach permits assessment...... of the coherence of observed trends in macroeconomic variables and projects consumption poverty outcomes to 2015. In the multi-dimensional approach, we find that real gains have been achieved. On monetary poverty, our model broadly reproduces key macroeconomic features of the past eight years. We find...... that published consumption poverty reductions for 2007 to 2011/12 from the most recent assessment fall within a reasonable to optimistic range. And, the simulations generate broader based growth across the income distribution compared with the recent assessment. Looking forward, the simulations from 2012 to 2105...

  18. Explaining Poverty Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    Measuring poverty remains a complex and contentious issue. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty rates are higher, information bases typically weaker, and the underlying determinants of welfare relatively volatile. This paper employs recently collected data on household...... consumption in Mozambique to examine the evolution of consumption poverty with focus on the period 2002/03 to 2008/09. The paper contributes in four areas. First, the period in question was characterized by major movements in international commodity prices. Mozambique provides an illuminating case study...... of the implications of these world commodity price changes for living standards of poor people. Second, a novel ‘backcasting’ approach using a computable general equilibrium model of Mozambique, linked to a poverty module is introduced. Third, the backcasting approach is also employed to rigorously examine...

  19. Analysis of Multidimensional Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) ... quite comprehensive definition of poverty, whose ethical basis is briefly presented ..... from the world of reading and communications, corresponding to the subset {I2}.

  20. Poverty-Exploitation-Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Martin

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how knowledge derived from the discipline of economics can be used to help shed light on social problems such as poverty, exploitation, and alienation, and can help decision makers form policy to minimize these and similar problems. (DB)

  1. Access to energy and fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    A first part addresses the issue of access to a modern and sustainable energy in developing countries, notably in rural areas of Africa and Asia. Some experiments are evoked like, for example, the financing and support of an Indonesian NGO for the construction of hydroelectric micro power plants. In this respect, decentralized solutions seem to be the most promising, but also the use of new technologies for lighting equipment using 3 energy sources (electric grid, solar energy, rechargeable battery). The Lighting Africa program is evoked. The second part addresses the issue of fuel poverty, notably in France but also in other European countries (data are provided which indicate the numbers of households unable to pay for a proper heating, or with bad quality housing). The authors outline that fuel poverty is a complex problem which requires both emergency measures and prevention programs on a medium and long term: improvement of energy efficiency in the housing sector in order to reduce consumption, implementation of new and innovating technologies (housing rehabilitation with local and green materials, R and D efforts, and development of smart meters). The economic and social dimensions of this problem of fuel poverty are outlined by members of associations

  2. INTRODUCTION Outline of Round Tables Outline of Round Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2010-12-01

    -canonical" turbulent processes, identified problems which are most appealing to a broad international and interdisciplinary TMB community, focused on selecting quantitative criteria for the estimation of the quality and information capacity of experimental and numerical data sets, and outlined the needs and requirements for the TMB cyber-infrastructure. Upon intense discussions, participants of the Round Table agreed that it is still unclear if Kolmogorov turbulence is an observable physical phenomenon. Even for canonical (e.g. local, isotropic and homogeneous) turbulent flows the corrections to Kolmogorov theory are essential to incorporate. Several definitions of canonical turbulence were considered. It was noted that in a vast variety of realistic problems (under high and low energy density conditions from microscopic to astrophysical scales) the flow conditions depart from the assumptions of Kolmogorov theory. It is uncertain whether these distinctions can be completely accounted for with some higher-order corrections to Kolmogorov theory, whether such corrections are "continuous" or "singular", and whether their quantitative influence on the values of observables in a given parameter regime is small. It was stressed that in experiments on canonical turbulence the conditions of isotropy, locality and homogeneity are hard to achieve. Numerical simulations can open exciting avenues for accurate studies of fundamental theoretical issues provided their accuracy and dynamic range, requiring computations of peta-scale and higher levels, are satisfactory. Participants of the Round Table stressed that realistic turbulent processes depart from classical scenarios. They are characterized by sharp gradients of pressure and density, and may be subject to spatially varying and time-dependent acceleration, rotation and shocks, and are often influenced by diffusion of species, heat release and changes in chemical composition. Their sensitivity to details and transient character of the dynamics

  3. Vietnam; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Vietnam, known as the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). It is an action program to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. This paper reviews the objectives and tasks of socio-economic development and poverty reduction. The government of Vietnam takes poverty reduction as a cutting-through objective in the process of country socio-economic development and declares its commitment to impleme...

  4. Regional differences in family poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Robert K. Triest

    1997-01-01

    Poverty rates vary considerably over regions, as do the demographic characteristics of the poor, but why the extent of poverty varies as much as it does across different regions of the country is not fully understood. This is an unfortunate gap in our knowledge, since it is difficult to analyze how recent changes in federal anti-poverty policy will affect the regional distribution of poverty without a better understanding of current regional differences in the poverty rate.> The main goal of ...

  5. Fundamental rights and the EU internal market: just how fundamental are the EU treaty freedoms? A normative enquiry based on John Rawls' political philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses whether the EU Treaty freedoms - the free movement of goods, persons, services and capital - should be considered as fundamental rights which are hierarchically equal to other fundamental rights. It uses the political philosophy of John Rawls to assess why we should attach

  6. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  7. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  8. Alleviating energy poverty: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-09-15

    Energy services play an important role in human welfare. India faces acute energy poverty indicating lack of access of clean energy fuels. Access to electricity is limited to 56% households in India and about 89% of rural households depend on polluting energy sources. Energy poverty impacts income poverty as poor find it difficult to acquire high priced cleaner fuels. It also adversely impacts the socio economic conditions of women. The paper highlights the linkage of energy poverty with income poverty and gender inequality. It analyses measures taken to alleviate energy poverty and recommends regulatory and policy measures as way forward.

  9. Waging War on Poverty: Poverty Trends Using a Historical Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Liana E.; Wimer, Christopher; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the March Current Population Survey, we provide poverty estimates for 1967 to 2012 based on a historical Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM). During this period, poverty, as officially measured, has stagnated. However, the official poverty measure (OPM) does not account for the effect of near-cash transfers on the financial resources available to families, an important omission since such transfers have become an increasingly important part of government anti-poverty policy. Applying the historical SPM, which does count such transfers, we find that trends in poverty have been more favorable than the OPM suggests and that government policies have played an important and growing role in reducing poverty—a role that is not evident when the OPM is used to assess poverty. We also find that government programs have played a particularly important role in alleviating child poverty and deep poverty, especially during economic downturns. PMID:26347369

  10. Poverty Mapping Project: Poverty and Food Security Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Poverty and Food Security Case Studies dataset consists of small area estimates of poverty, inequality, food security and related measures for subnational...

  11. Attitudes towards poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Derdziuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, perceived as a lack of basic consumer goods, gives rise to a whole range of outcomes which affect not only the material dimension of human existence, but also influence social relations and references to spiritual values. Attitudes which could be associated with involuntary and unacceptable poverty include: doubt in the Divine Providence, bitterness, jealousy and envy, blaming others, lack of gratitude and in perceiving good, laziness, lack of initiative, escalating demands, gluttony and greed as well as meanness. However, joy, peace, freedom and solidarity with the poor, as well as work and enterprise, are symptoms of evangelical attitudes of the poor in spirit. Attitudes to poverty point to a wide range of human behaviours towards possessions and in effect, reveal an individual’s sense of value.

  12. Poverty, bioethics and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cléa Regina de Oliveira; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a reflection on conception of poverty as a condition or circumstance that restricts personal autonomy and increases vulnerability. Focusing on bioethical arguments, the authors discuss two perspectives: (i) economic, that relates poverty to incapacity to work and (ii) ethical-philosophical, which relates poverty to inequality and injustice. The first perspective corresponds to the World Bank's view according to its recommendations to the political and economic adjustment in Latin America. The second one is based on concepts of fairness and equality as components of social justice. The subjects' autonomy and vulnerability have been under question in an international movement that requests revision of ethical guidelines for the biomedical research. The bioethical arguments presented in this article enhance a discussion on unfair treatment to subjects enlisted in protocols sponsored by rich countries and hosted by poor nations.

  13. Multidimensional poverty measure and analysis: a case study from Hechi City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Baixue

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the anti-poverty outline of China and the human-environment sustainable development, we propose a multidimensional poverty measure and analysis methodology for measuring the poverty-stricken counties and their contributing factors. We build a set of multidimensional poverty indicators with Chinese characteristics, integrating A-F double cutoffs, dimensional aggregation and decomposition approach, and GIS spatial analysis to evaluate the poor's multidimensional poverty characteristics under different geographic and socioeconomic conditions. The case study from 11 counties of Hechi City shows that, firstly, each county existed at least four respects of poverty, and overall the poverty level showed the spatial pattern of surrounding higher versus middle lower. Secondly, three main poverty contributing factors were unsafe housing, family health and adults' illiteracy, while the secondary factors include fuel type and children enrollment rate, etc., generally demonstrating strong autocorrelation; in terms of poverty degree, the western of the research area shows a significant aggregation effect, whereas the central and the eastern represent significant spatial heterogeneous distribution. Thirdly, under three kinds of socioeconomic classifications, the intra-classification diversities of H, A, and MPI are greater than their inter-classification ones, while each of the three indexes has a positive correlation with both the rocky desertification degree and topographic fragmentation degree, respectively. This study could help policymakers better understand the local poverty by identifying the poor, locating them and describing their characteristics, so as to take differentiated poverty alleviation measures according to specific conditions of each county.

  14. Impacts of Policies on Poverty: The Definition of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how poverty can be defined in the context of policy impact analysis. After reporting and discussing the definition of poverty as “the lack of, or the inability to achieve, a socially acceptable standard of living”, it discusses the mono-dimensional and multi-dimensional approaches to the definition of poverty. Furthermore, the module focuses on the absolute and the relative concept of poverty, also drawing some analogies and differences with the concept of food secu...

  15. Impacts of Policies on Poverty. Relative Poverty Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how to define “relative” poverty lines, i.e. poverty lines based on approaches that consider the welfare position of each individual or household in relation to the welfare position of other individuals or households belonging to the same community. In particular, the module, after emphasizing the importance of the relative poverty concept in policy work, discusses two methods to define relative poverty lines: a) the “income levels” method; and b) the “income positions...

  16. National Environmental Outline 1997-2020. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    According to the Dutch Law on Environmental Protection ('Wet Milieubeheer') every four years an environmental outline is drafted as a preparation for the national environmental plan (NMP3). In a separate publication (the background document) a methodical and numerical basis and account is given by means of data and literature references of the environmental outline. This main report, the outline, comprises an analysis of the expected bottlenecks and an outline of a number of solutions in order to determine the effectiveness of the current policy by means of which targets must be realized and how future policy could solve the most important bottlenecks. refs

  17. Poverty and child health in the UK: using evidence for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sophie; Anwar, Elspeth; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-08-01

    There are currently high levels of child poverty in the UK, and for the first time in almost two decades child poverty has started to rise in absolute terms. Child poverty is associated with a wide range of health-damaging impacts, negative educational outcomes and adverse long-term social and psychological outcomes. The poor health associated with child poverty limits children's potential and development, leading to poor health and life chances in adulthood. This article outlines some key definitions with regard to child poverty, reviews the links between child poverty and a range of health, developmental, behavioural and social outcomes for children, describes gaps in the evidence base and provides an overview of current policies relevant to child poverty in the UK. Finally, the article outlines how child health professionals can take action by (1) supporting policies to reduce child poverty, (2) providing services that reduce the health consequences of child poverty and (3) measuring and understanding the problem and assessing the impact of action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Determinants of Poverty in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Huma Yousaf; Imran Ali

    2014-01-01

    This research discusses impact of macroeconomic variables on poverty in Pakistan. In this article five variables are used and two models are run. The ordinary least squares approach is applied. In first model we check the impact of budget deficit, government expenditure and unemployment on poverty in Pakistan. Budget deficit and government expenditure shows negative relationship with poverty in Pakistan while unemployment has positive relationship with poverty. In second model we check the im...

  19. Poverty and precarity in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Izaura

    2016-01-01

    This research assesses poverty levels in Portugal within a multidimensional approach, over a period from 2008 to 2014. Further, it aims at inferring a causal relationship between precarious jobs and the estimated multidimensional poverty level. This research adds to the existing literature by applying a discrete choice experiment in the construction of the poverty index, as well as by nding causality between poverty and precarity. Empirical results suggest that, while multidim...

  20. Contract theories and partnership in health care. A philosophical inquiry to the philosophy of John Rawls and Seyla Benhabib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sylvia; Lützén, Kim; Öresland, Stina

    2017-07-01

    Over the last 20 years, a paternalistic view in health care has been losing ground. The question about less asymmetrical positions in the healthcare professional-patient relationship is, for example, being addressed by the increased emphasis on person-centred care, promoted in disciplines such as medicine and nursing. Partnership is considered as a key component in person-centred care. Although the previous studies have addressed the attributes inherent in partnership, there is still potential for further discussion on how the various interpretations of partnership influence their use in healthcare literature. A vague understanding might also affect education and evaluation. As we see it, the philosophical underpinnings of the idea of partnership have not been sufficiently explored and discussed. The study reveals that partnership originates in the term "partener" defined as a relationship between individuals or groups characterized by cooperation and responsibility. Etymologically speaking, partnership is hence bound by a contract, which in this study is discussed in the frame of Rawls' contract theory, which in turn intersects with Benhabib and her distinction between "the abstract" and "the concrete Other." Further, the expression "equal partnership," which often appears in the context of person-centredness, is explored in relation to the philosophies of Rawls and Benhabib. The opportunity for partnership, as well as the risk of partnership becoming a tempting magnet with a vague and imprecise meaning, is discussed. Without exploration, reflection and discussion of the philosophical underpinnings, partnership carries a substantial risk of becoming an indistinct idea used in health care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Rural poverty in transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  2. Poverty on the Cards 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut; Benedikt Goderis; Cok Vrooman

    2016-01-01

    Decline in poverty since 2014 According to SCP’s ‘modest but adequate’ poverty threshold, 7.6% of the Dutch population were living in poverty in 2014. That figure is expected to have fallen to 7% in 2016. If the promised measures to improve purchasing power are implemented,

  3. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  4. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  5. The neurology of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, G

    1982-01-01

    An intellectual deficit is known to exist in populations where extreme poverty is rife and is thus seen extensively in the lower socio-economic strata of underdeveloped nations. Poverty is a complex entity whose sociological and economic indicators often bear little relevance to the biological agents which can affect the central nervous system. An attempt is made to express poverty in terms of identifiable defects, physiological in nature. Thus adverse socio-economic factors are converted into specific biological entities which, though necessary for adequate development of the brain, are restricted where there is poverty. A number of causative deficiencies, including nutritional, visual, auditory, tactile, vestibular, affective, and other stimuli are postulated. These interact and potentiate one another. Each is capable of an independent action on the brain and examples are given of some sensory deprivations as well as malnutrition and their possible mechanism of action. If the various deficiencies can independently harm the brain, then a number of separate specific functions should be affected; examples are offered. The nature of this intellectual deficit is probably a non-fulfillment of genetic potential of certain specific functions of the brain, which may exhibit limited variations between one community and another, depending on cultural differences. The deleterious effect of this intellectual impairment is seen most clearly in figures of school desertion, for example in Latin America. Analogous data for adults is scarce.

  6. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  7. Poverty and Political Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouda, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Frances Gouda examines the different rhetorical approaches to poverty, charity, and social welfare embraced by intellectuals and policy-makers in the Netherlands and France in the period 1815 - 1854. She explores the different discourses in Holland and France about the revolutionary threat implicit

  8. Poverty reduction through entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalla, Rachel; Carney, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Microcredit strategies combine the logic of business, progressive approaches to learning from experience and the key aim to reduce poverty, especially amongst women. The focus in such interventions on the independent, entrepreneurial citizen suggests not only new ways to generate economic growth...

  9. Poverty and household size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, P.; Ravallion, M.

    1995-01-01

    The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. The authors find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity

  10. Strategies Against Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riessman, Frank

    The major antipoverty strategies of the 1960's are analyzed--the conflict model of Alinsky, the welfare crisis approach of Cloward and Piven, and the new careers viewpoint of Riessman and Pearl. The latter strategy is said to have a greater "multiplier effect" on poverty than other approaches. Discussed are such specific strategies in…

  11. Trends in Child Poverty Using an Improved Measure of Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Fox, Liana

    2016-04-01

    The official measure of poverty has been used to assess trends in children's poverty rates for many decades. But because of flaws in official poverty statistics, these basic trends have the potential to be misleading. We use an augmented Current Population Survey data set that calculates an improved measure of poverty to reexamine child poverty rates between 1967 and 2012. This measure, the Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure, is based partially on the US Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics' new Supplemental Poverty Measure. We focus on 3 age groups of children, those aged 0 to 5, 6 to 11, and 12 to 17 years. Young children have the highest poverty rates, both historically and today. However, among all age groups, long-term poverty trends have been more favorable than official statistics would suggest. This is entirely due to the effect of counting resources from government policies and programs, which have reduced poverty rates substantially for children of all ages. However, despite this progress, considerable disparities in the risk of poverty continue to exist by education level and family structure. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  13. Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ► There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ► expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ► A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ► The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ► The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

  14. Outline of Swedish activities on LWR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grounes, M [Studsvik Nuclear, Nykoeping (Sweden); Roennberg, G [OKG AB (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The presentation outlines the Swedish activities on LWR fuel and considers the following issues: electricity production; performance of operating nuclear power plants; nuclear fuel cycle and waste management; research and development in nuclear field. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  15. Poverty and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Juan Sanabria Landazábal

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay there is argued that the notions ofpoverty, development, quality of life and, in general, all the concepts, variables and indicators used in the explanations and theories on this type, are different points of view from the observers' interests,of the same and only social phenomenon. Therefore,there are multiple works on poverty and development. However, an approximation from the perspective of complexity must bear in mind that the development may refer to the social structure as a whole, and to the actions that modify context of the system, just when it has been ordered through the science in order to explain the reality. Therefore,there is a clase relation between poverty and development. These are different ways to see the same phenomenon, which allow us to think about the life quality from a global sense.

  16. A Critique of the Theories of Global Justice: Realism, Rawls, Habermas and Pogge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cortés Rodas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some of the proposals raised within the contemporary debate about normative models for a new international order. In the first part, the argumentative strategies of political realism, of John Rawls’ liberalism and of Jürgen Habermas’ deliberative model are presented. These authors’ objections to the cosmopolitan idea of a transformation in the international order based on the demands for global economic justice are debated. In the last part, the text shows that the proposal f global justice presented by Thomas Pogge is insufficient because, although it shows the implication of the global economic order in the increase of poverty and formulates a global redistributive proposal, it does not consider the problem of the transformation of the prevailing system of power relations within the current capitalist order.

  17. O espectador imparcial de Adam Smith e o observador ideal de John Rawls: Uma crítica à ética utilitarista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Regina Marin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo John Rawls fundamenta o utilitarismo na concepção de observador ideal presente nas teorias dos sentimentalistas escoceses do século XVIII, particularmente nas teorias de David Hume e Adam Smith. Como a tese do utilitarismo não é tão explícita e acessível na ótica de ambos os filósofos escoceses, pretendemos, no presente trabalho, confrontar a tese do espectador imparcial de Smith e a crítica de Rawls à concepção do observador ideal como fundadora do utilitarismo. Observamos maior abrangência para o espectador imparcial em relação ao observador ideal utilitarista nas escolhas morais.

  18. REPENSANDO O DIREITO À SAÚDE E A RESPONSABILIDADE DO ESTADO À LUZ DA TEORIA DE JUSTIÇA DE JOHN RAWLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Sami Daou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Artigo que problematiza acerca da responsabilidade do Estado na garantia do direito à saúde à luz da teoria de justiça de John Rawls. Analisa-se, inicialmente, o direito à saúde, sua caracterização e tratamento constitucional. Depois, trata-se da política pública do SUS, bem como de alguns argumentos que negam a garantia do direito à saúde nos moldes concebidos pelo Constituinte. Por fim, com base na teoria de justiça como equidade de John Rawls, delineada na obra Uma teoria da Justiça, suscita-se reflexão envolvendo a responsabilidade do Estado na garantia do direito fundamental social à saúde.

  19. As respostas de Habermas e Rawls às objeções de tipo hegeliano à ética de Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Feldhaus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine to what extent the reformulation of Kantian ethics, undertaken by Habermas and Rawls, could answer the objections of the Hegelian kind unleashed against the ethics of Kant. The conception of justice developed by Rawls in his books A Theory of Justice and Political Liberalism has been the target of criticism from thinkers in various domains, including communitarians, among the main objections are that it is committed to a atomistic concept of person and to a contractarian conception of society. Habermas himself, in his book Erläuterungen zur Diskursethik looks for to examine whether the objections of Hegelian kind apply to the Kant's ethics or the ethics of speech.

  20. A TEORIA DE JUSTIÇA DE JOHN RAWLS E AS AÇÕES AFIRMATIVAS DEFENDIDAS PELA DEFENSORIA PÚBLICA

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Emanuel Gomes; Maillart, Adriana Silva

    2017-01-01

    Esta pesquisa tem por escopo analisar as ideias de justiça de John Rawls, visando demonstrar seus ideários privilegiam o Estado Democrático de Direito, como essenciais à inclusão e diminuição das desigualdades materiais que vai ao encontro da missão da Defensoria Pública brasileira. Assim, objetiva demonstrar que a atuação da Defensoria Pública, por meio de ações afirmativas adotadas em políticas públicas, atinge os ditames de justiça proposto na Teoria de Rawls. Este estudo apoia-se no métod...

  1. Tourism and poverty relief

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Adam; Arbache, Jorge Saba; Sinclair, Thea; Teles, Vladimir Kühl

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of how tourism affects poverty in the context of the effects of tourism on an economy as a whole and on particular sectors within it. A framework for analysing the channels through which tourism affects different households is developed, and a computable general equilibrium model of the Brazilian economy is used to examine the economic impact and distributional effects of tourism in Brazil. It is shown that the effects on all income groups are posi...

  2. SMEs, Growth, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Thorsten; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli

    2004-01-01

    This Note explores the relationship between the size of the small and medium-size enterprise (SME) sector and economic growth and poverty reduction. A new study finds no support for the widely held belief that SMEs promote higher growth and lower pover ty. But it does provide some support for the view that the quality of the business environment facing all firms, large and small, influen...

  3. Minimum Wages and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...

  4. The Relation between Theory of Justice of John Rawls by Kant\\\\\\'s Ethics and Hegel\\\\\\'s philosophy of Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Dirbaz

    2011-01-01

    "Theory of justice" due to the boroad variety of social sciences, audience many attracted. Readers of this theory found a wide variety of disciplines ranging from psychology and economic to ethical issues. Selected topic for which it repeatedly Rawls in his book and his theory  named the Kantian and did not name in Hegel, the Hegelian's philosophy of Right theory of the hidden angles of this article will focus on, as well as his abut influence on some views Interpreters

  5. Poverty among Foster Children: Estimates Using the Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Jessica; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the Current Population Survey and the new Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) to provide estimates for poverty among foster children over the period 1992 to 2013. These are the first large-scale national estimates for foster children who are not included in official poverty statistics. Holding child and family demographics constant, foster children have a lower risk of poverty than other children. Analyzing income in detail suggests that foster care payments likely play an important role in reducing the risk of poverty in this group. In contrast, we find that children living with grandparents have a higher risk of poverty than other children, even after taking demographics into account. Our estimates suggest that this excess risk is likely linked to their lower likelihood of receiving foster care or other income supports. PMID:28659651

  6. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kathleen S

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Os dilemas da justiça distributiva: Uma análise a partir do diálogo entre John Rawls e Robert Nozick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Uetela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No contexto da filosofia política contemporânea, o debate sobre a justiça culminou com a elaboração do princípio clássico da justiça distributiva de John Rawls. Todavia, a conceptualização sobre o que é justiça parece ter permeado as reflexões filosóficas de muitos pensadores desde a antiguidade. A partir destes e de outros referenciais teóricos e metodológicos, o presente artigo busca, por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica e hermenêutica, estabelecer um diálogo entre a teoria de justiça distributiva de John Rawls e de Robert Nozick. O mesmo formula a tese de que, tal como a determinação da métrica de justiça foi divergente entre diferentes gerações de cientistas políticos, o mesmo se repete entre Rawls e Nozick. Como resultado, não existe um único modelo de definição do que é justo como sempre ocorreu ao menos ao longo do contexto histórico da filosofia política.

  8. Teoria da justiça de John Jawls: entre o liberalismo e o comunitarismo John Rawls theory of justice: between liberalism and comunitarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Coitinho Silveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é realizar uma análise da teoria da justiça como eqüidade de John Rawls em A Theory of Justice e no Political Liberalism, destacando seu modelo de complementaridade entre o deontológico e o procedimental com o teleológico e substancial, buscando responder algumas das críticas levantadas por autores comunitaristas à teoria rawlsiana de justiça e procurando apontar para suas semelhanças. Parto das críticas dos comunitaristas à teoria da justiça como eqüidade; posteriormente, analiso os aspectos teleológicos contidos em seu modelo deontológico; em seguida, destaco a intrínseca relação entre o procedimental e o substancial; por fim, apresento as respostas às críticas comunitaristas à Rawls, destacando a especificidade de sua concepção de justiça.The aim of his article is to characterize the John Rawls's theory of justice as fairness developed in A Theory of Justice (1971, Political Liberalism (1993, Replay to Habermas (1995 and Justice as Fairness: A Restatement (2001, with a view to identifying the convergent points between deontological conception with teleological characteristics and identify a substantive conception of justice, not purely procedural, which is universalist albeit not transcendental, making possible an approach between communitarian and liberal ethical theories.

  9. Child Poverty and Family Poverty in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Forssén, Katja

    1998-01-01

    Childhood in an underdeveloped environment is a stage of life very likely to be overshadowed by poverty. The main aim of this study is to look at the development of child poverty in the comparative angle. The study seeks to detect connections between child poverty and the implemented family policies. Discussion include an overview of family policies in different welfare state models, specification of the goals of the study, report of the results of the empirical analysis, and discussion of th...

  10. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  11. Urban Poverty and Gender Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitullah, W.V.

    1999-01-01

    Poverty continues to be a global concern. In Kenya at independence poverty was identified as one of the three main enemies of development; the other two being disease and ignorance. Although there has been deliberate efforts to address disease and ignorance, poverty seem to have overwhelmed the GoK. This is depicted in the fact that 46 per cent of the country's rural population live below poverty line whereas in urban areas incidence of poverty is about 30 per cent. Further Kenya has one of the lowest per-capita incomes in the world and ranks high among world countries that have very high levels of inequality (Kenya and UNICEF, 1992). Overall, 13 million Kenyans have no access to safe water, 6 million have no access to health facilities and 14 million have no access to sanitation (Ikiara and Tostensen, 1995). Many households and individuals are added to the 'poverty space' on daily basis

  12. Urbanization and Inequality/Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brantley Liddle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The level of world urbanization has crossed the 50% mark, and nearly all future population growth is projected to occur in cities. Cities are disproportionately wealthy, but are associated with poverty, too. Addressing the dual challenges of urbanization and poverty is key to achieving sustainable development. This paper performs cross-sectional regressions, based on Kuznets, as a starting point for understanding the relationship between urbanization and poverty/inequality indicators. Increases in gross domestic product per capita unambiguously lowered poverty and narrowed rural-urban gaps. By contrast, levels of urbanization were either unrelated to poverty/inequality indicators and measures of rural-urban gaps, or had a nonlinear effect where, initially, increases in urbanization likewise led to improvements in those areas, while at higher levels of urbanization, increases in urbanization exacerbated poverty and rural-urban gaps.

  13. Local Agenda 21 and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Palmans, Eva; Marysse, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    Poverty, the increasing urbanisation of poverty and the environmental degradation are major problems facing the actual world. This is reflected in international conferences and agendas, such as Local Agenda 21. This agenda is responding to the current problems by promoting sustainable development through local action and by using participatory methods. Our major concern is to reflect on the impact of the Local Agenda 21 on the reduction of poverty in a Third World context.

  14. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-08-15

    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  15. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    and accrual of land rents to smallholders, compared with the more capital-intensive plantation approach. Moreover, the benefits of outgrower schemes are enhanced if they result in technology spillovers to other crops. These results should not be taken as a green light for unrestrained biofuels development...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor...

  16. Poverty reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Paul

    2007-10-23

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid.

  17. El estado de la virtud. Sobre la noción de tolerancia en el liberalismo político de John Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escámez Navas, Sebastián

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the idea of toleration in John Rawls political liberalism. In particular, it is the general theory what is considered, not the application of it to international relations. Enlightening that idea requires to discuss the different meanings of «toleration» as can be distinguish in Rawls liberalism: On the one hand, Rawls relies that those people for whom the political conception of justice is chosen will have the virtue of toleration. This bargaining for that virtue carries citizens duties, as the duty to be reasonable, recognizing the burdens of reason or the duty of civility; obligations that will be briefly examined. On the other hand, toleration appears as a principle of legitimacy in Rawls political liberalism: as a principle that gives us reasons which justify the ends and organization of the basic structure of society. Then, virtue and principle of toleration are complementary but also maintain strained relations. In view of the hierarchy of values that virtue of toleration presupposes, it does not fit appraising that virtue as a basic political one where the principle of toleration rules the foundations of socio-political order.

    En este trabajo se aborda la noción de tolerancia en el liberalismo político de John Rawls en lo que toca a la parte más general de esta teoría, que es la referida a una sociedad política, y no a su extensión a las relaciones internacionales. El esclarecimiento de esta noción ha de hacer frente a la polisemia que afecta al concepto de tolerancia, a la que Rawls no es ajeno. De esta manera, por un lado, se hallará que Rawls cuenta con la virtud de la tolerancia de aquellas personas para quienes se elige la concepción política de la justicia. La expectativa de que los ciudadanos manifiesten tal virtud se expresa en obligaciones de éstos --como la de ser razonables, reconocer las cargas del juicio o cumplir con el deber de civilidad

  18. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  19. Elite perceptions of poverty and Nigeria's poverty reduction research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The way the elite perceive poverty and the poor in any society constitutes a very important dimension of poverty research. This is because normally there are several areas of interrelationship and interdependence between the poor and the elite, and these form part of the basis for social life in all societies. Perceptions of the ...

  20. An International Inquiry: Stories of Poverty--Poverty Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2017-01-01

    This article features an international inquiry of two high-poverty urban schools, one Canadian and one American. The article examines poverty in terms of "small stories" that educators and students live and tell, often on the edges, unheard and unaccounted for in grand narratives. It also expands the story constellations approach to…

  1. The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

  2. Collision and interaction phenomena - a historical outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radmaneche, R.

    1977-09-01

    Collisions and interactions have become important for the description of matter. The author presents an outline which deals with elastic and inelastic collisions, with strong interactions, electromagnetic interactions, weak interactions and gravitational interactions. It is shown that the description of such processes has developed parallel with the understanding of matter and with the mechanism of the phenomena. Current and unsolved problems are mentioned

  3. Curriculum Outline for Tennessee Transition Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, B. J.

    This curriculum outline for the Sevier County, Tennessee, transition program for special needs students provides goals and objectives for the following domains: domestic, vocational, community functioning, and recreation/leisure. The domestic domain covers personal hygiene/grooming, first aid, home nursing, birth control/pregnancy, parenting, drug…

  4. An outline review of numerical transport methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budd, C.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is presented of numerical methods for solving the neutron transport equation in the context of reactor physics. First the various forms of transport equation are given. Second, the various ways of classifying numerical transport methods are discussed. Finally each method (or class of methods) is outlined in turn. (U.K.)

  5. Youth Unemployment Outline of a Psychosocial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Margrit

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of education policy constitutes an attempt to outline the problem of youth unemployment. Building on a recognition that structural change in the "society of labourers" has also affected the social entity "young people", it shows the problems inherent in our concept of linear transitions to working life and the…

  6. Outline of High School Credit Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia.

    An outline is presented of the objectives and content of courses offered for credit in high schools in South Carolina. Courses in the following subjects are described: (1) art; (2) drama; (3) driver education; (4) environmental education; (5) foreign language: French, German, Russian, Spanish; (6) health; (7) language arts; (8) mathematics; (9)…

  7. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  8. The elusive constellations of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugelmans, Seger M; Plantinga, Arnoud; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Poluektova, Olga; Efremova, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Pepper & Nettle describe possible processes underlying what they call a behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD). Although we are certain about the application of evolutionary models to our understanding of poverty, we are less certain about the utility of behavioral constellations. The empirical record on poverty-related behaviors is much more divergent and broad than such constellations suggest.

  9. Measuring energy poverty in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papada, Lefkothea; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive research in the field of energy poverty is undertaken in this paper, in an attempt to highlight the great vulnerability of Greek households on energy poverty, in the middle of a severe economic crisis. Till now, Greek energy policy has been considered insufficient to tackle energy poverty issues, as focusing mainly on short-term rather than permanent solutions. A primary survey has been conducted, recording objective data of energy expenses as well as subjective perceptions about housing conditions. The findings showed that, under the objective expenditure-based method, 58% of Greek households are energy poor. Among households under the poverty threshold, the energy poverty rate exceeds 90%. Existing and new subjective indicators shed light on other aspects of energy poverty, such as the level of thermal comfort at home, damp problems detected, restriction of other essential needs in order to manage energy payments, etc. Some interesting conclusions are also drawn by exploring the relationship between various indicators. It appears that households considered energy poor are not identical when examined by objective and subjective indicators. However, different indicators complement each other by capturing different aspects of the problem and provide a broader overview of the issue. - Highlights: •58% of Greek households are energy poor. •75% of Greek households have reduced other essentials in favor of energy needs. •Combination of objective and subjective indicators captures better energy poverty. •Greek energy policy has failed to tackle energy poverty issues.

  10. Neighborhood Poverty and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…

  11. Rural Poverty in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Griffin

    1999-01-01

    The fact that most poor people in Latin America live in urban areas had implied that poverty in the region is regarded as largely an urban phenomenon. However, this document exposes what available data suggest: that rural poverty still is significant in many Latin American countries.

  12. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, Patricio; Gonzalez Jimenez, Victor; Noussair, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We study whether poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared

  13. Gender, poverty and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chhachhi (Amrita); T-D. Truong (Thanh-Dam)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractViews on poverty are deeply rooted in cultural frameworks about the human condition shaped by histories. In the debate on modernity, perspectives on poverty oscillate between: a) making the poor -- their "morals" and "culture" -- responsible for their own situation and b) positioning the

  14. Should poverty researchers worry about inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Barrientos

    2010-01-01

    The paper constructs a case for arguing that poverty researchers need not worry about inequality (as poverty researchers). It reviews conceptualisations of poverty as essentially relational, a particular reflection of prevailing inequalities. In this approach, people are in poverty because they are less well off than others along important dimensions of wellbeing. As against this view, the paper constructs a case for studying poverty as non-relational. In this approach, people are in poverty ...

  15. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio S Dalton

    Full Text Available We study whether exposure to poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared to subjects assigned to a control treatment. Questionnaire responses, as well as facial recognition software, provide quantitative measures of the affective state evoked by the two treatments. Subjects exposed to images of poverty experience a more negative affective state than those in the control treatment. Further analysis shows that individuals in a more positive emotional state exhibit less of a treatment effect. Also, those who exhibit greater attentiveness upon viewing the poverty video are less productive. The results are consistent with the notion that exposure to poverty can induce a psychological state in individuals that adversely affects productivity.

  16. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We study whether exposure to poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared to subjects assigned to a control treatment. Questionnaire responses, as well as facial recognition software, provide quantitative measures of the affective state evoked by the two treatments. Subjects exposed to images of poverty experience a more negative affective state than those in the control treatment. Further analysis shows that individuals in a more positive emotional state exhibit less of a treatment effect. Also, those who exhibit greater attentiveness upon viewing the poverty video are less productive. The results are consistent with the notion that exposure to poverty can induce a psychological state in individuals that adversely affects productivity. PMID:28125621

  17. MAINSTREAMING CORRUPTION POVERTY AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolaade Omede

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an outline of Nigeria’s experience on corruption in the context of poverty and Development. It discusses the effects of corruption which are rooted in the political and economic situation of the polity. The challenge of corruption is at the root of our underdevelopment .It has become so pervasive that many essential public projects for which vast sums of money have been paid to concerned contractors have been abandoned. And when such public projects have been completed, their costs are always higher in comparison with the costs of similar projects in other countries. In Nigeria corruption stifle economic growth, reduce economic efficiency and development despite the enormous resources in the country. It depends essentially on data from secondary sources such as books, journal articles, government publications, among other relevant documents. The data were analyzed qualitatively using the descriptive analytical method in order to achieve the primary objective of the paper.

  18. Designing evaluation of learning in outline courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estévez, Orosmán V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to characterize the evaluation process of online courses from the perspectives of several scholars who are currently conducting research on the topic. The importance of an integral diagnosis and the interconnections between diagnosis, learning activities design and evaluation are outlined. The study leads the authors to the conclusion that evaluation in online courses in Cuba demands a thorough scientific research so as to go deeper into its characterizing features.

  19. Inequality, Poverty, Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the economic connections of globalization, the roots of this phenomenon and its implications for presence. In the 70´, the economic bases of developed countries started changing. Since then the economic power of transnational corporations has risen. The TNCs change the international division of labor and divide the production cycle in an unprecedented manner. The economic sovereignty of countries weakens. All these factors influence the position of labor and consequently phenomena like unemployment, poverty and uncertainty. Since the 70´s the wage share, one of the most important macroeconomic indicators, has started sinking in developed contries. This means that a higher proportion of output goes to capital, i.e. to profits. Unemployment in developed countries has also changed its form since the 70´s – it has become structural and long-term one. Forms of precarious labor increase significantly and in the developed countries (especially obviously in the US the phenomenon of working poverty appears. Hand in hand with these phenomena goes the increase in inequality, of all developed countries again mostly in the US. The implications are not only social, such as the preservation of elite, i.e. the tendency towards oligarchization and decrease in social mobility. These implications are also connected with the debt phenomenon, which serves as a factor of discipline and system preservation, or respectively the postponement of weakened purchasing power of the lower and middle income classes. The rise in insecurity and the impossibility to identify oneself with the job has its political implications as well. In the context of reflecting the problem itself it takes form of various social protests (such as Occupy Wall Street, but also can be shown in the rise of various xenophobe and extreme right movements that destabilize the whole political system, including doubting the regime of democracy as such.

  20. Vaccines against poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  1. O debate entre comunitaristas e cosmopolitas e as teorias de Relações Internacionais: Rawls como uma via média The cosmopolitan-communitarian debate and the International Relations theory: the Rawls's law of people as a middle ground theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliciano de Sá Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo revisa as principais abordagens de comunitaristas e cosmopolitas acerca da justiça distributiva internacional no intuito de problematizá-las dentro das teorias contemporâneas de Relações Internacionais, notadamente do construtivismo e do racionalismo (institucionalismo. Além disso, o trabalho pretende reclassificar a proposta de Rawls para a arena internacional em meio a tal debate. Acredita-se que a obra O direito dos povos (RAWLS, 2004, embora geralmente caracterizada como cosmopolita e em certa medida racionalista, guarde semelhanças importantes com algumas noções do comunitarismo e do construtivismo.The article debates the main communitarian and cosmopolitan perspectives in terms of international distributive justice in order to rethink the international relations theory, especially the constructivism and the neo-liberalism. Moreover, the article intends to analyze the John Rawls's Law of People for the international arena as a middle ground theory between the communitarism and the cosmopolitism.

  2. A posição original como mediação entre estado de natureza e imperativo categórico: Rawls entre Hobbes e Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delamar José Volpato Dutra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2014v13n1p112 O texto apresenta o conceito de lei natural em Hobbes e contesta que o conteúdo da mesma seja exclusivamente um imperativo hipotético decorrente da racionalidade estratégica. Aproveita a interpretação de Rawls para conferir um estatuto moral ao conteúdo das leis naturais, tais quais elas foram propostas por Hobbes. Para tal intento, a posição original é lida como uma estratégia de contaminação do imperativo categórico por imperativos hipotéticos. Se Kant afirma que, com várias limitações, a regra de ouro pode ser derivada do imperativo categórico, então, deve haver algum elemento da regra de outro no imperativo categórico. O texto perscruta qual seria esse elemento. O presente artigo apresenta, portanto, uma leitura de Hobbes inspirada na posição original de Rawls, cuja finalidade será mostrar que as interpretações morais de Hobbes sustentadas, por exemplo, por Taylor, Warrender, Rawls e Habermas, são defensáveis, muito embora não pelas razões alegadas por alguns deles. Conclui-se estar em questão, destarte, não uma discordância quanto aos conteúdos do que se poderia chamar justiça ou regras de convivência, mas quanto às estratégias de fundamentação.

  3. Rawls's Wide Reflective Equilibrium as a Method for Engaged Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Potentials and Limitations for the Context of Technological Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Neelke; Taebi, Behnam

    2018-05-01

    The introduction of new technologies in society is sometimes met with public resistance. Supported by public policy calls for "upstream engagement" and "responsible innovation," recent years have seen a notable rise in attempts to attune research and innovation processes to societal needs, so that stakeholders' concerns are taken into account in the design phase of technology. Both within the social sciences and in the ethics of technology, we see many interdisciplinary collaborations being initiated that aim to address tensions between various normative expectations about science and engineering and the actual outcomes. However, despite pleas to integrate social science research into the ethics of technology, effective normative models for assessing technologies are still scarce. Rawls's wide reflective equilibrium (WRE) is often mentioned as a promising approach to integrate insights from the social sciences in the normative analysis of concrete cases, but an in-depth discussion of how this would work in practice is still lacking. In this article, we explore to what extent the WRE method can be used in the context of technology development. Using cases in engineering and technology development, we discuss three issues that are currently neglected in the applied ethics literature on WRE. The first issue concerns the operationalization of abstract background theories to moral principles. The second issue concerns the inclusiveness of the method and the demand for openness. The third issue is how to establish whether or not an equilibrium has been reached. These issues should be taken into account when applying the methods to real-world cases involving technological risks. Applying the WRE method in the context of engaged interdisciplinary collaboration requires sensitivity for issues of power and representativeness to properly deal with the dynamics between the technical and normative researchers involved as well as society at large.

  4. Monetary Poverty, Material Deprivation and Consistent Poverty in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Farinha Rodrigues; Isabel Andrade

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use the Portuguese component of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions {EU-SILC) to develop a measure of consistent poverty in Portugal. It is widely agreed that being poor does not simply mean not having enough monetary resources. It also reflects a lack of access to the resources required to enjoy a minimum standard of living and participation in the society one belor]gs to. The coexistence of material deprivation and monetary poverty leads ...

  5. Discípulos de Rawls em busca de uma concepção cosmopolita de justiça distributiva internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cepaluni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, argumentamos que alguns "discípulos" de John Rawls, refletindo sobre princípios de justiça internacional, apresentam uma posição mais consistente com o espírito da obra Uma teoria da Justiça do que seu próprio autor. Autores como Charles Beitz e Thomas Pogge defendem mecanismos de justiça distributiva internacional mais condizentes com o cosmopolitismo do "princípio da diferença" da obra Uma teoria da Justiça do que qualquer outro esforço que Rawls faz nesse sentido em sua obra posterior, mais voltada para as questões internacionais: O Direito dos Povos. Mais especificamente, sustentamos que Pogge e Beitz desenvolveram argumentos (a relativização do princípio da soberania absoluta dos Estados e a transferência internacional de recursos naturais mais sólidos para transportar o "princípio da diferença" para o cenário internacional do que a proposta rawlsiana de "dever de assistência", encontrada em O Direito dos Povos. Assim, demonstramos que os discípulos são mais fiéis ao espírito cosmopolita para o plano internacional do que Rawls por conta de três razões: a crença desses autores em uma comunidade global de concidadãos dentro de uma estrutura institucional internacional; a idéia segundo a qual a produção global de recursos coletivos deve ser redistribuída a partir de um princípio distributivo denso; e, por fim, uma redistribuição que somente pode ser justa se exigir reformas morais das instituições internacionais (Fundo Monetário Internacional, Organização Mundial do Comércio, Banco Mundial, princípio da soberania etc. no sentido de melhorar as condições de vida dos indivíduos mais pobres de todos os povos do sistema. Este artigo pretende, portanto, discutir o legado mais progressista de autores que, ao inspirarem-se em Rawls, desenvolveram argumentos mais condizentes com o espírito cosmopolita para o plano internacional.

  6. Fuel poverty and energy efficiency obligations – A critical assessment of the supplier obligation in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenow, Jan; Platt, Reg; Flanagan, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency obligations (or white certificates) are increasingly used to reduce carbon emissions. While the energy efficiency obligations were originally intended as carbon reduction and not fuel poverty policies, due to recognition of the potential for regressive outcomes they often include provisions for vulnerable and low-income customers. Intuitively, reducing carbon emissions and alleviating fuel poverty seem to be two sides of the same coin. There are, however, considerable tensions between the two when addressed through energy efficiency obligations, particularly arising from the potentially regressive impacts of rising energy prices resulting from such obligations, but also the complexity of targeting fuel poor households and the implications for deliverability. Despite those tensions, the UK government decided to use energy efficiency obligations, the supplier obligation, as the main policy for reducing fuel poverty. In light of the proposals, this paper provides an analysis of the main tensions between carbon reduction and fuel poverty alleviation within energy efficiency obligations, outlines the fuel poverty provisions of the British Supplier Obligation, assesses its rules for identifying the fuel poor, and provides a critical analysis of the planned policy changes. Based on this analysis, alternative approaches to targeting fuel poverty within future supplier obligations are proposed. - Highlights: • First comprehensive analysis of energy savings obligations and fuel poverty. • Systematic comparison of targeting efficiency of fuel poverty programmes. • Critical analysis of fuel poverty provisions in British supplier obligations. • Proposal of a new approach to targeting fuel poverty within energy savings obligations

  7. Gait recognition based on integral outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guan; Fang, Lv

    2017-02-01

    Biometric identification technology replaces traditional security technology, which has become a trend, and gait recognition also has become a hot spot of research because its feature is difficult to imitate and theft. This paper presents a gait recognition system based on integral outline of human body. The system has three important aspects: the preprocessing of gait image, feature extraction and classification. Finally, using a method of polling to evaluate the performance of the system, and summarizing the problems existing in the gait recognition and the direction of development in the future.

  8. Outline and operations of benzene plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, S; Hirooka, N; Nakamura, M; Goto, T

    1983-01-01

    An account is given of plant which can process 130,000 tonnes of by-product coke oven gas light oil (GLO) per year (via hydrodesulfurization, extraction and distillation) to produce benzene, toluene and xylene. The flowsheets and component equipment of the various production processes are explained, together with special features such as the production of hydrogen from coke oven gas by the PSA process and the processing of GLO by the ARCO process. Plant operation is outlined and the results of performance tests are noted.

  9. ITER-FEAT outline design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In July 1998 the ITER Parties were unable, for financial reasons, to proceed with construction of the ITER design proposed at that time, to meet the detailed technical objectives and target cost set in 1992. It was therefore decided to investigate options for the design of ITER with reduced technical objectives and with possibly decreased technical margins, whose target construction cost was one half that of the 1998 ITER design, while maintaining the overall programmatic objective. To identify designs that might meet the revised objectives, task forces involving the JCT and Home Teams met during 1998 and 1999 to analyse and compare a range of options for the design of such a device. This led at the end of 1999 to a single configuration for the ITER design with parameters considered to be the most credible consistent with technical limitations and the financial target, yet meeting fully the objectives with appropriate margins. This new design of ITER, called ''ITER-FEAT'', was submitted to the ITER Director to the ITER Parties as the ''ITER-FEAT Outline Design Report'' (ODR) in January 2000, at their meeting in Tokyo. The Parties subsequently conducted their domestic assessments of this report and fed the resulting comments back into the progressing design. The progress on the developing design was reported to the ITER Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) in June 2000 in the report ''Progress in Resolving Open Design Issues from the ODR'' alongside a report on Progress in Technology R and D for ITER. In addition, the progress in the ITER-FEAT Design and Validating R and D was reported to the ITER Parties. The ITER-FEAT design was subsequently approved by the governing body of ITER in Moscow in June 2000 as the basis for the preparation of the Final Design Report, recognising it as a single mature design for ITER consistent with its revised objectives. This volume contains the documents pertinent to the process described above. More detailed technical information

  10. Poverty in Mexico in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Jesus Manuel

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores poverty trends in Mexico during the 1990's using three different definitions of poverty. The paper then uses poverty convergence analysis to explore the pre-crisis (1992-1994), the crisis (1994-1996), and the recovery periods (1996-1998). Finally, the paper incorporates a regional analysis in order to examine these poverty effects in greater detail.

  11. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS and...

  12. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the poverty...

  13. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts within...

  14. IDRC on Microfinance and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The first step in making micro-insurance more accessible is simply finding out what works. ... make better decisions, increase productivity, and reduce poverty. Now, DrumNet is developing a new credit system to allow poor farmers to purchase.

  15. Determinant of Poverty in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    a logistic regression model to identify determinants of wellbeing of the household ... interest of researchers, public authorities and international organizations. The ... have to understand the determinants of poverty in rural and urban Ethiopia.

  16. Poverty, disability and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez Ríos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that persons with disabilities represent 15% of the world population. There is a strong link between poverty and disability. Population with disabilities is among the most disadvantaged and discriminated. However, development economic theories have forgotten essential matters about this population, contributing towards their invisibility and poverty. The Capability Approach from a Human Rights based approach brings us a new dimension. The extraordinary costs that arise from a disability and from the psychological, physical and social barriers that persons with disabilities face, contribute to their poverty, lack of freedom and vulneration of human rights, as put forward by current studies on this subject. International co-operation becomes a very valuable tool to be used for the promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities and overcoming poverty.

  17. Population growth, poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, J S

    1997-07-01

    One of the most popular explanations for the many problems that face Africa is population growth. Africa's population has doubled since 1960. Africa has the highest fertility rate in the world and the rate of population growth is higher than in any other region. At the same time, Africa faces a social and economic situation that is viewed by many as alarming. Among the problems that devastate Africa is that of persistent poor health. Africa has lower life expectancy, higher mortality rates and is affected by more disease and illness conditions than any other region. Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, this paper examines the relationship between population growth, poverty and poor health. While most analyses have focused on population growth as an original cause of poverty and underdevelopment, this paper argues that while both population growth and poor health play a significant role in exacerbating the problem of poverty, they are themselves primary consequences of poverty rather than its cause.

  18. The poverty of liberal economics

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David

    2003-01-01

    Liberal economic precepts have long been a foundation for the social science of poverty and continue to profoundly influence public policy. Liberal economics contends that poverty is dependent on the harmonious progress of economic growth, free market capitalism, worker productivity, and the supply and demand of labor. This paper traces its origins from classical economics and its influence throughout contemporary social science, public policy and conventional wisdom. Next, I evaluate the lib...

  19. Joining together to combat poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusić, M; Vuk Pavlović, S

    2000-03-01

    The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development.

  20. Outlining a typology of sports coaching careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to extend our understanding of sports coaching careers and challenge related stage-based models by outlining and describing a typology of careers in high-performance sports coaching. A constructivist research approach is applied that intends to gain insight into the realities...... of coaches’ careers.Datawere drawn fromin-depth interviews with 10 Danish high-performance sports coaches. Results identified four classifying features that pave the way for the establishment of a typology consisting of three ideal types: (1) the elite-athlete coach; (2) the academic coach; and (3) the early......-starter coach. The findings are theorized throughWenger’s concept of paradigmatic pathways and Bourdieu’s concept of cultural capital. The study illuminates paradigmatic trajectories and conversions of cultural capital in high-performance sports coaching careers that may act as models for young athletes...

  1. Outline of physical protection exercise field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Norio; Wakabayashi, Shuji; Naito, Aisaku

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency set up exercise facilities for trainee of nuclear power emerging countries in Asia involved in Physical Protection (PP) including government officers in charge of nuclear security policy or nuclear security regulation, planning and management staff of PP facilities of operating companies, design professionals for PP facilities, and security personnel responsible for PP. After April in 2012, the facility started to be applied to actual ISCN's PP training and is expected as training field for not only Asian nuclear emerging country but also domestic nuclear energy companies and regulatory bodies. In order to provide effective and practical exercises, we set up the training facilities with basic measures and equipment typical of those used in actual PP facilities, e.g., protective fences, sensors, and cameras. This paper provides an outline of the facilities. (author)

  2. Brooks, T., y Nussbaum, M. C. (eds.. (2015. Rawls's Political Liberalism. Nueva York, Estados Unidos de América: Columbia University. 206 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Josue Cunningham-Matamoros

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poco más de dos décadas después de la publicación de Political Liberalism (1993 del filósofo estadounidense John Rawls, Thom Brooks y Martha Nussbaum se dieron la tarea de editar una compilación de seis ensayos que muestran la actualidad de este libro. Los escritos que participan en esta recopilación se aproximan al texto rawlsiano de manera variopinta, tanto a nivel disciplinar como en lo referido a la finalidad con la cual lo abordan. A grandes rasgos, estos se dividen en tres grupos: el primer grupo, cuya pretensión es realizar una revisión crítica de la obra o de conceptos medulares de esta (Frank I. Michelman, Martha Nussbaum y Onora O'Neill; el segundo conjunto, donde se realiza una labor exegética capaz de responder a múltiples críticas que ha enfrentado el texto desde su publicación (Jeremy Waldron y Paul Weithman y, finalmente, un artículo ―el tercer grupo― que muestra la consistencia práctica en el modo en que Rawls concibió el derecho constitucional estadounidense.

  3. Pro-Poor Tourism: Putting Poverty At The Heart Of The Tourism Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, Caroline; Boyd, Charlotte; Goodwin, Harold

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how tourism affects the livelihoods of the poor and how positive impacts can be enhanced. In doing so, it assesses the relevance of tourism to the poverty agenda, and the factors that encourage or constrain economic participation of the poor in the industry. In conclusion it outlines strategies for promoting pro-poor tourism.

  4. Energy and poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghir, J.

    2004-05-01

    The energy community has its work cut out for it: 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity, and 2.4 billion still rely on traditional biomass fuels. This deprivation in energy has enormous impacts on the lives of poor people. Strong links between the energy sector and poverty reduction (through income, health, education, gender, and the environment) underscore the importance of the energy sector in social and economic development. They also point to the importance of the energy sector working closely with other sectors in tackling energy deprivation. If it does so, the world's poor people can look forward to enjoying the same benefits of modern energy as its affluent people do. Even so, ending energy deprivation will not be easy. It calls for tough public policy choices and sustained commitment. And the energy business is such that these choices require a delicate balancing act: provide enough subsidies and financing to make modern energy accessible to the poor, yet avoid distorting energy markets by favoring one fuel over another or stifling the markets through counterproductive pricing and subsidy policies. How best to design and implement policies for expanding access to energy is a question requiring close attention to the lessons from experience. But experience already points to some good choices. It shows the importance of removing institutional and regulatory barriers, designing subsidies carefully, ensuring local involvement in the design and delivery of energy services, and protecting the poor during reforms. These policies are not enough to end energy deprivation, but they are certainly necessary for doing so. Moreover, no one way of applying these policies will work under all the widely varying social and economic conditions around the world. Recognizing this, the World Bank is pioneering some of the most innovative research in this area. Where it sees appropriate opportunities, it remains open to providing investment and adjustment lending. It

  5. [An end to poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, P

    1994-10-01

    The African continent is distinguished by a much higher fertility rate than other regions. Fertility in Africa has remained almost constant at slightly over six children per woman on average, while important declines have occurred elsewhere over the past 25 years. High fertility in Africa is often attributed to poor diffusion of family planning, early marriage, and low female educational attainment, but other cultural and economic factors are involved. The significant decline of infant mortality over the past several decades has produced growth rates never before observed. Africa's very young populations may be at the origin of uncontrollable political disorder, as young persons with bleak prospects fall easy prey to ethnic, religious, and political extremism. Demographic growth has become an additional barrier to development. High fertility is tolerated or encouraged as constituting a cultural trait, but the resulting population growth is not a cultural trait. Demographic pressure has increased environmental problems in many regions. It is estimated that over ten million rural residents of the Sahel have been affected by soil degradation. The per capita availability of arable land fell from one-half to one-third hectare between 1965 and 1987. Shortages of firewood and water have become more common. The relationship between demographic growth, environmental crisis, and poverty in the countryside depends on other factors such as production techniques, modes of access to land and water, and the degree of security of land tenure. Population pressure was not the initial factor that disturbed the balance of the traditional societies, but it exacerbated the effects of other forces such as the introduction of cash crops and monetarization of the economy. Rural exodus and accelerated urban migration have been prompted in large part by the higher incomes and greater availability of services of all types in the cities. Achieving control of fertility in Africa will require

  6. Childhood nutrition and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    2000-05-01

    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  7. Macroeconomics, (Adult) Education, and Poverty Eradication in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhamo, Senia; Nhamo, Godwell

    2006-05-01

    The Millennium Summit held in New York in September 2000 outlined the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The first of these involves the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, setting two targets: halving by 2015 the percentage of the world's populace in 1990 with income less than US-1 a day (i.e., cutting this percentage from 27.9 to 14%); and halving the share of people who suffer from hunger. As for education, the MDGs seek to ensure that all children can complete primary schooling by 2015. Drawing on examples from selected southern African countries, the present study examines the need to strengthen economic support for (adult) education as an instrument of poverty eradication. It argues that human capital is one of the fundamental determinants of economic growth, and that this economic resource is essentially determined in both qualitative and quantitative regards by education.

  8. The Africanization of poverty: a retrospective on "Make Poverty History".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which the British campaign coalition Make Poverty History represented Africa throughout 2005. Focusing particularly on the G8 Gleneagles summit, Make Poverty History (MPH) asserted a series of justice claims which had no geographical reference. Nevertheless, as a result of internal tensions within the coalition, and especially as a result of the ways in which MPH interacted with other political agencies as the summit approached, MPH's messages became increasingly interpolated by references to Africa as a result of the emergence of government, media, and celebrity involvement. The result of this was that global poverty increasingly became an African issue. As 2005 became the "Year of Africa," the justice messages that constituted MPH were largely effaced by the more familiar imperial legacy which represents Africa as a place of indigence in need of outside assistance.

  9. Indicators System for Poverty Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Mitrut

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty represents a life aspect which is focusing the attention of both the macroeconomic analysis and the international comparisons. In order to measure the level being recorded by this phenomenon, there is a system of indicators which are used in order to underline, in a correlated manner, a number of aspects which are characterizing, quality and quantity wise, the evolution of the poverty in a specific country or, to a larger extent, through comparative surveys, at international level. Despite the fact that they are not the only instrument being used within the process of comparison of the stages of social and economic development at the international level, however the poverty indicators are providing a clear significance to the worked out surveys. In fact, the very purpose of the economic activity consists of increasing welfare and, as much as possible, at least reducing, if not eradicating, the poverty. The present work is broadly presenting the methodology as well as, both theoretical and practical, the way of computing the poverty, making a synthesis of the specific used indicators.

  10. Energy and poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghir, J. [The World Bank Group, Washington DC (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The energy community has its work cut out for it: 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity, and 2.4 billion still rely on traditional biomass fuels. This deprivation in energy has enormous impacts on the lives of poor people. Strong links between the energy sector and poverty reduction (through income, health, education, gender, and the environment) underscore the importance of the energy sector in social and economic development. They also point to the importance of the energy sector working closely with other sectors in tackling energy deprivation. If it does so, the world's poor people can look forward to enjoying the same benefits of modern energy as its affluent people do. Even so, ending energy deprivation will not be easy. It calls for tough public policy choices and sustained commitment. And the energy business is such that these choices require a delicate balancing act: provide enough subsidies and financing to make modern energy accessible to the poor, yet avoid distorting energy markets by favoring one fuel over another or stifling the markets through counterproductive pricing and subsidy policies. How best to design and implement policies for expanding access to energy is a question requiring close attention to the lessons from experience. But experience already points to some good choices. It shows the importance of removing institutional and regulatory barriers, designing subsidies carefully, ensuring local involvement in the design and delivery of energy services, and protecting the poor during reforms. These policies are not enough to end energy deprivation, but they are certainly necessary for doing so. Moreover, no one way of applying these policies will work under all the widely varying social and economic conditions around the world. Recognizing this, the World Bank is pioneering some of the most innovative research in this area. Where it sees appropriate opportunities, it remains open to providing investment and adjustment lending. It

  11. Poverty Underestimation in Rural India- A Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu; Sarvalingam, A

    2010-01-01

    When ever the Planning Commission of India releases the poverty data, that data is being criticised by experts and economists. The main criticism is underestimation of poverty especially in rural India by the Planning Commission. This paper focuses on that criticism and compares the Indian Planning Commission’s 2004-05 rural poverty data with the India’s 2400 kcal poverty norms, World Bank’s US $1.08 poverty concept and Asian Development Bank’s US $1.35 poverty concept.

  12. Outline of cold nuclear fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Enzo

    1991-01-01

    In 2010, as the total supply capacity of primary energy, 666 million liter is anticipated under the measures of thorough energy conservation. The development of energy sources along the energy policy based on environment preservation, safety, the quantity of resources and economy is strongly demanded. The nuclear power generation utilizing nuclear fission has been successfully carried out. As the third means of energy production, the basic research and technical development have been actively advanced on the energy production utilizing nuclear fusion reaction. The main object of the nuclear fusion research being advanced now is D-D reaction and D-T reaction. In order to realize low temperature nuclear fusion reaction, muon nuclear fusion has been studied so far. The cold nuclear fusion reaction by the electrolysis of heavy water has been reported in 1989, and its outline is ixplained in this report. The trend of the research on cold nuclear fusion is described. But the possibility of cold nuclear fusion as an energy source is almost denied. (K.I.)

  13. Poverty and Health in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines health conditions in the rural areas of Central Argentina, the country’s main region for soy-bean production and export. Health conditions are analyzed through the concepts of emerging and re-emerging diseases in a context of increasing poverty. Data on poverty and health was obtained from both primary sources (trade union, government officials, rural doctors and the South Watch/FA/FODEPAL/UNR working group and secondary sources (IPEC/INDEC, IDESA, Consultora Equis, the Argentine Ministry of Employment, ILO, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of the Environment, toxicology centers and rural doctors. Analysis of rural health conditions gives cause for concern. There is evidence of deterioration in the social determinants of health such as an increase in rural and urban poverty associated with informal employment and child labor. At the same time lack of government epidemiological and toxicological data appears to hide or distort the reality of health conditions.

  14. DETERMINANTS OF POVERTY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDREEA UREAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania is one of the poorest countries in Europe. The purpose of this investigation is to determine which factors influence the magnitude of this socio-economic phenomenon. Current availability of data from National Institute of Statistics ensures our sample. We apply a panel data analysis of regional development: North-East, SouthEast, South, South-West, West, North-West, Centre and Bucharest-Ilfov to understand how Romania can reduce poverty. The authors found a direct link between relative poverty rate and education. In addition, the negative relationship between poverty and pensioners shows the importance of a good government policies. In this context, we propose to focus our attention on the needs of people. Education can be an important determinat of national development, on the other slide, educated people are more willing to understand the role of pension system.

  15. Female Poverty in Development Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    PEKER, Ayşe Esra

    2018-01-01

    The scope  of  poverty differs  from country tocountry,  from the  period to period,  and  depending on  the  developments in welfare  level.  Today, although  the  phenomenon poverty is seen  the problem  of   less developed  and   developing c...

  16. A decade of fuel poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1992-01-01

    Neighbourhood Energy Action was established in 1981 to develop practical solutions to the problem of fuel poverty. The scale of fuel poverty was evident even then. In that year 2.3. million households received a weekly Heating Addition to help heat their homes, at an annual cost of Pound 260 million, 48,000 Supplementary Benefit claimants received emergency cold weather payments, 151,000 households were disconnected from their gas or electricity supply, and local authority expenditure on energy efficiency improvements halved to Pound 15 million. (author).

  17. Poverty, Dependence, Optimizing, and Adapting : Material and Spiritual Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarot, Marcel; Speelman, Willem Marie

    2017-01-01

    In the preparations of this project, there have been some serious objections against the approach of poverty as a spiritual path. Sarot argues that Christians should listen carefully to these criticisms, for ideals may easily cover up realities of evil, and, in response, contemplates the use of the

  18. ¿Qué podemos pedir a una teoría de la justicia? Algunas consideraciones acerca de un debate entre Amartya Sen y John Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biondo, Francesco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to revise Sen’s thesis about the «transcendental» nature of Rawls’ theory of justice. According to Sen transcendental theories of justice are unnecessary. What we aim at is to justify a series of comparative judgements about two or more states of affairs.We do not strive, unlike Rawls, to form a complete system of moral principles that backs an «ideal just society». I try to show that Sen’s «comparative» account is weak. First of all, Sen does not offer a fair interpretation of Rawls’ theory. In particular, he is wrong when he depicts Rawls’ justice as fairness as a complete and transcendental moral doctrine. Secondly, Sen overlooks the fact that in order to justify comparative evaluations of states of affairs we must assume as valid a particular moral doctrine. Finally I try to solve the problem about the contrast between transcendental and comparative account by offering a transcendental outlook to questions of justice that is, at the same time, pluralist and incomplete.

    En este trabajo intento exponer las tesis de Sen sobre las características que demandamos a una teoría satisfactoria de la justicia, y sus críticas al modelo «trascendental» de teoría, que según él es lo que Rawls persigue. Según Sen, este modelo es inaceptable por ser inalcanzable e innecesario; lo que en nuestra práctica argumentativa intentamos lograr son juicios comparativos entre situaciones reales, y no sistemas completos de proposiciones acerca de ideales de la sociedad justa. Intentaré argumentar que el enfoque metaético de Sen es débil por dos razones: no ofrece una reconstrucción adecuada de la teoría de Rawls, equivocándose sobre su carácter «completo», y no explica de qué manera los juicios comparativos de valor entre dos situaciones sociales no sean el resultado de una teoría «trascendental» de la justicia. Me propongo, entonces, solucionar el problema, presentando una mirada trascendental de las

  19. Community Awareness and Participation in Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poverty policies and strategies. Consistent with this, the government of Tanzania is determined to encourage bottom-up participatory planning with focus on the objectives of poverty alleviation. Despite the importance of community participation ...

  20. Education for the Eradication of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    C.I. Oriahi; A.O. Aitufe

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the possible education for the eradication of poverty in Nigeria. It defines poverty as a state pf shortage or deficiency of meeting basic needs. Majors causes of poverty are overpopulation, illiteracy, unemployment, environmental degradation and government insensitive to the welfare of the people. Effects of poverty include homelessness, malnutrition and starvation, illness, crime, violence and antisocial behaviour like Internet Fraud (Yahoo business) and Advance Fee Frau...

  1. Poverty eradication in a carbon constrained world

    OpenAIRE

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Patwardhan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to keep warming below 2 °C while recognizing developing countries’ right to eradicate extreme poverty. Poverty eradication is also the first of the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper investigates potential consequences for climate targets of achieving poverty eradication. We find that eradicating extreme poverty, i.e., moving people to an income above $1.9 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day, does not jeopardize the climate target even...

  2. Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Makoka, Donald; Kaplan, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of poverty and vulnerability as well as the interconnections and differences between them using an interdisciplinary approach. While poverty is a static concept, vulnerability has a forward-looking dimension. We, therefore, review the methodologies that different disciplines use to measure poverty and vulnerability. In particular, the differences between vulnerability to natural disasters, vulnerability to climate change, as well as vulnerability to poverty a...

  3. An Asian poverty line? Issues and options

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Given Asia's record of rapid economic growth and the conceptual and empirical problems of the current international income poverty line ('dollar-a-day'), this paper discusses whether there is merit to develop an Asia-specific poverty line that addresses some of the shortcomings of the dollar-a-day line and additionally considers Asia's particular economic situation. We consider various ways of creating an Asia-specific poverty line, including an Asia-specific international income poverty line...

  4. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  5. Examining the Culture of Poverty: Promising Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…

  6. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  7. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty an...

  8. Development theory and poverty. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Farina

    2015-01-01

    This review article presents the evolution of development theory during the XX century, the measurement of poverty, the concept and the indices of multidimensional poverty. A special focus concerns the complex linkages between income inequality, poverty and institutions during the growth process of developing countries.

  9. Poverty Dynamics: the case of the Maldives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. de Kruijk (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPoverty dynamics research leads to a better understanding of poverty than point-in-time studies. We have executed a comprehensive longitudinal poverty study based on 3 large-scale household surveys carried out on all 200 inhabited islands in the Maldives. The first wave was conducted in

  10. Poverty, Policy and Price Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    This thesis consists of four self-contained chapters in which different aspects of the relationship between international commodity markets and domestic food markets are explored. What motivates the analysis is the recent surge in international commodity prices and the controversy over the poverty...

  11. Poverty among Elderly in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  12. The elusive constellations of poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugelmans, S.M.; Plantinga, A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Poluektova, Olga; Efremova, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Pepper & Nettle describe possible processes underlying what they call a behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD). Although we are certain about the application of evolutionary models to our understanding of poverty, we are less certain about the utility of behavioral constellations. The

  13. Child poverty and environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberg, Claudia; Pauli, Andrea

    2007-10-01

    Child poverty and social inequality in Western countries are growing both in scope and in complexity. The clustering of income poverty in urban settings reflects the complex process of residential segregation. Living in segregated neighbourhoods with much poverty and predominantly substandard housing is usually associated with poor physical, chemical and social environmental living conditions at the individual and community level which influence and shape children's health both directly and indirectly. This paper shows research data on the link between child poverty and income-related health inequalities according to the unequal exposure to environmental hazards as well as the unequal distribution of environmental resources in the domestic environment and within the local context as an increasing public health issue in Germany. The links between these factors are drawn from the conceptual framework of environmental justice. Examples are shown of integrated approaches to alleviate social and environmental disparities at the community level. The implications of environmental justice for public health include the need to uncover the link between socioeconomic factors and environmental health disparities related to the man-made environment. Developing relevant indicators for environmental inequalities in the context of housing and health is an important task for public health research. More emphasis should be placed on a comprehensive holistic approach to understand the mechanisms by which socioeconomic factors modify children's susceptibility and exposure to environmental hazards, particularly in low-income areas.

  14. Bilaterally symmetric Fourier approximations of the skull outlines of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    These points denotes break in curvature of the outline and their positions can be compared to .... temnospondyl skull outlines by their shape variations. 2. .... their dentition are related to the feeding habits. Future ... pondyl families is not easy.

  15. An annotated outline for a traffic management center operations manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    This draft Traffic Management Center (TMC) and Operations manual outline is meant to serve as a model "checklist" for the development of similar manuals used in deployed environments. The purpose of this outline is to provide a reference for agencies...

  16. Levels of poverty and the poverty gap in rural Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Mears

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The aim of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the income and expenditure patterns of selected deep rural villages. This is done by measuring the level of poverty and/or the poverty gap of 132 households in Limpopo, one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. Problem investigated: The Millennium Declaration symbolises the commitment to end extreme poverty, but limited data is available for rural areas to inform policy decisions. The relative income shares for individuals, households and percentile groups within a population provide the best information on poverty for policy formulation. The nature and size distribution of income are therefore central to analysing the poverty problem within low-income areas. The survey area is one of the poorest areas in South Africa, and shows what data is needed to measure and understand the extent of poverty. Design/Method/Approach: A representative sample of 132 households was drawn, which represents 6,9 percent of the estimated 1900 households in selected villages of rural Limpopo. A total of 740 household members were represented in the survey, with an average of 5,6 members per household. Originality/Value: Although this is a relatively small sample, it generated much-needed data on this very poor area of South Africa. Detailed empirical data on the income and expenditure patterns is not available, especially for rural areas. The socio-economic data from this research supported an important health project of the Water and Health Research Unit (WHRU of the University of Johannesburg. The article also lays the foundation for further research in this field of study, facilitating engagement with a number of related debates such as those about satisfaction of life, vulnerability to poverty, the geography of deprivation and the mapping of poverty. Conclusion: The main finding is that the government provides for many needs of the poor, especially in the deep rural areas. Only

  17. O conceito de igualdade na filosofia política contemporânea: Um debate entre Rawls, Dworkin e Amartya Sen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alves Gomes de Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das questões mais interessantes do debate contemporâneo sobre a justiça, no âmbito da teoria política normativa, diz respeito sobre qual foco deveria ocupar a posição central de uma visão igualitarista: igualdade baseada em satisfação de necessidades básicas, bens primários como propõe Rawls, igualdade de recursos como defende Dworkin ou, como quer Amartya Sen, igualdade de capacidades? Com o que, afinal, os igualitaristas deveriam se preocupar? Este trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar criticamente essas três perspectivas.

  18. Amartya Sen e a escolha social: uma extensão da teoria da justiça de John Rawls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Regina Marin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo é apresentar a visão de Amartya Sen quanto à possibilidade da escolha social como um exercício comparativo e reflexivo com indivíduos comprometidos, tendo como ponto de partida a justiça como equidade de John Rawls. O argumento é o de que o agir por comprometimento e as várias identidades sociais estabelecidas pelos diferentes indivíduos durante suas vidas - considerando um conceito de indivíduo que não é o racional e autointeressado da Economia tradicional - são formas de desenvolver o pensamento seniano no que se refere ao processo de escolha social via raciocínio público, sem necessitar do conceito de racionalismo estrito como proposto na Economia.

  19. Optimal multi-dimensional poverty lines: The state of poverty in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Jamal R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Poverty estimation based on calories intake is unrealistic. The established concept of multidimensional poverty has methodological weaknesses in the treatment of different dimensions and there is disagreement in methods of combining them into a single poverty line. This paper introduces a methodology to estimate optimal multidimensional poverty lines and uses the Iraqi household socio-economic survey data of 2012 to demonstrate the idea. The optimal poverty line for Iraq is found to be 170.5 Thousand Iraqi Dinars (TID).

  20. Targeting poverty : lessons from monitoring Ireland's National Anti-Poverty Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Layte, Richard; Nolan, Brian; Whelan, Christopher T.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 the Irish government adopted the National Anti-Poverty Strategy (NAPS), a global target for the reduction of poverty which illuminates a range of issues relating to official poverty targets. The Irish target is framed in terms of a relative poverty measure incorporating both relative income and direct measures of deprivation based on data on the extent of poverty from 1994. Since 1994 Ireland has experienced an unprecedented period of economic growth that makes it particularly importa...

  1. Effects of electronic outlining on students' argumentative writing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, M.R.J.; Broekkamp, H.; Brand-Gruwel, S.; Kirschner, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of electronic outlining on the quality of students' writing products and how outlining affects perceived mental effort during the writing task. Additionally, it was studied how students appropriate and appreciate an outline tool and whether they need explicit

  2. 9 CFR 114.9 - Outline of Production guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outline of Production guidelines. 114.9 Section 114.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.9 Outline of Production guidelines. Each Outline of Production shall...

  3. Development and Validation of A Short Form of the Attitude Toward Poverty Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hyun Yun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the development and validation of a short form of the 37-item Attitude toward Poverty (ATP scale. Employing a cross-sectional survey design, the authors sampled 319 undergraduate students at a mid-sized university located in central Canada. The short form evinced high levels of internal consistency ranging from .87 to .89. Evidence for the validity was established through correlational analyses and independent samples t-tests. The findings suggest the short form is a feasible alternative to the original ATP scale for researchers and academics seeking to assess the poverty-related attitudes of university students.

  4. Zakat as an Instrument of Eradicating Poverty (Indonesian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anton Athoillah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes more clearly about the charity as an instrument of poverty alleviation. Said to be more pronounced because zakat is not only described from the aspect of Islamic law, but also from the aspect of Islamic Economics. Starting from the idea of a content analysis of two professors of Economic Development, Prahalad and Yuyun Wirasasmita, this paper reveals the fundamental aspects of the causes of poverty, namely culture, alienation and exploitation. In this paper, the charity manages to pack in a comprehensive manner to a complementary instrument, whether Islamic law, and even Islamic Economics. Among the novelties in this paper is a substantive interpretation of zakat which is connected with the theory of economic development, compared with tax and economic-mathematical analysis to find a charity to further its position in the study of economics. As for other things that were outlined in this paper is the normative aspects of zakat, as where made explicit, as an instrument of poverty alleviation for various sectors, as seen from its usability goals.

  5. Understanding energy poverty - Case study: Tajikistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robic, Slavica; Olshanskaya, Marina; Vrbensky, Rastislav; Morvaj, Zoran

    2010-09-15

    Access and affordability to energy services determine the state of energy poverty; however, there is no widely applicable definition of energy poverty and no universal set of measures for its eradication exists. This paper offers a new definition and possible solution for decrease, and eventually eradication, of energy poverty for the specific case of Tajikistan. As eradication of energy poverty needs to go in hand with nature preservation and economic development, authors provide possible approach to decrease of energy poverty in Tajikistan while simultaneously preserving nature and boosting the local economy.

  6. Young child poverty in the United States: Analyzing trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs using the Supplemental Poverty Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Pac, Jessica; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Between 1968 and 2013, the poverty rate of young children age 0 to 5 years fell by nearly one third, in large part because of the role played by anti-poverty programs. However, young children in the U.S. still face a much higher rate of poverty than do older children in the U.S. They also continue to have a much higher poverty rate than do young children in other developed countries around the world. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of trends in poverty and the role of anti-pover...

  7. Freedom and poverty in the fishery commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Jentoft

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In fisheries, alleviating poverty sometimes requires strategies that are inherently in conflict. When aiming to develop a fishery as a means to reduce poverty, its common pool resource basis might be undermined, resulting in greater poverty. But poverty in fisheries is also linked to, or a part of deeper social issues and processes, for instance, the marginalization and exclusion of certain communities. Poverty also has many factors— income, health, literacy, gender, power, security, etc.—all of which make poverty alleviation a particularly “wicked problem” that would require a broad process of political, social and institutional reform. In other words, poverty alleviation is not only an issue of sustainable resource management but also one of societal governance. Drawing from research in small-scale fisheries communities in Nicaragua, Tanzania, and Bangladesh, this paper describes how fishing people cope with poverty. The paper discusses what the governance implications are for alleviating poverty at individual, household and community levels, and argue that both the definition of poverty and poverty alleviation in small-scale fisheries must be rooted in real life experiences.

  8. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries.

  9. Beyond the feminisation of poverty: gender-aware poverty reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, M; Baden, S

    1995-09-01

    There must be an awareness of gender issues in poverty reduction programs. For example, program efforts that direct aid to the promotion of labor intensive employment options disregard women's already overburdened work regime. Public expenditures to benefit the poor, such as primary education or reformed agricultural extension, may be based on the assumption that men and women will benefit equally, yet there is often gender bias in the delivery of services. One recommendation is to target female headed households in budget-constrained anti-poverty programs. One of the few examples of such programs provides urban female household heads in Chile with employment training, housing, health care, child care, and legal aid services. Causes of female headship vary, and a simple correlation with poverty is not always the case. Well-intentioned women-in-development credit programs in Ghana and Bangladesh have been "hijacked" by men. Programs to address gender discrimination only among the poor may overlook other oppressed women. In India gender discrimination is often greatest among women in wealthy households. Programs must offer more than economic resources, they must help women stretch traditional gender boundaries and obtain skills such as literacy or financial management. They must help women organize collectively to protest injustices and achieve institutional reforms.

  10. Poverty is Not Just an Indicator: The Relationship Between Income, Poverty, and Child Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Ajay; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we review the evidence on the effects of poverty and low income on children's development and well-being. We argue that poverty is an important indicator of societal and child well-being, but that poverty is more than just an indicator. Poverty and low income are causally related to worse child development outcomes, particularly cognitive developmental and educational outcomes. Mechanisms through which poverty affects these outcomes include material hardship, family stress, parental and cognitive inputs, and the developmental context to which children are exposed. The timing, duration, and community context of poverty also appear to matter for children's outcomes-with early experiences of poverty, longer durations of poverty, and higher concentrations of poverty in the community leading to worse child outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  12. Population dynamics and rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, M S

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the relationship between demographic factors and rural poverty in developing countries is presented. The author examines both the micro- and macro-level perspectives of this relationship and the determinants and consequences of population growth. The author notes the prospects for a rapid increase in the rural labor force and considers its implications for the agricultural production structure and the need for institutional change. Consideration is also given to the continuing demand for high fertility at the family level and the role of infant and child mortality in the poverty cycle. "The paper concludes by drawing attention to the need for developing the mechanism for reconciliation of social and individual optima with respect to family size and population growth." The need for rural development projects that take demographic factors into account is stressed as is the need for effective population programs. (summary in FRE, ITA) excerpt

  13. Population, poverty and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Sinding, Steven W.

    2009-01-01

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on ...

  14. Poverty, governance and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefi Mohamed Karim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the effect of governance and povrety on economic growth of a set of eight developing countries during the period 2000-2009, using a dynamic and static panel data model and a simultaneous equations model. The key findings generated from these three empirical tests stipulate a negative effect of governance on povrety and a positive effect of political instability and corruption on poverty

  15. Measuring and monitoring energy poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Spreng, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a review of alternative measures and indicators of energy poverty targeted to specific audiences and for particular purposes. At the national and international scales there have been some efforts for constructing measures of energy poverty. However, much more needs to be done to develop an internationally consistent measurement framework and to put in place data collection systems that will enable regular reporting. At the programme and project level, indicator systems by necessity need to be designed for specific purposes. Nevertheless, the article proposes that in many instances it is desirable to widen the scope of metrics used for designing and evaluating policies and programmes. In the past, monitoring and evaluation indicators have focused largely on outputs, service delivery or dissemination. Central to the recommendations laid out in the paper is the call for widening the focus of evaluation and necessity to design indicators that adequately assess the needs of beneficiaries and describe the living conditions of families and communities, who are targeted by such programmes and initiatives. - Highlights: ► Consistent measurement frameworks and regular data collection systems on energy poverty are needed. ► Metrics used for designing and evaluating energy access programmes should be widened. ► Indicators that adequately assess needs and describe living conditions of targeted beneficiaries are required.

  16. Poverty and inequality issues in Albania: trends and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Myftaraj (Tomori) Elena

    2010-01-01

    Poverty and inequality are complex and widespread phenomena. Poverty is an indicator and the main factor of inequality, so reduction of poverty is one of the biggest challenges for economic and social consolidation of a country. There are different concepts of poverty, in this paper we are focused on the concept of absolute poverty. The main objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis on the trends of poverty and inequality indicators, as well as an analysis on the reduction of poverty ...

  17. Young child poverty in the United States: Analyzing trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs using the Supplemental Poverty Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Jessica; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Between 1968 and 2013, the poverty rate of young children age 0 to 5 years fell by nearly one third, in large part because of the role played by anti-poverty programs. However, young children in the U.S. still face a much higher rate of poverty than do older children in the U.S. They also continue to have a much higher poverty rate than do young children in other developed countries around the world. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs in addressing poverty among young children, using an improved measure of poverty, the Supplemental Poverty Measure. We examine changes over time and the current status, both for young children overall and for key subgroups (by child age, and by child race/ethnicity). Our findings can be summarized in three key points. First, poverty among all young children age 0-5 years has fallen since the beginning of our time series; but absent the safety net, today's poverty rate among young children would be identical to or higher than it was in 1968. Second, the safety net plays an increasing role in reducing the poverty of young children, especially among Black non-Hispanic children, whose poverty rate would otherwise be 20.8 percentage points higher in 2013. Third, the composition of support has changed from virtually all cash transfers in 1968, to about one third each of cash, credit and in-kind transfers today.

  18. Young child poverty in the United States: Analyzing trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs using the Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Jessica; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Between 1968 and 2013, the poverty rate of young children age 0 to 5 years fell by nearly one third, in large part because of the role played by anti-poverty programs. However, young children in the U.S. still face a much higher rate of poverty than do older children in the U.S. They also continue to have a much higher poverty rate than do young children in other developed countries around the world. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs in addressing poverty among young children, using an improved measure of poverty, the Supplemental Poverty Measure. We examine changes over time and the current status, both for young children overall and for key subgroups (by child age, and by child race/ethnicity). Our findings can be summarized in three key points. First, poverty among all young children age 0–5 years has fallen since the beginning of our time series; but absent the safety net, today’s poverty rate among young children would be identical to or higher than it was in 1968. Second, the safety net plays an increasing role in reducing the poverty of young children, especially among Black non-Hispanic children, whose poverty rate would otherwise be 20.8 percentage points higher in 2013. Third, the composition of support has changed from virtually all cash transfers in 1968, to about one third each of cash, credit and in-kind transfers today. PMID:28659652

  19. Urbanisation, poverty and employment: the large metropolis in the third world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A

    1992-01-01

    "The main purpose of this paper is to provide an overall review of the chief analytical as well as economic policy issues in relation to Third World cities in the light of the available theoretical and empirical studies on urbanisation, poverty and employment in the developing countries.... Part I...provides basic information on urbanisation in the Third World...[and] outlines the nature and extent of urban poverty in these large cities and considers the impact of the world economic crisis on the urban poor. Part II of the paper discusses the most important structural features of urbanisation in relation to economic development....Finally, Part III briefly examines policy issues in relation to urbanisation and poverty in the Third World's large cities." excerpt

  20. Algumas Críticas de Amartya Sen em relação a Uma Teoria de Justiça de John Rawls: a Questão da Imparcialidade Fechada e a Imparcialidade Aberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Allgayer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a imparcialidade em Amartya Sen como um dos fundamentos para sua ideia de justiça, sendo essa a principal crítica a teoria da justiça de John Rawls. Nesse sentido serão descritos e explicados a imparcialidade fechada (Rawls e a aberta (Sen, e qual os seus devidos papéis na construção de uma sociedade justa. Amartya Sen defende uma ideia de justiça que não seja definitiva, que propicie as abordagens e as argumentações que se dediquem a partir de uma razão prática a redução das injustiças e a construção de melhorias tendo uma visão mais pragmática do que a desenvolvida por Rawls em sua teoria da justiça.

  1. O Supremo Tribunal Federal e a anencefalia: uma reflexão sobre a legitimidade democrática do Judiciário à luz de Rawls, Habermas e Nino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Bunchaft

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n3p55 O debate entre Habermas e Rawls representa uma contribuição fundamental para a compreensão das questões sobre reconhecimento, multiculturalismo e pós-secularismo, introduzindo diferentes concepções filosóficas que podem contribuir sobre a temática acerca do uso público da razão, a fim de elucidar as diferentes percepções teóricas capazes de atender aos desafios propostos pelas sociedades pluralistas. Carlos Santiago Nino, por sua vez, estabeleceu uma estratégia teórica denominada “construtivismo epistemológico”, delineada a partir do debate Habermas-Rawls. Por conseguinte, pretendemos articular os fundamentos filosóficos atinentes à concepção de razão pública delineada por Rawls e Habermas e ao construtivismo epistemológico de Carlos Santiago Nino com a análise da legitimidade democrática do STF na resolução de uma questão moral controvertida que é objeto de um desacordo moral razoável: o aborto de fetos anencéfalos.

  2. On the Robustness of Poverty Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Nhate, Virgulino; Silva, Patricia Castro Da

    Monitoring of poverty requires timely household budget data. However, such data are not available as frequently as needed for policy purposes. Recently, statistical methods have emerged to predict poverty overtime by combining detailed household consumption and expenditure data with more frequent...... data collected from other surveys. In this paper we compare poverty predictions for Mozambique using different source data to test the robustness of the predicted poverty statistics. A critical element in this exercise of predicting poverty overtime is the stability of the parameters that determine...... household consumption. We find that the assumption of stable consumption determinants does not hold for Mozambique during the time period examined. We also examine what drives the resulting predicted poverty statistics. The paper then considers the policy implications of these findings for Mozambique...

  3. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POVERTY AT DIFFERENT SCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi PAWITAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty mapping is usually developed from some sources of data, such as from census and survey data. In some practical application, the poverty was measured usually by household income or expenditure of daily basic consumption. Using different scales and zoning on a particular set of spatial data may leads to problems in interpreting the results. In practice, organizations publish statistics and maps at a particular area level. Minot and Baulch (2005a discussed some consequences of using aggregated level data in poverty mapping, which may affect the validity of the output. The key point of this paper is to compare spatial distribution of the poverty at two different scale, which is the province and district level. How the spatial distribution of the poverty at province level can be use to infer the distribution at the district level. The geographical weighted regression will be applied, and the poverty data of Vietnam will be used as an illustration.

  4. Do we understand the linkages between economic growth, poverty targets and poverty reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Jensen, Stig Eduard Breitenstein

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on poverty trends in Africa, looking at the argument for a correspondence between economic growth and poverty reduction. It questions whether a link between economic growth and poverty reduction can be established. We first look at the general picture...... appears more obvious, social and political unrest in 2009 casts doubt on the reliability of the data. Indeed, it is probable that an increase in poverty contributed to the crisis in Madagascar. Furthermore, there a signs that in both countries poverty strategies are increasingly giving way to Poverty...... Reduction Growth Facility programmes, closely related to former structural adjustment loans. We conclude, first, that analysing poverty strategies through Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers does not help in resolving the uncertainty, since these strategies assume a priori the existence of a link between...

  5. Multidimensional Poverty and Health Status as a Predictor of Chronic Income Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal analysis of Wave 5 to 10 of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia dataset was undertaken to assess whether multidimensional poverty status can predict chronic income poverty. Of those who were multidimensionally poor (low income plus poor health or poor health and insufficient education attainment) in 2007, and those who were in income poverty only (no other forms of disadvantage) in 2007, a greater proportion of those in multidimensional poverty continued to be in income poverty for the subsequent 5 years through to 2012. People who were multidimensionally poor in 2007 had 2.17 times the odds of being in income poverty each year through to 2012 than those who were in income poverty only in 2005 (95% CI: 1.23-3.83). Multidimensional poverty measures are a useful tool for policymakers to identify target populations for policies aiming to improve equity and reduce chronic disadvantage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Gender, Poverty and Employment in India

    OpenAIRE

    V. Gayathri

    2005-01-01

    Development theories recognise that employment is central to the alleviation of poverty and the enhancement of well-being. This means that at the practical level, it is understood that labour-intensive growth and greater labour-force participation by women are necessary elements for poverty reduction. At the level of discursive practice, the gender and poverty debates treat labour as an abstract category. In recognition of this lacuna, this paper attempts to address two principal questions: a...

  7. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas.The economic theory of crime [1] demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime.The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  8. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Vázquez; Sonia Panadero

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors") and Spanish ("observers") undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ). Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are difference...

  9. Outlining the parameters for a linguistic nativist position

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MV

    In addition, the basis for mental computation and learning was not in place until Farley and Clark implemented a .... The need for UG to shape the learning process has traditionally been argued for on the basis of the Poverty of the Stimulus argument. ..... Rizzolatti, G. and L. Craighero. 2004. The mirror-neuron system.

  10. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  11. Does Inequality Matter for Poverty Reduction? Evidence from Pakistan’s Poverty Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Jamal

    2006-01-01

    The paper explores the linkages between poverty, growth and inequality in the context of Pakistan. Time series macro data are used for the period 1979 to 2002. Consistent poverty and inequality measures are interpolated to facilitate the estimation of poverty elasticity with respect to growth and inequality in a multivariate regression framework. The paper also attempts to find out macroeconomic and structural correlates of inequality. The empirical findings—high poverty elasticity with respe...

  12. Poverty in the Brazilian Amazon: An Assessment of Poverty Focused on the State of Para

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    The states in the Brazilian Amazon have made progress in reducing poverty and improving social indicators in the last decade. Despite this progress, the poverty rate in the Amazon is among the highest in Brazil. As of 2000, rural poverty is the greatest challenge. In Par?, not only is the headcount poverty rate of 58.4 percent in rural areas more than 55 percent higher than headcount pover...

  13. Bilaterally symmetric Fourier approximations of the skull outlines of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Present work illustrates a scheme of quantitative description of the shape of the skull outlines of temnospondyl amphibians using bilaterally symmetric closed Fourier curves. Some special points have been identified on the Fourier fits of the skull outlines, which are the local maxima, or minima of the distances from the ...

  14. Poverty | La pauvreté

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Poverty Evolution, 1990–2010 (World Bank income categoriesEvolution de la pauvreté, 1990-2010 (catégories de revenus de la Banque mondialeSource: World Bank, World Bank GNI per Capita Operational Guidelines and Analytical Classifications, http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-classifications/a-short-history.Where the Poor Are, 2007–2008 (million of people living under USD 1.25/day, Purchasing Power Parity*Où sont les pauvres, 2007-2008 (millions de pauvres qui vivent avec moins de 1.25 U...

  15. Poverty PhDs: Funds of Knowledge, Poverty, and Professional Identity in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Manning, Jill Michelle; Chun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the common deficit approach, this self-study explores the relationship between the funds of knowledge possessed by people of poverty and their development of professional identity in academia. All three authors have moved beyond conditions of financial poverty, but all find that the mental conditions of poverty persist. We conclude…

  16. Poverty dynamics in Germany: Evidence on the relationship between persistent poverty and health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Katja; Roosen, Jutta; Jensen, Helen H

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have found poverty to be related to lower levels of health due to poor health behavior such as unhealthy eating, smoking or less physical activity. Longer periods of poverty seem to be especially harmful for individual health behavior. Studies have shown that poverty has a dynamic character. Moreover, poverty is increasingly regarded as being a multidimensional construct and one that considers more aspects than income alone. Against this background this paper analyzes the relationship between health behavior and persistent spells of income poverty as well as a combined poverty indicator using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2000-2010). Next to cross-sectional logistic regression models we estimate fixed-effects models to analyze the effect of persistent poverty on dietary behavior, tobacco consumption, and physical activity. Cross-sectional results suggest that persistent poverty is related to poor health behavior, particularly regarding tobacco consumption and physical activity. Results also show that multidimensional and dynamic aspects of poverty matter. Complementary panel analyses reveal negative effects for the combined poverty indicator only for dietary behavior in the total sample. However, by analyzing the sample by gender we identify further effects of persistent poverty on health behavior. The analyses show that not only do individuals in poverty but also those in precarious situations show health-damaging behavior more often. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Real Life Poverty in America: Where the American Public Would Set the Poverty Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, William; And Others

    This report discusses the results of a 1989 poll conducted by the Gallup Organization in which a representative sample of Americans were asked where they would set the poverty line. The poverty line in current use by the Federal Government was created in the mid-1960s, using data from the 1950s. Setting the poverty line involves a basic decision…

  18. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households. PMID:26855470

  19. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S

    2016-02-01

    China's economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households.

  20. The UK fuel poverty strategy: 5th annual progress report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    This fifth annual progress report details government progress in 2007 in tackling fuel poverty and movement towards targets. The United Kingdom were the first country in the world to recognise the issue of fuel poverty and to put in place measures to tackle the issue, including spending 20 billion pounds sterling on benefits and programmes since the year 2000. The report covers progress to date, schemes and initiatives to tackle fuel poverty, the energy market and looks ahead to the future. Progress and development of the schemes across the devolved nations are also considered. This report is the first to publish the Government's proposals for the Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT) priority group, which were laid before Parliament on 5th December 2007. This report is the first to present the fuel poverty figures for 2005, and shows the effects of rising energy prices. The Government continues to take action to ensure that the energy market is working properly, and to encourage reform in the EU on energy market liberalisation - this should reduce pressure on prices. Those in fuel poverty have much to gain by switching supplier and this report outlines the action taken by Ofgem and Energywatch to encourage this

  1. Poverty, development, and Himalayan ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Sandhu, Sukhbir

    2015-05-01

    The Himalayas are rich in biodiversity but vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures. They are also host to growing number of rural poor who are dependent on forest and ecosystem services for their livelihood. Local and global efforts to integrate poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation in the Himalayas remain elusive so far. In this work, we highlight two key impediments in achieving sustainable development in the Himalayas. On the positive side, we also highlight the work of Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), a research organization based in India that seeks to integrate biodiversity concerns with livelihood security. For impediments, we draw on two examples from the Darjeeling district, India, in Eastern Himalayan region to illustrate how development organizations are failing to simultaneously address poverty and environmental issues. Based on the success of ATREE, we then propose a conceptual framework to integrate livelihood generating activities with sustainable and equitable development agenda. We recommend developing a Hindu-Kush Himalayan Ecosystem Services Network in the region to formulate a strategy for further action. We conclude by offering measures to address the challenge of integrating livelihood and environment issues through this network.

  2. Water poverty and rural development: Evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matshe, I

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use...

  3. The Impact of International Remittance on Poverty, Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    remittances poverty head count index, poverty gap and squared poverty gap declined by .... salary/wage income and hence there is no difference on how households ..... age, education, gender and marital status are important variables in this.

  4. Crime and poverty in urban Ghana | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... The ways in which crime and poverty interact have been much studied and ... Social and Economic Research, on the relationship between poverty and crime in ... Poverty, population growth, and youth violence in DRC's cities.

  5. 6. Characterization and Local Perceptions of Poverty Among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Background: Poverty has been linked with poor ... seeking behaviours especially for the rural poor ... of women and children to poverty and its effects. ..... India. 14. Francis Teal (2001) Education, incomes, poverty and inequality in Ghana in the ...

  6. Technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design. Progress in resolving open design issues from the outline design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this publication the technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design is presented. It comprises the Plant Design Specifications, the Safety Principles and Environmental Criteria, the Site Requirements and Site Design Assumptions. The outline of the key features of the ITER-FEAT design includes main physical parameters and assessment, design overview and preliminary safety assessment, cost and schedule

  7. Industrial Diversification, Employment and Rural Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the impact of industrial diversification on employment and rural poverty reduction in China and Nigeria. The fact that both countries ... better success. Key Words: Agro-Allied Industry, Industrial Diversification, Rural Development, Poverty Reduction, Employment, Non-Farm Enterprise, Nigerian Economy.

  8. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  9. Poverty - The road ahead. A theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. J. Meiring

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the role of the Church in combating poverty in South Africa. After a brief discussion of Biblical perspectives on poverty, an overview of the involvement of the Church throughout history, especially during the second half of the 20th century, is given.

  10. The History and Context of Rural Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Bonnie

    1987-01-01

    Those who are poor and reside in the rural pockets of poverty are at a cumulative disadvantage in United States society. Low educational levels, poor health, lack of competitive job skills, and a mindset restricted by poverty give little hope for mobility--especially in communities devoid of opportunity and supportive services. (JHZ)

  11. Declining poverty, rising inequality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... In three decades of rapid economic growth, China has lifted hundreds of ... Regional disparities persist, and pockets of deep poverty remain, ... CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu ... Young China Scholars Poverty Research Network: A bridge linking China and Canada.

  12. Peace and Development : Democratization, Poverty Reduction and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Peace and Development : Democratization, Poverty Reduction and Risk Mitigation in Fragile and Post Conflict States. Both the social science literature and policymakers tend to take for granted that poverty reduction, risk mitigation and democratization are mutually reinforcing. This basic assumption was first challenged ...

  13. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  14. Ninez y Pobreza (Childhood and Poverty).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didonet, Vital

    1992-01-01

    Reviews data on child poverty worldwide, providing statistics on 20 poverty-related problems. Examines effects of economic factors (i.e., unemployment, wage stagnation, inflation, and internal migration) and political policies (i.e., military spending over health and education) on child well-being, arguing that families and children themselves…

  15. European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

  16. Alleviating Poverty Through Vocational Education: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes that well-articulated vocational education policy and programmes will assist in employment generations and poverty reduction in Nigeria. Keywords: Alleviating Poverty, Vocational Education, Nigerian Experience Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol. 10 (2) 2005: pp. 10-14 ...

  17. partnering, poverty reduction and rural enterprise advancement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    establishment of the Rural Enterprise Advancement Programme (REAP) and its ... poverty, enabling food security and managing natural resources in a sustainable ... Extending the area under sustainable land management and .... the challenges facing the implementation of poverty reduction .... perceived “most beneficial.

  18. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Mohanty

    Full Text Available Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses.The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed.Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  19. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  20. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  1. Programmes and Strategies Targeting Gender and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article emanates from a broader research project that sought to explore 'new models' and innovative ways of thinking and dealing with poverty. Using an interpretive research paradigm and multiple case studies, this article seeks to establish if a common understanding of poverty exists within government departments.

  2. Terrorism and poverty: double trouble for macroeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates poverty and terrorism as allies in hindering economic growth in African countries. This study uses data for 22 African countries from 1970 to 2013 i.e. 44 years. Data for terrorism, poverty and national income is taken from GTD and WDI. Panel cointegration techniques of dynamic fixed effect, mean ...

  3. Energy Poverty in Europe: A Multidimensional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Andrea Bollino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the European Commission’s “Third Energy Package”, the challenges posed by energy poverty have been recently acknowledged by European legislation. The paper develops a synthetic indicator of energy poverty for the purpose of assessing households’ well-being across different domains of inequality in access to energy services and to a healthy domestic environment. These dimensions are broadly defined in terms of energy affordability and thermal efficiency, two of the main manifestations of energy poverty. The analysis focuses on Europe and expands on existing economic literature by employing a fuzzy analysis for the definition of a multidimensional energy poverty index, which is then used to investigate the role of individual and household characteristics in shaping energy poverty. We find that during the European crisis energy poverty has been more stable than monetary poverty, and that thermal efficiency plays a crucial role in shaping individual and countries’ average degrees of energy poverty. JEL codes: I32; Q41; D10; D63

  4. Economic diversification and poverty in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijima, Yoko; Lanjouw, Peter

    This paper analyses National Sample Survey data for 1987-88, 1993-94 and 1999-00 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. While there is little consensus regarding the rate of poverty decline during the 1990s, the region-level estimates provided here suggest that

  5. Violence, Grants, Poverty, Inequality, Unemployment and Hope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notwithstanding the impressive achievements recorded in poverty reduction, extraordinarily high levels of violent rebellion and strikes are encountered, unexpected after 20 years of democratic transition. This paper locates the drivers of this socio-political instability in poverty, inequality and unemployment: the consequence ...

  6. Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Nigeria: Reflections on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In it, we have argued that past poverty alleviation policies and programmes have been elitist and non-participatory, especially by the target population. In most cases the designs for poverty alleviations are characterized by improper conceptualization, grandiosity and lack of social justice even in implementation. Based on ...

  7. Poverty: Teaching Mathematics and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Leah P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three mathematics lessons in a social justice setting of learning about poverty. Student activities include budgeting, graphic data representation, and linear regression, all in the context of connecting, communicating, and reasoning about poverty. (Contains 1 table, 5 figures and 6 online resources.)

  8. Choosing among rival poverty rates : some tests for Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    William Gruben; Darryl McLeod

    2003-01-01

    Poverty rates are now widely available, but are they reliable? Wide variations in estimated poverty rates for the same poverty line, year and country reflect an underlying reality: there is no widely accepted procedure for estimating national poverty rates. This paper proposes a simple, ex post procedure for selecting poverty rates that have certain desirable properties. Absolute poverty measures, estimated uniformly across countries, should be correlated with nonmonetary indicators that refl...

  9. Poverty and development thinking:synthesis or uneasy compromise?

    OpenAIRE

    David Hulme

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines how the concept of poverty has waxed and waned within development thought and how these fluctuations have shaped development policy and action towards, or away from, direct goals of poverty reduction or eradication. It provides an overview of poverty in social thought; examines the contestations over how poverty analysis is positioned in development theory; charts the conceptual contestations around poverty; presents a brief history of poverty in development thoug...

  10. TOURISM AND POVERTY IN BADUNG REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Patera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and poverty’s phenomenon had already been known since the birth of human civilization. In the 1980s poverty became a serious concern of practitioners and scholars in various part of the world, including Indonesia. Poverty is not only understood in understanding as an abstract concept, but also as a reality of economic injustice and inability to meet basic human needs in some rich countries but also in many developing countries in the world. The problem of poverty is a fundamental and tourism is one of the many ways to solve this. The objective of this paper is to study the role of tourism to poverty alleviation including: 1 to analyze the influence of tourism development toward economic performance; 2 to analyze the effect of economic performance on poverty eradication; 3 to analyze the influence of tourism on poverty alleviation; 4 to formulate a strategy to increase tourism's role in poverty alleviation in Badung Regency. This study uses quantitative approach supported by secondary data and qualitative approach using primary data obtained through observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Research was conducted in South Badung Regency in the most developed tourism growth and considered the richest district among all regencies in Bali Regencies. Various attempts have been made to alleviate poverty, however have not been able to resolve poverty problems. The grand theory of this study refers to Neoliberalism Theory, supported by Social Democratic Theory and Empowerment Theory. Neoliberalism emphasizes that poverty as an individual problem and prosperity can only be achieved by achievement of economic growth through free market mechanism. According to Social Democratic Theory the emergence of poverty came from outside of the community itself. While the emphasis on the Empowerment Theory is in improving the ability of individual or communities to become indepedence on economic, social welfare and political right. Data

  11. The effects of contraception on female poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Stephanie P; LaLumia, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates are particularly high among households headed by single women, and childbirth is often the event preceding these households' poverty spells. This paper examines the relationship between legal access to the birth control pill and female poverty. We rely on exogenous cross-state variation in the year in which oral contraception became legally available to young, single women. Using census data from 1960 to 1990, we find that having legal access to the birth control pill by age 20 significantly reduces the probability that a woman is subsequently in poverty. We estimate that early legal access to oral contraception reduces female poverty by 0.5 percentage points, even when controlling for completed education, employment status, and household composition.

  12. Role of animal husbandry to alleviate poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Faye

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Poverty reduction is one of the top priorities of many international authorities. In this context the role played by animal husbandry deserves to be specified. Poverty is defined by economic, but also by social and cultural parameters. It is expressed at different levels such as the country, region, social category, and individual levels. Urban and rural poverty are closely related. Three types of poor farmers might be distinguished: farmers who lost their herds, farmers whose herds are too small or little productive, indebted farmers. These three types might correspond to various stages of increasing poverty. In response to the challenge of poverty reduction animal husbandry intervenes at the following five levels: security, capitalization, diversification, economical integration, and social integration. The place held by animal husbandry brings to light the need for some research and development issues to be specified.

  13. Halving poverty in South Africa: Growth and distributional aspects ; distributional implications of halving poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tregenna, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Declaration commits to halving extreme poverty between 2000 and 2015. The South African government has set a goal of halving poverty by 2014, although the meaning of this goal has not yet been defined. This article specifies government's stated target of halving poverty by 2014 in terms of specific measures of the poverty gap and poverty headcount ratio, using income and expenditure survey microdata. With the poverty line as defined here, approximately half the S...

  14. A Suggested Curriculum Outline for German in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutterbuck, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines a four-year program of German study aiming to give students a basic ability in spoken and written German, knowledge of German culture, and preparation for advanced German study. Study topics and textbooks are included. (CHK)

  15. Population, poverty and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, Steven W

    2009-10-27

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies.

  16. Poverty of the stimulus revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Pietroski, Paul; Yankama, Beracah; Chomsky, Noam

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of modern generative grammar has been to discover invariant properties of human languages that reflect "the innate schematism of mind that is applied to the data of experience" and that "might reasonably be attributed to the organism itself as its contribution to the task of the acquisition of knowledge" (Chomsky, 1971). Candidates for such invariances include the structure dependence of grammatical rules, and in particular, certain constraints on question formation. Various "poverty of stimulus" (POS) arguments suggest that these invariances reflect an innate human endowment, as opposed to common experience: Such experience warrants selection of the grammars acquired only if humans assume, a priori, that selectable grammars respect substantive constraints. Recently, several researchers have tried to rebut these POS arguments. In response, we illustrate why POS arguments remain an important source of support for appeal to a priori structure-dependent constraints on the grammars that humans naturally acquire. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Poverty and Social Transfers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Šuæur

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects of poverty in Croatia are still insufficiently well researched. Not only is there no knowledge about how long Croatian citizens remain poor, but there are also some disagreements about the actual number of the poor and the choice of the national poverty line. Nor has there been any precise evaluation of the effects of the individual anti-poverty policy measures. The objective of this paper was to analyse the basic indicators of the scope and distribution of poverty, the risk groups and the structure of the population of the poor and to investigate the role of social transfers in the reduction of poverty. The paper consists of four parts and an introduction. In Part 1 there is an analysis of the trends in the numbers of the poor in Croatia at the beginning of the millennium and the profile of poverty. The second part deals with the policy for the reduction or elimination of poverty, while in Part 3 the author deals with the problem of selecting the official poverty line and the role of the minimum income in Croatia. Part 4 contains the conclusions. Using the official EU poverty line, a comparative analysis shows that the rates of relative poverty in Croatia do not deviate greatly from the EU mean, although Croatia does have a somewhat higher rate of poverty than most of the countries in the Union. Most at risk of falling below the poverty line are the elderly, the retired and the unemployed, single-person households, single-parent families and families with three or more children. The total system of social transfers is not less effective than the transfer systems of most of the countries of the EU. If we exclude old age and survivor pensions from the social transfers, in fact, Croatia has the most effective social transfers of any of the countries observed. However, on the other hand, the poverty rate reduction due to old age and survivor pensions is one of the lowest in the countriescompared.

  18. At-Risk-of-Poverty Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Dvornáková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC is a survey on households’ living conditions. The main aim of the survey is to get long-term comparable data on social and economic situation of households. Data collected in the survey are used mainly in connection with the evaluation of income poverty and determinationof at-risk-of-poverty rate. This article deals with the calculation of the at risk-of-poverty threshold based on data from EU-SILC 2009. The main task is to compare two approaches to the computation of at riskof-poverty threshold. The first approach is based on the calculation of the threshold for each country separately,while the second one is based on the calculation of the threshold for all states together. The introduction summarizes common attributes in the calculation of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, such as disposable household income, equivalised household income. Further, different approaches to both calculations are introduced andadvantages and disadvantages of these approaches are stated. Finally, the at-risk-of-poverty rate calculation is described and comparison of the at-risk-of-poverty rates based on these two different approaches is made.

  19. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  20. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  1. How countries become rich and reduce poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of less developed countries, it is time to adjust the discussion of international development assistance on poverty reduction. This article attempts to do so by reviewing new and old literature explaining why some countries are rich and others are poor. History has repeatedly shown...... that building up capabilities in manufacturing and improving the productivity of agriculture are the keys to wealth creation and long-term sustained poverty reduction. Furthermore, industrialisation and increased agricultural productivity are interdependent processes. Discussion about ending world poverty needs...

  2. Seeing Like the World Bank on Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterlein, Antje

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the way in which the World Bank constructs knowledge on poverty by identifying analytic institutions inside the organisation where ideas are developed, ‘anti-poverty advocates’ that populate these institutions and the strategies they employ to foster their agenda. By doing...... the discursive level with developments on the policy and operational level reveals that the poverty or social agenda has grown incrementally from the late 1960s even in times when neoliberalism dominated world politics and economy. The article goes beyond such an organisational analysis in critically assessing...

  3. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  4. Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

  5. Vietnam's evolving poverty map : patterns and implications for policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lanjouw, Peter; Marra, Marleen; Nguyen, Cuong

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses small area estimation techniques to update Vietnam's province and district-level poverty map to 2009. It finds that poverty rates continue to be highest in the northern and central mountainous regions, where ethnic minorities make up a large fraction of the population. Poverty has fallen in most provinces and districts over this decade, but the pace of poverty reduction has...

  6. Poverty Assessment in the Philippines and Indonesia: A Methodological Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    David, Isidoro P.; Asra, Abuzar; Virola, Romulo A.

    1997-01-01

    Existing official poverty statistics cannot be directly utilized for cross-country comparison. This paper illustrates why. It presents an assessment of poverty measurement in the Philippines and Indonesia by examining methodologies used and the disparity in their respective poverty statistics. A more comparable poverty estimates in these countries are provided.

  7. Access to Education and Employment Opportunities: Implications for Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the linkages between Education and poverty and the possibility of poverty reduction through access to education and better employment opportunities. The paper also stressed that poverty acts as both cause and effect on lack of education. In particular the paper examined whether education is contributing to poverty reduction…

  8. Poverty alleviation in Uganda: the case for a viable optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty alleviation is a long and painstaking process. It involves knowing what poverty is, its causes and means of alleviating it. Poverty is one of the scourges including disease and ignorance a combination of which deprives humanity of the basic needs for living. Among the strategies to alleviate poverty is effective ...

  9. Estimating International Poverty Lines from Comparable National Thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Jolliffe, Dean; Prydz, Espen Beer

    2016-01-01

    World Bank's international poverty line of $1.90/day, at 2011 purchasing power parity, is based on a collection of national poverty lines, which were originally used to set the international poverty line of $1.25/day at 2005 purchasing power parity. This paper proposes an approach for estimating a more recent, complete, and comparable collection of national poverty thresholds from reported...

  10. Urban growth and poverty in India, 1983–2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku

    2010-01-01

    Although poverty in India remains disproportionately rural at the aggregate level, urban poverty is growing in importance. Efforts to address urban poverty should note its spatial distribution. This paper shows that the incidence of poverty in India’s small towns is markedly higher than in large

  11. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airini

    2015-01-01

    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  12. New Thinking on Poverty: Implications for Globalisation and Poverty Reduction Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Shaffer

    2008-01-01

    Three main changes in thinking about poverty have gained increasing currency over the past decade. First, the concept of poverty has broadened, with increasing attention to issues of vulnerability, inequality and human rights. Second, the causal structure has broadened to include causal variables, such as social, political, cultural, coercive and environmental capital. Third, the causal structure has deepened to focus on flows of individuals into and out of poverty, rather than on changes in ...

  13. Considerações acerca da noção de razão pública no debate Rawls-Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Kritsch

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma das diferenças principais entre o liberalismo político e a teoria da ação comunicativa repousa na fundamentação oferecida por seus formuladores da neutralidade de procedimento para alcançar princípios que devam reger as práticas e instituições políticas diante da pluralidade das doutrinas abrangentes em sociedades marcadas por uma grande heterogeneidade social e cultural. Tal distinção na fundamentação aparece com clareza na noção de razão pública, tema central do famoso debate no qual Rawls lança mão da idéia de overllaping consensus para explicitar uma concepção política da justiça que possa ser aceita pelas diversas doutrinas abrangentes de uma sociedade democrática bem-ordenada. Já o procedimento ideal de Habermas é o da deliberação, que pressupõe uma associação que se julga capaz de regular de um modo imparcial as condições de convivência numa sociedade, fazendo uso, para isso, de uma racionalidade procedimental para a justificação moral. Trata-se assim, aqui, de elucidar e debater duas fundamentações distintas (neutralidade de objetivo e princípio racionalmente justificável da noção de razão pública.

  14. Schaum’s outline of fluid mechanics and hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, Ranald V; Liu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Tough Test Questions? Missed Lectures? Not Enough Time? Fortunately, there's Schaum's. More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills. This Schaum's Outline gives you: 622 fully solved problems; extra practice on topics such as buoyancy and flotation, complex pipeline systems, fluid machinery, flow in open channels, and more; and support for all the major textbooks for fluidmechanics and hydraulics courses. Fully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time - and get your best test scores! Schaum's Outlines - Problem Solved.

  15. ADAPTATION TO POVERTY IN LONG-RUN PANEL DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E; D'Ambrosio, Conchita; Ghislandi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being and focus in particular on potential adaptation to poverty. We use panel data on almost 54,000 individuals living in Germany from 1985 to 2012 to show, first, that life satisfaction falls with both the incidence and intensity of contemporaneous poverty. We then reveal that there is little evidence of adaptation within a poverty spell: poverty starts bad and stays bad in terms of subjective well-being. We cannot identify any cause of poverty entry that explains the overall lack of poverty adaptation.

  16. Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and Environmental Load in ... 000 lives in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... and the Lima Metropolitan Urban Plan will be updated in light of the results.

  17. Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Economic Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Economic Development in Nigeria: A Comparative Assessment of Asa and Ilorin West Local ... Journal Home > Vol 3, No 4 (2009) > ... and worst hit income inequality group with about 84percent of total

  18. Child poverty vs Medicare and Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H B

    1997-01-01

    The series of government safety net programs provides economic security primarily to older populations. In this period of competition for limited federal resources, the need to create a public awareness of the continuing and growing poverty of children is emphasized.

  19. RETHINKING POVERTY: THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J MUGUMBATE

    KEY TERMS: Chaos Theory, inequalities, poverty reduction, international organizations, Social Choice Theory, grassroots development a Assistant .... in isolated communities to identify intangible community capital such as, valuable skills that ...

  20. 17 GLOBALIZATION AND DEEPENING RURAL POVERTY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between globalization phenomenon and deepening rural poverty situation in ... with low asset base, which translates to insufficient land, livestock possession, capital .... more general question of inequality and social stratification, although the ...

  1. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  2. Environmental resources and poverty in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen

    , is to be sustainably realized. However, most datasets on rural livelihoods do not accurately account for environmental income and therefore cannot answer this question. The Poverty Environment Network (PEN) project was initiated specifically to address this issue in the assessment of rural livelihoods in developing......D study focuses on answering two main research questions: 1) What is the importance of environmental income in assessments of poverty and poverty dynamics in rural forest reliant communities? and 2) What are the impacts of infrastructural development, in the form of rural roads, on rural household income......Over the last two decades, the burgeoning empirical evidence on the importance of forests and environmental resources to rural livelihoods in developing countries has attracted the attention of policy makers aiming to develop and implement strategies for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods...

  3. Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction and sustainable development in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Empowerment of women when pursued beyond mere rhetoric and instrumentation, it will improve their wellbeing, self esteem, resource allocation, political voice and increased productivity generally.

  4. Monitoring poverty in the Philippines | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... Measuring quality-of-life ... Through this work, a community-based poverty monitoring system has ... Regular surveys provide data on macro variables, such as the rate of inflation, the exchange rate, and the balance of trade.

  5. Poverty, Race, and Hospitalization for Childhood Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissow, Lawrence S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examination of Maryland hospital discharge data for 1979 to 1982 reveals that Black children are three times more likely to be hospitalized for asthma than are White children. This, however, is due to poverty, not race. (Author/BJV)

  6. Rural poverty unperceived: problems and remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, R

    1981-01-01

    There are major obstacles to perceiving the nature and the extent of rural poverty in developing countries. These obstacles originate not only in the nature of rural poverty itself, but also in the condition of those, not themselves of the rural poor, who do or, more significantly, do not perceive that poverty. The argument has implications for all rural development programs and projects, and for the training of staff. The conclusion is that reversals of current positions and practices are required if the obstacles are to be surmounted, if the nature and the extent of rural poverty are to be truly appreciated, and if future actions are to be tailored to the actual needs of the rural poor. 49 references.

  7. Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource Management in Cambodia. Cambodia has a ... Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  8. Investigating social vulnerability in community - based poverty ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fajardojp

    An important dimension for analyzing poverty and conflict related aspects is the impact of ... choices are seen in unhindered access to education and health care. ..... This was often only possible due to investments in the human capital of.

  9. Understanding Poverty Dynamics in Nebbi District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... to receive increasing political, business and academic attention. In Uganda, ... Arising from this, poverty performance tracking has also lacked focus, ...... those already married was high for women (7%) compared to men (3%).

  10. Government Expenditure on Growth Strategies and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poverty and government expenditure on growth strategies that have been implemented in Tanzania since the mid 2000s. The paper shows that despite impressive economic growth of about 6 percent per annum that the country has enjoyed in ...

  11. ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty ... new information and communication technologies (ICTs) as a lever for economic and social development. ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all people, without ...

  12. Weavers' Association easing poverty in Ecuador | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-12

    Oct 12, 2010 ... Weavers' Association easing poverty in Ecuador ... frenzy among the 54 members of Ecuador's Chordeleg Agricultural Craft Centre (CACH). ... Investing in Internet access boosts incomes, concludes Latin American study.

  13. POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiga Housseima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the position of some developing countries in relation to different theories about the relationship between poverty, growth and inequality. We conducted an econometric analysis through a study using panel data from 52 developing countries over the period 1990-2005, to determine the main sources of poverty reduction and show the interdependence between poverty, inequality and growth by using a system of simultaneous equations. This method is rarely applied econometric panel data and especially in the case studies on poverty. Our results indicate that the state investment in social sectors such as education and health and improving the living conditions of the rural population can promote economic growth and reducing inequality. Therefore, the Kuznets hypothesis is based on a relationship between economic growths to income inequality is most appropriate.

  14. Poverty – a major economical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assistent Professor Somogyi János

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the state for the majority of the world’s people and nations. Yet there is plenty offood in the world for everyone. The problem is that hungry people are trapped in severe poverty. They lackthe money to buy enough food to nourish them. Being constantly malnourished, they become weaker and oftensick. This makes them increasingly less able to work, which then makes them even poorer and hungrier.This downward spiral often continues until death for them and their families.Why is this? How is to blame? Poor people for their own predicament? Have they been lazy, madepoor decisions, and been solely responsible for their plight? What about their governments? Have theypursued policies that actually harm successful development? Such causes of poverty and inequality are nodoubt real. But deeper and more global causes of poverty are often less discussed. This article explores variouspoverty problems in more depth.

  15. Progress on Poverty? New Estimates of Historical Trends Using an Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Fox, Liana; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This study examines historical trends in poverty using an anchored version of the U.S. Census Bureau’s recently developed Research Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) estimated back to 1967. Although the SPM is estimated each year using a quasi-relative poverty threshold that varies over time with changes in families’ expenditures on a core basket of goods and services, this study explores trends in poverty using an absolute, or anchored, SPM threshold. We believe the anchored measure offers two advantages. First, setting the threshold at the SPM’s 2012 levels and estimating it back to 1967, adjusted only for changes in prices, is more directly comparable to the approach taken in official poverty statistics. Second, it allows for a better accounting of the roles that social policy, the labor market, and changing demographics play in trends in poverty rates over time, given that changes in the threshold are held constant. Results indicate that unlike official statistics that have shown poverty rates to be fairly flat since the 1960s, poverty rates have dropped by 40 % when measured using a historical anchored SPM over the same period. Results obtained from comparing poverty rates using a pretax/pretransfer measure of resources versus a posttax/posttransfer measure of resources further show that government policies, not market incomes, are driving the declines observed over time. PMID:27352076

  16. Progress on Poverty? New Estimates of Historical Trends Using an Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Fox, Liana; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This study examines historical trends in poverty using an anchored version of the U.S. Census Bureau's recently developed Research Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) estimated back to 1967. Although the SPM is estimated each year using a quasi-relative poverty threshold that varies over time with changes in families' expenditures on a core basket of goods and services, this study explores trends in poverty using an absolute, or anchored, SPM threshold. We believe the anchored measure offers two advantages. First, setting the threshold at the SPM's 2012 levels and estimating it back to 1967, adjusted only for changes in prices, is more directly comparable to the approach taken in official poverty statistics. Second, it allows for a better accounting of the roles that social policy, the labor market, and changing demographics play in trends in poverty rates over time, given that changes in the threshold are held constant. Results indicate that unlike official statistics that have shown poverty rates to be fairly flat since the 1960s, poverty rates have dropped by 40 % when measured using a historical anchored SPM over the same period. Results obtained from comparing poverty rates using a pretax/pretransfer measure of resources versus a post-tax/post-transfer measure of resources further show that government policies, not market incomes, are driving the declines observed over time.

  17. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  18. Livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and rural poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between rural households’ environmental dependency, poverty and livelihood strategies. Households’ income from each livelihood activities formed the basis for categorizing households according to livelihood strategies. The principal component analysis...... of livelihood choice were analyzed using multinomial logit model. The results indicate the existence of marked differences in environmental dependency, rural poverty and asset endowments across the livelihood groups. Household’s total saving, access to credit, production implements, business cost, exposure...

  19. Social factors of poverty in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Akchurin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the article due to the fact that poverty and low income, along with their attendant high levels of social inequality, continued to be one of the most acute social problems of modern Russian society. The article analyses the main factors of the low level of living standards of a considerable number of Russians, specifics of Russian poverty, and suggests ways of reduction of this social phenomenon.

  20. Income distribution policies for faster poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Tony; Cornia, Giovanni Andrea

    2001-01-01

    Inequality has risen in many countries over the last two decades, especially in the transition economies, but also in many developing and developed economies. This is disturbing since little progress can be made in poverty reduction when inequality is high and rising. Moreover, contrary to earlier theories of development, high inequality tends to reduce economic growth, and therefore poverty reduction through growth. This paper finds evidence of a concave relationship between inequality and g...

  1. Fiscal Imbalances, Poverty and Inequality in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Ullah - Naimatullah Baber

    2014-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the fiscal imbalances, poverty and inequality with relevance to Pakistan. We use time series data from 1981 to 2010 and employ Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) to cointegration for estimation. The empirical findings suggest that fiscal deficits increase the poverty level and provide biases for inequality. Since deficit is financed through money supply, government debt and indirect taxes which threaten the purchasing power of the poor and drag them towards po...

  2. What is food poverty? A conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Niamh; Farag, K.W.; Baines, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Recently, food poverty has been subject to much academic, political and media attention following the recent reduction in consumer purchasing power as a result of food and energy price volatility. Yet the lack of consensus related to food poverty terminology acts as an inhibitor in both identifying and addressing the issue in the UK, specifically as a separate problem to that of food insecurity. Misunderstanding of terminology is an impediment to identifying similarities and differe...

  3. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. School composition, family poverty and child behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2016-06-01

    There is little research on the role of school composition in young children's behaviour. School composition effects may be particularly important for children in disadvantaged circumstances, such as those growing up in poverty. We explored the role of school academic and socio-economic composition in internalising problems, externalising problems and prosocial behaviour at age 7 years, and tested if it moderates the effect of family poverty on these outcomes. We used data from 7225 7-year-olds of the Millennium Cohort Study who attended state primary schools in England and for whom we had information on these outcomes. In multiple membership models, we allowed for clustering of children in schools and moves between schools since the beginning of school, at age 5. Our school academic and socio-economic composition variables were school-level achievement and % of pupils eligible for free school-meals, respectively. Poverty (family income below the poverty line) was measured in all sweeps until age 7. We explored the roles of both timing and duration of poverty. The effects of poverty were strong and robust to adjustment. School socio-economic composition was associated with individual children's internalising and externalising problems, even in adjusted models. School composition did not interact with poverty to predict any of the outcomes. Neither the academic nor the socio-economic composition of the school moderated the effect of family poverty on children's behaviour in primary school. However, children attending schools with more disadvantaged socio-economic intakes had more internalising and externalising problems than their counterparts.

  5. Openness, Inequality and Poverty in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu Geda

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between openness, poverty and inequality in Africa. The analysis begins with a review of social development on the continent since 1980, followed by a discussion of openness and a lengthy exploration of the patterns of trade and finance that link Africa to the rest of the world. The macroeconomic policy framework that guided African policymaking over the last three decades is the lens through which poverty and inequality are further examined. The paper hi...

  6. Cointegration growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hassan, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    This analytical review explores the links between growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan for the period 1956-2003. This paper build upon different models to investigate empirically the relationship between economic growth - as measured by GDP per capita growth- and inequality as measured by Gini coefficient (the growth, inequality and poverty triangle hypotheses), using data from the national and international sources. The paper tries to answer the following questions: i) whether growth, ine...

  7. Europe's neglected infections of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Gurwith, Meredith

    2011-09-01

    To review the prevalence, incidence, and geographic distribution of the major neglected infections of poverty in Europe as a basis for future policy recommendations. We reviewed the literature from 1999 to 2010 for neglected tropical diseases listed by PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (http://www.plosntds.org/static/scope.action) and the geographic regions and countries of (continental) Europe. Reference lists of identified articles and reviews were also hand searched, as were World Health Organization databases. In Eastern Europe, the soil-transmitted helminth infections (especially ascariasis, trichuriasis, and toxocariasis), giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis remain endemic. High incidence rates of selected food-borne helminthiases including trichinellosis, opisthorchiasis, taeniasis, and echinococcosis also occur, while brucellosis and leptospirosis represent important bacterial zoonoses. Turmoil and economic collapse following the war in the Balkans, the fall of Communism, and Europe's recent recession have helped to promote their high prevalence and incidence rates. In Southern Europe, vector-borne zoonoses have emerged, including leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, and key arboviral infections. Additional vulnerable populations include the Roma, orphans destined for international adoption, and some immigrant groups. Among the policy recommendations are increased efforts to determine the prevalence, incidence, and geographic distribution of Europe's neglected infections, epidemiological studies to understand the ecology and mechanisms of disease transmission, and research and development for new control tools. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Macroeconomic Policies and their Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Amjad; A.R. Kemal

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides a consistent time-series of poverty estimates for the period 1963- 64 to 1992-93 for both the rural as well as the urban areas, examines the influence of macroeconomic policies on the poverty levels, analyses the impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes on the levels of poverty, and suggests a strategy for poverty alleviation in Pakistan. The paper explores in particular the influence on poverty of such factors as economic growth, agricultural growth, terms of trade for t...

  9. Poverty in India: concepts,measurement and status

    OpenAIRE

    More, Sachin; Singh, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Poverty is a major hurdle of inclusive economic growth in any country. Thus eradication of poverty is become one of the important objectives of Government programme especially for developing country like India. To effectively design and execute the poverty eradication programme, government has to describe the meaning of poverty and explain how they can measure it. This paper brings together movement in the meaning of term poverty used by Government of India over the year and its measurement....

  10. Impact of Mental Poverty on Rural Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lan-xiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the definition of mental poverty and the status quo of mental poverty in China's rural areas. Mental poverty in China's rural areas embodies the following aspects: the sense of parochialism is serious; the small farmer consciousness is strong; there is misgiving about identity. This paper analyses the reason of Mental poverty influencing farmers' behavior model and rural economic development. Mental poverty influences the farmers' changing current situation; Mental pover...

  11. Is fuel poverty in Ireland a distinct type of deprivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Dorothy; Maitre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on the Central Statistics Office SILC data for Ireland to ask whether fuel poverty is a distinctive type of deprivation that warrants a fundamentally different policy response than poverty in general. We examine the overlap between fuel poverty (based on three self-report items) and poverty in general – with a particular emphasis on the national indicator of basic deprivation which is used in the measurement of poverty for policy purposes in Ireland. We examine changes ...

  12. A Modern Framework for Measuring Poverty and Basic Economic Security

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Fremstad

    2010-01-01

    This report details how the dominant framework for understanding and measuring poverty in the United States has become a conservative one. The current U.S. approach to measuring poverty views poverty only in terms of having an extremely low level of annual income, and utilizes poverty thresholds that are adjusted only for inflation rather than for changes in overall living standards. As a result, the official poverty measure has effectively defined deprivation down over the last four decades,...

  13. Data-Mining for Development? Poverty, Payment, and Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, WM

    2015-01-01

    Territories of Poverty challenges the conventional North-South geographies through which poverty scholarship is organized. Staging theoretical interventions that traverse social histories of the American welfare state and critical ethnographies of international development regimes, these essays confront how poverty is constituted as a problem. In the process, the book analyzes bureaucracies of poverty, poor people's movements, and global networks of poverty expertise, as well as more intimate...

  14. Poverty, tobacco, and health: an Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majra, J P; Gur, A

    2009-06-01

    Poverty and health have a two-way relationship. Poverty increases the vulnerability of people to disease, and sickness affects their income leading to poverty. Tobacco has been identified as a major avoidable cause of illness and premature death. In India, more than half of men and one-tenth of women use one or more forms of tobacco. Tobacco-use shows a clear and continual increase with decreasing wealth quintiles. Poor smokers, who are at a greater risk of illness, are also at a greater risk of not being treated or of falling into greater poverty if they seek treatment. Poor people spend money on tobacco that could be spent on food, shelter, education, and healthcare. These decisions can entrench families in an ongoing cycle of poverty and ill-health. The direct and indirect costs of tobacco-use are immense for national economy. This has positioned control of tobacco relevant in India's per suite to achieve the goals of poverty eradication and health for all.

  15. Learning communities and overcoming poverty in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Santos Pitanga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Object: Brazil has implemented social programs to meet the Millennium Development Goals of reducing poverty and inequality. Despite the good results still there are ghettos and educational and social inequalities. Moreover Learning Communities are responding to these needs by promoting education based on successful actions scientifically proven of which promote educational change and social inclusion. The aim of this article is to highlight the characteristics of Learning Communities that allow overcoming poverty, and in this perspective, explain the implementation of the Learning Communities in Brazil and how, in this way, it is creating the conditions for effective overcoming give poverty and inequality in this country.Design / methodology: This article is based on documentary analysis of reports of the INCLUD-ED - the project on school education more scientific resources has been funded by the European Union, United Nations / ECLAC, Brazilian public agencies and websites of official institutions that promote Learning Communities in Brazil. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics are also collected.Contributions and results: It highlights successful actions that contribute to overcoming poverty and social exclusion. Such actions are based on dialogic learning, democratic management and the formation of heterogeneous groups. It is observed that in Brazil are carrying out such actions and the ongoing expansion of the project in the country is creating the conditions for effective poverty reduction.Added value: This article reveals specific elements of overcoming poverty through education.

  16. Opaque Watercolor (Tentative Course Outline). Art Education: 6673.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Jean E.

    This tentative course outline is for use in one of the Quinmester Program classes, Opaque Watercolor. Designed for students in grades 7-12, with no prerequisite, the course includes the introduction of a variety of techniques in a number of opaque media including tempera, gouache, and cassein. Matting and mounting techniques are also taught. A…

  17. Small Business Management. Part II. A Suggested Adult Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This teacher's guide is a companion to "Small Business Management Part I" published by the New York State Education Department in 1968. The course outlined by the guide is primarily for those who aspire to own and operate their own business, and those in business who wish to improve their operations. The course consists of six lessons covering…

  18. Outlines of a Multiple Trace Theory of Temporal Preparation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, S.A.; Kruijne, W.; Meeter, M.

    2014-01-01

    We outline a new multiple trace theory of temporal preparation (MTP), which accounts for behavior in reaction time (RT) tasks in which the participant is presented with a warning stimulus (S1) followed by a target stimulus (S2) that requires a speeded response. The theory assumes that during the

  19. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  20. RETAIL ORGANIZATION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAURO, RALPH N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A COURSE ON RETAIL ORGANIZATION IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) EVOLUTION OF RETAIL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, (2) ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES, (3) TYPICAL RETAIL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS, (4) ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANAYSIS, INCLUDING MERCHANDISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND…

  1. 26 CFR 1.679-0 - Outline of major topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transfers. (1) Principal purpose of tax avoidance. (2) Principal purpose of tax avoidance deemed to exist... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-0 Outline of major topics. This...

  2. Systema naturae or the outline of living world classification

    OpenAIRE

    Shipunov, Alexey

    2009-01-01

    Here we present the short outline of the classification of living things (to the level of classes), given with two main goals: to provide a compact, synthetic overview of the biological diversity; and to supply users with up-todate information of latest taxonomic achievements. The latter is especially important in the recent epoch of molecular revolution in the taxonomy.

  3. Relatorio: Exposicao de motivos (Report: Outline of Proposals).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of an outline of proposals to improve education in Brazil, both administratively and content-wise. Various administrative changes are recommended to overcome the lack of coordination existing at that point between the various services of the Ministry, precluding any coherent…

  4. ESSENTIALS OF MERCHANDISING, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARKMAN, STANLEY

    THIS OUTLINE FOR A COURSE IN THE ESSENTIALS OF MERCHANDISING IS DESIGNED FOR THE INEXPERIENCED RETAIL EMPLOYEE. THE COURSE IS PLANNED FOR SIX 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) FUNDAMENTALS OF MERCHANDISING, (2) TERMINOLOGY AND MATHEMATICS OF MERCHANDISING, (3) BUYING POLICIES AND PRACTICES, (4) MARKET REPRESENTATIVES, (5) TERMS OF PURCHASE, INCLUDING…

  5. A new type of In-core sensor validation outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figedy, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this a new type of in-core sensor validation method is outlined, which is based on combination of correlation coefficients and mutual information indices. First experience with this approach is described and further improvements to enhance the outcome reliability are proposed namely through computational intelligence techniques (Authors)

  6. Technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This ITER EDA Documentation Series issue summarizes the results of the ITER Engineering Design Activities on the technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design. This issue also comprises some physical analysis activities as well as structure and goals of the Physics Expert Group activities.

  7. Technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This ITER EDA Documentation Series issue summarizes the results of the ITER Engineering Design Activities on the technical basis for the ITER-FEAT outline design. This issue also comprises some physical analysis activities as well as structure and goals of the Physics Expert Group activities

  8. Effects of electronic outlining on the organization of text ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Broekkamp, Hein; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Broekkamp, H., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, August). Effects of electronic outlining on the organization of text ideas. Presentation at the annual meeting of the Junior Researchers of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Exeter, UK.

  9. Validation techniques for object-oriented proof outlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a proof outline logic for a simple object-oriented programming language. The language has all object-oriented features of popular programming languages like Java and C#. In particular, it supports inheritance, field shadowing, aliasing, dynamic object creation, subtype

  10. Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Broekkamp, Hein; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Broekkamp, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(6), 557-574. doi: 0.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00418.x

  11. Poverty, health, and nutrition in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the relation between poverty and several variables describing health and nutrition behavior in East Germany and West Germany. Data are from the third National Health Survey in West Germany and the first Health Survey for the new federal states of Germany (1991/92). Both health surveys included a self-administered questionnaire ascertaining sociodemographic variables, smoking history, nutritional behavior (using a food-frequency list), physical activity, and a medical examination comprising measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and blood sampling for serum cholesterol determination. Participants included 4958 subjects in the West Survey and 2186 subjects in the East Survey aged 25-69 years, with a respective net response rate of 69.0% and 70.2%. Poverty was defined as a household equivalence income of 62.5% or less of the median income of the general population. The lowest income group (poverty or near poverty) comprised 11.6% of East German versus 15.9% of West German males and 14.8% of East German versus 19.3% of West German females. For most but not all health and nutrition parameters, less favorable results were obtained for subjects with an equivalence income below or near poverty. The most striking poverty-related differences regarding cardiovascular disease risk factors were found for lack of regular exercise for both genders and obesity in females. No poverty-related differences were found for the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, despite a much higher prevalence of obesity in persons with an income below the poverty line. Current nutritional behavior and changes in nutritional behavior during the last three years was strongly related to income status, with a more unhealthy status for low-income population groups in both East and West Germany. In Germany, poverty has strong effects on individual health status and nutritional behavior. Because of rising unemployment rates and reductions in social security payments for low

  12. Acute stroke: automatic perfusion lesion outlining using level sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Kim; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban; Jónsdóttir, Kristjana Ýr; Ribe, Lars R; Neumann, Anders B; Hjort, Niels; Østergaard, Leif

    2013-11-01

    To develop a user-independent algorithm for the delineation of hypoperfused tissue on perfusion-weighted images and evaluate its performance relative to a standard threshold method in simulated data, as well as in acute stroke patients. The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and patients gave written informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. The algorithm identifies hypoperfused tissue in mean transit time maps by simultaneously minimizing the mean square error between individual and mean perfusion values inside and outside a smooth boundary. In 14 acute stroke patients, volumetric agreement between automated outlines and manual outlines determined in consensus among four neuroradiologists was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis, while spatial agreement was quantified by using lesion overlap relative to mean lesion volume (Dice coefficient). Performance improvement relative to a standard threshold approach was tested with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The mean difference in lesion volume between automated outlines and manual outlines was -9.0 mL ± 44.5 (standard deviation). The lowest mean volume difference for the threshold approach was -25.8 mL ± 88.2. A significantly higher Dice coefficient was observed with the algorithm (0.71; interquartile range [IQR], 0.42-0.75) compared with the threshold approach (0.50; IQR, 0.27- 0.57; P , .001). The corresponding agreement among experts was 0.79 (IQR, 0.69-0.83). The perfusion lesions outlined by the automated algorithm agreed well with those defined manually in consensus by four experts and were superior to those obtained by using the standard threshold approach. This user-independent algorithm may improve the assessment of perfusion images as part of acute stroke treatment. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13121622/-/DC1. RSNA, 2013

  13. AUTOMATIC BUILDING OUTLINING FROM MULTI-VIEW OBLIQUE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatic building detection plays an important role in many applications. Multiple overlapped airborne images as well as lidar point clouds are among the most popular data sources used for this purpose. Multi-view overlapped oblique images bear both height and colour information, and additionally we explicitly have access to the vertical extent of objects, therefore we explore the usability of this data source solely to detect and outline buildings in this paper. The outline can then be used for further 3D modelling. In the previous work, building hypotheses are generated using a box model based on detected façades from four directions. In each viewing direction, façade edges extracted from images and height information by stereo matching from an image pair is used for the façade detection. Given that many façades were missing due to occlusion or lack of texture whilst building roofs can be viewed in most images, this work mainly focuses on improve the building box outline by adding roof information. Stereo matched point cloud generated from oblique images are combined with the features from images. Initial roof patches are located in the point cloud. Then AdaBoost is used to integrate geometric and radiometric attributes extracted from oblique image on grid pixel level with the aim to refine the roof area. Generalized contours of the roof pixels are taken as building outlines. The preliminary test has been done by training with five buildings and testing around sixty building clusters. The proposed method performs well concerning covering the irregular roofs as well as improve the sides location of slope roof buildings. Outline result comparing with cadastral map shows almost all above 70% completeness and correctness in an area-based assessment, as well as 20% to 40% improvement in correctness with respect to our previous work.

  14. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: An Analysis of a Hegemonic Link between Education and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Aina; Jacovkis, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to analyse the connections between education and poverty established by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), a central policy tool for the articulation of the Post Washington Consensus. Second, it intends to study how the PRSPs have been consolidated and expanded through different…

  15. Liberalismo económico, desigualdades sociales y pobreza en los países subdesarrollados Economic liberalism, social disparities and poverty in underdeveloped countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valier Jacques

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Luego de los programas de ajustes radicales, las entidades internacionales y los gobiernos de los países latinoamericanos vienen adoptando políticas en defensa de los más pobres, bien sea para compensar el deterioro del nivel de vida que aquellos originaron o bien para evitar un mayor descontento social. Hoy se acepta la intervención del Estado para afrontar los problemas de la pobreza y las desigualdades sociales, aunque desde una óptica liberal, es decir, expulsando la política y dando prioridad al mercado como entidad reguladora de la sociedad. Así, las políticas en la defensa de los pobres adquiere un carácter de mera beneficencia o de red de seguridad para quienes son excluidos por el mercado, y se basan en dos principios: hay que ser pacientes y esperar hasta mañana. Sus fundamentos filosóficos se encuentran en Rawls y Hayek, quienes aunque difieren en algunas cuestiones comparte cuatro temas fundamentales: el papel determinante del mercado en la formación de la sociedad, la apología del fetichismo de la mercancía, las desigualdades creadoras y la exclusión social como fenómeno individual.Following the radical programs of economic adjustment, international agencies and governments in Latin America have been shaping their policies to protect the very poor, either by compensating for a deterioration in standards of living to which they themselves had contributed to, or simply to avoid further social unrest. Today, the idea that the government should intervene to resol ve problems of poverty and disparity is accepted; but it is accepted from a liberal
    standpoint, that is to say, expeling politics from the equation and giving the market free rein to regulate society. In this view, policy to protect the poor makes the State some kind of charitable organization, a safety-net for those shut out of the market. This is based on two principIes: be patient, wait till tomorrow. These principIes are to be found in Rawls and in

  16. Quantifying the severity of fuel poverty, its relationship with poor housing and reasons for non-investment in energy-saving measures in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, John D.; Clinch, J. Peter

    2004-01-01

    Fuel poverty has generally been calculated by quantifying the number of households spending in excess of 10% of income on home heating. This definition has a number of significant practical and scientific limitations. This paper employs self-reported data to calculate the severity of fuel poverty in Ireland to identify chronic fuel-poor households from occasional sufferers. It also assesses domestic energy-efficiency levels. Ireland is a useful case study as it demonstrates the highest variations in seasonal mortality and morbidity in northern Europe, both of which are associated with fuel poverty. Ireland is also experiencing extreme difficulties meeting its environmental emissions targets in light of recent spectacular economic growth. Reducing fuel poverty would lower energy-related emissions, assisting policy makers achieve these challenging targets. Furthermore, little empirical research has been undertaken on fuel poverty in Ireland. This paper identifies key social groups at risk by conducting detailed socio-economic and socio-demographic analyses. The relationship between fuel poverty and adverse housing conditions (damp, condensation) is also examined. Moreover, the reasons behind householders not investing in energy-saving measures are reported. The results show that Ireland suffers from similar levels of fuel poverty as the UK, with low-income households suffering the greatest. The key policy implications are outlined. (Author)

  17. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is

  18. Characterizing the Hofstadter butterfly's outline with Chern numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, N

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we report original properties inherent to independent particles subjected to a magnetic field by emphasizing the existence of regular structures in the energy spectrum's outline. We show that this fractal curve, the well-known Hofstadter butterfly's outline, is associated with a specific sequence of Chern numbers that correspond to the quantized transverse conductivity. Indeed the topological invariant that characterizes the fundamental energy band depicts successive stairways as the magnetic flux varies. Moreover each stairway is shown to be labelled by another Chern number which measures the charge transported under displacement of the periodic potential. We put forward the universal character of these properties by comparing the results obtained for the square and the honeycomb geometries.

  19. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity.

  20. Poverty eradication in a carbon constrained world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Patwardhan, Anand

    2017-10-24

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to keep warming below 2 °C while recognizing developing countries' right to eradicate extreme poverty. Poverty eradication is also the first of the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper investigates potential consequences for climate targets of achieving poverty eradication. We find that eradicating extreme poverty, i.e., moving people to an income above $1.9 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day, does not jeopardize the climate target even in the absence of climate policies and with current technologies. On the other hand, bringing everybody to a still modest expenditure level of at least $2.97 PPP would have long-term consequences on achieving emission targets. Compared to the reference mitigation pathway, eradicating extreme poverty increases the effort by 2.8% whereas bringing everybody to at least $2.97 PPP would increase the required mitigation rate by 27%. Given that the top 10% global income earners are responsible for 36% of the current carbon footprint of households; the discourse should address income distribution and the carbon intensity of lifestyles.

  1. Measuring Poverty and Wellbeing in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys—income, co......Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys......—income, consumption, health, demographics, labour force, household enterprise, and others. And the information base in developing countries with respect to poverty and wellbeing has improved dramatically. Nevertheless, appropriate measurement of poverty remains complex and controversial; this chapter lays out...... for the reader the issues and challenges. This is particularly true in developing countries where (i) the stakes with respect to poverty reduction are high; (ii) the determinants of living standards are often volatile; and (iii) related information bases, while much improved, are often characterized...

  2. Objective and subjective measures of fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddams Price, Catherine; Brazier, Karl; Wang, Wenjia

    2012-01-01

    As energy prices continue to rise to reflect the real cost of carbon, the numbers of households in fuel poverty is increasing rapidly. This paper uses a unique data set to explore one alternative measure of fuel poverty based on whether consumers feel able to afford their energy, similar to one introduced by the government a few years ago. We explore the links between an expenditure based and our subjective measure of fuel poverty and compare these differences with those between official measures. Amongst low income households, 28% spent more than a tenth of their income on energy in the home, and so would be likely to qualify as fuel poor under the most usual definition; but only 16% felt unable to afford sufficient energy to keep their homes warm. Amongst this group who felt they had difficulty in affording sufficient energy, less than half were ‘expenditure’ fuel poor. The paper argues that reintroduction of a self-reported measure by the government would be a valuable aid to policy development. - Highlights: ► Defines a subjective measure of fuel poverty (unable to afford heating). ► Fewer households feel fuel poor than meet the official definition of fuel poverty. ► Though they are positively related, different factors affect the two measures. ► Those on standard and prepayment metres more likely to feel fuel poor. ► Large families spend a higher proportion of income on energy but are no more likely to feel fuel poor.

  3. An Outline of the New Norwegian Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Jacobsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the new criminal code, its background and content. It maps out the code’s background, the legislative process and central ideas. Furthermore, the article gives an outline of the general criteria for criminal responsibility according to the code, the offences and forms of punishment and other reactions. The article emphasises the most important changes from the previous code of 1902. To some degree, strengths and weaknesses of the new code are addressed.

  4. The boundaries of poverty in Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Uribe Mallarino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an analytical perspective on poverty with a multidimensional approach, not only as an aggregate of variables and indicators, but also using a probing strategy that considers the way in which it is perceived between the groups receiving programs to alleviate poverty or use subsidized public services, and those without. Based on tools for quantitative and qualitative analysis applied to data collected on a sample of residents of Bogota, the authors analyze how the boundaries of sense on poverty are related to both objective and subjective factors related to being or not users of these programs, socioeconomic and educational conditions, as well as political participation, degree of association and use of mechanisms to enforce civil rights.

  5. Information and Communication Technology for Poverty Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motilal SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that over 700 million of the world's poor live in Asia-Pacifiui region i.e., those who earn $1 or less a day. Nearly one of three Asians is poor. It is claimed by multilateral agencies that the incidence of poverty (proportion of people below the poverty line is slightly declining. Others question this claim and argue that the term poor should cover all those who cannot cope with survival, security, and enabling needs. If one were to apply this comprehensive definition of poverty, the poor certainly account for more than 900 million in this region. The poor experience shortfalls in economic welfare; gaps in access to good quality education and health care; deficiencies in the provision of physical infrastructure; and political barriers that stifle personal initiative and self-development. They are unable to participate in governance, which is necessary for a healthy democracy and peaceful development. The poverty encourages corruption, anti-social activities like drugs, smuggling, prostitution, and all sorts of deviant behavior. Poverty is considered an unacceptable human condition Moreover, despite the vast advances that are being made in the spheres of science and technology, information and communication technology(ICT , medicine, capital mobility, etc., income disparities are ever widening, both within countries and nations – world's rich and poor nations. The trends in poverty reduction have recently worsened. The population growth in the developing countries is also adding to absolute number of poor. Overcoming poverty therefore remains the single most important challenge facing those involved in the development activities. It has been recognized by all multilateral and bilateral donors involved in development assistance that expected outcomes could not be achieved in the area of poverty reduction. Poverty constrains implementation of development initiatives because the poor (the beneficiaries are not able to

  6. Climate Change Through a Poverty Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, J.; Hallegatte, S.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of the economic impact of climate change typically considers regional or national economies and assesses its impact on macroeconomic aggregates such as gross domestic product. These studies therefore do not investigate the distributional impacts of climate change within countries or the impacts on poverty. This Perspective aims to close this gap and provide an assessment of climate change impacts at the household level to investigate the consequences of climate change for poverty and for poor people. It does so by combining assessments of the physical impacts of climate change in various sectors with household surveys. In particular, it highlights how rapid and inclusive development can reduce the future impact of climate change on poverty.

  7. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  8. Altruity: Key to the Fight Against Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Kourilsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of altruity and illustrates its philosophical and practical importance in the fight against poverty. Altruity –a highly specific form of rational altruism– is the duty that comes with freedom. The individual duty of altruity is the necessary counterpart of the right to individual freedoms. It is, by its very nature, distinct from (though complementary to generosity, and devoid of any expectation of reciprocity (while not excluding it. The idea of altruity is the cornerstone of a theory of individual responsibility, and of a theory of justice, which provide a conceptual framework for the struggle against poverty. And because it is only meaningful if implemented with a pre-defined method, it also provides a framework for action, as the FACTS Initiative has shown. Altruity thus emerges as one of the keys to the fight against poverty.

  9. Mapping energy poverty in Huntington, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicoat, Elizabeth Anne

    Energy poverty is a growing phenomenon culminating from the combination of low to mid household income, deteriorating housing structures and rising household energy costs. Energy prices are increasing for all households, but the burden is proportionally larger for those with low to mid income. These groups must sacrifice to afford energy, and are often unable or do not have the autonomy to make structural improvements, especially if they rent their home. Data on residential dwellings from the Cabell County Tax Assessor's Office was used within a geographic information system to map where energy poverty likely exists within the city limits of Huntington, WV. It was found that one fifth of Huntington households are at a high risk of energy poverty, primarily located across the northern section of the city and in the center, surrounding Marshall University, Downtown and Cabell Huntington Hospital.

  10. Integration of family planning with poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1996-12-01

    The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.

  11. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajuruchukwu Obi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN. Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the percentage share of people living below poverty line has now decreased from 11.3 per cent in 2000 to 4.0 per cent in 2011. However, these reports are not reflecting the exact poor’s experiences because at household level there is still an outright poverty. Therefore, if the national poverty report gives a good picture about South African poverty status whereas there is still prevalence of poverty at household level, there are high chances that wrong policies in regard to poverty reduction strategies will be wrought. Hence this paper focuses on the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The sole aim of this paper is to assess the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The reviewed literature on determinants of poverty in South Africa would enable policy makers to see the effect of demographic characteristics on poverty in South Africa. Thus, strategies and policies aimed at alleviating poverty in South Africa can be directed to the discussed factors.

  12. Estimation of Poverty in Small Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Bikauskaite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative techniques of poverty estimation is needed to better implement, monitor and determine national areas where support is most required. The problem of small area estimation (SAE is the production of reliable estimates in areas with small samples. The precision of estimates in strata deteriorates (i.e. the precision decreases when the standard deviation increases, if the sample size is smaller. In these cases traditional direct estimators may be not precise and therefore pointless. Currently there are many indirect methods for SAE. The purpose of this paper is to analyze several diff erent types of techniques which produce small area estimates of poverty.

  13. Women and poverty: a demographic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J B

    1987-01-01

    In the current debate about causes and cures for poverty, much attention is given to women. Women are more likely than men to be poor, and once impoverished, to remain poor for longer periods of time than do men. In addition, a much greater responsibility for raising the next generation of adults belongs to poor women than to poor men. No individual policy response will alleviate poverty among women. Rather, a multi-faceted policy response that recognizes the wide diversity of their situations is necessary. This paper describes the diversity among poor women and suggests a series of appropriate policies.

  14. FINANCIAL INSTABILITY, FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Cristian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a positive relationship between financial development and economic growth in short-run and long-run. Financial development is beneficial to the reduction of poverty. But the financial instability which accompanies financial development is is costly for the poor and reduces the positive effect of financial development on the reduction of poverty. The paper aims to analyze in detail the relationship and the (direct and indirect effects between these variables, taking into account their economic and social importance. It is also highlighted the correlation between the financial economy and the real economy, emphasizing the impact on social welfare involved by the interaction of the above mentioned variables.

  15. International Remittances, Poverty and Inequality : a Case Study of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    International Remittances, Poverty and Inequality : a Case Study of Ghana, Ivory Coast and Nigeria (West Africa) ... through official and unofficial channels, and the impact of remittances on poverty and income inequality. ... Journal articles.

  16. Impact of Government Anti-Poverty Programme on Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Government Anti-Poverty Programme on Development of Rural Areas of ... of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) among rural population in ... different statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics among others.

  17. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...

  18. Analysis of Multidimensional Poverty: Theory and Case Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... ... of applying a factorial technique, Multiple Correspondence Analysis, to poverty analysis. ... Analysis of Multidimensional Poverty: Theory and Case Studies ... agreement to support joint research projects in December 2017.

  19. A robust poverty profile for Brazil using multiple data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Francisco H. G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a poverty profile for Brazil, based on three different sources of household data for 1996. We use PPV consumption data to estimate poverty and indigence lines. ''Contagem'' data is used to allow for an unprecedented refinement of the country's poverty map. Poverty measures and shares are also presented for a wide range of population subgroups, based on the PNAD 1996, with new adjustments for imputed rents and spatial differences in cost of living. Robustness of the profile is verified with respect to different poverty lines, spatial price deflators, and equivalence scales. Overall poverty incidence ranges from 23% with respect to an indigence line to 45% with respect to a more generous poverty line. More importantly, however, poverty is found to vary significantly across regions and city sizes, with rural areas, small and medium towns and the metropolitan peripheries of the North and Northeast regions being poorest.

  20. and Asset-based Poverty Dynamics in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    poverty status based on consumption and asset ownership. Using panel data ... In recent years Ethiopia has experienced remarkable economic growth with a ...... Understanding the relationship between household demographics and poverty ...

  1. a human rights-based approach to poverty reduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    poverty, stands in contraposition with poverty alleviation, which only temporarily ...... water and adequate sanitation facilities, hospitals, clinics and other ..... goals serve as benchmarks for the assessment of progress and each goal is linked to.

  2. Outline-based morphometrics, an overlooked method in arthropod studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kaba, D; Solano, P; Dupraz, M; McCoy, K D; Jaramillo-O, N

    2014-12-01

    Modern methods allow a geometric representation of forms, separating size and shape. In entomology, as well as in many other fields involving arthropod studies, shape variation has proved useful for species identification and population characterization. In medical entomology, it has been applied to very specific questions such as population structure, reinfestation of insecticide-treated areas and cryptic species recognition. For shape comparisons, great importance is given to the quality of landmarks in terms of comparability. Two conceptually and statistically separate approaches are: (i) landmark-based morphometrics, based on the relative position of a few anatomical "true" or "traditional" landmarks, and (ii) outline-based morphometrics, which captures the contour of forms through a sequence of close "pseudo-landmarks". Most of the studies on insects of medical, veterinary or economic importance make use of the landmark approach. The present survey makes a case for the outline method, here based on elliptic Fourier analysis. The collection of pseudo-landmarks may require the manual digitization of many points and, for this reason, might appear less attractive. It, however, has the ability to compare homologous organs or structures having no landmarks at all. This strength offers the possibility to study a wider range of anatomical structures and thus, a larger range of arthropods. We present a few examples highlighting its interest for separating close or cryptic species, or characterizing conspecific geographic populations, in a series of different vector organisms. In this simple application, i.e. the recognition of close or cryptic forms, the outline approach provided similar scores as those obtained by the landmark-based approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bronson, Richard

    1994-01-01

    If you want top grades and thorough understanding of differential equations, this powerful study tool is the best tutor you can have! It takes you step-by-step through the subject and gives you 563 accompanying problems with fully worked solutions. You also get plenty of practice problems to do on your own, working at your own speed. (Answers at the back show you how you're doing.) Famous for their clarity, wealth of illustrations and examples, and lack of dreary minutiae, Schaum’s Outlines have sold more than 30 million copies worldwide—and this guide will show you why!

  4. Outline of cost-benefit analysis and a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellizy, A.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology of cost-benefit analysis is reviewed and a case study involving solar cell technology is presented. Emphasis is placed on simplifying the technique in order to permit a technical person not trained in economics to undertake a cost-benefit study comparing alternative approaches to a given problem. The role of economic analysis in management decision making is discussed. In simplifying the methodology it was necessary to restrict the scope and applicability of this report. Additional considerations and constraints are outlined. Examples are worked out to demonstrate the principles. A computer program which performs the computational aspects appears in the appendix.

  5. An outline of Nirex's research and safety assessment programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1987-11-01

    This document outlines the safety studies being carried out by Nirex to ensure that radioactive wastes are disposed of in such a way that significant exposure of the public to radiation is at a minimum. The studies comprise experimental and theoretical work and mathematical modelling to predict performance over a long time-scale. Laboratory experiments are concerned with the immobilisation and packaging of wastes. Field studies provide information on radionuclide migration and the geology of possible repository sites. The results should ensure that waste disposal meets the exacting government safety standards. (U.K.)

  6. Outline of material accountancy system for Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Touko; Yamazaki Yoshihiro; Ai, Hironobu

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, Facility Attachment (FA) for Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was entered into force and the safeguards has been implemented in accordance with the FA. So operator must carry out the effectual material accountancy on the basis of facility operation. RRP is large and complex facility and operated based on automatic and remote system. For efficient material accounting viewpoint, the system especially automatic data collection is established using RRP computer network. The paper describes the outline of material accountancy system, the structure of RRP computer network including how to collect the source data, to convert the batch data and the reporting. (author)

  7. Outline of a fuel treatment facility in NUCEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugikawa, Susumu; Umeda, Miki; Kokusen, Junya

    1997-03-01

    This report presents outline of the nuclear fuel treatment facility for the purpose of preparing solution fuel used in Static Experiment Critical Facility (STACY) and Transient Experiment Critical Facility (TRACY) in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF), including descriptions of process conditions and dimensions of major process equipments on dissolution system of oxide fuel, chemical adjustment system, purification system, acid recovery system, solution fuel storage system, and descriptions of safety design philosophy such as safety considerations of criticality, solvent fire, explosion of hydrogen and red-oil and so on. (author)

  8. An outline of the BIZET experiments and their interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, F.; Sanders, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Paper provides a general description of the BIZET experiments carried out at Zebra under collaboration between the DeBeNe and UK Fast Reactor Projects. This programme included a large assembly representing the essential features of a conventional power reactor and also two cores incorporating internal breeder regions typifying current heterogeneous designs. Emphasis throughout was on validating predictions of reaction-rate distributions, control rod performance, and sodium-voiding reactivity. The scope of these measurements is outlined. A brief account is given of the data and methods being applied to the analysis of results. Conclusions drawn so far from the experiments and their evaluation are summarised. (author)

  9. Elaboration of the public services outline for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, B.; Tabet, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    France's public services outline for energy for the next 20 years will be adopted by decree in the autumn of 2001. Halfway through the process, the authors present the main points of a document whose preparation testified to a new approach in the policies for national development. Regional discussions that commence this month should give rise to numerous debates, based most particularly on the capacity territorial organisations have to participate in respect to the rational usage and decentralized production of energy. At the time of international negotiations on climatic changes, the questions raised are very quickly becoming inescapable. (authors)

  10. Remittances, inequality and poverty in Pakistan: macro and microeconomic Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar Yasin MUGHAL; Amar Iqbal ANWAR

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of remittance incidence on inequality and poverty in Pakistan. Using the 2005-06 and 2007-08 Household Integrated Economic Survey data, we find that remittances substantially lower the poverty headcount, as well as the depth and severity of poverty. Foreign remittances have also a beneficial effect on economic inequality in Pakistan. The contribution of foreign remittances in poverty alleviation and inequality reduction is much stronger than that of internal remi...

  11. The Role of Zakah and Binary Economics in Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Aisyah, Muniaty

    2014-01-01

    Poverty reduction remains the most important challenge for every countries. Zakah, as an Islamic faith-based institution, is a strategic tool for combating poverty. This study aims to identify the role of zakah and compare its principles with an overview of the characteristics and practices within binary economics which also provides a systemic solution for poverty. The study shows that zakah has an essential role to the economic growth and poverty reduction in Muslim community, as well as,...

  12. Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Bangladesh: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Bodrun; Siriwardana, Mahinda

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to investigate the impact on poverty of trade liberalisation in Bangladesh. The simulation results show that the complete removal of tariffs favours export oriented sectors in the economy. With trade liberalisation, rural and urban areas experience an overall reduction in poverty in the short run. However, a marginal increase in the poverty gap and poverty severity for urban areas is projected, implying that the poor become poorer i...

  13. Children in transition: child poverty in The Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Falkingham, Jane; Ibragimova, Shamsia

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines trends in the prevalence and severity of child poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic since the mid 1990s. Poverty is a multi-dimensional phenomenon and trends in both monetary poverty, as measured by household expenditure, and capability poverty, as measured by education, health status and access to related social services, are discussed. Recent evidence on child food security is also presented. Using newly available panel data from the 1998-2001 Household Budget Survey, the pape...

  14. The Relationship Among Poverty, Economic Growth, and Inequality Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lonnie K. Stevans; David N. Sessions

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown in prior research that increased economic growth reduces poverty. Authors have also found that the effect of growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on poverty growth has either diminished or remained unchanged over time, and economic expansion in the 1980s in the United States had no affect on poverty. Using a formal error-correction model, we find that increases in economic growth are significantly related to reductions in the poverty rate for all families. Specifically, GD...

  15. Exploring Local Conceptions of Poverty, Wealth and Well-Being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the conceptions of poverty by the poor in Mashonaland West Province of Zimbabwe. It seeks to broaden the discussion of poverty around the definition of the poor from the perspective of the poor. A cause-effect framework for poverty analysis is proposed, as well as the introduction of the notion of ...

  16. Using Dialogic Research to Overcome Poverty: From Principles to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Rosa; Padros, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In the EU commitment to alleviating the high rates of poverty in Europe there is widespread agreement among policy-makers that it is crucial to include the voices of those who are living in poverty in order to fight exclusion most effectively. Similarly, those studying ways to address poverty and inequality are increasingly required to seek…

  17. Restricted and Unrestricted Dominance for Welfare, Inequality and Poverty Ordenings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duclos, J.-Y.; Makdissi, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper extends the previous literature on the ethical links between the measurement of poverty, social welfare and inequality. We show inter alia, how, when the range of possible poverty lines is unbounded above, a robust ranking of absolute poverty may be interpreted as a robust ranking of

  18. Online Resources for Developing an Awareness of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathy R.

    2008-01-01

    In the elementary school, poverty, hunger, and homelessness are most often discussed in terms of a canned food drive conducted during a holiday season, but there are other options for activities in which children can learn about poverty, and to do something about it. This article describes ways to develop students awareness of poverty. Some print…

  19. 59 Poverty Eradication and Sustainability of Healthful Living in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... sustainable livelihoods; hunger, and malnutrition; ill health, limited or lack of ... poverty level has changed very little over the past two decades, poverty ... recent estimate of the food and Agriculture Organization of the United ... b) the food and energy price hikes in 2007-2008 increased the global poverty.

  20. Education, Cognitive Development, and Poverty: Implications for School Finance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDavid-Hadar, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Child poverty is a growing problem that adversely affects both future society and the poor children themselves. This paper's purpose is to investigate the intergenerational links between education and poverty. Israel serves as an interesting case study because it has exhibited an incremental trend in child poverty between 1980 and 2010 (from 5% to…

  1. Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE): 2010 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document presents 2010 data from the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program of the U.S. Census Bureau. The SAIPE program produces poverty estimates for the total population and median household income estimates annually for all counties and states. SAIPE data also produces single-year poverty estimates for the school-age…

  2. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J; Haider, L Jamila; Engström, Gustav; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-05-01

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to "push" the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges.

  3. Evolving Approaches to the Study of Childhood Poverty and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Emily; Liu, Ran; Alvarado-Urbina, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Social scientists have conceptualised poverty in multiple ways, with measurement approaches that seek to identify absolute, relative, subjective, and multi-dimensional poverty. The concept of poverty is central in the comparative education field, but has been empirically elusive in many large, international educational surveys: these studies have…

  4. estimating consumption-based poverty in the ethiopia demographic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    It turns out that the poverty scorecard and the ... B. No female head/spouse .... Total household asset score (sum of individual score items): .... rather than 95 percent are non-owners) with variation linked with the poverty of people ..... the average score is (20 + 30 + 40) ÷ 3 = 30, and the poverty likelihood associated with the.

  5. Poverty Measurement Under Income Risk. Armutsmessung bei Einkommensrisiken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weikard, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    Poverty indices are usually calculated on the basis of (cross section) income data from the past. As past income is fixed and future income is uncertain such measurement does not reflect the ex ante risk of falling into poverty. This paper presents refinements of commonly used poverty measures to

  6. Poverty and inequality in Ethiopia: 1995/96-2004/05

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Hoddinott, J.; Dercon, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores trends in poverty and inequality, and the role of growth, inequality and sectoral changes in the evolution of poverty in Ethiopia between 1996 and 2005. We find that while poverty remains widespread, it declined markedly over this period. However, while inequality remained

  7. Poverty Lines in History, Theory, and Current International Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Allen

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares historical poverty baskets to modern food security and poverty lines. Changes in the historical baskets and indexing methods are proposed to bring historical studies into better alignment with modern measures as well as with historically based estimates of energy requirements. In addition, it is argued that modern poverty measures could be improved by emulating the historical methods.

  8. Economics of poverty, environment and natural-resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of poverty is a tremendous and persistent challenge for the global community. Given that the livelihood of millions is at stake, there is an urgent need to reconsider the causes of and the remedies for poverty. Poverty and its reduction are closely linked to the natural-resources base. The

  9. The Multidimensionality of Child Poverty: Evidence from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Biggeri, Mario; Mauro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines multidimensional poverty among children in Afghanistan using the Alkire-Foster method. Several previous studies have underlined the need to separate children from their adult nexus when studying poverty and treat them according to their own specificities. From the capability approach, child poverty is understood to be the lack…

  10. 77 FR 4034 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty... update of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last... program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the Hill-Burton Uncompensated...

  11. Poverty, Academic Achievement, and Giftedness: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Corwith, Susan

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we review research on poverty, both poverty rates and the effects of poverty on academic achievement more generally and on the identification and services for low-income gifted children specifically. This review sets the stage for further discussion of the research findings on identification practices including the efficacy of…

  12. 76 FR 3637 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty... update of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last... program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the Hill-Burton Uncompensated...

  13. Rural Principal Attitudes toward Poverty and the Poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study used Yun and Weaver's (2010) Attitudes toward Poverty Short Form (ATP-SF) of twenty-one items on a Likert-type scale to determine the poverty attitudes of 309 principals in a rural Appalachian state in the United States. The study compared the poverty attitudes from the ATP-SF scaled score as a dependent variable to the following…

  14. 75 FR 29513 - Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Supplemental Poverty Measure AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice and... comments on the approach to developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) presented in a report entitled ``Observations from the Interagency Technical Working Group on Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure,'' which...

  15. Monitoring Perceptions of the Causes of Poverty in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Yul Derek; Gouws, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how people perceive the causes of poverty. Literature revealed that there are three broad theoretical explanations of perceptions of the causes of poverty, namely individualistic explanations, where blame is placed squarely on the poor themselves; structural explanations, where poverty is blamed on external social and economic…

  16. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  17. 78 FR 5182 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty... update of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last... program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the Hill-Burton Uncompensated...

  18. Five Evils: Multidimensional Poverty and Race in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Richard; Rodrigue, Edward; Kneebone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Poverty is about a lack of money, but it's not only about that. As a lived experience, poverty is also characterized by ill health, insecurity, discomfort, isolation, and more. To put it another way: Poverty is multidimensional, and its dimensions often cluster together to intensify the negative effects of being poor. In this first of a two-part…

  19. Incidence, Depth and Severity of Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamonica, Enrique Ernesto; Minujin, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the first ever estimate of the number of children living poverty in developing countries was undertaken. The incidence of child poverty was estimated by establishing how many children suffer severe deprivation in at least one out of seven indicators which are internationally recognized as their rights as well as constitutive of poverty.…

  20. Neighborhood Poverty and Nonmarital Fertility: Spatial and Temporal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced…