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Sample records for raw motion records

  1. Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/rrsm/ that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ≥ 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; http://www.seiscomp3.org/). Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org/) and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/index.html), where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.

  2. Good Laboratory Practice. Part 2. Recording and Retaining Raw Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedlich, Richard C.; Libera, Agata E.; Pires, Amanda; Tellarini, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    A clear understanding of how "raw data" is defined, recorded, and retained in the laboratory record is essential to the chemist employed in the laboratory compliant with the Good Laboratory Practices regulations. This article is intended to provide an understanding by drawing upon examples taken from the modern pharmaceutical analysis…

  3. VIIRS Climate Raw Data Record (C-RDR) from Suomi NPP, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Suomi NPP Climate Raw Data Record (C-RDR) developed at the NOAA NCDC is an intermediate product processing level (NOAA Level 1b) between a Raw Data Record (RDR)...

  4. Gait Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davrondzhon Gafurov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative approach, where gait is collected by the sensors attached to the person's body. Such wearable sensors record motion (e.g. acceleration of the body parts during walking. The recorded motion signals are then investigated for person recognition purposes. We analyzed acceleration signals from the foot, hip, pocket and arm. Applying various methods, the best EER obtained for foot-, pocket-, arm- and hip- based user authentication were 5%, 7%, 10% and 13%, respectively. Furthermore, we present the results of our analysis on security assessment of gait. Studying gait-based user authentication (in case of hip motion under three attack scenarios, we revealed that a minimal effort mimicking does not help to improve the acceptance chances of impostors. However, impostors who know their closest person in the database or the genders of the users can be a threat to gait-based authentication. We also provide some new insights toward the uniqueness of gait in case of foot motion. In particular, we revealed the following: a sideway motion of the foot provides the most discrimination, compared to an up-down or forward-backward directions; and different segments of the gait cycle provide different level of discrimination.

  5. Analysis of raw AIS spectrum recordings from a LEO satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    The AAUSAT3 satellite is a 1U cubesat, which has been developed by students at Aalborg University, Denmark in collaboration with the Danish Maritime Authority. The satellite was launched in February 2013 on a mission to monitor ships from space using their AIS broadcast signals as an indication...... of position. The SDR receiver developed to listen for these AIS signals also allows for sampling and storing of the raw intermediate frequency spectrum, which has been used in order to map channel utilization over the areas of interest for the mission, which is mainly the arctic regions. The SDR based...... receiver used onboard the satellite is using a single chip front-end solution, which down converts the AIS signal located around 162 MHz into an intermediate frequency, with a up to 200 kHz bandwidth. This I/F signal is sampled with a 750 kSPS A/D converter and further processed by an Analog Devices DSP...

  6. French network and acquired experience on record strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieux, H.; Mohammadioun, G.

    1988-03-01

    The network intended to record strong ground motion in continental France is composed for the most part of instrument packages incorporated into nuclear installations, which are supplemented by a certain number of accelerometers placed in the most highly seismic areas. In a country where the level of seismicity is relatively modest, such a network is not conductive to the acquisition of new data, which, instead, is obtained through spot studies of limited duration using more sensitive instruments or through the recording of strong ground motion in neighbouring countries [fr

  7. Generating ActiGraph counts from raw acceleration recorded by an alternative monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Raw acceleration data collected by the ActiGraph accelerometer is aggregated using a proprietary method into arbitrary physical activity intensity units called counts, which has been extensively calibrated and validated against energy expenditure. Generating ActiGraph counts from any...... second across all rotational frequencies compared to the original ActiGraph method. Applying the aggregation method to the 24-hour free-living recordings resulted in an epoch level bias ranging from -16.2 to 0.9 counts per 10 second, a relative difference in the averaged physical activity (counts per...

  8. Snpp CrIS Instrumental Status and Raw Data Record Quality Since the Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Han, Y.; Sun, N.; Weng, F.; Wang, L.; Chen, Y.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The SNPP CrIS (cross-track infrared sounder) has been in service for more than two years. As the first operational interferometric hyper-spectral sounder onboard the new-generation polar-orbit meteorological satellite, CrIS's instrumental performance and data quality are widely concerned. NOAA/NESDIS/STAR CrIS Cal/Val team have been actively involved since the beginning of the mission. An intact record of the CrIS instrumental performance and raw data record (RDR) has been established. In this presentation, the continuous records of some critical indicators such as noise, gain, laser wavelength drifting and many other parameters related to the internal thermal status, are presented. It is found that the hardware performance is extremely stable in the past two years and the degradation is very small. These features make CrIS a great candidate for long-term climate studies. Moreover, the completeness of RDR data is another advantage of taking CrIS for climate studies. NOAA/NESDIS/STAR has recorded all of the CrIS RDR data since the launch and has been dedicated to improving the data quality.

  9. Fetal motion estimation from noninvasive cardiac signal recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglari, Hadis; Sameni, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Fetal motility is a widely accepted indicator of the well-being of a fetus. In previous research, it has be shown that fetal motion (FM) is coherent with fetal heart rate accelerations and an indicator for active/rest cycles of the fetus. The most common approach for FM and fetal heart rate (FHR) assessment is by Doppler ultrasound (DUS). While DUS is the most common approach for studying the mechanical activities of the heart, noninvasive fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) and magnetocardiogram (MCG) recording and processing techniques have been considered as a possible competitor (or complement) for the DUS. In this study, a fully automatic and robust framework is proposed for the extraction, ranking and alignment of fetal QRS-complexes from noninvasive fetal ECG/MCG. Using notions from subspace tracking, two measures, namely the actogram and rotatogram, are defined for fetal motion tracking. The method is applied to four fetal ECG/MCG databases, including twin MCG recordings. By defining a novel measure of causality, it is shown that there is significant coherency and causal relationship between the actogram/rotatogram and FHR accelerations/decelerations. Using this measure, it is shown that in many cases, the actogram and rotatogram precede the FHR variations, which supports the idea of motion-induced FHR accelerations/decelerations for these cases and raises attention for the non-motion-induced FHR variations, which can be associated to the fetal central nervous system developments. The results of this study can lead to novel perspectives of the fetal sympathetic and parasympathetic brain systems and future requirements of fetal cardiac monitoring.

  10. SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Beniamino; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, V s30 , etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.)

  11. Comparison of Nonlinear Model Results Using Modified Recorded and Synthetic Ground Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, Robert E.; Wilkins, J. Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A study has been performed that compares results of nonlinear model runs using two sets of earthquake ground motion time histories that have been modified to fit the same design response spectra. The time histories include applicable modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories and synthetic ground motion time histories. The modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories are modified from time history records that are selected based on consistent magnitude and distance. The synthetic ground motion time histories are generated using appropriate Fourier amplitude spectrums, Arias intensity, and drift correction. All of the time history modification is performed using the same algorithm to fit the design response spectra. The study provides data to demonstrate that properly managed synthetic ground motion time histories are reasonable for use in nonlinear seismic analysis.

  12. Seabed Motion During Sediment Density Flows as Recorded by Displaced Man-Made Motion-Recording Boulders and a Heavy Instrument Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwiazda, R.; Paull, C. K.; Kieft, B.; Bird, L.; Klimov, D.; Herlien, R.; Sherman, A.; McCann, M. P.; Sumner, E.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Maier, K. L.; Barry, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over a period of 18 months the Coordinated Canyon Experiment documented the passage of at least 15 sediment density flows in Monterey Canyon, offshore California, with an array of moorings and sensors placed from 200 m to 1,850 m water depths. Free-standing `smart' boulders (Benthic Event Detectors, BED) and a 1,000 Kg tripod with an Acoustic Monitoring Transponder (AMT) and a BED attached to it were deployed in the upper canyon to detect seabed motions during sediment density flows. BEDs consist of spheres made of a combination of metal, plastic and syntactic foam ballasted to 2.1 g/cm3 density, containing accelerometers along three orthogonal axes, a time recorder, and a pressure sensor inside a pressure case rated to 500 m water depth. Acceleration of ≥ 0.008 G triggers data collection at a recording rate of 50 Hz until motion stops. Built-in acoustic beacons and modems allow for BEDs to be relocated, and data to be downloaded, even when BEDs are buried in sediment to depths of >1 m. Over the course of the study, depth changes and velocities of 24 BED movements during 9 events were recorded. BEDs moved at the velocity of the propagation of the flows down canyon, as documented by the time of arrival of the flow at successive sensors, but sometimes travelled at lower speeds. Seven movements of the AMT tripod were also recorded. In the largest of these, the heavy AMT tripod was transported over a distance of 4.1 Km. For at least four of these seven motions the AMT temperature record indicates that the movements were initiated while the tripod was buried. In one particular event simultaneous movements of five BEDs over a 100 m depth range indicate that the entire seabed was in motion at the same time over a canyon distance of 3.5 Km. Reconstructions of instrument motions in this event from their internally recorded acceleration data show that the AMT displacement was at the front of the event and had no rotational component. In contrast, free standing BEDs at the

  13. 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake engineering seismoscope recordings and Eastern North America ground-motion attenuation relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C.H.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering seismoscope data collected at distances less than 300 km for the M 7.7 Bhuj, India, mainshock are compatible with ground-motion attenuation in eastern North America (ENA). The mainshock ground-motion data have been corrected to a common geological site condition using the factors of Joyner and Boore (2000) and a classification scheme of Quaternary or Tertiary sediments or rock. We then compare these data to ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. Despite uncertainties in recording method, geological site corrections, common tectonic setting, and the amount of regional seismic attenuation, the corrected Bhuj dataset agrees with the collective predictions by ENA ground-motion attenuation relations within a factor of 2. This level of agreement is within the dataset uncertainties and the normal variance for recorded earthquake ground motions.

  14. Strong motion recordings of the 2008/12/23 earthquake in Northern Italy: another case of very weak motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetta, F.; Zambonelli, E.

    2009-04-01

    On December 23 2008 an earthquake of magnitude ML=5.1 (INGV) Mw=5.4 (INGV-Harvard Global CMT) occurred in northern Italy close to the cities of Parma and Reggio Emilia. The earthquake, with a macroseismic intensity of VI MCS, caused a very slight damage (some tens of unusable buildings and some hundreds of damaged buildings), substantially lower than the damage estimated by the loss simulation scenario currently used by the Italian Civil Protection. Due to the recent upgrading of the Italian strong motion network (RAN), the event has been recorded by a great number of accelerometers (the largest ever obtained in Italy for a single shock): 21 digital and 8 analog instruments with epicentral distances ranging from 16 to 140 km. The comparison of recorded PGA, PGV, Arias intensity, and spectral values with several widely used Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) showed much lower ground motion values respect to the empirical predictions (a factor ranging from 4 to 2). A first explanation of the strong differences, in damage and ground motion, between actual data and predictions could be, at a first sight, attributed to the rather high focal depth of 27 km. However, even the adoption of GMPEs accounting for depth of the source and using hypocentral distance (Berge et al 2003, Pousse et al 2005), does not predict large differences in motions, especially at distances larger than 30 km where most of the data are concentrated and where the effect of depth on source-to-site distance is small. At the same time the adoption of the most recent GMPEs (Ambraseys et al 2005, Akkar & bommer 2007) taking into account the different magnitude scaling and the faster attenuation of small magnitudes through magnitude-dependent attenuation, does not show a better agreement with the recorded data. The real reasons of the above mentioned discrepancies need to be further investigated, however a possible explanation could be a low source rupture velocity, likewise the 2002 Molise

  15. Required number of records for ASCE/SEI 7 ground-motion scaling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2011-01-01

    The procedures and criteria in 2006 IBC (International Council of Building Officials, 2006) and 2007 CBC (International Council of Building Officials, 2007) for the selection and scaling ground-motions for use in nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) of structures are based on ASCE/SEI 7 provisions (ASCE, 2005, 2010). According to ASCE/SEI 7, earthquake records should be selected from events of magnitudes, fault distance, and source mechanisms that comply with the maximum considered earthquake, and then scaled so that the average value of the 5-percent-damped response spectra for the set of scaled records is not less than the design response spectrum over the period range from 0.2Tn to 1.5Tn sec (where Tn is the fundamental vibration period of the structure). If at least seven ground-motions are analyzed, the design values of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) are taken as the average of the EDPs determined from the analyses. If fewer than seven ground-motions are analyzed, the design values of EDPs are taken as the maximum values of the EDPs. ASCE/SEI 7 requires a minimum of three ground-motions. These limits on the number of records in the ASCE/SEI 7 procedure are based on engineering experience, rather than on a comprehensive evaluation. This study statistically examines the required number of records for the ASCE/SEI 7 procedure, such that the scaled records provide accurate, efficient, and consistent estimates of" true" structural responses. Based on elastic-perfectly-plastic and bilinear single-degree-of-freedom systems, the ASCE/SEI 7 scaling procedure is applied to 480 sets of ground-motions. The number of records in these sets varies from three to ten. The records in each set were selected either (i) randomly, (ii) considering their spectral shapes, or (iii) considering their spectral shapes and design spectral-acceleration value, A(Tn). As compared to benchmark (that is, "true") responses from unscaled records using a larger catalog of ground-motions

  16. Validation of strong-motion stochastic model using observed ground motion records in north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipok K. Bora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We focused on validation of applicability of semi-empirical technique (spectral models and stochastic simulation for the estimation of ground-motion characteristics in the northeastern region (NER of India. In the present study, it is assumed that the point source approximation in far field is valid. The one-dimensional stochastic point source seismological model of Boore (1983 (Boore, DM. 1983. Stochastic simulation of high frequency ground motions based on seismological models of the radiated spectra. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 73, 1865–1894. is used for modelling the acceleration time histories. Total ground-motion records of 30 earthquakes of magnitudes lying between MW 4.2 and 6.2 in NER India from March 2008 to April 2013 are used for this study. We considered peak ground acceleration (PGA and pseudospectral acceleration (response spectrum amplitudes with 5% damping ratio at three fundamental natural periods, namely: 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 s. The spectral models, which work well for PGA, overestimate the pseudospectral acceleration. It seems that there is a strong influence of local site amplification and crustal attenuation (kappa, which control spectral amplitudes at different frequencies. The results would allow analysing regional peculiarities of ground-motion excitation and propagation and updating seismic hazard assessment, both the probabilistic and deterministic approaches.

  17. Vertical ground motion and historical sea-level records in Dakar (Senegal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Raucoules, Daniel; Garcin, Manuel; Lavigne, Franck; Wöppelmann, Guy; Gravelle, Médéric; Da Sylva, Sylvestre; Meyssignac, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    With growing concerns regarding future impacts of sea-level in major coastal cities, the most accurate information is required regarding local sea-level changes with respect to the coast. Besides global and regional sea-level changes, local coastal vertical ground motions can substantially contribute to local changes in sea-level. In some cases, such ground motions can also limit the usefulness of tide-gauge records, which are a unique source of information to evaluate global sea-level changes before the altimetry era. Using satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry, this study aims at characterizing vertical coastal ground motion in Dakar (Senegal), where a unique century-long record in Africa has been rediscovered. Given the limited number of available images, we use a stacking procedure to compute ground motion velocities in the line of sight over 1992–2010. Despite a complex geology and a rapid population growth and development, we show that the city as a whole is unaffected by differential ground motions larger than 1 mm year −1 . Only the northern part of the harbor displays subsidence patterns after 2000, probably as a consequence of land reclamation works. However, these ground motions do not affect the historical tide gauge. Our results highlight the value of the historical sea-level records of Dakar, which cover a 100 year time-span in a tropical oceanic region of Africa, where little data are available for past sea-level reconstructions. (letter)

  18. Shear-wave velocity compilation for Northridge strong-motion recording sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Fumal, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Borehole and other geotechnical information collected at the strong-motion recording sites of the Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994 provide an important new basis for the characterization of local site conditions. These geotechnical data, when combined with analysis of strong-motion recordings, provide an empirical basis to evaluate site coefficients used in current versions of US building codes. Shear-wave-velocity estimates to a depth of 30 meters are derived for 176 strong-motion recording sites. The estimates are based on borehole shear-velocity logs, physical property logs, correlations with physical properties and digital geologic maps. Surface-wave velocity measurements and standard penetration data are compiled as additional constraints. These data as compiled from a variety of databases are presented via GIS maps and corresponding tables to facilitate use by other investigators.

  19. How many records should be used in ASCE/SEI-7 ground motion scaling procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan C.; Kalkan, Erol

    2012-01-01

    U.S. national building codes refer to the ASCE/SEI-7 provisions for selecting and scaling ground motions for use in nonlinear response history analysis of structures. Because the limiting values for the number of records in the ASCE/SEI-7 are based on engineering experience, this study examines the required number of records statistically, such that the scaled records provide accurate, efficient, and consistent estimates of “true” structural responses. Based on elastic–perfectly plastic and bilinear single-degree-of-freedom systems, the ASCE/SEI-7 scaling procedure is applied to 480 sets of ground motions; the number of records in these sets varies from three to ten. As compared to benchmark responses, it is demonstrated that the ASCE/SEI-7 scaling procedure is conservative if fewer than seven ground motions are employed. Utilizing seven or more randomly selected records provides more accurate estimate of the responses. Selecting records based on their spectral shape and design spectral acceleration increases the accuracy and efficiency of the procedure.

  20. The near-source strong-motion accelerograms recorded by an experimental array in Tangshan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, K.; Xie, Lingtian; Li, S.; Boore, D.M.; Iwan, W.D.; Teng, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A joint research project on strong-motion earthquake studies between the People's Republic of China and the United States is in progress. As a part of this project, an experimental strong-motion array, consisting of twelve Kinemetrics PDR-1 Digital Event Recorders, was deployed in the meizoseismal area of the Ms = 7.8 Tangshan earthquake of July 28, 1976. These instruments have automatic gain ranging, a specified dynamic range of 102 dB, a 2.5 s pre-event memory, programmable triggering, and are equipped with TCG-1B Time Code Generators with a stability of 3 parts in 107 over a range of 0-50??C. In 2 y of operation beginning July, 1982 a total of 603 near-source 3-component accelerograms were gathered from 243 earthquakes of magnitude ML = 1.2-5.3. Most of these accelerograms have recorded the initial P-wave. The configuration of the experimental array and a representative set of near-source strong-motion accelerograms are presented in this paper. The set of accelerograms exhibited were obtained during the ML = 5.3 Lulong earthquake of October 19, 1982, when digital event recorders were triggered. The epicentral distances ranged from 4 to 41 km and the corresponding range of peak horizontal accelerations was 0.232g to 0.009g. A preliminary analysis of the data indicates that compared to motions in the western United States, the peak acceleration attenuates much more rapidly in the Tangshan area. The scaling of peak acceleration with magnitude, however, is similar in the two regions. Data at more distant sites are needed to confirm the more rapid attenuation. ?? 1985.

  1. Preliminary analysis of strong-motion recordings from the 28 September 2004 Parkfield, California earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakal, A.; Graizer, V.; Huang, M.; Borcherdt, R.; Haddadi, H.; Lin, K.-W.; Stephens, C.; Roffers, P.

    2005-01-01

    The Parkfield 2004 earthquake yielded the most extensive set of strong-motion data in the near-source region of a magnitude 6 earthquake yet obtained. The recordings of acceleration and volumetric strain provide an unprecedented document of the near-source seismic radiation for a moderate earthquake. The spatial density of the measurements alon g the fault zone and in the linear arrays perpendicular to the fault is expected to provide an exceptional opportunity to develop improved models of the rupture process. The closely spaced measurements should help infer the temporal and spatial distribution of the rupture process at much higher resolution than previously possible. Preliminary analyses of the peak a cceleration data presented herein shows that the motions vary significantly along the rupture zone, from 0.13 g to more than 2.5 g, with a map of the values showing that the larger values are concentrated in three areas. Particle motions at the near-fault stations are consistent with bilateral rupture. Fault-normal pulses similar to those observed in recent strike-slip earthquakes are apparent at several of the stations. The attenuation of peak ground acceleration with distance is more rapid than that indicated by some standard relationships but adequately fits others. Evidence for directivity in the peak acceleration data is not strong. Several stations very near, or over, the rupturing fault recorded relatively low accelerations. These recordings may provide a quantitative basis to understand observations of low near-fault shaking damage that has been reported in other large strike-slip earthquak.

  2. Subjective evaluation of auralizations created from multi-channel anechoic recordings of a talker in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.

    2005-04-01

    A high degree of speech intelligibility is very important in educational environments. When designing such spaces, like classrooms, auralizations can be used to subjectively assess the degree of speech intelligibility and clarity. Auralizations are most commonly made by convolving the impulse response (IR) of an omni-directional source with a single channel anechoic speech recording. This paper explores the idea of using multi-channel recordings to create the auralizations, using a female talker in motion. An omni-directional source is split into quadrants and the IR is calculated for each section. These IR's are convolved with the appropriate channel of the anechoic recording and then the four auralizations are mixed to create one final auralization. The auralizations were made using four-channel anechoic recordings of a person walking on a platform while talking. Subjective tests were conducted to determine the ease with which subjects could identify the direction of the movement of the source in rooms with varying amounts of absorption. This method can be used to create more realistic classroom auralizations, as teachers typically move around the room as they teach. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  3. Near Fault Strong Ground Motion Records in the Kathmandu Valley during the 2015 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, N.; Shigefuji, M.; Rajaure, S.; Bijukchhen, S.; Ichiyanagi, M.; Dhital, M. R.; Sasatani, T.

    2015-12-01

    Kathmandu is the capital of Nepal and is located in the Kathmandu Valley, which is formed by soft lake sediments of Plio-Pleistocene origin. Large earthquakes in the past have caused significant damage as the seismic waves were amplified in the soft sediments. To understand the site effect of the valley structure, we installed continuous recording accelerometers in four different parts of the valley. Four stations were installed along a west-to-east profile of the valley at KTP (Kirtipur; hill top), TVU (Kirtipur; hill side), PTN (Patan) and THM (Thimi). On 25 April 2015, a large interplate earthquake Mw 7.8 occurred in the Himalayan Range of Nepal. The focal area estimated was about 200 km long and 150 km wide, with a large slip area under the Kathmandu Valley where our strong motion observation stations were installed. The strong ground motions were observed during this large damaging earthquake. The maximum horizontal peak ground acceleration at the rock site was 271 cm s-2, and the maximum horizontal peak ground velocity at the sediment sites reached 112 cm s-1. We compared these values with the empirical attenuation formula for strong ground motions. We found the peak accelerations were smaller and the peak velocities were approximately the same as the predicted values. The rock site KTP motions are less affected by site amplification and were analysed further. The horizontal components were rotated to the fault normal (N205E) and fault parallel (N115E) directions using the USGS fault model. The velocity waveforms at KTP showed about 5 s triangular pulses on the N205E and the up-down components; however the N115E component was not a triangular pulse but one cycle sinusoidal wave. The velocity waveforms at KTP were integrated to derive the displacement waveforms. The derived displacements at KTP are characterized by a monotonic step on the N205E normal and up-down components. The displacement waveforms of KTP show permanent displacements of 130 cm in the fault

  4. Attenuation Characteristics of Strong Motions during the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes including Near-Field Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, H.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Ibrahim, R.

    2016-12-01

    During the two major earthquakes occurred in Kumamoto prefecture, at 21:26 on 14 April, 2016 (Mw 6.2, GCMT), and at 1:25 on 16 April, 2016 (Mw7.0, GCMT), a large number of strong ground motions were recorded, including those very close to the surface fault. In this study, we will discuss the attenuation characteristics of strong ground motions observed during the earthquakes. The data used in this study are mainly observed by K-NET, KiK-net, Osaka University, JMA and Kumamoto prefecture. The 5% damped acceleration response spectra (GMRotI50) are calculated based on the method proposed by Boore et al. (2006). PGA and PGV is defined as the larger one among the PGAs and PGVs of two horizontal components. The PGA, PGV, and GMRotI50 data were corrected to the bedrock with Vs of 1.5km/s based on the method proposed by Si et al. (2016) using the average shear wave velocity (Vs30) and the thickness of sediments over the bedrock. The thickness is estimated based on the velocity structure model provided by J-SHIS. We use a source model proposed by Koketsu et al. (2016) to calculate the fault distance and the median distance (MED) which defined as the closest distance from a station to the median line of the fault plane (Si et al., 2014). We compared the observed PGAs, PGVs, and GMRotI50 with the GMPEs developed in Japan using MED (Si et al., 2014). The predictions by the GMPEs are generally consistent with the observations during the two Kumamoto earthquakes. The results of the comparison also indicated that, (1) strong motion records from the earthquake on April 14th are generally consistent with the predictions by GMPE, however, at the periods of 0.5 to 2 seconds, several records close to the fault plane show larger amplitudes than the predictions by GMPE, including the KiK-net station Mashiki (KMMH16); (2) for the earthquake on April 16, the PGAs and GMRotI50 at periods from 0.1s to 0.4s with short distance from the fault plane are slightly smaller than the predictions by

  5. Automatic identification of motion artifacts in EHG recording for robust analysis of uterine contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye-Lin, Yiyao; Garcia-Casado, Javier; Prats-Boluda, Gema; Alberola-Rubio, José; Perales, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Electrohysterography (EHG) is a noninvasive technique for monitoring uterine electrical activity. However, the presence of artifacts in the EHG signal may give rise to erroneous interpretations and make it difficult to extract useful information from these recordings. The aim of this work was to develop an automatic system of segmenting EHG recordings that distinguishes between uterine contractions and artifacts. Firstly, the segmentation is performed using an algorithm that generates the TOCO-like signal derived from the EHG and detects windows with significant changes in amplitude. After that, these segments are classified in two groups: artifacted and nonartifacted signals. To develop a classifier, a total of eleven spectral, temporal, and nonlinear features were calculated from EHG signal windows from 12 women in the first stage of labor that had previously been classified by experts. The combination of characteristics that led to the highest degree of accuracy in detecting artifacts was then determined. The results showed that it is possible to obtain automatic detection of motion artifacts in segmented EHG recordings with a precision of 92.2% using only seven features. The proposed algorithm and classifier together compose a useful tool for analyzing EHG signals and would help to promote clinical applications of this technique.

  6. Automatic Identification of Motion Artifacts in EHG Recording for Robust Analysis of Uterine Contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyao Ye-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrohysterography (EHG is a noninvasive technique for monitoring uterine electrical activity. However, the presence of artifacts in the EHG signal may give rise to erroneous interpretations and make it difficult to extract useful information from these recordings. The aim of this work was to develop an automatic system of segmenting EHG recordings that distinguishes between uterine contractions and artifacts. Firstly, the segmentation is performed using an algorithm that generates the TOCO-like signal derived from the EHG and detects windows with significant changes in amplitude. After that, these segments are classified in two groups: artifacted and nonartifacted signals. To develop a classifier, a total of eleven spectral, temporal, and nonlinear features were calculated from EHG signal windows from 12 women in the first stage of labor that had previously been classified by experts. The combination of characteristics that led to the highest degree of accuracy in detecting artifacts was then determined. The results showed that it is possible to obtain automatic detection of motion artifacts in segmented EHG recordings with a precision of 92.2% using only seven features. The proposed algorithm and classifier together compose a useful tool for analyzing EHG signals and would help to promote clinical applications of this technique.

  7. The study of key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai

    2016-08-01

    This paper has studied the key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring. The validations show that the consistence of the coordinate system must be considered firstly to exclude the system bias between GNSS and strong-motion. The GNSS sampling rate is suggested about 1-5 Hz, and we should give the strong-motion's baseline shift with a larger dynamic noise as its variation is very swift. The initialization time of solving the baseline shift is less than one minute, and ambiguity resolution strategy is not greatly improved the solution. The data quality is very important for the solution, we advised to use multi-frequency and multi-system observations. These ideas give an important guide for real-time earthquake monitoring and early warning by the tight integration of GNSS and strong-motion records.

  8. An Arduino project to record ground motion and to learn on earthquake hazard at high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraò, Angela; Barnaba, Carla; Clocchiatti, Marco; Zuliani, David

    2015-04-01

    Through a multidisciplinary work that integrates Technology education with Earth Sciences, we implemented an educational program to raise the students' awareness of seismic hazard and to disseminate good practices of earthquake safety. Using free software and low-cost open hardware, the students of a senior class of the high school Liceo Paschini in Tolmezzo (NE Italy) implemented a seismograph using the Arduino open-source electronics platform and the ADXL345 sensors to emulate a low cost seismometer (e.g. O-NAVI sensor of the Quake-Catcher Network, http://qcn.stanford.edu). To accomplish their task the students were addressed to use the web resources for technical support and troubleshooting. Shell scripts, running on local computers under Linux OS, controlled the process of recording and display data. The main part of the experiment was documented using the DokuWiki style. Some propaedeutic lessons in computer sciences and electronics were needed to build up the necessary skills of the students and to fill in the gap of their background knowledge. In addition lectures by seismologists and laboratory activity allowed the class to exploit different aspects of the physics of the earthquake and particularly of the seismic waves, and to become familiar with the topics of seismic hazard through an inquiry-based learning. The Arduino seismograph achieved can be used for educational purposes and it can display tremors on the local network of the school. For sure it can record the ground motion due to a seismic event that can occur in the area, but further improvements are necessary for a quantitative analysis of the recorded signals.

  9. Measures Earth System Data Records (ESDR) of Ice Motion in Antarctica: Status, Impact and Future Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuchl, B.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.

    2014-12-01

    Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is an extremely useful tool for providing relevant information about the ice sheet ECV: ice vector velocity, grounding line position, and ice front location. Here, we provide an overview of the SAR Earth System Data Records (ESDR) for Antarctica part of MEaSUREs that includes: the first complete map of surface ice vector velocity in Antarctica, a map of grounding line positions around Antarctica, ice velocity time series for selected regions: Ross and Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelves and associated drainage basins, the Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica which is the largest contributor to sea level rise from Antarctica and the focus of rapid ice sheet retreat, and Larsen-B and -C ice shelves which is the second largest contribution to sea level rise from Antarctica. Other products include a database of ice shelf boundaries and drainage basins based on ice motion mapping and digital elevation models generated independently. Data continuity is a crucial aspect of this work and a fundamental challenge for the continuation of these products due to the lack of a dedicated interferometric mission on the cryosphere until the SAR mission under consideration between NASA and ISRO is approved. Four SAR missions ceased operations since IPY. CSA's RADARSAT-2 has provided important bridging data between these missions in Greenland and Antarctica. In 2014, ESA launched Sentinel-1a and JAXA launched ALOS-2 PALSAR, for which we will have limited data access. The Polar Space Task Group (PSTG) created by WMO has established a mandate to support cryospheric products from scientific research using international SARs which continues to play an active role in securing key data acquisitions over ice sheets. We will provide an overview of current efforts. This work was conducted at UC Irvine, Department of Earth System Science under a contract with NASA's MEaSUREs program.

  10. Seismic Site Effects from the Seafloor Motion Recorded by the Short-period Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. Y.; Cheng, W. B.; Chin, S. J.; Hsu, S. K.; Dong, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    For decades, it has been mentioned that submarine slope failures are spatially linked to the presence of gas hydrates/gas-charged sediments. When triggered by earthquakes, oversteepen and instable sediments may prompt breakouts of the slopes containing gas hydrates and cause submarine landslides and tsunamis. Widely distributed BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In the region, large or small scale landslides were also reported based on seismic interpretations. In order to clarify the link between earthquake, landslide and the presence of gas hydrate, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios are used to characterize the local sediment response. Ambient noise as well as distant earthquakes are used as generators of the passive dynamic loads. Based on this study, we aim to characterize the site in terms of its physical properties and the local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments. The results show that the maximum H/V ratios appeared in the range of 5-10 Hz, where the horizontal amplitudes increased by an order of magnitude relative to the vertical amplitude. The stations located in the northwestern part of study area were characterized by another relatively small peak at proximately 2 Hz, which may indicates the presence of a discontinuity of sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquake (i.e. strong input signal) and noise (background, micro-seismic noise) records were characterized by different pattern. No distinct peak is observed for the H/V pattern calculated during earthquakes. This phenomenon may suggest that no clear sedimentary boundary exist when a stronger motion applies. Estimating H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the seven short period OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) deployed in the southwest Taiwan

  11. 50-Ma Initiation of Hawaiian-Emperor Bend Records Major Change in Pacific Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Warren D.; Clague, David A.

    2006-09-01

    The Hawaiian-Emperor bend has played a prominent yet controversial role in deciphering past Pacific plate motions and the tempo of plate motion change. New ages for volcanoes of the central and southern Emperor chain define large changes in volcanic migration rate with little associated change in the chain's trend, which suggests that the bend did not form by slowing of the Hawaiian hot spot. Initiation of the bend near Kimmei seamount about 50 million years ago (MA) was coincident with realignment of Pacific spreading centers and early magmatism in western Pacific arcs, consistent with formation of the bend by changed Pacific plate motion.

  12. Pros and cons of rotating ground motion records to fault-normal/parallel directions for response history analysis of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Kwong, Neal S.

    2014-01-01

    According to the regulatory building codes in the United States (e.g., 2010 California Building Code), at least two horizontal ground motion components are required for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of building structures. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHAs should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with the transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all nonredundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here, for the first time, using a 3D computer model of a six-story reinforced-concrete instrumented building subjected to an ensemble of bidirectional near-fault ground motions. Peak values of engineering demand parameters (EDPs) were computed for rotation angles ranging from 0 through 180° to quantify the difference between peak values of EDPs over all rotation angles and those due to FN/FP direction rotated motions. It is demonstrated that rotating ground motions to FN/FP directions (1) does not always lead to the maximum responses over all angles, (2) does not always envelope the range of possible responses, and (3) does not provide maximum responses for all EDPs simultaneously even if it provides a maximum response for a specific EDP.

  13. Raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    . Although science and technology studies (STS) makes a strong case for associating relationality with certainty, the article argues that a particular form of data, ‘raw data’, complicates this association. It further argues that scientific data is not simply composed out of relations, but is a relation......This article takes scientific ‘raw data’ as its ethnographic object in order to investigate the co-implication of nature and culture in scientific knowledge practices. The article traces out some of the activities that are involved in producing numerical climate data from the Brazilian Amazon...... itself. The article ends with a brief reflection on the possible repercussions of shifting from thinking of science as producing multiple natures and cultures to thinking of it as producing the potential for relations....

  14. Estimation of 1-D velocity models beneath strong-motion observation sites in the Kathmandu Valley using strong-motion records from moderate-sized earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijukchhen, Subeg M.; Takai, Nobuo; Shigefuji, Michiko; Ichiyanagi, Masayoshi; Sasatani, Tsutomu; Sugimura, Yokito

    2017-07-01

    The Himalayan collision zone experiences many seismic activities with large earthquakes occurring at certain time intervals. The damming of the proto-Bagmati River as a result of rapid mountain-building processes created a lake in the Kathmandu Valley that eventually dried out, leaving thick unconsolidated lacustrine deposits. Previous studies have shown that the sediments are 600 m thick in the center. A location in a seismically active region, and the possible amplification of seismic waves due to thick sediments, have made Kathmandu Valley seismically vulnerable. It has suffered devastation due to earthquakes several times in the past. The development of the Kathmandu Valley into the largest urban agglomerate in Nepal has exposed a large population to seismic hazards. This vulnerability was apparent during the Gorkha Earthquake (Mw7.8) on April 25, 2015, when the main shock and ensuing aftershocks claimed more than 1700 lives and nearly 13% of buildings inside the valley were completely damaged. Preparing safe and up-to-date building codes to reduce seismic risk requires a thorough study of ground motion amplification. Characterizing subsurface velocity structure is a step toward achieving that goal. We used the records from an array of strong-motion accelerometers installed by Hokkaido University and Tribhuvan University to construct 1-D velocity models of station sites by forward modeling of low-frequency S-waves. Filtered records (0.1-0.5 Hz) from one of the accelerometers installed at a rock site during a moderate-sized (mb4.9) earthquake on August 30, 2013, and three moderate-sized (Mw5.1, Mw5.1, and Mw5.5) aftershocks of the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake were used as input motion for modeling of low-frequency S-waves. We consulted available geological maps, cross-sections, and borehole data as the basis for initial models for the sediment sites. This study shows that the basin has an undulating topography and sediment sites have deposits of varying thicknesses

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF FREE-FIELD SOIL PROPERTIES USING NUPEC RECORDED GROUND MOTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Costantino, C.; Hofmayer, C.; Murphy, A.; Chokshi, N.; Kitada, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has conducted a series of field model test programs to investigate various aspects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects on nuclear power plant structures, including embedment and dynamic structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI) effects. As part of a collaborative agreement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NUPEC, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) performed a numerical analysis to predict the free field soil profile using industry standard methods and the recorded free field responses to actual earthquake events. This paper describes the BNL free-field analyses, including the methods and the analysis results and their comparison to recorded data in the free field. The free-field soil profiles determined from the BNL analyses are being used for both the embedment and SSSI studies, the results of which will be made available upon their completion

  16. Improved Hip-Based Individual Recognition Using Wearable Motion Recording Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Bours, Patrick

    In todays society the demand for reliable verification of a user identity is increasing. Although biometric technologies based on fingerprint or iris can provide accurate and reliable recognition performance, they are inconvenient for periodic or frequent re-verification. In this paper we propose a hip-based user recognition method which can be suitable for implicit and periodic re-verification of the identity. In our approach we use a wearable accelerometer sensor attached to the hip of the person, and then the measured hip motion signal is analysed for identity verification purposes. The main analyses steps consists of detecting gait cycles in the signal and matching two sets of detected gait cycles. Evaluating the approach on a hip data set consisting of 400 gait sequences (samples) from 100 subjects, we obtained equal error rate (EER) of 7.5% and identification rate at rank 1 was 81.4%. These numbers are improvements by 37.5% and 11.2% respectively of the previous study using the same data set.

  17. A comparative study of surface waves inversion techniques at strong motion recording sites in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotis C. Pelekis,; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Kayen, Robert E.; Vlachakis, Vasileios S.; Athanasopoulos, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Surface wave method was used for the estimation of Vs vs depth profile at 10 strong motion stations in Greece. The dispersion data were obtained by SASW method, utilizing a pair of electromechanical harmonic-wave source (shakers) or a random source (drop weight). In this study, three inversion techniques were used a) a recently proposed Simplified Inversion Method (SIM), b) an inversion technique based on a neighborhood algorithm (NA) which allows the incorporation of a priori information regarding the subsurface structure parameters, and c) Occam's inversion algorithm. For each site constant value of Poisson's ratio was assumed (ν=0.4) since the objective of the current study is the comparison of the three inversion schemes regardless the uncertainties resulting due to the lack of geotechnical data. A penalty function was introduced to quantify the deviations of the derived Vs profiles. The Vs models are compared as of Vs(z), Vs30 and EC8 soil category, in order to show the insignificance of the existing variations. The comparison results showed that the average variation of SIM profiles is 9% and 4.9% comparing with NA and Occam's profiles respectively whilst the average difference of Vs30 values obtained from SIM is 7.4% and 5.0% compared with NA and Occam's.

  18. Characterisation of ground motion recording stations in the Groningen gas field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlandt, Rik; Kruiver, Pauline P.; de Kleine, Marco P. E.; Karaoulis, Marios; de Lange, Ger; Di Matteo, Antonio; von Ketelhodt, Julius; Ruigrok, Elmer; Edwards, Benjamin; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Bommer, Julian J.; van Elk, Jan; Doornhof, Dirk

    2018-05-01

    The seismic hazard and risk analysis for the onshore Groningen gas field requires information about local soil properties, in particular shear-wave velocity ( V S). A fieldwork campaign was conducted at 18 surface accelerograph stations of the monitoring network. The subsurface in the region consists of unconsolidated sediments and is heterogeneous in composition and properties. A range of different methods was applied to acquire in situ V S values to a target depth of at least 30 m. The techniques include seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT) with varying source offsets, multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) on Rayleigh waves with different processing approaches, microtremor array, cross-hole tomography and suspension P-S logging. The offset SCPT, cross-hole tomography and common midpoint cross-correlation (CMPcc) processing of MASW data all revealed lateral variations on length scales of several to tens of metres in this geological setting. SCPTs resulted in very detailed V S profiles with depth, but represent point measurements in a heterogeneous environment. The MASW results represent V S information on a larger spatial scale and smooth some of the heterogeneity encountered at the sites. The combination of MASW and SCPT proved to be a powerful and cost-effective approach in determining representative V S profiles at the accelerograph station sites. The measured V S profiles correspond well with the modelled profiles and they significantly enhance the ground motion model derivation. The similarity between the theoretical transfer function from the V S profile and the observed amplification from vertical array stations is also excellent.

  19. Consistency of GPS and strong-motion records: case study of the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimoulis, Panos; Houlié, Nicolas; Michel, Clotaire; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus

    2014-05-01

    High-rate GPS data are today commonly used to supplement seismic data for the Earth surface motions focusing on earthquake characterisation and rupture modelling. Processing of GPS records using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can provide real-time information of seismic wave propagation, tsunami early-warning and seismic rupture. Most studies have shown differences between the GPS and seismic systems at very long periods (e.g. >100sec) and static displacements. The aim of this study is the assessment of the consistency of GPS and strong-motion records by comparing their respective displacement waveforms for several frequency bands. For this purpose, the records of the GPS (GEONET) and the strong-motion (KiK-net and K-NET) networks corresponding to the Mw9.0 Tohoku 2011 earthquake were analysed. The comparison of the displacement waveforms of collocated (distance<100m) GPS and strong-motion sites show that the consistency between the two datasets depends on the frequency of the excitation. Differences are mainly due to the GPS noise at relatively short-periods (<3-4 s) and the saturation of the strong-motion sensors for relatively long-periods (40-80 s). Furthermore the agreement between the GPS and strong-motion records also depends on the direction of the excitation signal and the distance from the epicentre. In conclusion, velocities and displacements recovered from GPS and strong-motion records are consistent for long-periods (3-100 s), proving that GPS networks can contribute to the real-time estimation of the long-period ground motion map of an earthquake.

  20. Slow speed—fast motion: time-lapse recordings in physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2018-05-01

    Video analysis with a 30 Hz frame rate is the standard tool in physics education. The development of affordable high-speed-cameras has extended the capabilities of the tool for much smaller time scales to the 1 ms range, using frame rates of typically up to 1000 frames s-1, allowing us to study transient physics phenomena happening too fast for the naked eye. Here we want to extend the range of phenomena which may be studied by video analysis in the opposite direction by focusing on much longer time scales ranging from minutes, hours to many days or even months. We discuss this time-lapse method, needed equipment and give a few hints of how to produce respective recordings for two specific experiments.

  1. Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, Earthquake Inverted from Strong-Motion Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Zheng, Ao

    2017-04-01

    On 15 April, 2016 the great earthquake with magnitude Mw7.1 occurred in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan. The focal mechanism solution released by F-net located the hypocenter at 130.7630°E, 32.7545°N, at a depth of 12.45 km, and the strike, dip, and the rake angle of the fault were N226°E, 84˚ and -142° respectively. The epicenter distribution and focal mechanisms of aftershocks implied the mechanism of the mainshock might have changed in the source rupture process, thus a single focal mechanism was not enough to explain the observed data adequately. In this study, based on the inversion result of GNSS and InSAR surface deformation with active structures for reference, we construct a finite fault model with focal mechanism changes, and derive the source rupture process by multi-time-window linear waveform inversion method using the strong-motion data (0.05 1.0Hz) obtained by K-NET and KiK-net of Japan. Our result shows that the Kumamoto earthquake is a right-lateral strike slipping rupture event along the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone, and the seismogenic fault is divided into a northern segment and a southern one. The strike and the dip of the northern segment are N235°E, 60˚ respectively. And for the southern one, they are N205°E, 72˚ respectively. The depth range of the fault model is consistent with the depth distribution of aftershocks, and the slip on the fault plane mainly concentrate on the northern segment, in which the maximum slip is about 7.9 meter. The rupture process of the whole fault continues for approximately 18-sec, and the total seismic moment released is 5.47×1019N·m (Mw 7.1). In addition, the essential feature of the distribution of PGV and PGA synthesized by the inversion result is similar to that of observed PGA and seismic intensity.

  2. Absolute Plate Motion Control Since the Triassic from the Cocos Slab and its Associated Subduction Record in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Langereis, C. G.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Kimbrough, D. L.; Spakman, W.

    2017-12-01

    A positive wave speed anomaly interpreted as the Cocos slab stretches from the uppermost mantle at the Middle America trench in the west, to the lowermost mantle below the Atlantic in the east. The length and continuity of this slab indicates long-lived, uninterrupted eastward subduction of the attached Cocos Plate and its predecessor, the Farallon Plate. The geological record of Mexico contains Triassic to present day evidence of subduction, of which the post-Late Cretaceous phase is of continental margin-style. Interpretations of the pre-Upper Cretaceous subduction-related rock assemblages are under debate, and vary from far-travelled exotic intra-oceanic island arc character to in-situ extended continental margin origin. We present new paleomagnetic data that show that Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous subduction-related rocks from the Vizcaíno Peninsula and the Guerrero terrane have a paleolatitudinal plate motion history that is equal to that of the North American continent. This suggests that these rock assemblages were part of the overriding plate and were perhaps only separated from the North American continent by temporal fore- or back-arc spreading. The entire Triassic-present day subduction record, and hence, reconstructed trench location, can therefore be linked to the Cocos slab, which provides control on longitudinal plate motion of North America since the time of Pangea. Compared to the latest state of the art mantle frames, in which longitudes are essentially unconstrained for pre-Cretaceous times, our reconstructed absolute position of North America requires a significant westward longitudinal shift for Mesozoic times.

  3. Investigation on the real-time prediction of ground motions using seismic records observed in deep boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, H.; Tsuno, S.

    2013-12-01

    The present method of the EEW system installed in the railway field of Japan predicts seismic ground motions based on the estimated earthquake information about epicentral distances and magnitudes using initial P-waves observed on the surface. In the case of local earthquakes beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan Area, however, a method to directly predict seismic ground motions using P-waves observed in deep boreholes could issue EEWs more simply and surely. Besides, a method to predict seismic ground motions, using S-waves observed in deep boreholes and S-wave velocity structures beneath seismic stations, could show planar distributions of ground motions for train operation control areas in the aftermath of earthquakes. This information is available to decide areas in which the emergency inspection of railway structures should be performed. To develop those two methods, we investigated relationships between peak amplitudes on the surface and those in deep boreholes, using seismic records of KiK-net stations in the Kanto Basin. In this study, we used earthquake accelerograms observed in boreholes whose depths are deeper than the top face of Pre-Neogene basement and those on the surface at 12 seismic stations of KiK-net. We selected 243 local earthquakes whose epicenters are located around the Kanto Region. Those JMA magnitudes are in the range from 4.5 to 7.0. We picked the on-set of P-waves and S-waves using a vertical component and two horizontal components, respectively. Peak amplitudes of P-waves and S-waves were obtained using vertical components and vector sums of two horizontal components, respectively. We estimated parameters which represent site amplification factors beneath seismic stations, using peak amplitudes of S-waves observed in the deep borehole and those on the surface, to minimize the residuals between calculations by the theoretical equation and observations. Correlation coefficients between calculations and observations are high values in the range

  4. Reorganizing Care With the Implementation of Electronic Medical Records: A Time-Motion Study in the PICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumeliotis, Nadia; Parisien, Geneviève; Charette, Sylvie; Arpin, Elizabeth; Brunet, Fabrice; Jouvet, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    To assess caregivers' patient care time before and after the implementation of a reorganization of care plan with electronic medical records. A prospective, observational, time-motion study. A level 3 PICU. Nurses and orderlies caring for intubated patients during an 8-hour work shift before (2008-2009) and after (2016) implementation of reorganization of care in 2013. The reorganization plan included improved telecommunication for healthcare workers, increased tasks delegated to orderlies, and an ICU-specific electronic medical record (Intellispace Critical Care and Anesthesia information system, Philips Healthcare). Time spent completing various work tasks was recorded by direct observation, and proportion of time in tasks was compared for each study period. A total of 153.7 hours was observed from 22 nurses and 14 orderlies. There was no significant difference in the proportion of nursing patient care time before (68.8% [interquartile range, 48-72%]) and after (55% [interquartile range, 51-57%]) (p = 0.11) the reorganization with electronic medical record. Direct patient care task time for nurses was increased from 27.0% (interquartile range, 30-37%) before to 34.7% (interquartile range, 33-75%) (p = 0.336) after, and indirect patient care tasks decreased from 33.6% (interquartile range, 23-41%) to 18.6% (interquartile range, 16-22%) (p = 0.036). Documentation time significantly increased from 14.5% (interquartile range, 12-22%) to 26.2% (interquartile range, 23-28%) (p = 0.032). Nursing productivity ratio improved from 28.3 to 26.0. A survey revealed that nursing staff was satisfied with the electronic medical record, although there was a concern for the maintenance of oral communication in the unit. The reorganization of care with the implementation of an ICU-specific electronic medical record in the PICU did not change total patient care provided but improved nursing productivity, resulting in improved efficiency. Documentation time was significantly

  5. Application of a net-based baseline correction scheme to strong-motion records of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Wang, Rongjiang; Zhang, Yong; Walter, Thomas R.

    2014-06-01

    The description of static displacements associated with earthquakes is traditionally achieved using GPS, EDM or InSAR data. In addition, displacement histories can be derived from strong-motion records, allowing an improvement of geodetic networks at a high sampling rate and a better physical understanding of earthquake processes. Strong-motion records require a correction procedure appropriate for baseline shifts that may be caused by rotational motion, tilting and other instrumental effects. Common methods use an empirical bilinear correction on the velocity seismograms integrated from the strong-motion records. In this study, we overcome the weaknesses of an empirically based bilinear baseline correction scheme by using a net-based criterion to select the timing parameters. This idea is based on the physical principle that low-frequency seismic waveforms at neighbouring stations are coherent if the interstation distance is much smaller than the distance to the seismic source. For a dense strong-motion network, it is plausible to select the timing parameters so that the correlation coefficient between the velocity seismograms of two neighbouring stations is maximized after the baseline correction. We applied this new concept to the KiK-Net and K-Net strong-motion data available for the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. We compared the derived coseismic static displacement with high-quality GPS data, and with the results obtained using empirical methods. The results show that the proposed net-based approach is feasible and more robust than the individual empirical approaches. The outliers caused by unknown problems in the measurement system can be easily detected and quantified.

  6. On the effect of conductivity of a shock-compressed gas on interferometric recording of parameters of motion of a liner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogorodnikov, V. A., E-mail: root@gdd.vniief.ru; Mikhailov, A. L.; Peshkov, V. V.; Bogdanov, E. N.; Rodionov, A. V.; Sedov, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.; Nazarov, D. V.; Finyushin, S. A.; Dudoladov, V. I.; Erunov, S. V.; Blikov, A. O. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    We report on the results of a study of the acceleration dynamics of an aluminum liner to a velocity of 5.5 km/s using continuous recording of velocity (velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) and Fabry-Perot interferometer) and motion trajectory (radiointerferometer and resistive transducer) in air and in a helium atmosphere. It is found that for liner velocities exceeding 4.0 and 5.0 km/s, the displacement of the shock wave front is recorded by the radiointerferometer in air and helium, respectively. At these velocities, the conductivities of air and helium behind the shock wave front are estimated.

  7. Raw material versus processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.A.T.

    1989-01-01

    Some brazilian aspects related with the obtainment of raw materials for advanced ceramic products are described. The necessity of import raw materials by the advanced ceramic industries is mentioned, generating dangerous depedence for the country. The brazilian mineral reserves for using in raw materials of advanced ceramic are also cited. (C.G.C.) [pt

  8. Joint Inversion of 1-Hz GPS Data and Strong Motion Records for the Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake: Objectively Determining Relative Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Kato, T.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal fault slip history of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, Japan, is obtained by the joint inversion of 1-Hz GPS waveforms and near-field strong motion records. 1-Hz GPS data from GEONET is processed by GAMIT/GLOBK and then a low-pass filter of 0.05 Hz is applied. The ground surface strong motion records from stations of K-NET and Kik-Net are band-pass filtered for the range of 0.05 ~ 0.3 Hz and integrated once to obtain velocity. The joint inversion exploits a broader frequency band for near-field ground motions, which provides excellent constraints for both the detailed slip history and slip distribution. A fully Bayesian inversion method is performed to simultaneously and objectively determine the rupture model, the unknown relative weighting of multiple data sets and the unknown smoothing hyperparameters. The preferred rupture model is stable for different choices of velocity structure model and station distribution, with maximum slip of ~ 8.0 m and seismic moment of 2.9 × 1019 Nm (Mw 6.9). By comparison with the single inversion of strong motion records, the cumulative slip distribution of joint inversion shows sparser slip distribution with two slip asperities. One common slip asperity extends from the hypocenter southeastward to the ground surface of breakage; another slip asperity, which is unique for joint inversion contributed by 1-Hz GPS waveforms, appears in the deep part of fault where very few aftershocks are occurring. The differential moment rate function of joint and single inversions obviously indicates that rich high frequency waves are radiated in the first three seconds but few low frequency waves.

  9. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Food Safety Food Safety Modernization Act Raw Milk Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir RAW MILK ... Decide? Questions & Answers Outbreak Studies Resources & Publications Raw Milk Infographic [PDF – 1 page] More Resources 5 Raw ...

  10. Estimation of S-wave velocity structure of deep sedimentary layers using geophysical data and earthquake ground motion records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Haruhiko

    2014-01-01

    The preliminary results with an outline of array observation for micro-tremor and natural earthquakes around the NIIT site were explained. Phase velocity estimated from a horizontal array of strong motion observation agrees with that from the micro-tremor survey. Estimation results are consistent with other literature, such as PS-logging data and gravity maps. Further improvement of the three-dimensional modeling by using micro-tremor surveys and horizontal array observation is planned for the future. (author)

  11. Strong-motion characteristics and source process during the Suruga Bay earthquake in 2009 through observed records on rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Yoshiaki; Sato, Hiroaki; Kuriyama, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    On 11 August 2009, a moderate earthquake of M 6.5 occurred in the Suruga Bay region, south of Shizuoka prefecture. During this event, JMA Seismic Intensity reached 6 lower in several cities around the hypocenter, and at Hamaoka nuclear power plant of Chubu Electric Power reactors were automatically shutdown due to large ground motions. Though the epicenter is located at the eastern edge of source area for the assumed great Tokai earthquake of M 8, this event is classified into the intra-plate (intra-slab) earthquake, due to its focal depth lower than that of the plate boundary and fault geometry supposed from the moment tensor solution. Dense strong-motion observation network has been deployed mainly on the rock outcrops by our institute around the source area, and the waveform data of the main shock and several aftershocks were obtained at 13 stations within 100 km from the hypocenter. The observed peak ground motions and velocity response spectral amplitudes are both obviously larger than the empirical attenuation relations derived from the inland and plate-boundary earthquake data, which displays the characteristics of the intra-slab earthquake faulting. Estimated acceleration source spectra of the main shock also exhibit the short period level about 1.7 times larger than the average of those for past events, and it corresponds with the additional term in the attenuation curve of the peak ground acceleration for the intra-plate earthquake. Detailed source process of the main shock is inferred using the inversion technique. The initial source model is assumed to be composed of two distinct fault planes according to the minute aftershock distribution. Estimated source model shows that large slip occurred near the hypocenter and at the boundary region between two fault planes where the rupture transfers from primary to secondary fault. Furthermore the broadband source inversion using velocity motions in the frequency up to 5 Hz demonstrates the high effective

  12. Application of a tri-axial accelerometry-based portable motion recorder for the quantitative assessment of hippotherapy in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Tomoko; Mutoh, Tatsushi; Takada, Makoto; Doumura, Misato; Ihara, Masayo; Taki, Yasuyuki; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Ihara, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] This case series aims to evaluate the effects of hippotherapy on gait and balance ability of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy using quantitative parameters for physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] Three patients with gait disability as a sequela of cerebral palsy (one female and two males; age 5, 12, and 25 years old) were recruited. Participants received hippotherapy for 30 min once a week for 2 years. Gait parameters (step rate, step length, gait speed, mean acceleration, and horizontal/vertical displacement ratio) were measured using a portable motion recorder equipped with a tri-axial accelerometer attached to the waist before and after a 10-m walking test. [Results] There was a significant increase in step length between before and after a single hippotherapy session. Over the course of 2 year intervention, there was a significant increase in step rate, gait speed, step length, and mean acceleration and a significant improvement in horizontal/vertical displacement ratio. [Conclusion] The data suggest that quantitative parameters derived from a portable motion recorder can track both immediate and long-term changes in the walking ability of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy undergoing hippotherapy.

  13. Reliability of lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics during different paces of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill using a motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhao; Huo, Ming; An, Xiangde; Li, Yong; Onoda, Ko; Li, Desheng; Huang, Qiuchen; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the changes in lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics, and reliability of measurement during different paces of barefoot racewalking on treadmill. [Subjects] Eleven junior racewalking men participated in this study. [Methods] To identify changes in lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics, during different paces of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill, a wireless motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) was used. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC 1, 2) were used to estimate reliability. [Results] There were significant differences in the lower leg proximal end and forefoot maximum medial/lateral rotations at a pace of 9 km/h compared with those at a pace of 5 km/h pace. The intra-examiner reliability estimates ranged from 0.82 and 0.89 to 0.87 and 0.93 for lower leg proximal end inversion/eversion rotation and medial/lateral rotation, and from 0.92 and 0.84 to 0.93 and 0.91 for forefoot inversion/eversion rotation and medial/lateral rotation. [Conclusion] We conclude that the lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics of barefoot racewalking on a treadmill are influenced by different paces and that assessment of lower leg proximal end and forefoot kinematics by means of the wireless motion recorder (MVP-RF8-BC) is adequately reliable. This information may be useful for determining exercise prescriptions.

  14. Seismic velocity site characterization of 10 Arizona strong-motion recording stations by spectral analysis of surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E.; Carkin, Brad A.; Corbett, Skye C.

    2017-10-19

    Vertical one-dimensional shear wave velocity (VS) profiles are presented for strong-motion sites in Arizona for a suite of stations surrounding the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The purpose of the study is to determine the detailed site velocity profile, the average velocity in the upper 30 meters of the profile (VS30), the average velocity for the entire profile (VSZ), and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The VS profiles are estimated using a non-invasive continuous-sine-wave method for gathering the dispersion characteristics of surface waves. Shear wave velocity profiles were inverted from the averaged dispersion curves using three independent methods for comparison, and the root-mean-square combined coefficient of variation (COV) of the dispersion and inversion calculations are estimated for each site.

  15. Real-Time Motion Capture Toolbox (RTMocap): an open-source code for recording 3-D motion kinematics to study action-effect anticipations during motor and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, Daniel; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2016-03-01

    We present here a toolbox for the real-time motion capture of biological movements that runs in the cross-platform MATLAB environment (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). It provides instantaneous processing of the 3-D movement coordinates of up to 20 markers at a single instant. Available functions include (1) the setting of reference positions, areas, and trajectories of interest; (2) recording of the 3-D coordinates for each marker over the trial duration; and (3) the detection of events to use as triggers for external reinforcers (e.g., lights, sounds, or odors). Through fast online communication between the hardware controller and RTMocap, automatic trial selection is possible by means of either a preset or an adaptive criterion. Rapid preprocessing of signals is also provided, which includes artifact rejection, filtering, spline interpolation, and averaging. A key example is detailed, and three typical variations are developed (1) to provide a clear understanding of the importance of real-time control for 3-D motion in cognitive sciences and (2) to present users with simple lines of code that can be used as starting points for customizing experiments using the simple MATLAB syntax. RTMocap is freely available (http://sites.google.com/site/RTMocap/) under the GNU public license for noncommercial use and open-source development, together with sample data and extensive documentation.

  16. Raw material uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, O.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper some aspects are being considered, in as far as they can contribute to a better understanding of uranium as a raw material and an energy carrier, and as they can indicate the possible ways and means open to the German Federal Republic for securing this highly desirable raw material, without becoming even more dependent on the economic and political views of the producing countries, than it is the case in respect of oil. (orig.) [de

  17. Seismic Intensity Map Triggered by Observed Strong Motion Records Considering Site Amplification and its service based on Geo-spatial International Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental seismic intensity measurement is carried out at approximately 4,200 points in Japan, but the correct values at points without seismometers cannot always be provided because seismic motion depends on geologic and geomorphologic features. Quick provision of accurate information on seismic intensity distribution over wide areas is required for disaster mitigation. To estimate seismic intensity at specific points, it is important to prepare ground amplification characteristics for local areas beforehand and use an interpolation algorithm. The QuiQuake system (quick estimation system for earthquake maps triggered by using observation records from K-NET and KiK-net that have been released by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention), which uses these, was developed; it can be started up automatically using seismograms and can immediately display a seismic intensity distribution map. The calculation results are sent to IAEA and JNES in the form of strong motion evaluation maps with a mesh size of 250 x 250 m. These maps are also sent to the general public via social networking web sites. (author)

  18. Simple procedure for evaluating earthquake response spectra of large-event motions based on site amplification factors derived from smaller-event records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Kazuo; Miyakoshi, Jun-ichi; Yashiro, Kazuhiko.

    1996-01-01

    A primitive procedure was proposed for evaluating earthquake response spectra of large-event motions to make use of records from smaller events. The result of the regression analysis of the response spectra was utilized to obtain the site amplification factors in the proposed procedure, and the formulation of the seismic-source term in the regression analysis was examined. A linear form of the moment magnitude, Mw, is good for scaling the source term of moderate earthquakes with Mw of 5.5 to 7.0, while a quadratic form of Mw and the ω-square source-spectrum model is appropriate for scaling the source term of smaller and greater earthquakes, respectively. (author). 52 refs

  19. Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, Earthquake Derived from Near-Source Strong-Motion Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, A.; Zhang, W.

    2016-12-01

    On 15 April, 2016 the great earthquake with magnitude Mw7.1 occurred in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan. The focal mechanism solution released by F-net located the hypocenter at 130.7630°E, 32.7545°N, at a depth of 12.45 km, and the strike, dip, and the rake angle of the fault were N226°E, 84° and -142° respectively. The epicenter distribution and focal mechanisms of aftershocks implied the mechanism of the mainshock might have changed in the source rupture process, thus a single focal mechanism was not enough to explain the observed data adequately. In this study, based on the inversion result of GNSS and InSAR surface deformation with active structures for reference, we construct a finite fault model with focal mechanism changes, and derive the source rupture process by multi-time-window linear waveform inversion method using the strong-motion data (0.05 1.0Hz) obtained by K-NET and KiK-net of Japan. Our result shows that the Kumamoto earthquake is a right-lateral strike slipping rupture event along the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone, and the seismogenic fault is divided into a northern segment and a southern one. The strike and the dip of the northern segment are N235°E, 60° respectively. And for the southern one, they are N205°E, 72° respectively. The depth range of the fault model is consistent with the depth distribution of aftershocks, and the slip on the fault plane mainly concentrate on the northern segment, in which the maximum slip is about 7.9 meter. The rupture process of the whole fault continues for approximately 18-sec, and the total seismic moment released is 5.47×1019N·m (Mw 7.1). In addition, the essential feature of the distribution of PGV and PGA synthesized by the inversion result is similar to that of observed PGA and seismic intensity.

  20. Tilted lake shorelines record the onset of motion along the Hilton Creek fault adjacent to Long Valley caldera, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, J. P.; Finnegan, N. J.; Cervelli, P. F.; Langbein, J. O.

    2010-12-01

    Prominent normal faults occur within and around Long Valley caldera, in the eastern Sierra Nevada of California. However, their relationship to both the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the caldera since the 760 ka eruption of the Bishop Tuff remains poorly understood. In particular, in the Mono-Inyo Craters north of Long Valley, extensional faulting appears to be replaced by dike intrusion where magma is available in the crust. However, it is unclear whether extensional faults in Long Valley caldera have been active since the eruption of the Bishop Tuff (when the current topography was established) or are a relatively young phenomenon owing to the cooling and crystallization of the Long Valley magma reservoir. Here we use GPS geodesy and geomorphology to investigate the evolution of the Hilton Creek fault, the primary range-front fault bounding Long Valley caldera to the southwest. Our primary goals are to determine how long the Hilton Creek fault has been active and whether slip rates have been constant over that time interval. To characterize the modern deformation field, we capitalize on recently (July, 2010) reoccupied GPS benchmarks first established in 1999-2000. These fixed-array GPS data show no discernible evidence for recent slip on the Hilton Creek fault, which further highlights the need for longer-term constraints on fault motion. To establish a fault slip history, we rely on a suite of five prominent shorelines from Pleistocene Long Valley Lake whose ages are well constrained based on field relationships to dated lavas, and that are tilted southward toward the Hilton Creek fault. A preliminary analysis of shoreline orientations using GPS surveys and a 5-m-resolution Topographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (TOPSAR) digital elevation model shows that lake shorelines tilt towards the Hilton Creek fault at roughly parallel gradients (~ 0.6%). The measured shorelines range in inferred age from 100 ka to 500 ka, which constrain recent slip on the Hilton

  1. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available in the permeability of the membrane and HO H3C H3C H2C H2C HO OH NH NH OH O OC C n O O O O Fig. 4 Structure of Chitin Raw and Renewable Polymers promoting internal osmotic imbalances. This results in leaching of electrolytes and proteins. 2... is often lost. In most cases this denaturation is not reversible. R-CH-COOH NH2 w Amino acid H2N COOHR a Amino acid Fig. 5 Structure of amino acid Raw and Renewable Polymers The solubilities of proteins vary considerably based on compositions...

  2. Rupture history of the 2011 M 9 Tohoku Japan earthquake determined from strong‐motion and high‐rate GPS recordings: Subevents radiating energy in different frequency bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Strong‐motion records from KiK‐net and K‐NET, along with 1 sample/s Global Positioning System (GPS) records from GEONET, were analyzed to determine the location, timing, and slip of subevents of the M 9 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Timing of arrivals on stations along the coast shows that the first subevent was located closer to the coast than subevent (2), which produced the largest slip. A waveform inversion of data from 0 to 0.2 Hz indicates that the first subevent primarily ruptured down‐dip and north of the hypocenter and had an M of 8.5. The areas of this subevent that generated the low (0.2  Hz) frequency energy are located in the same vicinity. The inversion result for the second subevent (M 9.0) has large slip on the shallow part of the fault with peak slip of about 65 m above about 25 km depth. This slip generated the tsunami. The preferred inversion has initiation of subevent 2 on the shallow portion of the fault so that rupture proceeded down‐dip and mainly to the south. Subevent 2 started about 35 s after subevent 1, which allows for the possibility of dynamic triggering from subevent 1. The slip model predicts displacements comparable to those found from ocean‐bottom transducers near the epicenter. At frequencies that most affect tall buildings (0.1–0.5 Hz), there is a strong pulse (subevent 3) in the strong‐motion records that arrives after the near‐field ramp from subevent 2. High‐frequency subevent 3 was located down‐dip and south of the high‐slip portion of subevent 2 and was initiated as rupture from subevent 2 proceeded down‐dip. The compact pulse for subevent 3 is modeled with an M 8.0 source in a 75 by 30 km area that ruptured down‐dip and to the south with a high slip velocity, indicating high stress drop.

  3. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  4. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  5. Modeling strong‐motion recordings of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile, earthquake with high stress‐drop subevents and background slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Strong‐motion recordings of the Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake were modeled using a compound rupture model consisting of (1) a background slip distribution with large correlation lengths, relatively low slip velocity, and long peak rise time of slip of about 10 s and (2) high stress‐drop subevents (asperities) on the deeper portion of the rupture with moment magnitudes 7.9–8.2, high slip velocity, and rise times of slip of about 2 s. In this model, the high‐frequency energy is not produced in the same location as the peak coseismic slip, but is generated in the deeper part of the rupture zone. Using synthetic seismograms generated for a plane‐layered velocity model, I find that the high stress‐drop subevents explain the observed Fourier spectral amplitude from about 0.1 to 1.0 Hz. Broadband synthetics (0–10 Hz) were calculated by combining deterministic synthetics derived from the background slip and asperities (≤1  Hz) with stochastic synthetics generated only at the asperities (≥1  Hz). The broadband synthetics produced response spectral accelerations with low bias compared to the data, for periods of 0.1–10 s. A subevent stress drop of 200–350 bars for the high‐frequency stochastic synthetics was found to bracket the observed spectral accelerations at frequencies greater than 1 Hz. For most of the stations, the synthetics had durations of the Arias intensity similar to the observed records.

  6. Obstacles delaying the prompt deployment of piston-type mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices during emergency department resuscitation: a video-recording and time-motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Edward Pei-Chuan; Wang, Hui-Chih; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Chang, Anna Marie; Fu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Wei; Liao, Yen-Chen; Liu, Hung-Chieh; Fang, Yao-De; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Wen-Chu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Chen, Shyr-Chyr

    2013-09-01

    The quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is important to survival after cardiac arrest. Mechanical devices (MD) provide constant CPR, but their effectiveness may be affected by deployment timeliness. To identify the timeliness of the overall and of each essential step in the deployment of a piston-type MD during emergency department (ED) resuscitation, and to identify factors associated with delayed MD deployment by video recordings. Between December 2005 and December 2008, video clips from resuscitations with CPR sessions using a MD in the ED were reviewed using time-motion analyses. The overall deployment timeliness and the time spent on each essential step of deployment were measured. There were 37 CPR recordings that used a MD. Deployment of MD took an average 122.6 ± 57.8s. The 3 most time-consuming steps were: (1) setting the device (57.8 ± 38.3s), (2) positioning the patient (33.4 ± 38.0 s), and (3) positioning the device (14.7 ± 9.5s). Total no flow time was 89.1 ± 41.2s (72.7% of total time) and associated with the 3 most time-consuming steps. There was no difference in the total timeliness, no-flow time, and no-flow ratio between different rescuer numbers, time of day of the resuscitation, or body size of patients. Rescuers spent a significant amount of time on MD deployment, leading to long no-flow times. Lack of familiarity with the device and positioning strategy were associated with poor performance. Additional training in device deployment strategies are required to improve the benefits of mechanical CPR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: A One-Year Follow-Up Review of Industry Practices in the Motion Picture, Music Recording and Electronic Game Industries. A Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    In a report issued in September 2000, the Federal Trade Commission reported that the motion picture, music recording, and electronic game segments of the entertainment industry intentionally promoted products to children that warranted parent cautions. This report responds to the request of the Senate Commerce Committee by focusing on advertising…

  8. Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: A Twenty-One Month Follow-Up Review of Industry Practices in the Motion Picture, Music Recording and Electronic Game Industries. A Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    In a report issued in September 2000, the Federal Trade Commission contended that the motion picture, music recording, and electronic game industries had engaged in widespread marketing of violent movies, music, and games to children inconsistent with their own parental advisories and undermining parents attempts to make informed decisions about…

  9. PRISM, Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion Data Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Jones, J. M.; Stephens, C. D.; Ng, P.

    2016-12-01

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the U.S., calls for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records by providing batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform-independent (coded in Java), open-source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a graphical user interface (GUI) for manual review and processing. To facilitate the use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and GUI components) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. Input to PRISM currently is limited to data files in the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) V0 format, so that all retrieved acceleration time series need to be converted to this format. Output products include COSMOS V1, V2 and V3 files as: (i) raw acceleration time series in physical units with mean removed (V1), (ii) baseline-corrected and filtered acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series (V2), and (iii) response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra and common earthquake-engineering intensity measures (V3). A thorough description of the record processing features supported by PRISM is presented with examples and validation results. All computing features have been

  10. Strategic raw materials. Risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertau, Martin; Matschullat, Joerg; Kausch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This volume is divided into four chapters: (1) Raw material management, (2) Primary raw materials, (3) Secondary raw materials and recycling, (4). Processing and products. The topics for the chapter ''Raw material management'' are: Substitution of raw materials - framework conditions and implementation; Thales: Strategic raw materials; Time for cooperation between the EU and China in raw materials policy; Availability of elements for the semiconductor industry; Market price risks of raw material-intensive companies - identification and management. The topics on the second item ''Primary raw materials'' are: The supply of economic-critical raw materials - A search and analysis for causes; Lithium extraction from primary raw materials - state and perspectives; The global market of rare earths - A balancing act; Rare earth deposits in Namibia; New technologies in exploration and discovery - Focus on activities in Europe. The third chapter, ''Secondary Raw Materials and Recycling'', covered the topics: Technology metals - Systemic Requirements along the recycling chain; Integrated re-use of high-tech and greentech wastes; From the sewage sludge ash to the phosphorus fertilizer RecoPhos P38 in the stress field of waste, fertilizer and soil protection. In chapter 4. ''Processing and products'' are the topics: Treatment and processing of rare earth metals; Processing of mineral resources - opportunities and challenges; Consequences of modern germanium chemistry; Strategic resources - Risk management. A review and outlook with a pinch of fantasy.. [de

  11. Pragmatics of Raw Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    , and a contemporary zeitgeist marked by a general relativisation of aesthetic values has emerged, exploding into a plethora of parallel discourses on art. Perhaps there is no longer such a thing (if there ever was) as Culture with a capital C, which Dubuffet so vehemently opposed in his championing of art brut......’s adolescence without hypostatizing distinctions between inside and outside, or between culture and its raw or primitive origins, while nevertheless not conflating the dissolution of boundaries and hierarchies with a possible end to territoriality and control, nor promoting a resignation of thought...

  12. A 30-year record of surface mass balance (1966-95) and motion and surface altitude (1975-95) at Wolverine Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Lawrence R.; Trabant, Dennis C.; March, Rod S.

    2004-01-01

    Scientific measurements at Wolverine Glacier, on the Kenai Peninsula in south-central Alaska, began in April 1966. At three long-term sites in the research basin, the measurements included snow depth, snow density, heights of the glacier surface and stratigraphic summer surfaces on stakes, and identification of the surface materials. Calculations of the mass balance of the surface strata-snow, new firn, superimposed ice, and old firn and ice mass at each site were based on these measurements. Calculations of fixed-date annual mass balances for each hydrologic year (October 1 to September 30), as well as net balances and the dates of minimum net balance measured between time-transgressive summer surfaces on the glacier, were made on the basis of the strata balances augmented by air temperature and precipitation recorded in the basin. From 1966 through 1995, the average annual balance at site A (590 meters altitude) was -4.06 meters water equivalent; at site B (1,070 meters altitude), was -0.90 meters water equivalent; and at site C (1,290 meters altitude), was +1.45 meters water equivalent. Geodetic determination of displacements of the mass balance stake, and glacier surface altitudes was added to the data set in 1975 to detect the glacier motion responses to variable climate and mass balance conditions. The average surface speed from 1975 to 1996 was 50.0 meters per year at site A, 83.7 meters per year at site B, and 37.2 meters per year at site C. The average surface altitudes were 594 meters at site A, 1,069 meters at site B, and 1,293 meters at site C; the glacier surface altitudes rose and fell over a range of 19.4 meters at site A, 14.1 meters at site B, and 13.2 meters at site C.

  13. Strong Motion Network of Medellín and Aburrá Valley: technical advances, seismicity records and micro-earthquake monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, G.; Trujillo, J. C., Sr.; Hoyos, C.; Monsalve, G.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonics setting of Colombia is determined by the interaction of Nazca, Caribbean and South American plates, together with the Panama-Choco block collision, which makes a seismically active region. Regional seismic monitoring is carried out by the National Seismological Network of Colombia and the Accelerometer National Network of Colombia. Both networks calculate locations, magnitudes, depths and accelerations, and other seismic parameters. The Medellín - Aburra Valley is located in the Northern segment of the Central Cordillera of Colombia, and according to the Colombian technical seismic norm (NSR-10), is a region of intermediate hazard, because of the proximity to seismic sources of the Valley. Seismic monitoring in the Aburra Valley began in 1996 with an accelerometer network which consisted of 38 instruments. Currently, the network consists of 26 stations and is run by the Early Warning System of Medellin and Aburra Valley (SIATA). The technical advances have allowed the real-time communication since a year ago, currently with 10 stations; post-earthquake data is processed through operationally near-real-time, obtaining quick results in terms of location, acceleration, spectrum response and Fourier analysis; this information is displayed at the SIATA web site. The strong motion database is composed by 280 earthquakes; this information is the basis for the estimation of seismic hazards and risk for the region. A basic statistical analysis of the main information was carried out, including the total recorded events per station, natural frequency, maximum accelerations, depths and magnitudes, which allowed us to identify the main seismic sources, and some seismic site parameters. With the idea of a more complete seismic monitoring and in order to identify seismic sources beneath the Valley, we are in the process of installing 10 low-cost shake seismometers for micro-earthquake monitoring. There is no historical record of earthquakes with a magnitude

  14. Designing a compact MRI motion phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmiedel Max

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Even today, dealing with motion artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a challenging task. Image corruption due to spontaneous body motion complicates diagnosis. In this work, an MRI phantom for rigid motion is presented. It is used to generate motion-corrupted data, which can serve for evaluation of blind motion compensation algorithms. In contrast to commercially available MRI motion phantoms, the presented setup works on small animal MRI systems. Furthermore, retrospective gating is performed on the data, which can be used as a reference for novel motion compensation approaches. The motion of the signal source can be reconstructed using motor trigger signals and be utilized as the ground truth for motion estimation. The proposed setup results in motion corrected images. Moreover, the importance of preprocessing the MRI raw data, e.g. phase-drift correction, is demonstrated. The gained knowledge can be used to design an MRI phantom for elastic motion.

  15. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  16. Cardiotoxic Effects of Raw Opium

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Piyush; Hitawala, Asif Ali; Agarwal, Manoj

    2018-01-01

    While opioid drug toxicity and side effects of long-term opioid use during medical care are well studied, there is little information regarding effects of ingestion of raw opium. Characterization of the effects to a particular alkaloid is difficult since raw opium contains a number of alkaloids. Here, we present a case of poisoning due to ingestion of raw opium leading to severe myocardial suppression.

  17. Evaluation of the recorded ground motions for the unusual earthquake of 13 August 2006 ( M w 5.3) in Michoacán México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Gaytán, Alejandro; Jaimes, Miguel A.; Bandy, William L.; Huerfano, Victor M.; Salido-Ruiz, Ricardo A.

    2015-10-01

    The focal mechanism of the moderate earthquake of 13 August 2006 M w = 5.3, which occurred in the border coastal area between Michoacán and Colima, México, is unusual. As shown by the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) project and the Servicio Sismológico Nacional de Mexico (SSN), the thrust mechanism is striking almost perpendicularly to the majority of earthquakes occurring along the subduction zone of the Mexican Pacific continental margin which commonly strike nearly parallel to the trench. The purpose of this study is to analyze the observed ground motions of this particular event relative to those of the common events. First, we apply the H/V technique to verify that the stations involved in this study are nearly free of site effects. Then, we compare the observed ground motions with (i) three empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) appropriate for the region, (ii) ground motions of four real earthquakes with the common mechanism, and (iii) the Fourier spectrum of a selected common event.

  18. Raw materials for aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to to raw materials which used in aluminium production. Therefore, the using of alumina, and fluoride salts in aluminium production was considered. The physical properties of alumina were studied.

  19. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  20. Raw Materials Market of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Alexandrovich Izotov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficit of raw materials is becoming an important concern for the Chinese economy as it continues to grow. This deficit is amended with imports, which – in their own turn – are limited by the high level of global prices. The build-up issue of raw materials imports is going to solve by the measures of monetary policy (RMB’s revaluation against the USD. Analysis of China’s market of raw materials reveals that the largest increase in the physical volume of imports is concentrated in crude oil, LNG, iron ore and coal. As for Russia, its supplies and share in total Chinese imports of raw materials tend to increase. Author employs regression equations based on international statistics data to show that RMB’s revaluation, ceteris paribus, increases physical volumes of raw materials imports. However, the main factor of coal and LNG imports growth is energy consumption by Chinese heavy industry; imports of oil products – producers’ prices; meanwhile imports of steel products tend to decrease with the growth of steel exports. RMB’s revaluation increases physical volumes of imports of low value added raw materials from Russia (coal, crude oil, iron ore

  1. Recorded motions of the 6 April 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila, Italy, earthquake and implications for building structural damage: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.; Bazzurro, P.; Chiaraluce, L.; Clemente, P.; Decanini, L.; Desortis, A.; Ellsworth, W.; Gorini, A.; Kalkan, E.; Marcucci, S.; Milana, G.; Mollaioli, F.; Olivieri, M.; Paolucci, R.; Rinaldis, D.; Rovelli, A.; Sabetta, F.; Stephens, C.

    2010-01-01

    The normal-faulting earthquake of 6 April 2009 in the Abruzzo Region of central Italy caused heavy losses of life and substantial damage to centuriesold buildings of significant cultural importance and to modern reinforcedconcrete- framed buildings with hollow masonry infill walls. Although structural deficiencies were significant and widespread, the study of the characteristics of strong motion data from the heavily affected area indicated that the short duration of strong shaking may have spared many more damaged buildings from collapsing. It is recognized that, with this caveat of shortduration shaking, the infill walls may have played a very important role in preventing further deterioration or collapse of many buildings. It is concluded that better new or retrofit construction practices that include reinforcedconcrete shear walls may prove helpful in reducing risks in such seismic areas of Italy, other Mediterranean countries, and even in United States, where there are large inventories of deficient structures. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  2. Topical papers on raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the papers of this working group, the availability of uranium and the long-term supply situation for this raw material are discussed. A problem closely connected with uranium supply are the commercial contracts and their particularities. The points of view of the reporting countries of Great Britain, South Africa, Switzerland, Australia, Japan, and Korea are made clear

  3. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  4. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD (http://ismd.mi.ingv.it) was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (www.postgresql.org), an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, http://cnt.rm.ingv.it). Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121

  5. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in September 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 1.1%, at the same rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 5.9%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 0.8%), strong increase for gas (+ 3.2%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.7%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a record energy cost level with + 30% on one year, reaching 89.2 billions Francs, to be compared to 68.5 in September 1996

  6. Raw milk consumption and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Vranješ Anka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the safe practices of milk pasteurization or sterilization, which effectively reduce foodborne outbreaks incidence associated with raw milk and dairy products use, outbreaks caused by such products continue to occur. Despite this fact, a worldwide movement advocating for the rights of raw milk and cheese selling and consumption, due to their specific nutritive characteristics, has strengthened significantly in recent years. Traditional agricultural manufacturers from Serbia still sell products related to thermally unprocessed milk, such as cottage cheese and raw cream. In AP Vojvodina during the period of 1981-2010 a total of 179 foodborne outbreaks were reported, where the incriminated cause of the outbreak were milk or diary. In 126 (70.39% outbreaks, totaling 2276 sick individuals and one casualty, it was confirmed that the incriminated food was from the group of dairy products. In 48 instances (26.82%, bacteriological tests confirmed that milk and dairy products were excluded as the outbreak causes, while in another 5 (2.79% outbreaks, microbiological analysis of food failed to confirm any relation to the actual epidemiological instances. In some cases, bacteriological testing of incriminated foods was not possible. In the cases of outbreaks associated with the consumption of milk and dairy products, traditional raw milk products were cited as being used. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and cheese represents public health threat. National and international rules ensuring use of safe products for human consumption have to set rules of trade of thermally processed milk and products on the market. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31095

  7. Raw material uranium; Rohstoff Uran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-03-15

    Uranium is an important raw material in human life. Mostly using nuclear fission uranium is used in nuclear medicine, industry and research. The most important application is the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants. Due to the global availability the worldwide uranium supply is guaranties for a long time. The contribution covers the issues medicine, neutron research, energy generation, occurrence, mining, processing, recycling and disposal.

  8. Chapter No.6. Radioactive waste (RAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    during the commissioning of this nuclear facility after UJD issued permission in 1999. Operational permission was issued by UJD after assessment of repository commissioning report in September 2001. At the end of 2001 totally 122 containers were disposed of. It is assumed that during design operational lifetime the installed NPPs will produce 2500 t of spent nuclear fuel and 3700 t of radwaste unacceptable for Mochovce repository (including radwaste generated at NPP A1) and their deep geological disposal will be necessary. Development of deep geological disposal facility in Slovakia started in 1996. On the basis of preliminary evaluation of existing geological data 15 sites potentially appropriate for underground repository were identified. Further investigation has led to reduction of this number to 4 sites in two possible host rocks which have been proposed for more detailed research. During 2001 approximately 365,5 t of solid radwaste and 474 m3 of liquid radwaste was shipped to the individual radwaste treatment technologies. 115 filled FRC containers e.g. 356,5 m3 of solid and solidified radwaste were shipped to the repository. The assessment activities were focused on reviewing of the safety documentation of activities, which were described before, on approving of technical specifications for operation safety and on an approving of quality assurance programmes. No event either at the facilities for radioactive was or during RAW transport that might have resulted in some incident or accident occurred during 2001. The inspection activity of UJD at BSC RAW was oriented on composition and inventory declaration and on the improvement of package quality from the integrity point of view. The inspection activity at RU RAW was mainly focused on commissioning process. The minimisation of RAW generation and the record keeping for the whole radioactive waste management system were the main goals of inspection activities at all nuclear installations

  9. NIMS EXPERIMENT DATA RECORDS: SL-9 COMET IMPACT WITH JUPITER

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NIMS Experiment Data Record (EDR) files contain raw data from the Galileo Orbiter Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (CARLSONETAL1992). This raw data requires...

  10. NIMS EXPERIMENT DATA RECORDS: GASPRA/IDA ENCOUNTERS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NIMS Experiment Data Record (EDR) files contain raw data from the Galileo Orbiter Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (CARLSONETAL1992). This raw data requires...

  11. Attenuation characteristics of seismic motion based on earthquake observation records. Identification of damping factor at hard rock sites and its influences on ground stability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Kanatani, Mamoru; Ohtori, Yasuki

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we examined validity of currently available ground stability evaluation method by applying commonly used damping factor which was invariant for frequency. First, we conducted a survey of the actual conditions of damping factors, which were used in ground stability evaluation, on 10 existing nuclear power plants. As a result, we found that damping factor of 0.03(3%) was used in of 80 percent investigated plants. Next, a spectral inversion method using very fast simulated annealing was proposed for identifying damping factor and its lower limit. Here, the lower limit of damping factor means intrinsic damping factor. The developed inversion method was applied to borehole array data recorded at hard rock ground. From the inversion, it was found that intrinsic damping factor of hard rock ground distributed between about 0.03(3%) and 0.06(3%) at a depth of less than 100m, and between about 0.003(0.3%) and 0.01(1%) at a depth of more than 100m. Furthermore, we indicated that scattering damping factor with in a depth of less than 100m was in proportion to the almost -1.0 power of the frequency, and the factor in a depth of more than 100m had a peak in a frequency range from about 1.0 to 5.0 Hz. Therefore, it was recognized that commonly used damping of 0.03(3%) expressed intrinsic damping factor of shallower hard rock ground. Finally, we estimated the influences of damping factor on ground stability evaluation by 2D dynamic FEM analyses of hard rock foundation ground considering 8 slipping lines using 6 combinations of damping factor. It was demonstrated that the variation of damping factor was not so decisive on the results of ground stability evaluation. This suggests present ground stability evaluation method by applying commonly used damping factor is reasonable for hard rock sites. (author)

  12. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  13. Radiotracer investigation of cement raw meal homogenizers. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranyai, L.

    1983-01-01

    Based on radioisotopic tracer technique a method has been worked out to study the homogenization and segregation processes of cement-industrial raw meal homogenizers. On-site measurements were carried out by this method in some Hungarian cement works to determine the optimal homogenization parameters of operating homogenizers. The motion and distribution of different raw meal fractions traced with 198 Au radioisotope was studied in homogenization processes proceeding with different parameters. In the first part of the publication the change of charge homogenity in time was discussed which had been measured as the resultant of mixing and separating processes. In the second part the parameters and types of homogenizers influencing the efficiency of homogenization have been detailed. (orig.) [de

  14. Radiotracer investigation of cement raw meal homogenizers. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranyai, L

    1983-12-01

    Based on radioisotopic tracer technique a method has been worked out to study the homogenization and segregation processes of cement-industrial raw meal homogenizers. On-site measurements were carried out by this method in some Hungarian cement works to determine the optimal homogenization parameters of operating homogenizers. The motion and distribution of different raw meal fractions traced with /sup 198/Au radioisotope was studied in homogenization processes proceeding with different parameters. In the first part of the publication the change of charge homogenity in time was discussed which had been measured as the resultant of mixing and separating processes. In the second part the parameters and types of homogenizers influencing the efficiency of homogenization have been detailed.

  15. Inertial motion capture system for biomechanical analysis in pressure suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Massimiliano

    A non-invasive system has been developed at the University of Maryland Space System Laboratory with the goal of providing a new capability for quantifying the motion of the human inside a space suit. Based on an array of six microprocessors and eighteen microelectromechanical (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs), the Body Pose Measurement System (BPMS) allows the monitoring of the kinematics of the suit occupant in an unobtrusive, self-contained, lightweight and compact fashion, without requiring any external equipment such as those necessary with modern optical motion capture systems. BPMS measures and stores the accelerations, angular rates and magnetic fields acting upon each IMU, which are mounted on the head, torso, and each segment of each limb. In order to convert the raw data into a more useful form, such as a set of body segment angles quantifying pose and motion, a series of geometrical models and a non-linear complimentary filter were implemented. The first portion of this works focuses on assessing system performance, which was measured by comparing the BPMS filtered data against rigid body angles measured through an external VICON optical motion capture system. This type of system is the industry standard, and is used here for independent measurement of body pose angles. By comparing the two sets of data, performance metrics such as BPMS system operational conditions, accuracy, and drift were evaluated and correlated against VICON data. After the system and models were verified and their capabilities and limitations assessed, a series of pressure suit evaluations were conducted. Three different pressure suits were used to identify the relationship between usable range of motion and internal suit pressure. In addition to addressing range of motion, a series of exploration tasks were also performed, recorded, and analysed in order to identify different motion patterns and trajectories as suit pressure is increased and overall suit mobility is reduced

  16. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonant ground motion has been observed in earthquake records measured at several parts of the world. This class of ground motion is characterized by its energy being contained in a narrow frequency band. This paper develops measures to quantify the frequency content of the ground motion using the entropy ...

  17. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  18. Blind retrospective motion correction of MR images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktyushin, Alexander; Nickisch, Hannes; Pohmann, Rolf; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Subject motion can severely degrade MR images. A retrospective motion correction algorithm, Gradient-based motion correction, which significantly reduces ghosting and blurring artifacts due to subject motion was proposed. The technique uses the raw data of standard imaging sequences; no sequence modifications or additional equipment such as tracking devices are required. Rigid motion is assumed. The approach iteratively searches for the motion trajectory yielding the sharpest image as measured by the entropy of spatial gradients. The vast space of motion parameters is efficiently explored by gradient-based optimization with a convergence guarantee. The method has been evaluated on both synthetic and real data in two and three dimensions using standard imaging techniques. MR images are consistently improved over different kinds of motion trajectories. Using a graphics processing unit implementation, computation times are in the order of a few minutes for a full three-dimensional volume. The presented technique can be an alternative or a complement to prospective motion correction methods and is able to improve images with strong motion artifacts from standard imaging sequences without requiring additional data. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  19. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  20. Predictive local receptive fields based respiratory motion tracking for motion-adaptive radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yubo Wang; Tatinati, Sivanagaraja; Liyu Huang; Kim Jeong Hong; Shafiq, Ghufran; Veluvolu, Kalyana C; Khong, Andy W H

    2017-07-01

    Extracranial robotic radiotherapy employs external markers and a correlation model to trace the tumor motion caused by the respiration. The real-time tracking of tumor motion however requires a prediction model to compensate the latencies induced by the software (image data acquisition and processing) and hardware (mechanical and kinematic) limitations of the treatment system. A new prediction algorithm based on local receptive fields extreme learning machines (pLRF-ELM) is proposed for respiratory motion prediction. All the existing respiratory motion prediction methods model the non-stationary respiratory motion traces directly to predict the future values. Unlike these existing methods, the pLRF-ELM performs prediction by modeling the higher-level features obtained by mapping the raw respiratory motion into the random feature space of ELM instead of directly modeling the raw respiratory motion. The developed method is evaluated using the dataset acquired from 31 patients for two horizons in-line with the latencies of treatment systems like CyberKnife. Results showed that pLRF-ELM is superior to that of existing prediction methods. Results further highlight that the abstracted higher-level features are suitable to approximate the nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics of respiratory motion for accurate prediction.

  1. Photoshop CS3 RAW Transforming your RAW data into works of art

    CERN Document Server

    Aaland, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    Because RAW files remain virtually untouched by in-camera processing, working with them has given digital photographers greater flexibility and control during the editing process -- for those who are familiar enough with the format. Camera RAW, the plug in for Adobe Photoshop CS3, has emerged as one of the best and most familiar tools for editing RAW images, and the best way to master this workflow is with Photoshop CS3 RAW. Award-winning author Mikkel Aaland explores the entire RAW process, from the practical reasons to shoot RAW, to managing the images with the new features of Bridge 2.0 n

  2. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Gritsenko

    Full Text Available To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery.Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods.Academic cancer center oncology clinic.20 women (mean age = 60 yrs were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery following mastectomy (n = 4 or lumpectomy (n = 16 for breast cancer.Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle.Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation.Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80, while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more.Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  3. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Dailey, Eric; Kyle, Nicholas; Taylor, Matt; Whittacre, Sean; Swisher, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery. Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods. Academic cancer center oncology clinic. 20 women (mean age = 60 yrs) were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery) following mastectomy (n = 4) or lumpectomy (n = 16) for breast cancer. Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle). Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation. Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80), while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more. Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  4. Modeling to control spores in raw milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling approach was used to identify measures at the farm that reduce transmission of microorganisms to raw milk. Butyric acid bacteria (BAB) and Bacillus cereus were used as case-studies. Minimizing the concentration of BAB spores in raw milk is important to prevent late-blowing of Gouda-type

  5. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...

  6. A programmable motion phantom for quality assurance of motion management in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.; Franich, R.D.; Kron, T.; Taylor, M.L.; Johnston, P.N.; McDermott, L.N.; Callahan, J.

    2012-01-01

    A commercially available motion phantom (QUASAR, Modus Medical) was modified for programmable motion control with the aim of reproducing patient respiratory motion in one dimension in both the anterior–posterior and superior–inferior directions, as well as, providing controllable breath-hold and sinusoidal patterns for the testing of radiotherapy gating systems. In order to simulate realistic patient motion, the DC motor was replaced by a stepper motor. A separate 'chest-wall' motion platform was also designed to accommodate a variety of surrogate marker systems. The platform employs a second stepper motor that allows for the decoupling of the chest-wall and insert motion. The platform's accuracy was tested by replicating patient traces recorded with the Varian real-time position management (RPM) system and comparing the motion platform's recorded motion trace with the original patient data. Six lung cancer patient traces recorded with the RPM system were uploaded to the motion platform's in-house control software and subsequently replicated through the phantom motion platform. The phantom's motion profile was recorded with the RPM system and compared to the original patient data. Sinusoidal and breath-hold patterns were simulated with the motion platform and recorded with the RPM system to verify the systems potential for routine quality assurance of commercial radiotherapy gating systems. There was good correlation between replicated and actual patient data (P 0.003). Mean differences between the location of maxima in replicated and patient data-sets for six patients amounted to 0.034 cm with the corresponding minima mean equal to 0.010 cm. The upgraded motion phantom was found to replicate patient motion accurately as well as provide useful test patterns to aid in the quality assurance of motion management methods and technologies.

  7. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats in northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scullion, R.; Harrington, C.S.; Madden, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    A 1-year study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw meats on sale in Northern Ireland. Retail raw poultry samples (n = 94), pork samples (n = 101), and beef samples (n = 108) were obtained from supermarkets in Northern Ireland, and raw milk samp...... from raw milk samples. Arcobacter cryaerophilus was detected less frequently, and Arcobacter skirrowii was detected only as a cocontaminant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Arcobacter spp. prevalence in a diverse range of products of animal origin in Northern Ireland....

  8. Raw materials policy: implications for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E

    1978-04-01

    The contribution characterizes the situation of the national mining industry in 1977, deals with international raw materials policies within the framework of the North-South dialogue and with the policies of the western industrial countries, points out the dangers of worldwide state-controlled raw materials policies and calls for a) the political risk of enterprise cooperation with developing countries to be covered and b) double taxation to be avoided. Finally, the problems of securing the Federal Republic of Germany's raw materials supplies on a long-term basis are portrayed.

  9. Quality quantification model of basic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Vilamová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic raw materials belong to the key input sources in the production of pig iron. The properties of basic raw materials can be evaluated using a variety of criteria. The essential ones include the physical and chemical properties. Current competitive pressures, however, force the producers of iron more and more often to include cost and logistic criteria into the decision-making process. In this area, however, they are facing a problem of how to convert a variety of vastly different parameters into one evaluation indicator in order to compare the available raw materials. This article deals with the analysis of a model created to evaluate the basic raw materials, which was designed as part of the research.

  10. raw data collected from Malvern Instrument

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These are raw data/image files from the Malvern Zetasizer Instrument. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Buse, H., J. Hoelle, C. Muhlen, and...

  11. Annual report 1997. Energies and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report gives the important directions of French energy policy. Nuclear energy, electric power, natural gas, coal and petroleum products are reviewed. The situations and the forecasting for raw materials are also given. (N.C.)

  12. Aluminium reprocessing with local mineral raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    With the purpose of utilization of ice sediment, receiving from mud fields solutions and flotation tails and at using local aluminium and fluorine-containing raw material was elaborated fundamental technologic scheme presented in this chapter of book

  13. Plastic raw materials in Neolithic pottery production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Bobrinsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the investigation of various natural silts as the most ancient type of raw material used in pottery production. The authors describe the specific features of the composition of plain and mountain silts, and discover the same features in ancient ceramics from different regions in Russia. It can be concluded that silts were the earliest raw material used, a tradition that faded away during the evolution of pottery production.

  14. Price stabilization for raw jute in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Takamasa Akiyama; Varangis, Panos

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuating prices for raw jute have been viewed as contributing to economic problems in the jute subsector. Price fluctuations were thought to reduce the jute farmers'welfare and there has been concern about the costs of parastatals'stocking operations in attempts to stabilize jute prices and incomes. The authors examine these fluctuations and analyze policies that might reduce them. They find that price fluctuations for raw jute reduce farmers'welfare only slightly because farmers'activitie...

  15. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  16. Technique for producing cardiac radionuclide motion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, I.C.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    Sequential frames of different portions of the cardiac cycle are gated into a minicomputer by using an EKG signal recorded onto digital tape simultaneously with imaging information. Serial display of these frames on the computer oscilloscope or projection of 35-mm half frames of these images provides a cardiac motion image with information content adequate for qualitatively assessing cardiac motion. (U.S.)

  17. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  18. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  19. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  20. The complete raw workflow guide how to get the most from your raw images in Adobe Camera Raw, Lightroom, Photoshop, and Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Philip

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important technologies a photographer can master is shooting and working with raw images. However, figuring out the best way to work with raw files can be confusing and overwhelming. What's the advantage to working in raw? How do you manage, organize, and store raw files? What's the best way to process your files to meet your photographic needs? How do Photoshop, Lightroom and Adobe Camera Raw work together? Is it possible to keep your photos in the raw format and still enhance them extensively? Philip Andrews answers these questions and more in his all-new essential raw workfl

  1. ISMRM Raw data format: A proposed standard for MRI raw datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inati, Souheil; Naegle, Joseph; R. Zwart, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    programming languages (C++, MATLAB, Python). Results Images were obtained by reconstructing the raw data from all vendors. The source code, raw data, and images comprising this work are shared online, serving as an example of an image reconstruction project following a paradigm of reproducible research......Purpose This work proposes the ISMRM Raw Data format as a common MR raw data format, which promotes algorithm and data sharing. Methods A file format consisting of a flexible header and tagged frames of k-space data was designed. Application Programming Interfaces were implemented in C/C++, MATLAB......, and Python. Converters for Bruker, General Electric, Philips, and Siemens proprietary file formats were implemented in C++. Raw data were collected using magnetic resonance imaging scanners from four vendors, converted to ISMRM Raw Data format, and reconstructed using software implemented in three...

  2. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  3. Estimation of strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Makoto

    1993-01-01

    Fault model has been developed to estimate a strong ground motion in consideration of characteristics of seismic source and propagation path of seismic waves. There are two different approaches in the model. The first one is a theoretical approach, while the second approach is a semi-empirical approach. Though the latter is more practical than the former to be applied to the estimation of input motions, it needs at least the small-event records, the value of the seismic moment of the small event and the fault model of the large event

  4. Theoretical bases of rotation dynamics of raw materials poller with s ratify consideration for saw gin processing of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, Kh.; Babaeva, A.Kh.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper is examined motion of raw materials rollers on the base of a stratify models. Foe every layers of the rollers are determined dynamical influences for saw gin processing of cotton. It is noticed that in the gin processing of cotton the second layer of cotton roller plagues an important role

  5. Improving the raw management in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H.G.; Koever, M. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In Ukraine 13 VVER-1000 and 2 VVER-440 reactor units generate about 50 % of the country's energy production. By contrast, when looking at the large volume of radioactive waste of all categories, which is produced by these nuclear power plants (NPP), the radioactive waste (RAW) management - onsite of NPP, towards interim storage as well as towards final disposal - is still not adequately developed. Currently all operational waste of Ukrainian NPP is incompletely treated/conditioned and stored onsite, though insufficient storage capacity is available at the NPP. As no effective Ukraine-wide strategy is yet established to manage RAW beyond NPP a serious situation could arise, which even leads to constrained temporary shut-down of reactor units, threatening the energy supply of whole the country. In addition large quantities of RAW, partly badly sorted, derive from decommissioning of the shut-down Chernobyl NPP. Also other sources of RAW contribute to the whole volume, which has to be managed in Ukraine, as research reactors, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear facilities and applications. Nevertheless, operational and shut-down NPP in Ukraine are by far the largest producers. To support Ukraine in managing their radioactive waste NUKEM Technologies GmbH was appointed to provide technical support for the improvement of the current situation in cooperation with responsible Ukrainian experts towards a targeted, comprehensive and effective RAW management. (orig.)

  6. Ethanol is a strategic raw material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baras Josip K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this review article considers general data about ethanol as an industrial product, its qualities and uses. It is emphasized that, if produced from biomass as a renewable raw material, its perspectives as a chemical raw material and energent are brilliant. Starchy grains, such as corn, must be used as the main raw materials for ethanol production. The production of bioethanol by the enzyme-catalyzed conversion of starch followed by (yeast fermentation, distillation is the process of choice. If used as a motor fuel, anhydrous ethanol can be directly blended with gasoline or converted into an oxygenator such as ETBE. Finally, bioethanol production in Yugoslavia and the possibilities for its further development are discussed.

  7. PERSPECTIVE NONMETALLIC RAW MATERIALS AND THEIR UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havelka Jaroslav

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available It is the existence of the domestic base of raw materials and stable or growing markets that are a precondition for the prospectiveness industrial minerals. Traditional and non-traditional prospective nonmetal-liferous raw materials can be distinguished. The main trends in new industrial applications of industrial minerals are being stated. In the Czech Republic, the following may be ranked among the traditional prospective nonme-talliferous raw materials: kaoline, refractory clays, ceramic and expandable clays, glass and foundry sands, li-mestones, building stones, gypsum, cast basalt, bentonite, diatomite, feldspars, graphite. Alkali rocks, industrial garnets, flaky mica, wollastonite and yet unmined staurolite, minerals of the sillimanite group and others belong to the non-traditional prospective industrial minerals.

  8. Vibration-based damage detection in wind turbine blades using Phase-based Motion Estimation and motion magnification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafi, Aral; Mao, Zhu; Niezrecki, Christopher; Poozesh, Peyman

    2018-05-01

    Vibration-based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques are among the most common approaches for structural damage identification. The presence of damage in structures may be identified by monitoring the changes in dynamic behavior subject to external loading, and is typically performed by using experimental modal analysis (EMA) or operational modal analysis (OMA). These tools for SHM normally require a limited number of physically attached transducers (e.g. accelerometers) in order to record the response of the structure for further analysis. Signal conditioners, wires, wireless receivers and a data acquisition system (DAQ) are also typical components of traditional sensing systems used in vibration-based SHM. However, instrumentation of lightweight structures with contact sensors such as accelerometers may induce mass-loading effects, and for large-scale structures, the instrumentation is labor intensive and time consuming. Achieving high spatial measurement resolution for a large-scale structure is not always feasible while working with traditional contact sensors, and there is also the potential for a lack of reliability associated with fixed contact sensors in outliving the life-span of the host structure. Among the state-of-the-art non-contact measurements, digital video cameras are able to rapidly collect high-density spatial information from structures remotely. In this paper, the subtle motions from recorded video (i.e. a sequence of images) are extracted by means of Phase-based Motion Estimation (PME) and the extracted information is used to conduct damage identification on a 2.3-m long Skystream® wind turbine blade (WTB). The PME and phased-based motion magnification approach estimates the structural motion from the captured sequence of images for both a baseline and damaged test cases on a wind turbine blade. Operational deflection shapes of the test articles are also quantified and compared for the baseline and damaged states. In addition

  9. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  10. Preoperational test report, raw water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Raw Water System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system supplies makeup water to the W-030 recirculation evaporative cooling towers for tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102. The Raw Water pipe riser and associated strainer and valving is located in the W-030 diesel generator building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System

  11. Using Motion Tracking to Detect Spontaneous Movements in Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    We study the characteristics of infants’ spontaneous movements, based on data obtained from a markerless motion tracking system. From the pose data, the set of features are generated from the raw joint-angles of the infants and different classifiers are trained and evaluated using annotated data...

  12. Vertical pressure gradient and particle motions in wave boundary layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Lindegård

    . The experiment is conducted in a oscillating water tunnel, for both smooth bed and rough bed. The particle motion is determined by utilizing particle tracking base on a video recording of the particle motion in the flow. In the oscillatory flow, in contrast to steady current, the particle motion is a function...

  13. Microbial production of raw starch digesting enzymes | Sun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw starch digesting enzymes refer to enzymes that can act directly on raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. With the view of energy-saving, a worldwide interest has been focused on raw starch digesting enzymes in recent years, especially since the oil crisis of 1973. Raw starch digesting ...

  14. Motion correction options in PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian

    2015-05-01

    Subject motion is unavoidable in clinical and research imaging studies. Breathing is the most important source of motion in whole-body PET and MRI studies, affecting not only thoracic organs but also those in the upper and even lower abdomen. The motion related to the pumping action of the heart is obviously relevant in high-resolution cardiac studies. These two sources of motion are periodic and predictable, at least to a first approximation, which means certain techniques can be used to control the motion (eg, by acquiring the data when the organ of interest is relatively at rest). Additionally, nonperiodic and unpredictable motion can also occur during the scan. One obvious limitation of methods relying on external devices (eg, respiratory bellows or the electrocardiogram signal to monitor the respiratory or cardiac cycle, respectively) to trigger or gate the data acquisition is that the complex motion of internal organs cannot be fully characterized. However, detailed information can be obtained using either the PET or MRI data (or both) allowing the more complete characterization of the motion field so that a motion model can be built. Such a model and the information derived from simple external devices can be used to minimize the effects of motion on the collected data. In the ideal case, all the events recorded during the PET scan would be used to generate a motion-free or corrected PET image. The detailed motion field can be used for this purpose by applying it to the PET data before, during, or after the image reconstruction. Integrating all these methods for motion control, characterization, and correction into a workflow that can be used for routine clinical studies is challenging but could potentially be extremely valuable given the improvement in image quality and reduction of motion-related image artifacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  16. RAWS II: A MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS PROGRAM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum gives instructions for the use and operation of a revised version of RAWS, a multiple regression analysis program. The program...of preprocessed data, the directed retention of variable, listing of the matrix of the normal equations and its inverse, and the bypassing of the regression analysis to provide the input variable statistics only. (Author)

  17. Raw materials resources classification and characterisation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw materials resources classification and characterisation for ceramic tableware production in Nigeria. PSA Irabor. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 2(1) 2002: 48-52. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. Extraction of protoactinium from silicaceous raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1946-07-01

    This report was written by E. Broda and P.K. Wright at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in March 1946 and is about the Extraction of protoactinium from a silicaceous raw material. In this report the isolation of Pa on Er carrier is described and it includes the experiment description and the discussion of the results. (nowak)

  19. Recovery of the secondary raw materials, recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter the recovery and recycling of secondary raw materials is explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: Paper and tetrapaks; Car wrecks; Scrap metal; Plastics; Used tires; Electrical and electronic equipment; Glass; Accumulators and batteries; Spent oil; Low-and non-waste technology.

  20. Parsing and Quantification of Raw Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer Data Using RawQuant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Kevin A; Moggridge, Sophie; Chen, David D Y; Morin, Gregg B; Hughes, Christopher S

    2018-06-01

    Effective analysis of protein samples by mass spectrometry (MS) requires careful selection and optimization of a range of experimental parameters. As the output from the primary detection device, the "raw" MS data file can be used to gauge the success of a given sample analysis. However, the closed-source nature of the standard raw MS file can complicate effective parsing of the data contained within. To ease and increase the range of analyses possible, the RawQuant tool was developed to enable parsing of raw MS files derived from Thermo Orbitrap instruments to yield meta and scan data in an openly readable text format. RawQuant can be commanded to export user-friendly files containing MS 1 , MS 2 , and MS 3 metadata as well as matrices of quantification values based on isobaric tagging approaches. In this study, the utility of RawQuant is demonstrated in several scenarios: (1) reanalysis of shotgun proteomics data for the identification of the human proteome, (2) reanalysis of experiments utilizing isobaric tagging for whole-proteome quantification, and (3) analysis of a novel bacterial proteome and synthetic peptide mixture for assessing quantification accuracy when using isobaric tags. Together, these analyses successfully demonstrate RawQuant for the efficient parsing and quantification of data from raw Thermo Orbitrap MS files acquired in a range of common proteomics experiments. In addition, the individual analyses using RawQuant highlights parametric considerations in the different experimental sets and suggests targetable areas to improve depth of coverage in identification-focused studies and quantification accuracy when using isobaric tags.

  1. Four-year monitoring of foodborne pathogens in raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Serraino, Andrea; Peli, Angelo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Fustini, Mattia; Mion, Renzo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Rosmini, Roberto; Rugna, Gianluca; Tamba, Marco; Tonucci, Franco; Bolzoni, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Prevalence data were collected from official microbiological records monitoring four selected foodborne pathogens (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter jejuni) in raw milk sold by self-service vending machines in seven Italian regions (60,907 samples from 1,239 vending machines) from 2008 to 2011. Data from samples analyzed by both culture-based and real-time PCR methods were collected in one region. One hundred raw milk consumers in four regions were interviewed while purchasing raw milk from vending machines. One hundred seventy-eight of 60,907 samples were positive for one of the four foodborne pathogens investigated: 18 samples were positive for Salmonella, 83 for L. monocytogenes, 24 for E. coli O157:H7, and 53 for C. jejuni in the seven regions investigated. No significant differences in prevalence were found among regions, but a significant increase in C. jejuni prevalence was observed over the years of the study. A comparison of the two analysis methods revealed that real-time PCR was 2.71 to 9.40 times more sensitive than the culture-based method. Data on consumer habits revealed that some behaviors may enhance the risk of infection linked to raw milk consumption: 37% of consumers did not boil milk before consumption, 93% never used an insulated bag to transport raw milk home, and raw milk was consumed by children younger than 5 years of age. These results emphasize that end-product controls alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate level of consumer protection. The beta distribution of positive samples in this study and the data on raw milk consumer habits will be useful for the development of a national quantitative risk assessment of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157, and C. jejuni infection associated with raw milk consumption.

  2. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  3. Determination of the Static Friction Coefficient from Circular Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a physics laboratory exercise for determining the coefficient of static friction between two surfaces. The circular motion of a coin placed on the surface of a rotating turntable has been studied. For this purpose, the motion is recorded with a high-speed digital video camera recording at 240 frames s[superscript-1], and the…

  4. Ground motion studies in a backfilled stope at West Driefontein

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goldbach, OD

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available This report looks at the ground motion from 24 small magnitude seismic events recorded at various points inside a backfilled stope. The in-stope ground motion is compared to that recorded at an off-reef site. The seismic events are analysed...

  5. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  6. Method for selecting raw materials to preparing ceramic masses: application to raw material for red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Maria Margarita Torres; Rocha, Rogers Raphael da; Zanard, Antenor

    2012-01-01

    We studied the raw materials used in a factory building blocks, located in Cesario Lange city (SP). It extracts raw materials from various sources in the region to make the dough. The mixtures were prepared from dry milled powders based on data related to the plasticity of the raw materials. It was obtained with the apparatus Vicat-cone in order to obtain similar levels of water absorption of the samples burned at 900 deg C for all compositions. To quantify the proportion of each clay was used the Lever Rule. In this firing temperature, where sintering is mainly by diffusion from a solid state, different compositions of the same set of four raw materials resulted in similar values. (author)

  7. Raw-data display and visual reconstruction validation in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadel, M

    2008-01-01

    ALICE Event Visualization Environment (AliEVE) is based on ROOT and its GUI, 2D and 3D graphics classes. A small application kernel provides for registration and management of visualization objects. CINT scripts are used as an extensible mechanism for data extraction, selection and processing as well as for steering of frequent event-related tasks. AliEVE is used for event visualization in offline and high-level trigger frameworks. Mechanisms and base-classes provided for visual representation of raw-data for different detector-types are described. Common infrastructure for thresholding and color-coding of signal/time information, placement of detector-modules in various 2D/3D layouts and for user-interaction with displayed data is presented. Methods for visualization of raw-data on different levels of detail are discussed as they are expected to play an important role during early detector operation with poorly understood detector calibration, occupancy and noise-levels. Since September 2006 ALICE applies a regular visual-scanning procedure to simulated proton-proton data to detect any shortcomings in cluster finding, tracking and primary and secondary vertex reconstruction. A high-level of interactivity is required to allow in-depth exploration of event-structure. Navigation back to simulation records is supported for debugging purposes. Standard 2D projections and transformations are available for clusters, tracks and simplified detector geometry

  8. Automatic car driving detection using raw accelerometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strączkiewicz, M; Urbanek, J K; Fadel, W F; Crainiceanu, C M; Harezlak, J

    2016-09-21

    Measuring physical activity using wearable devices has become increasingly popular. Raw data collected from such devices is usually summarized as 'activity counts', which combine information of human activity with environmental vibrations. Driving is a major sedentary activity that artificially increases the activity counts due to various car and body vibrations that are not connected to human movement. Thus, it has become increasingly important to identify periods of driving and quantify the bias induced by driving in activity counts. To address these problems, we propose a detection algorithm of driving via accelerometry (DADA), designed to detect time periods when an individual is driving a car. DADA is based on detection of vibrations generated by a moving vehicle and recorded by an accelerometer. The methodological approach is based on short-time Fourier transform (STFT) applied to the raw accelerometry data and identifies and focuses on frequency vibration ranges that are specific to car driving. We test the performance of DADA on data collected using wrist-worn ActiGraph devices in a controlled experiment conducted on 24 subjects. The median area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting driving periods was 0.94, indicating an excellent performance of the algorithm. We also quantify the size of the bias induced by driving and obtain that per unit of time the activity counts generated by driving are, on average, 16% of the average activity counts generated during walking.

  9. Compression of ground-motion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.W.

    1981-04-01

    Ground motion data has been recorded for many years at Nevada Test Site and is now stored on thousands of digital tapes. The recording format is very inefficient in terms of space on tape. This report outlines a method to compress the data onto a few hundred tapes while maintaining the accuracy of the recording and allowing restoration of any file to the original format for future use. For future digitizing a more efficient format is described and suggested

  10. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  11. Radiation hygienization of raw sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.R.; Lavale, D.S.; Rawat, P.; Benny, P.G.; Sharma, A.K.; Dey, G.R.; Bhave, V.

    2001-01-01

    'Radiation treatment of municipal sewage sludge can achieve resource conservation and recovery objectives. The liquid sludge irradiator of Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator at Baroda (India) was operated for generating data on treatment of raw sludge containing 3-4 % solids. The plant system was modified for irradiating raw sludge without affecting basic irradiator initially designed to treat digested sludge. Hourly samples were analysed for estimation of disinfection dose requirement. Sand separated from the sludge was used as in-situ dosimeter by making use of its thermoluminescence property. Investigations are being carried out for regrowth of Total Coliforms in the sludge samples from this irradiator. Possibility of inadequate treatment due to geometric configuration of irradiator is being checked. (author)

  12. Radioactive contaminants in raw materials and foodstuffs of plant origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovicj, S.; Krainchanicj, M.; Stankovicj, A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the results of activity level of radioactive caesium 134 and 137 in the samples of raw materials (barley, oats, soybean, sunflower, pumpkin seed, hops, shreded sugar beet, maize), animal feedstuffs (alfalfa, alfalfa meal, rape, concentrates fed to chickens, pigs or bpvines, dry turnip shreds) and foodstuff of plant origin (lettuce, spinach, cabbage, carrot, celery, cucumber, tomato, olives, sesame). All samples - produced locally on the major part but also including some imported stuff -have been subjected to continuous gamma spectrometry starting with the Chernobyl accident in 1986 through 1989. The highest activity of caesium was recorded in the samples of animal feedstuffs (alfalfa, alfalfa meal, rape) in the years 1986 and 1987. In time, however, the activity tends to drop considerably. (author) 4 refs.; 3 tabs

  13. Determination of essential nutrients in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penphimon Phongphanphanee

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk production in Thailand has gradually increased since 1961. Occasional oversupply of raw milk has become one of dairy farmers' major problems. Increasing the consumption of milk by making use of its separated nutrients may offer a solution. This study was to assess the composition of raw milk produced in Thailand, which included fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS. A large dairy cooperatives in Saraburi Province was selected for the study. About 9% of its total members, constituting 108 farms, were randomly chosen. They consisted of small size (less than 20 cows/farm, medium size (21-100 cows/farm and large size (>100 cows/farm. The majority was medium-size. Raw milk from each farm was sampled at the delivery site of the cooperatives in the morning. Milk data of the 108 farms were compiled at 3 different periods between February and July 2003. The raw milk was analyzed by the Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis (FTIR using MilkoScan FT6000. The results showed the average fat content of 3.50±0.47%, protein of 3.13±0.16%, lactose of 4.59±0.12%, SNF of 8.42±0.20%, and TS of 11.92±0.54%. The samples were superior in all of the nutrients as compared to the standard levels set by the Department of Livestock Development, except for TS. This indicates the possibility of a local production of milk nutrients such as lactose and protein as ingredients for the pharmaceutical and health food industries.

  14. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  15. Study on characteristics of vertical strong motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akao, Y.; Katukura, H.; Fukushima, S.; Mizutani, M.

    1993-01-01

    Statistic properties of vertical strong ground motions from near-field earthquakes are discussed in comparison with that of horizontal motions. It is a feature of this analysis that time history of each observed record is divided into direct P- and S-wave segments from a seismological viewpoint. Following results are obtained. Vertical motion energy excited by direct S-waves is about 0.6 times of horizontal ones at deep underground, and it approaches to 1.0 at shallow place. Horizontal motion energy excited by direct P-waves becomes 0.2 times (at deep) or more (at shallow) of vertical one. These results can be available in modeling of input motions for aseismic design. (author)

  16. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  17. Cervical motion testing: methodology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prushansky, Tamara; Dvir, Zeevi

    2008-09-01

    Measurement of cervical motion (CM) is probably the most commonly applied functional outcome measure in assessing the status of patients with cervical pathology. In general terms, CM refers to motion of the head relative to the trunk as well as conjunct motions within the cervical spine. Multiple techniques and instruments have been used for assessing CM. These were associated with a wide variety of parameters relating to accuracy, reproducibility, and validity. Modern measurement systems enable recording, processing, and documentation of CM with a high degree of precision. Cervical motion measures provide substantial information regarding the severity of motion limitation and level of effort in cervically involved patients. They may also be used for following up performance during and after conservative or invasive interventions.

  18. Monitoring of psychrotrophic microorganisms in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Burdychová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The group of psychrotrophic microorganisms belongs to the microorganisms representing a risk for human health as well as a risk of milk and milk products spoilage. Some genus are considered to be significant producers of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. In this work, we analysed raw milk samples (n = 109 originated from 26 different suppliers from the area of North and Middle Moravia. The screening was performed from March 2007 to February 2008. The total bacterial counts (TBC ranged between 3.2 × 103 to 8.3 × 106 CFU/ml. The psychrotrophic bacterial counts (PBC ranged between 1.0 × 103 to 8.2 × 106 CFU/ml. Total of 48.62 % and 48.62 % of samples exceeded the hygienic limit in raw milk for TBC and PBC, respectively. The correlation between TBC and PBC was highly significant (r = 0.87.Significantly higher (P < 0.05 numbers of psychrotrophic microorganisms were detected in summer months. The identification of isolates was carried out and all strains were sreened for ability to produce proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. The most commonly identified genus in raw milk was of the genus Pseudomonas. The ability to produce proteases or lipases was found at 76 % identified bacterial strains.

  19. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  20. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  1. The eigenmode analysis of human motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Juyong; Lee, Deok-Sun; González, Marta C

    2010-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern communication technology are enabling the accumulation of large-scale, high-resolution observational data of the spatiotemporal movements of humans. Classification and prediction of human mobility based on the analysis of such data has great potential in applications such as urban planning in addition to being a subject of theoretical interest. A robust theoretical framework is therefore required to study and properly understand human motion. Here we perform the eigenmode analysis of human motion data gathered from mobile communication records, which allows us to explore the scaling properties and characteristics of human motion

  2. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  3. Analysis of motion in speed skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Yuzo; Nishimura, Tetsu; Watanabe, Naoki; Okamoto, Kousuke; Wada, Yuhei

    1997-03-01

    A motion on sports has been studied by many researchers from the view of the medical, psychological and mechanical fields. Here, we try to analyze a speed skating motion dynamically for an aim of performing the best record. As an official competition of speed skating is performed on the round rink, the skating motion must be studied on the three phases, that is, starting phase, straight and curved course skating phase. It is indispensable to have a visual data of a skating motion in order to analyze kinematically. So we took a several subject's skating motion by 8 mm video cameras in order to obtain three dimensional data. As the first step, the movement of the center of gravity of skater (abbreviate to C. G.) is discussed in this paper, because a skating motion is very complicated. The movement of C. G. will give an information of the reaction force to a skate blade from the surface of ice. We discuss the discrepancy of several skating motion by studied subjects. Our final goal is to suggest the best skating form for getting the finest record.

  4. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Observations from Datalogger

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Datalogger files are raw USCRN data. However, instead of being collected via satellite, the raw data are collected from station dataloggers (also referred to as...

  5. Marketing Violent Entertainment to Children: A Review of Self-Regulation and Industry Practices in the Motion Picture, Music Recording & Electronic Game Industries [with] Appendices A-K. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC.

    In June of 1999, President Clinton empowered the Federal Trade Commission to study whether movie, music recording, and computer and video game industries were advertising products with violent content to youngsters. Specifically he raised two questions: Do these industries promote products they themselves acknowledge warrant parental caution in…

  6. Storyboard dalam Pembuatan Motion Graphic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrya Mahardhika

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Motion graphics is one category in the animation that makes animation with lots of design elements in each component. Motion graphics needs long process including preproduction, production, and postproduction. Preproduction has an important role so that the next stage may provide guidance or instructions for the production process or the animation process. Preproduction includes research, making the story, script, screenplay, character, environment design and storyboards. The storyboard will be determined through camera angles, blocking, sets, and many supporting roles involved in a scene. Storyboard is also useful as a production reference in recording or taping each scene in sequence or as an efficient priority. The example used is an ad creation using motion graphic animation storyboard which has an important role as a blueprint for every scene and giving instructions to make the transition movement, layout, blocking, and defining camera movement that everything should be done periodically in animation production. Planning before making the animation or motion graphic will make the job more organized, presentable, and more efficient in the process.  

  7. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  8. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  9. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined...

  10. Effect Of Dietary Raw, Cooked And Toasted Mucuna Pruriens Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 5-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect or dietary raw, cooked and toasted Mucuna pruriens seeds (velvet bean) on the performance of finisher broilers. Raw Mucuna pruriens seeds contained 30.3% crude protein. At 10% dietary level, raw and toasted Mucuna pruriens seed meals significantly (P ...

  11. Characterization of Noise Signatures of Involuntary Head Motion in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Carla; Mistry, Sejal; Vero, Joe; Torres, Elizabeth B

    2018-01-01

    The variability inherently present in biophysical data is partly contributed by disparate sampling resolutions across instrumentations. This poses a potential problem for statistical inference using pooled data in open access repositories. Such repositories combine data collected from multiple research sites using variable sampling resolutions. One example is the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange repository containing thousands of imaging and demographic records from participants in the spectrum of autism and age-matched neurotypical controls. Further, statistical analyses of groups from different diagnoses and demographics may be challenging, owing to the disparate number of participants across different clinical subgroups. In this paper, we examine the noise signatures of head motion data extracted from resting state fMRI data harnessed under different sampling resolutions. We characterize the quality of the noise in the variability of the raw linear and angular speeds for different clinical phenotypes in relation to age-matched controls. Further, we use bootstrapping methods to ensure compatible group sizes for statistical comparison and report the ranges of physical involuntary head excursions of these groups. We conclude that different sampling rates do affect the quality of noise in the variability of head motion data and, consequently, the type of random process appropriate to characterize the time series data. Further, given a qualitative range of noise, from pink to brown noise, it is possible to characterize different clinical subtypes and distinguish them in relation to ranges of neurotypical controls. These results may be of relevance to the pre-processing stages of the pipeline of analyses of resting state fMRI data, whereby head motion enters the criteria to clean imaging data from motion artifacts. PMID:29556179

  12. Characterization of Noise Signatures of Involuntary Head Motion in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Caballero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The variability inherently present in biophysical data is partly contributed by disparate sampling resolutions across instrumentations. This poses a potential problem for statistical inference using pooled data in open access repositories. Such repositories combine data collected from multiple research sites using variable sampling resolutions. One example is the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange repository containing thousands of imaging and demographic records from participants in the spectrum of autism and age-matched neurotypical controls. Further, statistical analyses of groups from different diagnoses and demographics may be challenging, owing to the disparate number of participants across different clinical subgroups. In this paper, we examine the noise signatures of head motion data extracted from resting state fMRI data harnessed under different sampling resolutions. We characterize the quality of the noise in the variability of the raw linear and angular speeds for different clinical phenotypes in relation to age-matched controls. Further, we use bootstrapping methods to ensure compatible group sizes for statistical comparison and report the ranges of physical involuntary head excursions of these groups. We conclude that different sampling rates do affect the quality of noise in the variability of head motion data and, consequently, the type of random process appropriate to characterize the time series data. Further, given a qualitative range of noise, from pink to brown noise, it is possible to characterize different clinical subtypes and distinguish them in relation to ranges of neurotypical controls. These results may be of relevance to the pre-processing stages of the pipeline of analyses of resting state fMRI data, whereby head motion enters the criteria to clean imaging data from motion artifacts.

  13. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  14. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  15. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    De linearum curvarum cum lineis rectis comparatione dissertatio geometrica - an appendix to a treatise by de Lalouv~re (this was the only publication... correct solution to the problem of motion in the gravity of a permeable rotating Earth, considered by Torricelli (see §3). If the Earth is a homogeneous...in 1686, which contains the correct solution as part of a remarkably comprehensive theory of orbital motions under centripetal forces. It is a

  16. Direct Parametric Reconstruction With Joint Motion Estimation/Correction for Dynamic Brain PET Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jieqing; Bousse, Alexandre; Thielemans, Kris; Burgos, Ninon; Weston, Philip S J; Schott, Jonathan M; Atkinson, David; Arridge, Simon R; Hutton, Brian F; Markiewicz, Pawel; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    Direct reconstruction of parametric images from raw photon counts has been shown to improve the quantitative analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data. However it suffers from subject motion which is inevitable during the typical acquisition time of 1-2 hours. In this work we propose a framework to jointly estimate subject head motion and reconstruct the motion-corrected parametric images directly from raw PET data, so that the effects of distorted tissue-to-voxel mapping due to subject motion can be reduced in reconstructing the parametric images with motion-compensated attenuation correction and spatially aligned temporal PET data. The proposed approach is formulated within the maximum likelihood framework, and efficient solutions are derived for estimating subject motion and kinetic parameters from raw PET photon count data. Results from evaluations on simulated [ 11 C]raclopride data using the Zubal brain phantom and real clinical [ 18 F]florbetapir data of a patient with Alzheimer's disease show that the proposed joint direct parametric reconstruction motion correction approach can improve the accuracy of quantifying dynamic PET data with large subject motion.

  17. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  18. Raw materials for pellets; Rohstoffe fuer Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, H.

    2008-01-15

    In order to keep the pellet prices stable, producers look for new raw materials. Sawdust as a former basis also competes with the manufacturers of chip boards and paper. Three classes of quality are discussed by the pellet manufacturers: (a) the DINplus pellet as a premium segment for which high-quality sawdust are used; (b) a wood pellet from natural wood with varying quality for the utilization in larger plants with filters; (c) the inexpensive industrial wood pellet which deviates from the DINplus commodity regarding to the ingredients and form and could be fired in larger power stations.

  19. Globalization determinants of raw materials markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yatsenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of development of raw materials markets and the peculiarities of their formation in the terms of world economy globalization have been researched. The empirical base of research is the agricultural food market as one of the most important bases in the sphere of material production and provision of food security of the country. The important social and economic mission of the agricultural sector has been highlighted, along with the export competitiveness and import dependence of agricultural food products in the international trade. The imperative norms have been substantiated and conclusions have been drawn regarding the establishment of respective conditions for the operation of globally integrated markets in Ukraine.

  20. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  1. Raw material selection for object construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Perlow, J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available on their visual appearance. In particular, we present a method for an agent to recognise the required unseen raw material images and link them to corresponding novel object images. This capability provides an agent with an increased degree of resourcefulness... construction from component parts, and in doing so we provide a benchmark for future work to compare against within Minecraft and ShapeNet domains. II. BACKGROUND Our model is inspired by Siamese neural networks, a class of neural network that includes multiple...

  2. Simulating intrafraction prostate motion with a random walk model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommer, Tobias; Oh, Jung Hun; Munck Af Rosenschöld, Per; Deasy, Joseph O

    2017-01-01

    Prostate motion during radiation therapy (ie, intrafraction motion) can cause unwanted loss of radiation dose to the prostate and increased dose to the surrounding organs at risk. A compact but general statistical description of this motion could be useful for simulation of radiation therapy delivery or margin calculations. We investigated whether prostate motion could be modeled with a random walk model. Prostate motion recorded during 548 radiation therapy fractions in 17 patients was analyzed and used for input in a random walk prostate motion model. The recorded motion was categorized on the basis of whether any transient excursions (ie, rapid prostate motion in the anterior and superior direction followed by a return) occurred in the trace and transient motion. This was separately modeled as a large step in the anterior/superior direction followed by a returning large step. Random walk simulations were conducted with and without added artificial transient motion using either motion data from all observed traces or only traces without transient excursions as model input, respectively. A general estimate of motion was derived with reasonable agreement between simulated and observed traces, especially during the first 5 minutes of the excursion-free simulations. Simulated and observed diffusion coefficients agreed within 0.03, 0.2 and 0.3 mm 2 /min in the left/right, superior/inferior, and anterior/posterior directions, respectively. A rapid increase in variance at the start of observed traces was difficult to reproduce and seemed to represent the patient's need to adjust before treatment. This could be estimated somewhat using artificial transient motion. Random walk modeling is feasible and recreated the characteristics of the observed prostate motion. Introducing artificial transient motion did not improve the overall agreement, although the first 30 seconds of the traces were better reproduced. The model provides a simple estimate of prostate motion during

  3. A balancing method for calculating a component raw involving CGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.; Kang, D.; Yang, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a method called the 'Balancing Method' to derive a component RAW (Risk Achievement Worth) with basic event RAWs including a CCF (Common Cause Failure) RAW is summarized, and compared with the method proposed by the NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute) by mathematically checking the background on which the two methods are based. It is proved that the Balancing Method has a strong mathematically background. While the NEI method significantly underestimates the component RAW and is a little bit ad hoc in handling CCF RAW, the Balancing Method estimates the true component RAW very closely. Validity of the Balancing Method is based on the fact that if an component is out-of-service, it does not mean that the component is non-existent, but integrates the possibility that the component might fail due to CCF. The validity of the Balancing Method is proved by comparing it to the exact component RAW generated from the fault tree model

  4. Raw materials for reflector graphite (for reactors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmi, G.; Mindermann, D.

    1992-01-01

    The manufacturing concept for the core components of German high temperature reactor (HTR) types of graphite was previously entirely directed to the use of German tar coke (St coke). As the plants for producing this material no longer complied technically with the current environmental protection requirements, one had to assume that they would soon be shut down. To prevent bottlenecks in the erection of future HTR plants, alternative cokes produced by modern processes by Japanese manufacturers were checked for their suitability for the manufacture of reactor graphite. This report describes the investigations carried out on these materials from the safe delayed coking process. The project work, apart from analysis of the main data of the candidate coke considered, included the processing of the raw materials into directly and secondarily extruded graphite rods on the laboratory scale, including characterisation. As the results show, the material data achieved with the previous raw material can be reproduced with Japanese St coke. The tar coke LPC-A from the Nippon Steel Chemical Co., Ltd was decided on as the new standard coke for manufacturing reflector graphite. (orig.) With 15 tabs., 2 figs [de

  5. Thorium and Uranium in the Rock Raw Materials Used For the Production of Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pękala, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    Thorium and uranium are constant components of all soils and most minerals thereby rock raw materials. They belong to the particularly dangerous elements because of their natural radioactivity. Evaluation of the content of the radioactive elements in the rock raw materials seems to be necessary in the early stage of the raw material evaluation. The rock formations operated from deposits often are accumulated in landfills and slag heaps where the concentration of the radioactive elements can be many times higher than under natural conditions. In addition, this phenomenon may refer to buildings where rock raw materials are often the main components of the construction materials. The global control system of construction products draws particular attention to the elimination of used construction products containing excessive quantities of the natural radioactive elements. In the presented study were determined the content of thorium and uranium in rock raw materials coming from the Bełachatów lignite deposit. The Bełchatów lignite deposit extracts mainly lignite and secondary numerous accompanying minerals with the raw material importance. In the course of the field works within the framework of the carried out work has been tested 92 samples of rocks of varied petrographic composition. There were carried out analyses of the content of the radioactive elements for 50 samples of limestone of the Jurassic age, 18 samples of kaolinite clays, and 24 samples of siliceous raw materials, represented by opoka-rocks, diatomites, gaizes and clastic rocks. The measurement of content of the natural radioactive elements thorium and uranium based on measuring the frequency counts of gamma quantum, recorded separately in measuring channels. At the same time performed measurements on volume patterns radioactive: thorium and uranium. The studies were carried out in Mazar spectrometer on the powdered material. Standardly performed ten measuring cycles, after which were calculated

  6. Impact of patient motion on myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kemin; Feng Yanlin; He Xiaohong; Wen Guanghua; Yu Fengwen; Liu Shusheng; Liu Dejun; Yuan Jianwei; Yang Ming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: It is well known that patient motion may cause artifacts in myocardial SPECT images and affect clinical diagnosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of motion on quality and semi-quantitative results of myocardial perfusion images. Methods: Six healthy volunteers un- derwent myocardial perfusion SPECT. The raw data in each case was manually shifted 1-6 frames and 1 4 pixels, respectively by using the motion correction software. The shifted raw data were then reconstructed. A semi-quantitative software was used to assess the myocardial perfusion of left ventricle. The quality and semi-quantitative results of the tomographic images reconstructed from the raw data with and without motion were compared and analyzed. SPSS 12.0 was used for data analysis. Results: There was no visible artifact and semi-quantitative difference on the data with 1 frame and (or) 1 pixel shift when compared with the original data without shift. The image artifacts became significantly deteriorated when the number of flame and (or) pixel shift was increased. In general, the image artifact of inferior and posterior wall was related to the upward shift, and that of anterior and infero-posterior wall was related to the downward shift, that of septal, anterior, infero-postefior wall and apex was related to right-ward shift, and the septal and infero-posterior wall was related to the left-ward shift. The differences along the x-axis shift were more prominent than that of the y-axis (t=2.848, P<0.01), and the differences in the downward and rightward shift were more severe than the upward and leftward shift (t=2.941, 6.598; all P<0.01), respectively. Conclusions: Image artifacts became significant when there was motion induced by manual shift of more than one flame and (or) one pixel. Different motion directions were closely related to different segments of left ventricle. (authors)

  7. Live Speech Driven Head-and-Eye Motion Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Binh H; Ma, Xiaohan; Deng, Zhigang

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a fully automated framework to generate realistic head motion, eye gaze, and eyelid motion simultaneously based on live (or recorded) speech input. Its central idea is to learn separate yet interrelated statistical models for each component (head motion, gaze, or eyelid motion) from a prerecorded facial motion data set: 1) Gaussian Mixture Models and gradient descent optimization algorithm are employed to generate head motion from speech features; 2) Nonlinear Dynamic Canonical Correlation Analysis model is used to synthesize eye gaze from head motion and speech features, and 3) nonnegative linear regression is used to model voluntary eye lid motion and log-normal distribution is used to describe involuntary eye blinks. Several user studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed speech-driven head and eye motion generator using the well-established paired comparison methodology. Our evaluation results clearly show that this approach can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art head and eye motion generation algorithms. In addition, a novel mocap+video hybrid data acquisition technique is introduced to record high-fidelity head movement, eye gaze, and eyelid motion simultaneously.

  8. Computing motion using resistive networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christof; Luo, Jin; Mead, Carver; Hutchinson, James

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of early vision are described which lead from the formulation of the motion problem as an ill-posed one to its solution by minimizing certain 'cost' functions. These cost or energy functions can be mapped onto simple analog and digital resistive networks. It is shown how the optical flow can be computed by injecting currents into resistive networks and recording the resulting stationary voltage distribution at each node. These networks can be implemented in cMOS VLSI circuits and represent plausible candidates for biological vision systems.

  9. 40 CFR 141.571 - What records does subpart T require my system to keep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records does subpart T require my system to keep? Your system must keep several types of records based on... Benchmarking(§§ 141.540-141.544) Benchmark (including raw data and analysis) Indefinitely. ...

  10. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  11. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  12. Characteristics of Earthquake Ground Motion Attenuation in Korea and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In-Kil; Choun, Young-Sun; Nakajima, Masato; Ohtori, Yasuki; Yun, Kwan-Hee

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of a ground motion attenuation in Korea and Japan were estimated by using the earthquake ground motions recorded at the equal distance observation station by KMA, K-NET and KiK-net of Korea and Japan. The ground motion attenuation equations proposed for Korea and Japan were evaluated by comparing the predicted value for the Fukuoka earthquake with the observed records. The predicted values from the attenuation equations show a good agreement with the observed records and each other. It can be concluded from this study that the ground motion attenuation equations can be used for the prediction of strong ground motion attenuation and for an evaluation of the attenuation equations proposed for Korea

  13. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in November 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 0.6%, at a slightly inferior rate than the rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 9.3%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 1.2%), markedly slowing down increase for gas (+ 1.4%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.3%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a maintained high energy cost level with + 14% on one year, reaching 86.8 billions Francs, to be compared to 76.1 in November 1996

  14. WATER NETWORK INTEGRATION IN RAW SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Lorenzo Llanes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main process industries in Cuba is that of the sugarcane. Among the characteristics of this industry is the high demand of water in its processes. In this work a study of water integration was carried out from the different operations of the production process of raw sugar, in order to reduce the fresh water consumption. The compound curves of sources and demands were built, which allowed the determination of the minimum water requirement of the network (1587,84 m3/d, as well as the amount of effluent generated (0,35 m3/tcane.The distribution scheme of fresh water and water reuse among different operations were obtained from the nearest neighbor algorithm. From considering new quality constrains was possible to eliminate the external water consumption, as well as to reduce the amount of effluent in a 37% in relation to the initial constrains.

  15. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurki

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The somatic cell count (SCC and total bacterial count (TBC as well as the presence of major food-borne pathogens and udder pathogens in reindeer raw milk were studied. Two groups of 4 female reindeer were milked on alternate days for six weeks. A milk sample from each quarter was taken before milking and of the bulk milk at the end of milking. Micrococcus sp. was observed in one, Staphylococcus aureus in one and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five of the quarter samples (n=318. In the bulk milk (n=19 TBC varied between 700 and 1 700 000 cfu (colony forming units/ml and SCC between 52 000 and 183 000 cells/ml. No Bacillus cereus, S. aureus or Listeria monocytogenes were detected in the bulk milk, but Escherichia coli and Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 bulk milk samples. According to the bacteriological examination the udder health of the reindeer was good. Indicative information on the SCC of healthy reindeer was obtained. None of the common potential food-poisoning bacteria were found in raw milk. There was great variation in the bulk milk TBC and the average TBC was rather high (ca. 300 000 cfu/ml. The hygienic quality of raw reindeer milk makes it well suited for food manufacture. However, the results indicate that the milking conditions may be crucial for the quality of raw milk.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto:Tutkimuksen kohteena oli poron raakamaidon solupitoisuus ja kokonaispesäkeluku sekä tärkeimpien elintarvike- ja utarepatogeenien esiintyminen raakamaidossa. Kaksi 4 vaatimen ryhmää lypsettiin vuoropäivinä 6 viikon ajan. Ennen lypsyä vaatimista otettiin vedinkohtaiset näytteet ja lypsyn päätyttyä näyte yhteismaidosta. Micrococcus sp. todettiin yhdessä, Staphylococcus aureus yhdessä ja koagulaasinegatiivisia stafylokokkeja viidessä vedinkohtaisessa näytteessä (n=318. Yhteismaitonäytteiden (n=19 kokonaispesäkeluvut vaihtelivat välillä 700-1 700 000 pmy (pesäkkeitä muodostava yksikkö/ml ja somaattisten

  16. Norwalk virus gastroenteritis following raw oyster consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, R A; Janowski, H T; Lieb, S; Prather, E C; Greenberg, H B

    1982-03-01

    In January, 1980, six out of 13 persons (46%) attending a party in a small northwest Florida town near the Gulf of Mexico became ill with Norwalk virus gastroenteritis after eating raw oysters. Symptoms experienced by the ill persons were principally nausea (100%), vomiting (83%) and diarrhea (50%) and were of brief duration. The symptom complex and epidemiology of Norwalk virus infection closely resemble the gastrointestinal illness commonly referred to as the 24-hour intestinal flu or "stomach flu." Norwalk virus infection was identified in this outbreak by application of a recently developed sensitive and specific serologic radioimmunoassay. Oysters from the incriminated batch had fecal coliform levels above recommended standards; however, recent studies of oyster-harvesting waters have shown only a weak correlation between fecal coliforms and the presence of enteric viruses. Further studies are needed to determine whether modifications of monitoring modalities for oyster-harvesting waters are needed.

  17. From Raw Data to Physics Results course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    It would be helpful for students to know: a) How measurements are made in physical detectors, for example how a tracking chamber "sees" a charged particle or how a calorimeter measures energy. b) That physics processes result in photons, leptons, etc., which we then want to detect and analyze. These series of lectures describes the work that lies between the raw data taken by the detector elements and the physics variables used to study particular reactions. We start with an example analysis to show the kinds of information needed. We then describe the fitting process used to extract values from the observed patterns in typical detectors. This is followed by a discussion of the various problems of pattern recognition in tracking, calorimetry and particle identification detectors. The role of Monte Carlo simulation in understanding the quality of the obtained information is examined. We discuss how the use of "composite" observables is required due to what our instrumentation and reconstruction can achieve. Th...

  18. From Raw Data to Physics Results

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    These series of lectures describes the work that lies between the raw data taken by the detector elements and the physics variables used to study particular reactions. We start by defining some simple physics variables of interest, then describe the fitting process used to extract values from the observed patterns in typical detectors. This is followed by a discussion of the various problems of pattern recognition in tracking, calorimetry and particle identification detectors. The process of calibration and alignment is surveyed, with emphasis on getting "reasonable" results in the absence of formally complete information. Finally, the role of Monte Carlo simulation in understanding the quality of the obtained information is examined. Throughout, we emphasize how the use of "composite" observables is required due to what our instrumentation and reconstruction can achieve.

  19. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in... Defense (Public Affairs) for clearance for public release. They will be accompained by five copies of the... Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs). [41 FR 29101, July 15, 1976, as amended at 44 FR 6390, Feb...

  20. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  1. Motion of the surface of the human tympanic membrane measured with stroboscopic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Harrington, Ellery; Hernandez-Montes, Maria del Socorro; Furlong, Cosme; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Sound-induced motion of the surface of the human tympanic membrane (TM) was studied by stroboscopic holographic interferometery, which measures the amplitude and phase of the displacement at each of about 40000 points on the surface of the TM. Measurements were made with tonal stimuli of 0.5, 1, 4 and 8 kHz. The magnitude and phase of the sinusoidal displacement of the TM at each driven frequency were derived from the fundamental Fourier component of the raw displacement data computed from stroboscopic holograms of the TM recorded at eight stimulus phases. The correlation between the Fourier estimates and measured motion data was generally above 0.9 over the entire TM surface. We used three data presentations: (i) Plots of the phasic displacements along a single chord across the surface of the TM, (ii) Phasic surface maps of the displacement of the entire TM surface, and (iii) Plots of the Fourier derived amplitude and phase-angle of the surface displacement along four diameter lines that define and bisect each of the four quadrants of the TM. These displays led to some common conclusions: At 0.5 and 1 kHz, the entire TM moved roughly in-phase with some small phase delay apparent between local areas of maximal displacement in the posterior half of the TM. At 4 and 8 kHz, the motion of the TM became more complicated with multiple local displacement maxima arranged in rings around the manubrium. The displacements at most of these maxima were roughly in-phase, while some moved out-of-phase. Superposed on this in- and out-of-phase behavior were significant cyclic variations in phase with location of less than 0.2 cycles or occasionally rapid half-cycle step-like changes in phase. The high frequency displacement amplitude and phase maps discovered in this study can not be explained by any single wave motion, but are consistent with a combination of low and higher order modal motions plus some small traveling-wave-like components. The observations of the dynamics of TM

  2. Artificial horizon effects on motion sickness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Dror; Gonen, Adi; Wiener, Guy; Bar, Ronen; Gil, Amnon; Nachum, Zohar; Shupak, Avi

    2012-07-01

    To investigate whether the projection of Earth-referenced scenes during provocative motion can alleviate motion sickness severity and prevent motion sickness-induced degradation of performance. Exposure to unfamiliar motion patterns commonly results in motion sickness and decreased performance. Thirty subjects with moderate-to-severe motion sickness susceptibility were exposed to the recorded motion profile of a missile boat under moderate sea conditions in a 3-degrees-of-freedom ship motion simulator. During a 120-minute simulated voyage, the study participants were repeatedly put through a performance test battery and completed a motion sickness susceptibility questionnaire, while self-referenced and Earth-referenced visual scenes were projected inside the closed simulator cabin. A significant decrease was found in the maximal motion sickness severity score, from 9.83 ± 9.77 (mean ± standard deviation) to 7.23 ± 7.14 (p pitch, and heave movements of the simulator. Although there was a significant decrease in sickness severity, substantial symptoms still persisted. Decision making, vision, concentration, memory, simple reasoning, and psychomotor skills all deteriorated under the motion conditions. However, no significant differences between the projection conditions could be found in the scores of any of the performance tests. Visual information regarding the vessel's movement provided by an artificial horizon device might decrease motion sickness symptoms. However, although this device might be suitable for passive transportation, the continued deterioration in performance measures indicates that it provides no significant advantage for personnel engaged in the active operation of modern vessels.

  3. Smoothing of respiratory motion traces for motion-compensated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Floris; Schlaefer, Alexander; Schweikard, Achim

    2010-01-01

    The CyberKnife system has been used successfully for several years to radiosurgically treat tumors without the need for stereotactic fixation or sedation of the patient. It has been shown that tumor motion in the lung, liver, and pancreas can be tracked with acceptable accuracy and repeatability. However, highly precise targeting for tumors in the lower abdomen, especially for tumors which exhibit strong motion, remains problematic. Reasons for this are manifold, like the slow tracking system operating at 26.5 Hz, and using the signal from the tracking camera "as is." Since the motion recorded with the camera is used to compensate for system latency by prediction and the predicted signal is subsequently used to infer the tumor position from a correlation model based on x-ray imaging of gold fiducials around the tumor, camera noise directly influences the targeting accuracy. The goal of this work is to establish the suitability of a new smoothing method for respiratory motion traces used in motion-compensated radiotherapy. The authors endeavor to show that better prediction--With a lower rms error of the predicted signal--and/or smoother prediction is possible using this method. The authors evaluated six commercially available tracking systems (NDI Aurora, PolarisClassic, Polaris Vicra, MicronTracker2 H40, FP5000, and accuTrack compact). The authors first tracked markers both stationary and while in motion to establish the systems' noise characteristics. Then the authors applied a smoothing method based on the a trous wavelet decomposition to reduce the devices' noise level. Additionally, the smoothed signal of the moving target and a motion trace from actual human respiratory motion were subjected to prediction using the MULIN and the nLMS2 algorithms. The authors established that the noise distribution for a static target is Gaussian and that when the probe is moved such as to mimic human respiration, it remains Gaussian with the exception of the FP5000 and the

  4. Smoothing of respiratory motion traces for motion-compensated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Floris; Schlaefer, Alexander; Schweikard, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The CyberKnife system has been used successfully for several years to radiosurgically treat tumors without the need for stereotactic fixation or sedation of the patient. It has been shown that tumor motion in the lung, liver, and pancreas can be tracked with acceptable accuracy and repeatability. However, highly precise targeting for tumors in the lower abdomen, especially for tumors which exhibit strong motion, remains problematic. Reasons for this are manifold, like the slow tracking system operating at 26.5 Hz, and using the signal from the tracking camera ''as is''. Since the motion recorded with the camera is used to compensate for system latency by prediction and the predicted signal is subsequently used to infer the tumor position from a correlation model based on x-ray imaging of gold fiducials around the tumor, camera noise directly influences the targeting accuracy. The goal of this work is to establish the suitability of a new smoothing method for respiratory motion traces used in motion-compensated radiotherapy. The authors endeavor to show that better prediction--With a lower rms error of the predicted signal--and/or smoother prediction is possible using this method. Methods: The authors evaluated six commercially available tracking systems (NDI Aurora, PolarisClassic, Polaris Vicra, MicronTracker2 H40, FP5000, and accuTrack compact). The authors first tracked markers both stationary and while in motion to establish the systems' noise characteristics. Then the authors applied a smoothing method based on the a trous wavelet decomposition to reduce the devices' noise level. Additionally, the smoothed signal of the moving target and a motion trace from actual human respiratory motion were subjected to prediction using the MULIN and the nLMS 2 algorithms. Results: The authors established that the noise distribution for a static target is Gaussian and that when the probe is moved such as to mimic human respiration, it remains Gaussian with the

  5. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    , Toshio Ando from the University of Kanazawa provides an overview of developments that have allowed atomic force microscopy to move from rates of the order of one frame a minute to over a thousand frames per second in constant height mode, as reported by Mervyn Miles and colleagues at Bristol University and University College London [8]. Among the pioneers in the field, Ando's group demonstrated the ability to record the Brownian motion of myosin V molecules on mica with image capture rates of 100 x 100 pixels in 80 ms over a decade ago [9]. The developments unleash the potential of atomic force microscopy to observe the dynamics of biological and materials systems. If seeing is believing, the ability to present real motion pictures of the nanoworld cannot fail to capture the public imagination and stimulate burgeoning new avenues of scientific endeavour. Nearly 350 years on from the publication Micrographia, images in microscopy have moved from the page to the movies. References [1] Binnig G, Quate C F, and Gerber Ch 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 930-3 [2] Ando T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 062001 [3] J G 1934 Nature 134 635-6 [4] Bharadwaj P, Anger P and Novotny L 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044017 [5] The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 Nobelprize.org [6] Kim K K, Reina A, Shi Y, Park H, Li L-J, Lee Y H and Kong J 2010 Nanotechnology 21 285205 [7] Phillips D B, Grieve J A, Olof S N, Kocher S J, Bowman R, Padgett M J, Miles M J and Carberry D M 2011 Nanotechnology 22 285503 [8] Picco L M, Bozec L, Ulcinas A, Engledew D J, Antognozzi M, Horton M A and Miles M J 2007 Nanotechnology 18 044030 [9] Ando T, Kodera N, Takai E, Maruyama D, Saito K and Toda A 2001 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 12468

  6. Retrospective Reconstruction of High Temporal Resolution Cine Images from Real-Time MRI using Iterative Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Schacht; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Arai, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    acquisitions in 10 (N = 10) subjects. Acceptable image quality was obtained in all motion-corrected reconstructions, and the resulting mean image quality score was (a) Cartesian real-time: 2.48, (b) Golden Angle real-time: 1.90 (1.00–2.50), (c) Cartesian motion correction: 3.92, (d) Radial motion correction: 4...... and motion correction based on nonrigid registration and can be applied to arbitrary k-space trajectories. The method is demonstrated with real-time Cartesian imaging and Golden Angle radial acquisitions, and the motion-corrected acquisitions are compared with raw real-time images and breath-hold cine...

  7. SAR Raw Data Generation for Complex Airport Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of generating the SAR raw data of complex airport scenes is studied in this paper. A formulation of the SAR raw signal model of airport scenes is given. Via generating the echoes from the background, aircrafts and buildings, respectively, the SAR raw data of the unified SAR imaging geometry is obtained from their vector additions. The multipath scattering and the shadowing between the background and different ground covers of standing airplanes and buildings are analyzed. Based on the scattering characteristics, coupling scattering models and SAR raw data models of different targets are given, respectively. A procedure is given to generate the SAR raw data of airport scenes. The SAR images from the simulated raw data demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  8. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Raw-Vegan Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumer interest in healthier food products is driven by a variety of factors including growing awareness of the link between diet and health, the desire to age ‘gracefully’ by maintaining good health, greater convenience in meeting nutritional needs and preventing chronic diseases. In raw food diet, food is consumed predominantly or exclusively as uncooked and unprocessed raw food; the main components of the diet are fruits, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains and beans. The aim of this study was to obtain two raw-vegan bars using dry raw materials and to establish the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the products. Raw-vegan bars were formulated using fruits and seeds (cranberries, figs, raisins, raspberries, cashew, chia seeds, etc. and binding agents (honey. Raw-vegan bars stands out among fast foods due to their balanced nutritional content and convenience.  

  9. Description of ground motion data processing codes: Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.L.

    1988-02-01

    Data processing codes developed to process ground motion at the Nevada Test Site for the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations Project are used today as part of the program to process ground motion records for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The work contained in this report documents and lists codes and verifies the ''PSRV'' code. 39 figs

  10. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-01-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in "The Physics Teacher" ("TPT"); however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not…

  11. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  12. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  13. Titanium. Properties, raw datum surface, physicochemical basis and fabrication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmata, V.A.; Petrun'ko, A.N.; Galitskij, N.V.; Olesov, Yu.G.; Sandler, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    On the nowadays science and technology achievements the complex of titanium metallurgy problems comprising raw material base, physico-chemical basis and fabrication technique, properties and titanium usage fields is considered for the first time. A particular attention is given to raw material base, manufacturing titanium concentrates and titanium tetrachloride, metallothermal reduction, improvement of metal quality. Data on titanium properties are given, processes of titanium powder metallurgy, scrap and waste processing, problems of economics and complex raw material use are considered

  14. Benefits of balancing method for component RAW importance measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kil Yoo; Yang, Joon Eon

    2005-01-01

    In the Risk Informed Regulation and Applications (RIR and A), the determination of risk significant Structure, System and Components (SSCs) plays an important role, and importance measures such as Fussell-Vesely (FV) and RAW (Risk Achievement Worth) are widely used in the determination of risk significant SSCs. For example, in the Maintenance Rule, Graded Quality Assurance(GQA) and Option 2, FV and RAW are used in the categorization of SSCs. Especially, in the GQA and Option 2, the number of SSCs to be categorized is too many to handle, so the FVs and RAWs of the components are practically derived in a convenient way with those of the basic events which have already been acquired as PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) results instead of by reevaluating the fault tree/event tree of the PSA model. That is, the group FVs and RAWs for the components are derived from the FVs and RAWs of the basic events which consist of the group. Here, the basic events include random failure, Common Cause Failure (CCF), test and maintenance, etc. which make the system unavailable. A method called 'Balancing Method' which can practically and correctly derive the component RAW with the basic event FVs and RAWs even if CCFs exists as basic events was introduced in Ref.. However, 'Balancing Method' has other advantage, i.e., it can also fairly correctly derive component RAW using fault tree without using basic events FVs and RAWs

  15. Survey to determine why people drink raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2014-11-01

    Fragility fractures associated with osteoporosis extract a large financial and personal toll on society. Pharmaceutical or dietary calcium intake is needed to increase bone mineral density to prevent fragility fractures. Although dairy products are a good source of calcium, patients who are unable to digest lactose tend to avoid them and are put at a greater risk for fracture than the general population. Anecdotal reports suggest that lactose maldigesters, when consuming raw milk, have a dramatic reduction in symptoms relative to pasteurized milk. The mechanism of the reported reduction in symptoms, if true, is unknown. The purpose of the current study was to survey raw milk drinkers to ascertain their health-related motivations for consuming raw milk, especially as they relate to lactose maldigestion. An online survey regarding raw milk was completed by 153 of 1527 members of a raw milk-buying community. The primary reason the respondents cited for drinking raw milk was that they believed it was more healthful; 30% reported some gastrointestinal discomfort when drinking pasteurized milk, yet almost all (99%) reported consuming raw milk without discomfort. Despite the reports of gastrointestinal discomfort, only 5% of respondents had been diagnosed as lactose intolerant by a medical professional, and only 1% had been diagnosed as lactose intolerant via the gold-standard hydrogen breath test. The primary motivation for drinking raw milk is its perceived health value, not its digestibility. Although raw milk appears to be more easily digested than pasteurized milk in our survey sample, the mechanism of digestibility remains unknown.

  16. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet

    OpenAIRE

    Link, Lilli B.; Jacobson, Judith S.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be ≥80% raw ve...

  17. Rapid Moment Magnitude Estimation Using Strong Motion Derived Static Displacements

    OpenAIRE

    Muzli, Muzli; Asch, Guenter; Saul, Joachim; Murjaya, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    The static surface deformation can be recovered from strong motion records. Compared to satellite-based measurements such as GPS or InSAR, the advantage of strong motion records is that they have the potential to provide real-time coseismic static displacements. The use of these valuable data was optimized for the moment magnitude estimation. A centroid grid search method was introduced to calculate the moment magnitude by using1 model. The method to data sets was applied of the 2011...

  18. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  19. High belite cement from alternative raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorab, H. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three high belite laboratory clinkers were prepared from traditional and alternative raw materials. Reference clinker was obtained from 77% limestone, 11% sandy clays, 11% fatty clays and 1% iron scales. The fatty clays were replaced by red brick powder in the raw meal of the second clinker and were lowered to 2% with the replacement of 10% of the limestone by egg shells in the third clinker. The SEM examination revealed clear presence of crossed striae and twinning in the rounded belite grains of the reference clinker caused by the transformation of the α´-belite to the β polymorph. Striae were weaker in the second and third clinkers indicating a probable stabilization of the α ‘-belite polymorph. Compressive strength of the respective cements were attained first after 28 days and the early strength did not improve with increasing fineness. Higher compressive strength values were found for the cement prepared from second clinker.Se han preparado tres clinkeres de laboratorio con altos contenidos en belita a partir de materias primas tradicionales y alternativas. El clinker de referencia se obtuvo a partir de una mezcla de caliza, arcillas arenosas y grasas y limaduras de hierro. Las arcillas grasas fueron sustituidas por polvo de ladrillo rojo en la preparación del segundo clinker, y en el tercero el contenido de arcilla grasa fue de solo un 2% y parte de la caliza fue sustituida por cascara de huevo. El estudio realizado por SEM muestra superficies estriadas alrededor de los granos de belita que indican una transformación del polimorfo α´ a la forma β-C₂S, durante el enfriamiento. Esas estrías son menos marcadas en el segundo y tercer clinker, indicando, una estabilización del polimorfo α´-C₂S. Los valores de resistencias a compresión de los correspondientes cementos, a 28 días de curado, no se ven incrementados por la finura de dichos cementos. Las mayores resistencias se obtuvieron en el cemento preparado a partir del cl

  20. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  1. Radiation situation during underground mineral raw materials mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikov, B.I.

    2007-01-01

    One studied the content and the ratio of 4 0 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U natural radionuclides in the ores mined in Egypt, Iran, China and Turkey. It is shown that in some ores, for example, in the carbonaceous shale mined in China, in the Iranian bauxite and turquoise Ra eq is higher than 370 Bq/kg, that is, it is higher than the value recommended by the International Scientific Committee on Radiation Effect. The Chinese bituminous shale shows high content of 226 Ra, while 226 Ra/ 232 Th concentration ratio varies between 10 and 60 in contrast to that of other numerous mineral raw materials being close to 1-3. In a number of mines one recorded high concentrations of radon (higher than 300 Bq/m 3 ). Inhalation of such an air results in the essential internal irradiation. The average annual dose equivalents for miners may be higher than the maximum permissible value equal to 20 mSv/g [ru

  2. Uranium as Raw Material for Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.

    2006-01-01

    There is lot of information bringing our attention to the problem of limited raw material resources. Fortunately uranium for nuclear energy is very concentrated source and that is why its transport brings no problems and could be realized from anywhere. Second question is if overall resources are available for current nuclear energy development. Data documenting reasons for nowadays price growth are presenting and it is clearly shown that the most probable explanation is that there is gap in new uranium mines preparation and the lot of smaller mines were closed in the period of low uranium prices. Conclusion is that there is at least for the first half of this century even for thermal reactors enough uranium. Situation could be changed if there will massive production of liquid fuel using hydrogen, produced through nuclear heating. Public information about former military uranium resources are also included. Contemporary about one half of US nuclear power-stations is using high enriched uranium diluted with natural uranium - it is expected to continue this way up to 2012. Uranium is complicated market (Authors)

  3. Dates as raw material for agricultural distilleries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laczynski, B

    1971-01-01

    Pit-containing dates had 88.0 to 89.2% dry matter, 41.7 to 47.5% sucrose, and 2.1 to 2.9% total protein. The mechanical broken charges of raw material were steamed, dispersed to a suspension of 15 to 17/sup 0/ Balling and pH 4.8 to 5.0, enriched with P and N, inoculated with 5 to 7 % of yeast suspension, and acidified to pH > 3.5. Thermophilic yeast cultivated at 27/sup 0/ and fermented below 30/sup 0/ for 2 days gave best results. The fermented liquor had a pH > 3.5, apparent density of 2.0/sup 0/, and contained 7.5 to 9.0 EtOH. From 100 kg dates were obtained 280 t0 340 l of the 15 to 17/sup 0/ dispersion and 320 to 360 l residue containing (per l) 6.0 to 8.5 g protein and 0.04 oat units. EtOH yield (l/quintal) was 914 for potatoes, 28.54 for molasses, 36.29 for cereals, 25.15 for dates, and 18.53 for malt.

  4. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  5. Ultrafast MR imaging with EPI of organs undergoing nonperiodic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, M.K.; Ordidge, R.J.; Howseman, A.M.; Coxon, R.; Chapman, B.; Mansfield, P.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional MR imaging employing repetitive data acquisition is susceptible to motion artifacts. Gating overcomes periodic motion effects. Nonperiodic motion, as encountered in the gastronintestinal tract, cardiac arrhythmias, unsedated children, and fetal imaging, thwarts conventional MR imaging. The EPI derivatives BEST and MBEST create a complex 128 x 128-pixel image in 64 msec and 128 msec, respectively, freezing motion almost completely. Sequentially recorded gastrointestinal-tract images allow quantitative evaluation of gastric and gut motility. Cardiac morphology, movement, and blood flow patterns in valvular heart disease have been depicted during atrial fibrillation. Selected clinical results with accompanying technical details illustrate the scope of EPI as a distinctive imaging modality

  6. Investigation of wire motion in superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Devred, A.

    1990-09-01

    The large Lorentz forces occuring during the excitation of superconducting magnets can provoke sudden motions of wire, which eventually release enough energy to trigger a quench. These wire motions are accompanied by two electromagnetic effects: an induced emf along the moved wire, and a local change in flux caused by the minute dislocation of current. Both effects cause spikes in the coil voltage. Voltage data recorded during the excitation of a superconducting quadrupole magnet which early exhibit such events are here reported. Interpretations of the voltage spikes in terms of energy release are also presented, leading to insights on the spectrum of the disturbances which occur in real magnets. 15 refs

  7. Management of respiratory motion in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedam, Subrahmanya Sastry

    2003-01-01

    Respiration affects the instantaneous position of almost all thoracic and abdominal structures (lung, breast, liver, pancreas, etc.), posing significant problems in the radiotherapy of tumors located at these sites. The diaphragm, for example, has been shown to move approximately 1.5 cm in the superior-inferior direction during normal breathing. During radiotherapy, margin expansion around the tumor, based on an estimate of the expected range of tumor motion, is commonly employed to ensure adequate dose coverage. Such a margin estimate may or may not encompass the 'current' extent of motion exhibited by the tumor, resulting in either a higher dose to the surrounding normal tissue or a cold spot in the tumor volume, leading to poor prognosis. Accounting for respiratory motion by active management during radiotherapy can, however, potentiate a reduction in the amount of high dose to normal tissue. Active management of respiratory motion forms the primary theme of this dissertation. Among the various techniques available to manage respiratory motion, our research focused on respiratory gated and respiration synchronized radiotherapy, with an external marker to monitor respiratory motion. Multiple session recordings of diaphragm and external marker motion revealed a consistent linear relationship, validating the use of external marker motion as a 'surrogate' for diaphragm motion. The predictability of diaphragm motion based on such external marker motion both within and between treatment sessions was also determined to be of the order of 0.1 cm. Gating during exhalation was found to be more reproducible than gating during inhalation. Although, a reduction in the 'gate' width achieved a modest reduction in the margins added around the tumor further reduction was limited by setup error. A motion phantom study of the potential gains from respiratory gating indicated margin reduction of 0.2-1.1 cm while employing gating. In addition, gating also improved the quality of

  8. Scoping Future Policy Dynamics in Raw Materials Through Scenarios Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Vitor; Keane, Christopher; Sturm, Flavius; Schimpf, Sven; Bodo, Balazs

    2017-04-01

    The International Raw Materials Observatory (INTRAW) project is working towards a sustainable future for the European Union in access to raw materials, from an availability, economical, and environmental framework. One of the major exercises for the INTRAW project is the evaluation of potential future scenarios for 2050 to frame economic, research, and environmental policy towards a sustainable raw materials supply. The INTRAW consortium developed three possible future scenarios that encompass defined regimes of political, economic, and technological norms. The first scenario, "Unlimited Trade," reflects a world in which free trade continues to dominate the global political and economic environment, with expectations of a growing demand for raw materials from widely distributed global growth. The "National Walls" scenario reflects a world where nationalism and economic protectionism begins to dominate, leading to stagnating economic growth and uneven dynamics in raw materials supply and demand. The final scenario, "Sustainability Alliance," examines the dynamics of a global political and economic climate that is focused on environmental and economic sustainability, leading towards increasingly towards a circular raw materials economy. These scenarios were reviewed, tested, and provided simulations of impacts with members of the Consortium and a panel of global experts on international raw materials issues which led to expected end conditions for 2050. Given the current uncertainty in global politics, these scenarios are informative to identifying likely opportunities and crises. The details of these simulations and expected responses to the research demand, technology investments, and economic components of raw materials system will be discussed.

  9. Determination Of Work Indexes Of Basic Ceramic Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    İPEK, Halil; UÇBAŞ, Yaşar

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the grindability of basic ceramic raw materials have been investigated by using Bond grindability test and the results have been compared. Bond grindability test results show that work indexes of raw materials are dependent on their hardnesses.

  10. Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun-dried sweet potato leaves. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This study aimed to determine nutrient (iron, calcium, vitamin A and ascorbic acid) and anti-nutrient (oxalates and polyphenols) contents in raw, cooked and dried ...

  11. Hygienic and other aspects of raw milk vending machines

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL, Radovan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate opportunities of raw milk sales. The questionnaire was submitted to respondents, which assessed the direct sale of milk, consumption, awareness about milk quality connecting with the sales of raw milk using a vending machines.

  12. Quality control of raw cows' milk by headspace analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether headspace analysis of volatile components can be used for monitoring the quality of raw cows¿ milk. The detection of different quality defects caused by cows¿ feed, microbiological and chemical contamination, as well as enzymatic deterioration was studied. Fresh raw

  13. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following cases, you may use a raw exhaust flow meter signal that does not give the actual value... dew and pressure, p total at the flow meter inlet. Use these values in emission calculations according... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw exhaust...

  14. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously...

  15. Phytochemical and Nutritional Evaluation of Raw and Fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw Alchornea seed meal contains phytic acids, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, flavnoids, alkaloids and anthraquinone. Fermenting the seed meal caused 56.2% reduction in the phytic acid content and totally eliminated its anthraquinone content. With 10% raw Alchornea seed meal, broilers grew ...

  16. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall meet...

  17. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  18. Motion correction in neurological fan beam SPECT using motion tracking and fully 3D reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulton, R.R.; Hutton, B.; Eberl, S.; Meikle, S.; Braun, M.; Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW; University of Technology, Sydney, NSW

    1998-01-01

    Full text: We have previously proposed the use of fully three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and continuous monitoring of head position to correct for motion artifacts in neurological SPECT and PET. Knowledge of the motion during acquisition provided by a head tracking system can be used to reposition the projection data in space in such a way as to negate motion effects during reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithm must deal with variations in the projection geometry resulting from differences in the timing and nature of motion between patients. Rotational movements about any axis other than the camera's axis of rotation give rise to projection geometries which necessitate the use of a fully 3D reconstruction algorithm. Our previous work with computer simulations assuming parallel hole collimation demonstrated the feasibility of correcting for motion. We have now refined our iterative 3D reconstruction algorithm to support fan beam data and attenuation correction, and developed a practical head tracking system for use on a Trionix Triad SPECT system. The correction technique has been tested in fan beam SPECT studies of the 3D Hoffman brain phantom. Arbitrary movements were applied to the phantom during acquisition and recorded by the head tracker which monitored the position and orientation of the phantom throughout the study. 3D reconstruction was then performed using the motion data provided by the tracker. The accuracy of correction was assessed by comparing the corrected images with a motion free study acquired immediately beforehand, visually and by calculating mean squared error (MSE). Motion correction reduced distortion perceptibly and, depending on the motions applied, improved MSE by up to an order of magnitude. 3D reconstruction of the 128x128x128 data set took 20 minutes on a SUN Ultra 1 workstation. The results of these phantom experiments suggest that the technique can effectively compensate for head motion under clinical SPECT imaging

  19. Raw material supply: challenge and chance for economy and state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casper, W

    1976-01-01

    The imprint left by the 1973 oil embargo makes all nations aware of their dependence upon this and other raw materials. The author says the brunt of the embargo has dealt a heavier blow than has been realized on industrial nations and developing countries alike. The drastic decline of raw material prices has had threatening consequences for a number of raw-material-producing developing countries, making some nations unite for the purpose of market regulation. The cartel-like union of copper-producing countries is cited; producers of bauxite, iron ore, and tungsten have united; and some producers of tin have united. So far, the attempt to apply the oil strategy to other raw materials has not achieved the desired results; however, raw materials are no longer just a phase of the industrial process but have become a political matter of prime importance. (MCW)

  20. Hygienic quality of raw milk with regard to legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of raw milk is basic indicator of hygienic conditionduring processing and handling of milk as well as economical valorisation of animal product as a raw material in dairy products manufacture. Thus, total bacterial count in 1 mL of raw milk is used in modern legislation in milk pricing system. Apart from the economical and technological reasons hygienic quality of raw milk is also important from the health safety issue. In this paper microbiological quality legislation, set down by the EU and Croatian directives, are presented. Apart form the total microorganisms number the normative on the somatic cell number in row milk, as one of the quality indicators, are also presented. Pricing system of raw milk with regard to hygienic quality, current legislation especially from the point of view of a new legislation on row milk quality as well as suggestions to faster association into progressive dairy, legislation are listed.

  1. Treatment and conditioning of solid and liquid raw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubec, R.

    2015-01-01

    Jadrova a vyradovacia spolocnost, a.s. (JAVYS) implements activities within the processes of treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste (RAW) at two nuclear facilities, one of them located in Bohunice - Technologies for treatment and conditioning of RAW. This nuclear facility includes: Bohunice RAW treatment centre, bituminization lines, waste water purification station and technologies for sorting, fragmentation and decontamination of metallic RAW. The Bohunice RAW treatment centre (BRTC) in Bohunice processes and conditions liquid and solid radioactive waste produced during the A1 NPP and V1 NPP decommissioning, waste from the operation of V2 NPP in Bohunice as well as from the operation of NPP EMO 1,2 in Mochovce. The BRTC includes the following technological facilities: sorting, high-pressure compaction, incineration, concentration and cementation. Treatment of radioactive wastes in the BRTC is described. (authors)

  2. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  3. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-04-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in The Physics Teacher; however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not before described in TPT. In this article an experiment is illustrated to explore projectile motion in a fun and challenging manner that has been used with both high school and university students. With a few simple materials, students have a vested interest in being able to calculate the height of the projectile at a given distance from its launch site. They also have an exciting visual demonstration of projectile motion when the lab is over.

  4. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickness, especially when pregnant, menstruating, or on hormones. Race/ethnicity—Asians may be more susceptible to motion ... it, sitting in the front seat of a car or bus, sitting over the wing of an ...

  5. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that extends into the inner ear can completely destroy both the hearing and equilibrium function of that ... motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting in the rear seat •Do not sit in ...

  6. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/content/search. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  7. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Könik, Arda; Johnson, Karen L; Dasari, Paul; Pretorius, P H; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A; Connolly, Caitlin M; Segars, Paul W; Lindsay, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory

  8. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könik, Arda; Connolly, Caitlin M.; Johnson, Karen L.; Dasari, Paul; Segars, Paul W.; Pretorius, P. H.; Lindsay, Clifford; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory

  9. SU-D-210-05: The Accuracy of Raw and B-Mode Image Data for Ultrasound Speckle Tracking in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shea, T; Bamber, J; Harris, E [The Institute of Cancer Research & Royal Marsden, Sutton and London (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For ultrasound speckle tracking there is some evidence that the envelope-detected signal (the main step in B-mode image formation) may be more accurate than raw ultrasound data for tracking larger inter-frame tissue motion. This study investigates the accuracy of raw radio-frequency (RF) versus non-logarithmic compressed envelope-detected (B-mode) data for ultrasound speckle tracking in the context of image-guided radiation therapy. Methods: Transperineal ultrasound RF data was acquired (with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer operating at a 12 Hz frame rate) from a speckle phantom moving with realistic intra-fraction prostate motion derived from a commercial tracking system. A normalised cross-correlation template matching algorithm was used to track speckle motion at the focus using (i) the RF signal and (ii) the B-mode signal. A range of imaging rates (0.5 to 12 Hz) were simulated by decimating the imaging sequences, therefore simulating larger to smaller inter-frame displacements. Motion estimation accuracy was quantified by comparison with known phantom motion. Results: The differences between RF and B-mode motion estimation accuracy (2D mean and 95% errors relative to ground truth displacements) were less than 0.01 mm for stable and persistent motion types and 0.2 mm for transient motion for imaging rates of 0.5 to 12 Hz. The mean correlation for all motion types and imaging rates was 0.851 and 0.845 for RF and B-mode data, respectively. Data type is expected to have most impact on axial (Superior-Inferior) motion estimation. Axial differences were <0.004 mm for stable and persistent motion and <0.3 mm for transient motion (axial mean errors were lowest for B-mode in all cases). Conclusions: Using the RF or B-mode signal for speckle motion estimation is comparable for translational prostate motion. B-mode image formation may involve other signal-processing steps which also influence motion estimation accuracy. A similar study for respiratory-induced motion

  10. Availability of Previously Unprocessed ALSEP Raw Instrument Data, Derivative Data, and Metadata Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Kiefer, W. S.; Hager, M. A.; Hills, H. K.

    2016-01-01

    In year 2010, 440 original data archival tapes for the Apollo Lunar Science Experiment Package (ALSEP) experiments were found at the Washington National Records Center. These tapes hold raw instrument data received from the Moon for all the ALSEP instruments for the period of April through June 1975. We have recently completed extraction of binary files from these tapes, and we have delivered them to the NASA Space Science Data Cordinated Archive (NSSDCA). We are currently processing the raw data into higher order data products in file formats more readily usable by contemporary researchers. These data products will fill a number of gaps in the current ALSEP data collection at NSSDCA. In addition, we have estabilished a digital, searcheable archive of ALSEP document and metadata as part of the web portal of the Lunar and Planetary Institute. It currently holds approx. 700 documents totaling approx. 40,000 pages

  11. Evaluation of phosphorous availability from raw bone meal as influenced by FYM and bioinoculum using A value technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennila, R.K.; Savithri, P.; Joseph, Biju; Rajarajan, A.

    1999-01-01

    A pot-experiment conducted to study the effect of application of raw bone meal in combination with SSP at different ratios as such and also with FYM and Phosphobacteria Rice (var IR 50) as test crop revealed that the application of raw bone meal to supply 100% P was less effective in increasing the grain yield of rice and also the total P uptake as compared to the application of SSP. The additive effect of FYM+PB could be observed by the higher A values recorded in those treatments which received it. (author)

  12. Visual Motion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-15

    displace- ment limit for motion in random dots," Vision Res., 24, 293-300. Pantie , A. & K. Turano (1986) "Direct comparisons of apparent motions...Hicks & AJ, Pantie (1978) "Apparent movement of successively generated subjec. uve figures," Perception, 7, 371-383. Ramachandran. V.S. & S.M. Anstis...thanks think deaf girl until world uncle flag home talk finish short thee our screwdiver sonry flower wrCstlir~g plan week wait accident guilty tree

  13. Coupled transverse motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs

  14. Galileo and the Problems of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Wallace Edd

    Galileo's science of motion changed natural philosophy. His results initiated a broad human awakening to the intricate new world of physical order found in the midst of familiar operations of nature. His thinking was always based squarely on the academic traditions of the spiritual old world. He advanced physics by new standards of judgment drawn from mechanics and geometry, and disciplined observation of the world. My study first determines the order of composition of the earliest essays on motion and physics, ca. 1588 -1592, from internal evidence, and bibliographic evidence. There are clear signs of a Platonist critique of Aristotle, supported by Archimedes, in the Ten Section Version of On Motion, written ca. 1588, and probably the earliest of his treatises on motion or physics. He expanded upon his opening Platonic -Archimedean position by investigating the ideas of scholastic critics of Aristotle, including the Doctores Parisienses, found in his readings of the Jesuit Professors at the Collegio Romano. Their influences surfaced clearly in Galileo's Memoranda on Motion and the Dialogue on Motion, and in On Motion, which followed, ca. 1590-1592. At the end of his sojourn in Pisa, Galileo opened the road to the new physics by solving an important problem in the mechanics of Pappus, concerning motion along inclined planes. My study investigates why Galileo gave up attempts to establish a ratio between speed and weight, and why he began to seek the ratios of time and distance and speed, by 1602. It also reconstructs Galileo's development of the 1604 principle, seeking to outline its invention, elaboration, and abandonment. Then, I try to show that we have a record of Galileo's moment of recognition of the direct relation between the time of fall and the accumulated speed of motion--that great affinity between time and motion and the key to the new science of motion established before 1610. Evidence also ties the discovery of the time affinity directly to Galileo

  15. A combined method to calculate co-seismic displacements through strong motion acceleration baseline correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, W.; Sun, Y.

    2015-12-01

    High frequency strong motion data, especially near field acceleration data, have been recorded widely through different observation station systems among the world. Due to tilting and a lot other reasons, recordings from these seismometers usually have baseline drift problems when big earthquake happens. It is hard to obtain a reasonable and precision co-seismic displacement through simply double integration. Here presents a combined method using wavelet transform and several simple liner procedures. Owning to the lack of dense high rate GNSS data in most of region of the world, we did not contain GNSS data in this method first but consider it as an evaluating mark of our results. This semi-automatic method unpacks a raw signal into two portions, a summation of high ranks and a low ranks summation using a cubic B-spline wavelet decomposition procedure. Independent liner treatments are processed against these two summations, which are then composed together to recover useable and reasonable result. We use data of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and choose stations with a near GPS recording to validate this method. Nearly all of them have compatible co-seismic displacements when compared with GPS stations or field survey. Since seismometer stations and GNSS stations from observation systems in China are sometimes quite far from each other, we also test this method with some other earthquakes (1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and 2011 Tohoku earthquake). And for 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we will introduce GPS recordings to this combined method since the existence of a dense GNSS systems in Japan.

  16. Dynamic Time Warping Distance Method for Similarity Test of Multipoint Ground Motion Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability of artificial multi-point ground motions and the identification of abnormal records in seismic array observations, are two important issues in application and analysis of multi-point ground motion fields. Based on the dynamic time warping (DTW distance method, this paper discusses the application of similarity measurement in the similarity analysis of simulated multi-point ground motions and the actual seismic array records. Analysis results show that the DTW distance method not only can quantitatively reflect the similarity of simulated ground motion field, but also offers advantages in clustering analysis and singularity recognition of actual multi-point ground motion field.

  17. PRISM software—Processing and review interface for strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher D.; Ng, Peter

    2017-11-28

    Rapidly available and accurate ground-motion acceleration time series (seismic recordings) and derived data products are essential to quickly providing scientific and engineering analysis and advice after an earthquake. To meet this need, the U.S. Geological Survey National Strong Motion Project has developed a software package called PRISM (Processing and Review Interface for Strong-Motion data). PRISM automatically processes strong-motion acceleration records, producing compatible acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series; acceleration, velocity, and displacement response spectra; Fourier amplitude spectra; and standard earthquake-intensity measures. PRISM is intended to be used by strong-motion seismic networks, as well as by earthquake engineers and seismologists.

  18. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  19. A balancing method for calculating a component raw involving CGF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.; Kang, D.; Yang, J.E. [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, a method called the 'Balancing Method' to derive a component RAW (Risk Achievement Worth) with basic event RAWs including a CCF (Common Cause Failure) RAW is summarized, and compared with the method proposed by the NEI (Nuclear Energy Institute) by mathematically checking the background on which the two methods are based. It is proved that the Balancing Method has a strong mathematically background. While the NEI method significantly underestimates the component RAW and is a little bit ad hoc in handling CCF RAW, the Balancing Method estimates the true component RAW very closely. Validity of the Balancing Method is based on the fact that if an component is out-of-service, it does not mean that the component is non-existent, but integrates the possibility that the component might fail due to CCF. The validity of the Balancing Method is proved by comparing it to the exact component RAW generated from the fault tree model.

  20. New raw materials improve packing sealing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igel, B.; McKeague, L.

    2012-01-01

    End-users and OEM's using or manufacturing on/off and control valves expect a permanent and effective increase in service life together with an increased sealing capability while at the same time minimizing maintenance concerns. Developing materials which provide consistency and repeatability are essential characteristics to optimizing valve performance. “New Generation” materials and yarn allow us to meet this growing demand while complying with the requirements related to chemical purity and an increased level of safety to both plant workers and equipment in the nuclear environment. Through R&D initiatives and developments in new and improved raw materials; a new mechanical packing generation which optimizes friction coefficients and extended life cycle has been introduced to the industry. Lower friction values drastically optimize actuator effort and size improving efficiency for stem operation with significant improvements in flow control of fluids. Combined with new and improved procedures (installation, torque levels and consolidation recommendations), this new packing generation has provided significant improvement in the mechanical behavior of packing materials (independent tests carried out in collaboration with AECL and CETIM) this has provided the opportunity to develop successful Valve Enhancement Programs which offer improved efficiency, valve operation and repeatability. These NEW generation yarns are available with or without wire reinforcement depending on specific operating parameters and conditions. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate that new generation material(s). Which are available to the industry for AOV, MOV and Manual valves? - To highlight the steps taken in R&D and manufacturing contributing to the much improved yarns and finished packing products. - Comply and are designed to meet the stringent requirements in the nuclear industry - Simplify valve maintenance without risk to safety or performance - Increase service

  1. Material motion capabilities for SAREF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1976-01-01

    The SAREF program requires a panoply of diagnostic techniques in order to obtain needed experimental information. After surveying various fuel motion monitoring techniques, the hodoscope has been chosen as the reference device because of its proven record and because data extrapolations and calculations indicate adequate response for small and large test sections. A hodoscope system for STF would be designed to perform both fuel and clad monitoring during transients. It would also provide distinctive fuel and clad radiographic information before and after transients. Large-test resolution of less than 100 gm and time resolution down to 0.1 msec are projected. Two orthogonal collimators for three-dimensional viewing would each cover 180 x 31 cm viewing area with a combined total of 6000 detectors

  2. VERAM - Vision and Roadmap for European Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Wibke; Vashev, Boris

    2017-04-01

    The overall objective of VERAM project is to produce a Vision and Roadmap for European Raw Materials in 2050 based on raw materials research and innovation (R&I) coordination. Two leading European Technology Platforms (ETPs): ETP SMR (Sustainable Minerals Resources) and FTP (Forest Technology Platform) are joining forces to develop a common vison and roadmap with the support of ECTP (European Construction Technology Platform), represented by UNIVPM, SusChem (ETP for Sustainable Chemistry), represented by Cefic, EuMaT (Advanced Materials ETP), represented by VITO, ERAMIN 2, represented by Research Centre JUELICH and WoodWisdom Network Plus represented by the Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR). This partnership provides VERAM with expertise from downstream applications and additional knowledge on non-biotic and biotic raw materials. The project encourages capacity building as well as transfer of knowledge. It expects to provide an innovation reference point for the European Institute of Innovation & Technology (EIT) Raw Materials (formerly the KIC Raw MatTERS), to coordinate the network involved in the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on Raw Materials Commitments and relevant proposals funded under Horizon 2020. It provides a platform for identifying gaps and complementarities and enables their bridging. VERAM will be able to advise the European Commission and Member States on future research needs and policies to stimulate innovation and assist in overcoming fragmentation in the implementing the EIP Raw Materials Strategic Implementation Plan. VERAM looks for mutually beneficial information exchange, encourages cross-fertilization between actions undertaken by different raw material industries, and expects to accelerate exploitation of breakthrough innovations. One of the main outcomes of the project is the presentation of a common long term 2050 Vision and Roadmap for relevant raw materials including metals, industrial minerals and aggregates and wood. The

  3. Sulfur Release from Cement Raw Materials during Solid Fuel Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of solid fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions can occur and cause decomposition of sulfates from cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2 concentration, which may cause...... deposit formation in the kiln system. SO2 release from cement raw materials during combustion of solid fuels has been studied experimentally in a high temperature rotary drum. The fuels were tire rubber, pine wood, petcoke, sewage sludge, and polypropylene. The SO2 release from the raw materials...

  4. Chemical composition of raw and deresinated peat waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel' kevich, P I; Ivanova, L A; Piskunova, T A; Tserlyukevich, Ya V; Yurkevich, E A

    1980-01-01

    Research was conducted using absorption chromatography and spectroscopy to study the changes in the chemical composition of raw peat wax taking place in the deresination process. Characteristics of the raw, deresinated waxes and resins removed are given. The fractions obtained showed that both raw and deresinated wax contain the same basic compound classes: hydrocarbons, alcohols, complex ether and acids; but their proportions in the waxes are different. After deresination most of the dark-colored polyfunctional compounds, a portion of the soluble unsaturated hydrocarbons and alcohols, and all the sterenes transfer into the resin. This causes the light color and specific physical properties of deresinated wax. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  5. The raw, takes off a weight of above

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    With the technology of the deasphalted in Colombia, advance investigations that allow improving the quality of heavy raw. A new possibility opens up to market that type of petroleum. The Colombian Institute of the Petroleum developed a simple and more economic technology for deasphalted the heavy raw, using temperatures and moderate pressures. It is a deasphalted process to convert the raw weighed in light, facilitating their transport and improving their quality, using the traditional method, using commercial solvents but with different proportions, optimizing the relationship cost / benefit

  6. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  7. Interactive motion tracing for Rowing Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies motion tracking and team coordination for the training of rowers. The design research is drawn upon the division of contribution between the designers input and the user input in a design process. We built a training system that can record and show the action of a rower’s hand....... Designer proposed solutions for both a fundamental problem and a very advanced problem. Users guided the design direction, and spoke what they expected or what they disliked. As the result, our design provided a real-time recording tool for rowers and coaches to discuss and analyze the motion. The coach...... can correct the path immediately and save the corrected path for the rower to try to imitate and train. The members in a rowing team train with the same path from to coordinate and synchronize their actions for the best performance. The training system was developed through a user-centered design...

  8. RECORDS REACHING RECORDING DATA TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. L. Gresik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  9. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  10. Base response arising from free-field motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, J.R.; Morgan, J.R.; Hall, W.J.; Newmark, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure is illustrated in this paper for deriving (estimating) from a free-field record the horizontal base motions of a building, including horizontal rotation and translation. More specifically the goal was to compare results of response calculations based on derived accelerations with the results of calculations based on recorded accelerations. The motions are determined by assuming that an actual recorded ground wave transits a rigid base of a given dimension. Calculations given in the paper were made employing the earthquake acceleration time histories of the Hollywood storage building and the adjacent P.E. lot for the Kern County (1952) and San Fernando (1971) earthquakes. (Auth.)

  11. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  12. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...... context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model...

  13. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  14. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  15. A study on the characteristics of strong ground motions in southern Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Chang Eob; Lee, Kie Hwa; Kang, Tae Seob

    2001-12-01

    Ground motion characteristics in southern Korea are analyzed such as the variations of ground motion durations depending on the hypocentral distance, the earthquake magnitude and the frequency contents of the motion, and the predominant frequency of the maximum ground motion, the ratio of the horizontal to the vertical component amplitudes, the frequency dependence of the Coda Q values, the local distribution of Lg Q values using recorded data sets

  16. A study on the characteristics of strong ground motions in southern Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Chang Eob; Lee, Kie Hwa; Kang, Tae Seob [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    Ground motion characteristics in southern Korea are analyzed such as the variations of ground motion durations depending on the hypocentral distance, the earthquake magnitude and the frequency contents of the motion, and the predominant frequency of the maximum ground motion, the ratio of the horizontal to the vertical component amplitudes, the frequency dependence of the Coda Q values, the local distribution of Lg Q values using recorded data sets.

  17. Stop-motion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottern, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of radiographic techniques used at Sandia Laboratories to examine dynamic events are described. The techniques, while not interfering with the events, make possible recording of data not obtainable by other means. The events being recorded may occur within microseconds or may require a time span of many seconds. Arrangement of equipment and various methods of image recording are discussed

  18. Stop-motion radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottern, R.W.

    1976-12-01

    A variety of radiographic techniques used at Sandia Laboratories to examine dynamic events is described. The techniques, while not interfering with the events, make possible recording of data not obtainable by other means. The events being recorded may occur within microseconds or may require a time span of many seconds. The arrangement of equipment and various methods of image recording are discussed

  19. Leap Motion development essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegelmock, Mischa

    2013-01-01

    This book is a fast-paced guide with practical examples that aims to help you understand and master the Leap Motion SDK.This book is for developers who are either involved in game development or who are looking to utilize Leap Motion technology in order to create brand new user interaction experiences to distinguish their products from the mass market. You should be comfortable with high-level languages and object-oriented development concepts in order to get the most out of this book.

  20. Rheological behavior of raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tests of the strain sweep, frequency sweep and stress relaxation for raw natural rubber coagulated by microorganisms (NR-m and raw natural rubber coagulated by acid (NR-a were carried out with the use of a rubber process analyzer (RPA. The results showed that the storage torque, complex viscosity of NR-m were higher than those of NR-a while the loss factor was lower. The effect of temperature on viscosity of raw NR was studied following the Arrhenious-Frenkel-Eyring model. The viscous flow behavior of NR-m was poorer than those of NR-a. Furthermore, stress relaxation measurements of raw NR showed a longer period of relaxation for NR-m.

  1. Antibacterial efficacy of raw and commercially available honey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... Key words: Honey, antibacterial activity, raw honey, commercially available honey, minimum inhibitory ... against pathogenic bacteria, oral bacteria as well as food .... explore the possible benefits of the use of honey among.

  2. Nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw, partially fermented and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw and fermented seeds of Parkia ... between 4.27 and 8.33 % for the fully fermented and the partially fermented seeds, respectively.

  3. IceBridge GPS L0 Raw Satellite Navigation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge GPS L0 Raw Satellite Navigation Data (IPUTG0) data set contains GPS readings, including latitude, longitude, track, ground speed, off distance,...

  4. Glucose from a cellulose-containing raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feniksova, R V

    1977-01-01

    Glucose was produced by mixing the raw material with an enzyme and water, enzymic hydrolysis of raw material, and separation of the hydrolyzate. To increase the yield of glucose, the hydrolysis took place in 2 stages: at the 1st stage, the hydrolysis was continued until the mixture of glucose and oligosaccharides was obtained under the influence of an active enzyme (1 to 20 units/g of cellulose present in the raw material); at the 2nd stage, cellulase immobilized on an insoluble carrier (by covalent bonds) was used for the hydrolysis of oligosaccharides. The hydromodulus of the suspension of cellulose-containing raw material was maintained 5 to 30. A carrier nonhydrolyzable by cellulase, for instance a homogenious macroporous Aerosil gel, a porous glass, or porous ceramics, was used.

  5. Nutritional quality of raw and processed unripe Carica papaya fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the unripe or green fruit is added into fresh salads (Boshra .... Copper showed the least concentration being undetectable in the raw and dried-cooked samples ..... meat. COMPETING INTERESTS. The authors declare that there is no conflict of ...

  6. Material Classification Using Raw Time-of-Flight Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen; Heide, Felix; Swanson, Robin J.; Klein, Jonathan; Callenberg, Clara; Hullin, Matthias; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a material classification method using raw time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. ToF cameras capture the correlation between a reference signal and the temporal response of material to incident illumination. Such measurements encode unique

  7. IceBridge LVIS L0 Raw Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains raw laser altimeter, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), Global Positioning System (GPS), and camera data over Greenland and Antarctica taken...

  8. IceBridge LVIS L0 Raw Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains raw laser altimeter, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), Global Positioning System (GPS), and camera data over Greenland, Antarctica, and Alaska...

  9. Separating complex compound patient motion tracking data using independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C.; Johnson, K.; King, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, motion from respiration and body motion can reduce image quality by introducing motion-related artifacts. A minimally-invasive way to track patient motion is to attach external markers to the patient's body and record their location throughout the imaging study. If a patient exhibits multiple movements simultaneously, such as respiration and body-movement, each marker location data will contain a mixture of these motions. Decomposing this complex compound motion into separate simplified motions can have the benefit of applying a more robust motion correction to the specific type of motion. Most motion tracking and correction techniques target a single type of motion and either ignore compound motion or treat it as noise. Few methods account for compound motion exist, but they fail to disambiguate super-position in the compound motion (i.e. inspiration in addition to body movement in the positive anterior/posterior direction). We propose a new method for decomposing the complex compound patient motion using an unsupervised learning technique called Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Our method can automatically detect and separate different motions while preserving nuanced features of the motion without the drawbacks of previous methods. Our main contributions are the development of a method for addressing multiple compound motions, the novel use of ICA in detecting and separating mixed independent motions, and generating motion transform with 12 DOFs to account for twisting and shearing. We show that our method works with clinical datasets and can be employed to improve motion correction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images.

  10. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Božiková; Ľubomír Híreš; Michal Valach; Martin Malínek; Jan Mareček

    2017-01-01

    In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of ...

  11. ICE CREAM WITH A COMBINED COMPOSITION OF RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Khodyreva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products are the product of daily demand. Nowadays actively assimilate new types of raw materials, tech-nology, formulation. One of the propagation methods of enriching dairy products is a combination of milk and vegetable raw materials. The possibility of making a concentrated paste of Jerusalem artichoke in dairy products was investigated. The ice cream sundae "Vanilla" was chosen as the object of research.

  12. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW SUGAR MATERIAL FOR SUGAR PRODUCER COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gromkovskii; O. I. Sherstyuk

    2015-01-01

    Summary. In the article examines the statistical data on the development of average weight and average sugar content of sugar beet roots. The successful solution of the problem of forecasting these raw indices is essential for solving problems of sugar producing complex control. In the paper by calculating the autocorrelation function demonstrated that the predominant trend component of the growth raw characteristics. For construct the prediction model is proposed to use an autoregressive fir...

  13. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Raw-Vegan Bars

    OpenAIRE

    Liana Claudia Salanţă; Maria Tofană; Sonia Socaci; Cristina Barta; Carmen Pop

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumer interest in healthier food products is driven by a variety of factors including growing awareness of the link between diet and health, the desire to age ‘gracefully’ by maintaining good health, greater convenience in meeting nutritional needs and preventing chronic diseases. In raw food diet, food is consumed predominantly or exclusively as uncooked and unprocessed raw food; the main components of the diet are fruits, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains and beans. The aim of t...

  14. Near-Field Ground Motion Modal versus Wave Propagation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Cichowicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The response spectrum generally provides a good estimate of the global displacement and acceleration demand of far-field ground motion on a structure. However, it does not provide accurate information on the local shape or internal deformation of the response of the structure. Near-field pulse-like ground motion will propagate through the structure as waves, causing large, localized deformation. Therefore, the response spectrum alone is not a sufficient representation of near-field ground motion features. Results show that the drift-response technique based on a continuous shear-beam model has to be employed here to estimate structure-demand parameters when structure is exposed to the pulse like ground motion. Conduced modeling shows limited applicability of the drift spectrum based on the SDOF approximation. The SDOF drift spectrum approximation can only be applied to structures with smaller natural periods than the dominant period of the ground motion. For periods larger than the dominant period of ground motion the SDOF drift spectra model significantly underestimates maximum deformation. Strong pulse-type motions are observed in the near-source region of large earthquakes; however, there is a lack of waveforms collected from small earthquakes at very close distances that were recorded underground in mines. The results presented in this paper are relevant for structures with a height of a few meters, placed in an underground excavation. The strong ground motion sensors recorded mine-induced earthquakes in a deep gold mine, South Africa. The strongest monitored horizontal ground motion was caused by an event of magnitude 2 at a distance of 90 m with PGA 123 m/s2, causing drifts of 0.25%–0.35%. The weak underground motion has spectral characteristics similar to the strong ground motion observed on the earth's surface; the drift spectrum has a maximum value less than 0.02%.

  15. Identification of raw as a regulator of glial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Luong

    Full Text Available Glial cells perform numerous functions to support neuron development and function, including axon wrapping, formation of the blood brain barrier, and enhancement of synaptic transmission. We have identified a novel gene, raw, which functions in glia of the central and peripheral nervous systems in Drosophila. Reducing Raw levels in glia results in morphological defects in the brain and ventral nerve cord, as well as defects in neuron function, as revealed by decreased locomotion in crawling assays. Examination of the number of glia along peripheral nerves reveals a reduction in glial number upon raw knockdown. The reduced number of glia along peripheral nerves occurs as a result of decreased glial proliferation. As Raw has been shown to negatively regulate Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK signaling in other developmental contexts, we examined the expression of a JNK reporter and the downstream JNK target, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (mmp1, and found that raw knockdown results in increased reporter activity and Mmp1 levels. These results are consistent with previous studies showing increased Mmp levels lead to nerve cord defects similar to those observed upon raw knockdown. In addition, knockdown of puckered, a negative feedback regulator of JNK signaling, also causes a decrease in glial number. Thus, our studies have resulted in the identification of a new regulator of gliogenesis, and demonstrate that increased JNK signaling negatively impacts glial development.

  16. Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faretra Peysson, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  18. Motion of magnetotactic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, D.M.S.; Barros, H.G. de P.L. de.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic moments for different magnetotactic microorganisms are obtained by electron microscopy analyses and studies of motion by optical microscopy. The results are analysed in terms of a model due to C.Bean. The considerations presented suggest that magnetotaxy is an efficient mechanism for orientation only if the time for reorientation is smaller than the cycles of environmental perturbations. (Author) [pt

  19. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei; Gregson, James; Heide, Felix; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non

  20. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360 ...

  1. Motion sensing energy controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saphir, M.E.; Reed, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A moving object sensing processor responsive to slowly varying motions of a human being or other moving object in a zone of interest employs high frequency pulse modulated non-visible radiation generated by a radiation generating source, such as an LED, and detected by a detector sensitive to radiation of a preselected wavelength which generates electrical signals representative of the reflected radiation received from the zone of interest. The detectorsignals are processed to normalize the base level and remove variations due to background level changes, and slowly varying changes in the signals are detected by a bi-polar threshold detector. The control signals generated by the threshold detector in response to slowly varying motion are used to control the application of power to a utilization device, such as a set of fluoroescent lights in a room, the power being applied in response to detection of such motion and being automatically terminated in the absence of such motion after a predetermined time period established by a settable incrementable counter

  2. Algebraic Description of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidon, William C.

    1974-01-01

    An algebraic definition of time differentiation is presented and used to relate independent measurements of position and velocity. With this, students can grasp certain essential physical, geometric, and algebraic properties of motion and differentiation before undertaking the study of limits. (Author)

  3. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  4. Motion Control with Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill; Ir Peter Boots

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the work that is done by a group of I3 students at Philips CFT in Eindhoven, Netherlands. I3 is an initiative of Fontys University of Professional Education also located in Eindhoven. The work focuses on the use of computer vision in motion control. Experiments are done with

  5. Superluminal motion (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Romanets, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Prior to the development of Special Relativity, no restrictions were imposed on the velocity of the motion of particles and material bodies, as well as on energy transfer and signal propagation. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, it was shown that a charge that moves at a velocity faster than the speed of light in an optical medium, in particular, in vacuum, gives rise to impact radiation, which later was termed the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation. Shortly after the development of Special Relativity, some researchers considered the possibility of superluminal motion. In 1923, the Soviet physicist L.Ya. Strum suggested the existence of tachyons, which, however, have not been discovered yet. Superluminal motions can occur only for images, e.g., for so-called "light spots," which were considered in 1972 by V.L. Ginzburg and B.M. Bolotovskii. These spots can move with a superluminal phase velocity but are incapable of transferring energy and information. Nevertheless, these light spots may induce quite real generation of microwave radiation in closed waveguides and create the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation in vacuum. In this work, we consider various paradoxes, illusions, and artifacts associated with superluminal motion.

  6. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  7. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  8. The importance of stimulus noise analysis for self-motion studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nesti

    Full Text Available Motion simulators are widely employed in basic and applied research to study the neural mechanisms of perception and action during inertial stimulation. In these studies, uncontrolled simulator-introduced noise inevitably leads to a disparity between the reproduced motion and the trajectories meticulously designed by the experimenter, possibly resulting in undesired motion cues to the investigated system. Understanding actual simulator responses to different motion commands is therefore a crucial yet often underestimated step towards the interpretation of experimental results. In this work, we developed analysis methods based on signal processing techniques to quantify the noise in the actual motion, and its deterministic and stochastic components. Our methods allow comparisons between commanded and actual motion as well as between different actual motion profiles. A specific practical example from one of our studies is used to illustrate the methodologies and their relevance, but this does not detract from its general applicability. Analyses of the simulator's inertial recordings show direction-dependent noise and nonlinearity related to the command amplitude. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio is one order of magnitude higher for the larger motion amplitudes we tested, compared to the smaller motion amplitudes. Simulator-introduced noise is found to be primarily of deterministic nature, particularly for the stronger motion intensities. The effect of simulator noise on quantification of animal/human motion sensitivity is discussed. We conclude that accurate recording and characterization of executed simulator motion are a crucial prerequisite for the investigation of uncertainty in self-motion perception.

  9. Vinyl Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartmanski, Dominik; Woodward, Ian

    2018-01-01

    . This relational process means that both the material affordances and entanglements of vinyl allow us to feel, handle, experience, project, and share its iconicity. The materially mediated meanings of vinyl enabled it to retain currency in independent and collector’s markets and thus resist the planned......In this paper, we use the case of the vinyl record to show that iconic objects become meaningful via a dual process. First, they offer immersive engagements which structure user interpretations through various material experiences of handling, use, and extension. Second, they always work via...

  10. The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are

  11. Cooperating the BDS, GPS, GLONASS and strong-motion observations for real-time deformation monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Cuixian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Lu, Xiaochun

    2017-06-01

    An approach of cooperating the BDS, GPS, GLONASS and strong-motion (SM) records for real-time deformation monitoring was presented, which was validated by the experimental data. In this approach, the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were processed with the real-time kinematic positioning technology to retrieve the GNSS displacement, and the SM data were calibrated to acquire the raw acceleration; a Kalman filter was then applied to combine the GNSS displacement and the SM acceleration to obtain the integrated displacement, velocity and acceleration. The validation results show that the advantages of each sensor are completely complementary. For the SM, the baseline shifts are estimated and corrected, and the high-precision velocity and displacement are recovered. While the noise of GNSS can be reduced by using the SM-derived high-resolution acceleration, thus the high-precision and broad-band deformation information can be obtained in real time. The proposed method indicates a promising potential and capability in deformation monitoring of the high-building, dam, bridge and landslide.

  12. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club November  Selections Just in time for the holiday season, we have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then Nov 2011. New films include the all 5 episodes of Fast and Furious, many of the most famous films starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and those of Louis de Funes and some more recent films such as The Lincoln Lawyer and, according to some critics, Woody Allen’s best film for years – Midnight in Paris. For the younger generation there is Cars 2 and Kung Fu Panda 2. New CDs include the latest releases by Adele, Coldplay and the Red Hot Chili Peppers. We have also added the new Duets II CD featuring Tony Bennett singing with some of today’s pop stars including Lady Gaga, Amy Winehouse and Willy Nelson. The Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday ...

  13. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club June Selections We have put a significant number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club and select the «Discs of the Month» button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then June 2011. New films include the latest Action, Suspense and Science Fiction film hits, general drama movies including the Oscar-winning The King’s Speech, comedies including both chapter of Bridget Jones’s Diary, seven films for children and a musical. Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. New CDs include the latest releases by Michel Sardou, Mylene Farmer, Jennifer Lopez, Zucchero and Britney Spears. There is also a hits collection from NRJ. Don’t forget that the Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtimes from 12h30 to 13h00 in Restaurant 2, Building 504. (C...

  14. Record club

    CERN Document Server

    Record club

    2010-01-01

      Bonjour a tous, Voici les 24 nouveaux DVD de Juillet disponibles depuis quelques jours, sans oublier les 5 CD Pop musique. Découvrez la saga du terroriste Carlos, la vie de Gainsbourg et les aventures de Lucky Luke; angoissez avec Paranormal Activity et évadez vous sur Pandora dans la peau d’Avatar. Toutes les nouveautés sont à découvrir directement au club. Pour en connaître la liste complète ainsi que le reste de la collection du Record Club, nous vous invitons sur notre site web: http://cern.ch/crc. Toutes les dernières nouveautés sont dans la rubrique « Discs of the Month ». Rappel : le club est ouvert les Lundis, Mercredis, Vendredis de 12h30 à 13h00 au restaurant n°2, bâtiment 504. A bientôt chers Record Clubbers.  

  15. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club Nouveautés été 2011 Le club de location de CDs et de DVDs vient d’ajouter un grand nombre de disques pour l’été 2011. Parmi eux, Le Discours d’un Roi, oscar 2011 du meilleur film et Harry Potter les reliques de la mort (1re partie). Ce n’est pas moins de 48 DVDs et 10 CDs nouveaux qui vous sont proposés à la location. Il y en a pour tous les genres. Alors n’hésitez pas à consulter notre site http://cern.ch/record.club, voir Disc Catalogue, Discs of the month pour avoir la liste complète. Le club est ouvert tous les Lundi, Mercredi, Vendredi de 12h30 à 13h dans le bâtiment du restaurent N°2 (Cf. URL: http://www.cern.ch/map/building?bno=504) A très bientôt.  

  16. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Melissa [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany); Matela, Nuno [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  17. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Melissa; Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen; Matela, Nuno; Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  18. MOTION STUDY OF A WHEELCHAIR PROTOTYPE FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut GEONEA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented the design and experimental prototype of a wheelchair for disabled people. Design solution proposed to be implemented uses two reduction gears motors and a mechanical transmission with chains. The motion controller developed uses PWM technology (pulse wave modulation. The wheelchair has the ability of forward – backward motion and steering. The design solution is developed in Solid Works, and it’s implemented to a wheelchair prototype model. Wheelchair design and motion makes him suitable especially for indoor use. It is made a study of the wheelchair kinematics, first using a kinematic simulation in Adams. Are presented the wheelchair motion trajectory and kinematics parameters. The experimental prototype is tested with a motion analysis system based on ultra high speed video recording. The obtained results from simulation and experimentally tests, demonstrate the efficiency of wheelchair proposed solution.

  19. Neural Circuit to Integrate Opposing Motions in the Visual Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauss, Alex S; Pankova, Katarina; Arenz, Alexander; Nern, Aljoscha; Rubin, Gerald M; Borst, Alexander

    2015-07-16

    When navigating in their environment, animals use visual motion cues as feedback signals that are elicited by their own motion. Such signals are provided by wide-field neurons sampling motion directions at multiple image points as the animal maneuvers. Each one of these neurons responds selectively to a specific optic flow-field representing the spatial distribution of motion vectors on the retina. Here, we describe the discovery of a group of local, inhibitory interneurons in the fruit fly Drosophila key for filtering these cues. Using anatomy, molecular characterization, activity manipulation, and physiological recordings, we demonstrate that these interneurons convey direction-selective inhibition to wide-field neurons with opposite preferred direction and provide evidence for how their connectivity enables the computation required for integrating opposing motions. Our results indicate that, rather than sharpening directional selectivity per se, these circuit elements reduce noise by eliminating non-specific responses to complex visual information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Caffeine Extraction from Raw and Roasted Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Raw material ‘criticality’—sense or nonsense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, M; Kullik, J; Reuter, M A; Gutzmer, J

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the supply security of mineral raw materials. A key to the current debate is the concept of ‘criticality’. The present article reviews the criticality concept, as well as the methodologies used in its assessment, including a critical evaluation of their validity in view of classical risk theory. Furthermore, it discusses a number of risks present in global raw materials markets that are not captured by most criticality assessments. Proposed measures for the alleviation of these risks are also presented. We find that current assessments of raw material criticality are fundamentally flawed in several ways. This is mostly due to a lack of adherence to risk theory, and highly limits their applicability. Many of the raw materials generally identified as critical are probably not critical. Still, the flaws of current assessments do not mean that the general issue of supply security can simply be ignored. Rather, it implies that new assessments are required. While the basic theoretical framework for such assessments is outlined in this review, detailed method development will require a major collaborative effort between different disciplines along the raw materials value chain. In the opinion of the authors, the greatest longer-term challenge in the raw materials sector is to stop, or counteract the effects of, the escalation of unit energy costs of production. This issue is particularly pressing due to its close link with the renewable energy transition, requiring more metal and mineral raw materials per unit energy produced. The solution to this problem will require coordinated policy action, as well as the collaboration of scientists from many different fields—with physics, as well as the materials and earth sciences in the lead. (topical review)

  2. Raw material ‘criticality’—sense or nonsense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, M.; Kullik, J.; Reuter, M. A.; Gutzmer, J.

    2017-03-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the supply security of mineral raw materials. A key to the current debate is the concept of ‘criticality’. The present article reviews the criticality concept, as well as the methodologies used in its assessment, including a critical evaluation of their validity in view of classical risk theory. Furthermore, it discusses a number of risks present in global raw materials markets that are not captured by most criticality assessments. Proposed measures for the alleviation of these risks are also presented. We find that current assessments of raw material criticality are fundamentally flawed in several ways. This is mostly due to a lack of adherence to risk theory, and highly limits their applicability. Many of the raw materials generally identified as critical are probably not critical. Still, the flaws of current assessments do not mean that the general issue of supply security can simply be ignored. Rather, it implies that new assessments are required. While the basic theoretical framework for such assessments is outlined in this review, detailed method development will require a major collaborative effort between different disciplines along the raw materials value chain. In the opinion of the authors, the greatest longer-term challenge in the raw materials sector is to stop, or counteract the effects of, the escalation of unit energy costs of production. This issue is particularly pressing due to its close link with the renewable energy transition, requiring more metal and mineral raw materials per unit energy produced. The solution to this problem will require coordinated policy action, as well as the collaboration of scientists from many different fields—with physics, as well as the materials and earth sciences in the lead.

  3. Pellet production from agricultural raw materials - A systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven; Hansson, Per-Anders [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The demand for biofuel pellets has increased considerably in recent years, causing shortage of the traditional raw materials sawdust and wood shavings. In this study, the costs and energy requirements for the production of pellets from agricultural raw materials were analysed. The materials studied were Salix, reed canary grass, hemp, straw, screenings, rape-seed meal, rape cake and distiller's waste. Four production scales were analysed, having an annual output of 80,000, 8000, 800 and 80 tonnes of pellets per year. It was concluded that the raw materials of greatest interest were Salix and reed canary grass. They had competitive raw material costs and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelleting factories. Straw had low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems and should, as also is the case for screenings, be avoided in small-scale burners. Hemp had high raw material costs and is of less commercial interest, while distiller's waste, rape-seed meal and rape cake had higher alternative values when used as protein feed. The scale of production had a crucial influence on production costs. The machinery was used much more efficiently in large-scale plants, resulting in clear cost savings. Small-scale pelleting, both static and mobile, required cheap raw materials, low labour costs and long utilisation times to be profitable. In most cases, briquetting would be more commercially viable. The energy use in manufacturing pellets from air-dried crops was generally no higher than when moist sawdust was used as the raw material. (author)

  4. BASE Temperature Data Record (TDR) from the SSM/I and SSMIS Sensors, CSU Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BASE Temperature Data Record (TDR) dataset from Colorado State University (CSU) is a collection of the raw unprocessed antenna temperature data that has been...

  5. Real-time high-speed motion blur compensation system based on back-and-forth motion control of galvanometer mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Takanoshin; Ishikawa, Masatoshi

    2015-12-14

    We developed a novel real-time motion blur compensation system for the blur caused by high-speed one-dimensional motion between a camera and a target. The system consists of a galvanometer mirror and a high-speed color camera, without the need for any additional sensors. We controlled the galvanometer mirror with continuous back-and-forth oscillating motion synchronized to a high-speed camera. The angular speed of the mirror is given in real time within 10 ms based on the concept of background tracking and rapid raw Bayer block matching. Experiments demonstrated that our system captures motion-invariant images of objects moving at speeds up to 30 km/h.

  6. The Effects of Feeding Raw Fiber Concentrate on Growth Performance and Blood Metabolites of Suckling Holstein Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Dehghan-Banadaky; Fridoon Niazi; Mohsen Ghiasvand

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen female Holstein calves allocated in three treatments including: 1: control, 2: fed raw fiber concentrate (RFC) for 45 days and 3: fed RFC for 90 days. RFC supplement (Vitacel® 200) was added to milk immediately before feeding (10 g/L milk). Withers height and body weights of calves were measured monthly. Individual dry matter intake was recorded daily. Blood samples were taken monthly. The result showed that calves consumed RFC had significantly greater weaning an...

  7. Modeling of earthquake ground motion in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrainsson, Hjortur

    In recent years, the utilization of time histories of earthquake ground motion has grown considerably in the design and analysis of civil structures. It is very unlikely, however, that recordings of earthquake ground motion will be available for all sites and conditions of interest. Hence, there is a need for efficient methods for the simulation and spatial interpolation of earthquake ground motion. In addition to providing estimates of the ground motion at a site using data from adjacent recording stations, spatially interpolated ground motions can also be used in design and analysis of long-span structures, such as bridges and pipelines, where differential movement is important. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology for rapid generation of horizontal earthquake ground motion at any site for a given region, based on readily available source, path and site characteristics, or (sparse) recordings. The research includes two main topics: (i) the simulation of earthquake ground motion at a given site, and (ii) the spatial interpolation of earthquake ground motion. In topic (i), models are developed to simulate acceleration time histories using the inverse discrete Fourier transform. The Fourier phase differences, defined as the difference in phase angle between adjacent frequency components, are simulated conditional on the Fourier amplitude. Uniformly processed recordings from recent California earthquakes are used to validate the simulation models, as well as to develop prediction formulas for the model parameters. The models developed in this research provide rapid simulation of earthquake ground motion over a wide range of magnitudes and distances, but they are not intended to replace more robust geophysical models. In topic (ii), a model is developed in which Fourier amplitudes and Fourier phase angles are interpolated separately. A simple dispersion relationship is included in the phase angle interpolation. The accuracy of the interpolation

  8. Procedures for evaluation of vibratory ground motions of soil deposits at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    According to USNRC requirements set forth in Appendix A, 10 CFR, Part 100, vibratory ground motion criteria for a nuclear plant must be based on local soil conditions, as well as on the seismicity, geology, and tectonics of the region. This report describes how such criteria can be developed by applying the latest technology associated with analytical predictions of site-dependent ground motions and with the use of composite spectra obtained from the current library of strong motion records. Recommended procedures for defining vibratory ground motion criteria contain the following steps: (1) geologic and seismologic studies; (2) site soils investigations; (3) site response sensitivity studies; (4) evaluation of local site response characteristics; (5) selection of site-matched records; and (6) appraisal and selection of seismic input criteria. An in-depth discussion of the engineering characteristics of earthquake ground motions including parameters used to characterize earthquakes and strong motion records, geologic factors that influence ground shaking, the current strong motion data base, and case histories of the effects of past earthquake events is presented. Next, geotechnical investigations of the seismologic, geologic, and site soil conditions required to develop vibratory motion criteria are briefly summarized. The current technology for establishing vibratory ground motion criteria at nuclear plant sites, including site-independent and site-dependent procedures that use data from strong motion records and from soil response analyses is described. (auth)

  9. RECORD CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2010-01-01

    DVD James Bond – Series Complete To all Record Club Members, to start the new year, we have taken advantage of a special offer to add copies of all the James Bond movies to date, from the very first - Dr. No - to the latest - Quantum of Solace. No matter which of the successive 007s you prefer (Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan or Daniel Craig), they are all there. Or perhaps you have a favourite Bond Girl, or even perhaps a favourite villain. Take your pick. You can find the full selection listed on the club web site http://cern.ch/crc; use the panel on the left of the page “Discs of the Month” and select Jan 2010. We remind you that we are open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 12:30 to 13:00 in Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504).

  10. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    When quenched rapidly beyond their glass transition, colloidal suspensions fall out of equilibrium. The pace of their dynamics then slows down with the system age, i.e., with the time elapsed after the quench. This breaking of time translational invariance is associated with dynamical observables...... which depend on two time-arguments. The phenomenology is shared by a broad class of aging systems and calls for an equally broad theoretical description. The key idea is that, independent of microscopic details, aging systems progress through rare intermittent structural relaxations that are de......-facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  11. Record breakers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  12. A high and low noise model for strong motion accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, J. F.; Cauzzi, C.; Olivieri, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present reference noise models for high-quality strong motion accelerometer installations. We use continuous accelerometer data acquired by the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) since 2006 and other international high-quality accelerometer network data to derive very broadband (50Hz-100s) high and low noise models. The proposed noise models are compared to the Peterson (1993) low and high noise models designed for broadband seismometers; the datalogger self-noise; background noise levels at existing Swiss strong motion stations; and typical earthquake signals recorded in Switzerland and worldwide. The standard strong motion station operated by the SED consists of a Kinemetrics Episensor (2g clip level; flat acceleration response from 200 Hz to DC; insulated sensor / datalogger systems placed in vault quality sites. At all frequencies, there is at least one order of magnitude between the ALNM and the AHNM; at high frequencies (> 1Hz) this extends to 2 orders of magnitude. This study provides remarkable confirmation of the capability of modern strong motion accelerometers to record low-amplitude ground motions with seismic observation quality. In particular, an accelerometric station operating at the ALNM is capable of recording the full spectrum of near source earthquakes, out to 100 km, down to M2. Of particular interest for the SED, this study provides acceptable noise limits for candidate sites for the on-going Strong Motion Network modernisation.

  13. Ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, J A [John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  14. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  15. Motion of the esophagus due to cardiac motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Palmer

    Full Text Available When imaging studies (e.g. CT are used to quantify morphological changes in an anatomical structure, it is necessary to understand the extent and source of motion which can give imaging artifacts (e.g. blurring or local distortion. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of esophageal motion due to cardiac motion. We used retrospective electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography images for this study. The anatomic region from the carina to the bottom of the heart was taken at deep-inspiration breath hold with the patients' arms raised above their shoulders, in a position similar to that used for radiation therapy. The esophagus was delineated on the diastolic phase of cardiac motion, and deformable registration was used to sequentially deform the images in nearest-neighbor phases among the 10 cardiac phases, starting from the diastolic phase. Using the 10 deformation fields generated from the deformable registration, the magnitude of the extreme displacements was then calculated for each voxel, and the mean and maximum displacement was calculated for each computed tomography slice for each patient. The average maximum esophageal displacement due to cardiac motion for all patients was 5.8 mm (standard deviation: 1.6 mm, maximum: 10.0 mm in the transverse direction. For 21 of 26 patients, the largest esophageal motion was found in the inferior region of the heart; for the other patients, esophageal motion was approximately independent of superior-inferior position. The esophagus motion was larger at cardiac phases where the electrocardiogram R-wave occurs. In conclusion, the magnitude of esophageal motion near the heart due to cardiac motion is similar to that due to other sources of motion, including respiratory motion and intra-fraction motion. A larger cardiac motion will result into larger esophagus motion in a cardiac cycle.

  16. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Lilli B; Jacobson, Judith S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be 80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (beta=0.95), severity of disease (beta=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (beta=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence.

  17. Monitoring of foodborne pathogens in raw cow milk in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gasperetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Raw milk consumption in Italy has increased over the last few years and although raw milk is characterised by cold chain, short shelf-life and the duty of boiling before domestic consumption, it is still considered a hazard. From 2010 to 2013 a monitoring survey of raw milk sold through vending machines was carried out to investigate the occurrence of several foodborne pathogens stipulated in the national legal requirements, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O:157 and coagulase-positive Staphylococci. A total of 127 raw milk samples were collected from 19 dairy herds in Tuscany Region, Italy. In addition, the milk samples were tested for the presence and count of Yersinia genus. Results shown that only one sample was positive for non verocytotoxin- producing E. coli O:157, whereas a total of 38 samples (29.9% were postive for Yersinia genus; of the total 39 isolated bacteria, 23.6% were Y. enterocolitica, 2.4% Y. kristenseni and 4.7% Y. frederiksenii. None isolate was enteropathogenic; serotypes O:5 and O:8 were found in 16.6 and 13.3% of the isolates respectively, whereas none of the serotypes tested was detected in 70% of the isolates. The most probable number method revealed a count value between 0.03 and 24 MPN/mL. Based on these data a general assurance on health safety of raw milk produced and sold in Tuscany could be assessed.

  18. Factors affecting adherence to a raw vegan diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Lilli B.; Jacobson, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence and identify predictors of adherence to a raw vegan diet (i.e., uncooked plant foods) following a stay at a raw vegan institute. In this cohort study of guests at a raw vegan institute, subjects completed written questionnaires upon arrival and 12 weeks later. Of 107 eligible guests, 84 participated. Mean age was 54 years, 23 were male, and 73 white. Fifty-one completed the 12-week follow-up. Eight (16%) reported their diet to be ≥80% raw vegan at baseline and 14 (28%) at follow-up. Based on a raw vegan dietary adherence score (range 0-42) created for this study, mean adherence (SD) increased from 15.1 (5.4) to 17.0 (5.8) over 12 weeks (p=0.03). Baseline predictors of adherence included: education (β=0.95), severity of disease (β=0.98), and self-efficacy to adhere (β=0.72). Future interventions that evaluate this diet should address self-efficacy, an important, potentially remediable predictor of adherence. PMID:18243943

  19. Raw materials in the manufacture of biotechnology products: regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Rodriguez, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's Pharmaceutical cGMPs for the 21st Century initiative emphasizes science and risk-based approaches in the manufacture of drugs. These approaches are reflected in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidances ICH Q8, Q9, and Q10 and encourage a comprehensive assessment of the manufacture of a biologic, including all aspects of manufacture that have the potential to affect the finished drug product. Appropriate assessment and management of raw materials are an important part of this initiative. Ideally, a raw materials program should strive to assess and minimize the risk to product quality. With this in mind, risk-assessment concepts and control strategies will be discussed and illustrated by examples, with an emphasis on the impact of raw materials on cell substrates. Finally, the life cycle of the raw material will be considered, including its potential to affect the drug product life cycle. In this framework, the supply chain and the vendor-manufacturer relationship will be explored as important parts of an adequate raw materials control strategy.

  20. Event-based motion correction for PET transmission measurements with a rotating point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Victor W; Kyme, Andre Z; Meikle, Steven R; Fulton, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is important for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) studies. When performing transmission measurements using an external rotating radioactive source, object motion during the transmission scan can distort the attenuation correction factors computed as the ratio of the blank to transmission counts, and cause errors and artefacts in reconstructed PET images. In this paper we report a compensation method for rigid body motion during PET transmission measurements, in which list mode transmission data are motion corrected event-by-event, based on known motion, to ensure that all events which traverse the same path through the object are recorded on a common line of response (LOR). As a result, the motion-corrected transmission LOR may record a combination of events originally detected on different LORs. To ensure that the corresponding blank LOR records events from the same combination of contributing LORs, the list mode blank data are spatially transformed event-by-event based on the same motion information. The number of counts recorded on the resulting blank LOR is then equivalent to the number of counts that would have been recorded on the corresponding motion-corrected transmission LOR in the absence of any attenuating object. The proposed method has been verified in phantom studies with both stepwise movements and continuous motion. We found that attenuation maps derived from motion-corrected transmission and blank data agree well with those of the stationary phantom and are significantly better than uncorrected attenuation data.

  1. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  2. Ground Motion Prediction Models for Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjiashvili, Nato; Godoladze, Tea; Tvaradze, Nino; Tumanova, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion prediction models (GMPMs) relate ground motion intensity measures to variables describing earthquake source, path, and site effects. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Since 2003 development of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models is obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. In this study site ground conditions are additionally considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage according to ground conditions. Empirical ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) require adjustment to make them appropriate for site-specific scenarios. However, the process of making such adjustments remains a challenge. This work presents a holistic framework for the development of a peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) GMPE that is easily adjustable to different seismological conditions and does not suffer from the practical problems associated with adjustments in the response spectral domain.

  3. Induction and separation of motion artifacts in EEG data using a mobile phantom head device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson S; Schlink, Bryan R; Hairston, W David; König, Peter; Ferris, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) can assess brain activity during whole-body motion in humans but head motion can induce artifacts that obfuscate electrocortical signals. Definitive solutions for removing motion artifact from EEG have yet to be found, so creating methods to assess signal processing routines for removing motion artifact are needed. We present a novel method for investigating the influence of head motion on EEG recordings as well as for assessing the efficacy of signal processing approaches intended to remove motion artifact. We used a phantom head device to mimic electrical properties of the human head with three controlled dipolar sources of electrical activity embedded in the phantom. We induced sinusoidal vertical motions on the phantom head using a custom-built platform and recorded EEG signals with three different acquisition systems while the head was both stationary and in varied motion conditions. Recordings showed up to 80% reductions in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and up to 3600% increases in the power spectrum as a function of motion amplitude and frequency. Independent component analysis (ICA) successfully isolated the three dipolar sources across all conditions and systems. There was a high correlation (r > 0.85) and marginal increase in the independent components' (ICs) power spectrum (∼15%) when comparing stationary and motion parameters. The SNR of the IC activation was 400%-700% higher in comparison to the channel data SNR, attenuating the effects of motion on SNR. Our results suggest that the phantom head and motion platform can be used to assess motion artifact removal algorithms and compare different EEG systems for motion artifact sensitivity. In addition, ICA is effective in isolating target electrocortical events and marginally improving SNR in relation to stationary recordings.

  4. Control Analysis Of Tobacco Raw Material Supplies Using Eoq Method Economic Order Quantity To Reach Efficiency Total Costs Of Raw Material In Pr. Sukun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Sudarwati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The raw material inventory control system determines and guarantees the availability of raw material stock in the right quantity quality and timing. The problem in this research is the procurement of raw materials of tobacco. PR. Sukun still often experiences the excess. This is related to the frequency of raw material purchases and the quantity of raw material purchases which can lead to waste of working capital embedded in raw material inventory raw material ordering costs and raw material storage costs. The purpose of this research is to know how to make an efficiency level in procurement of raw material inventory between EOQ method compared with policy of PR. Sukun. The type of research used is analytic descriptive type. Data analysis begins by analyzing raw material quantity comparison total raw material inventory cost and raw material cost between PR Sukun policy with EOQ method. Based on the results of research known that by using EOQ method can be much more efficient compared to policy of PR. Sukun. The quantity and frequency of purchasing raw materials is less but still take into account the safety stock and reorder point so the production process is not disturbed. In addition the cost of purchasing ordering costs and raw materials storage costs less so as to create efficiencies on the cost of raw materials inventory. PR. Sukun in the procurement of raw material inventory should use EOQ method to be more efficient and take into account the safety stock and reorder point to avoid the inventory excess of raw materials.

  5. Investigation of strong motion processing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldi, D.; Goula, X.; Menu, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    The work which is described here presents preliminary results of an on-going research relating to the accurate recording and quality processing of earthquake strong ground motions. The work is the product of a tripartite co-operation between three European Centres (ENEA, PAS-ISP Laboratorio Ingengneria dei Siti, Rome/CEA, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses, ICST, Department of Civil Engineering, London), which have carried out independently similar research in the recent past. Other European Institutes joined the three mentioned organizations for discussions during a Workshop (June 1985) held in Casaccia (ENEA Research Centre of Rome). The aim of the research is a thorough analysis of various factors affecting the recovery of true ground accelerations recorded with analogue instruments. The separate and cumulative effects of the type of recording accelerometer, the digitization equipment and the correction routines have been analysed. Global comparisons have been achieved to obtain a general insight into various standard processing procedures

  6. Ground motion characteristics of 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijikata, Katsuichirou; Nishimura, Isao; Mizutani, Hiroyuki; Tokumitsu, Ryoichi; Mashimo, Mitsugu; Tanaka, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    Strong motion records of 2007 Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake were examined in order to evaluate ground motion characteristics of the earthquake. Ground motions observed at Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant site were significantly larger than the response spectra evaluated on the basis of Noda et al. (2002), and the level of the ground motion observed at Arahama area (unit 1-4 side) was approximately twice as large as that at Ominato area (unit 5-7 side). Observation records of the offshore events other than the earthquake were also larger than the response spectra based on Noda et al. (2002), whereas records of the inland events were smaller than those. In addition, these characteristics were also observed in the vicinity of the site through the analysis of the ground motion records obtained by KiK-net. (author)

  7. Cholera after the consumption of raw oysters. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klontz, K C; Tauxe, R V; Cook, W L; Riley, W H; Wachsmuth, I K

    1987-12-01

    In August 1986, a 76-year-old woman in Miami, Florida, developed profuse watery diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Two and four days before the onset of her illness, she had eaten six raw oysters at each of two restaurants in Miami. A stool specimen yielded toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba. The results of toxin gene probing of the organism recovered from the patient differed significantly from those of other V. cholerae O1 isolates from the Gulf Coast and elsewhere in the world. A program of active surveillance identified no other cases of cholera in Miami. The source of the raw oysters eaten by the patient was traced to Louisiana. Her case represents the first reported case of cholera associated with eating raw oysters.

  8. Strategic raw materials. Risk management; Strategische Rohstoffe. Risikovorsorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertau, Martin [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Gutzmer, Jens [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Ressourcentechnologie Freiberg (Germany); Matschullat, Joerg (ed.) [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Interdisziplinaeres Oekologisches Zentrum (IOeZ); Kausch, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This volume is divided into four chapters: (1) Raw material management, (2) Primary raw materials, (3) Secondary raw materials and recycling, (4). Processing and products. The topics for the chapter ''Raw material management'' are: Substitution of raw materials - framework conditions and implementation; Thales: Strategic raw materials; Time for cooperation between the EU and China in raw materials policy; Availability of elements for the semiconductor industry; Market price risks of raw material-intensive companies - identification and management. The topics on the second item ''Primary raw materials'' are: The supply of economic-critical raw materials - A search and analysis for causes; Lithium extraction from primary raw materials - state and perspectives; The global market of rare earths - A balancing act; Rare earth deposits in Namibia; New technologies in exploration and discovery - Focus on activities in Europe. The third chapter, ''Secondary Raw Materials and Recycling'', covered the topics: Technology metals - Systemic Requirements along the recycling chain; Integrated re-use of high-tech and greentech wastes; From the sewage sludge ash to the phosphorus fertilizer RecoPhos P38 in the stress field of waste, fertilizer and soil protection. In chapter 4. ''Processing and products'' are the topics: Treatment and processing of rare earth metals; Processing of mineral resources - opportunities and challenges; Consequences of modern germanium chemistry; Strategic resources - Risk management. A review and outlook with a pinch of fantasy.. [German] Dieser Band gliedert sich in vier Kapitel: (1) Rohstoffwirtschaft, (2) Primaere Rohstoffe, (3) Sekundaere Rohstoffe und Recycling,(4). Verarbeitung und Produkte. Die Themen zum Kapitel ''Rohstoffwirtschaft'' sind: Substitution von Rohstoffen - Rahmenbedingungen und Umsetzung; Thales: Strategische Rohstoffe; Zeit fuer

  9. Incentivizing secondary raw material markets for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Maximilian; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets. In particular, we show how firm profit and social welfare optimizing objectives can be reconciled in a two-product market of waste management processes: landfilling and material reclamation. Our results provide theoretical support for building out recent Circular Economy initiatives as well as for the relatively recent emergence of landfill mining as a means for procuring secondary raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipid analyses of fumigated vs irradiated raw and roasted almonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uthman, R.S.; Toma, R.B.; Garcia, R.; Medora, N.P.; Cunningham, S.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of propylene oxide (PO) and irradiation treatments on the lipid analyses of raw and roasted almonds. Eight kilograms each of raw and roasted almonds were divided into four batches (2 kg each). Three of the batches were subjected to PO treatment or irradiation treatment with a dose of 6, 10·5 kGy. The untreated batch served as control samples, they were taken from all the batches at three consecutive times during storage (day 0, 8 weeks and 16 weeks) and analysed for iodine number, peroxide value and 2-thiobarbituric acid number. Overall, irradiated almonds incurred a higher variation in lipid stability than PO tested almonds while roasted almonds incurred a higher variation than raw almonds

  11. [Vestibular testing abnormalities in individuals with motion sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Ou, Yongkang; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Yiqing

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the vestibular function of motion sickness. VNG, which tests the vestibular function of horizontal semicircular canal, and CPT, which tests vestibulospinal reflex and judge proprioceptive, visual and vestibular status, were performed in 30 motion sickness patients and 20 healthy volunteers (control group). Graybiel score was recorded at the same time. Two groups' Graybiel score (12.67 +/- 11.78 vs 2.10 +/- 6.23; rank test P<0.05), caloric test labyrinth value [(19.02 +/- 8.59) degrees/s vs (13.58 +/- 5.25) degrees/s; t test P<0.05], caloric test labyrinth value of three patients in motion sickness group exceeded 75 degrees/s. In computerized posturography testing (CPT), motion sickness patients were central type (66.7%) and disperse type (23.3%); all of control group were central type. There was statistical significance in two groups' CTP area, and motion sickness group was obviously higher than control group. While stimulating vestibulum in CPT, there was abnormality (35%-50%) in motion sickness group and none in control group. Generally evaluating CPT, there was only 2 proprioceptive hypofunction, 3 visual hypofunction, and no vestibular hypofunction, but none hypofunction in control group. Motion sickness patients have high vestibular susceptible, some with vestibular hyperfunction. In posturography, a large number of motion sickness patients are central type but no vestibular hypofunction, but it is hard to keep balance when stimulating vestibulum.

  12. Large-scale motions in the universe: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The expansion of the universe can be retarded in localised regions within the universe both by the presence of gravity and by non-gravitational motions generated in the post-recombination universe. The motions of galaxies thus generated are called 'peculiar motions', and the amplitudes, size scales and coherence of these peculiar motions are among the most direct records of the structure of the universe. As such, measurements of these properties of the present-day universe provide some of the severest tests of cosmological theories. This is a review of the current evidence for large-scale motions of galaxies out to a distance of ∼5000 km s -1 (in an expanding universe, distance is proportional to radial velocity). 'Large-scale' in this context refers to motions that are correlated over size scales larger than the typical sizes of groups of galaxies, up to and including the size of the volume surveyed. To orient the reader into this relatively new field of study, a short modern history is given together with an explanation of the terminology. Careful consideration is given to the data used to measure the distances, and hence the peculiar motions, of galaxies. The evidence for large-scale motions is presented in a graphical fashion, using only the most reliable data for galaxies spanning a wide range in optical properties and over the complete range of galactic environments. The kinds of systematic errors that can affect this analysis are discussed, and the reliability of these motions is assessed. The predictions of two models of large-scale motion are compared to the observations, and special emphasis is placed on those motions in which our own Galaxy directly partakes. (author)

  13. A rigid motion correction method for helical computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J-H; Kyme, A; Fulton, R; Nuyts, J; Kuncic, Z

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to compensate for six degree-of-freedom rigid motion in helical CT of the head. The method is demonstrated in simulations and in helical scans performed on a 16-slice CT scanner. Scans of a Hoffman brain phantom were acquired while an optical motion tracking system recorded the motion of the bed and the phantom. Motion correction was performed by restoring projection consistency using data from the motion tracking system, and reconstructing with an iterative fully 3D algorithm. Motion correction accuracy was evaluated by comparing reconstructed images with a stationary reference scan. We also investigated the effects on accuracy of tracker sampling rate, measurement jitter, interpolation of tracker measurements, and the synchronization of motion data and CT projections. After optimization of these aspects, motion corrected images corresponded remarkably closely to images of the stationary phantom with correlation and similarity coefficients both above 0.9. We performed a simulation study using volunteer head motion and found similarly that our method is capable of compensating effectively for realistic human head movements. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first practical demonstration of generalized rigid motion correction in helical CT. Its clinical value, which we have yet to explore, may be significant. For example it could reduce the necessity for repeat scans and resource-intensive anesthetic and sedation procedures in patient groups prone to motion, such as young children. It is not only applicable to dedicated CT imaging, but also to hybrid PET/CT and SPECT/CT, where it could also ensure an accurate CT image for lesion localization and attenuation correction of the functional image data. (paper)

  14. Incorporation of Listeria monocytogenes strains in raw milk biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Christiane; Ifland, Andrea; Naumann, Annette; Kleta, Sylvia; Noll, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms develop successively on devices of milk production without sufficient cleaning and originate from the microbial community of raw milk. The established biofilm matrices enable incorporation of pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause a continuous contamination of food processing plants. L. monocytogenes is frequently found in raw milk and non-pasteurized raw milk products and as part of a biofilm community in milk meters and bulk milk tanks. The aim of this study was to analyze whether different L. monocytogenes strains are interacting with the microbial community of raw milk in terms of biofilm formation in the same manner, and to identify at which stage of biofilm formation a selected L. monocytogenes strain settles best. Bacterial community structure and composition of biofilms were analyzed by a cloning and sequencing approach and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) based on the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The chemical composition of biofilms was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while settled L. monocytogenes cells were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Addition of individual L. monocytogenes strains to raw milk caused significant shifts in the biofilm biomass, in the chemical as well as in the bacterial community composition. Biofilm formation and attachment of L. monocytogenes cells were not serotype but strain specific. However, the added L. monocytogenes strains were not abundant since mainly members of the genera Citrobacter and Lactococcus dominated the bacterial biofilm community. Overall, added L. monocytogenes strains led to a highly competitive interaction with the raw milk community and triggered alterations in biofilm formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Record Club

    CERN Document Server

    Record Club

    2012-01-01

      March  Selections By the time this appears, we will have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left panel of the web page and then Mar 2012. New films include recent releases such as Johnny English 2, Bad Teacher, Cowboys vs Aliens, and Super 8. We are also starting to acquire some of the classic films we missed when we initiated the DVD section of the club, such as appeared in a recent Best 100 Films published by a leading UK magazine; this month we have added Spielberg’s Jaws and Scorsese’s Goodfellas. If you have your own ideas on what we are missing, let us know. For children we have no less than 8 Tin-Tin DVDs. And if you like fast moving pop music, try the Beyonce concert DVD. New CDs include the latest releases from Paul McCartney, Rihanna and Amy Winehouse. There is a best of Mylene Farmer, a compilation from the NRJ 201...

  16. Uninterrupted heat-treatment of starch raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronshtein, D Z

    1958-01-01

    A setup is presented, with a Rekord grinder, a Khronos scale, and other equipment of Soviet manufacture, in which oats, rye, wheat, and other grains are treated at 42 to 45 degrees prior to their use as raw materials in the ethanol industry. These materials are analyzed with respect to H/sub 2/O, starch, bulk, weight, screen analysis, and the final ethanol yields/ton of such raw materials. In a three year run in plant, this heat-treatment was advantageous, as compared to the former treatment of the starch materials.

  17. Uninterrupted heat-treatment of starch raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronshtein, D Z

    1958-01-01

    A setup is presented, with a Rekord grinder, a Khronos scale, and other equipment of Soviet manufacture, in which oats, rye, wheat, and other grains are treated at 42 to 45/sup 0/ prior to their use as raw materials in the ethanol industry. These materials are analyzed with respect to H/sub 2/O, starch, bulk weight, screen analysis, and the final ethanol yields/ton of such raw materials. In a three year run in a plant, this heat-treatment was advantageous, as compared to the former treatment of the starch materials.

  18. Refining of raw materials, lignite present economic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, G.

    1985-06-01

    East Germany seeks an economic intensification program that involves refining raw materials to a higher level. Lignite briquetting prior to liquefaction and gasification illustrates both the theoretical and practical aspects of that goal and also introduces questions of secure supplies. The author describes the special labor processes, use of technology, recycling of waste materials, and other new problems that the approach entails as the refined raw materials become new materials or energy sources. Economics based on the value of the refined product and the cost of the materials determine the degree of refinement. The concept also involves the relationship of producer and user as profits increase.

  19. PIMR: Parallel and Integrated Matching for Raw Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenghao; Yang, Junying; Zhao, Jiaduo; Han, Peng; Chai, Zhi

    2016-01-02

    With the trend of high-resolution imaging, computational costs of image matching have substantially increased. In order to find the compromise between accuracy and computation in real-time applications, we bring forward a fast and robust matching algorithm, named parallel and integrated matching for raw data (PIMR). This algorithm not only effectively utilizes the color information of raw data, but also designs a parallel and integrated framework to shorten the time-cost in the demosaicing stage. Experiments show that compared to existing state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm yields a comparable recognition rate, while the total time-cost of imaging and matching is significantly reduced.

  20. Natural gas as raw material for industrial development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvisle, Steinar

    2006-01-01

    Industrial development based on natural gas has broad, industrial implications. Norway has a vital industry based on natural gas as raw material, here under Ormen Lange, Snoehvit LNG, Tjeldbergodden and Petrochemical Grenland. The petrochemical industry has challenges, e.g. the cost of raw materials and energy, localization related to the markets, and recruitment, but considerable investments are made in the sector. The Northern areas in Norway may have special challenges related to bringing the product to the market. Solutions to this challenge are in LNG (liquid natural gas), GTL (gas to liquids), and GTO (gas to olefins)

  1. Trampoline effect in extreme ground motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Shin; Kunugi, Takashi; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-31

    In earthquake hazard assessment studies, the focus is usually on horizontal ground motion. However, records from the 14 June 2008 Iwate-Miyagi earthquake in Japan, a crustal event with a moment magnitude of 6.9, revealed an unprecedented vertical surface acceleration of nearly four times gravity, more than twice its horizontal counterpart. The vertical acceleration was distinctly asymmetric; the waveform envelope was about 1.6 times as large in the upward direction as in the downward direction, which is not explained by existing models of the soil response. We present a simple model of a mass bouncing on a trampoline to account for this asymmetry and the large vertical amplitude. The finding of a hitherto-unknown mode of strong ground motion may prompt major progress in near-source shaking assessments.

  2. Human motion simulation predictive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Malek, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom. Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics Develops an i...

  3. WORKSHOP: Stable particle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Alessandro G.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Particle beam stability is crucial to any accelerator or collider, particularly big ones, such as Brookhaven's RHIC heavy ion collider and the larger SSC and LHC proton collider schemes. A workshop on the Stability of Particle Motion in Storage Rings held at Brookhaven in October dealt with the important issue of determining the short- and long-term stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings and colliders, and explored new methods for ensuring it. In the quest for realistic environments, the imperfections of superconducting magnets and the effects of field modulation and noise were taken into account. The workshop was divided into three study groups: Short-Term Stability in storage rings, including chromatic and geometric effects and correction strategies; Long-Term Stability, including modulation and random noise effects and slow varying effects; and Methods for determining the stability of particle motion. The first two were run in parallel, but the third was attended by everyone. Each group considered analytical, computational and experimental methods, reviewing work done so far, comparing results and approaches and underlining outstanding issues. By resolving conflicts, it was possible to identify problems of common interest. The workshop reaffirmed the validity of methods proposed several years ago. Major breakthroughs have been in the rapid improvement of computer capacity and speed, in the development of more sophisticated mathematical packages, and in the introduction of more powerful analytic approaches. In a typical storage ring, a particle may be required to circulate for about a billion revolutions. While ten years ago it was only possible to predict accurately stability over about a thousand revolutions, it is now possible to predict over as many as one million turns. If this trend continues, in ten years it could become feasible to predict particle stability over the entire storage period. About ninety participants

  4. Temporomandibular joint motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Itou, S.; Odori, T.; Ishii, Y.; Torizuka, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates MR imaging with the therapeutic effect after splint therapy in internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Fifteen patients (19 TMJs) with internal derangement of the TMJ and five normal volunteers (10 TMJs) were examined with sagittal T1-weighted spin-echo and gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state (GRASS) MR imaging. MR studies of the patients undergoing splint therapy were performed with an without splints. Pseudodynamic images of TMJ motion provide information that was not available from spin-echo T1-weighted images

  5. Motion Capturing Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood Karen; Cisneros Rosemary E.; Whatley Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The ...

  6. Electromechanical motion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Pekarek, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines-as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles. Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac

  7. Patellofemoral joint motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, W.; Phelan, J.; Albright, J.; Kathol, M.; Rooholamini, S.A.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Palutsis, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the use of ultrafast computed tomography (CT) to obtain dynamic images of the patellofemoral joint during active motion. Thirty-eight patients underwent measurements of tangent offset, bisect offset, congruence angle, patellar tilt angle, lateral patellofemoral angle, sulcus angle, and sulcus depth made during leg movement. Selected parameters were compared with Merchant views. Significant correlations were obtained between Merchant views and comparable ultrafast CT views for all parameters except sulcus angle. Correlations between the other parameters were poor. Cine strips showed two patterns of movement; the patella remained centered either throughout excursion or until the last 20 0 of full extension, when it would sublux laterally

  8. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  9. Climate-driven polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Michael A.; Wahr, John M.; Bryan, Frank O.

    1999-06-01

    The output of a coupled climate system model provides a synthetic climate record with temporal and spatial coverage not attainable with observational data, allowing evaluation of climatic excitation of polar motion on timescales of months to decades. Analysis of the geodetically inferred Chandler excitation power shows that it has fluctuated by up to 90% since 1900 and that it has characteristics representative of a stationary Gaussian process. Our model-predicted climate excitation of the Chandler wobble also exhibits variable power comparable to the observed. Ocean currents and bottom pressure shifts acting together can alone drive the 14-month wobble. The same is true of the excitation generated by the combined effects of barometric pressure and winds. The oceanic and atmospheric contributions are this large because of a relatively high degree of constructive interference between seafloor pressure and currents and between atmospheric pressure and winds. In contrast, excitation by the redistribution of water on land appears largely insignificant. Not surprisingly, the full climate effect is even more capable of driving the wobble than the effects of the oceans or atmosphere alone are. Our match to the observed annual excitation is also improved, by about 17%, over previous estimates made with historical climate data. Efforts to explain the 30-year Markowitz wobble meet with less success. Even so, at periods ranging from months to decades, excitation generated by a model of a coupled climate system makes a close approximation to the amplitude of what is geodetically observed.

  10. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  11. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, J.M.L.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Dijkstra, J.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main

  12. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation of Raw Bambara Nut ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 4-week study was conducted to investigate the effects of graded levels of raw Bambara nut waste (RBW) and supplementary enzyme (Roxazyme G) on nutrient utilization and hematological parameters of broiler finishers. Ninety-six 6-week old broiler birds were randomly divided into 8 groups of 12 birds each. The groups ...

  13. European initiative on cdio in raw material programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelbro, Catrin; Hulthén, Erik; Clausen, Elisabeth; Tanner, David; Herrera Herbert, Juan; Jonsson, Kristina; Bealieu, Stephan; Kamp, A.; Försth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    One of five Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs), was launched in Europe in 2014 and has its focus on exploration, extraction, mineral processing, metallurgy, recycling and material substitution of raw materials. To reach the vision, where the European Union’s industrial strength is based on

  14. Detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... detection and identification of S. aureus in raw milk demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. Key words: Microarray .... sterile after screening for S. aureus contamination according to the procedure described by Wang ... methods, the microarray method is high throughput, specific, and sensitive and also ...

  15. Trace Metal Levels in Raw and Heat Processed Nigerian Staple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of some trace metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd) were quantitatively determined in raw and heat processed staple food cultivars (yam, cassava, cocoyam and maize) from oil producing areas of part of the Niger Delta and compared with a non-oil producing area of Ebonyi State as control. The survey was conducted to ...

  16. Characterization of silica quartz as raw material in photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussaa, S. Anas, E-mail: sabiha.anas@gmail.com; Kheloufi, A.; Kefaifi, A.; Kerkar, F. [Division croissance cristalline et procédés métallurgiques CCPM Centre de recherche en technologie des semi-conducteurs pour l’énergétique (C.R.T.S.E) 02 Bd Frantz Fanon BP. 140 Alger 7 merveilles, Alger 16200 (Algeria); Zaourar, N. Boutarek [Laboratoire des technologies des matériaux, USTHB, B.P. 32 El Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Alger, Algérie 16111 (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Raw materials are essential for the functioning of modern societies, and access to these raw materials is vital to the world economy. Sustainable development, both globally level, raises important new challenges associated with access and efficient use of raw materials. High purity quartz, is consider as a critical raw material and it is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. When identified and following special beneficiation techniques, high purity quartz obtains very attractive prices and is applied in high technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion such as photovoltaic solar cells, silicon metal - oxide wafers in the semiconductor industry and long distance optical fibers that are used in communication networks. Crystalline silicon remains the principal material for photovoltaic technology. Metallurgical silicon is produced industrially by the reduction of silica with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures higher than 2000 °C in the hottest parts, by a reaction that can be written ideally as: SiO{sub 2} + 2C = Si + 2CO. The aim of this study has been to test experimental methods for investigating the various physical and chemical proprieties of Hoggar quartz with different techniques: X Ray Fluorescence, infra-red spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Optic Microscopy, Carbon Analyzer and Vickers Hardness. The results show finally that the quartz has got good result in purity but need enrichment for the photovoltaic application.

  17. Microbiological quality and safety of raw and pasteurized milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This requires urgent attention by the appropriate authorities, because the poor microbiological quality of raw milk and pasteurized milk may expose consumers to health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated milk. Key words: Marketed milk, quality, acidity, total viable count, coliforms, enterobacteriaceae, ...

  18. Raw or Nonpasteurized Products Can Make You Sick

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-05

    Dr. Adam Langer, CDC epidemiologist, discusses the dangers of consuming raw or nonpasteurized dairy products.  Created: 3/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/5/2012.

  19. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of milk is of most importance to the dairy industry and human health. This study was conducted to provide data on the composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in Maroua (Cameroon). Milk and yoghurt samples were collected from 11 breeding sites and 12 producers in the city of Maroua, ...

  20. Use of alternative raw materials for yoghurt production | Farinde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soymilk and maize steep water were used as alternative raw materials to cow milk and commercial starter, respectively, for production of yoghurt. The cow milk used was both Fresh milk and dried powdered milk (DANO). The cost of production of the yoghurt samples as well as their chemical, microbial and organoleptic ...

  1. Influence of Skin Packaging on Raw Beef Quality: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed revision of several aspects related to the application of skin packaging to raw beef was considered. Skin packaging, a relatively new technique derived from vacuum packaging, was developed with the aim of retailing small portions of fresh meat, minced meat, or meat preparations. Above all, the influence of this typology of packaging on the microbial population of raw meat was studied, with particular attention to total viable count, aerobic spoilage bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria. Moreover, the effect on acidification by LAB was also deepened. As colour is the main characteristic influencing purchase decisions at the point of sale, the effect of skin packaging on this parameter was evaluated for raw meat but also for cooked meat. Tenderness, juiciness, and the ability to hold liquid of raw meat when packed in skin conditions were also considered. Furthermore, odour and flavour were considered as sensorial parameters possibly affected by skin packaging. Finally, acceptability by consumer was also investigated. In the studies considered, results showed that skin packaging is advantageous in terms of maintenance of meat quality and for prolonging shelf-life, improving the stability of the products.

  2. Mineralogy And Raw Material Characterization Of Esie Stone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronprobe mineral data of samples of Esie statues is presented as a possible tool for provenance studies. Most of the samples contain talc, chlorite, cummingtonite and rarely tremolite. Other talc-bearing schists are prevalent in the Esie area. However talc-cummingtonite rocks, similar to the raw materials used for the ...

  3. Microbiological quality of raw and roasted African palm weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of raw and roasted African palm weevil ( Rhynchophorus phoenicis ) consumed in the south eastern Nigeria. ... Rhynchophorus phoenicis though reported to be highly nutritious in terms of amino acid profile and presence of unsaturated fatty acid can be a source of food poison if not properly handled ...

  4. Effects of some growth regulating applications on leaf yield, raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of repetitive applications of herbagreen (HG), humic acid (HA), combined foliar fertilizer (CFF) and HG+CFF performed in the Müsküle grape variety grafted on 5 BB rootstock on fresh or pickled leaf size and leaf raw cellulose content. HA application increased leaf area and leaf water ...

  5. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... additives as defined in section 201(s) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act; or if they are food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw breaded shrimp. 161.175 Section 161.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  6. Design and analysis of fuel ethanol production from raw glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, J.A.; Cardona, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Three configurations for fuel ethanol production from raw glycerol using Escherichia coli were simulated and economically assessed using Aspen Plus and Aspen Icarus, respectively. These assessments considered raw glycerol (60 wt%) purification to both crude glycerol (88 wt%) and pure glycerol (98 wt%). The highest purification cost (PC) was obtained using pure glycerol due to its higher energy consumption in the distillation stage. In addition, the remaining methanol in the raw glycerol stream was recovered and recycled, decreasing the purification costs. The E. coli strain is able to convert crude glycerol (at 10 g/L or 20 g/L), or pure glycerol (at 10 g/L) to ethanol. Among these three glycerol concentrations, the lowest bioconversion cost was obtained when crude glycerol was diluted at 20 g/L. Purification and global production costs were compared with the commercial prices of glycerol and fuel ethanol from corn and sugarcane. Purification costs of raw glycerol were lower than previously reported values due to the methanol recovery. Global production costs for fuel ethanol from glycerol were lower than the reported values for corn-based production and higher than those for cane-based production. (author)

  7. Basic Thermal Parameters of Selected Foods and Food Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Božiková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, processing and manipulation with foods and food raw materials have significant influence on their physical properties. The article is focused on thermophysical parameters measurement of selected foods and food raw materials. There were examined thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of selected materials. For detection of thermal parameters was used instrument Isomet 2104, which principle of measurement is based on transient methods. In text are presented summary results of thermal parameters measurement for various foods and food raw materials as: granular materials – corn flour and wheat flour; fruits, vegetables and fruit products – grated apple, dried apple and apple juice; liquid materials – milk, beer etc. Measurements were performed in two temperature ranges according to the character of examined material. From graphical relations of thermophysical parameter is evident, that thermal conductivity and diffusivity increases with temperature and moisture content linearly, only for granular materials were obtained non‑linear dependencies. Results shows, that foods and food raw materials have different thermal properties, which are influenced by their type, structure, chemical and physical properties. From presented results is evident, that basic thermal parameters are important for material quality detection in food industry.

  8. Use of a new borate raw material for glaze formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Tena, M. P.; Moreno, A.; Bou, E.; Cook, S.; Galindo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Tinto Minerals company has developed a new borate (E-4972), which can be used in glaze formulation (patent WO 2007/148101). This new borate, synthesised by low-temperature calcination, fundamentally contributes five oxides: silicon oxide (SiO 2 ), aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), boron oxide (B 2 O 3 ), calcium oxide (CaO), and sodium oxide (Na 2 O), its content in B 2 O 3 being between 10 and 11% by weight. It is largely amorphous, and quartz is the major crystalline phase present. The characteristics of this new borate, such as its low solubility and ability readily to form glassy phase, enable it to be used as a raw material in glaze compositions. Its suitability for glaze formulation has been the result of several years research in collaboration with the Instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica. In this paper, the feasibility has been studied of fabricating ceramic glazes by using a new synthetic borate raw material that contributes boron to the glaze composition without this needing to be done in fritted form. It has been possible to obtain fired glazes with similar technical and aesthetics characteristics to those obtained from industrial glaze compositions that contain typical frits in their compositions, thus enabling glazes to be formulated by using the new synthetic boron raw material. The results obtained show that this new raw material (E-4972) is particularly appropriate for use in producing glazes with low gloss at high temperature. (Author) 15 refs.

  9. Database-driven primary analysis of raw sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for identifying the source of a biological sequence containing sample from raw sequencing reads. The method may be used to identify the source of unknown DNA and can be used for diagnostic, biodefense, food safety and quality, and hygiene applications...

  10. Know the Risks of Feeding Raw Food to Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet for their pets often point out that feral dogs and cats catch prey and eat it raw. “That’s true,” he adds, “but we don’t know how many of these animals get sick or die as a result of doing that. Since sick feral animals are rarely taken to a veterinarian when ...

  11. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic

  12. Decontamination of drug vegetative raw material by relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbanyuk, A.G.; Dikiy, I.L.; Yegorov, A.M.; Linnik, A.F.; Uskov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    The new technology of decontamination of drug vegetative raw material and medical products is proposed. Advantages of use of relativistic beams in a range of electron energies from 0.5 MeV to 5 MeV for these purposes are shown in comparison with X-radiation of energy from 80 keV to 1 MeV

  13. Microbes from raw milk for fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.T.M.; Ayad, E.H.E.; Hugenholtz, J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Milk has a high nutritive value, not only For the new-born mammal and for the human consumer, but also for microbes. Raw milk kept at roam temperature will be liable to microbial spoilage. After some days, the milk will spontaneously become sour. This is generally due to the activity of lactic acid

  14. Effects of raw bambara nut ( Voandzeia subterranea l) waste and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of graded levels of raw bambara nut (Voandzeia subterranea L) waste and supplementary enzyme (Roxayzme G) on performance of broiler chicks were investigated. One hundred and twenty 14-day old unsexed commercial broiler chicks (Anak strain) were randomly divided into eight groups of 15 birds each.

  15. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  16. Perceptually Uniform Motion Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Asmund; Turkay, Cagatay; Viola, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    Flow data is often visualized by animated particles inserted into a flow field. The velocity of a particle on the screen is typically linearly scaled by the velocities in the data. However, the perception of velocity magnitude in animated particles is not necessarily linear. We present a study on how different parameters affect relative motion perception. We have investigated the impact of four parameters. The parameters consist of speed multiplier, direction, contrast type and the global velocity scale. In addition, we investigated if multiple motion cues, and point distribution, affect the speed estimation. Several studies were executed to investigate the impact of each parameter. In the initial results, we noticed trends in scale and multiplier. Using the trends for the significant parameters, we designed a compensation model, which adjusts the particle speed to compensate for the effect of the parameters. We then performed a second study to investigate the performance of the compensation model. From the second study we detected a constant estimation error, which we adjusted for in the last study. In addition, we connect our work to established theories in psychophysics by comparing our model to a model based on Stevens' Power Law.

  17. Effects of storage on the major constituents of raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zajác

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk testing and quality control should be carried out at all stages of the dairy chain. Milk can be tested for quantity, organoleptic characteristic, compositional characteristic, physical and chemical characteristics, hygienic characteristics, adulteration or drug residues. The content of the major constituents of raw milk is important for milk payment system. Enzymes naturally present in the milk can change the chemical composition of raw milk. Also, enzymes secreted by bacteria or enzymes from somatic cells can degrade the raw milk composition. Products of these degradation reactions can have undesirable effects on milk structure, smell and taste. It is very important that farm-fresh raw milk be cooled immediately to not more than 8 °C in the case of daily collection, or not more than 6 °C if collection is not daily. During transport the cold chain must be maintained. An authorized person, properly trained in the appropriate technique, shall perform sampling of bulk milk in farm. Laboratory samples should be dispatched immediately after sampling to the dairy company and consequently to the testing laboratory. The time for dispatch of the samples to the testing laboratory should be as short as possible, preferably within 24 h. Laboratory samples shall be transported and stored at temperature 1 to 5 °C. Higher temperatures may adversely affect the composition of the laboratory sample and may cause disputes between the farmer, the dairy company and the laboratory. The effect of refrigerated storage at temperature 4 °C during 24 h on the composition of raw milk were investigated in this work, because we wanted to know how the milk composition will be changed and how the laboratory results will be affected. In many cases, the samples are not preserved with chemical preservants like azidiol, bronopol, potassium dichromate or Microtabs. We found, that the composition of raw cows' milk after 24 was changed significantly (p >0.005. We found an

  18. Identification of Particles in Parenteral Drug Raw Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathryn; Lankers, Markus; Valet, Oliver

    2018-04-18

    Particles in drug products are not good and are therefore regulated. These particles can come from the very beginning of the manufacturing process, from the raw materials. To prevent particles, it is important to understand what they are and where they come from so the raw material quality, processing, and shipping can be improved. Thus, it is important to correctly identify particles seen in raw materials. Raw materials need to be of a certain quality with respect to physical and chemical composition, and need to have no contaminants in the form of particles which could contaminate the product or indicate the raw materials are not pure enough to make a good quality product. Particles are often seen when handling raw materials due to color, size, or shape characteristics different from those in the raw materials. Particles may appear to the eye to be very different things than they actually are, so microscope, chemical, and elemental analyses are required for accuracy in proper identification. This paper shows how using three different spectroscopy tools correctly and together can be used to identify particles from extrinsic, intrinsic, and inherent particles. Sources of materials can be humans and the environment (extrinsic), from within the process (intrinsic), and part of the formulation (inherent). Microscope versions of Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and IR spectroscopy are excellent tools for identifying particles because they are fast and accurate techniques needing minimal sample preparation that can provide chemical composition as well as images that can be used for identification. The micro analysis capabilities allow for easy analysis of different portions of samples so multiple components can be identified and sample preparation can be reduced. Using just one of these techniques may not be sufficient to give adequate identification results so that the source of contamination can be adequately identified. The

  19. Self-noise models of five commercial strong-motion accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.; Hutt, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Strong‐motion accelerometers provide onscale seismic recordings during moderate‐to‐large ground motions (e.g., up to tens of m/s2 peak). Such instruments have played a fundamental role in improving our understanding of earthquake source physics (Bocketal., 2011), earthquake engineering (Youdet al., 2004), and regional seismology (Zollo et al., 2010). Although strong‐motion accelerometers tend to have higher noise levels than high‐quality broadband velocity seismometers, their higher clip‐levels provide linear recordings at near‐field sites even for the largest of events where a collocated broadband sensor would no longer be able to provide onscale recordings (Clinton and Heaton, 2002).

  20. Evaluation of chemical composition of raw and processed tropical sickle pod (Senna obtusifolia seed meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Augustine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A laboratory analysis was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition of raw and differently processed Senna obtusifolia seed meal. Senna obtusifolia seeds were processed using boiling, soaking, sprouting and fermentation methods respectively. The processed and raw seed meals were milled and the representative seed meal samples were analysed using standard laboratory methods. The results of the chemical analysis revealed that Senna obtusifolia seed meal possessed good nutritional properties (23.40 – 25.90% crude protein and 2.14 – 2.86 MJ/kg metabolizable energy and has good amino acid profile as an alternative feed source for livestock. However, the raw seed meal contains 378.5, 247.2, 102.0, 248.6 and 190.0 mg/100.0g of tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins, respectively. The different processing methods were observed to be effective in reducing the level of the antinutrients with fermentation recording the highest reduction levels of 68.25, 66.32, 43.70, 58.07 and 44.30% for tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins followed by boiling with reduction levels of 66.27, 46.97, 46.97, 47.89, 58.66 and 45.78% for tannins, phytates, oxalate, alkaloids and saponins, respectively. In conclusion, Senna obtusifolia seed can be effectively process for utilization as feed ingredient using fermentation. Feeding trial should be conducted using Senna obtusifolia seed meal to evaluate the feeding value in livestock especially monogastric animals

  1. Preliminary study on helical CT algorithms for patient motion estimation and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Vannier, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    Helical computed tomography (helical/spiral CT) has replaced conventional CT in many clinical applications. In current helical CT, a patient is assumed to be rigid and motionless during scanning and planar projection sets are produced from raw data via longitudinal interpolation. However, rigid patient motion is a problem in some cases (such as in the skull base and temporal bone imaging). Motion artifacts thus generated in reconstructed images can prevent accurate diagnosis. Modeling a uniform translational movement, the authors address how patient motion is ascertained and how it may be compensated. First, mismatch between adjacent fan-beam projections of the same orientation is determined via classical correlation, which is approximately proportional to the patient displacement projected onto an axis orthogonal to the central ray of the involved fan-beam. Then, the patient motion vector (the patient displacement per gantry rotation) is estimated from its projections using a least-square-root method. To suppress motion artifacts, adaptive interpolation algorithms are developed that synthesize full-scan and half-scan planar projection data sets, respectively. In the adaptive scheme, the interpolation is performed along inclined paths dependent upon the patient motion vector. The simulation results show that the patient motion vector can be accurately and reliably estimated using their correlation and least-square-root algorithm, patient motion artifacts can be effectively suppressed via adaptive interpolation, and adaptive half-scan interpolation is advantageous compared with its full-scale counterpart in terms of high contrast image resolution

  2. Quantum Darwinism in Quantum Brownian Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2008-12-01

    Quantum Darwinism—the redundant encoding of information about a decohering system in its environment—was proposed to reconcile the quantum nature of our Universe with apparent classicality. We report the first study of the dynamics of quantum Darwinism in a realistic model of decoherence, quantum Brownian motion. Prepared in a highly squeezed state—a macroscopic superposition—the system leaves records whose redundancy increases rapidly with initial delocalization. Redundancy appears rapidly (on the decoherence time scale) and persists for a long time.

  3. Music, thinking, perceived motion: the emergence of Gestalt theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Histories of psychology typically assert that Gestalt theory began with the publication of Max Wertheimer's 1912b paper on the phi phenomenon, the compelling visual apparent motion of actually stationary stimuli. The current author discusses the origin of Gestalt theory, as told by the historical record starting with M. Wertheimer's upbringing and ending with his most recent Gestalt theories. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Motion camouflage in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, P. V.; Justh, E. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate and analyze a three-dimensional model of motion camouflage, a stealth strategy observed in nature. A high-gain feedback law for motion camouflage is formulated in which the pursuer and evader trajectories are described using natural Frenet frames (or relatively parallel adapted frames), and the corresponding natural curvatures serve as controls. The biological plausibility of the feedback law is discussed, as is its connection to missile guidance. Simulations illustrating motion ...

  5. UROKIN: A Software to Enhance Our Understanding of Urogenital Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyrnyj, Catriona S; Labrosse, Michel R; Graham, Ryan B; McLean, Linda

    2018-05-01

    Transperineal ultrasound (TPUS) allows for objective quantification of mid-sagittal urogenital mechanics, yet current practice omits dynamic motion information in favor of analyzing only a rest and a peak motion frame. This work details the development of UROKIN, a semi-automated software which calculates kinematic curves of urogenital landmark motion. A proof of concept analysis, performed using UROKIN on TPUS video recorded from 20 women with and 10 women without stress urinary incontinence (SUI) performing maximum voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles. The anorectal angle and bladder neck were tracked while the motion of the pubic symphysis was used to compensate for the error incurred by TPUS probe motion during imaging. Kinematic curves of landmark motion were generated for each video and curves were smoothed, time normalized, and averaged within groups. Kinematic data yielded by the UROKIN software showed statistically significant differences between women with and without SUI in terms of magnitude and timing characteristics of the kinematic curves depicting landmark motion. Results provide insight into the ways in which UROKIN may be useful to study differences in pelvic floor muscle contraction mechanics between women with and without SUI and other pelvic floor disorders. The UROKIN software improves on methods described in the literature and provides unique capacity to further our understanding of urogenital biomechanics.

  6. Antioxidant and Hypolipidaemic Effect of Raw Green Snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) on Aged Male Rats Exposed to gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abed EI-Gawad, E.I.; Aiad, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    This Study was established to assess the effect of supplemental dietary raw green snap (Phaseolus vulgaris) for three months to overcome gamma-irradiation induced alterations on some oxidant/ antioxidant parameters (Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ , total iron, ferritin, transferrin and ceruloplasmin) and the hyper lipidemic state (triglycerides, cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein (HDL-c and LDL-c) in aged male rats. Raw green snap is an indigenous plant used in Unani and Ayurvedic medicine in India. The study also aimed to estimate the effect of dietary raw green snap on general health through the follow up of body weight and mortality during the course of supplementation. Thirty-two aged male rats (24 months, 370-375 g) were divided equally into four groups. 1- Control group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months. 2- Supplemented group, the animals balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g / kg body wt/ day) for 3 months. 3- Irradiated group, the animals fed on a balanced diet for 3 months were then exposed to whole body y-radiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. 4-Supplemented-irradiated group, the animals' balanced diet was supplemented with raw green snap (70 g/ kg/ day) for three months and then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose level of 4 Gy. The blood samples were taken from orbital venous plexuses after 48 h of stopping green snap supplementation (supplemented group) or after irradiation (irradiated and supplemented gamma-irradiated groups). The results obtained showed reduction in the body wt in green snap supplemented group which increased gradually concomitant with occurrence of animal mortality on week 7 reaching II) maximal values (-32.79 and 33.33 %) respectively, on week 12 of supplementation. Also, the supplemented group showed non significant changes in tested parameters although the level of total iron and triglycerides recorded noticeable changes as compared with controls

  7. Database for earthquake strong motion studies in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasserra, G.; Stewart, J.P.; Kayen, R.E.; Lanzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an Italian database of strong ground motion recordings and databanks delineating conditions at the instrument sites and characteristics of the seismic sources. The strong motion database consists of 247 corrected recordings from 89 earthquakes and 101 recording stations. Uncorrected recordings were drawn from public web sites and processed on a record-by-record basis using a procedure utilized in the Next-Generation Attenuation (NGA) project to remove instrument resonances, minimize noise effects through low- and high-pass filtering, and baseline correction. The number of available uncorrected recordings was reduced by 52% (mostly because of s-triggers) to arrive at the 247 recordings in the database. The site databank includes for every recording site the surface geology, a measurement or estimate of average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30), and information on instrument housing. Of the 89 sites, 39 have on-site velocity measurements (17 of which were performed as part of this study using SASW techniques). For remaining sites, we estimate Vs30 based on measurements on similar geologic conditions where available. Where no local velocity measurements are available, correlations with surface geology are used. Source parameters are drawn from databanks maintained (and recently updated) by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and include hypocenter location and magnitude for small events (M< ??? 5.5) and finite source parameters for larger events. ?? 2009 A.S. Elnashai & N.N. Ambraseys.

  8. Realistic Modeling of Seismic Wave Ground Motion in Beijing City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z.; Romanelli, F.; Chen, Y. T.; Panza, G. F.

    Algorithms for the calculation of synthetic seismograms in laterally heterogeneous anelastic media have been applied to model the ground motion in Beijing City. The synthetic signals are compared with the few available seismic recordings (1998, Zhangbei earthquake) and with the distribution of observed macroseismic intensity (1976, Tangshan earthquake). The synthetic three-component seismograms have been computed for the Xiji area and Beijing City. The numerical results show that the thick Tertiary and Quaternary sediments are responsible for the severe amplification of the seismic ground motion. Such a result is well correlated with the abnormally high macroseismic intensity zone in the Xiji area associated with the 1976 Tangshan earthquake as well as with the ground motion recorded in Beijing city in the wake of the 1998 Zhangbei earthquake.

  9. Motion of air bubbles in stagnant water condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdegumeli, U.; Ozdemir, S.; Yesin, O.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In this study, air bubble motion in stagnant water condition in a vertical pipe is investigated experimentally. For this purpose, a test set-up was designed and constructed. Motions of single bubbles, having different diameters in the range of 3.0-4.8 mm, were recorded by using a monochrome camera, an image capture card and a PC. Recorded video images were processed to analyse bubble motion and to obtain the necessary data. The purpose of the study is to determine the variation of bubble axial velocity and bubble drag coefficient as a function of equivalent bubble diameter and bubble Reynolds number, Re b . Therefore, detailed information for this range of bubble diameters was obtained. The results have shown good consistency with the previous studies found in the literature

  10. Motion of air bubbles in stagnant water condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdegumeli, U.; Ozdemir, S.; Yesin, O.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, air bubble motion in stagnant water condition in a vertical pipe of 4.6 cm diameter is investigated experimentally. For this purpose, a test set-up was designed and constructed. Motions of single bubbles, having different diameters in the range of 3.0-4.8 mm, were recorded by using a monochrome camera, an image capture card and a PC. Recorded video images were processed to analyse bubble motion and to obtain the necessary data. The purpose of the study is to determine the variation of bubble axial velocity and bubble drag coefficient as a function of equivalent bubble diameter and bubble Reynolds number, Re b . Therefore, detailed information for this range of bubble diameters was obtained. The results have shown good consistency with the previous studies found in the literature. (author)

  11. Quantitative assessment of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris present in artisanal raw cow’s milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alicja Stachelska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris belongs to lactic acid bacteria that play a crucial role in cheese production and it is known to be beneficial to human health. The aim of the study was to establish a rapid and accurate quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR method to detect and enumerate L. lactis subsp. cremoris in artisanal raw cow’s milk cheese. Artisanal raw cow’s milk cheese samples were used to check for presence and number of L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains. The method applies a set of target-specific PCR (polymerase chain reaction primers and a fluorogenic probe, and amplifies a part of the LACR_RS01280 gene that encodes the aminoacetone oxidase family flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD binding enzyme. All 5 L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains examined were found to be qPCR positive. There was no signal recorded for 8 strains which belong to closely related species. The limit of detection amounted to ten copies per reaction and the assay indicated a linear dynamic range of seven logs. This method may be applied in detection and enumeration of L. lactis subsp. cremoris in cheese during its ripening. Moreover, it may be applied to examine the distribution of L. lactis subsp. cremoris during the cheese production and ripening.

  12. Effect of ionising radiation on shelf life and potency of herbal raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Bhat, P.; Prajna, P.S.; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Padyana, Subramanya; Maurya, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs are involving from fringe to mainstream use with a greater number of people seeking remedies and health approaches free from side effects caused by synthetic chemicals. Unfortunately, the number of reports of people experiencing negative effects, caused by the use of herbal drugs, has also been increasing. There may be various reasons for such problems, poor quality of herbal medicines due to insufficient attention being paid to the quality assurance and control of these products. Plants are associated with their own microflora, in addition to that soil and air act as main inoculum source for causing contamination in crude herbs along with other field practices like harvesting, handling and packing. The study was aimed to determine the type, level of bacterial and fungal load and feasibility of electron beam irradiation to hygenise the commonly used herbal raw materials using electron beam radiation with three different dosages viz., 8 kGy, 12 kGy, 15 kGy. Irradiated and control samples were analysed for microbial load and biochemical compositions. In present study, microbial load was proportionately reduced with increase in dosage compared to non-irradiated samples. Results indicated that non-irradiated samples were highly contaminated with microbial load. E. coli and Staphylococcus spp. were predominant among the bacterial contaminants at varying levels. The fungi enumerated from raw materials includes species of Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor and Aspergillus. Minimum variation was recorded in the carbohydrate, protein, phenolic, tannin and ascorbic acid content of the herb samples with irradiation treatment. (author)

  13. Methodological aspects of EEG and Body dynamics measurements during motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eReis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available EEG involves recording, analysis, and interpretation of voltages recorded on the human scalp originating from brain grey matter. EEG is one of the favorite methods to study and understand processes that underlie behavior. This is so, because EEG is relatively cheap, easy to wear, light weight and has high temporal resolution. In terms of behavior, this encompasses actions, such as movements, that are performed in response to the environment. However, there are methodological difficulties when recording EEG during movement such as movement artifacts. Thus, most studies about the human brain have examined activations during static conditions. This article attempts to compile and describe relevant methodological solutions that emerged in order to measure body and brain dynamics during motion. These descriptions cover suggestions of how to avoid and reduce motion artifacts, hardware, software and techniques for synchronously recording EEG, EMG, kinematics, kinetics and eye movements during motion. Additionally, we present various recording systems, EEG electrodes, caps and methods for determination of real/custom electrode positions. In the end we will conclude that it is possible to record and analyze synchronized brain and body dynamics related to movement or exercise tasks.

  14. Physico-chemical traits of raw and cooked fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss from different strains and farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fillets and cooking yields, water holding capacity, textural properties, colour, proximate composition, collagen and fatty acids of five strains (IT1, IT2, IT3, USA, UK of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, reared in three farms (F1, F2, F3, were measured before and after cooking. Physico-chemical parameters of the strains greatly differed both in raw and cooked state. IT2 and USA recorded the highest yields. IT2 distinguished from the other strains, showing lowest values of hardness, chewiness, gumminess and springiness. It also had brighter and less pigmented flesh with low fat, mainly in the raw state. USA strain showed the most valuable traits in terms of texture and colour, and had higher fat and collagen content in flesh. The physico-chemical profile of each strain was differently modified by cooking. USA strain maintained a positive texture and colour profile after cooking and its quality was the best.

  15. Trends and perspectives of raw materials supply in Germany in the 21st millennium. Colloquium 5. Conference report; Trends und Perspektiven der Rohstoffversorgung Deutschlands im 21. Jahrhundert. Kolloquium 5. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaby, D; Brezinski, H [comps.; Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Wirtschaftswissenschaften; Gerhardt, H [comp.; Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau; Herzig, P [comp.; Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie

    1999-07-01

    The conference report comprises papers on raw materials policy and management, coal mining in Poland and Czekhia, perspectives of raw materials supply in Germany, mining law and raw materials supply, information systems for regional planning, and the use of washery tailings as construction materials. Ten papers have been recorded separately in the ENERGY database. [German] Der Tagungsband enthaelt Beitraege, die neben der Energierohstoffpolitik, die Rohstoffwirtschaft, den Kohlenbergbau in Polen und Tschechien betreffen. Es werden Perpesktiven der Rohstoffversorgung Deutschlands in der Zukunft sowie Bergrecht und Rohstoffsicherung diskutiert. Weitere Arbeiten betreffen Informationssyteme zur Regionalplannung sowie die Verwertung von Waschbergen als Baustoffersatz. Fuer die Datenbank Energy wurden zehn Beitraege separat aufgenommen.

  16. Deep eye-CU (DECU): Summarization of patient motion in the ICU

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, C; Fried, JC; Rose, K; Manjunath, BS

    2016-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Healthcare professionals speculate about the effects of poses and pose manipulation in healthcare. Anecdotal observations indicate that patient poses and motion affect recovery. Motion analysis using human observers puts strain on already taxed healthcare workforce requiring staff to record motion. Automated algorithms and systems are unable to monitor patients in hospital environments without disrupting patients or the existing standards ...

  17. Markerless motion estimation for motion-compensated clinical brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyme, Andre Z.; Se, Stephen; Meikle, Steven R.; Fulton, Roger R.

    2018-05-01

    Motion-compensated brain imaging can dramatically reduce the artifacts and quantitative degradation associated with voluntary and involuntary subject head motion during positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and computed tomography (CT). However, motion-compensated imaging protocols are not in widespread clinical use for these modalities. A key reason for this seems to be the lack of a practical motion tracking technology that allows for smooth and reliable integration of motion-compensated imaging protocols in the clinical setting. We seek to address this problem by investigating the feasibility of a highly versatile optical motion tracking method for PET, SPECT and CT geometries. The method requires no attached markers, relying exclusively on the detection and matching of distinctive facial features. We studied the accuracy of this method in 16 volunteers in a mock imaging scenario by comparing the estimated motion with an accurate marker-based method used in applications such as image guided surgery. A range of techniques to optimize performance of the method were also studied. Our results show that the markerless motion tracking method is highly accurate (brain imaging and holds good promise for a practical implementation in clinical PET, SPECT and CT systems.

  18. Visual motion influences the contingent auditory motion aftereffect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, J.; de Gelder, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we show that the contingent auditory motion aftereffect is strongly influenced by visual motion information. During an induction phase, participants listened to rightward-moving sounds with falling pitch alternated with leftward-moving sounds with rising pitch (or vice versa).

  19. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency

  20. 41 CFR 60-30.8 - Motions; disposition of motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a supporting memorandum. Within 10 days after a written motion is served, or such other time period... writing. If made at the hearing, motions may be stated orally; but the Administrative Law Judge may require that they be reduced to writing and filed and served on all parties in the same manner as a formal...

  1. Records Management Directive

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Records Management Directive provides guidelines for the management of OPM records, and identifies the records management...

  2. The Mousterian lithic assemblage of the Ciota Ciara cave (Piedmont, Northern Italy: Exploitation and conditioning of raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Daffara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ciota Ciara cave is situated in Monte Fenera’s karst (Borgosesia – Vercelli, at 670 metres above sea level. It is the most important evidence of a Middle Palaeolithic settlement in Piedmont: the cave was used by Homo neanderthalensis during the OIS 5, in a mild-humid period, as proven by faunal remains. The environment was characterized by deciduous woodland and glades. The intersection between different habitats, the presence of lithic raw materials, the karst morphology and water sources were certainly the main factors that encouraged human settlement during the Upper Pleistocene period, between 80.000 and 70.000 BP.In 2009 systematic excavations began in the cave by the University of Ferrara, in partnership with the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Piemonte e del Museo di Antichità Egizie. Research focused on the cave’s atrium where three stratigraphic units were investigated: 13, 103 and 14.The exploited raw materials’ characterization were made by the stereo-microscope observations and through the SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. Several lithologies are represented in different proportion: quartz is the predominant exploited raw material, followed by spongolite, sandstone, mylonite and opal. The archaeological record consists of various typologies of quartz: macro-crystalline pegmatite quartz, micro-crystalline pegmatite quartz and hyaline quartz. All these types of raw materials have been found in the proximity of the archaeological site, within 5 km range.The lithic assemblage is made of flakes, retouched tools, cores and debris. The raw materials exploitation was achieved through the direct percussion technique with various methods: S.S.D.A., discoid and Levallois. The reduction sequences on quartz are complete, although no refitting was found. The reduction sequence is not complete for most part of the other raw materials. The débitage products are small-medium size (1-4 cm and have different morphologies

  3. Respiratory and cardiac motion correction in dual gated PET/MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayad, Hadi; Monnier, Florian [LaTIM, INSERM, UMR 1101, Brest (France); Odille, Freedy; Felblinger, Jacques [INSERM U947, University of Nancy, Nancy (France); Lamare, Frederic [INCIA, UMR5287, CNRS, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Visvikis, Dimitris [LaTIM, INSERM, UMR 1101, Brest (France)

    2015-05-18

    Respiratory and cardiac motion in PET/MR imaging leads to reduced quantitative and qualitative image accuracy. Correction methodologies involve the use of double gated acquisitions which lead to low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and to issues concerning the combination of cardiac and respiratory frames. The objective of this work is to use a generalized reconstruction by inversion of coupled systems (GRICS) approach, previously used for PET/MR respiratory motion correction, combined with a cardiac phase signal and a reconstruction incorporated PET motion correction approach in order to reconstruct motion free images from dual gated PET acquisitions. The GRICS method consists of formulating parallel MRI in the presence of patient motion as a coupled inverse problem. Its resolution, using a fixed-point method, allows the reconstructed image to be improved using a motion model constructed from the raw MR data and two respiratory belts. GRICS obtained respiratory displacements are interpolated using the cardiac phase derived from an ECG to model simultaneous cardiac and respiratory motion. Three different volunteer datasets (4DMR acquisitions) were used for evaluation. GATE was used to simulate 4DPET datasets corresponding to the acquired 4DMR images. Simulated data were subsequently binned using 16 cardiac phases (M1) vs diastole only (M2), in combination with 8 respiratory amplitude gates. Respiratory and cardiac motion corrected PET images using either M1 or M2 were compared to respiratory only corrected images and evaluated in terms of SNR and contrast improvement. Significant visual improvements were obtained when correcting simultaneously for respiratory and cardiac motion (using 16 cardiac phase or diastole only) compared to respiratory motion only compensation. Results were confirmed by an associated increased SNR and contrast. Results indicate that using GRICS is an efficient tool for respiratory and cardiac motion correction in dual gated PET/MR imaging.

  4. The effect of patient anxiety and depression on motion during myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyra, Vassiliki; Kallergi, Maria; Rizos, Emmanouil; Lamprakopoulos, Georgios; Chatziioannou, Sofia N.

    2016-01-01

    Patient motion during myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging (MPI) may be triggered by a patient’s physical and/or psychological discomfort. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of state anxiety (patient’s reaction to exam-related stress), trait anxiety (patient’s personality characteristic) and depression on patient motion during MPI. All patients that underwent MPI in our department in a six-month period were prospectively enrolled. One hundred eighty-three patients (45 females; 138 males) filled in the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), along with a short questionnaire regarding their age, height and weight, level of education in years, occupation, and marital status. Cardiovascular and other co-morbidity factors were also evaluated. Through inspection of raw data on cinematic display, the presence or absence of patient motion was registered and classified into mild, moderate and severe, for both phases involved in image acquisition. The correlation of patient motion in the stress and delay phases of MPI and each of the other variables was investigated and the corresponding Pearson’s coefficients of association were calculated. The anxiety-motion (r = 0.43, P < 0.0001) and depression-motion (r = 0.32, P < 0.0001) correlation results were moderately strong and statistically significant for the female but not the male patients. All the other variables did not demonstrate any association with motion in MPI, except a weak correlation between age and motion in females (r = 0.23, P < 0.001). The relationship between anxiety-motion and depression-motion identified in female patients represents the first supporting evidence of psychological discomfort as predisposing factor for patient motion during MPI

  5. The effect of patient anxiety and depression on motion during myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Vassiliki; Kallergi, Maria; Rizos, Emmanouil; Lamprakopoulos, Georgios; Chatziioannou, Sofia N

    2016-08-22

    Patient motion during myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging (MPI) may be triggered by a patient's physical and/or psychological discomfort. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of state anxiety (patient's reaction to exam-related stress), trait anxiety (patient's personality characteristic) and depression on patient motion during MPI. All patients that underwent MPI in our department in a six-month period were prospectively enrolled. One hundred eighty-three patients (45 females; 138 males) filled in the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), along with a short questionnaire regarding their age, height and weight, level of education in years, occupation, and marital status. Cardiovascular and other co-morbidity factors were also evaluated. Through inspection of raw data on cinematic display, the presence or absence of patient motion was registered and classified into mild, moderate and severe, for both phases involved in image acquisition. The correlation of patient motion in the stress and delay phases of MPI and each of the other variables was investigated and the corresponding Pearson's coefficients of association were calculated. The anxiety-motion (r = 0.43, P depression-motion (r = 0.32, P patients. All the other variables did not demonstrate any association with motion in MPI, except a weak correlation between age and motion in females (r = 0.23, P anxiety-motion and depression-motion identified in female patients represents the first supporting evidence of psychological discomfort as predisposing factor for patient motion during MPI.

  6. Using Simulated Ground Motions to Constrain Near-Source Ground Motion Prediction Equations in Areas Experiencing Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydlon, S. A.; Dunham, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent increases in seismic activity in historically quiescent areas such as Oklahoma, Texas, and Arkansas, including large, potentially induced events such as the 2011 Mw 5.6 Prague, OK, earthquake, have spurred the need for investigation into expected ground motions associated with these seismic sources. The neoteric nature of this seismicity increase corresponds to a scarcity of ground motion recordings within 50 km of earthquakes Mw 3.0 and greater, with increasing scarcity at larger magnitudes. Gathering additional near-source ground motion data will help better constraints on regional ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and will happen over time, but this leaves open the possibility of damaging earthquakes occurring before potential ground shaking and seismic hazard in these areas are properly understood. To aid the effort of constraining near-source GMPEs associated with induced seismicity, we integrate synthetic ground motion data from simulated earthquakes into the process. Using the dynamic rupture and seismic wave propagation code waveqlab3d, we perform verification and validation exercises intended to establish confidence in simulated ground motions for use in constraining GMPEs. We verify the accuracy of our ground motion simulator by performing the PEER/SCEC layer-over-halfspace comparison problem LOH.1 Validation exercises to ensure that we are synthesizing realistic ground motion data include comparisons to recorded ground motions for specific earthquakes in target areas of Oklahoma between Mw 3.0 and 4.0. Using a 3D velocity structure that includes a 1D structure with additional small-scale heterogeneity, the properties of which are based on well-log data from Oklahoma, we perform ground motion simulations of small (Mw 3.0 - 4.0) earthquakes using point moment tensor sources. We use the resulting synthetic ground motion data to develop GMPEs for small earthquakes in Oklahoma. Preliminary results indicate that ground motions can be amplified

  7. Lithic assemblages of Azokh Cave (Nagorno Karabagh, Lesser Caucasus: Raw materials, technology and regional context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Asryan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Azokh Cave is a Middle Pleistocene to Holocene site located in Nagorno Karabagh (Lesser Caucasus. The main entrance, Azokh 1, is a large cave that has two geological sequences (lower and upper with nine geo-archaeological units of which only the upper ones (Units I to V have a significant archaeological record.  The faunal remains and lithic artefacts in these units indicate aspects of human occupation, and exploitation of, and association with animals.     The lithic artefacts presented here were recovered from Units V, III and II during the 2002 – 2009 excavation seasons. The available chronological data indicates an age between 293 – 100 Ka for these units. The operational chain is incomplete and artefacts found in the cave are primarily end-products dominated by flake-tools. The assemblage of Unit V is composed primarily of simple, unretouched flakes with a minimal presence of retouched flakes and cores. The Unit II lithic assemblage includes a substantial Levallois component, although with fewer cores and retouched flakes. There are very few flake tools in Unit III. While it is still difficult to assign the Unit V assemblage to a techno-typological group or complex (i.e. Acheulean, Mousterian or other local techno-complexes such as the Kudarian, the Unit II assemblage is clearly associated with Mode 3 or the Mousterian techno-complex.Different local and non-local raw materials were exploited in all units for the production of lithic artefacts, although the range of raw materials is more varied in Unit II. Local chert, flint and basalt were used most commonly, probably due to their easy accessibility. Limestone, jasper and sandstone, from local and non-local sources, are present in small quantities in Units V and II. Obsidian is the only raw material that possibly originates from more distant sources. Flint and chert appear to have been preferentially exploited for flake tool production in all units, but the toolmakers show a

  8. Prediction of strong ground motion based on scaling law of earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Katsuhiro; Irikura, Kojiro; Fukuchi, Yasunaga.

    1991-01-01

    In order to predict more practically strong ground motion, it is important to study how to use a semi-empirical method in case of having no appropriate observation records for actual small-events as empirical Green's functions. We propose a prediction procedure using artificially simulated small ground motions as substitute for the actual motions. First, we simulate small-event motion by means of stochastic simulation method proposed by Boore (1983) in considering pass effects such as attenuation, and broadening of waveform envelope empirically in the objective region. Finally, we attempt to predict the strong ground motion due to a future large earthquake (M 7, Δ = 13 km) using the same summation procedure as the empirical Green's function method. We obtained the results that the characteristics of the synthetic motion using M 5 motion were in good agreement with those by the empirical Green's function method. (author)

  9. Extraction and Analysis of Respiratory Motion Using Wearable Inertial Sensor System during Trunk Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Gaidhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory activity is an essential vital sign of life that can indicate changes in typical breathing patterns and irregular body functions such as asthma and panic attacks. Many times, there is a need to monitor breathing activity while performing day-to-day functions such as standing, bending, trunk stretching or during yoga exercises. A single IMU (inertial measurement unit can be used in measuring respiratory motion; however, breathing motion data may be influenced by a body trunk movement that occurs while recording respiratory activity. This research employs a pair of wireless, wearable IMU sensors custom-made by the Department of Electrical Engineering at San Diego State University. After appropriate sensor placement for data collection, this research applies principles of robotics, using the Denavit-Hartenberg convention, to extract relative angular motion between the two sensors. One of the obtained relative joint angles in the “Sagittal” plane predominantly yields respiratory activity. An improvised version of the proposed method and wearable, wireless sensors can be suitable to extract respiratory information while performing sports or exercises, as they do not restrict body motion or the choice of location to gather data.

  10. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in raw milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, prefectural public health laboratories and institutes and Japan Chemical Analysis Center have measured the levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk samples. Sampling was done as follows: 4 times of raw milk samples a year in 10 prefectures for the report to WHO, 2 times of raw milk samples a year in 4 prefectures; and 2 times of city milk samples a year in 29 prefectures. Three litters of fresh milk were collected and carbonated in the prefectural public health laboratories and institutes of each prefecture, and the carbonated samples were collected at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these collected samples were radiochemically analysed for 90 Sr and 137 Cs using the method applied for the analysis of the radionuclides contents in total diet materials. (author)

  11. Plesiomonas shigelloides Periprosthetic Knee Infection After Consumption of Raw Oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Joshua W; Ahmed, Sarim

    Periprosthetic infections are a leading cause of morbidity after total joint arthroplasty. Common pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, enterococcus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, there are many cases in which rare bacteria are isolated. This case report describes a periprosthetic knee infection caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides. In the United States, P shigelloides and 2 other Vibrionaceae family members, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are most often contracted from eating raw oysters and shellfish. P shigelloides usually causes a self-limiting watery diarrhea, but in immunosuppressed people it can cause septicemia. In this case report, a chemically and biologically immunosuppressed man consumed raw oysters and developed P shigelloides septicemia and acute periprosthetic knee infection that required surgical intervention.

  12. 1996 Activities report on energies and raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 activity survey of the French General Directory for Energy and Raw Materials, which main objectives are to preserve the competitiveness of French economy, enhance environmental protection, secure the long term supply safety and maintain the public service basis for energy supply, is presented. The main themes of the survey are: the nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, the electric power inland market, the evolution of the oil market in 1996, the situation of refining in France, restructuring the BRGM (Mining and Geological Research Bureau), followed by brief facts concerning the sustainable energy development, nuclear energy, electric power, electricity and gas common issues, gas, coal, petroleum products, raw materials and underground materials. A series of global diagrams concludes the survey

  13. Agaves as a raw material: recent technologies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez-Zapata, J A; Sánchez-Teyer, L F

    2009-01-01

    Agave plants are a valuable source of raw material due to its fibrous and complex sugar content of their leaves and core, and their bagasse waste can be use for several aims. This plant genus belongs to the Agavaceae family and until now more than 200 species have been described. A large number of Agave species are currently used as raw material in several biotechnological processes. This review shows the reported applications and patents on fields like alcoholic brewages with special reference to Tequila and Mezcal, the isolation and use of compounds such as saponins and agave fructans, and their potential biotechnological application on several human demands. The process to obtain fibers and cellulose, stock feeds, and several miscellaneous extractives are also reviewed. Some possibilities and problems of cultivation are discussed.

  14. Prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms in raw cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli in the raw cow milk. In this study 133 milk-tank samples from several milk collecting points were analysed. After the tests the following prevalence was detected: for Listeria spp. 13 positive samples (9.77%, with 9 Listeria monocytogenes samples confirmed (6.76%. Salmonella spp. was not detected in any of the the samples. The biggest presence was detected for Staphylococcus spp. with 113 positive samples (85.0%. Further testes has shown prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci of 73% (97 positive samples. Escherichia coli was confirmed in 57 samples (46.0%. The results from this study clearly indicate that pathogen microorganisms which are important for the human health can be found in the raw cow milk and their presence can be potential hazard for contamination of the milk-processing establishments.

  15. Gas condensate--raw material for producing liquid paraffin hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyeva, R.B.; Alikishi-Zade, G.Yu.; Kuliyev, A.M.; Leonidov, A.N.; Pereverzev, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of efficient utilization of gas condensates as raw material for removal of a valuable product, liquid paraffins, is examined. A classification of gas condensates is given which is used as raw material for removing these hydrocarbons: gas condensate with high content of n-alkanes (25-40 mass percent), with average content (18-25 mass percent), with low content (12-18 mass percent), light weight fractions compositions, which do not contain fractions up to 200/sup 0/, and also, content ofless than 12% n-alkanes. Gas condensate I-III groups are 30% of the total reserve of gas condensate. Liquid paraffins hydrocarbons, produced from fractions of diesel fuel, which has been removed from Shatlyk gas condensate under conditions which simulate virtual processes of caramide deparaffinization meet all requirements without additional refining.

  16. Radiation sterilization of some cosmetic raw materials and preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmatowicz-Szmajke, T.; Bryl-Sandelewska, T.; Galazka, M.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of microbiological purity of cosmetic preparations is discussed. Some results obtained on the influence of ionizing radiation on organoleptic and physicochemical properties of some cosmetic raw materials and final products are reported. The samples of raw materials and the final products were irradiated with a 10 MeV electron beam from an LAE 13/9 linear accelerator located in INR. The doses delivered to the materials were 0.5 - 2.3 Mrad (5-23 kGy). Immediately after irradiation, organoleptic estimations were made and over the next few days physicochemical investigations were performed. Non-irradiated samples were investigated together with irradiated ones. (T.I.)

  17. Characterization and reduction of motion artifacts in photoplethysmographic signals from a wrist-worn device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tauţan, A.M.; Young, A.; Wentink, E.; Wieringa, F.P.

    2015-01-01

    Methods for analyzing various motion artifacts in photoplethysmography (PPG) signals, recorded by a wristworn device are reported. The analysis looks both at intrinsic PPG signal properties, through standard deviation, skew and kurtosis, but also at its relationship to five possible motion reference

  18. Ship motion-based wave estimation using a spectral residual-calculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik D.; H. Brodtkorb, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study focused on a newly developed procedure for wave spectrum estimation using wave-induced motion recordings from a ship. The particular procedure stands out from other existing, similar ship motion-based pro-cedures by its computational efficiency and - at the same time- ...

  19. Video Analysis of Projectile Motion Using Tablet Computers as Experimental Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, P.; Gröber, S.; Kuhn, J.; Müller, A.

    2014-01-01

    Tablet computers were used as experimental tools to record and analyse the motion of a ball thrown vertically from a moving skateboard. Special applications plotted the measurement data component by component, allowing a simple determination of initial conditions and "g" in order to explore the underlying laws of motion. This experiment…

  20. The design and implementation of a VR-architecture for smooth motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, F.A.; Liere, van R.; Fröhlich, B.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce an architecture for smooth motion in virtual environments. The system performs forward depth image warping to produce images at video refresh rates. In addition to color and depth, our 3D warping approach records per-pixel motion information during rendering of the three-dimensional

  1. The design and implementation of a VR-architecture for smooth motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Smit (Ferdi); R. van Liere (Robert); B. Fröhlich (Bernd); S.N. Spencer

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce an architecture for smooth motion in virtual environments. The system performs forward depth image warping to produce images at video refresh rates. In addition to color and depth, our 3D warping approach records per-pixel motion information during rendering of the

  2. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation; Energies et matieres premieres. Conjoncture energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in September 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 1.1%, at the same rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 5.9%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 0.8%), strong increase for gas (+ 3.2%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.7%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a record energy cost level with + 30% on one year, reaching 89.2 billions Francs, to be compared to 68.5 in September 1996

  3. Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Ma, Y; Santos, M V

    2006-03-01

    Pasteurized fluid milk shelf life is influenced by raw milk quality. The microbial count and somatic cell count (SCC) determine the load of heat-resistant enzymes in milk. Generally, high levels of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk are required to contribute sufficient quantities of heat-stable proteases and lipases to cause breakdown of protein and fat after pasteurization. Sanitation, refrigeration, and the addition of CO2 to milk are used to control both total and psychrotrophic bacteria count. It is not uncommon for total bacterial counts of raw milk to be milk processors have not focused much attention on milk SCC. Increased SCC is correlated with increased amounts of heat-stable protease (plasmin) and lipase (lipoprotein lipase) in milk. When starting with raw milk that has a low bacterial count, and in the absence of microbial growth in pasteurized milk, enzymes associated with high SCC will cause protein and fat degradation during refrigerated storage, and produce off-flavors. As the ability to kill, remove, or control microbial growth in pasteurized refrigerated milk continues to improve, the original milk SCC will be the factor limiting the time of refrigerated storage before development of an off-flavor in milk. Most healthy cows in a dairy herd have a milk SCC 200,000 cell/mL are usually due to the contribution of high SCC milk from a small number of cows in the herd. Technology to identify these cows and keep their milk out of the bulk tank could substantially increase the value of the remaining milk for use in fluid milk processing. To achieve a 60- to 90-d shelf life of refrigerated fluid milk, fluid processors and dairy farmers need to work together to structure economic incentives that allow farmers to produce milk with the SCC needed for extended refrigerated shelf life.

  4. Restaurant Policies and Practices for Serving Raw Fish in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeen, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    The number of restaurants serving sushi within Minnesota is continuously increasing. The practices and protocols of serving raw fish are complex and require detailed planning to ensure that food served to patrons will not cause illness. Although the popularity of sushi is increasing, there is a lack of research on food safety issues pertaining to preparation of raw fish and sushi rice. To address this gap, the Minnesota Department of Health Environmental Health Specialists Network Food program collected descriptive data on restaurant practices and policies concerning the service of raw fish and sushi rice in 40 Minnesota restaurants. At each restaurant, a specialist interviewed a restaurant manager, conducted an observation of the sushi prep areas in the restaurant kitchen, and reviewed parasite destruction letters and invoices from fish supplier(s). Over half of the restaurants (59%) were missing one or more of the parasite destruction letters from their fish supplier(s) guaranteeing that fish had been properly frozen to the time and temperature requirements in the Minnesota Food Code. A total of 42 parasite destruction letters from suppliers were observed; 10% were considered "adequate" letters. The majority of the letters were missing details pertaining to the types of fish frozen, the length of time fish were frozen, or details on what temperatures fish were held frozen or a combination of all three. Most restaurants were using time as a public health control for their sushi rice. For those restaurants using time as a public health control, 26% had a written procedure on-site, and approximately 53% were keeping track of time. Bare hand contact during sushi prep was observed in 17% of restaurants, and in more than 40% of the restaurants, at least one fish was mislabeled on the menu. Findings from this study indicate that many Minnesota restaurants are not complying with the Food Code requirements pertaining to parasite destruction for the service of raw fish or

  5. Comparison of Biochars Characteristics from Different Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    SUN Tao; ZHU Xin-ping; LI Dian-peng; GU Zhu-yu; ZHANG Jia-xi; JIA Hong-tao

    2017-01-01

    Biochar is the carbon-rich product from biomass under limited supply of oxygen. Biochar has been well recognized in enhancing terrestrial carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas mitigation as well as in improving soil fertility and plant productivity. To explore the differences of biochars produced from different raw materials, six biochar samples made from alfalfa straw, wheat straw, cotton straw, grape vines, sludge and lignite were selected as test material. Qualitative and quantitative an...

  6. MICROBIOLOGY OF RAW MATERIALS USED FOR CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw materials used for preparation of confectionery products. For microbiological evaluation total count of bacteria, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi in samples of raw materials used in the manufacture and creams of confectionery products were detected. In addition to these groups of microorganisms the presence of pathogenic microorganisms Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in creams was monitored. Products are assessed according to the limit values of the number of microorganisms defined in the Codex Alimentary of the Slovak Republic. For microbiological analysis of confectionery products, sampling of components of confectionary products and cream was carried out according to current health regulations and altogether 65 samples of components and creams were collected: 10 samples of raw materials sugar, 10 samples of flour, 10 samples of butter and 10 samples of eggs, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag without rum addition, 5 samples of butter yolk from cream-filled disposable bag with rum addition, 5 samples of cream-filled multiple use paid bag, 5 samples of cream-filled newly purchased paid bag, 5 samples of Venček corpus and 5 samples of the French cubes corpus. From raw material the highest TBC (2.65log CFU was in flour, but the lowest in sugar (1.35 log CFU, the highest years counts was found on flour (2.42, but lowest in butter (1.18, while wasn’t in egg. In samples of creams and corpus were increased occurrence of yeast, coliform bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus weren’t isolated from any tested sample.

  7. Eosinophilic meningitis risk associated with raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Jye Wang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection has been reported in foreign laborers who had consumed raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails. This study analyzed three foreign laborers who had contracted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-confirmed A cantonensis infection while working in Taiwan. All three workers had consumed either roasted snails or raw snails flavored with seasoning while drinking wine. This study investigated possible risk factors for A cantonensis, including naturally occurring A cantonensis in A canaliculatus snails, viability of third-stage A cantonensis larvae in raw seasoned snails and in roasted snails, infectivity of larvae, and effects of alcohol while consuming snails. Positive infection rates in snails from five different irrigation canals in south Taiwan ranged from 12.3% to 29.4% and the average number of motile larvae per infected snail ranged from 36 to 65. The number of motile and coiled larvae in snail meat after 120 minutes seasoning was 93 (27.7% and 233 (69.3%, respectively. After 20 minutes of roasting, most larvae in the snail meat were dead. The infectivities of motile and coiled larvae from snail meat after 60 minutes seasoning were 53.2% and 33.2%, respectively, and those from snail meat after 5 minutes roasting were 33.2% and 7.0%, respectively. Eating Taiwan A canaliculatus snails raw is extremely risky given their high infection rates and infection intensities. Even after 120 minutes seasoning or after 20 minutes roasting, snail meat should be considered unsafe for human consumption. Finally, experimental rodent studies indicated that consuming alcohol while ingesting larvae does not significantly reduced infectivity.

  8. Kadenza: Kepler/K2 Raw Cadence Data Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barentsen, Geert; Cardoso, José Vinícius de Miranda

    2018-03-01

    Kadenza enables time-critical data analyses to be carried out using NASA's Kepler Space Telescope. It enables users to convert Kepler's raw data files into user-friendly Target Pixel Files upon downlink from the spacecraft. The primary motivation for this tool is to enable the microlensing, supernova, and exoplanet communities to create quicklook lightcurves for transient events which require rapid follow-up.

  9. Petroleum as a raw material resource for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.I.

    1996-01-01

    Author notes that for economic and social region development it is necessary has been created large petroleum chemical plants near by Atyrau city (initial raw material - Tengiz, Korolev and other petroleum deposits of this region) and Aktau (Mangistau and Bazuchin petroleum). Realization of projects for structure changes of petroleum and gas region demands a great investments. It is noted that growing scales of petroleum and gas resources mastering calls already a considerable environmental complications because of Caspian Sea's level marking rise

  10. Algorithmic Issues in Modeling Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, P. K; Guibas, L. J; Edelsbrunner, H.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a survey of research areas in which motion plays a pivotal role. The aim of the article is to review current approaches to modeling motion together with related data structures and algorithms, and to summarize the challenges that lie ahead in producing a more unified theory of mot...

  11. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively .... rigid body rotation. The solid body rotation makes sense in the context of small Reynolds. (Re) number flows ...

  12. Commercially available video motion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended

  13. Motion simulator with exchangeable unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.A.; Beukers, A.; Baarspul, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.; De Winter, S.E.E.

    2001-01-01

    A motion simulator provided with a movable housing, preferably carried by a number of length-adjustable legs, in which housing projection means are arranged for visual information supply, while in the housing a control environment of a motion apparatus to be simulated is situated, the control

  14. Ground Motion Characteristics of Induced Earthquakes in Central North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G. M.; Assatourians, K.; Novakovic, M.

    2017-12-01

    The ground motion characteristics of induced earthquakes in central North America are investigated based on empirical analysis of a compiled database of 4,000,000 digital ground-motion records from events in induced-seismicity regions (especially Oklahoma). Ground-motion amplitudes are characterized non-parametrically by computing median amplitudes and their variability in magnitude-distance bins. We also use inversion techniques to solve for regional source, attenuation and site response effects. Ground motion models are used to interpret the observations and compare the source and attenuation attributes of induced earthquakes to those of their natural counterparts. Significant conclusions are that the stress parameter that controls the strength of high-frequency radiation is similar for induced earthquakes (depth of h 5 km) and shallow (h 5 km) natural earthquakes. By contrast, deeper natural earthquakes (h 10 km) have stronger high-frequency ground motions. At distances close to the epicenter, a greater focal depth (which increases distance from the hypocenter) counterbalances the effects of a larger stress parameter, resulting in motions of similar strength close to the epicenter, regardless of event depth. The felt effects of induced versus natural earthquakes are also investigated using USGS "Did You Feel It?" reports; 400,000 reports from natural events and 100,000 reports from induced events are considered. The felt reports confirm the trends that we expect based on ground-motion modeling, considering the offsetting effects of the stress parameter versus focal depth in controlling the strength of motions near the epicenter. Specifically, felt intensity for a given magnitude is similar near the epicenter, on average, for all event types and depths. At distances more than 10 km from the epicenter, deeper events are felt more strongly than shallow events. These ground-motion attributes imply that the induced-seismicity hazard is most critical for facilities in

  15. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Mesta/Kenaf as raw material for Kraft pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraf, V. P.; Shiveshwar, R. M.; Meshramkar, P. M.; Deb, U. K.; Jaspal, N. S.; Biyani, B. P.

    1980-03-15

    In recent years, the shortage of conventional raw materials for pulping has intensified a world-wide search for alternate raw materials. Among other cellulosic materials, attention has focused on agricultural residues and annual plants. In this category, Kenaf, also called Mesta, has been studied as a fiber source in many countries including the USA, Phillippines and India. A comprehensive study on kraft pulping of mesta was carried out where the fiber morphology, pulping, bleaching and papermaking characteristics were investigated. Black liquor properties were also determined. The results of this study are reported and compared to the conventional raw material bamboo. The investigation has shown that mesta is easily pulped and bleached and forms sheets of excellent strength properties, comparable to or better than bamboo pulps. The black liquor from mesta is similar to bamboo in calorific value but is very low in silica, which is highly desirable from the chemical recovery point of view. As with all agricultural residues and annual plants, mesta has a high bulk per unit weight. The problems arising from this, e.g., baling, transportation, proper utilization of digester capacity, have to be studied before mesta can be widely accepted in the paper industry.

  17. Direct hydrodeoxygenation of raw woody biomass into liquid alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qineng; Chen, Zongjia; Shao, Yi; Gong, Xueqing; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Xiaohui; Parker, Stewart F; Han, Xue; Yang, Sihai; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-03-30

    Being the only sustainable source of organic carbon, biomass is playing an ever-increasingly important role in our energy landscape. The conversion of renewable lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuels is particularly attractive but extremely challenging due to the inertness and complexity of lignocellulose. Here we describe the direct hydrodeoxygenation of raw woods into liquid alkanes with mass yields up to 28.1 wt% over a multifunctional Pt/NbOPO4 catalyst in cyclohexane. The superior performance of this catalyst allows simultaneous conversion of cellulose, hemicellulose and, more significantly, lignin fractions in the wood sawdust into hexane, pentane and alkylcyclohexanes, respectively. Investigation on the molecular mechanism reveals that a synergistic effect between Pt, NbOx species and acidic sites promotes this highly efficient hydrodeoxygenation of bulk lignocellulose. No chemical pretreatment of the raw woody biomass or separation is required for this one-pot process, which opens a general and energy-efficient route for converting raw lignocellulose into valuable alkanes.

  18. Biosolubilization of raw and gamma irradiated lignite by trichoderma asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugoro, I.; Astuti, D.I.; Aditiawati, P.; Sasongko, D.

    2012-01-01

    Biosolubilization is a promising technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil by addition of microorganism. Aim of this research is to compare between gamma irradiated lignite (10 kGy) with raw lignite in biosolubilization by selected fungi Trichoderma asperellum. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T. asperellum) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T. asperellum) with sub-merged culture. There were two parameters observed i.e. biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and metal analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The highest biosolubilization will be analyzed by FTIR and GCMS. The results showed that biosolubilization of raw lignite (B) was higher than sterilized lignite (A) based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm . The metal of lignite was decreased after incubation. FTIR analysis showed that both of treatment had similar spectra on biosolubilization products. GCMS analysis showed that both of treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C 6 - C 35 (A) and C 10 - C 35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Both of treatment product had the potency as oil substituted but its recommended to deoxygenate for higher quality. (author)

  19. Nanoparticle mediated micromotor motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Liu, Limei; Gao, Wenlong; Su, Miaoda; Ge, Ya; Shi, Lili; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report the utilization of nanoparticles to mediate the motion of a polymer single crystal catalytic micromotor. Micromotors have been fabricated by directly self-assembling functional nanoparticles (platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles) onto one or both sides of two-dimensional polymer single crystals. We show that the moving velocity of these micromotors in fluids can be readily tuned by controlling the nanoparticles' surface wettability and catalytic activity. A 3 times velocity increase has been achieved for a hydrophobic micromotor as opposed to the hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles inside the micromotor can be enhanced by their synergetic interactions with iron oxide nanoparticles and an electric field. Both strategies lead to dramatically increased moving velocities, with the highest value reaching ~200 μm s-1. By decreasing the nanoparticles' surface wettability and increasing their catalytic activity, a maximum of a ~10-fold increase in the moving speed of the nanoparticle based micromotor can be achieved. Our results demonstrate the advantages of using nanoparticles in micromotor systems.In this paper, we report the utilization of nanoparticles to mediate the motion of a polymer single crystal catalytic micromotor. Micromotors have been fabricated by directly self-assembling functional nanoparticles (platinum and iron oxide nanoparticles) onto one or both sides of two-dimensional polymer single crystals. We show that the moving velocity of these micromotors in fluids can be readily tuned by controlling the nanoparticles' surface wettability and catalytic activity. A 3 times velocity increase has been achieved for a hydrophobic micromotor as opposed to the hydrophilic ones. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of platinum nanoparticles inside the micromotor can be enhanced by their synergetic interactions with iron oxide nanoparticles and an electric

  20. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria Staphylococcus spp. isolated from samples of raw sheep's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vasiľ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From samples of raw sheep's milk were determined results of bacteriological examination from two herds in region of Eastern Slovakia in three years lasting study. The occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. 41.6% (124 was determined from 298 samples. The seven species of staphylococci were on a regular basis isolated: S. epidermidis (34, S. chromogenes (26, S. aureus (16. Alternately have been recorded S. warneri (16, S. schleiferi (15, S. haemolyticus (9 and S. xylosus (8. All isolated pathogens were tested by in vitro test on Mueller-Hinton agar by disc methods on resistance to 10 types of antibiotics.  Highest value of resistance was determined to Penicilin 21.0%, Neomycin 10.5% and Novobiocin 9.7%. Lower resistance was in to Oxacilin 7.2% and Amoxicilin 6.5%. Minimal resistance was founded to Cefoxitin 0.8%, Linkomycin 2.4%, Erytromycin, and Streptomycin 3.2%. Was founded total resistance (21.0% to all antibiotics in S. epidermidis (34 during the three years, S. chromogenes (26 showed resistance to 8 types of antibiotics (12.9%, S. aureus (16 to 6 antibiotics (10.5% and S. warneri (16 to 4 antibiotics (5.6%. It was confirmed that sheep's milk remains a major source of staphylococci. Bacteria in comparison with isolates from cows' raw milk, showed lower values of resistance, but were resistant to more than two antibiotics. Recorded occurrence of resistance in staphylococci may be connected with a minimum use of antibiotics in the treatment of mastitis and other diseases in sheep herds. Reported resistance to the tested antibiotics became the basis for the recommendation to use preparations to treat mastitis in sheep principally by the detection of resistance to antibiotics contained.

  1. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  2. Extracting a respiratory signal from raw dynamic PET data that contain tracer kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, P J; Thielemans, K; Marsden, P K

    2014-08-07

    Data driven gating (DDG) methods provide an alternative to hardware based respiratory gating for PET imaging. Several existing DDG approaches obtain a respiratory signal by observing the change in PET-counts within specific regions of acquired PET data. Currently, these methods do not allow for tracer kinetics which can interfere with the respiratory signal and introduce error. In this work, we produced a DDG method for dynamic PET studies that exhibit tracer kinetics. Our method is based on an existing approach that uses frequency-domain analysis to locate regions within raw PET data that are subject to respiratory motion. In the new approach, an optimised non-stationary short-time Fourier transform was used to create a time-varying 4D map of motion affected regions. Additional processing was required to ensure that the relationship between the sign of the respiratory signal and the physical direction of movement remained consistent for each temporal segment of the 4D map. The change in PET-counts within the 4D map during the PET acquisition was then used to generate a respiratory curve. Using 26 min dynamic cardiac NH3 PET acquisitions which included a hardware derived respiratory measurement, we show that tracer kinetics can severely degrade the respiratory signal generated by the original DDG method. In some cases, the transition of tracer from the liver to the lungs caused the respiratory signal to invert. The new approach successfully compensated for tracer kinetics and improved the correlation between the data-driven and hardware based signals. On average, good correlation was maintained throughout the PET acquisitions.

  3. Extracting a respiratory signal from raw dynamic PET data that contain tracer kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleyer, P J; Thielemans, K; Marsden, P K

    2014-01-01

    Data driven gating (DDG) methods provide an alternative to hardware based respiratory gating for PET imaging. Several existing DDG approaches obtain a respiratory signal by observing the change in PET-counts within specific regions of acquired PET data. Currently, these methods do not allow for tracer kinetics which can interfere with the respiratory signal and introduce error. In this work, we produced a DDG method for dynamic PET studies that exhibit tracer kinetics. Our method is based on an existing approach that uses frequency-domain analysis to locate regions within raw PET data that are subject to respiratory motion. In the new approach, an optimised non-stationary short-time Fourier transform was used to create a time-varying 4D map of motion affected regions. Additional processing was required to ensure that the relationship between the sign of the respiratory signal and the physical direction of movement remained consistent for each temporal segment of the 4D map. The change in PET-counts within the 4D map during the PET acquisition was then used to generate a respiratory curve. Using 26 min dynamic cardiac NH 3 PET acquisitions which included a hardware derived respiratory measurement, we show that tracer kinetics can severely degrade the respiratory signal generated by the original DDG method. In some cases, the transition of tracer from the liver to the lungs caused the respiratory signal to invert. The new approach successfully compensated for tracer kinetics and improved the correlation between the data-driven and hardware based signals. On average, good correlation was maintained throughout the PET acquisitions. (paper)

  4. Motion Capturing Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Karen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The study embraced four dance genres: Ballet, Contemporary, Flamenco and Greek Folk dance. We are specifically interested in the kinesthetic and emotional engagement with the moving body and what new corporeal awareness may be experienced. Positioning the moving, dancing body as fundamental to technological advancements, we discuss the importance of considering the dancer’s experience in the real and virtual space. Some of the artists involved in the project have offered their experiences, which are included, and they form the basis of the discussion. In addition, we discuss the affect of immersive environments, how these environments expand reality and what effect (emotionally and otherwise that has on the body. The research reveals insights into relationships between emotion, movement and technology and what new sensorial knowledge this evokes for the dancer.

  5. Measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeong Han

    2006-01-01

    This study was to understand about the measurement of shoulder motion fraction and motion ratio. We proposed the radiological criterior of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement ratio. We measured the motion fraction of the glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movement using CR (computed radiological system) of arm elevation at neutral, 90 degree, full elevation. Central ray was 15 .deg., 19 .deg., 22 .deg. to the cephald for the parallel scapular spine, and the tilting of torso was external oblique 40 .deg., 36 .deg., 22 .deg. for perpendicular to glenohumeral surface. Healthful donor of 100 was divided 5 groups by age (20, 30, 40, 50, 60). The angle of glenohumeral motion and scapulothoracic motion could be taken from gross arm angle and radiological arm angle. We acquired 3 images at neutral, 90 .deg. and full elevation position and measured radiographic angle of glenoheumeral, scapulothoracic movement respectively. While the arm elevation was 90 .deg., the shoulder motion fraction was 1.22 (M), 1.70 (W) in right arm and 1.31, 1.54 in left. In full elevation, Right arm fraction was 1.63, 1.84 and left was 1.57, 1.32. In right dominant arm (78%), 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.58, 1.43, in left (22%) 1.82, 1.94. In generation 20, 90 .deg. and Full motion fraction was 1.56, 1.52, 30' was 1.82, 1.43, 40' was 1.23, 1.16, 50' was 1.80, 1.28,60' was 1.24, 1.75. There was not significantly by gender, dominant arm and age. The criteria of motion fraction was useful reference for clinical diagnosis the shoulder instability

  6. Structural analysis of raw and commercial farm edible bird nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, P E; Wong, S F; Lim, P K; Mak, J W

    2014-03-01

    Edible bird nests (EBNs) are consumed worldwide for various health benefits. EBNs are nests built from the saliva of swiftlets of Aerodramus species. The global market for EBNs is on the rise, especially from Hong Kong and mainland China. In the past, EBNs were harvested mainly from natural caves; however in the recent years, there has been a rapid growth of swiftlet farming. Little is known about the actual composition of EBNs except for protein, carbohydrate, ash and lipid contents, amino acids, vitamins and macro/ micronutrients. Besides the biochemical components of EBNs, are there any other structures that are associated with EBNs? This paper reports on the structural analysis of raw unprocessed farm and processed commercial EBNs. The raw EBNs were purchased from swiftlet farms in five locations in Peninsula Malaysia: Kuala Sanglang (Perlis; 6° 16' 0"N, 100° 12' 0"E), Pantai Remis (Perak; 4º 27' 0" N, 100º 38' 0" E), Kluang (Johor; 02º 012 303N 103º 192 583E), Kajang (Selangor; 2º 59' 0"N, 101º 47' 0"E) and Kota Bharu (Kelantan; 6º 8' 0"N, 102º 15' 0"E). The commercial nests were purchased from five different Chinese traditional medicinal shops (Companies A-E). A portion of each EBN was randomly broken into small fragments, attached to carbon tape and coated with gold and palladium particles for examination and photography under a scanning electron microscope. Structural analysis revealed the presence of mites, fungi, bacteria and feather strands on both the raw and commercial nests. Mite eggshells and faecal pellets, and body parts of other arthropods were seen only in the raw nests. The commercial nests had a variety of unidentified structures and substances coated on the nests' surfaces that were not found on the raw nests. The presence of these contaminants may jeopardise the quality of EBNs and pose health risks to consumers. Further identification of the mites and their allergens, fungi and bacteria are on-going and will be reported separately.

  7. Monitoring internal organ motion with continuous wave radar in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfanner, Florian; Maier, Joscha; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To avoid motion artifacts in medical imaging or to minimize the exposure of healthy tissues in radiation therapy, medical devices are often synchronized with the patient's respiratory motion. Today's respiratory motion monitors require additional effort to prepare the patients, e.g., mounting a motion belt or placing an optical reflector on the patient's breast. Furthermore, they are not able to measure internal organ motion without implanting markers. An interesting alternative to assess the patient's organ motion is continuous wave radar. The aim of this work is to design, implement, and evaluate such a radar system focusing on application in CT.Methods: The authors designed a radar system operating in the 860 MHz band to monitor the patient motion. In the intended application of the radar system, the antennas are located close to the patient's body inside the table of a CT system. One receive and four transmitting antennas are used to avoid the requirement of exact patient positioning. The radar waves propagate into the patient's body and are reflected at tissue boundaries, for example at the borderline between muscle and adipose tissue, or at the boundaries of organs. At present, the authors focus on the detection of respiratory motion. The radar system consists of the hardware mentioned above as well as of dedicated signal processing software to extract the desired information from the radar signal. The system was evaluated using simulations and measurements. To simulate the radar system, a simulation model based on radar and wave field equations was designed and 4D respiratory-gated CT data sets were used as input. The simulated radar signals and the measured data were processed in the same way. The radar system hardware and the signal processing algorithms were tested with data from ten volunteers. As a reference, the respiratory motion signal was recorded using a breast belt simultaneously with the radar measurements.Results: Concerning the

  8. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  9. 78 FR 51212 - Records Schedules; Availability and Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... motion pictures of mission activities, and education files. 11. Peace Corps, Office of Safety and... Records Management Services (ACNR) using one of the following means: Mail: NARA (ACNR), 8601 Adelphi Road... (ACNR), National Archives and Records Administration, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001...

  10. [Restricted motion after total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T; Urban, K; Karpas, K; Sponer, P

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain what proportion of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) complain of restricted knee joint motion, and to investigate options for improvement of this situation. Our evaluation included a group of 796 patients treated with TKA at our department in the period from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2004. In all cases, a condylar implant with preservation of the posterior cruciate ligaments was used. In addition to medical history, the range of motion, knee joint malalignment and radiological findings were assessed before surgery. After THA, the type of implant and complications, if any, were recorded, and improvement in joint motion was followed up. Based on the results of Kim et al., flexion contracture equal to or higher than 15 degrees and/or flexion less than 75 degrees were made the criteria of stiffness after THA. Patients with restricted THA motion who had aseptic or septic implant loosening were not included. Of the 796 evaluated patients, 32 (4.14 %) showed restricted motion after total knee arthroplasty, as assessed by the established criteria. In 16 patients, stiffness defined by these criteria had existed before surgery, and three patients showed an excessive production of adhesions and heterotopic ossifications. In three patients, the implantation procedure resulted in an elevated level of the original joint line and subsequent development of patella infera and increased tension of the posterior cruciate ligament. Four patients declined physical therapy and, in six, the main cause of stiffness could not be found. Seventeen patients did not require surgical therapy for restricted motion; TKA provided significant pain relief and they considered the range of motion achieved to be sufficient. One patient underwent redress 3 months after surgery, but with no success. Repeated releases of adhesions, replacement of a polyethylene liner and revision surgery of the extensor knee structures were performed in 15

  11. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  12. Field handling conditions of raw milk sold in vending machines: experimental evaluation of the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato G. Zanoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The direct sale by farmers of raw milk for human consumption has been allowed in Italy since 2004. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of selected foodborne pathogens in raw milk sold in vending machines, in field handling conditions, and during shelf-life from production to consumption. Temperature of storage of raw milk in 33 farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk were investigated from farm to vending machine delivery, together with consumer habits in one province of the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. Failure to maintain appropriate low temperatures during shelf-life was recorded and 43% of consumers did not boil milk before consumption. Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni strains were inoculated into raw milk samples, and the best (4°C as established by law and worst temperature storage conditions detected (variable temperature were simulated. Boiling tests were performed for each pathogen considered at high and low levels of contamination. Results showed an increase in L. monocytogenes in milk stored at 4°C and at variable temperatures recorded in shelf-life monitoring, an increase in E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium at variable temperatures but not at 4°C, and a decrease in C. jejuni in all storage conditions. Boiling milk is effective in making it safe for consumers. This study provides evidence that appropriate handling of raw milk, maintaining low temperatures, together with consumer education concerning boiling raw milk before consumption are key factors in preventing foodborne infections linked to raw milk consumption, and helps assess the risk of foodborne infection linked to raw milk consumption.

  13. Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Bertrand

    2016-04-01

    Map of critical raw material deposits in Europe Guillaume BERTRAND1, Daniel CASSARD1, Nikolaos ARVANITIDIS2, Gerry STANLEY3 and the EuroGeoSurvey Mineral Resources Expert Group4. 1 - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), Georesources Divison, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans cedex 2, FRANCE. 2 - Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning (SGU), Box 670, SE-751 28, Uppsala, SWEDEN 3 - Geological Survey of Ireland (GSI), Beggars Bush, Haddington Road, Dublin D04 K7X4, IRELAND 4 - EuroGeoSurveys, Rue Joseph II 36-38, 1000 Brussels, BELGIUM The Critical Raw Material (CRM) Deposit Map of Europe, prepared by EuroGeoSurvey's Mineral Resources Expert Group (MREG), shows European mineral deposits from the ProMine Mineral Deposit database containing critical commodities, according to the 2014 list of critical raw materials of the European Commission. EuroGeoSurveys (EGS), The Geological Surveys of Europe, is a not-for-profit organization representing 37 National Geological Surveys and some regional Geological Surveys in Europe. It provides the European Institutions with expert, independent, balanced and practical pan-European advice and information as an aid to problem-solving, policy development, regulatory and programme formulation in areas such as natural resources, energy and geo-hazards. The EGS MREG is actively involved in contributing to policy and strategy-making processes aimed at identifying, characterizing and safeguarding resource potential, especially for critical raw materials through data provision, research, technological development and innovation. The European Union aspires to reducing the import dependency of raw materials, especially CRM, that are essential to Europe's industries. In this respect, mineral resource information, data sharing and networking by European Geological Surveys is crucial. The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials highlights the need for establishing and maintaining a

  14. System simulation application for determining the size of daily raw material purchases at PT XY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitupulu, H. L.

    2018-02-01

    Every manufacturing company needs to implement green production, including PT XY as a marine catchment processing industry in Sumatera Utara Province. The company is engaged in the processing of squid for export purposes. The company’s problem relates to the absence of a decision on the daily purchase amount of the squid. The purchase of daily raw materials in varying quantities has caused companies to face the problem of excess raw materials or otherwise the lack of raw materials. The low purchase of raw materials will result in reduced productivity, while large purchases will lead to increased cooling costs for storage of excess raw materials, as well as possible loss of damage raw material. Therefore it is necessary to determine the optimal amount of raw material purchases every day. This can be determined by applying simulation. Application of system simulations can provide the expected optimal amount of raw material purchases.

  15. Device for dewatering of raw biomass. Anordning foer avvattning och uppluckring av raa biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubat, J; Aabom, J J.V.; Klason, T C.F.; Bultzingsloewen, F von

    1993-09-27

    This invention concerns a device for loosening of raw biomass through roll dewatering. It is primarily applicable for comminuted and milled raw wood. The invention is of special interest for the production of pulverized wood fuel

  16. CASSINI RSS RAW DATA SET - SROC20 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cassini Radio Science Saturn Ring and Atmospheric Occultation experiments (SROC20) Raw Data Archive is a time-ordered collection of radio science raw data...

  17. Renewable raw materials in the field of industry; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe in der Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, D.

    2006-07-01

    Being used to the practiced processing of raw materials for many decades the industry had to tap the advantage of renewable raw materials again. Conventional processing methods had to be changed and to be newly developed. This has been a rewarding task considering the ecological advantages but also considering the interesting markets for products based upon renewable raw materials. Today the German industry above all the chemical industry again processes agricultural and forestal raw materials to a considerable extent. Ten percent of the raw materials processed by the chemical industry are renewable. The wood processing industry is an important economic sector that achieves a value creation with the raw material wood exceeding the value creation of other industries by far. This brochure gives an overview of the possible substances, which are processed from renewable raw materials in Germany and it shows the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play for the industry nowadays. (orig.)

  18. IceBridge Sigma Space Lidar L0 Raw Time-of-Flight Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Sigma Space Lidar L0 Raw Time-of-Flight Data (ILSIG0) contain raw time-of-flight values for Antarctica and Greenland using the Sigma Space Lidar....

  19. MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath (MYD01) product contains reformatted and packaged raw instrument data. MODIS instrument data, in packetized...

  20. MARS GLOBAL SURVEYOR RAW DATA SET - CRUISE V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Radio Science (RS) Raw Data Archive (RDA) is a time-ordered collection of raw and partially processed data collected during the MGS...

  1. Motion perception in motion : how we perceive object motion during smooth pursuit eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souman, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eye movements change the retinal image motion of objects in the visual field. When we make an eye movement, the image of a stationary object will move across the retinae, while the retinal image of an object that we follow with the eyes is approximately stationary. To enable us to perceive motion in

  2. Cinematic Motion by Hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graca, Marina Estela

    2006-01-01

    Within Cinema, animation always had an unclear relation with live-action recording since its very beginning. We learned – helped by ASIFA (International Animated Film Association) – that we should separate one from the other and we also realized that we (still) don’t have a general theory of cinema...... that embraces both. Yet, over the last years, animation and live-action footage became completely tangled in cinematic productions. Obviously, this means that each of them is just a technical strategy supported by its own specialists and as one became dominant, the other turned out to be marginal. But what...

  3. Prevalence and etiology of false normal aEEG recordings in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Marics, Gábor; Csekő, Anna; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Zakariás, Dávid; Schuster, György; Szabó, Miklós

    2013-01-01

    Background Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is a useful tool to determine the severity of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our aim was to assess the prevalence and study the origin of false normal aEEG recordings based on 85 aEEG recordings registered before six hours of age. Methods Raw EEG recordings were reevaluated retrospectively with Fourier analysis to identify and describe the frequency patterns of the raw EEG signal, in cases with inconsistent aEEG re...

  4. Analytical techniques for characterization of raw materials in cell culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Chandana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Raw materials are a critical part of any cell culture medium; therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand and characterize them for high-quality product. The raw material characterization (RMC program at SAFC focuses on individual screening of raw materials both analytically and biologically. The goal of the program is to develop the best-in-class knowledge base of the raw materials used in SAFC’s media formulations and their impact on performance of products.

  5. Realistic modelling of observed seismic motion in complex sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeh, D.; Panza, G.F.

    1994-03-01

    Three applications of a numerical technique are illustrated to model realistically the seismic ground motion for complex two-dimensional structures. First we consider a sedimentary basin in the Friuli region, and we model strong motion records from an aftershock of the 1976 earthquake. Then we simulate the ground motion caused in Rome by the 1915, Fucino (Italy) earthquake, and we compare our modelling with the damage distribution observed in the town. Finally we deal with the interpretation of ground motion recorded in Mexico City, as a consequence of earthquakes in the Mexican subduction zone. The synthetic signals explain the major characteristics (relative amplitudes, spectral amplification, frequency content) of the considered seismograms, and the space distribution of the available macroseismic data. For the sedimentary basin in the Friuli area, parametric studies demonstrate the relevant sensitivity of the computed ground motion to small changes in the subsurface topography of the sedimentary basin, and in the velocity and quality factor of the sediments. The total energy of ground motion, determined from our numerical simulation in Rome, is in very good agreement with the distribution of damage observed during the Fucino earthquake. For epicentral distances in the range 50km-100km, the source location and not only the local soil conditions control the local effects. For Mexico City, the observed ground motion can be explained as resonance effects and as excitation of local surface waves, and the theoretical and the observed maximum spectral amplifications are very similar. In general, our numerical simulations permit the estimate of the maximum and average spectral amplification for specific sites, i.e. are a very powerful tool for accurate micro-zonation. (author). 38 refs, 19 figs, 1 tab

  6. Analytical Analysis of Motion Separability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Hadian Jazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion segmentation is an important task in computer vision and several practical approaches have already been developed. A common approach to motion segmentation is to use the optical flow and formulate the segmentation problem using a linear approximation of the brightness constancy constraints. Although there are numerous solutions to solve this problem and their accuracies and reliabilities have been studied, the exact definition of the segmentation problem, its theoretical feasibility and the conditions for successful motion segmentation are yet to be derived. This paper presents a simplified theoretical framework for the prediction of feasibility, of segmentation of a two-dimensional linear equation system. A statistical definition of a separable motion (structure is presented and a relatively straightforward criterion for predicting the separability of two different motions in this framework is derived. The applicability of the proposed criterion for prediction of the existence of multiple motions in practice is examined using both synthetic and real image sequences. The prescribed separability criterion is useful in designing computer vision applications as it is solely based on the amount of relative motion and the scale of measurement noise.

  7. Cervical spine motion: radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Miyabayashi, T.; Choy, S.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the acceptable range of motion of the cervical spine of the dog is used in the radiographic diagnosis of both developmental and degenerative diseases. A series of radiographs of mature Beagle dogs was used to identify motion within sagittal and transverse planes. Positioning of the dog's head and neck was standardized, using a restraining board, and mimicked those thought to be of value in diagnostic radiology. The range of motion was greatest between C2 and C5. Reports of severe disk degeneration in the cervical spine of the Beagle describe the most severely involved disks to be C4 through C7. Thus, a high range of motion between vertebral segments does not seem to be the cause for the severe degenerative disk disease. Dorsoventral slippage between vertebral segments was seen, but was not accurately measured. Wedging of disks was clearly identified. At the atlantoaxio-occipital region, there was a high degree of motion within the sagittal plane at the atlantoaxial and atlanto-occipital joints; the measurement can be a guideline in the radiographic diagnosis of instability due to developmental anomalies in this region. Lateral motion within the transverse plane was detected at the 2 joints; however, motion was minimal, and the measurements seemed to be less accurate because of rotation of the cervical spine. Height of the vertebral canal was consistently noted to be greater at the caudal orifice, giving some warning to the possibility of overdiagnosis in suspected instances of cervical spondylopathy

  8. Fundamentals - longitudinal motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    There are many ways to accelerate charged particles to high energy for physics research. Each has served its purpose but eventually has encountered fundamental limitations of one kind or another. Looking at the famous Livingston curve, the initial birth and final level-off of all types of accelerators is seen. In fact, in the mid-80s we personally witnessed the creation of a new type of collider - the Stanford Linear Collider. Also witnessed, was the resurgence of study into novel methods of acceleration. This paper will cover acceleration and longitudinal motion in a synchrotron. A synchrotron is a circular accelerator with the following three characteristics: (1) Magnetic guiding (dipole) and confinement (quadrupole) components are placed in a small neighborhood around the equilibrium orbit. (2) Particles are kept in resonance with the radio-frequency electric field indefinitely to achieve acceleration to higher energies. (3) Magnetic fields are varied adiabatically with the energy of the particle. D. Edwards described the transverse oscillations of particles in a synchrotron. Here the author talks about the longitudinal oscillations of particles. The phase stability principle was invented by V. Veksler and E. McMillan independently in 1945. The phase stability and strong focusing principle, invented by Courant and Livingston in 1952, enabled the steady energy gain of accelerators and storage rings witnessed during the past 30 years. This paper is a unified overview of the related rf subjects in an accelerator and a close coupling between accelerator physics and engineering practices, which is essential for the major progress in areas such as high intensity synchrotrons, a multistage accelerator complex, and anti-proton production and cooling, made possible in the past 20 years

  9. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.; Tapia, Lydia; Thomas, Shawna

    2010-01-01

    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer's disease

  10. What motion is: William Neile and the laws of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Max

    2017-07-01

    In 1668-1669 William Neile and John Wallis engaged in a protracted correspondence regarding the nature of motion. Neile was unhappy with the laws of motion that had been established by the Royal Society in three papers published in 1668, deeming them not explanations of motion at all, but mere descriptions. Neile insisted that science could not be informative without a discussion of causes, meaning that Wallis's purely kinematic account of collision could not be complete. Wallis, however, did not consider Neile's objections to his work to be serious. Rather than engage in a discussion of the proper place of natural philosophy in science, Wallis decided to show how Neile's preferred treatment of motion lead to absurd conclusions. This dispute is offered as a case study of dispute resolution within the early Royal Society.

  11. Motion Artifact Quantification and Sensor Fusion for Unobtrusive Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hoog Antink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensors integrated into objects of everyday life potentially allow unobtrusive health monitoring at home. However, since the coupling of sensors and subject is not as well-defined as compared to a clinical setting, the signal quality is much more variable and can be disturbed significantly by motion artifacts. One way of tackling this challenge is the combined evaluation of multiple channels via sensor fusion. For robust and accurate sensor fusion, analyzing the influence of motion on different modalities is crucial. In this work, a multimodal sensor setup integrated into an armchair is presented that combines capacitively coupled electrocardiography, reflective photoplethysmography, two high-frequency impedance sensors and two types of ballistocardiography sensors. To quantify motion artifacts, a motion protocol performed by healthy volunteers is recorded with a motion capture system, and reference sensors perform cardiorespiratory monitoring. The shape-based signal-to-noise ratio SNR S is introduced and used to quantify the effect on motion on different sensing modalities. Based on this analysis, an optimal combination of sensors and fusion methodology is developed and evaluated. Using the proposed approach, beat-to-beat heart-rate is estimated with a coverage of 99.5% and a mean absolute error of 7.9 ms on 425 min of data from seven volunteers in a proof-of-concept measurement scenario.

  12. Looking at Op Art: Gaze stability and motion illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Frouke; Zanker, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Various Op artists have used simple geometrical patterns to create the illusion of motion in their artwork. One explanation for the observed illusion involves retinal shifts caused by small involuntary eye movements that observers make while they try to maintain fixation. Earlier studies have suggested a prominent role of the most conspicuous of these eye movements, small rapid position shifts called microsaccades. Here, we present data that could expand this view with a different interpretation. In three experiments, we recorded participants' eye movements while they tried to maintain visual fixation when being presented with variants of Bridget Riley's Fall, which were manipulated such as to vary the strength of induced motion. In the first two experiments, we investigated the properties of microsaccades for a set of stimuli with known motion strengths. In agreement with earlier observations, microsaccade rates were unaffected by the stimulus pattern and, consequently, the strength of induced motion illusion. In the third experiment, we varied the stimulus pattern across a larger range of parameters and asked participants to rate the perceived motion illusion. The results revealed that motion illusions in patterns resembling Riley's Fall are perceived even in the absence of microsaccades, and that the reported strength of the illusion decreased with the number of microsaccades in the trial. Together, the three experiments suggest that other sources of retinal image instability than microsaccades, such as slow oculomotor drift, should be considered as possible factors contributing to the illusion.

  13. Motion Artifact Quantification and Sensor Fusion for Unobtrusive Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoog Antink, Christoph; Schulz, Florian; Walter, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Sensors integrated into objects of everyday life potentially allow unobtrusive health monitoring at home. However, since the coupling of sensors and subject is not as well-defined as compared to a clinical setting, the signal quality is much more variable and can be disturbed significantly by motion artifacts. One way of tackling this challenge is the combined evaluation of multiple channels via sensor fusion. For robust and accurate sensor fusion, analyzing the influence of motion on different modalities is crucial. In this work, a multimodal sensor setup integrated into an armchair is presented that combines capacitively coupled electrocardiography, reflective photoplethysmography, two high-frequency impedance sensors and two types of ballistocardiography sensors. To quantify motion artifacts, a motion protocol performed by healthy volunteers is recorded with a motion capture system, and reference sensors perform cardiorespiratory monitoring. The shape-based signal-to-noise ratio SNRS is introduced and used to quantify the effect on motion on different sensing modalities. Based on this analysis, an optimal combination of sensors and fusion methodology is developed and evaluated. Using the proposed approach, beat-to-beat heart-rate is estimated with a coverage of 99.5% and a mean absolute error of 7.9 ms on 425 min of data from seven volunteers in a proof-of-concept measurement scenario. PMID:29295594

  14. Motion Artifact Quantification and Sensor Fusion for Unobtrusive Health Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoog Antink, Christoph; Schulz, Florian; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian

    2017-12-25

    Sensors integrated into objects of everyday life potentially allow unobtrusive health monitoring at home. However, since the coupling of sensors and subject is not as well-defined as compared to a clinical setting, the signal quality is much more variable and can be disturbed significantly by motion artifacts. One way of tackling this challenge is the combined evaluation of multiple channels via sensor fusion. For robust and accurate sensor fusion, analyzing the influence of motion on different modalities is crucial. In this work, a multimodal sensor setup integrated into an armchair is presented that combines capacitively coupled electrocardiography, reflective photoplethysmography, two high-frequency impedance sensors and two types of ballistocardiography sensors. To quantify motion artifacts, a motion protocol performed by healthy volunteers is recorded with a motion capture system, and reference sensors perform cardiorespiratory monitoring. The shape-based signal-to-noise ratio SNR S is introduced and used to quantify the effect on motion on different sensing modalities. Based on this analysis, an optimal combination of sensors and fusion methodology is developed and evaluated. Using the proposed approach, beat-to-beat heart-rate is estimated with a coverage of 99.5% and a mean absolute error of 7.9 ms on 425 min of data from seven volunteers in a proof-of-concept measurement scenario.

  15. Raw Data (ASCII format) - PLACE | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PLACE Raw Data (ASCII format) Data detail Data name Raw Data (ASCII format) DOI 10.18908/lsd...miter About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Raw Data (ASCII format) - PLACE | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Order acceptance in food processing systems with random raw material requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Wijngaard, Jacob; Tarim, S. Armagan

    This study considers a food production system that processes a single perishable raw material into several products having stochastic demands. In order to process an order, the amount of raw material delivery from storage needs to meet the raw material requirement of the order. However, the amount

  17. Regenerative raw materials - High technology without end; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe - Spitzentechnologie ohne Ende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenig, Barbara

    2007-07-01

    Regenerative raw materials are the basis for a multiplicity of environmentally friendly products. Regenerating raw materials fascinate by special qualities and offer the possibility of preserving only restricted existing fossil resources and climatic friendly managing. The review under consideration reports on areas in which vegetable raw materials already are established as well as on future prospects.

  18. 40 CFR 63.1343 - Standards for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../raw mills. 63.1343 Section 63.1343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Industry Emission Standards and Operating Limits § 63.1343 Standards for kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills. (a) General. The provisions in this section apply to each kiln, each in-line kiln/raw mill, and any...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1347 - Standards for raw and finish mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for raw and finish mills. 63... and Operating Limits § 63.1347 Standards for raw and finish mills. The owner or operator of each new or existing raw mill or finish mill at a facility which is a major source subject to the provisions...

  20. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati