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  1. Enzymatic collection test as total gamma irradiation pronostic test in rat, rabbit and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuil, G.; Dinnequin, B.

    The purpose of this study is to known, during 30 days, what becomes the animal whose enzymatic co-ordinates are well known. Both 100, 160, 200, 325, 400, 650, 850, 975, 1000, 1300 rads irradiated rabbit serum enzymatic evolution and that of two 1000 rads in toto irradiated leucemic men for a cord graft are studied [fr

  2. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  3. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the need for testing in a second species could be decided on a case by case basis. As part of an RIVM/CBG-MEB/HESI/US EPA consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 EFDT studies conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceutical compounds. The animal models (rat and rabbit) were assessed for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes. The database was analyzed for the prevalence of EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings in the two species. Some manifestation of EFDT in either one or both species (rat and rabbit) was demonstrated for 282 compounds (74%), and EFDT was detected in only one species (rat or rabbit) in almost a third (31%, 118 compounds), with approximately 58% rat and 42% rabbit studies identifying an EFDT signal among the 379 compounds tested. For 24 compounds (6%), fetal malformations were observed in one species (rat or rabbit) in the absence of any EFDT in the second species. In general, growth retardation, fetal variations, and malformations were more prominent in the rat, whereas embryo-fetal death was observed more often in the rabbit. Discor

  4. The histogenesis of lymph nodes in rat and rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Nassy, J. J.; Post, J.; Versteeg, J. C.; Langevoort, H. L.

    1978-01-01

    The histogenesis of the popliteal lymph node in the rat and the popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes in the rabbit was examined by light microscopy. Special emphasis has been laid on the initial lymphocyte population in the lymph node anlage. In the rat on the seventeenth day of gestation lymphoid

  5. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of coniine to rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A

    1993-07-01

    Conium maculatum (poison hemlock, CM) is teratogenic in several domestic species, presumably due to its piperidine alkaloids, including coniine, which has been verified to be teratogenic in cattle. Coniine/CM teratogenicity culminates in production of arthrogryposis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine-induced teratogenicity in two laboratory animal species, Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits. Pregnant rats were given coniine (25 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 16-18. Pregnant rabbits were given coniine (40 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 20-24. Rats were killed on day 19 and rabbits on day 29. Fetuses were immediately removed, weighed, and examined for external abnormalities. Alternate fetuses were either stained for skeletal examinations with alizarin red-S or fixed in Bouin's solution for visceral examination. Symptoms of maternal intoxication due to coniine administration were observed in both the rat and the rabbit, and higher doses were uniformly lethal. Rabbits treated with coniine appeared to lose more weight and eat less than controls, but there was no statistically significant difference between groups. Fetal weights were significantly lower in coniine-exposed rat and rabbit fetuses indicating fetotoxicity. The only statistically significant treatment-related visceral or skeletal malformation was a reduction of cranial ossification of rabbit fetuses, probably related to maternal toxicity. Coniine-exposed rabbit litters tended to be affected by arthrogryposis (no bony deformities noted on skeletal exam) more than controls (2/6 vs. 0/9).

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor in rat and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a peptide which stimulates cell mitotic activity and differentiation, has a cytoprotective effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa, and inhibits gastric acid secretion. The immunohistochemical localization of EGF in the Brunner's glands and the submandibular glands is...... antisera against human urinary EGF worked in rat as well as man. EGF was found only in cells with an exocrine function.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a peptide which stimulates cell mitotic activity and differentiation, has a cytoprotective effect on the gastroduodenal mucosa, and inhibits gastric acid secretion. The immunohistochemical localization of EGF in the Brunner's glands and the submandibular glands...... is well documented. The localization of EGF in other tissues is still unclarified. In the present study, the immunohistochemical localization of EGF in tissues from rat, man and a 20 week human fetus were investigated. In man and rat, immunoreaction was found in the submandibular glands, the serous glands...

  7. Comparison of febrile responsiveness of rats and rabbits to endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, J T; Shimada, S G; Bernheim, H A

    1985-12-01

    The fever responses of rats and rabbits were compared in detail using a single common source of semipurified endogenous pyrogen prepared from human monocytes. The characteristics and dynamics of the fever-response curves for each species were examined and their dose-response curves were determined and compared. The fevers displayed by rats were qualitatively similar to those of rabbits, but, typically, they developed and terminated more rapidly than those of rabbits. Rabbits were much more sensitive to the endogenous pyrogen than rats. The threshold dose of pyrogen required to elicit a fever was 5 times lower in the rabbit, and the slope of the rabbit's dose-response curve was 1.5 times steeper than that of the rat. The maximum fevers attainable in rabbits were approximately twice those attainable in rats. It was also shown that the more rapid febrile responses of the rat were not due to the 10-fold smaller mass of the rat; instead, we proposed that this difference was more likely due to a closer diffusional proximity of the pyrogen receptor sites to the circulation in rats. The lower sensitivity of the rat to endogenous pyrogen was attributed to a relative insensitivity of the pyrogen receptor sites in rats in the translation of the endogenous pyrogen stimulus into fever.

  8. Man is a Puppet, Soul is a Rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2015-01-01

    Ratatouille is the Pixar film that seems to have the most imaginative answer to the question, what animates the human being? A small rat hidden under the hat, directing man as a puppet. The marionette as a metaphor for the human being is not new in the Western history of thought, but the rat as a...... as the true love story between the rat and the culinary critic, illustrating Lacan’s dictum: “Love is to give something you do not have to someone who does not want it.”...

  9. Quantitative comparison of luteal histology in the rat and rabbit: changes from mid- to late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, A M; Bruce, N W; Meyer, G T

    1989-01-01

    Progesterone secretion by the corpora lutea (CL) of rats and rabbits declines from a peak, at about Day 16 of gestation, to near term (Day 22 rats and 28 rabbits). However there are major differences between the two species in CL growth and blood flow over this period. In the present work quantitative histological measurements were made of CL at these stages to examine the accompanying structural changes. Eight rats and five rabbits were examined at each stage: standard morphometric techniques were used. There was gross discrepancy between the two species in the histology of their CL at peak secretory activity. Although the proportions of the major tissue components were similar, the rabbit luteal cell (52 pl) was five times larger than that in the rat (9 pl). There was substantially less vascular and interstitial space in the rabbit, all characteristics which might affect transport processes between luteal cell cytoplasm and blood. Over the period examined, there was no change in CL volume in the rat but a 37% reduction in the rabbit due to loss of luteal cells. The vascular space in the rat, however, was reduced, whereas that in the rabbit declined only in proportion to the overall decrease in CL volume. These results show that structurally there is a substantial difference in patterns of early regression between the two species which reflect different mechanisms involved. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2621138

  10. Metabolic fate of fenetylline in rat and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, H; Yoshimitsu, T; Yamada, H; Koga, N; Oguri, K

    1988-08-01

    1. Metabolic fate of 7-[2-(alpha-methylphenylethylamino)ethyl]theophylline hydrochloride (fenetylline) was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats and three male volunteers. 2. Six metabolites were identified in the rat urine as amphetamine(AP), p-hydroxy-AP, acetylaminoethyl-theophylline(TP), aminoethyl-TP, hydroxyethyl-TP and carboxymethyl-TP by comparison of their spectral properties and h.p.l.c. and g.l.c. characteristics with those of authentic samples. All these metabolites was also detected in the urine of humans receiving fenetylline. 3. Quantification of these metabolites using h.p.l.c. and g.l.c. showed that carboxymethyl-TP, p-hydroxy-AP and acetylaminoethyl-TP were the major metabolites in 0-24 h rat urine at 13.7%, 11.2% and 9.3% of dose, respectively. In men, carboxymethyl-TP(39-43% dose) and AP(23-33% dose) were the major metabolites in 0-48 h urine. 4. These results suggest that fenetylline metabolism proceeds via oxidative cleavage at two different sites to produce aminoethyl-TP and AP, respectively. The pathway producing AP predominates, in both man and rat, but is more predominant in the former.

  11. FAILURE OF PROGESTERONE TO PRODUCE HIGH BLOOD-PRESSURE IN RABBITS AND RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.; Veldhuyzen, B.; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    1972-01-01

    Contrary to earlier claims, daily Summary administration of 50 mg. progesterone over ten days did not increase the blood-pressure of 6 rabbits. Daily injection of 10 mg. progesterone had no influence on the blood-pressure of rats. The weight-gain of female rats was significantly increased by this

  12. Prolactin releasing effect of sulpiride isomers in rats and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, E E; Stefanini, E; Spano, P F [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy; Camanni, F; Massara, F [Turin Univ. (Italy). Chair of Endocrinology; Locatelli, V; Cocchi, D

    1979-01-01

    Sulpiride, an antipsychotropic drug of the benzamide class, reportedly displaces stereospecifically (/sup 3/H)-butyrophenones from putative dopamine (DA) binding sites in rat striatum. To evaluate if sulpiride displays the same stereospecifity in the inhibition of pituitary DA receptors, the effect of the two(-)-and (+)-sulpiride isomers was tested with regard to their ability to stimulate prolactin (PRL) secretion in rats and man and to displace (/sup 3/H)-spiroperidol bound to rat anterior pituitary receptors. In male rats, (-)-sulpiride at doses of 0.1 and 0.1 mg/kg i.p., induced a maximum PRL-releasing effect, not different from that evoked by a dose of 10 mg/kg of the compound. (+)-Sulpiride was active only at the dose of 10mg/kg i.p., and its PRL-releasing effect was superimposable to that evoked by the same dose of (-)-sulpiride. Similarily, in 8 normal subjects (4 men and 4 women) only (-)-sulpiride was active as PRL releaser when the low dose of 0.25 mg i.v. was used; when the higher dose of sulpiride was used (4.0 mg i.v.), it induced a rise in plasma PRL of the same entity for both isomers at early post-injection times (15-30 min) but greater with the (-)-isomer at the following time intervals (45-120 min). (-)-Sulpiride displaced (/sup 3/H)-spiroperidol bound to rat anterior pituitary homogenates with a potency about 100 times greater as that showed by (+)-sulpiride. In all, these data indicate that sulpiride isomers display at the level of pituitary DA receptors for PRL control the same stereospecifity exhibited on a population of striatal DA receptors.

  13. Multiplex PCR assay discriminates rabbit, rat and squirrel meat in food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Mohammad Nasir Uddin; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hossain, M A Motalib; Asing, Asing; Sultana, Sharmin; Jahurul, M H A

    2017-12-01

    Rabbit meat is receiving increasing attention because it contains a high level of proteins with relatively little fat. On the other hand, squirrel meat is served in upper-class meals in certain countries, so is sold at higher prices. The other side of the coin is rat meat, which has family ties with rabbit and squirrel but poses substantial threats to public health because it is a potential carrier of several zoonotic organisms. Recently, rat meat was mislabelled and sold as lamb after chemical modification. Thus, the chances of rabbit and squirrel meat substitution by rat meat cannot be ruled out. For the first time, a multiplex PCR assay was developed in Malaysia for the discriminatory identification of rat, rabbit and squirrel in the food chain. Rabbit (123 bp), rat (108 bp) and squirrel (243 bp) targets were amplified from ATP6 and cytb genes, along with a eukaryotic internal control (141bp). The products were sequenced and cross-tested against 22 species. A total of 81 reference samples and 72 meatball specimens were screened to validate the assay. Analyte stability was evaluated through boiling, autoclaving and micro-oven cooking. The tested lower limits of detection were 0.01 ng DNA for pure meat and 0.1% for meatballs.

  14. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  15. Effects of dose, species, and dosing vehicle on the disposition of methacrylonitrile (MAN) in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, I.M.; Ghanayem, B.I.

    1991-01-01

    MAN is structurally similar to known carcinogen acrylontrile (AN), with nitriles having similar industrial uses. Current studies were designed to investigate the biological fate of 2- 14 C-MAN in rats. After gavage administration of 115, 11.5 or 1.15 mg MAN/kg in water, F344 male rats were placed in glass metabolism cages and urine, expired air and feces were collected. Rats were sacrificed at various times and concentration of MAN-derived radioactivity in tissues was determined. MAN was rapidly absorbed from the GI tract and distributed to all major tissues. Sixty-70% of the low and medium doses were exhaled as 14 CO 2 in 72 hr compared to 25% of the highest dose. While 40% of the highest dose was expired as organic volatiles in 72 hr, only 9-12% of the low and accounted for 20-30% of all doses within 72 hr after dosing. Comparison of MAN disposition in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and F344 rats at 115 mg/kg revealed that SD rats excreted a greater % of the dose as 14 CO 2 and in the urine than did F344 rats. Administration of 115 mg MAN/kg to SD male rats in safflower oil resulted in increased elimination of MAN-derived radioactivity as CO 2 , volatiles, and in the urine over that observed when administered in water. These results suggest that: (1) saturation of MAN metabolism occurs at high doses: (2) MAN metabolism and disposition differ with the strain of rats studied; (3) MAN disposition may vary with the dosing vehicle used; and (4) MAN metabolism and disposition is apparently different from that reported on AN

  16. Radioimmunoassay for serotin - methodology, basal and stimulated hormone concentration in plasma of rats, dogs, rabbits and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for measurement of secretin in the plasma of experimental animals and man has been developed by means of the so-called stripping procedure (pre-treatment of plasma with Quso). The detection limit is about 7 pg/ml at a final dilution of 1:630 000 and an equilibrium constant of 2.1x10 -11 L/M. By means of this system plasma secretin in the species examined can be measured reliably. The coefficients of variation are (percent): The within assay precision (intra-assay) 12, the between assay precision (inter-assay) 23. The median of basal venous plasma secretin are (pg/ml) dog 16, rabbit 0, rat (aorta) 0, rat (porta) 31, man 0. From these studies it is concluded that a) as a consequence of unspecific interference of plasma particles with the secretin RIA-system only a previous removal of these interfering factors leads to reliable test results; should this pre-requisite be neglected falsely too high results are to be expected; b) plasma secretin rises if there is either hydrochloric acid present in the duodenum or if gastric together with food particles reaches the duodenum; c) at least in the dog there may be different molecular species of secretin circulating in the peripherical plasma, however the biological role of these is unknown at present. (orig./TRV) [de

  17. Strain-specific response to anaesthetics and analgesics in rat and rabbit : A pharmacogenetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avsaroglu, H.

    2008-01-01

    The response of (laboratory) animals to anaesthetics and analgesics is known to show intraspecies variability. Apart from environmental influences, this may also be caused by genetic factors. In this thesis, rabbit and rat inbred strains were used to identify differences in response to anaesthetics

  18. Comparative Study of the Liver Anatomy in the Rat, Rabbit, Guinea Pig and Chinchilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Gheorghe STAN

    2018-05-01

    Based on detailed study of the macroscopic anatomy of rat, rabbit, guinea pig and chinchilla a proper experimental model in liver research, could be assessed. In this regard, the vascular anatomy of the liver in the mentioned species is of a great importance and it is subject of another report.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone. Application to rats and to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fressinaud-Masdefeix, Philippe.

    1976-06-01

    The general principles of antidiuretic hormone secretion are known from kidney function explorations and the use of biological methods. Radioimmunoassay of the hormone should contribute towards a better understanding of this secretion in the fields of both physiology and pathology. After a review on antidiuretic hormone and the methods used so far for its investigation, part two of this work concentrates on the development of our own radioimmunological system applied to this hormone. The system is specific, though interference in the measurement from metabolite(s) of the hormone cannot be absolutely ruled out; reproducible, as witnessed by the 'inter-test' variation coefficient of 8%; and sensitive, since the hormone is easily measured in the urine, when secretion is slowed down. In spite of its sensitivity however the hormone determination in the plasma is not possible for a small sample volume because of the difficulty of obtaining high-affinity specific antibodies. To our knowledge only one plasma ADH determination is in common use to date. Part three is devoted to the application of this technique in rats and man, and the results obtained [fr

  20. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern for prenatal developmental toxicity in rats and rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravenzwaay, B.; Jiang, X.; Luechtefeld, T.; Hartung, T.

    2018-01-01

    The Threshold Toxicological Concern (TTC) is based on the concept that in absence of experimental data reasonable assurance of safety can be given if exposure is sufficiently low. Using the REACH database the low 5th percentile of the NO(A)EL distribution, for prenatal developmental toxicity (OECD guideline 414) was determined. For rats, (434 NO(A)ELs values) for maternal toxicity, this value was 10 mg/kg-bw/day. For developmental toxicity (469 NO(A)ELs): 13 mg/kg-bw/day. For rabbits, (100 NO(A)ELs), the value for maternal toxicity was 4 mg/kg-bw/day, for developmental toxicity, (112 NO(A)EL values): 10 mg/kg-bw/day. The maternal organism may thus be slightly more sensitive than the fetus. Combining REACH- (industrial chemicals) and published BASF-data (mostly agrochemicals), 537 unique compounds with NO(A)EL values for developmental toxicity in rats and 150 in rabbits were evaluated. The low 5th percentile NO(A)EL for developmental toxicity in rats was 10 mg/kg-bw/day and 9.5 mg/kg-bw/day for rabbits. Using an assessment factor of 100, a TTC value for developmental toxicity of 100 µg/kg-bw/day for rats and 95 µg/kg-bw/day for rabbits is calculated. These values could serve as guidance whether or not to perform an animal experiment, if exposure is sufficiently low. In emergency situations this value may be useful for a first tier risk assessment. PMID:28645885

  1. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  2. Receptor autoradiography in the hippocampus of man and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilles, K.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter deals with the following questions: regional distribution of binding sites for 5-HT, glutamate, and acetylcholine in Ammon's horn and the dentate gyrus of rat and human brain; comparison of receptor distribution and neuronal pathways with identified transmitters; correlation of region-specific densities between different receptors and receptor subtypes (colocalization of different receptors on the level of hippocampal layers) and comparison of receptor distribution in human and rat hippocampus

  3. Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Dizaye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function. Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

  4. The uremic environment and muscle dysfunction in man and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Nielsen, Arne Høj; Eidemak, I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Patients reaching end-stage renal disease experience debilitating fatigue, with progression of this disease, rendering patients dysfunctional in their everyday lives. Methods: In vivo measurements of muscle function, assessed using surface electromyography (EMG), were made on 25...... patients prior to and after a session of hemodialysis (HD) treatment, alongside in vitro measurements of muscle function in isolated rat muscles incubated in normal or uremic conditions approximating to those found in uremic rats (rat uremic: RU) or uremic humans (human uremic: HU). Results: HD...... significantly affected plasma values, e.g. reducing urea (69%), creatinine (62%), potassium (23%) and phosphate (48%) concentrations in patients (all pimproved the EMG frequency of 2nd dorsal interosseous (fast-twitch) (p

  5. Calcium channel blockers inhibit endogenous pyrogen fever in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, J T; Shimada, S G

    1991-09-01

    We have previously shown that febrile responses in both rats and rabbits are elicited by the intravenous injection of a semipurified endogenous pyrogen (EP) prepared from human monocytes. We are now presenting evidence that these febrile responses are mediated via activation of Ca2+ channels by EP. The febrile responses of male New Zealand White rabbits and Sprague-Dawley rats to a standard dose of EP were determined at their respective thermoneutral ambient temperatures. The animals were then treated with Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil (7.5 mg/kg iv) 30-60 min before the EP challenge. In every case the febrile response to EP was markedly attenuated after verapamil pretreatment, while administration of verapamil by itself had no detectable effect on body temperature. Another Ca2+ channel blocker, nifedipine (5 mg/kg iv), was shown to possess antipyretic activity in rats also. To localize where in the fever pathway these Ca2+ channel blockers were acting, we investigated the effect of verapamil at the same dose on fevers that were produced by microinjection of prostaglandin E (PGE) directly into the brain. These PGE fevers were unaffected by verapamil pretreatment, indicating that the antipyretic action of Ca2+ channel blockers occurs before the formation of PGE in response to EP stimulation. The most likely locus of action is the activation of the enzyme phospholipase A2, which regulates the production of arachidonic acid from cellular phospholipids in the prostanoid cascade.

  6. Studies on distribution and excretion of 14C-glycerol in rats, rabbits and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, Shigeru; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hidetaka; Tohira, Yasuo; Ogawa, Machiko

    1978-01-01

    Tissue distribution and excretion of uniformly labeled 14 C-glycerol were investigated using rats, rabbits and mice. Blood disappearance half life of 14 W/V% 14 C-glycerol in mice (1 ml/head), rats (1 ml/head) and rabbits (2 ml/head) given intravenously was 0.4, 1.8 and 2.4 hours, respectively. When 14 W/V% 14 C-glycerol was injected in rats (1 ml/head) and rabbits (2 ml/head), 65% of administered radioactivity was excreted in to expired air within 48 hrs. This suggests that glycerol is mostly metabolised via the Embden-Meyehof pathway and the TCA cycle, and finally converted to CO 2 and H 2 O. At a low dose, the conversion ratio to CO 2 was greater than the case of a high dose, and a inverse relationship was observed between the CO 2 -conversion ratio and the dose. At levels above 1 ml of 56 W/V% glycerol, an approximately constant portion of the administered dose appeared to be oxidized. The results of the whole body autoradiogram showed the distribution of the radioactivity throughout the body. Disappearance of radioactivity from liver and blood was rapid, but transport to brain, excretion to the salivary gland, and secretion to Harder's gland were slow. The distribution in tissues showed that the highest distribution of 14 C-glycerol was found in the carcass; liver showed the next highest distribution; high distribution was also found initially in the kidneys; brain, heart, lung and spleen showed low distribution, but they decreased with time elapsed. Disappearance of radioactivity from the brain was relatively slower than the liver. Besides, another result indicated that in pregnant mice 14 C-glycerol did not cross the placenta very quickly. The fact that the apparent disappearance rate from the foetuses does not seem to parallel that of the placenta is suggestive of selective accumulation in foetal tissues. (auth.)

  7. Chromosome preparations from microplate cultures of man, dog, rat, and mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B; Anders, GJPA; van der Meer, Ingrid H

    1976-01-01

    A simple method for making chromosomal preparations from 105 leukocytes from man, dog, mouse, and rat and from 0.01 ml total human and dog blood is developed. The leukocytes and the peripheral blood are cultured in Cooke microtiter plates in a culture volume of 0.1 ml. The culture medium is R.P.M.I.

  8. Radioimmunodetection of rat and rabbit cartilage using a monoclonal antibody specific to link proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassiede, P.; Amedee, J.; Rouais, F.; Bareille, R.; Bordenave, L.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Harmand, M.F. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 33 - Bordeaux (France)); Vuillemin, L.; Ducassou, D. (Hopital du Haut-Leveque, 33 - Pessac (France))

    1993-10-01

    Biodistribution analysis using [[sup 125]I]Fab-6F3 specific to link proteins from human articular cartilage performed in rats by autoradiography showed a high concentration of radioactivity in all cartilaginous tissues. Preliminary immunoscinitgraphic assays were performed in rabbits. Front and side view images of whole animals exhibited high uptake in cartilage tissue of the knee articulation, in the invertebral disk and the humeral head. This fixation was still detected 24 h post-injection, although high washout of radioactivity was observed. (Author).

  9. The parasympatholytic effects of atropine sulfate and glycopyrrolate in rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M E; Vizzutti, D; Morck, D W; Cox, A K

    1994-01-01

    Nine groups of rats (n = 5 per group) received an intramuscular (IM) injection of one of the following drugs or drug combinations: saline, atropine (0.05 mg/kg), glycopyrrolate (0.5 mg/kg), ketamine:xylazine (85:15 mg/kg), ketamine:detomidine (60:10 mg/kg), atropine:ketamine:xylazine (0.05: 85:15 mg/kg), glycopyrrolate: ketamine:xylazine (0.5:85:15 mg/kg), atropine:ketamine:detomidine (0.05: 60:10 mg/kg) or glycopyrrolate: ketamine:detomidine (0.5:60:10). Similarly six groups of rabbits (n = 5) received an IM injection of either saline, atropine (0.2 mg/kg), atropine (2 mg/kg), glycopyrrolate (0.1 mg/kg), ketamine:xylazine (35:10 mg/kg) or glycopyrrolate:ketamine:xylazine (0.1:35:10 mg/kg). In rats, atropine sulfate (0.05 mg/kg) and glycopyrrolate (0.5 mg/kg) produced an increase in heart rate for 30 and 240 min, respectively. In rabbits atropine sulfate at either 0.2 or 2.0 mg/kg did not induce a significant increase in heart rate, but glycopyrrolate (0.1 mg/kg) elevated the heart rate above saline treated animals for over 50 min. Both atropine and glycopyrrolate provided protection against a decrease in heart rate in rats anesthetized with ketamine: xylazine (85:15 mg/kg) or ketamine: detomidine (60:10 mg/kg); however, glycopyrrolate was significantly more effective in maintaining the heart rate within the normal range. Glycopprrolate also prevented a decrease in heart rate in rabbits anesthetized with ketamine:xylazine (35:5 mg/kg). Neither glycopyrrolate nor atropine influenced respiration rate, core body temperature or systolic blood pressure when used alone or when combined with the injectable anesthetic. Glycopyrrolate is an effective anticholinergic agent in rabbits and rodents and more useful as a preanesthetic agent than atropine sulfate in these animals. PMID:7889456

  10. Ectopic osteoid and bone formation by three calcium-phosphate ceramics in rats, rabbits and dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Wang

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate ceramics with specific physicochemical properties have been shown to induce de novo bone formation upon ectopic implantation in a number of animal models. In this study we explored the influence of physicochemical properties as well as the animal species on material-induced ectopic bone formation. Three bioceramics were used for the study: phase-pure hydroxyapatite (HA sintered at 1200°C and two biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP ceramics, consisting of 60 wt.% HA and 40 wt.% TCP (β-Tricalcium phosphate, sintered at either 1100°C or 1200°C. 108 samples of each ceramic were intramuscularly implanted in dogs, rabbits, and rats for 6, 12, and 24 weeks respectively. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses illustrated that ectopic bone and/or osteoid tissue formation was most pronounced in BCP sintered at 1100°C and most limited in HA, independent of the animal model. Concerning the effect of animal species, ectopic bone formation reproducibly occurred in dogs, while in rabbits and rats, new tissue formation was mainly limited to osteoid. The results of this study confirmed that the incidence and the extent of material-induced bone formation are related to both the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate ceramics and the animal model.

  11. The metabolism of the anti-inflammatory drug eterylate in rat, dog and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S G; John, B A; Chasseaud, L F; Johnstone, I; Biggs, S R; Hawkins, D R; Priego, J G; Darragh, A; Lambe, R F

    1983-12-01

    Oral doses of 14C-eterylate were well absorbed by rat and man and excreted mainly in the urine (94% dose by rat in three days and 91% by man in five days). Oral doses to dogs were excreted in similar proportions in both the urine and faeces, although faecal 14C was probably derived in part, from biliary-excreted material. Peak plasma 14C and drug concn. were generally reached between one and three hours after oral doses. In humans, only two metabolites, salicylic acid and 4-acetamido-phenoxyacetic acid, were detected in plasma. The latter was cleared more rapidly than the former and hence plasma salicyclate concn. reached a peak (10.9 and 19.8 micrograms/ml in Subjects 1 and 2, respectively) and initially declined with a half-life of about two-three hours. Plasma 4-acetamidophenoxyacetic acid concn. reached a peak (4.3, 10.0 micrograms/ml, respectively) and declined with a half-life of about one hour. Tissue concn. of 14C were generally greater in dogs than in rats. Highest conc. occurred at three hours in dogs and at one hour in rats. Apart from those in the liver and kidneys, tissue concn. were lower than those in the corresponding plasma. Unchanged drug was not detected in urine or plasma of any species and was rapidly metabolized in human plasma. The major 14C components in human urine were identified as salicyluric acid and 4-acetamidophenoxyacetic acid; minor metabolites were salicylic acid, gentisic acid and paracetamol. These metabolites were also detected in rat urine albeit in different proportions to those in human urine. Dog urine contained less of these metabolites and a major proportion of the 14C was associated with relatively non-polar components. Although salicylic acid and 4-acetamidophenoxyacetic acid were the only major circulating metabolites in man and rat, dog plasma also contained the non-polar urine metabolites.

  12. Characterisation of a novel proteolytic enzyme localised to goblet cells in rat and man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    A proteolytic enzyme, ingobsin , purified from rat duodenal extracts is shown to be localised to intestinal goblet cells of both man and rat. Enzyme positive cells decrease in number from duodenum to colon. The enzyme is a 33 000 Mr protein with an isoelectric point of 5.1. The pH optimum...... for enzymatic activity is 7.4-8.0. Based on substrate specificity for arg-x, lys-x and to a lesser degree tyr-x, on the effect of diisopropylphosphorofluoride , Trasylol and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and on proteolytic activity towards intact proteins, ingobsin is classified as a serine proteinase...

  13. Myocardial kinetics of hexakis (trimethylphosphite) technetium-99m (I) chloride (Tc-TMP) in rats, rabbits, dogs, cats and pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.S.; Adams, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-TMP is readily taken up by the myocardium following intravenous administration to rats and dogs. In order to assess its potential as a myocardial perfusion imaging agent, the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of Tc-TMP were evaluated following intravenous administration to rats, rabbits, dogs, cats and miniature pigs. Rats and rabbits were killed at several time points within a 24 hr period after treatment and tissue samples were assayed for radioactivity. In rats, estimated heart, liver and lung half-lives were 14.4 hr, 24 min and 40 min, respectively. In rabbits, 0.6% dose/g was observed in the heart at 30 min. Corresponding heart/blood, heart/liver and heart/lung ratios were 39.1, 10.7 and 5.1. Gamma camera imaging experiments were conducted in rabbits, dogs, cats and pigs over a 1-2 hr period following administration of Tc-TMP. All species exhibited myocardial uptake resulting in sustained visualization, although myocardial image intensity was less pronounced in the pig compared to the other species. Regions of interest were selected over the heart, liver and background, and time-activity curves were generated. Minimal myocardial clearance was observed in all species during the imaging time course. Hepatic activity was rapidly cleared in rabbits and pigs (t1/2 < 1.0 hr) resulting in improved heart/liver ratios at later time intervals. The myocardial accumulation and retention of Tc-TMP, demonstrated in five species, supports clinical evaluation as a myocardial imaging agent

  14. Rats and rabbits as pharmacokinetic screening tools for long acting intramuscular depots: case study with paliperidone palmitate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harilal; Patel, Prakash; Modi, Nirav; Patel, Pinakin; Wagh, Yogesh; George, Alex; Desai, Nirmal; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2018-05-08

    Development of prodrug of 9-hydroxyrisperidone (paliperidone) long-acting intramuscular injection has enabled delivery over four-week time period with improved compliance. The key aim of this work was to establish a reliable preclinical model which may potentially serve as a screening tool for judging the pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s) prior to human clinical work. Sparse sampling composite study was used in rats, (Wistar/Sprague-Dawley (SD; n = 10)) and a serial blood sampling study design was used in rabbits (n = 4). Animals received intramuscular injection of paliperidone palmitate in the thigh muscle at dose of 16 (rats) and 4.5 mg/kg (rabbits). Samples were drawn in rats (retro-orbital sinus) and rabbits (central ear artery) and were analysed for paliperidone using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/ mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. The plasma data was subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis. Following intramuscular injection of depot formulation in Wistar/SD rats and rabbits, absorption of paliperidone was slow and gradual with median value of time to reach maximum concentration (T max ) occurring on day 7. The exposures (i.e. area under the curve (AUC; 0-28) days) were 18,597, 21,865 and 18,120 ng.h/mL, in Wistar, SD and rabbits, respectively. The clearance was slow and supported long half-life (8-10 days). Either one of the two models can serve as a research tool for establishing pharmacokinetics of paliperidone formulation(s).

  15. Pharmacokinetics of MMB4 DMS in rats, rabbits, and dogs following a single IV administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S Peter; Gibbs, Seth T; Kobs, Dean J; Osheroff, Merrill R; Johnson, Jerry D; Burback, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents pose tremendous threats to both military and civilian populations. The substance 1,1'-methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] (MMB4) is being developed as a replacement for the currently fielded 2-pyridine aldoxime, or pralidoxime (2-PAM) as a treatment for OP nerve agent-induced toxicity. The present study characterized pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of MMB4 in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, and beagle dogs given a single intravenous (IV) administration of MMB4 dimethanesulfonate (DMS) at 55, 25, and 15 mg/kg dose, respectively. The plasma MMB4 concentration versus time profiles were biphasic for all species tested and fit a 2-compartment model with first-order elimination. There were no overt sex-related differences in the calculated PK parameters. For the rat, rabbit, and dog, the average systemic exposure parameters predicted Cmax (µg/mL) and AUC∞ (µg·h/mL) were 273 and 71.0, 115 and 48.1, and 87.4 and 39.6; the average volume of distribution (mL/kg) values to the central and peripheral compartments were 207 and 143, 242 and 172, and 198 and 213; and the average elimination half-life (hour) and clearance (mL/h/kg) values were 0.18 and 778, 0.29 and 577, and 0.32 and 430, respectively, when the PK parameters for males and females were combined. The current study revealed a similarity in the volume of distribution to the central compartment for MMB4 among the 3 species tested while demonstrating species-related differences in the elimination half-life and clearance of MMB4.

  16. In vivo two-photon imaging of retina in rabbits and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Gopal Swamy; Wu, Yi-Kai; Bille, Josef F; Kim, Samuel; Mao, Xiao Wen; Gimbel, Howard V; Rauser, Michael E; Fan, Joseph T

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retina using near-infrared (NIR) two-photon scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. New Zealand white rabbits, albino rats, and brown Norway rats were used in this study. An autofluorescence image of the retina, including the retinal cells and its associated vasculatures was obtained by a real-time scan using the ophthalmoscope. Furthermore, the retinal vessels, nerve fiber layers and the non-pigmented retina were recorded with two-photon fluorescein angiography (FA); and the choroidal vasculatures were recorded using two-photon indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Two-photon ICGA was achieved by exciting a second singlet state at ∼398 nm. Simultaneous two-photon FA and two-photon ICGA were performed to characterize the retinal and choroidal vessels with a single injection. The minimum laser power threshold required to elicit two-photon fluorescence was determined. The two-photon ophthalmoscope could serve as a promising tool to detect and monitor the disease progression in animal models. Moreover, these high-resolution images of retinal and choroidal vessels can be acquired in a real-time scan with a single light source, requiring no additional filters for FA or ICGA. The combination of FA and ICGA using the two-photon ophthalmoscope will help researchers to characterize the retinal diseases in animal models, and also to classify the types (classic, occult or mixed) of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in macular degeneration. Furthermore, the prototype can be adapted to image the retina of rodents and rabbits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of relationship between karyotype pattern, effective chromosome-arm number and chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of three species: man, rabbit, swine. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation induced chromosomal aberrations for genetic risk evaluation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liniecki, J.

    1980-08-01

    Blood from 3 donors of each species: man, rabbit and pig was irradiated with a dose of 2.5Gy 60 Co gamma-rays. Microcultures of lymphocytes, established in presence of BrdUrd, were harvested at 6 different times after PHA-stimulation. The preparations containing metaphase figures were stained acc. to Perry and Wolff to permit differentiation of the cells in first and later mitoses. In all individuals and species studied there was a highly significant negative correlation between dicentric yield and time from stimulation to the harvest. The decline of the yield with time of harvest varied in the three species between 1.0 and 3.6 per cent per hour. Implications for biological dosimetry are discussed

  18. Comparative toxicokinetics of MMB4 DMS in rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys following single and repeated intramuscular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S Peter; Gibbs, Seth T; Kobs, Dean J; Hawk, Michael A; Croutch, Claire R; Osheroff, Merrill R; Johnson, Jerry D; Burback, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    1,1'-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] (MMB4) dimethanesulfonate (DMS) is a bisquaternary pyridinium aldoxime that reactivates acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agent. Time courses of MMB4 concentrations in plasma were characterized following 7-day repeated intramuscular (IM) administrations of MMB4 DMS to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand White rabbits, beagle dogs (single dose only), and rhesus monkeys at drug dose levels used in earlier toxicology studies. In general, there were no significant differences in MMB4 toxicokinetic (TK) parameters between males and females for all the species tested in these studies. After a single IM administration to rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys, MMB4 DMS was rapidly absorbed, resulting in average T max values ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Although C max values did not increase dose proportionally, the overall exposure to MMB4 in these preclinical species, as indicated by area under the curve (AUC) extrapolated to the infinity (AUC∞) values, increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. The MMB4 DMS was extensively absorbed into the systemic circulation after IM administration as demonstrated by greater than 80% absolute bioavailability values for rats, rabbits, and dogs. Repeated administrations of MMB4 DMS for 7 days did not overtly alter TK parameters for MMB4 in rats, rabbits, and monkeys (150 and 300 mg/kg/d dose groups only). However, C max and AUC values decreased in monkeys given 450 and 600 mg/kg IM doses of MMB4 DMS following repeated administrations for 7 days. Based on the TK results obtained from the current study and published investigations, it was found that the apparent volume of distribution and clearance values were similar among various preclinical species, except for the rat.

  19. [Effects of liensinine on haemodynamics in rats and the physiologic properties of isolated rabbit atria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J L; Nong, Y; Jing, M X

    1992-01-01

    Liensinine(Lien), an alkaloid extracted from the green seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, has been shown to have anti-arrhythmic action, its mechanism may be related to blockade of Ca2+, Na+ influx. Lien 3 mg/kg i.v. may temporarily inhibit all parameters of haemodynamics in anesthetized or pithed rats. The inhibitory effects on LVP, +dp/dtmax and SAP in anesthetized rats are slightly stronger than those of quinidine (Qui) 3 mg/kg. Lien 1-30 mg/kg dose-dependently produced these actions. Lien and Qui 12 mg/kg lowered LVP, +dp/dtmax and SAP by 33%, 37%, 29% and 9%, 12%, 9% respectively. While both of them inhibited the other parameters of haemodynamics with nearly equal degrees. The degrees of inhibitory effect of Lien 12 mg/kg on all haemodynamic parameters nearly corresponded to these of verapamil 1 mg/kg. Lien 1-100 mumol/L reduced the contractile force of isolated left atria and the spontaneously beating rate of isolated right atria of rabbits in concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the properties of the effect of Lien on haemodynamics may be similar to those of verapamil and different from those of Qui.

  20. The uptake and metabolism of cystamine and taurine by isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Kodavanti, U.P.; Smith, L.L.; Mehendale, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Cystamine has been reported to be taken up by the lung slices and metabolized to taurine via hypotaurine through enzymatic processes. The objective of these studies was to determine whether intact isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs also posses similar characteristics. The lungs were isolated from male New Zealand white rabbits and S-D rats and perfused with 20 μM [ 14 C] cystamine (Sp. Act., 16.4 mCi/mmol) for 60 min and 30 min, respectively. Cystamine and its metabolites in lung as well as in perfusate were separated by TLC and quantitated using scintillation spectrometry. Similar experiments were also conducted with 20 μM taurine to investigate its fate in perfused lungs. Significant pulmonary uptake of cystamine and taurine occurred during perfusion. Cystamine was metabolized to [ 14 C] hypotaurine and [ 14 C] taurine. No further metabolism of taurine was evident in rat or rabbit lungs. Inclusion of 1 nM GSH did not significantly alter the ability of lungs to sequester cystamine, but the metabolism of hypotaurine to taurine was decreased. It was evident that cystamine was metabolized to taurine by perfused lungs in the same way as in lung slices

  1. Distribution of /sup 14/C-labelled acrylamide and betaine in foetuses of rats, rabbits, beagle dogs and miniature pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, G.J.; Miller, E.; Sapienza, P.P.; Michel, T.C.; King, M.T.; Turner, V.A.; Blumenthal, H.; Jackson, W.E.; Levin, S.

    1983-02-01

    (/sup 14/C)Acrylamide and (/sup 14/C)betaine hydrochloride were administered in a single iv dose to pregnant rats, rabbits, beagle dogs and miniature pigs late in gestation (1-2 days before expected parturition). Dosages used were 10 mg/kg for rats and 5 mg/kg for the other species. The compounds were allowed to equilibrate in the animal (for 1 hr in rats and for 2 hr in the other species); the dam was then killed and the foetuses were removed by caesarean section. Each foetus was weighed and analysed for radioactivity, either by homogenization of the whole foetus (rat and rabbit) or by determining separately the radioactivity in individual organs and tissues (dog and pig). Foetal uptake of the polar compound betaine hydrochloride was much lower than that of the more lipophilic acrylamide. The sex of the foetus did not appear to affect uptake of either compound. There were no significant differences in total uptake of isotope attributable to the position of the foetus within the uterus in any of the four species given either acrylamide or betaine. Similarly, uterine position did not affect the uptake of acrylamide or betaine by individual tissues of foetal dogs or pigs. Since the distributions of /sup 14/C-labelled acrylamide and betaine hydrochloride were essentially uniform throughout a litter, it would not be necessary to sample all of the members of a litter to obtain a representative picture of foetal distribution.

  2. Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus attenuate bupivacaine-induced spinal neurotoxicity in pregnant rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Cui; Shiyuan Xu; Liang Wang; Hongyi Lei; Qingxiang Cai; Hongfei Zhang; Dongmei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can relieve pain and promote repair of nerve injury. The present study intraperitoneally injected extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus for 3 and 4 days prior to and following intrathecal injection of bupivacaine into pregnant rats. The pain threshold test after bupivacaine injection showed that the maximum possible effect of tail-flick latency peaked 1 day after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in the extract-pretreatment group, and gradually decreased, while the maximum possible effect in the bupivacaine group continued to increase after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine. Histological observation showed that after 4 days of intrathecal injection of bupivacaine, the number of shrunken, vacuolated, apoptotic and caspase-9-positive cells in the dorsal root ganglion in the extract-pretreatment group was significantly reduced compared with the bupivacaine group. These findings indicate that extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can attenuate neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in pregnant rats, possibly by inhibiting caspase-9 protein expression and suppressing nerve cell apoptosis.

  3. Effect of D-valine and cytosine arabinoside on [3H]thymidine incorporation in rat and rabbit epididymal epithelial cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orgebin-Crist, M.C.; Jonas-Davies, J.; Storey, P.; Olson, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Epithelial cell enriched primary cultures were established from the rat and the rabbit epididymis. Epithelial cell aggregates, obtained after pronase digestion of minced epididymis, attached to the culture dish and after 72 h in vitro spread out to form discrete patches of cells. These cells have an epithelioid morphology and form a monolayer of closely apposed polygonal cells where DNA synthesis, as judged by [ 3 H]thymidine uptake, is very low. In L-valine medium the nonepithelial cell contamination was no more than 10% in rat and rabbit epididymal primary cultures. The labeling index of rat epididymal cells cultured in D-valine medium was significantly lower than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. In contrast, the labeling index of rabbit epididymal cells cultured in D-valine medium was significantly higher than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. Cytosine arabinoside decreased the number of labeled cells in both L-valine and D-valine cultures. From these results, it appears that D-valine is a selective agent for rat epididymal epithelial cells, but not for rabbit epithelial cells, and that cytosine arabinoside is a simple and effective means to control the proliferation of fibroblast-like cells in both rat and rabbit epididymal cell cultures

  4. Freud's Rat Man from the perspective of an early-life variant of the Oedipus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marvin P

    2009-07-01

    In the spirit of Freud's invitation to other investigators to elaborate on his "Notes Upon a Case of Obsessional Neurosis" (1909), the author offers additional and differing views on the case of the Rat Man (Dr. Ernst Langer). These views have been informed by the evolution of psychoanalysis over the past 100 years, especially by the perspective provided by an early-life variant on the Oedipus complex (Osman 2000). The author postulates that an important reason for the happy conclusion of this analysis, surprising for its brevity, was that it expedited a mourning process that released a primitive bond to the patient's father, and also, in doing so, facilitated the emergence of a less encumbered and more individuated identity. While accomplishing this, constricting bonds to his late sister Katherine and to his mother were loosened as well.

  5. Cytoarchitectonic distribution of zinc in the hippocampus of man and the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, C.J.; Klitenick, M.A.; Manton, W.I.; Kirkpatrick, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Zinc was measured in whole hippocampus and in hippocampal sub-regions by stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Lyophilized tissues were spiked by a precisely-known amount of zinc-64. The zinc-64/zinc-66 isotope ratio was determined by mass spectrometry. In both man and the rat, the most zinc (102-145 ppm, dry weight) was found in the hilar region, the least (27-35) in the fimbria. The amount of zinc directly associated with mossy-fiber axons was estimated to be approximately 8% of the total zinc in the hippocampus, and the concentration of mossy-fiber zinc was estimated at 220-300 μM. Methodological and theoretical implications of the quantitative findings were discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  7. Kinetic analysis of interactions of paraoxon and oximes with human, Rhesus monkey, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Aurbek, Nadine; Wille, Timo; Eyer, Peter; Thiermann, Horst

    2011-01-15

    Previous in vitro studies showed marked species differences in the reactivating efficiency of oximes between human and animal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibited by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. These findings provoked the present in vitro study which was designed to determine the inhibition, aging, spontaneous and oxime-induced reactivation kinetics of the pesticide paraoxon, serving as a model compound for diethyl-OP, and the oximes obidoxime, pralidoxime, HI 6 and MMB-4 with human, Rhesus monkey, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig erythrocyte AChE. Comparable results were obtained with human and monkey AChE. Differences between human, swine, rabbit, rat and guinea pig AChE were determined for the inhibition and reactivation kinetics. A six-fold difference of the inhibitory potency of paraoxon with human and guinea pig AChE was recorded while only moderate differences of the reactivation constants between human and animal AChE were determined. Obidoxime was by far the most effective reactivator with all tested species. Only minor species differences were found for the aging and spontaneous reactivation kinetics. The results of the present study underline the necessity to determine the inhibition, aging and reactivation kinetics in vitro as a basis for the development of meaningful therapeutic animal models, for the proper assessment of in vivo animal data and for the extrapolation of animal data to humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity data for 379 pharmaceuticals: on the nature and severity of developmental effects (Critical Reviews in Toxicology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditio...

  9. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies for 379 pharmaceuticals: On systemic dose and developmental effects (Critical Reviews in Toxicology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse ef...

  10. Freud's 'transference': Clinical technique in the 'Rat Man' case and theoretical conceptualization compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diercks, Michael

    2017-07-31

    A considerable gap exists between clinical psychoanalytic concepts and psychoanalytic practice. It can be traced back to the early beginnings of psychoanalysis and to Freud's own handling of concepts that he had developed himself. Focusing on the concept of 'transference' that Freud in several steps coined so precisely from his experiences with hysteric patients and especially from his understanding of the 'Dora' case, it can be shown that he - seen from today - could not fully apply the meaning of his own concept in the later treatment of the so-called 'Rat Man'. Freud's 'Original record of the case' is used to scrutinize his way of understanding and handling the transference with this patient. To a substantial extent transference as well as counter-transference was rather enacted than understood in this case, partly due to Freud's own personal and scientific interests and to his ambitions to use this case as a demonstration of his therapeutic approach. In order to show this, it is unavoidable to correct several blurry or even misleading passages of Strachey's translation. Findings from numerous workshops using 'comparative clinical methods' indicate that up till now we analysts - like Freud - have great difficulties in applying Freud's incredible insight that "a whole series of former psychic experiences comes alive not as the past but as the present relationship to the person of the physician" (Freud, 1905c [1901], p. 279/280, my translation). Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  11. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibition exerts a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but fails to influence the contractility of the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, A S; Acsai, K; Nagy, N; Tóth, A; Fülöp, F; Seprényi, G; Birinyi, P; Nánási, P P; Forster, T; Csanády, M; Papp, J G; Varró, A; Farkas, A

    2008-05-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) may play a key role in myocardial contractility. The operation of the NCX is affected by the action potential (AP) configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration. This study examined the effect of selective NCX inhibition by 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 microM SEA0400 on the myocardial contractility in the setting of different AP configurations and different intracellular Na(+) concentrations in rabbit and rat hearts. The concentration-dependent effects of SEA0400 on I(Na/Ca) were studied in rat and rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes using a patch clamp technique. Starling curves were constructed for isolated, Langendorff-perfused rat and rabbit hearts. The cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities of both species were compared by immunohistochemistry. SEA0400 inhibited I(Na/Ca) with similar efficacy in the two species; there was no difference between the inhibitions of the forward or reverse mode of the NCX in either species. SEA0400 increased the systolic and the developed pressure in the rat heart in a concentration-dependent manner, for example, 1.0 microM SEA0400 increased the maximum systolic pressures by 12% relative to the control, whereas it failed to alter the contractility in the rabbit heart. No interspecies difference was found in the cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities. NCX inhibition exerted a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but it did not influence the contractility of the rabbit heart. This implies that the AP configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration may play an important role in the contractility response to NCX inhibition.

  12. Toward a comparative retrospective analysis of rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies for pharmaceutical compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, P. T.; Beken, S.; Cappon, G. D.; Chen, C.; Hoberman, A. M.; van der Laan, J. W.; Stewart, J.; Piersma, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Based on a proposal made at the ICH Workshop in Tallinn, Estonia (2010), the value of the rabbit embryo-fetal development (EFD) versus the rodent EFD was examined by the HESI DART group. A cross-industry data survey provided anonymised EFD and toxicokinetic data from EFD studies on over 400 marketed

  13. Hydroxyl radicals' production and ECG parameters during ischemia and reperfusion in rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulova, Hana; Stracina, Tibor; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Novakova, Marie; Taborska, Eva

    2013-06-01

    Ischemic and reperfusion injury is a serious condition related to numerous biochemical and electrical abnormalities of the myocardium. It has been repeatedly studied in various animal models. In this study, the production of hydroxyl radicals and electrophysiological parameters were compared in three species. Rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated hearts were perfused according to Langendorff under strictly identical conditions. The heart rate and arrhythmia were monitored during ischemia and reperfusion periods at defined time intervals; the production of hydroxyl radical was determined by HPLC as 2.5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2.5-DHBA) formed by salicylic acid hydroxylation. Relationship between arrhythmias and production of 2.5-DHBA was studied. The inter-species differences were observed in timing of arrhythmias onset and their severity, and in the production of 2.5-DHBA in both ischemia and reperfusion. The most considerable changes were observed in rats, where arrhythmias appeared early and with highest severity during ischemia on one side and the regular rhythm was restored early and completely during reperfusion. The corresponding changes in the production of 2.5-DHBA were observed. It can be concluded that rat isolated heart is the most suitable model for evaluation of ischemia/reperfusion injury under given experimental conditions.

  14. Enzymatic conversion of all-trans-β-carotene to retinal by a cytosolic enzyme from rabbit and rat intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshman, M.R.; Mychkovsky, I.; Attlesey, M.

    1989-01-01

    Enzymatic conversion of all-trans-β-carotene to retinal by a partially purified enzyme from rabbit and rat intestinal mucosa was demonstrated. The enzymatic product was characterized based on the following evidence: (i) the product gave rise to its O-ethyloxime by treatment with O-ethylhydroxylamine with an absorption maximum at 363 nm in ethanol characteristics of authentic retinal O-ethyloxime. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of this derivative yielded a sharp peak with a retention time of 7.99 min corresponding to the authentic compound; (ii) the mass spectrum of the O-ethyloxime of the enzymatic product was identical to that of authentic retinal O-ethyloxime; (iii) the specific activity of the enzymatically formed [ 14 C]retinal O-ethyloxime remained constant even after repeated crystallization; (iv) the enzymatic product exhibited an absorption maximum at 370 nm in light petroleum characteristic of authentic retinal. This retinol was enzymatically esterified to retinyl palmitate by rat pancreatic esterase with a retention time of 10 min on HPLC corresponding to authentic retinyl palmitate. Thus, the enzymatic product of β-carotene cleavage by the partially purified intestinal enzyme was unequivocally confirmed to be retinal

  15. FELASA recommendations for the health monitoring of mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähler Convenor, M; Berard, M; Feinstein, R; Gallagher, A; Illgen-Wilcke, B; Pritchett-Corning, K; Raspa, M

    2014-07-01

    The microbiological quality of experimental animals can critically influence animal welfare and the validity and reproducibility of research data. It is therefore important for breeding and experimental facilities to establish a laboratory animal health monitoring (HM) programme as an integrated part of any quality assurance system. FELASA has published recommendations for the HM of rodent and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units (Nicklas et al. Laboratory Animals, 2002), with the intention of harmonizing HM programmes. As stated in the preamble, these recommendations need to be adapted periodically to meet current developments in laboratory animal medicine. Accordingly, previous recommendations have been revised and shall be replaced by the present recommendations. These recommendations are aimed at all breeders and users of laboratory mice, rats, Syrian hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits as well as diagnostic laboratories. They describe essential aspects of HM, such as the choice of agents, selection of animals and tissues for testing, frequency of sampling, commonly used test methods, interpretation of results and HM reporting. Compared with previous recommendations, more emphasis is put on the role of a person with sufficient understanding of the principles of HM, opportunistic agents, the use of sentinel animals (particularly under conditions of cage-level containment) and the interpretation and reporting of HM results. Relevant agents, testing frequencies and literature references are updated. Supplementary information on specific agents and the number of animals to be monitored and an example of a HM programme description is provided in the appendices. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Unexpected effects of absorbed normal rabbit serum and bovine serum albumin on survival of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the infant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, M R

    1988-01-01

    In the course of using the infant rat model to determine the ability of various rabbit antisera to protect against challenge by Haemophilus influenzae type b we made two unexpected observations. In these experiments 4-day-old rats were inoculated s.c. on the dorsum with either rabbit serum or physiological buffers (sham serum) and then were challenged the next day with H. influenzae type b injected i.p. Bacteremia, as a marker for disease, was measured 24 h later on day 6. We observed the following. (i) Pre-immune, i.e., normal rabbit serum, containing minimal levels of antibodies to outer membrane proteins and depleted of antibodies to capsule and lipopolysaccharide, nevertheless significantly (P less than 0.01) protected the rats from challenge with H. influenzae type b when compared to a sham inoculation of buffer; (ii) In the absence of a serum inoculation on day 4 (a buffer was used as a sham serum inoculation), the levels of bacteremia obtained after inoculation with bacteria on day 5 depended upon the composition of the buffer in which the H. influenzae inoculum was suspended. Use of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) resulted in higher levels of bacteremia than PBS containing 0.5% bovine serum albumin (PBS-BSA) (P less than 0.001), i.e. the BSA apparently acted to protect the rats from H. influenzae infection. In fact the use of PBS-BSA as an inoculum buffer masked the protective effect noted above of the absorbed normal rabbit serum.

  17. Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibition exerts a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but fails to influence the contractility of the rabbit heart

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, A S; Acsai, K; Nagy, N; Tóth, A; Fülöp, F; Seprényi, G; Birinyi, P; Nánási, P P; Forster, T; Csanády, M; Papp, J G; Varró, A; Farkas, A

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) may play a key role in myocardial contractility. The operation of the NCX is affected by the action potential (AP) configuration and the intracellular Na+ concentration. This study examined the effect of selective NCX inhibition by 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 μM SEA0400 on the myocardial contractility in the setting of different AP configurations and different intracellular Na+ concentrations in rabbit and rat hearts.

  18. Toward a comparative retrospective analysis of rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies for pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, P T; Beken, S; Cappon, G D; Chen, C; Hoberman, A M; van der Laan, J W; Stewart, J; Piersma, A H

    2014-08-01

    Based on a proposal made at the ICH Workshop in Tallinn, Estonia (2010), the value of the rabbit embryo-fetal development (EFD) versus the rodent EFD was examined by the HESI DART group. A cross-industry data survey provided anonymised EFD and toxicokinetic data from EFD studies on over 400 marketed and unmarketed drugs (over 800 studies) that were entered by experts at RIVM into US EPA’s ToxRefDB style database. The nature and severity of findings at the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) are being reviewed to quantitate the frequency with which lesser signs of embryo-fetal effects (e.g., delays in ossification, minor changes in frequency of variants) are driving the LOAELs. Interpretation was based on exposure rather than administered dose. This paper provides an update of this ongoing project as discussed during a workshop of the European Teratology Society in Ispra, Italy (2013). This was the first presentation of the initial data set, allowing debate on future directions, to provide a better understanding of the implications of either delaying a rabbit EFD or waiving the need in particular circumstances.

  19. The epoxide-diol pathway in the metabolism of vinylbital in rat and man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, N P; Bakker, B H; Eylers, D; Breimer, D D

    1. In urine of rats given vinylbital (5-vinyl-5-(1'-methylbutyl)barbituric acid) i.p., unchanged vinylbital and its devinylated metabolite, 5-(1'-methylbutyl)barbituric acid, were identified. Rats synthetic 1',2'-epoxyvinylbital excreted the same compound as a major metabolite. No unchanged epoxide,

  20. Reflection on design and testing of pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitors: an in silico comparison between rat and rabbit enzyme models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil-Moghaddam Shiva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors of pancreatic alpha-amylase are potential drugs to treat diabetes and obesity. In order to find compounds that would be effective amylase inhibitors, in vitro and in vivo models are usually used. The accuracy of models is limited, but these tools are nonetheless valuable. In vitro models could be used in large screenings involving thousands of chemicals that are tested to find potential lead compounds. In vivo models are still used as preliminary mean of testing compounds behavior in the whole organism. In the case of alpha-amylase inhibitors, both rats and rabbits could be chosen as in vivo models. The question was which animal could present more accuracy with regard to its pancreatic alpha-amylase. Results As there is no crystal structure of these enzymes, a molecular modeling study was done in order to compare the rabbit and rat enzymes with the human one. The overall result is that rabbit enzyme could probably be a better choice in this regard, but in the case of large ligands, which could make putative interactions with the −4 subsite of pancreatic alpha-amylase, interpretation of results should be made cautiously. Conclusion Molecular modeling tools could be used to choose the most suitable model enzyme that would help to identify new enzyme inhibitors. In the case of alpha-amylase, three-dimensional structures of animal enzymes show differences with the human one which should be taken into account when testing potential new drugs.

  1. Vasopressin levels in plasma and urine of man, dogs and rats, as measured by radioimmunoassay, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogterom, J.; Buijs, R.M.; Wimersma Greidanus, Tj.B. van.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) is reported. The production of antisera and labelled hormone is described. The antibodies are characterized with respect to their binding capacity, specificity and resulting sensitivity in the standard curves. An extraction procedure of AVP from body fluids appeared to be necessary and was performed with activated Vycor glass powder. Other adsorbents were tested as well. The results of the assay indicate that 0.5 pg AVP/ml plasma can be detected. The calculations of the data are fully automized using a Fortran IV programme for a digital computer. With this assay, basal AVP levels were measured in the plasma and urine of man, dogs and rats. In these species, plasma levels were in the range of 0.0-3.0 pg/ml. In addition, plasma AVP levels in rats and dogs were measured after different periods of water deprivation. In rats, AVP increase reached its maximum after 48 hrs of water deprivation: 27.1 +- 3.4 pg/ml

  2. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of 14C-MMB4 DMS administered intramuscularly to Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusiak, Bozena D; Kobs, Dean J; Hong, S Peter; Burback, Brian L; Johnson, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    1,1'-Methylenebis[4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]-pyridinium] dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) is currently under development for the treatment of chemical warfare organophosphorus nerve agent poisoning. The present study evaluates the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of (14)C-MMB4 DMS administered intramuscularly to rats and rabbits. The formulated mixture of radiolabeled and nonradiolabeled MMB4 DMS was administered as a single or 7-day repeated dose. Rat doses were 55 or 220 mg/kg (100 µCi/kg), and rabbit doses were 25 or 100 mg/kg (31.25 and 62.5 µCi/kg, respectively). Urine, bile (rats only), feces, blood, and tissues were collected for up to 72 hours. Metabolic profiling using high-performance liquid chromatography with radiodetection was performed on selected urine samples. For both animal species, the majority of the total radioactivity was excreted in the urine (74%-94%) by 72 hours after dosing with greater than 90% of the radioactivity measured in the urine within 8 to 12 hours after dosing. There were no apparent species or dose differences in the urine excretion pattern. The distribution of (14)C-MMB4 DMS-derived radioactivity was rapid and generally reached the highest concentration by the first collection time point (0.25 hours). The tissue-blood concentration ratios were highest at the injection sites and in the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract contents for both the species. Two metabolites of MMB4 DMS were detected in rat and rabbit urine; their structure was confirmed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry as 4-pyridine aldoxime and isonicotinic acid (pyridine-4-carboxylic acid).

  3. Mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Dušinská, M.; Hurbánková, M.; Kováčiková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Kažimírová, A.; Barančoková, M.; Tatrai, E.; Wolff, T.; Oesterle, D.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 595, - (2006), s. 174-183 ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : transgenic rats * mineral fibres Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  4. Active uptake of substance P carboxy-terminal heptapeptide (5-11) into rat brain and rabbit spinal cord slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Y; Kusaka, Y; Yajima, H; Segawa, T

    1981-12-01

    We previously reported that nerve terminals and glial cells lack an active uptake system capable of terminating transmitter action of substance P (SP). In the present study, we demonstrated the existence of an active uptake system for SP carboxy-terminal heptapeptide, (5-11)SP. When the slices from either rat brain or rabbit spinal cord were incubated with (3H)(5-11)SP, the uptake of (5-11)SP into slices was observed. The uptake system has the properties of an active transport mechanism: it is dependent on temperature and sensitive to hypoosmotic treatment and is inhibited by ouabain and dinitrophenol (DNP). In the brain, (5-11)SP was accumulated by means of a high-affinity and a low-affinity uptake system. The Km and the Vmax values for the high-affinity system were 4.20 x 10(-8) M and 7.59 fmol/10 mg wet weight/min, respectively, whereas these values for the low-affinity system were 1.00 x 10(-6) M and 100 fmol/10 mg wet weight/min, respectively. In the spinal cord, there was only one uptake system, with a Km value of 2.16 x 10(-7) M and Vmax value of 26.2 fmol/10 mg wet weight/min. These results suggest that when SP is released from nerve terminals, it is hydrolysed into (5-11)SP before or after acting as a neurotransmitter, which is in turn accumulated into nerve terminals. Therefore, the uptake system may represent a possible mechanism for the inactivation of SP.

  5. Developmental Effects of the ToxCast™ Phase I and Phase II Chemicals in Caenorhabditis elegans and Corresponding Responses in Zebrafish, Rats, and Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Windy A.; Smith, Marjolein V.; Co, Caroll A.; Pirone, Jason R.; Rice, Julie R.; Shockley, Keith R.; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern toxicology is shifting from an observational to a mechanistic science. As part of this shift, high-throughput toxicity assays are being developed using alternative, nonmammalian species to prioritize chemicals and develop prediction models of human toxicity. Methods: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used to screen the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) ToxCast™ Phase I and Phase II libraries, which contain 292 and 676 chemicals, respectively, for chemicals leading to decreased larval development and growth. Chemical toxicity was evaluated using three parameters: a biologically defined effect size threshold, half-maximal activity concentration (AC50), and lowest effective concentration (LEC). Results: Across both the Phase I and Phase II libraries, 62% of the chemicals were classified as active ≤ 200 μM in the C. elegans assay. Chemical activities and potencies in C. elegans were compared with those from two zebrafish embryonic development toxicity studies and developmental toxicity data for rats and rabbits. Concordance of chemical activity was higher between C. elegans and one zebrafish assay across Phase I chemicals (79%) than with a second zebrafish assay (59%). Using C. elegans or zebrafish to predict rat or rabbit developmental toxicity resulted in balanced accuracies (the average value of the sensitivity and specificity for an assay) ranging from 45% to 53%, slightly lower than the concordance between rat and rabbit (58%). Conclusions: Here, we present an assay that quantitatively and reliably describes the effects of chemical toxicants on C. elegans growth and development. We found significant overlap in the activity of chemicals in the ToxCast™ libraries between C. elegans and zebrafish developmental screens. Incorporating C. elegans toxicological assays as part of a battery of in vitro and in vivo assays provides additional information for the development of models to predict a chemical

  6. The case of rat man: A psychoanalytic understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Thapaliya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses case of Mr. Ernst Lanzer known as the “Rat Man” in the history of psychoanalysis. He was diagnosed as a case of obsessive-compulsive disorder by Sigmund Freud known as obsessional neurosis that time. The patient presented to Freud with number of distressing obsessions of which the main one was fear of a corporal punishment to his loved ones using rats. The patient underwent psychoanalytic treatment for his symptoms for 6 months following which he was declared cured. Freud has discussed the case in a published case note. Over the subsequent years, the case received wider attention from the psychoanalytic community and continues to be interpreted and discussed from different perspectives after nearly one century of his clinical interaction with Freud.

  7. ISSLS PRIZE IN BASIC SCIENCE 2018: Growth differentiation factor-6 attenuated pro-inflammatory molecular changes in the rabbit anular-puncture model and degenerated disc-induced pain generation in the rat xenograft radiculopathy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shingo; Diwan, Ashish D; Kato, Kenji; Cheng, Kevin; Bae, Won C; Sun, Yang; Yamada, Junichi; Muehleman, Carol; Lenz, Mary E; Inoue, Nozomu; Sah, Robert L; Kawakami, Mamoru; Masuda, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    To elucidate the effects of growth differentiation factor-6 (GDF6) on: (i) gene expression of inflammatory/pain-related molecules and structural integrity in the rabbit intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration model, and (ii) sensory dysfunction and changes in pain-marker expression in dorsal nerve ganglia (DRGs) in the rat xenograft radiculopathy model. Forty-six adolescent rabbits received anular-puncture in two non-consecutive lumbar IVDs. Four weeks later, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or GDF6 (1, 10 or 100 µg) was injected into the nucleus pulposus (NP) of punctured discs and followed for 4 weeks for gene expression analysis and 12 weeks for structural analyses. For pain assessment, eight rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-injection and NP tissues of injected discs were transplanted onto L5 DRGs of 16 nude rats to examine mechanical allodynia. The rat DRGs were analyzed immunohistochemically. In GDF6-treated rabbit NPs, gene expressions of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, and nerve growth factor were significantly lower than those in the PBS group. GDF6 injections resulted in partial restoration of disc height and improvement of MRI disc degeneration grades with statistical significance in rabbit structural analyses. Allodynia induced by xenograft transplantation of rabbit degenerated NPs onto rat DRGs was significantly reduced by GDF6 injection. Staining intensities for ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat DRGs of the GDF6 group were significantly lower than those of the PBS group. GDF6 injection may change the pathological status of degenerative discs and attenuate degenerated IVD-induced pain.

  8. The anti-secretory and anti-ulcer activities of esomeprazole in comparison with omeprazole in the stomach of rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaki, Salim M A; Chandranath, Irwin S; Singh, Jaipaul

    2008-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat hyperacid secretion and stomach ulcers. The study investigated the anti-secretory and anti-ulcer effects of esomeprazole, the S-isomer of omeprazole on dimaprit, histamine and dibutyryl adenosine 3, 5 cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP)-evoked gastric acid secretion, acidified ethanol (AE) and indomethacin (INDO)-induced haemorrhagic lesions and on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the rat in vivo and rabbit in vitro preparations. The effect of omeprazole was also investigated for comparison. Dimaprit-induced acid secretion was significantly (P stomach tissue homogenate. The results show that esomeprazole and omeprazole were equally effective against gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by either AE or INDO and in inhibiting dimaprit-, dbcAMP- and histamine-induced gastric acid secretion in the rat and rabbit stomach both in vivo and in vitro. The gastro-protective effect of esomeprazole was found to be proportional to the bound PGE2 levels in the glandular area of the stomach.

  9. Effect of chlorpromazine on lipid metabolism in aortas from cholesterol-fed rabbits and normal rats, in vitro: inhibition of sterol esterification and modification of phospholipid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a major tranquilizer, was found to be a potent inhibitor of acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT, EC 2.3.1.26) in isolated arterial microsomes and in intact arterial tissue from the rat and cholesterol-fed rabbit in vitro. In isolated rabbit arterial microsomes, CPZ resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of ACAT with 50% inhibition of [1-14C]oleoylCoA incorporation into [14C]cholesteryl esters occurring at 0.1 mM CPZ. CPZ also effectively inhibited the incorporation of [14C]oleate into triglycerides without affecting incorporation into diglycerides. Additionally, CPZ altered the pattern of arterial phospholipids synthesized from [1-14C]oleate. Incorporation into phosphatidylcholine was depressed while incorporation into phosphatidylinositol was increased. Since diglyceride synthesis appeared to be unaffected by CPZ, a redirection of phosphatidic acid into the CDP-diglyceride pathway of glycerolipid synthesis does not adequately account for the effect of CPZ on arterial phospholipid and triglyceride synthesis in these experiments

  10. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  11. Rabbit analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Saw palmetto extract enhances erectile responses by inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 activity and increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Surong; Chen, Changrui; Li, Yiying; Ren, Zhenghua; Zhang, Yungang; Wu, Gantong; Wang, Hao; Hu, Zhenzhen; Yao, Minghui

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate whether saw palmetto extract (SPE) relaxes corpus cavernosum and explore the underlying mechanisms. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats and 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into 3 SPE-treated groups (low-, middle-, and high-dose) and 1 saline-treated control group. SPE was administered intragastrically for 7 consecutive days. Another 23 rats treated with sildenafil were used to appraise the erectile response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum. The erectile functions of rats and rabbits were evaluated 24 hours after the last SPE administration or 15 minutes after intragastric sildenafil. Outcome measures included corpus cavernosum electrical activity recording, phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) activity detected by the colorimetric quantitative method, and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level for PDE5 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the SPE-treated animals, the relaxant response to electrical stimulation of nerves in the corpus cavernosum, reflected by the amplitude of the electrical activity within the cavernosum, was significantly and dose-dependently augmented. Similar effects were observed in the sildenafil-treated rats. PDE5 activity in rat and rabbit corpus cavernosum tissues was significantly and dose-dependently inhibited in SPE-treated animals, whereas the iNOS mRNA level increased compared with the saline group. PDE5 mRNA, however, was only significantly enhanced in the rats treated with the middle dose of SPE. The results suggest that SPE may have potential application value for the prevention or treatment of erectile dysfunction through an increase in iNOS mRNA expression and inhibition of PDE5 activity in corpus cavernosum smooth muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Biodistribution of radiomercury in rabbits and efficacy of dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) and dimercaprol (BAL) to reduce tracer-level kidney (kid) burden of radiomercury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coveney, J.R.; Robbins, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    There is clinical interest in /sup 195m/Hg//sup 195m/Au generators for radionuclide angiocardiography. Generators are /sup 195m/Hg-impregnated columns through which S 2 O 3 2- /NO 3 - eluant is passed to recover /sup 195m/Au daughter (t/sub 1/2p/ approx. 30s) permitting repeated patient study at short intervals, but co-elution of some /sup 195m/Hg (t/sub 1/2p approx. 40h) limits per-study dose: eluate was injected i.v. to male and female New Zealand White rabbits (1.4-2.4 kg, 12 ml eluate ea.); approx. 40% of injected dose (ID) of /sup 195m/Hg was in kids by 3d and approx. 20% ID remained after 14d; only 37% ID was excreted (2/3 in feces) at 7d. To evaluate DMPS action upon kid /sup 195m/Hg burden, male Sprague-Dawley rats (187-240 g) were injected i.v. with 2ml eluate containing 0.02 mg DMPS/ml or eluate alone. DMPS slightly reduced % ID /sup 195m/Hg in kids 22h later: 12.2 +/- 0.3 to 8.5 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- s.e.m., n = 4). Additional rats were given 5 mg BAL/kg, i.p., or 2ml propylene glycol vehicle/kg 3-4' before 2ml eluate, i.v.; % ID of Hg was again only slightly reduced (14.4 +/- 0.2 to 10.7 +/- 0.1). Neither BAL nor DMPS, useful in repeat-dose regimens in heavy metal poisoning, are suitable in single doses for reducing absorbed radiation dose in /sup 195m/Au angiocardiography

  14. In vivo metabolism of clebopride in three animal species and in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J; Bakke, O M; Huizing, G; Beckett, A H

    1980-01-01

    Clebopride is extensively metabolized in the rat, rabbit, dog, and man. By use of chromatographic methods, up to 25 metabolites in hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed urine have been detected. All four species produced the same main metabolites, as indicated by thin-layer chromatography. These, isolated from urine of the three animal species, were identified as N-(4'-piperidyl)-2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chlorobenzamide, N-(4'-piperidyl-2'-one)-2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chlorobenzamide, and N-(1'-alpha-hydroxybenzyl-4'-piperidyl)-2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chlorobenzamide (tentative structure of a carbinolamine more stable than expected). In the dog, 2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid was also detected. N4-glucuronidation of clebopride and some of its metabolites has been shown to occur in the three animal species. The rabbit produced large amounts of these conjugates. Clebopride N4-sulfonate was not present in the urine of any of the species investigated.

  15. Phytoremediation Potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal for the Deleterious Effects of Methylmercury on the Reproductive System of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Frenedoso da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury, organic form of mercury, can increase the number of abnormal sperm and decrease sperm concentration and testosterone levels possibly due to the damage caused by reactive species to germ and Leydig cells. Maná-cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal is a native fruit from Amazon rich in iron, zinc, niacin, pectin, and citric acid, used in foods, beverages, and medicinal purposes, since it has been useful for treatment of various diseases caused by oxidative stress or nutritional deficiency. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytoremediation potential of this fruit on damages caused by exposure to MeHg on sperm quantity and quality and the histological aspect of the testis and epididymis. Wistar male rats (n=20 were randomly allocated into four groups: Control group (received distilled water, MeHg group (140 μg/Kg, Solanum group (1% of fruit Maná-cubiu on chow, and Solanum plus MeHg group (same treatment as MeHg and Solanum group. The organs were weighted, histopathology; sperm morphology and counts were obtained. The results showed reduction in body weight gain, testis weights, reduced sperm production, and increased histopathological abnormalities in the MeHg-treated group. However, treatment with Solanum plus MeHg revealed a protective effect of this fruit on damages caused by MeHg.

  16. man theerasilp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. MAN THEERASILP. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 pp 42. Synthesis and characterization of SPIO-loaded PEG- b -PS micelles as contrast agent for long-term nanoparticle-based MRI phantom · MAN THEERASILP WITAYA ...

  17. Man is not a big rat: concerns with traditional human risk assessment of phthalates based on their anti-androgenic effects observed in the rat foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habert, René; Livera, Gabriel; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates provide one of the most documented example evidencing how much we must be cautious when using the traditional paradigm based on extrapolation of experimental data from rodent studies for human health risk assessment of endocrine disruptors (EDs). Since foetal testis is known as one of the most sensitive targets of EDs, phthalate risk assessment is routinely based on the capacity of such compounds to decrease testosterone production by the testis or to impair masculinization in the rat during foetal life. In this paper, the well-established inhibiting effects of phthalates of the foetal Leydig cells function in the rat are briefly reviewed. Then, data obtained in humans and other species are carefully analysed. Already in January 2009, using the organotypic culture system named Fetal Testis Assay (FeTA) that we developed, we reported that phthalates might not affect testosterone production in human foetal testes. Several recent experimental studies using xenografts confirm the absence of detectable anti-androgenic effect of phthalates in the human foetal testes. Epidemiological studies led to contradictory results. Altogether, these findings suggest that phthalates effects on foetal Leydig cells are largely species-specific. Consequently, the phthalate threshold doses that disturb foetal steroidogenesis in rat testes and that are presently used to define the acceptable daily intake levels for human health protection must be questioned. This does not mean that phthalates are safe because these compounds have many deleterious effects upon germ cell development that may be common to the different studied species including human. More generally, the identification of common molecular, cellular or/and phenotypic targets in rat and human testes should precede the choice of the toxicological endpoint in rat to accurately assess the safety threshold of any ED in humans.

  18. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike

    2003-01-01

    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  19. [Histological structure of the trabecular meshwork in the eyeball: challenging the traditional concept and preliminary findings in rabbits, rats and mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun; Zhou, Fan-Qi; Luo, Zhou-Cai; Chen, Ying-Hua; Chen, Yu; Dong, Wei-Ren

    2017-10-20

    To verify that the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the wall of the eyeball consists of smooth muscle fibers instead of collagen fibers or endothelial cells. Eighteen fresh eyeballs from 3 rabbits, 3 SD rats and 3 mice were sectioned along the sagittal plane and sliced after paraffin embedding for HE staining, VG staining, Masson staining, α-SMA immunohistochemistry or CD31 immunohistochemistry. These slices were observed under microscope and the structure of the TM was compared with those of scleral collagen fibers, ciliary muscles and endothelial cells. HE staining of the eyeball slices from the 3 animal species resulted in purplish red staining of the TM, which was highly consistent with ciliary muscle fibers. The cell?like structures on the surface of the TM were not clearly outlined, with flat nuclei showing a dark purple staining; these structures did not show obvious boundaries from the TM. Ciliary muscle fibers, which were smooth muscle cells in nature, were aligned in bundles in various directions. The longitudinally sectioned cells were flat and contained purplish cytoplasm and highly flattened nuclei. Scleral collagen fibers were stained dark red with a few fibroblasts sandwiched among them. The long axis of the fibroblasts was in parallel with that of the collagen fibers. The outline of the fibroblast was not clear and the nucleus was flat in dark blue. The vascular endothelial cells presented with different morphologies and contained light purplish cytoplasm and dark nuclei, protruding into the vascular cavity. VG staining of the TM revealed a pale red filamentous structure, and the collagen fibers were stained bright red. Masson staining of the TM showed a reticular structure consisting mainly of dark red fibers intermingled with thin green fibers. Scleral collagen fibers presented with a cord?like green wavy structure. The endothelial cells were green and flat, while the ciliary smooth muscle fibers were purple. In immunohistochemistry for α?SMA, the TM

  20. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the skin of rat, mouse, pig, guinea pig, man, and in human skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, F; Fabian, E; Guth, K; Landsiedel, R

    2014-12-01

    The exposure of the skin to medical drugs, skin care products, cosmetics, and other chemicals renders information on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) in the skin highly interesting. Since the use of freshly excised human skin for experimental investigations meets with ethical and practical limitations, information on XME in models comes in the focus including non-human mammalian species and in vitro skin models. This review attempts to summarize the information available in the open scientific literature on XME in the skin of human, rat, mouse, guinea pig, and pig as well as human primary skin cells, human cell lines, and reconstructed human skin models. The most salient outcome is that much more research on cutaneous XME is needed for solid metabolism-dependent efficacy and safety predictions, and the cutaneous metabolism comparisons have to be viewed with caution. Keeping this fully in mind at least with respect to some cutaneous XME, some models may tentatively be considered to approximate reasonable closeness to human skin. For dermal absorption and for skin irritation among many contributing XME, esterase activity is of special importance, which in pig skin, some human cell lines, and reconstructed skin models appears reasonably close to human skin. With respect to genotoxicity and sensitization, activating XME are not yet judgeable, but reactive metabolite-reducing XME in primary human keratinocytes and several reconstructed human skin models appear reasonably close to human skin. For a more detailed delineation and discussion of the severe limitations see the "Overview and Conclusions" section in the end of this review.

  1. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  2. Allergy to Rabbits. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.A.; Longbottom, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out into the presence of antibody light chains in rabbit allergenic extracts and the interference in RAST and crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) caused by antibodies directed against them. A ''non-specific'' uptake of radioactivity in XRIE has been demonstrated to be caused by direct cross-linking of the 125 I rabbit anti-human IgE by the sheep antibodies in the immunoprecipitate of rabbit light chains. Preincubation with normal rabbit serum blocked this direct uptake of the labelled antibody and enabled specific IgE uptake on the light chains to be demonstrated for rabbit allergic sera. Verification of the allergenicity of the light chains was obtained from a specific light chain RAST. Elution from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column indicated a MW of approx. 50Kd and confirmation of the components as light chain dimers, not Fab fragments, was obtained by allotyping for loci present on heavy chains and light chains in the Fab region. Light chains were detected in urine from rabbits of all ages and in an extract of dust collected in a rabbit housing area. No background staining was observed in XRIE using rabbit antisera, either with rabbit allergic sera with specific IgE or with a human serum containing specific IgG antibodies to rabbit IgG. This latter serum also showed no evidence of uptake on all immunoprecipitates in systems using rabbit antisera, and did not give false positive RAST results when the labelled rabbit anti-human IgE contained unlabelled rabbit IgG. Those sera with specific IgE to light chains showed no uptake in XRIE using rabbit antisera, indicating that the IgE was possibly specific for epitopes revealed by the dissociation on the whole IgG molecule. (author)

  3. Evaluation of possible interaction among drugs contemplated for use during manned space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Possible interactions among drugs contemplated for use during manned spaceflights have been studied in several animal species. The following seven drugs were investigated: nitrofurantoin, chloral hydrate, hexobarbital, phenobarbital, flurazepam, diphenoxylate, and phenazopyridine. Particular combinations included: chloral hydrate, hexabarbital or flurazepam with nitrofurantoin; phenobarbital or flurazepam with phenazopyridine; and diphenoxylate with two does formulations of nitrofurantoin. Studies were carried out in several species to determine whether induction of liver microsomal enzymes would increase the tendency of phenazopyridine to produce methemoglobin in vivo. Animals were premedicated with phenobarbital, a known inducer of azoreductase, and in a separate experiment with flurazepam, before administration of phenazopyridine. Methemoglobin production was determined in each animal after receiving phenazopyridine. No evidence was found for increased production of methemoglobin in the rat, dog, or rabbit that could be attributed to increased amounts of microsomal enzymes.

  4. Assessing Anticalcification Treatments in Bioprosthetic Tissue by Using the New Zealand Rabbit Intramuscular Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gregory A; Faught, Joelle M; Olin, Jane M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit intramuscular model can be used for detecting calcification in bioprosthetic tissue and to compare the calcification in the rabbit to that of native human valves. The rabbit model was compared with the commonly used Sprague–Dawley rat subcutaneous model. Eighteen rabbits and 18 rats were used to assess calcification in bioprosthetic tissue over time (7, 14, 30, and 90 d). The explanted rabbit and rat tissue discs were measured for calcium by using atomic absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Calcium deposits on the human valve explants were assessed by using Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the NZW rabbit model is robust for detecting calcification in a shorter duration (14 d), with less infection complications, more space to implant tissue groups (thereby reducing animal use numbers), and a more metabolically and mechanically dynamic environment than the rat subcutaneous model . The human explanted valves and rabbit explanted tissue both showed Raman peaks at 960 cm−1 which is representative of hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite is the final calcium and phosphate species in the calcification of bioprosthetic heart valves and rabbit intramuscular implants. The NZW rabbit intramuscular model is an effective model for assessing calcification in bioprosthetic tissue. PMID:19619417

  5. Response of human and rabbit lymphocytes to low doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, L.

    1982-01-01

    The response of human and rabbit lymphocytes to low doses of X-rays was studied by the yields of dicentrics in first division metaphases. For both species, the dose-response curve was best fitted to the linear-quadratic model with a linear component predominating up to 67 and 42 rad respectively for man and rabbit. A calibration curve (5-400 rad) was obtained by combining the present results on man with previous data at higher doses. On the other hand, it appears that, at low doses, the radiosentivity of human lymphocytes is significantly higher than that of rabbit lymphocytes [fr

  6. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  7. Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors in rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors from rat liver have been characterized in detail by several investigators. However, little work has been done in this area using heart tissue. In this study they examined and characterized the triiodothyronine binding in rabbit hearts. Nuclei have been prepared from ventricular muscle cells of normal and thyrotoxic rabbits as well as from atrial muscle cells of normal rabbit. Hearts were perfused with a minimum essential medium containing collagenase and bovine serum albumin. Myocardial cells were isolated and then disrupted by sonication and washing with a Triton X-100 buffer solution. A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was then used to isolate the mycoardial nuclei. Radiolabelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) binding to nuclei was examined using conditions described by established procedures. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yields maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) of 0.17 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant (K/sub d/) of 400 +/- 50 pM for normal heart T 3 -receptors. The apparent capacity for T 3 binding is approximately 40% greater in myocardial nuclei prepared from hearts of hyperthyroid rabbits. The binding capacity of atrial muscle nuclei is about fourfold lower than ventricular cell nuclei. The results suggest that binding capacity for T 3 -receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle

  8. Benzo[a]pyrene-enhanced mutagenesis by man-made mineral fibres in the lung of gama-lacI transgenic rats.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Loli, P.; Hurbánková, M.; Kováčiková, Z.; Volkovová, K.; Wolff, T.; Oesterle, D.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.; Georgiadis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 595, - (2006), s. 167-173 ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : transgenic rats * mineral fibres * mutations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  9. Paraquat-poisoning in the rabbit lungs: high resolution computed tomographic findings and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eui Han; Lee, Byoung Ho; Kim, Kun Sang

    1992-01-01

    The authors evaluated high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of the isolated rabbit lungs with paraquat poisoning, and the findings were correlated with pathologic specimens. The purposes of this study are 1) to obtain the HRCT findings of the normal rabbit lung. 2) to find out if pulmonary pathology can be induced in rabbits by paraquat, and 3) to correlate the HRCT findings to those of pathology. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups: group I included four control rabbits; group II included 16 rabbits given paraquat intraperitoneally (IP group); and group III included 10 rabbits given paraquat intravenously (IV group). The rabbits were sacrificed seven, 10, and 14 days after injection of various amount of paraquat, and then the lungs were isolated for HRCT and pathologic studies. Gross and microscopic findings of the three groups of control and paraquat-injected rabbit lungs were correlated with HRCT findings. Pulmonary congestion, mild thickening of alveolar walls and septae, and multifocal micro-atelectasis were the man pathologic findings of the lungs in both groups of the rabbits. Pulmonary hemorrhage was noted in five (31%) of 16 rabbits of IP group and three (30%) of 10 IV group. Pulmonary edema was seen in one rabbits (6%) of IP and four (40%) of IV group. Typical pulmonary fibrosis was seen in one rabbit of IP (6%) and IV (10%) group, respectively. There was no correlation between the amount of paraquat and frequency of the pulmonary pathology. Pulmonary fibrosis was seen at least one week after the paraquat injection. On HRCT, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema appeared as diffuse air-space consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis as linear or band-like opacities. However, minimal changes such as mild congestion

  10. Man's Evolutionary Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius

    1972-01-01

    Man can aspire to control his evolution and direct it towards goals which he finds good, salutary, worth living for....The one most 'natural' thing for man is to modify nature by means of his knowledge." (Author/AL)

  11. Glomerular epithelial foot processes in normal man and rats. Distribution of true width and its intra- and inter-individual variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, H J; Seefeldt, T; Osterby, R

    1980-01-01

    The width of individual glomerular epithelial foot processes appears very different on electron micrographs. A method for obtainining distributions of the true width of foot processes from that of their apparent width on electron micrographs has been developed based on geometric probability theory pertaining to a specific geometric model. Analyses of foot process width in humans and rats show a remarkable interindividual invariance implying rigid control and therefore great biological significance of foot process width or a derivative thereof. The very low inter-individual variation of the true width, shown in the present paper, makes it possible to demonstrate slight changes in rather small groups of patients or experimental animals.

  12. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  13. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  14. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of polypeptide hormones is a regulated process: inhibition of [125I]iodoinsulin internalization in hypoinsulinemic diabetes of rat and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, J.L.; Robert, A.; Grunberger, G.; van Obberghen, E.; Freychet, P.; Orci, L.; Gorden, P.

    1986-01-01

    Much data suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis is regulated in states of hormone excess. Thus, in hyperinsulinemic states there is an accelerated loss of cell surface insulin receptors. In the present experiments we addressed this question in hypoinsulinemic states, in which insulin binding to cell surface receptors is generally increased. In hepatocytes obtained from hypoinsulinemic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, [ 125 I]iodoglucagon internalization was increased, while at the same time [ 125 I]iodoinsulin internalization was decreased. The defect in [ 125 I]iodoinsulin internalization was corrected by insulin treatment of the animal. In peripheral blood monocytes from patients with type I insulinopenic diabetes, internalization of [ 125 I]iodoinsulin was impaired; this defect was not present in insulin-treated patients. These data in the hypoinsulinemic rat and human diabetes suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis is regulated in states of insulin deficiency as well as insulin excess. Delayed or reduced internalization of the insulin-receptor complex could amplify the muted signal caused by deficient hormone secretion

  15. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  16. The CareRabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Sanne; Stegwee, R.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The CareRabbit (ZorgKonijn) is an e-health device that can be used to play messages (e.g. text, MP3) sent through the Internet. It is used in children's departments in hospitals. Its aim is to make children feel comfortable and make their stay more pleasant. Motivation - Our goal is to investigate

  17. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  18. The oldest man ever?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmoth, J; Skytthe, A; Friou, D

    1996-01-01

    This article summarizes recent findings in a case study of exceptional longevity. CM, a resident of San Rafael, California, was 114 years old in August 1996. He is the first properly verified case of a 114-year-old man in human history (although a few women have been known to live longer). Our...... is accurate. Based on the available information, it also seems a reasonable conjecture that he may be the oldest man alive today and perhaps the oldest man who has ever lived. This study documents an extreme example of human longevity and records characteristics of the man's life that may provide clues about...

  19. Rabbit Model of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jeong Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We created a rabbit model of retinoblastoma and confirmed the tumor clinically and histopathologically. Seventeen New Zealand rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A at doses of 10–15 mg/kg. At day 3, the animals received a 30 μl subretinal injection of 1×106 cultured WERI retinoblastoma cells. Digital fundus images were captured before euthanasia, and the eyes were submitted for histopathology. Retinoblastoma cells grew in all the inoculated eyes and established a tumor under the retina and/or in the vitreous. New blood vessels in the tumor were observed starting at week 5. Cuffs of viable tumor cells surrounded the blood vessels with regions of necrosis present at 70–80 μm from nutrient vessels. Occasional tumor seeds in the vitreous histologically exhibited central necrosis. This rabbit model demonstrated similar fundus appearance and pathologic features to human retinoblastoma and may be used as a model to test various routes of drug delivery for retinoblastoma.

  20. "Det man siger er man selv..."

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Nørgaard, Britta; Uddholm, Mats

    forhold, der er hermeneutisk, strukturelt og relationelt bestemt. Praksisviden kan ikke være objektiv i gængs forstand, men det behøver ikke at diskvalificere denne viden. Forståelse er altid knyttet til den sag og bundet til den situation man står overfor og i som professionel og som menneske....

  1. Man of Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Helene Juarez

    1993-01-01

    The themes of Jose Clemente Orozco's murals, several of which are found on U.S. college campuses, are as relevant today as they were during the Mexican Revolution. Orozco (1883-1949) painted the world as he saw it, portraying corruption, violence, and man's inhumanity to man. (LP)

  2. N K Man

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. N K Man. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 37 Issue 1 February 2014 pp 19-25. Influence of preparation conditions on superconducting properties of Bi-2223 thin films · N T Mua A Sundaresan N K Man D D Dung · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  3. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  4. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  5. Roles of the WHHL Rabbit in Translational Research on Hypercholesterolemia and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conquering cardiovascular diseases is one of the most important problems in human health. To overcome cardiovascular diseases, animal models have played important roles. Although the prevalence of genetically modified animals, particularly mice and rats, has contributed greatly to biomedical research, not all human diseases can be investigated in this way. In the study of cardiovascular diseases, mice and rats are inappropriate because of marked differences in lipoprotein metabolism, pathophysiological findings of atherosclerosis, and cardiac function. On the other hand, since lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits closely resemble those in humans, several useful animal models for these diseases have been developed in rabbits. One of the most famous of these is the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbit, which develops hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis spontaneously due to genetic and functional deficiencies of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. The WHHL rabbit has been improved to develop myocardial infarction, and the new strain was designated the myocardial infarction-prone WHHL (WHHLMI rabbit. This review summarizes the importance of selecting animal species for translational research in biomedical science, the development of WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits, their application to the development of hypocholesterolemic and/or antiatherosclerotic drugs, and future prospects regarding WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits.

  6. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  7. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  8. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  9. Planets for Man

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dole, Stephen; Asimov, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    "Planets for Man" was written at the height of the space race, a few years before the first moon landing, when it was assumed that in the not-too-distant future human beings "will be able to travel...

  10. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  11. Rekordhind Man Ray eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Ameerika sürrealistliku fotograafi Man Ray 1926. a. Pariisis pildistatud foto 'Must ja valge, Pariis (positiiv ja negatiiv)', mis kujutab Ray armukese Kiki de Montparnasse'i portreed, maksis New Yorgi fotooksjonil 7, 3 miljonit Eesti krooni

  12. Genetics and Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, C. O.

    1973-01-01

    Can genetic evolution be controlled by man in a manner which does not violate a civilized, humane, and democratic ethos? The genetics of health and illhealth and of normal variation are discussed with respect to this question. (PEB)

  13. Influence of prolonged carbon monoxide exposure and altitude hypoxia on serum lipids in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, K.; Damgaard, F.

    1968-01-01

    Total cholesterol (but not other fat fractions) increased after 5 to 6 days of 13% COHb in 8 volunteers. There was also a rapid but apparent transient rise in cholesterol in volunteers at high altitude (3454 m) beginning after 1 day and lasting to day 5 or 6. Hypercholesteremic effect in man was apparently less than in the more sensitive rabbit.

  14. Pyrrole and 2,5-heptanedione in the urine of rats and 2,5-heptanedione in the urine of man: analytical determination of excretion upon exposure to n-heptane; Pyrrole und 2,5-Heptandion im Urin der Ratte und 2,5-Heptandion im Urin des Menschen: Analytische Bestimmung der Ausscheidung nach Exposition gegn n-Heptan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoermer, A.G.C.

    1997-09-01

    A method for quantifying levels of the neurotoxic metabolite 2,5-heptanedione in rats and man after experimental exposure to n-heptane was developed. It consisted in determining the quantity of 2,5-heptanedione excreted in urine and the relevant excretion kinetics. Moreover, the excretion of pyrrole in the urine of rats was measured. In the urine of non-exposed rats and man, a basic excretion of 2,5-heptanedione was measured, with the rates of excretion being 0.11 and 4.5 nmol per hour, respectively. This basic excretion of 2,5-heptanedione is assumed to have an endogenous cause. The quantitive investigation of the dose dependence of the excretion of 2,5-heptanedione and pyrrole in the urine of rats and of 2,5-heptanedione in the urine of man is a prerequisite for assessing the risk posed by n-heptane with a view to peripheral neuropathies. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Entwicklung einer Methode zur Quantifizierung der Belastung von Ratte und Mensch mit dem neurotoxischen Metaboliten 2,5-Heptandion nach experimentellen Expositionen gegen n-Heptan. Dazu sollte jeweils die ausgeschiedene Menge und die zugehoerige Ausscheidungskinetik von 2,5-Heptandion im Urin bestimmt werden. Darueber hinaus sollte die Ausscheidung von Pyrrolen im Urin von Ratten gemessen werden. Im Urin von nicht exponierten Ratten und Menschen wurde eine Grundausscheidung von 2,5-Heptandion gefunden, wobei die Ausscheidungsraten jeweils 0,11 bzw. 4,5 nmol/h betrugen. Fuer die Grundausscheidung von 2,5-Heptandion wird ein endogener Ursprung angenommen. Die quantitativen Untersuchungen zur Dosisabhaengigkeit der Ausscheidung im Urin von 2,5-Heptandion und Pyrrolen bei der Ratte und von 2,5-Heptandion beim Menschen sind eine Grundvoraussetzung fuer eine Abschaetzung des Risikos von n-Heptan fuer periphere Neuropathien. (orig./MG)

  15. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  16. Det man hører, er man selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svømmekjær, Heidi Frank

    2012-01-01

    Katalog til udstillingen "Det man hører, er man selv" på Mediemuseet i Odense 7. september 2012 - 15. januar 2013.......Katalog til udstillingen "Det man hører, er man selv" på Mediemuseet i Odense 7. september 2012 - 15. januar 2013....

  17. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  18. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  19. O homem dos ratos, Schreber e Kafka: destinos possíveis para a hostilidade El hombre de los ratones, Schreber y Kafka: destinos posibles para la hostilidad The rat man, Schreber and Kafka: possible vicissitudes to hostility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissi Vigil Castiel

    2012-01-01

    matters and based on Freud's texts, this paper proposes a reflection on the aggressive tendencies and their implications in the treatment of obsessive neurosis and paranoia. The clinical frames will be exemplified by The Rat Man and the history of Schreber. Subsequently we will discuss two texts of Kafka, to indicate an answer to the elaboration of hostility towards symbolization and sublimation of the aggressive tendencies.

  20. Bulletproof Black Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst.......Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst....

  1. Man - Machine Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  2. Johri, Prof. Man Mohan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1983 Section: General Biology. Johri, Prof. Man Mohan Ph.D. (Delhi), FNA. Date of birth: 15 September 1940. Specialization: Plant Biochemistry, Molecular Biology of Plants and Genetic Engineering Address: Flat No. 32, New Cosmos CHSL, Juhu-Versova Link Road, Andheri (W), Mumbai 400 053, Maharashtra

  3. Improving Enlisted Fleet Manning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    and FY totals) by rating, program, and gender for active and reserve accessions. Each quarter, the Navy holds a quarterly demand planning confer...The CS E-7, E-8, and E-9 his- torically have been undermanned at sea, but in FY 2014 the CS E-7 sea manning rate reached parity . Figure 55

  4. Man as a Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Alan; And Others

    Written in 1964, the document represents experimental material of the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project. The objectives of the project were to discuss the evolution of man as distinguished from the evolution of other species and as related to culture, and to emphasize human diversity. Three brief essays are presented. The first, "The…

  5. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  6. Heterogeneity of rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpatkin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)

  7. Biology of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Nathan R

    2006-01-01

    In recognition of Dr. Nathan Brewer's many years of dedicated service to AALAS and the community of research animal care specialists, the premier issue of JAALAS includes the following compilation of Dr. Brewer's essays on rabbit anatomy and physiology. These essays were originally published in the ASLAP newsletter (formerly called Synapse), and are reprinted here with the permission and endorsement of that organization. I would like to thank Nina Hahn, Jane Lacher, and Nancy Austin for assistance in compiling these essays. Publishing this information in JAALAS allows Dr. Brewer's work to become part of the searchable literature for laboratory animal science and medicine and also assures that the literature references and information he compiled will not be lost to posterity. However, readers should note that this material has undergone only minor editing for style, has not been edited for content, and, most importantly, has not undergone peer review. With the agreement of the associate editors and the AALAS leadership, I elected to forego peer review of this work, in contradiction to standard JAALAS policy, based on the status of this material as pre-published information from an affiliate organization that holds the copyright and on the esteem in which we hold for Dr. Brewer as a founding father of our organization.

  8. RABBIT POX : II. PATHOLOGY OF THE EPIDEMIC DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H S

    1934-09-30

    The lesions found in animals with epidemic rabbit pox have been described in this paper. The most distinctive gross lesion in all organs and tissues was the small nodule or papule which was found to consist of mononuclear infiltration and necrosis. Diffuse lesions were also found in which the infiltration was widespread and accompanied by edema, hemorrhage and extensive necrosis of affected tissues and organs. The possibility of the diffuse lesions being due to the action of secondary invaders was considered, but available evidence indicated that the different types, including pneumonia, represented reactions to a single causative agent. Moreover, an intimate relationship was observed to exist between lesions and small blood vessels in which primary endothelial damage was usually apparent. The degree of vascular damage generally corresponded to the extent of the lesion and it is probable that this in turn corresponded to the dose of the causative agent. The close analogy between the clinical manifestations and pathological processes of this disease in the rabbit and small pox in man led to the conclusion that the disease in the rabbit is essentially the same as small pox, and that it is probably produced by a virus closely related to the virus of small pox. Available evidence indicated that the infection originated in the Institute and that it spread in atypical form or masked by some other disease until it reached the breeding colony as a clearly defined epidemic infection.

  9. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  10. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Marissa, Dyna; Jundillah, Muhammad Labib; Azainil; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  11. The End of Man

    OpenAIRE

    Martinon, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Masculinity? This book attempts to answer this one-word question by revisiting key philosophical concepts in the construction of masculinity, not in order to re-write or debunk them again, but in order to provide a radically new departure to what masculinity means today. This new departure focuses on an understanding of sexuality and gender that is neither structured in oppositional terms (masculine-feminine, male-female, man-woman) nor in performative terms (for which the opposition remains ...

  12. Man Is a Paradox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂娟

    2009-01-01

    In the poem "Always", the author Pablo Neruda employs the first person narration to incisively reveal the paradoxical traits in human nature by exploring man in relation to love. "I" play a role shifting from a calm narrator to a furious one, and the last recovering to a mild one, which offers a multiple visual angle to observe humanity. In sum, by means of continuous changes of my inner feelings in the poem, Pablo Neruda reveals the paradoxical humanity .

  13. Man and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1982-01-01

    The book describes the effects of ionizing radiation on man in a simple, popular, detailed and generally valid manner and gives a comprehensive picture of the concepts, elements, principles of function, and perspectives of medical radiobiology. Radiobiology in general is explained, and its application in research on the causes of radiolesions and radiation diseases as well as a radiotherapy and radiation protection is discussed in popular form. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Man in Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单祝堂

    1994-01-01

    Men usually want to have their own way.They want to thinkand act as they like.No one,however,can have his own way all thetime.A man cannot live in society without considering the interestsof others as well as his own interests.’Society’ means a groupof people with the same laws and the same way of life.People in

  15. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, G.-I.; Kawamura, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The weight of organs from autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults, children, and infants is presented for the purpose of approaching a Reference Japanese Man. The skeletal content and the daily intake of alkaline earth elements are given. A lower rate of transfer (K 2 ) to the thyroid gland of ingested radioiodine, as well as a remarkably shorter biological half-life than the data adopted by ICRP, is also proved as a result of this study. (author)

  16. Man and computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    The discussion of cultural and sociological consequences of computer evolution is hindered by human prejudice. For example the sentence 'a computer is at best as intelligent as its programmer' veils actual developments. Theoretical limits of computer intelligence are the limits of intelligence in general. Modern computer systems replace not only human labour, but also human decision making and thereby human responsibility. The historical situation is unique. Human head-work is being automated and man is loosing function. (orig.) [de

  17. Typhoon Man-Yi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Typhoon Man-Yi was pummeling the Japanese island of Okinawa with winds between 230 and 295 kilometers per hour (125-160 knots, 144-184 miles per hour) and heavy rain on the morning of July 13, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image. The immense storm covered hundreds of kilometers with spiraling bands of thunderstorms, though it had lost the distinctive cloud-free eye it exhibited the day before. Typhoons are common in Japan, but powerful typhoons usually strike the island nation later in the year. The Japan Meteorological Agency said that Man-Yi is the fourth typhoon of the 2007 season and may be the most powerful ever observed in the northwest Pacific in July, reported Kyodo News. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expected the typhoon to strike Kyushu, a southern Japanese island, on July 14, and then curve northeast along the eastern shore of Japan. By the time the storm reaches Tokyo on July 15, it should be degraded to a tropical storm. As of July 13, Typhoon Man-Yi had injured eight and flooded twenty houses in Okinawa, and forced airlines to cancel hundreds of flights, said Kyodo News. The storm was expected to bring heavy rain to Japan's Pacific coast. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the MODIS Rapid Response team.

  18. Man-machine supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmain, J.

    2005-01-01

    Today's complexity of systems where man is involved has led to the development of more and more sophisticated information processing systems where decision making has become more and more difficult. The operator task has moved from operation to supervision and the production tool has become indissociable from its numerical instrumentation and control system. The integration of more and more numerous and sophisticated control indicators in the control room does not necessary fulfill the expectations of the operation team. It is preferable to develop cooperative information systems which are real situation understanding aids. The stake is not the automation of operators' cognitive tasks but the supply of a reasoning help. One of the challenges of interactive information systems is the selection, organisation and dynamical display of information. The efficiency of the whole man-machine system depends on the communication interface efficiency. This article presents the principles and specificities of man-machine supervision systems: 1 - principle: operator's role in control room, operator and automation, monitoring and diagnosis, characteristics of useful models for supervision; 2 - qualitative reasoning: origin, trends, evolutions; 3 - causal reasoning: causality, causal graph representation, causal and diagnostic graph; 4 - multi-points of view reasoning: multi flow modeling method, Sagace method; 5 - approximate reasoning: the symbolic numerical interface, the multi-criteria decision; 6 - example of application: supervision in a spent-fuel reprocessing facility. (J.S.)

  19. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  20. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Man and electrotechnics today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Man and electrotechnique today - this topic was discussed by experts of the VDE (Society of German Electrotechnicians) during a podium discussion directed by the TV-journalist Ruediger Proske. The discussion was centred on the popular questions of energy supply, electronics and the technical communication systems. What are the technologies' influences on our society, how can the social results for the places of employment be estimated and what role is played here by the technicians, the industry and by economy. In the debate which was partly very heated the members showed their anxiety of the negative attitude which society has been developing towards technique to cause big problems for the future.

  2. Man and electrotechnics today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Man and electrotechnique today - this topic was discussed by experts of the VDE (Society of German Electrotechnicians) during a podium discussion directed by the TV-journalist Ruediger Proske. The discussion was centred on the popular questions of energy supply, electronics and the technical communication systems. What are the technologies' influences on our society, how can the social results for the places of employment be estimated and what role is played here by the technicians, the industry and by economy. In the debate which was partly very heated the members showed their anxiety of the negative attitude which society has been developing towards technique to cause big problems for the future. (orig.) [de

  3. Constructing EuroMan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Marie; Andersen, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    the regional periphery in dynamic state-centred economies. In the course of the 1980s, however, interest has shifted towards regions as motors of growth, thereby making the region an actor in its own right rather than a passive receiver of subsidies. The shift in focus can be regarded a result of so...... and approaches. Eurman is possessing the ability and will to pursue rational-strategic goals and he appears in the form of an economic agent as well as a participant in political processes. Regionalisation, identity-formation and the key characteristics of EuroMan unite in EU regional policies and New...

  4. Time and man

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, L. R. B

    1978-01-01

    Time and Man focuses on the endeavors of humans to probe the mysteries of time and to elucidate its properties. The discussions are both philosophical and factual in nature and encompass science as well as the physical sciences, biology and related disciplines (for example, evolution), and the humanities (for example, religion). Factual information is presented to help the reader gain a better understanding of the concepts associated with time.Comprised of nine chapters, this volume first considers the passage of time and the experiences which humans associate with the concept of time before r

  5. Pathways to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The study of radionuclide pathways leading to man generally has the goal of allowing us to predict human exposure from measurements of the radionuclide concentration in some segment of the environment. This modelling process provides a valuable tool in both the regulatory and health protection fields. However, most of the models in the regulatory field and in the health physics profession were designed to maximize exposure estimates. It is preferable to have scientifically defensible estimates and to add suitable safety factors at the end. Thus we are still faced with the development and validation of suitable models for many of the radionuclides of interest. The most useful models will include means of assessing variability and uncertainty. In this case variability might be considered as the differences in behavior due to age, sex or other factors in animals or man and those differences among plant species or animal species that determine their uptake factors. The uncertainty, on the other hand, would be the estimate of possible error in the experimental measurements. Model parameters would always have some variability even for site-specific cases and broad averages for population groups would have to include a factor expressing the possible variabilty and uncertainity. Thus any exposure calculation would have to be expressed with some range and valid assessments of this range are required

  6. Ecology and man's environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Naqeeb, R

    1975-01-01

    A new and exciting discipline of human ecology is in the making. It has not, perhaps fortunately, found its bearings yet and remains to date overly dependent upon the limitations of sociology, biology, engineering and the sciences for its general theory, approaches, and philosophy. A new discipline with a world view and focussed on the human being and his habitat will hopefully emerge from a rich dialectic among scientists, humanists and policy makers educated and experienced in a variety of fields and committed to man's welfare. This new discipline and its practitioner must always be open to the revelations their knowledge will bring to man through the environmental processes. The implications of public policy, science and technology of industrial and post-industrial nations are all in need of considered re-examination by us all. Since their early application in these western societies we have witnessed the general downgrading of the world's environment. An ungrading in social priorities for the development of adequate housing, jobs, medical care and education which is almost always lower in rank than they should be is needed. The role of local groups, involving a well-informed and participating citizenship, in this process of changing priorities will always remain of prime importance, but no long-range goal in a rapidly-changing landscape is possible without broad national and local planning which contains ways and means of implementation.

  7. 1958 : Manning wants markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This article described the 2 opposing views in 1958 regarding how the big Montreal refinery market should be served. While the president of Imperial Oil expressed that Montreal refineries should not be forced to use domestic feedstocks, Alberta Premier Ernest Manning urged the Borden Commission to take immediate measures to expand the market for Canadian crude oil into Montreal. Manning argued that the dependence on Venezuelan crude in the Montreal refining market would pose a danger to the stability and development of the oil industry; loss of revenue for municipal, provincial and federal governments; and, an adverse effect on Canada's trade balance with the United States. The Premier suggested that these problems could be avoided by expanding the market for Canadian crude in Ontario and Quebec, in the U.S. Midwest, and in the Pacific Northwest. In 1958, the Canadian oil industry was divided on the Montreal market issue. Other key events in 1958 were listed. Waterton was characterized as Canada's biggest gas field, with reserves of 3 trillion cubic feet. A gas discovery at Berland River was considered the largest single-well exploration find in the world, flowing 27 million cubic feet per day on 1 drillstem. Two new refineries near Vancouver and Toronto were built to raise Canadian refining capacity to 813,000 barrels per day. 1 tab., 1 fig

  8. The Nature of Man and Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Gregory, Lura N.

    The many problems presented by the nature of man and in studying man are the focus of this paper which attempts to place these problems in perspective in terms of the past and future. The enigma facing man, that man must study man, is related in an introduction. Freud's, Adler's, and Jung's developments in the study of the nature of man are…

  9. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Play the Man!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelberg, Peter

    . Men's bodies experienced a new form of interest in interwar Britain as physical training was becoming a general pursuit and sexual reformers and conservatives tried to come to terms with a post-Victorian society. The interwar period saw a strong tendency away from the ideal of men and women......This book investigates ideas of men and masculinities in interwar Britain in three different areas: psychology, physical education and sex. Using a broad range of sources from different walks of life it explores how men and masculinities were constructed in different ways for different purposes...... as opposites towards a heterosexual matrimonial ideal wherein men could try to establish a masculine identity. This tendency created new frontiers where homosexuals, 'perverts', 'misfits' and 'freaks' were seen as opposites of the 'real man' in the symbolic world of the early twentieth century....

  11. The 'poor man's laryngogram'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is reassessment of an old method improved by well-directed application of well-known maneuvers of laryngo-pharyngeal function. Although not as visually attractive as a dedicated laryngogram (now hardly ever requested), it does render similarly reliable diagnostic information, which, supported, as occasionally necessary, by conventional tomography, can even surpass that given by the older technique. Its main advantage lies in providing cheap, quick, noninvasive studies with minimal descomfort for the patient. Should further investigation be necessary, for analysis of deep extension, modern cross-sectional imaging methods (especially MR) far surpass even dedicated laryngography in diagnostic value and can be based adequately on 'poor mans's laryngography'. Ways in which this method may be optimised, especially those involving laryngopharyngeal function, are briefly presented - with emphasis on relevant practical aspects - as are normal and abnormal findings. (orig.) [de

  12. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  13. Effects of collagen matrix and bioreactor cultivation on cartilage regeneration of a full-thickness critical-size knee joint cartilage defects with subchondral bone damage in a rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hwa Wang

    Full Text Available Cartilage has limited self-repair ability. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different species of collagen-engineered neocartilage for the treatment of critical-size defects in the articular joint in a rabbit model. Type II and I collagen obtained from rabbits and rats was mixed to form a scaffold. The type II/I collagen scaffold was then mixed with rabbit chondrocytes to biofabricate neocartilage constructs using a rotating cell culture system [three-dimensional (3D-bioreactor]. The rabbit chondrocytes were mixed with rabbit collagen scaffold and rat collagen scaffold to form neoRBT (neo-rabbit cartilage and neoRAT (neo-rat cartilage constructs, respectively. The neocartilage matrix constructs were implanted into surgically created defects in rabbit knee chondyles, and histological examinations were performed after 2 and 3 months. Cartilage-like lacunae formation surrounding the chondrocytes was noted in the cell cultures. After 3 months, both the neoRBT and neoRAT groups showed cartilage-like repair tissue covering the 5-mm circular, 4-mm-deep defects that were created in the rabbit condyle and filled with neocartilage plugs. Reparative chondrocytes were aligned as apparent clusters in both the neoRAT and neoRBT groups. Both neoRBT and neoRAT cartilage repair demonstrated integration with healthy adjacent tissue; however, more integration was obtained using the neoRAT cartilage. Our data indicate that different species of type II/I collagen matrix and 3D bioreactor cultivation can facilitate cartilage engineering in vitro for the repair of critical-size defect.

  14. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  15. Distribution and morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem of the New Zealand white rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, C R; Sørensen, J C; Geneser, F A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the morphology and distribution of the serotonergic neurons in the brainstem of the New Zealand white rabbit by using a highly specific immunocytochemical procedure. It was possible to divide the serotonergic neurons into a rostral group, which......, which were large and multipolar, were morphologically different from the serotonergic neurons in the midline, which were mostly small and relatively nonpolar. The serotonergic system of the New Zealand white rabbit has undergone a major lateralization, like the serotonergic system of man and higher...

  16. Distribution and morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the brainstem of the New Zealand white rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, C R; Sørensen, J C; Geneser, F A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the morphology and distribution of the serotonergic neurons in the brainstem of the New Zealand white rabbit by using a highly specific immunocytochemical procedure. It was possible to divide the serotonergic neurons into a rostral group, which......, which were large and multipolar, were morphologically different from the serotonergic neurons in the midline, which were mostly small and relatively nonpolar. The serotonergic system of the New Zealand white rabbit has undergone a major lateralization, like the serotonergic system of man and higher...... and morphology, and this possible subspecialization of the serotonergic system is discussed in the context of present knowledge of serotonergic anatomy and function....

  17. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  18. AHP 47: THE PROVOCATIVE RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rnam rgyal རྣམ་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A retreatant finished chanting for a family, packed up the offerings from the host, and started back to his hermitage feeling satisfied. A rabbit, called Ja dkrug mgo 'Trouble Maker', watched the retreatant through an evergreen bush, and decided he wanted to cheat the retreatant out of his offerings. Trouble Maker came out of the bush and stood in front of the retreatant in the middle of the path. As the retreatant came closer, Trouble Maker ran forward a few steps and then again turned back to watch the retreatant, who chased the rabbit for a while, but the heavy bag burdened him and he soon got very tired. He finally threw down his bag and chased Trouble Maker, who ran just beyond the retreatant’s grasp. Finally, having left the retreatant far behind, Trouble Maker doubled back, picked up the retreatant's bag, and carried it off. ...

  19. Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbits are characterized by small body size, short gestation period, high ... feeders and other equipment for rabbits can be made using readily available materials such as ... Limitations to rabbit production in developing countries include the ...

  20. Man Machine Systems in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Malkit S.

    This review of the research literature on the interaction between humans and computers discusses how man machine systems can be utilized effectively in the learning-teaching process, especially in secondary education. Beginning with a definition of man machine systems and comments on the poor quality of much of the computer-based learning material…

  1. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073286826; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares

  2. REMO poor man's reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, H.; Moseley, C.; Haensler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Reanalyses depict the state of the atmosphere as a best fit in space and time of many atmospheric observations in a physically consistent way. By essentially solving the data assimilation problem in a very accurate manner, reanalysis results can be used as reference for model evaluation procedures and as forcing data sets for different model applications. However, the spatial resolution of the most common and accepted reanalysis data sets (e.g. JRA25, ERA-Interim) ranges from approximately 124 km to 80 km. This resolution is too coarse to simulate certain small scale processes often associated with extreme events. In addition, many models need higher resolved forcing data ( e.g. land-surface models, tools for identifying and assessing hydrological extremes). Therefore we downscaled the ERA-Interim reanalysis over the EURO-CORDEX-Domain for the time period 1989 to 2008 to a horizontal resolution of approximately 12 km. The downscaling is performed by nudging REMO-simulations to lower and lateral boundary conditions of the reanalysis, and by re-initializing the model every 24 hours ("REMO in forecast mode"). In this study the three following questions will be addressed: 1.) Does the REMO poor man's reanalysis meet the needs (accuracy, extreme value distribution) in validation and forcing? 2.) What lessons can be learned about the model used for downscaling? As REMO is used as a pure downscaling procedure, any systematic deviations from ERA-Interim result from poor process modelling but not from predictability limitations. 3.) How much small scale information generated by the downscaling model is lost with frequent initializations? A comparison to a simulation that is performed in climate mode will be presented.

  3. "Det man hører, er man selv"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    ”Det man hører, er man selv” er Danmarks Radios P3s yderst velkendte slogan. Det dukkede op i begyndelsen af (20)00erne som opfindsom og populær afspejling af en moderne forståelse af den rolle musik og medieforbrug spiller for den voksne dansker. Denne artikel handler ikke om P3 som musikkanal...

  4. Japanese reference man 1988, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative description of physical properties and other characteristics of the human body is one of the basic data for estimating dose equivalent and calculating Annual Limit on Intake of radionuclides. The exact mass weight of organs and tissues are measured from about 1000 autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults and physical properties are obtained from recent Japanese Government publications. Japanese (Asian) Reference Man is completed by establishing the Normal Japanese, harmonizing with Caucasian Reference Man and coinciding with the ICRP Reference Man Task Group members concept. (author)

  5. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rabbit Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    Neoplasia has long been reported as a rare finding in rabbits, but over the past decades the number of reports on neoplastic disease in rabbits has risen considerably. Similar to other animals, neoplastic changes may occur in any organ system, but the rate in which the organ systems are affected

  7. Dose-to-man studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Dose-to-Man Studies focused on developing computer data handling and computer modules which permit easy, rapid assessment of the dose to southeastern United States populations from routine or accidental releases of radionuclides to atmospheric and stream systems

  8. Lak of influence of glucagon on glucose homeostasis after prolonged exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Richter, Erik; Holst, J J

    1977-01-01

    The significance of glucagon for post-exercise glucose homeostasis has been studied in rats fasted overnight. Immediately after exhaustive swimming either rabbit-antiglucagon serum or normal rabbit serum was injected by cardiac puncture. Cardiac blood and samples of liver and muscle tissue were...

  9. Ação do soro de cabra anti-soro de coelho imunizado ou não com células linfóides do doador sobre o alotransplante cardíaco em ratos: immunosupression of goat antiserum against rabbit serum immunized or not with donor lymphoid cells Cardiac allograft in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haylton Jorge Suaid

    2002-01-01

    rejeição aguda dos corações transplantados não apresentaram anticorpos citotóxicos circulantes. O fator causador do bloqueio parace n��o estar vinculado aos bloqueios de citotoxicidade "in vitro" e do teor de precepitinas do SAL.OBJECTIVE: To study the immunosupression efficacy an specific anti-antilymphocytic serum prepared in goats in a model of cardiac allografts in rats. METHODS: Three rabbits were immunized with lymphoid cells obtained from mesenteric lymphatic nodes of Wistar rats. Each one received subcutaneously 3x10(9 cells mixed with Freund's adjuvant. After 2 weeks, they were injected with the same amount of cells at weekly intervals for 4 additional times. In the 5th week they were bled and their serum were mixed. This serum, which had a cytotoxic titer of 1:1024, was used to immunize 2 goats that gave rise to the anti-antilymphocytic serum (AAS-1 and AAS-2. As control we immunized 1 additional goat with normal rabbit serum (ANS. The gel diffusion technique (AAS x rabbit serum showed precipitation bands against till the following dilution: AAS-1 - 1/64, AAS-2 - 1/128 and ANS 1/124. Both AAS were able to block the in vitro lymphocytotoxity of goat antilymphocytic serum till dilution of 1:2 while ANS did not. The hearts from Wistar rats (donors were transplanted in Holtzman rats. The transplanted rats were divide in groups: C1 - 11 animals (control that received no serum; C2 - 5 animals (control that received 1ml of goat normal serum; A- 19 animals - A1 with 5 rats injected intravenously in the day of surgery with 0.5ml of AAS-1, A2 with 7 rats injected with 1ml of AAS-1 only in the of surgery, and A3 with 7 rats that received 1ml of AAS-1 in days 0, 1 and 2 postoperatively; and group B with 19 rats (B1, B2 and B3 treated as group A except with the AAS-2 serum. RESULTS: Mean heart survival in groups C1 and C2 was respectively 11.9 and 14.6 days Survival range in the subgroups A1 and A2 were respectively 9 to 230 days and 23 to 230 days. In subgroup A

  10. Pleural fluid exchange in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Gregg J; Robichaux, Amy; Lee, Y C Gary; Sanders, Jonathan R; Roselli, Robert J; Light, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The study was designed to better characterize pleural fluid absorption in rabbits with the following two objectives: to determine the relative absorption of saline versus high-protein solutions, and to identify the relative rates of absorption of dextran molecules of varying sizes. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits received a 12-mL intrapleural injection of saline solution and a 10% protein solution on opposite sides, each solution containing dextran molecules with varying MWs. At sacrifice at 1, 4, 8, 18 and 24 h, the volume of pleural fluid and the concentrations of the dextran molecules were determined. Saline was absorbed faster than the high-protein fluid (P higher than those in the protein solution at all times after injection (P = 0.005; P higher-MW dextrans were cleared more slowly than the lower-MW dextrans in a continuously graded manner. Saline was absorbed faster than a solution with a high protein content. There was a continuous spectrum in the rate of absorption of the dextran molecules, with the larger molecules being absorbed more slowly.

  11. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  12. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  13. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Atien Priyanti; Yono Cahyo Rahadjo

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic ferti...

  14. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  15. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the judgment of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, such manning is...

  16. The Black Man in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  17. SPECIFICITY OF ANTIBODY BOVINE ZONNA PELLUCIDAE 3 (ANTI-bZP3 TO RABBIT ZP3 BASED ON bZP3 AS CONTRACEPTIVE ANTIGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Widodo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Zonna pellucidae can be develop as antigen potential candidates based on reversible immunocontraceptive vaccines. Immunogenic sites of bovine zonna pellucidae 3 (bZP3 could stimulated the presence of anti-bZP3 which be located on rabbit ZP and inhibit sperm-egg interaction on fertilization process. Purpose of this research is to detect spesific binding anti-bZP3 to rabbit oocytes using dot blotting and ELISA method. Sub cutan induction of bZP3 with Freund's adjuvant, CFA (Complete Freund's Adjuvant for initial immunization and following by IFA (Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant at the 14th day and 39th day. Control female rabbit injected by Tris-Cl buffer diluted in Freund's adjuvant without bZP3 antigen. Rabbit serum injected to rat for producing Rat Anti Rabbit Anti-bZP3. This research concludes spesific binding of anti-bZP3 with increasing purple colour on dot blotting methods. Anti-bZP3 increasing on 24th day and 31th day and still until 48th day. Measurement with ELISA methods showed increased titer on OD405. Highest titer showed on 31th day post immunization. Anti-bZP3 synthetized by bZP3 induced on rabbit detectable by immunohistochemistry methods on late primary oocytes, early secondary oocytes, growing secondary oocytes, and oocytes on de Graaf folicular phase. Keywords: Dot blotting, ELISA, bZP3, anti-bZP3

  18. Economic man as model man: Ideal types, idealization and caricatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Economics revolves around a central character: "economic man." As historians, we are all familiar with various episodes in the history of this character, and we appreciate his ever-changing aspect even while many of our colleagues in economics think the rational economic agent of neoclassical

  19. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  20. Establishment of Filipino standard man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.; San Jose, V.; Napenas, D.

    1984-01-01

    The initial data gathered on measurements of total body weight and weights of specific organs from autopsy cases of normal Filipinos are reported. Comparison of the above data with the Reference Man data of ICRP which was based primarily on Caucasians suggests some differences in the average weight and height of whole body and in the weights of some organs. Hence there appears to be a need for the establishment of Filipino standard man which can be used in the estimation of internal dose commitment of the Filipinos. (author)

  1. Establishment of Filipino standard man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natera, E.; San Jose, V.; Napenas, D.

    The initial data gathered on measurements of total body weight and weights of specific organs from autopsy cases of normal Filipinos are reported. Comparison of the above data with the Reference Man data of ICRP which was based primarily on Caucasians suggests some differences in the average weight and height of whole body and in the weights of some organs. Hence there appears to be a need for the establishment of Filipino standard man which can be used in the estimation of internal dose commitment of the Filipinos.

  2. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analog...

  3. Lung morphometry, collagen and elastin content: changes after hyperoxic exposure in preterm rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Suman Mascaretti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Elastic and collagen fiber deposition increases throughout normal lung development, and this fiber network significantly changes when development of the lung is disturbed. In preterm rats and lambs, prolonged hyperoxic exposure is associated with impaired alveolization and causes significant changes in the deposition and structure of elastic fibers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of hyperoxic exposure on elastic and collagen fiber deposition in the lung interstitial matrix and in alveolarization in preterm rabbits. METHODS: After c-section, 28-day preterm New-Zealand-White rabbits were randomized into 2 study groups, according to the oxygen exposure, namely: Room air (oxygen = 21% or Oxygen (oxygen > 95%. The animals were killed on day 11 and their lungs were analyzed for the alveolar size (Lm, the internal surface area (ISA, the alveoli number, and the density and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. RESULTS: An increase in the Lm and a decrease in the alveoli number were observed among rabbits that were exposed to hyperoxia with no differences regarding the ISA. No difference in the density of elastic fibers was observed after oxygen exposure, however there were fewer collagen fibers and an evident disorganization of fiber deposition. DISCUSSION: This model reproduces anatomo-pathological injuries representing the arrest of normal alveolar development and lung architecture disorganization by just a prolonged exposition to oxygen. CONCLUSIONS: In the preterm rabbit, prolonged oxygen exposure impaired alveolization and also lowered the proportion of collagen fibers, with an evident fiber network disorganization.

  4. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    Md. 20205 We have recently described a method for the direct removal of T lymphocytes by " panning " of rabbit splenocytes on plastic dishes coated...Research University of Illinois Washington, DC 20012 Chicago, IL 60612 Hammadi Ayadi Linda Cook Institut Jacques Monod University of Illinois, Chicago...other species and tested for its ability to inhibit a rabbit Id-anti-Id reaction. Guinea pigs, mice, goats, and chickens were immunized with al IgG and

  5. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  6. Complement activated granulocytes can cause autologous tissue destruction in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Löhde

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs by C5a is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure during sepsis and after trauma. In our experiment exposure of human PMNs to autologous zymosan activated plasma (ZAP leads to a rapid increase in chemiluminescence. Heating the ZAP at 56°C for 30 min did not alter the changes, while untreated plasma induced only baseline activity. The respiratory burst could be completely abolished by decomplementation and preincubation with rabbit antihuman C5a antibodies. Observation of human omentum using electron microscopy showed intravascular aggregation of PMNs, with capillary thrombosis and diapedesis of the cells through endothelial junctions 90 s after exposure to ZAP. PMNs caused disruption of connections between the mesothelial cells. After 4 min the mesothelium was completely destroyed, and connective tissue and fat cells exposed. Native plasma and minimum essential medium did not induce any morphological changes. These data support the concept that C5a activated PMNs can cause endothelial and mesothelial damage in man. Even though a causal relationship between anaphylatoxins and organ failure cannot be proved by these experiments C5a seems to be an important mediator in the pathogenesis of changes induced by severe sepsis and trauma in man.

  7. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  8. Man and the Pongolo floodplain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heeg, J

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This report comprises a synthesis of contributions to a workshop on Man and the Pongolo held at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg in February 1978. Studies on the ecology of the Pongolo floodplain, encompassing its fauna, flora and human...

  9. The Man Who Knew Infinity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his work. Ramanujan did mathematics for its own sake, for the thrill that he got in seeing and discovering ... in those times led to a frantic search for a job to earn an income. .... mathematics, a man whose career seems full of paradoxes and ...

  10. Man...An Endangered Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  11. The half-yellow man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The half-yellow man. BJ Merwitza* and FJ Raala. aFaculty of Health Sciences, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, University of the Witswaterand, Johannesburg, South Africa. *Corresponding author, emails: bmerwitz@hotmail.com, brad.merwitz@gmail.com. Keywords: diffuse normolipaemic planar ...

  12. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  13. Man-Made Climatic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Helmut E.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews environmental studies which show that national climatic fluctuations vary over a wide range. Solar radiation, earth temperatures, precipitation, atmospheric gases and suspended particulates are discussed in relation to urban and extraurban effects. Local weather modifications and attempts at climate control by man seem to have substantial…

  14. Man, Controller of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowin, R. P.

    2011-06-01

    The Man, Controller of the Universe painted by the renowned Mexican artist Diego Rivera in the gigantic mural of the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City is overlooked by a telescope. We acknowledge this instrument as the Plaskett Telescope at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, Canada.

  15. Man-machine design integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, J.P. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Monroeville, PA (United States). Nuclear Technology Div.; Haentjens, J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Technology Div.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation overviews the bases for Man-Machine Interface (MMI) designs that are part of three other presentations during the same conference: Advanced Alarm Management System, Functional Displays and System for Emergency Procedure Execution Monitoring. The MMD group history, team and goals are summarized to give some context to the core of the MMD philosophy and integration. (10 refs., 5 figs.).

  16. Some factors affecting rabbit production under egyptian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.

    1994-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the rabbit of the department of animal production, faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, Blood biochemical analysis and hormonal assay were conducted in tracer bio climatology Unit., Department of radiobiology, nuclear research centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Eighty male New Zealand white (NZW) and 80 male californian (Cal) rabbits aged 5-6 weeks were used. The animals were housed in rabbit building, naturally ventilated. Rabbits cages were provided with automatic nipple drinkers and drinking and drinking water ad libitum.Rabbits were fed ad libitum on balanced growing pelted rabbit ration. 21 tabs.,13 figs.,158 refs

  17. Hematologic syndrome in man modeled from mammalian lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Data on acute radiation lethality due to failure of the hematologic system in rats, mice, dogs, swine, monkeys and man are analyzed. Based on the available data, the mortality incidences for 1-100% levels can be computed directly if one has only an estimate of the dose lethal to 50% of the population (LD 50 ) for the mammalian strain and radiation environment of interest. The sole restriction is that the dose profile to the marrow be moderately uniform. If an LD 50 for any exposure situation has been measured, then one can readily scale to any desired situation through implicit-biological and empirical-physical relationships. The LD 50 for man, exposed to an isotropic cloud of photons, and knowledge of the bone-marrow dose profiles readily permit evaluation of the model for other levels of human mortality from different irradiating particles, partial body irradiation and spatially dependent and/or mixed radiation environments. (author)

  18. Comparative Evaluation of the Aphrodisiac efficacy of Sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea Root Extract in Male Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Dare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In spite of folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study evaluates efficacy of methanol extract of Carpolobia lutea root (MECLR on sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: Twenty adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2ml/kg 1% tween 20 (vehicle, 40mg/kg MECLR, 80mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5mg/kg sildenafil citrate respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group was assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0,1,3 and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. Results: MECLR caused a dose dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency, while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculatory latency (similar to sildenafil citrate when compared with the control. MECLR also caused a significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Conclusions: Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides novel scientific rationale for the use of Carpolobia lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 302-307

  19. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmen, Valentin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) at local and paravertebral acupoints for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy. Twelve clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were chosen and divided into two groups: the control group (5 rabbits) and the experimental group (7 rabbits). A neuroleptanalgesic (ketamine + xylazine) was administered to the control group (NLA group); the experimental group received EAA treatment (EAA group). The EAA treatment includes one acupuncture formula for local stimulation at the incision site and systemic stimulation. Results of clinical research have shown postoperative analgesia using EAA treatment to be superior to that using NLA. The average postoperative recovery time was 5.2 times longer in the NLA group than in the EAA group. Because consciousness was maintained, EAA presented an advantage in thermoregulation. Animals administered NLA had prolonged thermal homeostasis because of neurovegetative disconnection. For the EAA group, the operative times were characterized as excellent (28%, p = 0.28) or good (72%, p = 0.72). Local stimulation at the incision site provided excellent analgesia of the abdominal wall (100%). In conclusion, EA can provide general analgesia with a considerable analgesic effect for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  1. Accumulation of 125I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of 125 I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with 125 I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits

  2. Environmental Bacteria Associated With an Institutional Rabbit House

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    associated with rabbit houses was undertaken to determine the occurrence of bacteria in rabbit ... biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when .... frequently incriminated in bovine mastitis by. Jones ...

  3. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional ingredient. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... groups of 8 rabbits each and the groups were assigned randomly to the three diets with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a Complete Randomized Design experiment.

  4. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  5. Teleoperators: Man's Machine Partners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1972-01-01

    This booklet is about teleoperators, a class of machines that augment man rather than replace him. Teleoperators have the ability to add to man's strength, his reach, and his ability to work in hostile environments.

  6. Identification of Metabolism and Excretion Differences of Procymidone between Rats and Humans Using Chimeric Mice: Implications for Differential Developmental Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Jun; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Tarui, Hirokazu; Omori, Rie; Kawamura, Satoshi

    2018-02-28

    A metabolite of procymidone, hydroxylated-PCM, causes rat-specific developmental toxicity due to higher exposure to it in rats than in rabbits or monkeys. When procymidone was administered to chimeric mice with rat or human hepatocytes, the plasma level of hydroxylated-PCM was higher than that of procymidone in rat chimeric mice, and the metabolic profile of procymidone in intact rats was well reproduced in rat chimeric mice. In human chimeric mice, the plasma level of hydroxylated-PCM was less, resulting in a much lower exposure. The main excretion route of hydroxylated-PCM-glucuronide was bile (the point that hydroxylated-PCM enters the enterohepatic circulation) in rat chimeric mice, and urine in human chimeric mice. These data suggest that humans, in contrast to rats, extensively form the glucuronide and excrete it in urine, as do rabbits and monkeys. Overall, procymidone's potential for causing teratogenicity in humans must be low compared to that in rats.

  7. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  8. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  9. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  10. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  11. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  12. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  13. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  14. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... droppings to digest their food further and extract sufficient nutrients (Oaktreevet, 2010). Rabbits are generally infected with numerous parasites. Parasitic infections have caused considerable losses to rabbits in the region. Numbers of parasites are responsible for illness of rabbits (Allan et al., 1999).

  15. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  16. Retinitis-pigmentosa-like tapetoretinal degeneration in a rabbit breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Baar, U

    1985-08-15

    By chance, we found a rabbit strain with retinal dystrophy. The eyes of these rabbits were examined by ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, histology, and cytology--the latter after retina dissociation with papaine. The results suggest this rabbit strain to be a possible animal model for human retinitis pigmentosa.

  17. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  18. Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in renal anatomy and physiology between rabbits and other domestic species. Neurogenic renal ischemia occurs readily. Reversible prerenal azotemia may be seen in conjunction with gut stasis. Potentially fatal acute renal failure may be due to structural kidney damage or post-renal disease. Chronic renal failure is often associated with encephalitozoonosis. Affected rabbits cannot vomit and often eat well. Weight loss, lethargy, and cachexia are common clinical signs. Polydypsia/polyuria may be present. Derangements in calcium and phosphorus metabolism are features of renal disease. Radiography is always indicated. Urolithiasis, osteosclerosis, aortic and renal calcification are easily seen on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 23806 - Manning Rail, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Manning Grain Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35607] Manning Rail, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Manning Grain Company Manning Rail, Inc. (MRI), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption \\1\\ under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Manning Grain Company (MGC) and...

  20. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of rabbit nasal airflows for the development of hybrid CFD/PBPK models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, R A; Minard, K R; Kabilan, S; Einstein, D R; Kuprat, A P; Harkema, J R; Kimbell, J S; Gargas, M L; Kinzell, John H

    2009-05-01

    The percentages of total airflows over the nasal respiratory and olfactory epithelium of female rabbits were calculated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of steady-state inhalation. These airflow calculations, along with nasal airway geometry determinations, are critical parameters for hybrid CFD/physiologically based pharmacokinetic models that describe the nasal dosimetry of water-soluble or reactive gases and vapors in rabbits. CFD simulations were based upon three-dimensional computational meshes derived from magnetic resonance images of three adult female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. In the anterior portion of the nose, the maxillary turbinates of rabbits are considerably more complex than comparable regions in rats, mice, monkeys, or humans. This leads to a greater surface area to volume ratio in this region and thus the potential for increased extraction of water soluble or reactive gases and vapors in the anterior portion of the nose compared to many other species. Although there was considerable interanimal variability in the fine structures of the nasal turbinates and airflows in the anterior portions of the nose, there was remarkable consistency between rabbits in the percentage of total inspired airflows that reached the ethmoid turbinate region (approximately 50%) that is presumably lined with olfactory epithelium. These latter results (airflows reaching the ethmoid turbinate region) were higher than previous published estimates for the male F344 rat (19%) and human (7%). These differences in regional airflows can have significant implications in interspecies extrapolations of nasal dosimetry.

  2. Late effects from particulate radiations in primate and rabbit tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, J. T.; Cox, A. B.; Bergtold, D. S.; Lee, A. C.; Pickering, J. E.

    Optic tissues in groups of New Zealand white rabbits were irradiated locally at different stages throughout the median life span of the species with a single dose (9 Gy) of 425 MeV/amu Ne ions (LET∞~30 keV/μm) and then inspected routinely for the progression of radiation cataracts. The level of early cataracts was found to be highest in the youngest group of animals irradiated (8 weeks old) but both the onset of late cataracts and loss of vision occurred earlier when animals were irradiated during the second half of the median life span. This age response can have serious implications in terms of space radiation hazards to man. Rhesus monkeys that had been subjected to whole-body skin irradiation (2.8 and 5.6 Gy) by 32 MeV protons (range in tissue ~ 1 cm) some twenty years previously were analysed for radiation damage by the propagation of skin fibroblasts in primary cultures. Such propagation from skin biopsies in MEM-α medium (serial cultivation) or in supplemented Ham's F-10 medium (cultivation without dilution) revealed late damage in the stem (precursor) cells of the skins of the animals. The proton fluxes employed in this experiment are representative of those occurring in major solar flares.

  3. Rabbit hunter uveitis: case report of tularemia uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrada, Céline; Azza, Said; Bodaghi, Bahram; Le Hoang, Phuc; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Literature reports on ophthalmological manifestations related to tularemia, a zoonose caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, largely refer to Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, which consists of the association of conjunctivitis with preauricular lymphadenitis. In this paper, we report a case of intraocular inflammation during tularemia infection. A 52-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with unilateral uveitis. The uveitis was posterior, with a 2+ vitritis and a large yellowish lesion involving the macula with an overlying sub-retinal detachment, extending inferiorly, and subretinal hemorrhages. Fluorescein angiography showed a late hyperfluorescence with focal vascular leakage. Ultrasound biomicroscopy confirmed the presence of a 3.8 mm parietal granuloma with a few calcifications in the left eye. While extensive work-up eliminated any other infectious and non-infectious etiology, tularemia was diagnosed by advanced serology consisting of two-dimensional Western-immunoblotting. The patient, a hunter, recalled having killed rabbits in the days before the symptoms appeared. Uveitis was rapidly controlled following treatment with doxycycline, yet three years after initiation of the treatment, the patient still complained of loss of vision in the left eye with a central scotoma. Posterior uveitis may be an infrequent manifestation of tularemia infection, and therefore this infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraocular inflammation in areas where F. tularensis is endemic.

  4. Kant and the practical man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2017-01-01

    The Appendix to Kant’s Toward perpetual peace is commonly viewed as an explication of the systematic relations between political practice and normative political theory. This paper provides an alternative interpretation to Kant’s main aim in the Apendix which is to provide an argument against...... that Kant’s argument against the practical man is based on a proto-phenomenological analysis of moral experience. The practical man’s attempt to describe political practice in purely non-normative terms is, Kant believes, necessarily self-undermining because it denies one of the most basic aspects of human...

  5. Man - Environment - Knowledge. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, B.

    1991-01-01

    The book brings together certain facts which were collated and processed on the subject of ''Man-Environment-Knowledge'' within the scope of a tutorial function of the same name organised and held by the ''ETH'' (the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich). Starting off from certain important fundamental facts which reproduce the current state of our planet in the form of data, it goes on to illustrate those interconnections and processes that are important for the understanding of the world in which we live. figs., tabs., [800 refs.

  6. Effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The available evidence on the effects of radiation on man and the predictions that have been made of possible low level effects are reviewed. Data from United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and the committee on the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation (BEIR) is used to illustrate the acute, delayed and hereditary effects of high dose levels. The effects of low dose levels are discussed on the assumption that both somatic and hereditary effects can be predicted on the basis of linear extrapolation from high dose effects. (U.K.)

  7. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  8. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (<1:40) died of RHD. When the cut-off was moved from 25% to 50% inhibition (1:10(50)) at 1:10 serum dilution, the assay sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the protective immunity were improved from 84%, 54.2% and 69.4% to 84%, 100% and 91.8%, respectively. We also demonstrated at the epitope amino acid sequence level why the presence of the RHDV-cross reactive benign rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Chinese Manned Space Utility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.

    Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

  10. Man-machine interactions 3

    CERN Document Server

    Czachórski, Tadeusz; Kozielski, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Man-Machine Interaction is an interdisciplinary field of research that covers many aspects of science focused on a human and machine in conjunction.  Basic goal of the study is to improve and invent new ways of communication between users and computers, and many different subjects are involved to reach the long-term research objective of an intuitive, natural and multimodal way of interaction with machines.  The rapid evolution of the methods by which humans interact with computers is observed nowadays and new approaches allow using computing technologies to support people on the daily basis, making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs.   This monograph is the third edition in the series and presents important ideas, current trends and innovations in  the man-machine interactions area.  The aim of this book is to introduce not only hardware and software interfacing concepts, but also to give insights into the related theoretical background. Reader is provided with a compilation of high...

  11. [The man on the portrait].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrand, A

    1996-01-01

    Marie Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry 1911. During the preceding year a rumour had circulated in Stockholm that she had had an affaire with one of her assistants. She received a letter, in which she was told that there had been strong opposition to her election not on scientific but moral grounds, and that she should not go to Stockholm, because nobody could forsee what reactions her appearance at the prize ceremony could evoke. Emil Kleen, a man of violent temper and radical opinions, reacted strongly to these rumours. He wrote a paper, with a violent attack on Gustaf Retzius, previous professor of Histology at Karolinska Institutet. Rightly or wrongly he suspected him to be the author of the infamous letter. Retzius is described as a dilletant in scientific matters, as a "sexual hyena" and a garroulus old man. This portrait of Retzius is of course most unfair, but the portrait of Emil Kleen by the famous swedish artist Bruno Liljefors is a masterpiece and one of the most valuable of the Swedish Medical Association.

  12. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  13. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  14. Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis in rabbits.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: A total of 20 domestic rabbits divided into 4 groups of 5 animals per ... Herbs have been used as food and ... adjuncts in helping reduced the risk of cardiovascular ... effective with minimal toxicity should be processed ... confirmed to have purgative, diuretic effects in dogs ... It is a glabrous tender shrub, annual or.

  15. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  16. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  17. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate. PMID:21461214

  18. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate.

  19. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  20. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  1. Studies of radiolabelled preparations in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits are used to investigate the dose-response relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. The relationship can be divided into three phases:- (i) Pharmaceutical, covering the rate of release of the drug from the preparation. (ii) Pharmacokinetic, comprising processes of absorption, distribution and metabolism. (iii) Pharmacodynamic, interaction of the drug with the receptor site. (U.K.)

  2. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analogy. However, cruelty to animals is illicit and they should be protected, principally not because they have rights, but because he who is cruel to animals is more likely to be cruel to his fellowman. If there is a need for animal experimentation in science for the good of man, this approach gives philosophical justification for experimentation, since man's well-being must come before that of animals because of his unique possession of rights. However, those experiments should be carried out in the kindest way possible, to promote kindness towards man. To see man as solely part of a biological continuum in competition for rights with those beings close to him biologically, detracts from man's dignity. PMID:2135948

  3. Effects of microwave exposure on motor learning and GluR2 phosphorylation in rabbit cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Wang Denggao; Zhang Guangbin; Zhou Wen; Yang Xuesen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of microwave exposure on motor learning and Glutamate receptor 2(GluR2) phosphorylation in rat cerebellum. Methods: The rabbits were trained for seven days to form eye-blink conditioning, and then divided randomly into control and microwave exposure group (at hours 0,3,24 and 72 subgroups after exposure, respectively). The rabbits were accepted 90 mW/cm 2 microwave exposure for 30 minutes, and the rectal temperature were detected immediately after exposure and specific absorption rate (SAR) value were calculated. Eye-blink conditioning were detected immediately after exposure, and cerebellar GluR2 protein and GluR2 phosphorylation were detected with Western blotting. Results: Rectal temperature of rabbits were increased by 3.02 degree C after exposure, and SAR value was 8.74 W/kg. The eye-blink conditioning decreased significantly after exposure, and cerebellar GluR2 protein expression had no significant alteration but phosphorylation reduced significantly after exposure. Conclusions: 90 mW/cm 2 microwave exposure has injurious effects on cerebellar GluR2 phosphorylation and motor learning. (authors)

  4. Bioluminescence imaging of chondrocytes in rabbits by intraarticular injection of D-luciferin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Min; Min, Jung Joon; Kim, Sung Mi; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Suk Jung; Kang, Han Saem; Kim, Kwang Yoon [ECOBIO INC., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ho [College of Natural Science, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of in vivo optical imaging. D-luciferin, the substrate for firefly luciferase has very high cost that allows this kind of experiment limited to small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in the articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase (Fluc). Chondrocytes expressing Fluc were injected or implanted in the left knee joint. The rabbits underwent optical imaging studies after local injection of D-luciferin at 1, 5, 7, 9 days after cellular administration. We sought whether optimal imaging signals was could be by a cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. Imaging signal was not observed from the left knee joint after intraperitoneal injection of D-luciferin (15 mg/kg), whereas it was observed after intraarticular injection. Photon intensity from the left knee joint of rabbits was compared between cell injected and implanted groups after intraarticular injection of D-luciferin. During the period of imaging studies, photon intensity of the cell implanted group was 5-10 times higher than that of the cell injected group. We successfully imaged chondrocytes expressing Fluc after intraarticular injection of D-luciferin. This technique may be further applied to develop new drugs for knee joint disease.

  5. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  6. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  7. Tesla man out of time

    CERN Document Server

    Cheney, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Called a madman by some, a genius by others, and an enigma by nearly everyone, Nikola Tesla created astonishing, world-transforming devises that were virtually without theoretical precedent. Tesla not only discovered the rotating magnetic field, the basis of most alternating current machinery, but also introduced the fundamentals of robotry, computers, and missile science and helped pave the way for such technologies as satellites, microwaves, beam weapons, and nuclear fusion. Almost supernaturally gifted, Tesla was also unusually erratic, flamboyant, and neurotic. He was J. P. Morgan's client, counted Mark Twain as a friend, and considered Thomas Edison an enemy. But above all, he was the hero and mentor to many of the last century's most famous scientists. In a meticulously researched, engagingly written biography, Margaret Cheney presents the many different dimensions of this extraordinary man, capturing his human qualities and quirks as she chronicles a lifetime of discoveries that continue to alter our ...

  8. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  9. Man's limitations. The Catholic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacani, T

    1993-10-27

    The Assistant Bishop of Manila, Philippines, comments on Pope John Paul II teachings and former Pope Paul VI's Humanae Vitae. The Roman Catholic Church over the past twenty five years has not accepted modern contraception. Lay Catholics are confused over the appropriate behavior regarding family planning, are ignorant of the Church's teachings, or have followed their conscience. Critics say that the teachings are obsolete and unheeded. Church officials respond that the Church is run by divine inspiration and not majority rule. The Church position is based on reason and on God himself, who prohibits man-made contraception. Paul VI revealed that the conjugal act was the link between unitive and procreative meanings, and man did not have the right to break the link on his own initiative. John Paul II reaffirms this position by stating that human beings do not have "absolute dominion over the conjugal act" and are not the final arbiters of the creation of life. Humans are servants of the creation of new life as collaborators and procreators. Humans act like Gods when they deprive the conjugal act of procreative meaning through contraceptive use. Natural family planning does not violate this divine prerogative. The Pope's teachings are verified. There is evidence of declines in conjugal infidelity, the lowering of moral standards, increased abortion, and the demise of demographic imperialism. The Church recognizes the problem of overpopulation, and the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines acknowledges the responsibility of all sectors of society to solve the problem. Catholics in the Philippines are opposed to the Ramos' administration's aggressive birth control program. The opposition is due to the government's lack of provision of sufficient information about the side effects of modern contraceptives and the neglect of natural family planning, which is the only morally legitimate form of contraception sanctioned by Roman Catholics. Freedom of choice means

  10. Biosafety in manned space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boever, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of manned exploration is to achieve a prolonged stay in space, for example in an orbital station (such as the International Space Station (ISS)) or in planetary bases on the Moon and/or Mars. It goes without saying that such missions can only be realized when the astronaut's health and well-being is secured. In this respect, the characterization of the microbiological contamination on board spacecraft and orbital stations and the influence of cosmic radiation and microgravity are of paramount importance. Microbial contamination may originate from different sources and includes the initial contamination of space flight materials during manufacturing and assembly, the delivery of supplies to the orbital station, the supplies themselves, secondary contamination during the lifetime of the orbital station, the crew and any other biological material on board e.g. animals, plants, micro-organisms used in scientific experiments. Although most microorganisms do not threaten human health, it has been reported that in a confined environment, such as a space cabin, microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat. These effects range from infections, allergies, and toxicities to degradation of air and water supplies. Biodegradation of critical materials may result in system failure and this may jeopardize the crew. The research aims at monitoring the biological airborne and surface contamination during manned space flight. The ISS has been selected as primary test bed for this study. The majority of the investigations are being done by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), which is responsible for monitoring the biological contamination in the habitable compartments of the ISS for safety and hygienic reasons. Within the frame of a collaboration between IBMP and the European Space Agency (ESA), SCK-CEN is able to participate in the analyses

  11. Rodent models of congenital and hereditary cataract in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, B J; Tripathi, R C; Borisuth, N S; Dhaliwal, R; Dhaliwal, D

    1991-01-01

    Because the organogenesis and physiology of the lens are essentially similar in various mammals, an understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the formation of cataract in an animal model will enhance our knowledge of cataractogenesis in man. In this review, we summarize the background, etiology, and pathogenesis of cataracts that occur in rodents. The main advantages of using rodent mutants include the well-researched genetics of the animals and the comparative ease of breeding of large litters. Numerous rodent models of congenital and hereditary cataracts have been studied extensively. In mice, the models include the Cts strain, Fraser mouse, lens opacity gene (Lop) strain, Lop-2 and Lop-3 strains, Philly mouse, Nakano mouse, Nop strain, Deer mouse, Emory mouse, Swiss Webster strain, Balb/c-nct/nct mouse, and SAM-R/3 strain. The rat models include BUdR, ICR, Sprague-Dawley, and Wistar rats, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), the John Rapp inbred strain of Dahl salt-sensitive rat, as well as WBN/Kob, Royal College of Surgeons (RCS), and Brown-Norway rats. Other proposed models for the study of hereditary cataract include the degu and the guinea pig. Because of the ease of making clinical observations in vivo and the subsequent availability of the intact lens for laboratory analyses at different stages of cataract formation, these animals provide excellent models for clinicopathologic correlations, for monitoring of the natural history of the aging process and of metabolic defects, as well as for investigations on the effect of cataract-modulating agents and drugs, including the prospect of gene therapy.

  12. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  13. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  14. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Histological changes of the adult albino rats entorhinal cortex under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim K. Ragab

    2016-06-03

    Jun 3, 2016 ... Treated group received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. All ani- ... withdrawal reactions include restlessness, agitation, anxiety, ... (in particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and ... out in rats, dogs and rabbits. ... tionally accepted principles for laboratory animal use and care.

  16. Radiation-induced cancers in the rat, an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis at low doses raises a major radiological protection problem; we have attempted to deal with it through animal investigations involving over 3,000 rats. For various radiation types, dose-effect relationships as well as possible synergies with endogenous or exogenous chemical factors were studied. The chief problem being the possibility of extrapolation to man, a comparison was made between man and rat with the only human data available from radon inhalation in uranium miners [fr

  17. Radiation-induced cancers in the rat, an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, M.; Lafuma, J.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis at low doses raises a major radiological protection problem; we have attempted to deal with it through animal investigations involving over 3,000 rats. For various radiation types, dose-effect relationships as well as possible synergies with endogenous or exogenous chemical factors were studied. The chief problem being the possibility of extrapolation to man, a comparison was made between man and rat with the only human data available from radon inhalation in uranium miners [fr

  18. The man and the hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    He was sitting on a large slab of rock. As he looked at the cloud of dust hanging hazily on the horizon, the piece of antler and the block of flint he held in his hand hung as if they were suspended from their previous rapid motion. The man gazed intently across the swaying grass which rose in wave-like billows across the distant hills. What was that dust - a herd of buffalo, a band of hunters, or were coyotes chasing the antelope again? After watching for a while he started again to chip the flint with a rapid twisting motion of the bone in his right hand. The little chips of flint fell in the grass before him. It is the same hill but the scene has changed. Seated on the same rock, holding the reins of a saddle horse, a man dressed in buckskin took the fur cap off his head and wiped his brow. He was looking intently across a brown and desolate landscape at a cloud of dust on the far horizon. Was it the hostile tribe of Indians? It could be buffalo. Nervously he kicked at the ground with the deerhide moccasin, pushing the flint chips out of the way. He wiped the dust from his long rifle. What a terrible place - no water, practically no grass, everything bare and brown. Now at sunset, slanting across the hills green with springtime, a cowman sits on a big rock, pushes his sombrero back on his head, and looks across the valley at a large but quiet herd of stock, moving slowly as each steer walks from one lush patch of grass to another, nibbling. Suddenly he stood up. Far on the horizon some dark objects were moving. Is it the sheepmen? Could it be the stage coach from Baggs to the Sweetwater Crossing?Same hill - a gray truck was grinding slowly toward the summit. It pulled up near a small fenced enclosure where there were some instruments painted a bright silver color. A man stepped out of the truck and turned to his younger companion, "You've never found an arrowhead? Maybe you have never thought about it correctly. If you want to find where an Indian camped long

  19. The bile sequestrant cholestyramine increases survival in a rabbit model of brodifacoum poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeblad, Matthew; Lyubimov, Alexander; van Breemen, Richard; Gierszal, Kamil; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Feinstein, Douglas L

    2018-06-12

    Patients exposed to long acting anticoagulant rodenticides (LAARs) are typically administered large amounts of oral vitamin K1 (VK1) to counteract life-threatening anti-coagulant effects. While VK1 treatment effectively prevents mortality, additional methods are needed to reduce the long duration of VK1 treatment which can last for months at high expense. We developed a model of brodifacoum (BDF) poisoning, one of the most potent LAARs, in adult male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. The LD50 for oral BDF was determined to be 192 μg/kg, similar to that calculated for adult rats. However, in contrast to rats, NZW rabbits exhibited severe internal hemorrhage including in the brain, symptoms which mimic what occurs in cases of human poisoning. Similar to warfarin, BDF and other LAARs undergo enterohepatic recirculation which contributes to their long half-lives. We therefore tested effects of cholestyramine (CSA), an FDA-approved bile sequestrant, on BDF-induced mortality. When given daily (0.67 gm/kg, oral) starting the day of BDF administration, CSA reduced mortality from 67% to 11%. At the same CSA prevented the increase in clotting time, and reduced the decrease in core body temperature due to BDF. Given its excellent safety record and that it is approved for children older than 6 years, these findings suggest CSA could be considered as an adjunct to VK1 for treatment of LAAR poisoning.

  20. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  1. PAPAIN-INDUCED CHANGES IN RABBIT CARTILAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Theodore T.

    1958-01-01

    Some biochemical aspects of the collapse of the rabbit ears produced by the intravenous injection of papain have been studied. A marked depletion of chondromucoprotein (M.C.S.) and a reduction of the S35 content of cartilage matrix were found to coincide with the gross and histologic changes in the cartilage. At the same time there was a marked increase in the amount of S35 in the serum and an increase of S35 and glucuronic acid excreted in the urine. Alteration in the composition of the M.C.S. remaining in the cartilage of the papain-injected animals was detected. The findings indicate that the collapse of the rabbit ears is due to loss of chondromucoprotein from cartilage and reduction of chondroitin sulfate in the chondromucoprotein that remains. All these changes were reversed in recovery. PMID:13575681

  2. [Idiopathic rabbit syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, H; Sasaki, Y; Hatori, K; Tanaka, S; Mizuno, Y

    1999-10-01

    We report a patient with idiopathic oromandibular tremor resembling rabbit syndrome. The patient is a 36-year-old Japanese woman without any past and medical histories. On neurological examination, there was no abnormal finding except the oromandibular tremor. The tremor was confined to the jaw and perioral muscles. There was no extremity tremor. Laboratory findings were all normal, as well as her MRI and EEG. Surface EMG studies revealed that regular grouped discharges at a frequency of about 6 Hz appeared in the masseter, the orbicularis oris, and the digastric, and that the alternative contractions were found between the masseter and the digastric. Oral administration of tiapride was effective, but diazepam, trihexyphenydil, levodopa, and a beta-blocker were without effect. Although she had not taken neuroleptics, the appearance of the tremor was identical to the rabbit syndrome. The efficacy of the dopamine blockade may suggest that an abnormal basal ganglia function contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying this type of tremor.

  3. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  4. The man and the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The universe has always aroused people's curiosity. It fascinates and at the same time scares in its vastness. Encourages us to reflect of the meaning of human life. This begs the questions: whether there is a life beyond Earth? Whether is it possible that the man is alone in such a large space? These questions still remain unanswered, and topics concerning "the cosmos" constantly evoke many emotions. It is especially fascinating for the youngest students. Quite often, preschoolers can flawlessly name the planets according to their order of appearance in relation to the sun. They are happy to take the fun inspired by journeys into space. Teaching through action is extremely important for the development of the child-man* (Piaget, 2006). The thinking originates primarily from the action. Therefore, students should undertake independent research activities, perform experiments and conduct observations and thus raise questions about the world, looking for meanings and solutions. Adults (a teacher, a person with a passion) are to be the support in the search for knowledge, its processing and cleaning. Its role is to ensure a proper development of environment that is conducive to research activity. The answer to these requirements was to create in the oldest technical school in Poland (Railway Technical College, now Technical College No. 7) the astronomical observatory, which can be used by pupils of Warsaw's kindergartens and schools. There are organized activities for children and youth in this school, as well as trainings for teachers. Younger students during such an interdisciplinary courses are, among others, the opportunity to get acquainted with the construction of the telescope, they can build their own rockets and organize their racing or create your own star constellations. Older students as a result of observations and experiments may confirm or refute the hypothesis that the universe is within each of us. The classes are enriched using applications on

  5. Evaluation and re-evaluation of genetic radiation hazards in man. The arm number hypothesis and the induction of reciprocal translocations in man. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaranarayanan, K [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Lab. voor Stralengenetica en Chemische Mutagenese; Cohen (J.A.) Instituut voor Radiopathologie en Stralenbescherming, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1976-06-01

    The arm number hypothesis proposed by Brewen and colleagues in 1973 has been examined in the light of information thus far available from mammalian studies. In experiments with peripheral blood lymphocytes (radiation in vitro), a linear relationship between dicentric yield and the effective chromosome arm number of the species was obtained in the mouse, Chinese hamster, goat, sheep, pig, wallaby and man. However, the data are not consistent with such a relationship in several primate species (marmoset, rhesus monkey, cynomolgus monkey, squirrel monkey and the slow loris), the cat and the dog. In the rabbit, the data are conflicting. In the mouse and the Chinese hamster the frequencies of reciprocal translocations recorded in spermatocytes descended from irradiated spermatogonia are in line with the expectation based on the arm number hypothesis, whereas in the golden hamster, rabbit and the rhesus they are not. In man and the marmoset, the limited data are not inconsistent with a 2-fold higher sensitivity of these species relative to the mouse although they do not rule out a difference as high as 4-fold. In the guinea-pig, the situation is unclear. New data on the transmission of reciprocal translocations in mice suggest that the frequency in the F/sub 1/ progeny may be close to one-quarter of that recorded in the spermatocytes of the irradiated fathers (spermatogonial irradiation) at an exposure level of 150 R, whereas at higher exposures, the reduction factor is about one-eighth, the latter being in line with the earlier finding. All these results taken together suggest that inter-specific extrapolation from the radiosensitivity of somatic cells (to dicentric induction) to that of germ cells (to translocation induction) is fraught with uncertainty at present. Certain aspects that need to be studied in more detail in the context of induced chromosome aberrations are discussed.

  6. Milkweed control by food imprinted rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducs, Anita; Kazi, Andrea; Bilkó, Ágnes; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2016-09-01

    Many species of invasive plants are spreading out rapidly in Europe. The common milkweed occupies increasingly more area. Being poisonous, most animals will not graze on it however rabbits would be an effective organism for the biological control of milkweed. Rabbit kittens can learn the maternal diet in various ways. They prefer aromatic foods which their mother had eaten during pregnancy or lactation period, -even if it is poisonous- but they can also learn the maternal diet from the fecal pellets deposited by the mother into the nest during the nursing events. The present study was aimed to investigate if rabbit kittens can learn that the common milkweed is a potential food also. In the first 10days of their lives kits got fecal pellets originating from individuals having fed on common milkweed previously. When weaned on day 28 postpartum, these pups preferred the milkweed in the 3-way food choice test, opposite to the control group. Most surprisingly in a second experiment it was also shown that the common milkweed was also preferred by the kittens if their mother ate it not during, but one month before pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  8. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabóová, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42. Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococcus faecium by PCR method. The isolates have possessed the structural genes for enterocins A, P, B production. The inhibitory substances produced by the isolated enterococci inhibited the growth of 12 indicators. Of 34 isolates, 15 strains have shown the antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes CCM 4699, 12 strains against S. aureus 3A3, 10 strains against S. aureus 5A2 as well as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. Moreover, enterococci have tolerated 5 % bile, low pH; they have produced lactid acid in the amount from 0.740 ± 0.091 to 1.720 ± 0.095 mmol/l. The isolates were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Bacteriocin-producing strain E. faecium M3a has been selected for more detail characterization of its bacteriocin and probiotic properties with the aim for its further application as an additive.

  9. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  10. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed...

  11. Alternative Frameworks for the Study of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Ivana

    1979-01-01

    Two frameworks for the study of man are discussed. The Cartesian model views man as a physical object. A dialectic framework, with the emphasis on the self, grew out of nineteenth century romanticism and reflects the theories of Hegel. Both models have had an effect on social psychology and the study of interpersonal communication. (BH)

  12. A methodology for costing man-rem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, C.

    1976-03-01

    An attempt is made to provide a methodology for costing man-rem in a way that can be applied to station conditions, based on 1974 Pickering G.S. data. Factors taken into account were social costs, exposure costs (dose accounting, training, dosimetry) temporary labour costs, and permanent replacement labour costs. A figure of $620/ man-rem was derived. (LL)

  13. Marihuana in Man: Three Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Leo E.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews three years of research on the effects of marihuana in man. Previously known clinical mental and physical effects have been confirmed. Causes and mechanisms of these effects generally remain undetermined in man and animals. Social implications and long term effects require additional study, although usage appears detrimental. (JM)

  14. Human Behaviour and the Origin of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, M. J.; Washburn, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The study of origin and evolution of man gives new perspective for understanding his behavior. Physical behaviors such as walking and throwing are results of biological evolution which has not kept pace with sociocultural evolution. Irrational decisions by man in social, cultural, and political fields are results of this brain activity. (PS)

  15. Human factors and man-machine-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr-Bruckmayr, E.

    1985-01-01

    Definitions of the man-machine-interface concept are given. The importance of ergonomics in planning, construction, start-up and operation of a nuclear power plant is highlighted. A comprehensive task analysis is the basis of man-machine-interaction. Personnel performance, work shaping and security are discussed

  16. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  17. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  18. Blood Profile of Rabbits Infected with Eimeria magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research aimed at determining the blood profile of local rabbits infected with different dose of Eimeria magna oocysts. This research used 45 male rabbits with the age of 4 month old, range from 1.5 to 1.8 kg, clinically healthy and free from coccidiosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, group I as control (K-0 was given 1.0 ml distilled water/rabbit orally, group II (K-10 was infected with single dose of 10x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally, and group III (K-20 was infected with single dose of 20x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally. After infection, rabbits were examined for clinical signs, body weight and temperature daily for five days. Blood samples were drawn from the vena marginalis to examine the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobine, packed cell volume (PCV, leukocytes and its deferent, total protein plasma (TPP and fibrinogen, activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and aspartat aminotransferase (AST. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way anova using factorial design. The results of this research showed that the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused fever and weight loss, accompanied by normochromic microcytic anemia (at doses of 10x106 oocysts, macrocytic normochromic (at doses of 20x106 oocysts, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, hiperfibrinogenemia, and increased of ALP activity. There were correlations between clinical symptoms and blood profile of rabbits infected with E. magna for five days. The higher the dose and the longer the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused weight loss, increased body temperature, MCV (microcytic to macrocytic, leukocyte, fibrinogen and ALP activity. These findings were useful to have a better understanding of pathophysiology of E. magna infection in  rabbits. Key Words: Eimeria magna, oocyst, rabbit, blood profile A Hana et al/Animal Production 13(3:185-190 (2011

  19. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon; Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong

    1999-01-01

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  20. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  1. The Aging of Iron Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhaar Ashraf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain iron is tightly regulated by a multitude of proteins to ensure homeostasis. Iron dyshomeostasis has become a molecular signature associated with aging which is accompanied by progressive decline in cognitive processes. A common theme in neurodegenerative diseases where age is the major risk factor, iron dyshomeostasis coincides with neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and neurobehavioral deficits. There is a great need to determine the mechanisms governing perturbations in iron metabolism, in particular to distinguish between physiological and pathological aging to generate fruitful therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present review is to focus on the age-related alterations in brain iron metabolism from a cellular and molecular biology perspective, alongside genetics, and neuroimaging aspects in man and rodent models, with respect to normal aging and neurodegeneration. In particular, the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation will be evaluated, as well as the effects of systemic iron overload on the brain. Based on the evidence discussed here, we suggest a synergistic use of iron-chelators and anti-inflammatories as putative anti-brain aging therapies to counteract pathological aging in neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Transuranic element pathways to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    Transfer to man of transuranic element contamination may occur by the inhalation or ingestion pathways. The measurements of globally dispersed fall-out radioactivity have provided pertinent data on the environmental behaviour of plutonium. Additional data may eventually become available for americium. From the measured and inferred concentrations of fall-out plutonium, the inhalation intake has been determined and the ICRP Task Group lung model used to estimate deposition in the lung and transfer to other body organs. The computed body burden reached a maximum of 4pCi in 1964 and is currently about 2.5pCi. A complete diet sampling has been conducted to determine ingestion intake. Plutonium concentration in food ranged from 0.01pCi/kg in shellfish to undetected (less than 0.0003pCi/kg) in milk. Annual intake in total diet is estimated to have been 1.6pCi in 1972. Low uptake by the gastrointestinal tract makes contribution to organ burdens from ingestion negligible. Long-term pathway considerations include plant uptake from the cumulative deposit in soil and resuspension. Downward movement in soil may limit the significance of these long-term pathway components. (author)

  3. The Aging of Iron Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Azhaar; Clark, Maryam; So, Po-Wah

    2018-01-01

    Brain iron is tightly regulated by a multitude of proteins to ensure homeostasis. Iron dyshomeostasis has become a molecular signature associated with aging which is accompanied by progressive decline in cognitive processes. A common theme in neurodegenerative diseases where age is the major risk factor, iron dyshomeostasis coincides with neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and neurobehavioral deficits. There is a great need to determine the mechanisms governing perturbations in iron metabolism, in particular to distinguish between physiological and pathological aging to generate fruitful therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present review is to focus on the age-related alterations in brain iron metabolism from a cellular and molecular biology perspective, alongside genetics, and neuroimaging aspects in man and rodent models, with respect to normal aging and neurodegeneration. In particular, the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation will be evaluated, as well as the effects of systemic iron overload on the brain. Based on the evidence discussed here, we suggest a synergistic use of iron-chelators and anti-inflammatories as putative anti-brain aging therapies to counteract pathological aging in neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  5. Cosmic evolution, life and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oro, J.

    1995-01-01

    Among the most basic problems confronting science are those regarding the origin of the universe, the origin of life and the origin of man. This general overview starts (1) with a brief introduction addressed primarily to the Cyril Ponnamperuma Memorial. Then, the thesis is presented that the appearance of life and intelligence on our planet can be understood as the result of a number of cosmic and biological evolutionary processes, including (2) the stellar thermonuclear synthesis of the biogenic elements other than hydrogen (C, N, O, P and S), their dispersal into space, and their combination into circumstellar and interstellar molecules. (3) The formation of the Solar System and the Earth-Moon System. (4) The role of comets and carbonaceous chondrites in contributing organic matter to the primitive Earth. (5) The prebiotics synthesis of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, fatty acids, and other biochemical monomers. (6) The prebiotic condensation reactions leading to the synthesis of oligomers such as oligonucleotides and oligopeptides, with replicative and catalytic activities. (7) The synthesis of amphiphilic lipids, and their self-assembly into liposomes with bi-layered membranes. (8) The formation of protocellular structures. (9) The activation of protocells into a functioning Darwin's ancestral cell. (10) Early evolution of life. (11) The K-T boundary event and the disappearance of dinosaurs. (12) Evolution of hominids leading to Homo sapiens. (13) The rapid development of civilization. (14) The exploration of the Solar System. (15) Life beyond our planetary system. (16) Epilogue. Peace from cosmic evolution? (Abstract only)

  6. Cosmic evolution, life and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oro, J [Houston Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemical and Biophysical Sciences

    1995-08-01

    Among the most basic problems confronting science are those regarding the origin of the universe, the origin of life and the origin of man. This general overview starts (1) with a brief introduction addressed primarily to the Cyril Ponnamperuma Memorial. Then, the thesis is presented that the appearance of life and intelligence on our planet can be understood as the result of a number of cosmic and biological evolutionary processes, including (2) the stellar thermonuclear synthesis of the biogenic elements other than hydrogen (C, N, O, P and S), their dispersal into space, and their combination into circumstellar and interstellar molecules. (3) The formation of the Solar System and the Earth-Moon System. (4) The role of comets and carbonaceous chondrites in contributing organic matter to the primitive Earth. (5) The prebiotics synthesis of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, fatty acids, and other biochemical monomers. (6) The prebiotic condensation reactions leading to the synthesis of oligomers such as oligonucleotides and oligopeptides, with replicative and catalytic activities. (7) The synthesis of amphiphilic lipids, and their self-assembly into liposomes with bi-layered membranes. (8) The formation of protocellular structures. (9) The activation of protocells into a functioning Darwin`s ancestral cell. (10) Early evolution of life. (11) The K-T boundary event and the disappearance of dinosaurs. (12) Evolution of hominids leading to Homo sapiens. (13) The rapid development of civilization. (14) The exploration of the Solar System. (15) Life beyond our planetary system. (16) Epilogue. Peace from cosmic evolution? (Abstract only).

  7. Human capabilities in space. [man machine interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Man's ability to live and perform useful work in space was demonstrated throughout the history of manned space flight. Current planning envisions a multi-functional space station. Man's unique abilities to respond to the unforeseen and to operate at a level of complexity exceeding any reasonable amount of previous planning distinguish him from present day machines. His limitations, however, include his inherent inability to survive without protection, his limited strength, and his propensity to make mistakes when performing repetitive and monotonous tasks. By contrast, an automated system does routine and delicate tasks, exerts force smoothly and precisely, stores, and recalls large amounts of data, and performs deductive reasoning while maintaining a relative insensitivity to the environment. The establishment of a permanent presence of man in space demands that man and machines be appropriately combined in spaceborne systems. To achieve this optimal combination, research is needed in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, robotics, behavioral psychology, economics, and human factors engineering.

  8. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  9. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  10. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  11. COMPOSTING OF RABBIT MORTALITIES IMPLEMENTD IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AT CHAPINGO AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jerónimo-Romero; L.A. Miranda-Romero; L.A. Saavedra-Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of composting rabbit carcasses with various substrates, six treatments were established according to the substrate used: oat straw-rabbit manure-dead rabbit (PAEC), wood shavings- rabbit manure- dead rabbit (EVC) and oat straw-dead rabbit (PAC), with or without the addition of 0.3 % ( v / w) mixed microbial inoculum consisting of Streptomyces spp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp. Temperature, pH, dry matter (DM ), moisture, organic matter (OM), ash and ...

  12. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  13. Mycoflora and Natural Incidence of Selected Mycotoxins in Rabbit and Chinchilla Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vanesa Greco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that cause a toxic response when ingested by animals or man. Demand of natural fur, such as those from rabbit and chinchilla, produced under controlled conditions, has increased worldwide. The toxicogenic mycoflora contaminating feeds for these animals was enumerated and identified. Six of the major mycotoxins implicated in animal mycotoxicosis were detected and quantified. Moulds count ranged from <10 to 4.7×105 CFU g-1; 14% of the samples exceeded the limit that determines hygienic feed quality. More than twenty species belonging to the five most important mycotoxigenic mould genera were recovered. Among the analyzed mycotoxins, aflatoxins were recovered in 100% of the examined samples, deoxynivalenol in 95%, fumonisins in 100%, ochratoxin A in 98%, T2 toxin in 98%, and zearalenone in 100%. Cooccurrence of mycotoxins was observed in 100% of the samples analyzed. Exposure to multiple mycotoxins was thus demonstrated for these animals.

  14. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  15. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  16. Importance of latrine communication in European rabbits shifts along a rural-to-urban gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziege, Madlen; Bierbach, David; Bischoff, Svenja; Brandt, Anna-Lena; Brix, Mareike; Greshake, Bastian; Merker, Stefan; Wenninger, Sandra; Wronski, Torsten; Plath, Martin

    2016-06-14

    Information transfer in mammalian communication networks is often based on the deposition of excreta in latrines. Depending on the intended receiver(s), latrines are either formed at territorial boundaries (between-group communication) or in core areas of home ranges (within-group communication). The relative importance of both types of marking behavior should depend, amongst other factors, on population densities and social group sizes, which tend to differ between urban and rural wildlife populations. Our study is the first to assess (direct and indirect) anthropogenic influences on mammalian latrine-based communication networks along a rural-to-urban gradient in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) living in urban, suburban and rural areas in and around Frankfurt am Main (Germany). The proportion of latrines located in close proximity to the burrow was higher at rural study sites compared to urban and suburban ones. At rural sites, we found the largest latrines and highest latrine densities close to the burrow, suggesting that core marking prevailed. By contrast, latrine dimensions and densities increased with increasing distance from the burrow in urban and suburban populations, suggesting a higher importance of peripheral marking. Increased population densities, but smaller social group sizes in urban rabbit populations may lead to an increased importance of between-group communication and thus, favor peripheral over core marking. Our study provides novel insights into the manifold ways by which man-made habitat alterations along a rural-to-urban gradient directly and indirectly affect wildlife populations, including latrine-based communication networks.

  17. On the identity of Dorylaimus robustus de Man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loof, P.A.A.

    1961-01-01

    The taxonomic position of Dorylaimus robustus de Man, 1876 is fully discussed. It is concluded that D. robustus de Man, 1876 is a synonym of D. stagnalis Dujardin, 1845; also included in this synonymy are D. robustus apud de Man, 1880, apud de Man, 1884 (male, partim) and Labronema robustum (de Man,

  18. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  19. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  20. Understanding Spider-Man: Your Everyday Superhero

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Nicklas; Blomsterberg, Sofie Amalie; Suciu, Alice Sabrina; Pedersen, Mads Peter; Lucas, Vilhelm

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on the understanding of Spider-Man, and the morals and ethics that lie behind the choices he makes. Through the Dimensions Philosophy & Science/Text & Sign, this understanding is concluded by looking at ethical theories and comic book analysis. Based on the Ultimate Spider-Man comic book series, the aim is to clarify who Spider-Man is and what causes him to act in certain ways; before and after his realization of power. Some theories used to investigate these area...

  1. Man-made gemstones; Jinko hoseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isogami, M. [Kyocera Corp., Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Birth and development of the man-made gemstones in the 20th century are outlined. Manufacturing gemstones was initiated by the invention of corundum production, followed by production of rubies and sapphires. In 1950 GE Co. synthesized diamonds, after that, most gemstones were manufactured consequently by progress of technologies of single crystal growing and ceramic manufacturing. In the 21st century, steep growth in demand is not expected but it seems to keep steady growth and the importance and necessity of man-made gemstones may be increased because of global environmental issues. Man-made gemstones seem to have both personality and variety of characteristics. (NEDO)

  2. Cholinesterase as inflammatory markers in a experimental infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio M. Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of cholinesterases as an inflammatory marker in acute and chronic infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits experimentally infected. Twelve adult female New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into two groups with 6 animals each: control group (rabbits 1-6 and infected group (rabbits 7-12. Infected group received intraperitoneally 0.5 mL of blood from a rat containing 108 parasites per animal. Blood samples used for cholinesterases evaluation were collected on days 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 and 118 days post-inoculation (PI. Increased activity (P0.05 was observed in the encephalic structures. The increased activities of AChE and BChE probably have a pro-inflammatory purpose, attempting to reduce the concentration of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter which has an anti-inflammatory property. Therefore, cholinesterase may be inflammatory markers in infection with T. evansi in rabbits.O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar o papel das colinesterases como marcadores inflamatórios nas fases aguda e crônica da infecção por T. evansi em coelhos infectados experimentalmente. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos adultos, fêmeas, da raça Nova Zelândia, divididos em dois grupos: um grupo controle, com seis animais (coelhos 1-6, e um grupo infectado, com seis animais (coelhos 7-12. Os animais pertencentes ao grupo infectados receberam, pela via intraperitoneal, 0,5 mL de sangue de rato contendo 108 tripanossomas por animal. Amostras do sangue utilizado para avaliação das colinesterases foram coletadas nos dias 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 e 118 pós-inoculação (PI. Aumento (P0,05 foi observada nas estruturas encefálicas. O aumento de atividade da AChE e BChE provavelmente tenha finalidade pró-inflamatória, a fim de reduzir as concentrações de acetilcolina, neurotransmissor que apresenta propriedade anti-inflamatória. Portanto, as colinesterases podem ser marcadores inflamatórios na infec

  3. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using

  4. [ManNAc, a new therapeutic agent to reduce Angptl4-induced proteinuria in MCD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Lionel; Macé, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies used in minimal change disease (MCD) were originally designed to cure other diseases. They are only partially efficient, and present inconvenient side effects. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of proteinuria in MCD could lead to new therapeutic strategies. A new experimental transgenic rat model of human MCD was generated. These NPHS2-Angptl4 transgenic rats over-express two different forms of the glycoprotein Angptl4 from the podocyte. The majority of the protein shows a lack of sialylation that is implicated in the pathogenesis of proteinuria. Supplementation of ManNAc, a precursor of sialic acid, significantly reduces albuminuria in those rats by increasing sialylation of the hyposialylated form of Angptl4. After treatment of the first episode of MCD with glucocorticoids in patients, ManNAc could be used as a maintenance drug, especially to reduce the frequency and intensity of relapse. ManNAc is a promising therapeutic agent for patients with MCD. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  5. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  6. the assessment of fasciola gigantica infection in the rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the rabbit was assessed as a laboratory host for the helminthes parasite, Fasciola gigantica. Three groups of rabbits were Infected experimentally with 5, 10 end 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica respectively. Clinical signs found included pale mucous membrane, progressive emaciation and rough hair coat.

  7. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  8. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  9. Experimental study on lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve allografts in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Sun Shiquan; Liu Hechen

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve grafts in rabbits were used in allogeneic nerve transplantation. The result show that about 76% of experimental rabbits had fairly well morphologic (microscopic and electron microscopic) and electrophysiological recovery 3 month after operation. Preservation of neurilemmal tubes in nerve grafts, repopulation of Schwann cells in this tube and suppression of immune rejection are the key points in allogeneic nerve transplantation

  10. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K

    2008-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 6 healthy adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits. Physical examinations and plasma biochemical analyses were performed to ensure rabbits were healthy prior to the experiment. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and IV catheters were placed in a medial saphenous or jugular vein for collection of blood samples. One blood sample was collected before treatment with tramadol. Rabbits were allowed to recover from anesthesia a minimum of 1 hour before treatment. Then, tramadol (11 mg/kg, PO) was administered once, and blood samples were collected at various time points up to 360 minutes after administration. Blood samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol). No adverse effects were detected after oral administration of tramadol to rabbits. Mean +/- SD half-life of tramadol after administration was 145.4 +/- 81.0 minutes; mean +/- SD maximum plasma concentration was 135.3 +/- 89.1 ng/mL. Although the dose of tramadol required to provide analgesia in rabbits is unknown, the dose administered in the study reported here did not reach a plasma concentration of tramadol or O-desmethyltramadol that would provide sufficient analgesia in humans for clinically acceptable periods. Many factors may influence absorption of orally administered tramadol in rabbits.

  11. Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits | Gomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two 3 year-old, healthy, client-owned Lop rabbits presented with bilateral cataracts. After performing a physical examination, bloodwork, ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography, both animals were deemed good surgical candidates for phacoemulsification. Bilateral cataract surgery was performed and both rabbits ...

  12. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a degradable and a non-degradable material for guided bone regeneration. Forty rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Bicortical defects 15 mm in diameter were prepared in rabbit calvaria. A titanium microplate was placed over the defect to prevent collapse...

  13. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  14. Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit: Histopathological Perspective. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... 60 and 90 days in the albino (n=10) and pigmented (n=22) rabbits, with mean weight value of 1.40 ± 0.44kg and mean age value of 9.0 ± 0.25 months were investigated in the ...

  15. Optimum rabbit density over fish ponds to optimise Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although previous studies have suggested that rabbit excreta can be used as high-quality manure for sustaining plankton production due to their gradual nutrient release, integrated rabbit–fish production systems are still not widely used. Between 2006 and 2010 optimal rabbit densities for sustainable integrated rabbit–Nile ...

  16. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  17. Growth response of rabbits fed graded levels of processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of processed and undehulled sunflower seed (PUSS) as feed supplement, on the performance of growing rabbits was studied.The eight weeks feeding trial involving twenty four, six weeks old male and female New Zealand white rabbits weighing 600-650g in a completely randomized design were feed three ...

  18. Environmental bacteria associated with an institutional rabbit house ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is the need for regular microbiological surveillance to protect our growing rabbitaries and the rabbit models in biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when the rabbits are exposed to stress conditions. Above all the importance of good hygiene and management in rabbitaries ...

  19. Haematology and serum profile of rabbits due to generation interval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of ninety-six (96) weaner rabbits (Chinchilla and New Zealand White crossbred) were used for this study and were divided into forty-eight (48) per generation. These fortyeight weaner rabbits were further divided into three replicates of four males (12) and four females each (12) housed in cage (24) and deep litter ...

  20. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals. A total number of 12 mixed bred rabbits weighing. 3.5 ± 0.5 kg were selected. Then, the necessary blood and parasite analysis as well as clinical ..... 8. Flecknell PA, Ed. BSAVA manual of rabbit medicine and surgery. London: British Small Animal Veterinary. Association; 2000; pp 30-31, 106. 9. Ji Y, Gao H, Zhang ...

  1. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  2. Evolutionary morphology of the rabbit skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kraatz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt. Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in leporids, and here we use an extensive 3D geometric morphometrics dataset to further explore what influences leporid cranial diversity. Facial tilt angle, a trait that strongly correlates with locomotor mode, significantly predicts the cranial shape variation captured by the primary axis of cranial shape space, and describes a small proportion (13.2% of overall cranial shape variation in the clade. However, locomotor mode does not correlate with overall cranial shape variation in the clade, because there are two district morphologies of generalist species, and saltators and cursorial species have similar morphologies. Cranial shape changes due to phyletic size change (evolutionary allometry also describes a small proportion (12.5% of cranial shape variation in the clade, but this is largely driven by the smallest living leporid, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis. By integrating phylogenetic history with our geometric morphometric data, we show that the leporid cranium exhibits weak phylogenetic signal and substantial homoplasy. Though these results make it difficult to reconstruct what the ‘ancestral’ leporid skull looked like, the fossil records suggest that dorsal arching and facial tilt could have occurred before the origin of the crown group. Lastly, our study highlights the diversity of cranial variation in crown leporids, and highlights a need for additional phylogenetic work that includes stem (fossil leporids and includes morphological data that captures the transformed morphology of rabbits and hares.

  3. Culture technique of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marini M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the protective covering outer layer of the mammalian skin. The epidermal cells are stratified squamous epithelia which undergo continuous differentiation of loss and replacement of cells. Ninety per cent of epidermal cells consist of keratinocytes that are found in the basal layer of the stratified epithelium called epidermis. Keratinocytes are responsible for forming tight junctions with the nerves of the skin as well as in the process of wound healing. This article highlights the method of isolation and culture of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. Approximately 2cm x 2cm oval shaped line was drawn on the dorsum of the rabbit to mark the surgical area. Then, the skin was carefully excised using a surgical blade and the target skin specimens harvested from the rabbits were placed in transport medium comprising of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% of antibiotic-antimycotic solution. The specimens were transferred into a petri dish containing 70% ethanol and washed for 5 min followed by a wash in 1 x Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (DBPS. Then, the skin specimens were placed in DMEM and minced into small pieces using a scalpel. The minced pieces were placed in a centrifuge tube containing 0.6% Dispase and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution overnight at 4°C in a horizontal orientation. The epidermis layer (whitish, semi-transparent was separated from the dermis (pink, opaque, gooey with the aid of curved forceps by fixing the dermis with one pair of forceps while detaching the epidermis with the second pair. The cells were cultured at a density of 4 x 104 cells/cm2 in culture flask at 37°C and 5% CO2. The cell morphology of the keratinocytes was analyzed using inverted microscope.

  4. Experimental osteoarthritis in the rabbit knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, H.

    1976-01-01

    development of arthrotic-like changes following resection of the of the cruciate ligaments in the knee joint of rabbits has been studied at intervals from 2 weeks to 10 months in 35 animals. Signs of cartilage degeneration were followed by changes in the subchondral bone, where formation of osteophytes and condensation to took place. An increased vascular supply was demonstrated by microangiographic and scintigraphic investigations. The uptake of 18 F and 99 mTc-polyphosphate reached a maximal value about 2 months after the operation and then diminished despite further development of arthrotic changes. (author)

  5. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  6. Ampicillin penetration into the rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Distribution of intravenously injected ampicillin of 50 mg/kg was studied in the rabbit eye using radioactive tracer method. Antibiotic concentration regarded as therapeutic in the treatment of gram-negative organisms was obtained in all vascularized ocular structures. Intermediate values were measured from the cornea and aqueous humour. In the vitreous body and lens, ampicillin was unable to approach a concentration that would be effective against the common gram-negative organisms. The low ampicillin concentration in the vitreous body and lens was unchanged by systemically administered probenecid, which in other parts of the eye caused significantly higher ampicillin levels. (author)

  7. Laser Pyro System Standardization and Man Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews an X-38 laser pyro system standardization system designed for a new manned rated program. The plans to approve this laser initiation system and preliminary ideas for this system are also provided.

  8. Man-made climate change: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, E [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-31

    The first major man-made environmental problem was the soil acidification, caused primarily by the massive industrial emissions of sulphur dioxide. Then came the problem of ozone depletion, caused by the emissions of man-made halocarbons. More recently, the possibility of man-made climate change has received a lot of attention. These three man-made problems are interconnected in fundamental ways and require for their solution interdisciplinary and international approach. Narrowing of the scientific uncertainties connected with the problems mentioned above can be expected through international `Global Change` programmes such as the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). Periodic assessments of the type produced by the IPCC will clearly be needed. Also in the future such assessments should form the scientific basis for international negotiations and conventions on the climate change issue

  9. Don't Trust the Big Man

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coerr, Stanton S

    2008-01-01

    .... A full-length analysis of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its full-scale insurgencies since 1960 -- at the hands of Big Man leaders Lumumba, Mobutu, and Kabila -- provide object lessons...

  10. Synergistic Man: Outcome Model for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseve, Ronald J.

    1973-01-01

    Drawing on the insights of Ruth Benedict and Abraham Maslow in their search for an ethical gauge by which to rate personal-social health, this article proposes synergistic man'' as the desired outcome model for counselors. (Author)

  11. Nuclear fuel: the thinking man's alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, N.

    1989-01-01

    'Nuclear Fuel ' The Thinking Man's Alternative' is the title of the 55th Melchett Lecture given by Neville Chamberlain, Chief Executive of British Nuclear Fuels plc. This article is based on the address, the essence of which is that the case for nuclear power should be based upon an appreciation of the totality and sophistication of man's handling of his energy needs - not on a glib catch-phase or on a simple political dogma or on an economic argument. Arguments in favour of nuclear power were discussed. The conclusion was that nuclear energy is the thinking man's alternative because only thinking man could have and can develop it; secondly, only thinking men should be authorized to exploit and control it; thirdly, a thinking person will appreciate that, properly thought out and controlled, it must be the most important source of future energy for the benefit of mankind. (author)

  12. Long term effects of radiation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chih Ping; Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the long term effects of radiation in man is presented, categorizing into somatic effects, genetic effects and teratogenic effects, and including an indication of the problems that arise in their determination. (author)

  13. Environmental Education: The Whole Man Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormondy, Edward J.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental education is seen as an interdisciplinary study of the ecology of man, viewed in his totality, in all his dimensions. Biology is not considered the central discipline in this study. (Author/AL)

  14. A report on reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    In connection with the reference Japanese man for evaluation of accurate exposure doses considering the various characteristics, survey data of organs etc. weights and dimensions are given: renal glands, brains, kidneys, liver, lungs, womb, thyroid glands, gallbladder, stomach. (Mori, K.)

  15. Pet Therapy: Man's Best Friend as Healer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... psychological and physiological health of critically ill patients. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 2010;29:211. Cangelosi PR, et al. Walking for therapy with man's best friend. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental ...

  16. Man-made climate change: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Meteorology

    1995-12-31

    The first major man-made environmental problem was the soil acidification, caused primarily by the massive industrial emissions of sulphur dioxide. Then came the problem of ozone depletion, caused by the emissions of man-made halocarbons. More recently, the possibility of man-made climate change has received a lot of attention. These three man-made problems are interconnected in fundamental ways and require for their solution interdisciplinary and international approach. Narrowing of the scientific uncertainties connected with the problems mentioned above can be expected through international `Global Change` programmes such as the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). Periodic assessments of the type produced by the IPCC will clearly be needed. Also in the future such assessments should form the scientific basis for international negotiations and conventions on the climate change issue

  17. Sequential computed tomographic imaging of a transplantable rabbit brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Beck, T.J.; Ahn, H.S.; Anderson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of CT imaging in evaluating VX-2 tumor growth in the rabbit brain was assessed. CT scanning was performed in 5 outbred New Zealand white male rabbits before and at 4, 7, 9 and 13 (in 3 animals) days after surgical implantation of 3 x 10 5 viable VX-2 tumor cells in the frontoparietal lobes. The CT studies were correlated with gross pathology in each. The tumor was visualized with CT in all 5 rabbits by the 9th day post implantation when the tumor ranged in size from 4-6 x 3-4 x 2-3 mm. Between the 9th and 13th day, the tumor increased 6-fold in two rabbits and 12-fold in the third rabbit. CT is a useful technique to evaluate brain tumor growth in this model and should be valuable in documenting the efficacy of chemotherapy on tumor growth. (orig.)

  18. Crisis and Man: Literary Responses Across Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaswami, Mallika

    2012-01-01

    Myth of Sisyphus exemplifies the situation man finds himself in irrespective of his ethnic and geographical background. Art and cultural forms gave expression to this situation and the intensity of the expression depended upon the political and social dimensions. War or peace, man is always condemned to struggle with his problems, moral or otherwise. Post war English writers focused on the social problems the British society found itself in and its helplessness in dealing with them. It was th...

  19. Woman Position In Iron Man Movies

    OpenAIRE

    ANINDITHA, ANNISA

    2014-01-01

    Aninditha, Annisa. 2014. Woman Position in Iron Man movies. Study Program ofEnglish, Department of Language and Literature, Faculty of Cultural Studies,Universitas Brawijaya, Malang. Supervisor: Fariska Pujiyanti. Co Supervisor: NurulLaily Nadhifah. Keywords: Movie, Patriarchal, Iron Man. Movie is one of literary works and electronic media. Movie becomes the best strategy to communicate and deliver message about what happens in this world. The movie makers or directors can express critics, co...

  20. Hvornår er man ung?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundelach, Peter; Nørregård-Nielsen, Esther C.

    2002-01-01

    Hvornår er man ung, og hvornår er man voksen? Er der forskelle i befolkningens værdier i forhold til arbejde og politik, når det undersøges ud fra henholdsvis et alders- eller generationsperspektiv? Baseret på data fra den danske del af den internationale værdiundersøgelse vises at der er så store...

  1. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  2. 2009 Navy ManTech Project Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    build a hybrid laser / GMAW system that combined deep keyhole penetration of laser welding with the high metal deposition rate of GMAW, enabling...committed to the successful outcome of the ManTech project. In addition, this close working relationship between the parties provides ManTech with a longer...the cost and time to build and repair Navy ships. The Center works closely with the Navy’s acquisition community and the shipbuilding industry to

  3. Histological analysis of femoral bones in rabbits administered by amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kováčová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glycosides are present in several economically important plant foods. Amygdalin, one of the most common cyanoglucoside, can be found abundantly in the seeds of apples, bitter almonds, apricots, peaches, various beans, cereals, cassava and sorghum. Amygdalin has been used for the treatment of cancer, it shows killing effects on cancer cells by release of cyanide. However, its effect on bone structure has not been investigated to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine a possible effect of amygdalin application on femoral bone microstructure in adult rabbits. Four month old rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of three animals each. Rabbits from E group received amygdalin intramuscularly at a dose 0.6 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw (group E, n = 3 one time per day during 28 days. The second group of rabbits without amygdalin supplementation served as a control (group C, n = 3. After 28 days, histological structure of femoral bones in both groups of rabbits was analysed and compared. Rabbits from E group displayed different microstructure in middle part of the compact bone and near endosteal bone surface. For endosteal border, an absence of the primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was typical. This part of the bone was formed by irregular Haversian and/or by dense Haversian bone tissues. In the middle part of substantia compacta, primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was observed. Cortical bone thickness did not change between rabbits from E and C groups. However, rabbits from E group had a significantly lower values of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons as compared to the C group. On the other hand, all measured parameters of Haversian canals did not differ between rabbits from both groups. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular application of amygdalin at the dose used in our study affects femoral bone microstructure in rabbits.

  4. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We

  5. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  6. Evaluation and re-evaluation of genetic radiation hazards in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    1976-01-01

    The arm number hypothesis proposed by Brewen and colleagues in 1973 has been examined in the light of information thus far available from mammalian studies. In experiments with peripheral blood lymphocytes (radiation in vitro), a linear relationship between dicentric yield and the effective chromosome arm number of the species was obtained in the mouse, Chinese hamster, goat, sheep, pig, wallaby and man. However, the data are not consistent with such a relationship in several primate species (marmoset, rhesus monkey, cynomolgus monkey, squirrel monkey and the slow loris), the cat and the dog. In the rabbit, the data are conflicting. In the mouse and the Chinese hamster the frequencies of reciprocal translocations recorded in spermatocytes descended from irradiated spermatogonia are in line with the expectation based on the arm number hypothesis, whereas in the golden hamster, rabbit and the rhesus they are not. In man and the marmoset, the limited data are not inconsistent with a 2-fold higher sensitivity of these species relative to the mouse although they do not rule out a difference as high as 4-fold. In the guinea-pig, the situation is unclear. New data on the transmission of reciprocal translocations in mice suggest that the frequency in the F 1 progeny may be close to one-quarter of that recorded in the spermatocytes of the irradiated fathers (spermatogonial irradiation) at an exposure level of 150 R, whereas at higher exposures, the reduction factor is about one-eighth, the latter being in line with the earlier finding. All these results taken together suggest that inter-specific extrapolation from the radiosensitivity of somatic cells (to dicentric induction) to that of germ cells (to translocation induction) is fraught with uncertainty at present. Certain aspects that need to be studied in more detail in the context of induced chromosome aberrations are discussed

  7. Mechanism of fever induction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, R; Philipp-Dormston, W K; Radsak, K; Menzel, H

    1976-01-01

    Three exogenous pyrogens (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid. Newcastle disease virus) were compared with respect to their mechanisms of fever induction in rabbits. All inducers stimulated the production of an endogenous pyrogen demonstrated in the blood as well as prostaglandins of the E group, and of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the cerebrospinal fluid. The concentrations of these compounds were elevated approximately twofold as compared to the controls. Independently of the mode of induction, the fever reaction could be prevented by pretreatment with 5 mg of cycloheximide per kg, although the three fever mediators were induced as in febrile animals. Consequently, at least one additional fever mediator that is sensitive to a 30 to 50% inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide has to be postulated. The comparable reactions of the rabbits after administration of different pyrogens argues for a similar fever mechanism. In contrast to fever induction there was no stimulation of endogenous pyrogen, prostaglandins of the E group, and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in hyperthermia as a consequence of exposure of the animals to exogenous overheating. Furthermore, hyperthermia could not be prevented by cycloheximide. PMID:185148

  8. Labelled T{sub 3}, T{sub 4} and TBP for In Vitro Testing of Thyroid Function in Man and Animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, P.; Boruchowski, Sabina; Shomron, I. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Isotopes, Tel-Hashomer Hospital, Tel-Aviv University Medical School, Faculty of Continuing Medical Education, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    1970-02-15

    Iodothyronines are bound to determined electrophoretic fractions of serum proteins - TBP (TBG, TBA, TBPA). Radioiodine labelled T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} complex the free TBP fractions until saturation. The excess of added in vitro thyronines is then absorbed by the RBC. The changes described can be detected and quantitatively determined by radioisotope tests: radioelectrophoresis - T{sub 3/4} BP test, and RBC - {sup 125}I T{sub 3} test (Hamolsky test). The in vitro tests of the thyroid function can be clinically reliable if the protein fractions are normal, and they may be altered without thyroid pathology if the TBG fractions are abnormal. The electrophoretic fractions vary quantitatively and qualitatively in animals of different classes and orders. We chose these features to study the correlation between iodothyronines, plasma proteins and the above-mentioned thyroid tests. Twenty-two animal species (arranged according to the increasing percentage of the Hamolsky test) were examined: goat (8.6%, cow, lamb, calf, man, camel, goose, hamster, rat, turkey, marmot, duck, horse, donkey, hen, dog, pigeon, rabbit, guinea-pig, mouse, fish and frog (91.5%). The following additional parameters were examined: PBI, serum quantitative electrophoresis, T{sub 3} BP studies. All the tests were performed under identical technical conditions. Results and conclusions: (1) The Hamolsky test in the examined animals ranges from 9% to 92%. It is highest in the poicolothermics, in which much prealbumin and few glubulins are found on electrophoresis. The T{sub 3} BP is low, and about a half of the added {sup 125}I T{sub 3} remains unbound. (2) T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} are complexed with T{sub 3} BP and T{sub 4} BP fractions, which correspond to prealbumin, albumin, alpha 1-2, beta and exceptionally gamma globulin. The fractions are variable but characteristic for each animal species. T{sub 3} BP does not correlate exactly with T{sub 4} BP, and seems to be distributed over more fractions

  9. Some consideration of Japanese standard man value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    Numerical values of standard man or reference man is important problem in the field of radiation protection and safety. The standard man values given by ICRP were obtained from European and North American adult data. For that reason, there are some theoretical problems in the application of standard man values to Japanese. The purpose of the present paper is to consider the difference of values between Japanese and standard man. The standard man values are divided into three categories. The first category is the size and weight of the body or organ, the second is the values of elementary composition, and the third is the numerical factors related to metabolic kinetics. It is natural that some values of the second and the third categories have little difference between Japanese and European. On the other hand, there are some differences in the value of the first category, but the differences can calculation in proportional allotment to the body weight. The values concerning the thyroid gland and iodine metabolism are important for radiation protection. It has been foreseen that these values of Japanese are significantly different from standard man. A survey of past reports was carried out with a view to search for normal values of the weight, iodine content, and iodine uptake rate of the thyroid of Japanese. The result of the survey showed that the weight of thyroid are about 19g for adult male and 17g for adult female and that the iodine contents are 12-22mg and iodine uptake rate (fw) is about 0.2. (auth.)

  10. The Metabolism of Tetralin in Fischer 344 Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    would die from the disease . The relevance of nephropathy observed in male rats exposed to various hydrocarbons to the occurrence of renal neoplasia in man...34 often obscure pathologic evaluations. "Old-rat nephropathy" is a common degenerative kidney disease predominantly seen in the male rat. By careful...studies have been performed with n-hexane and n-heptane to characterize their metabolism and role in neurotoxicity (Perbellini et al., 1982; Bahima et

  11. Impact of Pregnancy on Zonisamide Pharmacokinetics in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Matar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes which may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetic profile of zonisamide (ZNM in the rabbit. Seven female rabbits were used in this study. The pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits received ZNM orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg and blood samples were collected from the animals just before receiving the drug and then serially for up to 24 h. The plasma samples were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometric method. Following a single oral dose of ZNM to the rabbits, the mean values of ZNM plasma concentrations at different times were consistently low in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. The mean values of ZNM’s Cmax and AUC0-∞ were significantly (P<0.05 decreased, whereas the CL/F exhibited substantial increase (P<0.05 in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. Tmax, t1/2abs, t1/2el, MRT, and Vd/F showed no significant differences between the two groups. The present study demonstrates that pregnancy decreased ZNM plasma concentrations in rabbits and that the decrease could be due to decreased extent of gastrointestinal absorption, induced hepatic metabolism, or enhanced renal elimination of the drug.

  12. A Probability Analysis of Historical Pregnancy and Fetal Data from Dutch Belted and New Zealand White Rabbit Strains from Embryo-Fetal Development Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posobiec, Lorraine M; Cox, Estella M; Solomon, Howard M; Lewis, Elise M; Wang, Kai-fen; Stanislaus, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Embryo-fetal development (EFD) studies, typically in pregnant rats and rabbits, are conducted prior to enrolling females of reproductive age in clinical trials. Common rabbit strains used are the New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch Belted (DB). As fetal abnormalities can occur in all groups, including controls, Historical Control Data (HCD) is compiled using data from control groups of EFD studies, and is used along with each study's concurrent control group to help determine whether fetal abnormalities are caused by the test article or are part of background incidences. A probability analysis was conducted on 2014 HCD collected at Charles River Inc., Horsham PA on Covance NZW, Covance DB, and Charles River (CR) NZW rabbits. The analysis was designed to determine the probability of 2 or 3 out of a group of 22 does aborting their litter or of having a fetal abnormality by chance. Results demonstrate that pregnancy parameters and fetal observations differ not only between strains, but between sources of rabbits of the same strain. As a result the probability of these observations occurring by chance in two or three litters was drastically different. Although no one single strain is perfect, this analysis highlights the need to appreciate the inherent differences in pregnancy and fetal abnormalities between strains, and points out that an apparent isolated increased incidence of an observation in one strain will not necessarily be test-article related in another strain. A robust HCD is critical for interpretation of EFD rabbit studies, regardless of the rabbit strain used. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of Qualitative Indices of Meat Production in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dabija

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat, in most cases, is a basic production in rabbits. The influence on meat quality and quantity have such factors as breed, age, slaughter gain, sex, etc. By age, adult rabbits have a higher body weight compared with the young, but their meat is more expensive. The most convenient is intensive growth of youth as the age of 3 months to be 2.3 to 2.5 kg body weight, food and labor costs during this period was minimal. It is considered optimal as young rabbits are slaughtered when they reach 50-60% by weight of adult animals. The biological material which was used was represented in two groups of Chinchilla rabbit and Flanders breed, each one consisting of seven rabbits of various sex. Groups of rabbits had the same conditions of maintenance and nutrition. Carcass weight was determined at slaughter, carcass meat, bones, by-products, blood, head, skin of young rabbit. The largest share of the carcass of live weight was obtained at age 4 months - 59%, and meat in the carcass weight at 2 months of life - 71.2% at Chinchilla breed. On average 31.9% had bones, by-products - 6.23%, blood - 3.78% head - 8.21% and skin of young rabbit - 11.9%. Average of carcass weight from live weight was 52.76%, in Flanders breed the highest recorded at age 4 months and 66.78% of the carcass meat, the highest being at 2 months old. The average weight of bones was 33.21%, by-products - 6.25%, blood - 3.53%, the head - 7.86%, and the skin of young rabbit - 11.89%. Slaughter gain ranged from 47% to 59% at Chinchilla breed, and from 47% to 60% in Flanders breed. The highest index was recorded in both breeds at the age of four months.

  14. Development of rabbit monoclonal antibodies for detection of alpha-dystroglycan in normal and dystrophic tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa J Fortunato

    Full Text Available Alpha-dystroglycan requires a rare O-mannose glycan modification to form its binding epitope for extracellular matrix proteins such as laminin. This functional glycan is disrupted in a cohort of muscular dystrophies, the secondary dystroglycanopathies, and is abnormal in some metastatic cancers. The most commonly used reagent for detection of alpha-dystroglycan is mouse monoclonal antibody IIH6, but it requires the functional O-mannose structure for recognition. Therefore, the ability to detect alpha-dystroglycan protein in disease states where it lacks the full O-mannose glycan has been limited. To overcome this hurdle, rabbit monoclonal antibodies against the alpha-dystroglycan C-terminus were generated. The new antibodies, named 5-2, 29-5, and 45-3, detect alpha-dystroglycan from mouse, rat and pig skeletal muscle by Western blot and immunofluorescence. In a mouse model of fukutin-deficient dystroglycanopathy, all antibodies detected low molecular weight alpha-dystroglycan in disease samples demonstrating a loss of functional glycosylation. Alternately, in a porcine model of Becker muscular dystrophy, relative abundance of alpha-dystroglycan was decreased, consistent with a reduction in expression of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in affected muscle. Therefore, these new rabbit monoclonal antibodies are suitable reagents for alpha-dystroglycan core protein detection and will enhance dystroglycan-related studies.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of suppositories for RK-28 (a new radiosensitizer) using rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak-Seo; Umejima, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Kaori; Okubo, Mayumi; Goto, Shigeru; Kato, Tetsuo; Mikami, Yukio; Sagitani, Hiromichi; Inoue, Haruyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of RK-28 [1-(4-hydroxy-2-butenoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole], a new hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, was studied following intravenous, oral, and rectal administration to rabbits. After an oral administration of RK-28 solution, the plasma concentration of RK-28 was considerably lower than that after intravenous administration through all time periods, and the absolute bioavailability was a mere 4.2%. It was presumed that a specific acid-catalyzed decomposition of RK-28 progressed in the stomach, and also, the absorbed RK-28 suffered first-pass effects in the liver. In contrast, the absolute bioavailability following the rectal administration of a solidified RK-28 suppository preparation was significantly increased in comparison with that obtained by other administration routes. Also, RK-28 emulsion suppositories were prepared by emulsifying various amounts of the drug with 1-hexadecanol and hydrogenated castor oil (HCO 60) at 80degC, and these were administered into the rabbit rectum. The resulting absolute bioavailability was 91% for the RK-28 emulsion suppository and 86.9% for an RK-28 emulsion suppository containing small amounts of Eudispert hv. These values were better than those in rats. The rectal administration of the RK-28 emulsion suppository containing small amounts of Eudispert hv showed a preferable plasma concentration-time pattern that reflects on radiation therapy. (author)

  16. Preparation and evaluation of suppositories for RK-28 (a new radiosensitizer) using rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Seo; Umejima, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Kaori; Okubo, Mayumi; Goto, Shigeru (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences); Kato, Tetsuo; Mikami, Yukio; Sagitani, Hiromichi; Inoue, Haruyuki

    1994-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of RK-28 [1-(4-hydroxy-2-butenoxy)methyl-2-nitroimidazole], a new hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, was studied following intravenous, oral, and rectal administration to rabbits. After an oral administration of RK-28 solution, the plasma concentration of RK-28 was considerably lower than that after intravenous administration through all time periods, and the absolute bioavailability was a mere 4.2%. It was presumed that a specific acid-catalyzed decomposition of RK-28 progressed in the stomach, and also, the absorbed RK-28 suffered first-pass effects in the liver. In contrast, the absolute bioavailability following the rectal administration of a solidified RK-28 suppository preparation was significantly increased in comparison with that obtained by other administration routes. Also, RK-28 emulsion suppositories were prepared by emulsifying various amounts of the drug with 1-hexadecanol and hydrogenated castor oil (HCO 60) at 80degC, and these were administered into the rabbit rectum. The resulting absolute bioavailability was 91% for the RK-28 emulsion suppository and 86.9% for an RK-28 emulsion suppository containing small amounts of Eudispert hv. These values were better than those in rats. The rectal administration of the RK-28 emulsion suppository containing small amounts of Eudispert hv showed a preferable plasma concentration-time pattern that reflects on radiation therapy. (author).

  17. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effect of Fagonia cretica L. methanolic extract and Citrus paradise Macfad. juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sairah H. Kamran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fagonia cretica is a medicinal herb reported to have flavanoids of potential therapeutic value and Citrus paradisi is a fruit, whose juice is of great therapeutic value due to its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Aims: To determine anti-hyperglycemic and renal protective effect of methanolic extract of Fagonia cretica and Citrus paradisi juice (grapefruit juice in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rabbits by alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg, i.p.. The therapies including Fagonia cretica methanolic extract (500 mg/kg, Citrus paradisi juice (7 mL/kg and sitagliptin (10 mg/kg were administered (p.o. to diabetic groups for 14 days. The biochemical parameters, glucose, creatinine, urea, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, globulins and albumin/globulin ratio were estimated. Results: Fagonia cretica extract and grapefruit juice therapy significantly (p<0.05 reduced glucose levels in diabetic rats. Fagonia cretica extract was more effective anti-hyperglycemic agent than Citrus paradisi juice and sitagliptin. Significant (p<0.05 improvement in kidney function was observed in treated groups, the plant extract showing significant improvement as compared to the other two treatments. The histopathological results verified improvement in structural damage of kidney, liver and pancreas with these treatments. Conclusions: Fagonica cretica and Citrus paradisi juice therapy markedly improved hyperglycemia and kidney functions in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  18. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (μm2, perimeter (μm, maximum and minimum diameter (μm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  19. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (µm2, perimeter (µm, maximum and minimum diameter (µm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  20. (-)-anipamil retards atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1995-01-01

    Calcium antagonists have been reported to limit atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil on the spontaneous development of atherosclerosis in homozygote WHHL rabbits. From the age of 7 weeks, three groups...... differences were found in serum lipids (i.e., VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) in the study period among the three groups. Plasma anipamil at the end of the study was 0.23 +/- 6, and 202 +/- 19 ng/ml, respectively, in the three treatment groups. The degree of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta was significantly lower...... (p atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta in WHHL rabbits....

  1. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  2. Reduction in brain immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Hattori, T.; Murakami, K.; Suemaru, S.; Kawada, Y.; Kageyama, J.; Ota, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The brain CRF concentration of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) was examined by rat CRF radioimmunoassay. Anti-CRF serum was developed by immunizing rabbits with synthetic rat CRF. Synthetic rat CRF was also used as tracer and standard. The displacement of 125 I-rat CRF by serially diluted extracts of male Wistar rats hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and neurointermediate lobe was parallel to the displacement of synthetic rat CRF. In both WKY and SHR the highest levels of CRF immunoreactivity were shown by the hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe, and considerable CRF immunoreactivity was also detected in other brain regions. The CRF immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus, neurointermediate lobe, midbrain, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex was significantly reduced in SHR and it may suggest that CRF abnormality may be implicated in the reported abnormalities in the pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic response and behavior of SHR

  3. In vivo behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin on intravenous injection into rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, H.J.; Esmon, N.L.; Bang, N.U.

    1990-01-01

    Thrombomodulin is a thrombin endothelial cell membrane receptor. The thrombomodulin-thrombin complex rapidly activates protein C resulting in anticoagulant activity. We investigated the anticoagulant effects and pharmacokinetic behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin labeled with iodine 125 when intravenously injected into rabbits. Thrombomodulin half-life (t1/2) was determined by tracking the 125I-radiolabeled protein and the biologic activity as determined by the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin clotting time (TCT). When 200 micrograms/kg 125I-thrombomodulin was injected into rabbits, the APTT and TCT were immediately prolonged, whereas no effect on the prothrombin time was seen. In vitro calibration curves enabled us to convert the prolongations of the clotting times into micrograms per milliliter thrombomodulin equivalents. The best fit (r greater than 0.99) for the disappearance curves was provided by a two-compartment model with mean t1/2 alpha (distribution phase) of 18 minutes for 125I, 12 minutes for APTT, and 20 minutes for TCT, and mean t1/2 beta (elimination phase) of 385 minutes for 125I, 460 for APTT, and 179 for TCT. The administration of two doses of endotoxin (50 micrograms/kg) 24 hours apart did not accelerate the turnover rate of 125I-thrombomodulin as measured by the disappearance of 125I from the circulation. Thus, detergent-solubilized purified thrombomodulin administered intravenously circulates in a biologically active form for appreciable time periods

  4. Man and technology in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences has set up a committee known as The Committee of Man, Technology and Society. The members of this committee form an interdisciplinary group for the study of the interaction between scientific and technological advances and the way in which society evolves. Most of the committees activities have focused on the present relationship between man, technology and society. Attempts have been made to assess the future influence on society of key developments in biotechnology, electronic communication and systems analysis. In order to pursue this path still further, the committee decided to arrange an international symposium on the topic Man and Technology in the Future at the village of Forsmark on the Baltic coast of Sweden. The proceedings consists of 13 lectures centered on energy systems - and the connected waste problems, biotechnology, and telecommunications. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the lectures in this volume

  5. Oedipus king: preparing man for the polis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquim Pereira Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Having Sophoclean play Oedipus King as a frame of reference, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the educative proposal conceived to the Greek Man as preparation for life in the polis. Although not intentionally, Sophocles pointed out an ideal of Man which, in his perspective, would fulfill Greek societal demands of that time. Such society was divided between myth and rationality and, as a result, Man found Himself in conflict and lacking direction for His life. Given that, Oedipus’ character represented the ideal behavior of that society, and it also made it possible for citizens to reflect and to discuss social, economic and political transformations taking place at that period. Thus Sophocles came up with a hero who was an educational model and a citizen’s as well. Furthermore, such hero differed from that one of the archaic Greek thought.

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of 52 UK pet rabbit owners at the point of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J L; Mullan, S M

    2011-04-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of pet rabbit owners at the time of buying their rabbit(s) and to investigate factors influencing the planned husbandry and housing of their rabbit(s). A questionnaire was used to assess the impact of demographics, knowledge and attitudes on the likelihood that respondents would neuter their rabbit(s), feed them an appropriate diet, house them in appropriately sized housing and provide them with an appropriate companion. Knowledge and attitudes were significant factors in whether respondents planned to neuter their rabbit(s) and provide them with an appropriate companion. The attribution of secondary emotions to rabbits was associated with plans to feed a mix-type diet. The majority of owners had carried out prior research into pet rabbits, but owners had a limited knowledge of the needs of rabbits, particularly with respect to their diet and social needs. Respondents who had decided to purchase a rabbit on the day were less likely to intend to get their rabbit neutered than those who had taken more time to decide to buy a rabbit.

  7. Synthesis of endogenous pyrogen by rabbit leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D M; Murphy, P A; Chesney, P J; Wood, W B

    1973-05-01

    Rabbit ieukocytes from peritoneal exudates and from blood were stimulated to form leukocyte pyrogen in the presence of radiolabeled amino acids. The stimuli used were endotoxin, phagocytosis, and tuberculin. The crude leukocyte pyrogen samples were purified; pyrogen from exudate cells was rendered homogeneous; pyrogen from blood cells was still contaminated with other proteins. All the purified pyrogens were radioactive; and for all it was shown that radioactivity and pyrogenic activity coincided on electrophoresis at pH 3.5 and pH 9 in acrylamide and on isoelectric focusing in acrylamide. Furthermore, pyrogens obtained from exudate cells stimulated in different ways, or from blood cells and exudate cells stimulated with endotoxin, appeared to be identical. These results suggest that leukocyte pyrogen was synthesized de novo from amino acid precursors and that leukocytes made the same pyrogen whatever the stimulus used to activate them.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied sparfloxacin in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satia Milan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents that have a broad spectrum of activity and are widely used against many of the ocular pathogens, responsible for conjunctivitis, blepharitis, corneal ulcers etc. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ocular pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin (0.3% w/v in the aqueous humour of rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of topically administered sparfloxacin were determined after a single application of 50 µl topically. The aqueous humour samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 hours after instillation. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic method was used to analyse the drug concentration in the aqueous humour samples. RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after the instillation of 50 µl of sparfloxacin 0.3% solution, the mean concentration in aqueous humour was found to be 1.4 µg/ml, which reaches the peak level of 3.7 µg/ml after 1.3 hours. At 6 hours, the sparfloxacin aqueous levels were 0.562 µg/ml. The clinical efficacy was predicted based on the Maximum Concentration (Cmax: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Area Under the Concentration-time curve (AUC:MIC ratios. CONCLUSION: The sparfloxacin levels in aqueous humour of rabbits are sufficiently high up to the 6 hours after instillation in the conjunctival sac to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Both Cmax:MIC and AUC:MIC ratios are high enough to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Sparfloxacin (0.3% ophthalmic preparation has excellent penetration through cornea.

  9. Man-machine dialogue design and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Landragin, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    This book summarizes the main problems posed by the design of a man-machine dialogue system and offers ideas on how to continue along the path towards efficient, realistic and fluid communication between humans and machines. A culmination of ten years of research, it is based on the author's development, investigation and experimentation covering a multitude of fields, including artificial intelligence, automated language processing, man-machine interfaces and notably multimodal or multimedia interfaces. Contents Part 1. Historical and Methodological Landmarks 1. An Assessment of the Evolution

  10. Ocular bacillary angiomatosis in an immunocompromised man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Meltzer A; Zamecki, Katherine J; Paskowski, Joseph; Lelli, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    An immunocompromised man presented with an inflammatory eyelid lesion. Biopsy was performed; histopathology and special staining confirmed a diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis. The man was treated with oral erythromycin, and the lesion resolved. The etiologic agents of bacillary angiomatosis are Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, Gram-negative coccobacilli. The organisms stain positively with the Warthin-Starry silver stain. Lesions can be cutaneous or visceral and have been commonly described in immunocompromised patients. Histopathologic examination of lesions reveals angiogenesis and cellular proliferation. Bacillary angiomatosis can be treated with oral antibiotics.

  11. Sådan bygger man en kvantecomputer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    KRONIK: Professor Klaus Mølmer forklarer, hvordan man kan konstruere en kvantecomputer. Det kræver en brudebuket, der både er der og ikke er der, og som kan kastes til alle gæsterne ved et bryllup på samme tid.......KRONIK: Professor Klaus Mølmer forklarer, hvordan man kan konstruere en kvantecomputer. Det kræver en brudebuket, der både er der og ikke er der, og som kan kastes til alle gæsterne ved et bryllup på samme tid....

  12. Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's Life in Science

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    It took a man who was willing to break all the rules to tame a theory that breaks all the rules. This talk will be based on my new book Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's life in science. I will try and present a scientific overview of the contributions of Richard Feynman, as seen through the arc of his fascinating life. From Quantum Mechanics to Antiparticles, from Rio de Janeiro to Los Alamos, a whirlwind tour will provide insights into the character, life and accomplishments of one of the 20th centuries most important scientists, and provide an object lesson in scientific integrity.

  13. Homo Tangens, or Man Touching and Tangible

    OpenAIRE

    J Mizinska

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of the concept sense of touch, which is considered in all its aspects and dimensions. The author's aim is to determine what is touch in terms of philosophy, what types it has and what traditional functions (i.e. prior to the emergence of virtual reality) each of these functions performed. The conducted research allows the author to make a conclusion about the importance of perceiving the role and significance of man as a homo tangens - man touching and t...

  14. Homo Tangens, or Man Touching and Tangible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mizinska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the concept sense of touch, which is considered in all its aspects and dimensions. The author's aim is to determine what is touch in terms of philosophy, what types it has and what traditional functions (i.e. prior to the emergence of virtual reality each of these functions performed. The conducted research allows the author to make a conclusion about the importance of perceiving the role and significance of man as a homo tangens - man touching and tangible.

  15. Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  16. Group B Streptococcal Colonization and Bacteremia in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Lembet

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the effect of maternal administration of ampicillin/sulbactam on colonization and bacteremia in newborn rabbits after intracervical inoculation of mothers with group B streptococci (GBS.

  17. Natural immunity factors in Polish mixed breed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-breed rabbits in Poland are widely used for diagnostic and scientific research and as utility animals, therefore there is a need to know their immunological status, as well as their haematological status. In this study natural immunity factors were analyzed in Polish mixed-breed rabbits and Polish mixed-breed rabbits with addition of blood of meet-breed, considering the impact of sex and season of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) using measurement of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity parameters in peripheral blood. The study has revealed that there is a variety between the two commonly used mixed-breed types of rabbits, especially when sex and season is concerned, which is crucial for using these animals in experiments.

  18. Analysis of the genetic diversity of four rabbit genotypes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Ola

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... consumption and low cost, it has been widely utilized in genetics analysis in ... isozyme variation among the selected individuals within each rabbit genotype. ... with different embryo survival (Bolet and Theau-Clement, 1994).

  19. Rabbit defensin (NP-1) genetic engineering of plant | Ting | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbit defensin (NP-1) genetic engineering of plant. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... defensin genetic engineering of plant in recent years, and also focuses on the existing problems and new strategies in this area.

  20. Physiological response of rabbit bucks to prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... meal on performance of rabbits have been documented. (Taha et ..... Interaction effect of long-term feeding of cottonseed cake and vitamin E supplementation on the haematological ..... disorders as well as exposure to drug.

  1. THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF SARCOPTIC MANGE IN RABBIT WITH IVERMECTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoptic mange infected non-descriptive rabbits were successfully treated with Ivermectin @ 400 µg / kg body weight sub-cutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks resulted complete recovery within a month in Kalyani area, West Bengal, India.

  2. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo; Nedergaard, Ove A.

    1999-01-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased...

  3. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Teratogenic effects of Khat (Catha edulis in New Zealand rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Saleh Abdul-Mughni

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Prenatal exposure of Khat in rabbit induces harmful effects in defferent visceral organs including liver, kidney, brain, spinal cord, spleen, intestine, heart and lung. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 25-36

  5. Rabbit defensin (NP-1) genetic engineering of plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... rabbit defensin has a significant toxic effect on mouse tumor cells .... Disease is one of the important factors which lead to decrease of .... Transgenic Nitrate Reductase Deficient Mutant of Chlorella ellipsoide. J. Agric.

  6. Ultrastructural studies of human and rabbit alpha-M-globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloth, B; Chesebro, B; Svehag, S E

    1968-04-01

    Electron micrographs of isolated human alpha(2)M-molecules, obtained by the negative contrast technique, revealed morphologically homogenous structures resembling a graceful monogram of the two letters H and I. The modal values for the length and width of the alpha(2)M particles were 170 A and 100 A, respectively. Purified rabbit alphamacroglobulins contained about 80% alpha(1)M- and 20% alpha(2)M-globulins. The isolated rabbit alpha(1)M- and alpha(2)M-molecules were morphologically indistinguishable from one another and from human alpha(2)M-molecules. Preliminary immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two rabbit alphaM-globulins were antigenically different. Sedimentation constant determinations gave s(20, w) values of 18.8 and 18.2 for rabbit alpha(1)M and alpha(2)M, respectively.

  7. Enhancement of intestinal growth in neonatal rats by epidermal growth factor in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berseth, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Breast milk has been shown to enhance neonatal intestinal growth. Because epidermal growth factor (EGF) is present in the milk of various mammalian species, the hypothesis was tested that EGF in rodent milk mediates, in part, the breast milk-enhanced intestinal growth in neonatal rat. Fifty-eight rat pups fed artificial formal that contained 1.2, 3.0, and 6.0 μg/ml EGF for 39 h had greater incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA and DNA content of intestine than 29 pups fed unsupplemented formula. Pups fed EGF for 5 days had significantly greater body weight, intestinal weight, length, and DNA content than control pups. Conversely, pups fed pooled rat milk containing rabbit-derived antibody to EGF for 39 h had intestines of lower weight that contained less DNA than animals fed rat milk containing normal rabbit serum. EGF appears to mediate, in part, breast milk-enhanced neonatal intestinal growth

  8. Maternal exposure to procymidone has no effects on fetal external genitalia development in male rabbit fetuses in a modified developmental toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inawaka, Kunifumi; Kishimoto, Noriyuki; Higuchi, Hashihiro; Kawamura, Satoshi

    2010-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of procymidone (PCM) on development of male rabbit fetal external genitalia. PCM was administered once daily by gavage at dose levels of 0 (control) and 125mg/kg/day to pregnant rabbits from gestation day 6 through 28 and fetal external genitalia was observed in detail. This treatment period covered the critical stage of sexual differentiation of fetal external genitalia in rabbits. In the maternal animals, food consumption was reduced in the PCM group. There were no effects of PCM on maternal caesarean sectioning data or fetal external observations. In fetal external genitalia observations, there were no significant differences between the control and PCM treatment group in any of the following parameters: ano-genital distance (AGD), phallus boundary-genital distance, diameter of preputial lamella, ventral gap of preputial lamella, or ventral gap to diameter ration of preputial lamella, though severe feminization such as decreasing of AGD and hypospadias in male rat offspring at the dose level of 125 mg/kg of PCM were reported. These results suggest that PCM has no effect on fetal external genitalia development in male rabbit fetuses, and species difference of developmental effects of PCM on sexual differentiation exists.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone after topical administration in rabbit eye

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Guoying; Lin, Xianchai; Zhong, Hua; Yang, Yangfan; Qiu, Xuan; Ye, Chengtian; Wu, Kaili; Yu, Minbin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Pirfenidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-[1H]-pyridone) is a new, broad-spectrum agent that has an inhibition effect on the proliferation, migration, and collagen contraction of human Tenon’s fibroblasts, and thus modulating the wound healing process of glaucoma filtering surgical site. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of topically administered pirfenidone (0.5%) in rabbit eyes. Methods Pirfenidone solution (50 μl) was instilled into the rabbit’s conjunctival sac. The rabbits were...

  10. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.. For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed products. Nowadays, even though the processing industry is pushing more and more towards the introduction of more attractive products (i.e. ready meals, ready-to-cook, etc. for consumers with little time for meal preparation, most rabbit meat worldwide is still sold as whole carcass or cut-up parts. This review analyses the main strength and weakness factors regarding the use of rabbit meat to manufacture further processed products. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the more promising processing technologies for raw meat materials to obtain added-value products (marinated, formed, emulsified, coated, etc. by exploiting rabbit meat’s intrinsic characteristics, such as high protein/low fat content coupled with a balanced n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio, low cholesterol and heme-iron content. Major trends in meat product formulation (modulation of lipid content and composition, use of novel antioxidants and salt reduction are also discussed by highlighting strategies to provide healthier meat products meeting current nutritional needs. Finally, major packaging solutions for rabbit meat and meat products (ordinary and modified atmosphere, vacuum are considered.

  11. Rabbit articular cartilage defects treated by allogenic chondrocyte transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Boopalan, P. R. J. V. C.; Sathishkumar, Solomon; Kumar, Senthil; Chittaranjan, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects have a poor capacity for repair. Most of the current treatment options result in the formation of fibro-cartilage, which is functionally inferior to normal hyaline articular cartilage. We studied the effectiveness of allogenic chondrocyte transplantation for focal articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured in vitro from cartilage harvested from the knee joints of a New Zealand White rabbit. A 3 mm defect was created in the articular cartilag...

  12. HARMONIZATION OF CRITERIA AND TERMINOLOGY IN RABBIT MEAT RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Mateu, Agustín; Ouhayoun, J.; Masoero, G.

    1993-01-01

    [EN] The harmonization of rabbit carcass criteria is a result of an international work. lts task was to specify the main traits to be considerad from the birth of the animal to carcass analysis, to define these traits with enough accuracy and to propose a common terminology. Work on harmonization has been initialized by the Mediterranean Rabbit Group Conference (BLASCO, OUHAYOUN and MASOERO, 1992), completad by several research teams and, finally, discussed during a round...

  13. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.

  14. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in atherosclerosis research. One of the most popular laboratory animal species in this field of research is the rabbit. The rabbit fulfils most of the criteria for an animal model for human atherosclerosis. Three rabbit models were established...

  15. On Being an Angry Black Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2017-01-01

    Black men are often seen as problems, threats, and thugs. The mere existence of a Black body is often met with fear. Using autoethnographic mystory, I blend personal stories, poetry, song lyrics, and analysis to subvert the angry Black man mantra and explore the productive use of anger to stimulate change.

  16. Ergonomic ship brigde design supports minimum manning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punte, P.A.J.; Post, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Royal Netherlands Navy is planning to design a hydrographic survey vessel to replace the currently used vessels in order to extend the tasks of an Officer by reducing require manning. The design includes the arrangements of workspace and the detailed design of workplaces. Digital human models

  17. Plutonium in domestic animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, C.H.; Kane, P.; Thorne, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter deals with plutonium adsorption, retention and translocation rates in lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, liver and in body tissues of domestic animals and man. Urinary and faecal excretion of plutonium is discussed. Transfer rates to eggs, milk, foetus and newborn are considered. Of all these subjects, data are presented extracted from literature and cast in tables

  18. Man-influenced vegetation of North Korea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolbek, Jiří; Jarolímek, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2008), s. 381-404 ISSN 0253-116X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation classification * weed communities * man-depending vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  19. [Albert Schweitzer. The man as a symbol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliexer

    2007-01-01

    Albert Schweitzer, the great missionary physician from the XXth century, had a versatile personality that integrated multiple talents, leading to the slightly frequent conjunction of the thinker with the man of action, and the humanist with the scientist and the artist. He studied all these disciplines in a brilliant manner: Philosophy, Theology, Music and Medicine; he was also a great scholar of Bach's work, Jesus Christ and the civilization history. In his maturity, this great man renounced to the fame and glory gained as intellectual and musician, to dedicate his life as a physician for the forgotten African natives. His deeply religious spirit allowed him to penetrate into the most recondite of the human soul; in his personality, he expressed in its entire dimension the eternally unsatisfied desire of the solitary man, against the immensity of the universe. His philosophy, based on the respect for life, was realized throughout the practice of the medical profession. His noble character and personality was based on the man as symbol, since it was not so much what he did helping people but what people could do to others due to him. His singular example represented a moral force in the world, superior to millions of men armed for a war. In 1953, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his philanthropic work in Africa during more that fifty years, and for his deep love to the living beings. He was transformed in a perennial legend as the Lambaréné doctor.

  20. [Dipylidium caninum, a rare parasite in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, W; Auer, H

    1994-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum, the dog tapeworm, is a common cosmopolitan parasite of dogs and cats. Infestations of man are observed only sporadically. We report the case of a 22 months-old child living in Upper Austria with dipylidiasis. The parasite is briefly outlined with respect to biology, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, therapy and prevention.

  1. The ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Sikora, Martin; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon dated to 8,340-9,200 calibrated years before present (BP). His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate and le...

  2. Menkes' disease in Mottled mice and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Prins, H.W.; Nooijen, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Biochemically the defect of the Brindled allelic mutant of the Mottled mouse and of Menkes' disease in man are very similar if not identical. A modification of a normal Cu-binding protein or an unrestrained synthesis of a Cu-binding protein that normally is present only in small amounts is proposed as the basis of this disease

  3. Man's Search: English, Mythology. 5112.22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersheimer, Lenore C.

    A course which is an exploration of man's eternal search to understand himself and his world through the study of the mythology of the world is presented. Performance objectives include: (1) Students will recognize the content of the myths studied; (2) Students will identify the specific characteristics of the civilization studied; (3) Students…

  4. The Language of Man. Book 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    This textbook, book 6 of "The Language of Man" series, covers semantics, the language of politics, language and race, the language of advertising, and the origins and growth of the English language. The material analyzed comes from many sources (advertisements, newspaper articles, poems, parodies) and attempts to demonstrate the effect of the…

  5. Dosimetric system for prolonged manned flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, E.E.; Sakovich, V.A.; Deme, Sh.; Fekher, I.; Nguen, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    Comments for the All-Union state standard 25645.202-83 named Radiation safety of a spacecraft crew during space flight. Requirements for personnel dosimetric control, are given. Devices for the dosimetric control used in manned space flights nowadays are reviewed. The performance principle and structure of the FEDOR dosimetric complex under development are discussed

  6. Genetic Engineering: The Modification of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes somatic and genetic manipulations of individual genotypes, using diabetes control as an example of the first mode that is potentially realizable be derepression or viral transduction of genes. Advocates the use of genetic engineering of the second mode to remove man from his biological limitations, but offers maxims to ensure the…

  7. Elementary particles in the service of man

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    This article was prepared by the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, and the Rutherford Laboratory in the U.K., for a Physics Exhibition in March of this year and is reproduced here with acknowledgement. It is an account of how some of the knowledge gained in the previous generation of our research has already been applied 'in the service of man'.

  8. The effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1981-01-01

    Available evidence on the effects of high levels of radiation on man and the predictions which have been made on possible low level effects, by extrapolation of the high level data, are summarised. The factors which influence the biological effects of radiation are examined and acute, delayed, somatic and hereditary effects as reported in the literature, are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Man-machine communication at Forsmark 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultquist, Goeran; Norberg, Soeren

    1984-01-01

    The design of Forsmark 3 began in 1976 and the control room layout and equipment were discussed right from the start. Susequent evolution and events in other nuclear power plants have, however, radically changed the direction of the development of the man-machine functions. (author)

  10. Man, Technology and the Natural Holism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, K. K.

    1980-01-01

    Indicates that the affluence brought about by the impact of science and technology on society now threatens mankind's further course. Asserts that the answer to this predicament lies neither with technological optimists nor with cultural pessimists, but in the resolution of basic value questions related to man's place in nature. (Author/GS)

  11. Estimator's electrical man-hour manual

    CERN Document Server

    Page, John S

    1999-01-01

    This manual's latest edition continues to be the best source available for making accurate, reliable man-hour estimates for electrical installation. This new edition is revised and expanded to include installation of electrical instrumentation, which is used in monitoring various process systems.

  12. Man machine interface and its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, B.G.; Boettcher, D.B.; Reed, R.

    1992-01-01

    Sizewell B is the latest nuclear power station to be constructed in the United Kingdom: its Man-Machine Interfaces are therefore, by definition, the state-of-the-art. This paper discusses the principal Man-Machine Interfaces used in the operation of the station, and the systems that implement them. The Man-Machine Interface facilities discussed are: in the Main Control Room, which is used for normal operation and shutdown of the plant: in the Auxiliary Shutdown Room, which allows shutdown of the reactor if evacuation of the main Control Room is necessary: and in the Technical Support Centre, which is used for remote monitoring of the plant. The Man-Machine Interfaces that are described are parts of a station-wide group of interlinked computer systems called the Data Processing and Control System. This system collects data from the plant and displays it to the operators via discrete devices and on graphical computer displays. It also acquires control inputs from the operators via switches, which are then used to provide remote manual control, modulating control and sequence control. The computer system that handles the plant process data and alarm information displays uses a windowing interface with keyboard and trackerball navigation to allow easy retrieval and viewing of information. It is this system that is the main topic of this paper. (author)

  13. Emblem for the first manned Skylab mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This is the emblem for the first manned Skylab mission. It wil be a mission of up to 28 days. The patch, designed by artist Kelly Freas, shows the Skylab silhouetted against the earth's globe, which in turn is eclipsing the Sun - showing the brilliant signet-ring pattern of the instant before total eclipse.

  14. Effects of genipin corneal crosslinking in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Marcel Y; Narvaez, Mauricio; Castañeda, Juan P

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, in rabbit eyes. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Centro de Tecnologia Oftalmica, Bogotá, Colombia. Experimental study. Ex vivo rabbit eyes (16; 8 rabbits) were treated with genipin 1.00%, 0.50%, and 0.25% for 5 minutes with a vacuum device to increase corneal permeability. Penetration was evaluated using Scheimpflug pachymetry (Pentacam). In the in vivo model (20 rabbits; 1 eye treated, 1 eye with vehicle), corneas were crosslinked with genipin as described. Corneal curvature, corneal pachymetry, and intraocular pressure (IOP) assessments as well as slitlamp examinations were performed 0, 7, 30, and 60 days after treatment. In the ex vivo model, Scheimpflug pachymetry showed deep penetration in the rabbit corneas with an increase in corneal density and a dose-dependent relationship. Corneal flattening was observed in treated eyes (mean 4.4 diopters ± 0.5 [SD]) compared with the control eyes. Pachymetry and IOP were stable in all evaluations. No eye showed toxicity in the anterior chamber or in the lens. Corneal crosslinking induced by genipin produced significant flattening of the cornea with no toxicity in rabbit eyes. This crosslinking could be useful in the treatment of corneal ectasia and in the modification of corneal curvature. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health survey of 167 pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkitaipale, J; Harcourt-Brown, F M; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O

    2015-10-24

    Only a limited amount of information is available about health status of pet rabbits. The aim of this study was to obtain data about the health status of pet rabbits considered healthy by the owners in Finland. Physical examination and lateral abdominal and lateral skull radiography were performed on 167 pet rabbits of which 118 (70.7 per cent) had abnormal findings in at least one examination. The most common findings were acquired dental disease (n=67, 40.1 per cent), vertebral column deformities and degenerative lesions (n=52, 31.1 per cent), skin disorders (n=28, 16.8 per cent) and eye disorders (n=12, 7.2 per cent). Vertebral column angulating deformities were significantly more common in dwarf lop rabbits (P≤0.001). The prevalence of health disorders was significantly higher in rabbits over three years of age of which 51 (82.3 per cent) had findings in at least one examination (Phealth problems. Because of the high prevalence of clinical and radiological findings in apparently healthy pet rabbits, regular physical examinations are advised, especially for animals over three years old. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions.

  17. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  18. Development and partial metabolic characterization of a dietary cholesterol-resistant colony of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, M.L.; Smith, S.A.; Hewett-Emmett, D.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.; Soma, M.R.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Morrisett, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A colony of New Zealand white rabbits has been developed which, when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet, exhibit unusual resistance to hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, disorders usually observed in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits. When resistant rabbits (RT) were fed a normal low cholesterol diet (ND), their plasma lipoprotein patterns were significantly different from those of normal rabbits (NR) fed the same diet. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio and LDL-c/very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) ratio were lower in the resistant rabbits. The hydrated density of HDL of the normal-responsive rabbits was greater than that of the resistant rabbits. LDL from resistant rabbits contained a lower proportion of esterified cholesterol and protein than LDL from normal rabbits. Peripheral mononuclear cells from resistant rabbits bound about 30% more 125 I-labeled rabbit LDL than mononuclear cells from normal rabbits. These results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol levels of these animals is at least partly under genetic control and that compositional differences exist between the major plasma lipoprotein classes of normal and resistant rabbits even during the ingestion of low-cholesterol diet. The results indicate that at least a part of the difference in the cholesterolemic responses between the two rabbit groups is due to an enhanced LDL uptake by the mononuclear cells, and presumably by other somatic cells of the resistant group

  19. Biotransformation of enoximone, a new cardiotonic agent, in man and laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.Y.; Lang, J.F.; Coutant, J.E.; Okerholm, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Enoximone, 1,3-dihydro-4-methyl-5-[4-(methylthio)benzoyl]-2H-imidazol-2-one is a new cardiotonic agent which is currently undergoing clinical evaluation in patients with congestive heart failure. Biotransformation of enoximone was studied in man, rat, monkey and dog by means of 14 C-labelled material, HPLC and GC/MS techniques. Metabolic conversions were qualitatively similar in all species. The parent compound was found to be extensively metabolized. Generally less than 1% of the dose was recovered as enoximone in urine. The sulfoxide was the major metabolite in all species, accounting for over 90% of the dose in the urine of the monkey and greater than 75% in man and the rat. The sulfone was present in trace quantities, except in the rats, where it accounted for 5-8% of the dose. A glycine conjugate of 4-methylthiobenzoic acid was also identified as a urinary metabolite; and the dog seems to favor this pathway more than the other 3 species; as it accounted for over 30% of the dose. The two stereoisomers of synthetic sulfoxide were separated by HPLC, and examination of urine from patients receiving enoximone therapy suggested that the metabolic conversion of enoximone to sulfoxide was stereospecific, as only one isomeric peak was observed in the HPLC system

  20. Clinical Procedures Training for Veterinary Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus musculus), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), Guinea Pigs (Gavia porcellus), Rabbits (Otyctolagus cuniculus), Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), Pigs (Sus scrofa), Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please !ml all information. Use...Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus muscu/us), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus...DATE: 14 November 2016 FUNDING SOURCE: SG O&M funds LAST TRIENNIAL REVISION DATE: 15 October 2015 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species: Total

  1. An Experimental Study for Radiation Nephritis in Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Jae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Experimental radiation nephritis was produced in 15 rabbits by X-irradiation. About 2, 000gamma(tissue doses) were given to both kidneys of a rabbit in 5 days. Other tissues and organs except both kidneys were protected with 2 mm thickened lead plates. 5 weeks after the last irradiation, blood pictures, blood pressures, B.U.N., serum creatinine, Ca, Mg, Fe levels and serum erythropoietin activity of the irradiated rabbits were studied. After finishing above studies, rabbits were sacrificed and both kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically. Same laboratory and pathological studies were performed in 6 control rabbits. In this study, the author obtained following results. 1) Both kidneys of rabbits with experimental radiation nephritis showed marked histopathological changes, i.e.: renal tubules showed diffuse cloudy swelling, impacted intraluminal hyaline casts and focal precipitations of lime salts on the tubular epithelium. Diffuse interstitial fatty necrosis and various degrees of fibrotic infiltrations on the interstitium were also seen in association with focal lymphocytic infiltrations. Hyaline degenerations were observed on the glomeruli and small vessels. 2) Experimental radiation nephritis rabbits showed marked lowering in R.B.C. counts, decreased hemoglobin levels, low hematocrit values and leucopenia in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P<0.01). (Table 1 and 2). 3) Mild proteinuria were observed in experimental radiation nephritis in rabbits. 4) The levels of B.U.N. and serum creatinine increased in experimental radiation nephritis. (P<0.01). (Table 1, 3 and 4). 5) The levels of serum Ca and Mg Showed no statistical difference in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P>0.05). (Table 3 and 4). 6) No statistical correlations were observable between the levels of B.U.N. and Hb. values. (gamma=-0. 223). No close correlations (gamma=-0.338) were noticed between the levels of B.U.N. and serum iron levels. 7) Erythropoietin activity (R

  2. Biochemical investigation of cypermethrin toxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahamna, S; Harzallah, D; Guemache, A; Sekfali, N

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroids are the most frequently used pesticides in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, hospitals public health, homes and textile industry. Cypermethrin, a composite pyrethroid is moderately toxic to mammals. Exposure to the pyrethroids occurs by inhalation, dermal and oral routes both accidentally as well as from the environment. Cypermethrin and DDT have been detected in human breast milk from malaria endemic area in South Africa. The WHO has recommended that the level of permethrin in drinking water not exceed 20 micrograms per liter (microg/L). The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits, habits and whether other chemicals are present. Pyrethroids are often combined commercially with other chemicals called synergists, which enhance the insecticidal activity of the pyrethrins and pyrethroids. The synergists prevent some enzymes from breaking down the pyrethrins and pyrethroids, thus increasing their toxicity. Because these compounds are broken down in the body quickly, there are several ways to measure the metabolites of these chemicals in human blood and urine. In this study the pyrethroid cypermethrin Sherpa 25% (active substance 250 g/l cypermethrin) was used, rabbits (1 kg weight), were gavaged by 1/20 LD50 for 3 weeks (one dose every week). Blood was collected before dosing and after 24, 72, 144 hours after the treatment. Enzyme activities were assayed in the plasma samples obtained. GOT, GPT, ALPH, CREA, GGT, Glucose and Total Pro were measured. Rabbits showed depression, decrease in feed intake, body weight and loose faeces. Livers exhibited fatty change, necrosis, lesions in kidney included tubular necrosis and pink homogeneous tubular casts. Serum ALT and creatinine concentrations increased while those of total proteins, albumin, serum cholesterol and triglycerides decreased.The results showed a decrease in RBC; WBC and Hb. This probably explained by the effect of

  3. From the rights of man to the human rights: Man - nation - humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharijević Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the fact that human rights and the rights of man (codified in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, respectively are not one and the same, which could be deduced from the notion of man common to both terms, is the key thesis of this text. By developing this motive, I try to determine the following: that the notion of man, by definition inclusive and abstractly non-discriminative term, is in fact established on tacit exclusions in the time of its inception (Enlightenment revolutinary era, and it was only upon these exclusions that the term man could have signified "the free and equal". Although the parallel or simultaneous evolution and implementation of the rights of man and national rights might seem contradictory, I seek to demonstrate that this paradox is only ostensible, arguing that the notion of man is itself limited and exclusionary, and is therefore compatible with the exclusivity which is the conditio sine qua non of nation. The consequences of nationalism - World Wars, primarily - proved that the conception of liberty and equality, based on the conception of fraternity of men (white European males, and of partial democracy pretending to be universal, cannot be maintained any further. Codification of universal human rights represents a reaction to this internal discrepancy inasmuch as it is a reaction to the destructiveness of all kinds of nationalisms. The notion of life, developed in this text, corresponds to the fundamental requirement for the right to life (as the first and the most basic of all human rights, which no longer belongs to "man", but to everyone.

  4. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

    2014-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mass transport properties of the rabbit aortic wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Bailey

    Full Text Available Uptake of circulating macromolecules by the arterial wall may be a critical step in atherogenesis. Here we investigate the age-related changes in patterns of uptake that occur in the rabbit. In immature aortas, uptake was elevated in a triangle downstream of branch ostia, a region prone to disease in immature rabbits and children. By 16-22 months, uptake was high lateral to ostia, as is lesion prevalence in mature rabbits and young adults. In older rabbits there was a more upstream pattern, similar to the disease distribution in older people. These variations were predominantly caused by the branches themselves, rather than reflecting larger patterns within which the branches happened to be situated (as may occur with patterns of haemodynamic wall shear stress. The narrow streaks of high uptake reported in some previous studies were shown to be post mortem artefacts. Finally, heparin (which interferes with the NO pathway had no effect on the difference in uptake between regions upstream and downstream of branches in immature rabbits but reversed the difference in older rabbits, as does inhibiting NO synthesis directly. Nevertheless, examination of uptake all around the branch showed that changes occurred at both ages and that they were quite subtle, potentially explaining why inhibiting NO has only minor effects on lesion patterns in mature rabbits and contradicting the earlier conclusion that mechanotransduction pathways change with age. We suggest that recently-established changes in the patterns of haemodynamic forces themselves are more likely to account for the age-dependence of uptake patterns.

  6. Rabbit Model for Human EBV-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Jin, Zaishun; Onoda, Sachiyo; Joko, Hiromasa; Teramoto, Norihiro; Ohara, Nobuya; Oda, Wakako; Tanaka, Takehiro; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Koirala, Tirtha Raj; Oka, Takashi; Kondo, Eisaku; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis or T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD). To elucidate the true nature of fatal LPD observed in Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-induced rabbit hemophagocytosis, reactive or neoplastic, we analyzed sequential development of HVP-induced rabbit LPD and their cell lines. All of the seven Japanese White rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP died of fatal LPD 18 to 27 days after inoculation. LPD was also accompanied by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in five of these seven rabbits. Sequential autopsy revealed splenomegaly and swollen lymph nodes, often accompanied by bleeding, which developed in the last week. Atypical lymphoid cells infiltrated many organs with a “starry sky” pattern, frequently involving the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. HVP-small RNA-1 expression in these lymphoid cells was clearly demonstrated by a newly developed in situ hybridization (ISH) system. HVP-ISH of immunomagnetically purified lymphoid cells from spleen or lymph nodes revealed HVP-EBER1+ cells in each CD4+, CD8+, or CD79a+ fraction. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. HVP-DNA was detected in the tissues and peripheral blood from the infected rabbits by PCR or Southern blot analysis. Clonality analysis of HVP-induced LPD by Southern blotting with TCR gene probe revealed polyclonal bands, suggesting polyclonal proliferation. Six IL-2-dependent rabbit T-cell lines were established from transplanted scid mouse tumors from LPD. These showed latency type I/II HVP infection and had normal karyotypes except for one line, and three of them showed tumorigenicity in nude mice. These data suggest that HVP-induced fatal LPD in rabbits is reactive polyclonally in nature. PMID:12707056

  7. Reliability In A White Rabbit Network

    CERN Document Server

    Lipiński, M; Wlostowski, T; Prados, C

    2011-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a time-deterministic, low-latency Ethernet-based network which enables transparent, subns accuracy timing distribution. It is being developed to replace the General Machine Timing (GMT) system currently used at CERN and will become the foundation for the control system of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. High reliability is an important issue inWR’s design, since unavailability of the accelerator’s control system will directly translate into expensive downtime of the machine. A typical WR network is required to lose not more than a single message per year. Due toWR’s complexity, the translation of this real-world-requirement into a reliability-requirement constitutes an interesting issue on its own – a WR network is considered functional only if it provides all its services to all its clients at any time. This paper defines reliability in WR and describes how it was addressed by dividing it into sub-domains: deterministic packet delivery, data resilience...

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on rabbit lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordahl, J.N.; Gorthy, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Eyes of young New Zealand white rabbits were irradiated with 2000 rads of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and the eyes removed at 2, 8, 16, and 30 days post-irradiation for electron microscopic analysis. Lenses were treated histochemically for acid phosphatase localization to examine the role of lysosomal enzymes in the early development of radiation cataracts. Intercellularly located acid phosphatase reaction product, noted in the epithelium and subjacent cortex, was more prevalent after irradiation, especially in central and transitional epithelial zones. In the central zone small vesicles typically were most numerous in areas of extensive intercellular reaction product. The occurrence of discrete packets of reaction product within the vesicles and the adjoining intercellular space, plus the resemblance of the peripheral vesicles to small Golgi vesicles also containing reaction product, suggested an exocytotic release of the enzyme. These appearances suggest that lysosomal hydrolases are released extracellularly by a secretory mechanism accelerated by radiation and that these hydrolases may play a role in both physiological and pathological functions of the lens. (author)

  9. Radioimmunoassay of urine oxytocin in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebidi, A.; Geelen, G.; Allevard, A.M.; Sempore, B.; Jarsaillon, E.; Meunier, C.; Gharib, C.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for oxytocin (OT) in urine is described. 125 I-OT was prepared, and antibodies were raised in rabbits against OT coupled to bovine serumalbumine. This allowed us to set up a RIA for OT which limit of detection is 1.25 pg/tube (0.6 μU). The use of an extraction procedure using CG 50 Amberlite is essential. The recovery after extraction reaches 70.5 %. pH 5 is the optimum pH were urine samples must be stored. The superposition of the elution peak of endogenous OT on that of exogenous hormone is an argument in favour of the validity of such an extraction procedure. Daily urinary excretion of OT reaches 9.58 mU +- 3.48 in 18 healthy young men [fr

  10. Understanding and modelling Man-Machine Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current state of the art in man machine systems interaction studies, focusing on the problems derived from highly automated working environments and the role of humans in the control loop. In particular, it is argued that there is a need for sound approaches to design and analysis of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI), which stem from the contribution of three expertises in interfacing domains, namely engineering, computer science and psychology: engineering for understanding and modelling plants and their material and energy conservation principles; psychology for understanding and modelling humans and their cognitive behaviours; computer science for converting models in sound simulations running in appropriate computer architectures. (author)

  11. The Somerton man : an unsolved history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of the unknown man who died mysteriously at Somerton Beach in South Australia in 1948 remains an open police investigation, although the trail today has grown fairly cold. Revisiting the case, and the responses the mystery of his person have elicited, enables a special historical insight into Australia’s postwar society, and the ways in which the past is continually reshaped by the subjectivities of the present. Further, an unsolved case such as this provides for a unique kind of historical project. The limitations of a history without a coherent centre are myriad, yet so are the possibilities. In this article, I explore the possibilities of an ‘unsolved history’, a history of dead ends, and argue that it is the very unknowable-ness of the Somerton Man that allows for a perception of history as multi-dimensional and complex.

  12. The Somerton Man: An Unsolved History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Balint

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The case of the unknown man who died mysteriously at Somerton Beach in South Australia in 1948 remains an open police investigation, although the trail today has grown fairly cold. Revisiting the case, and the responses the mystery of his person have elicited, enables a special historical insight into Australia’s postwar society, and the ways in which the past is continually reshaped by the subjectivities of the present. Further, an unsolved case such as this provides for a unique kind of historical project. The limitations of a history without a coherent centre are myriad, yet so are the possibilities.  In this article, I explore the possibilities of an ‘unsolved history’, a history of dead ends, and argue that it is the very unknowable-ness of the Somerton Man that allows for a perception of history as multi-dimensional and complex.

  13. Recent developments in man-machine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, G.

    1987-01-01

    The field of man-machine systems is introduced with its subareas and a short outline of its history of 45 years. Three current lines of development in university and industrial research are emphasized. Today, the human problem solving activities are experimentally investigated and analytically described more vigorously than the control activities. Further, improved information presentations and decision support are made possible through new technologies of computer graphics and expert systems. At last, work on a general design methodology for man-machine systems is in progress. The aim is to better support human operators of dynamic technological systems as well as designers of graphics for visual display units and of dialogue styles. Thereby, safety and availability of the complete system can be increased. (orig.) [de

  14. Understanding and modelling man-machine interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current state of the art in man-machine system interaction studies, focusing on the problems derived from highly automated working environments and the role of humans in the control loop. In particular, it is argued that there is a need for sound approaches to the design and analysis of man-machine interaction (MMI), which stem from the contribution of three expertises in interfacing domains, namely engineering, computer science and psychology: engineering for understanding and modelling plants and their material and energy conservation principles; psychology for understanding and modelling humans an their cognitive behaviours; computer science for converting models in sound simulations running in appropriate computer architectures. (orig.)

  15. [Man's place and anthropology in bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar Romero, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of its epistemological status, the article focuses on the philosophical fundament of bioethics, stressing the need for an authentic anthropology as a reference or starting point. Being an applied ethics, the first fundament of bioethics is in ethics. It shows how only personalistic ethics, which takes as reference the nature or essence of man, can offer objective and universal criteria. Philosophical anthropology studies man as a whole, in an integral manner, from the perspective of its nature or fundamental aspects of his being. It analyzes the distinction and relationship between the philosophical anthropology and the positive anthropologies, as well as with the physical, human and social sciences. Finally, it reflects on the current anthropological crisis and its ethical consequences.

  16. Man-midwifery history: 1730-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, D C

    2012-11-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether the man-midwives William Smellie and William Hunter deserve continuing approbation as 'Founding Fathers' of the obstetrics profession. Scrutiny of their careers reveals their involvement in murders for dissection. In addition, the man-midwifery initiative of delivery in lying-in hospitals resulted in around 1 million more deaths in Britain and Ireland between 1730 and 1930, than would have occurred had home-births remained as the norm. While some may still credit Smellie and Hunter with obstetric discoveries, their knowledge was obtained by murder-for-dissection. That indictment, together with the lying-in hospital legacy, far outweighs their discoveries. The paper invites further constructive discussion and debate, but concludes the accolade of Founding Fathers is undeserved. Any continuing endorsement of Smellie and Hunter effectively demeans the high ethical standards and reputation of current obstetric professionals.

  17. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  18. The Somerton Man: An Unsolved History

    OpenAIRE

    Balint, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The case of the unknown man who died mysteriously at Somerton Beach in South Australia in 1948 remains an open police investigation, although the trail today has grown fairly cold. Revisiting the case, and the responses the mystery of his person have elicited, enables a special historical insight into Australia’s postwar society, and the ways in which the past is continually reshaped by the subjectivities of the present. Further, an unsolved case such as this provides for a unique kind ...

  19. Don’t Trust the Big Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    on the scholar questioned, these entities began as either natural alliances of people already united by colocation, culture , ethnicity, religion and...anger to provide a channel for the pent-up anger at a failing government. This is where the tribal culture becomes interesting. The Big Man can find...Zulu, Dinka, and Maasai; the Shona and Yoruba and Somali - militates against the very idea of borders drawn through tribal and nomadic areas by the

  20. Bobby Fong: Man on a Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Bobby Fong, was president of Ursinus College until his death in September 2014 and is the only person to have served twice as chair of the AAC&U Board of Directors. In this article, his son Collin presents remarks made at the memorial service for his father. Collin describes his father as a man with a mission, and that mission was to make the…

  1. Project Mercury: NASA's first manned space programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, John

    Project Mercury will offer a developmental resume of the first American manned spaceflight programme and its associated infrastructure, including accounts of space launch vehicles. The book highlights the differences in Redstone/Atlas technology, drawing similar comparisons between ballistic capsules and alternative types of spacecraft. The book also covers astronaut selection and training, as well as tracking systems, flight control, basic principles of spaceflight and detailed accounts of individual flights.

  2. The conception of man in Honorio Delgado

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappo, Leopoldo

    1992-01-01

    ​Honorio Delgado is still the most eminent authority in the history of psychiatric and psychopathological study in Peru and the spanish-speaking world. This article is an attempt to extract from the multi-faceted work of Honorario Delgado, not only in psychiatry, psychopathology, psychology, neurology, biology, ecology and medicine, bu also in philosophy, education, literary and biographical studies, and humanities as a whole, what one might call the “honorian” vision of the man, the explicit...

  3. Design of man-machine-communication-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, R.

    1975-04-01

    This paper shows some fundamentals of man-machine-communication and deduces demands and recommendations for the design of communication systems. The main points are the directives for the design of optic display systems with details for visual perception and resolution, luminance and contrast, as well as discernibility and coding of displayed information. The most important rules are recommendations for acoustic information systems, control devices and for design of consoles are also given. (orig.) [de

  4. 2.1 Man: subject of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This second chapter 'Man and environment' of the 7th state of the environment report of Austria describes the current situation of the protection of human health in terms of the European environmental policy and the main subjects of high relevance to it, such as air pollutants, water pollution, noise pollution, dangerous chemicals, food contamination, radiation protection, effects of climate change, plants, animal and habitats. (nevyjel)

  5. The Manned Spacecraft Center and medical technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. S.; Pool, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    A number of medically oriented research and hardware development programs in support of manned space flights have been sponsored by NASA. Blood pressure measuring systems for use in spacecraft are considered. In some cases, complete new bioinstrumentation systems were necessary to accomplish a specific physiological study. Plans for medical research during the Skylab program are discussed along with general questions regarding space-borne health service systems and details concerning the Health Services Support Control Center.

  6. The Man-in-the-Middle Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Bond, Mike

    Eliminating middlemen from security protocols helps less than one would think. EMV electronic payments, for example, can be made fairer by adding an electronic attorney - a middleman which mediates access to a customer’s card. We compare middlemen in crypto protocols and APIs with those in the real world, and show that a man-in-the-middle defence is helpful in many circumstances. We suggest that the middleman has been unfairly demonised.

  7. Malaysia : the lucky man of Asia?

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Ismail, Mohd Nazari

    2001-01-01

    Malaysia has been labelled the Lucky Man of Asia due to its wealth of natural resources, such as tin, rubber, palm oil, pepper, tropical timber, petroleum and a very fertile soil. There is no doubt that this richness has helped Malaysia to achieve impressive growth rates over the last decades, but history has taught us that large endowments of natural resources by far are sufficient to generate development. Since the early 1970s Malaysia has led a relatively successful racial integration poli...

  8. Rodent management: the man/environment interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Rodents which interact with man generally are regarded as undesirable. Attempts at eliminating such rodents by increasing predation (including traps, microbiological agents, toxicants) have been relatively unsuccessful. Management by environmental manipulation must be basic. This then can be supplemented with predation at critical points where public health, use practices, or imperfections in the system demand. Society mores, practices, and economic considerations also have significant impact on the management system

  9. Magnetic field and its influence on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, N.I.; Kurik, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    Positive effects of the Earth magnetic field (MF) on bacteria and animals are demonstrated. The same beneficial effect was found for man: screening of MF leads to blood vessel contraction and violation of exchange processes in organism. Effects of MF are considered as similar to that of catalysts. A correlation between MF values and various human diseases was found. Different methods of magnetotherapy are proposed

  10. Man-machine interface requirements - advanced technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, R. W.; Wiener, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Research issues and areas are identified where increased understanding of the human operator and the interaction between the operator and the avionics could lead to improvements in the performance of current and proposed helicopters. Both current and advanced helicopter systems and avionics are considered. Areas critical to man-machine interface requirements include: (1) artificial intelligence; (2) visual displays; (3) voice technology; (4) cockpit integration; and (5) pilot work loads and performance.

  11. Challenges in the rabbit haemorrhagic disease 2 (RHDV2) molecular diagnosis of vaccinated rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C L; Duarte, E L; Monteiro, M; Botelho, A; Albuquerque, T; Fevereiro, M; Henriques, A M; Barros, S S; Duarte, Margarida Dias

    2017-01-01

    Molecular methods are fundamental tools for the diagnosis of viral infections. While interpretation of results is straightforward for unvaccinated animals, where positivity represents ongoing or past infections, the presence of vaccine virus in the tissues of recently vaccinated animals may mislead diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the interference of RHDV2 vaccination in the results of a RT-qPCR for RHDV2 detection, and possible associations between mean Cq values of five animal groups differing in age, vaccination status and origin (domestic/wild). Viral sequences from vaccinated rabbits that died of RHDV2 infection (n=14) were compared with the sequences from the commercial vaccines used in those animals. Group Cq means were compared through Independent t-test and One-way ANOVA. We proved that RHDV2 vaccine-RNA is not detected by the RT-qPCR as early as 15days post-vaccination, an important fact in assisting results interpretation for diagnosis. Cq values of vaccinated and non-vaccinated infected domestic adults showed a statistically significant difference (pRHDV2-victimised rabbits. Although the reduced number of vaccinated young animals analysed hampered a robust statistical analysis, this occurrence suggests that passively acquired maternal antibodies may inhibit the active immune response to vaccination, delaying protection and favouring disease progression. Our finding emphasises the importance of adapting kitten RHDV2 vaccination schedules to circumvent this interference phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. No net splanchnic release of glutathione in man during N-acetylcysteine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H E; Vilstrup, H; Almdal, T

    1993-01-01

    Glutathione and amino acid concentrations were measured in arterial and hepatic vein plasma in four healthy volunteers and two patients with cirrhosis. There was no significant splanchnic efflux of glutathione (95% confidence limits, -0.501 to 0.405 mumol/min). After infusion of N...... to 0.97 +/- 0.11 (mean +/- SEM; p amino acids corresponded to an increased load on hepatic metabolic N conversion and transamination among nonessential amino acids. Splanchnic uptake of serine, alanine, cystine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine increased...... after NAC compatible with stimulated hepatic glutathione synthesis. In contrast to the rat, plasma glutathione in man probably originates mainly from extrahepatic tissues....

  13. The effects of ionizing radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1975-08-01

    This paper describes the major effects of ionizing radiation on man and the relationship between such effects and radiation dose, with the conclusion that standards of radiological safety must be based on the carcinogenetic and mutagenic properties of ionizing radiation. Man is exposed to radiation from natural sources and from man-made sources. Exposure from the latter should be regulated but, since there is little observational or experimental evidence for predicting the effects of the very small doses likely to be required for adequate standards of safety, it is necessary to infer them from what is seen at high doses. Because the formal relationship between dose and effect is not fully understood, simplifying assumptions are necessary to estimate the effects of low doses. Two such assumptions are conventionally used; that there is a linear relationship between dose and effect at all levels of dose, and that the rate at which a dose of radiation is given does not alter the magnitude of the effect. These assumptions are thought to be conservative, that is they will not lead to an underestimation of the effects of small radiation doses although they may give an over-estimate. (author)

  14. Man-machine interface for the MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speckert, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    In any complex system, the interesting problems occur at the interface of dissimilar subsystems. Control of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) begins with the US Congress, which controls the dollars, which control the people, who control the nine top-level minicomputers, which control the 65 microprocessors, which control the hardware that controls the physics experiment. There are many interesting boundaries across which control must pass, and the one that this paper addresses is the man-machine one. For the MFTF, the man-machine interface consists of a system of seven control consoles, each allowing one operator to communicate with one minicomputer. These consoles are arranged in a hierarchical manner, and both hardware and software were designed in a top-down fashion. This paper describes the requirements and the design of the console system as a whole, as well as the design and operation of the hardware and software of each console, and examines the possible form of a future man-machine interface

  15. Pathways of evolution for man and machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified model of the future is introduced in order to examine the relations between man, machine, and extraterrestrial intelligence. The observed lack of extraterrestrials on earth is used as a boundary condition for the model. Two exobiological conclusions are obtained: (1) advanced extraterrestrials exist but are difficult to observe or to distinguish from natural phenomena, (2) lower level, man-like extraterrestrials, which are potentially observable, are rare in the Universe because they are rapidly replaced in the evolutinary sequence by the intelligent machines which they create. The decline of man is inferred and may take place as soon as 100 years from now or as long as 100,000 years from the present time. Thus, we are a short-lived species, having a life expectancy of only a million years. A note is appended on the rationale and methods of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence in light of the above calculations. The Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani systems present favourable opportunities for a radio-search experiment in 1987 and 1988, respectively.

  16. Man-machine interface for the MFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speckert, G.C.

    1979-11-09

    In any complex system, the interesting problems occur at the interface of dissimilar subsystems. Control of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) begins with the US Congress, which controls the dollars, which control the people, who control the nine top-level minicomputers, which control the 65 microprocessors, which control the hardware that controls the physics experiment. There are many interesting boundaries across which control must pass, and the one that this paper addresses is the man-machine one. For the MFTF, the man-machine interface consists of a system of seven control consoles, each allowing one operator to communicate with one minicomputer. These consoles are arranged in a hierarchical manner, and both hardware and software were designed in a top-down fashion. This paper describes the requirements and the design of the console system as a whole, as well as the design and operation of the hardware and software of each console, and examines the possible form of a future man-machine interface.

  17. Manned spaceflight log II—2006–2012

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2013-01-01

    April 12, 1961 "Attention! This is Radio Moscow speaking...The world's first satellite spaceship, Vostock, with a man aboard, was put into orbit round the Earth." Soviet Union cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin becomes the first person to fly in space, completing one orbit in 108 minutes. April 5, 2001 As NASA prepares to fly the final Shuttle missions to the International Space Station, Russia launches Soyuz TMA 21 (code-named 'Yuri Gagarin') with the 28th ISS Expedition crew aboard, celebrating 50 years of manned spaceflight. Meanwhile, in China, preparations continue for launching the nation's first Space Station (called Tiangong 1 - or Heavenly Palace 1) later in the year. The sixth decade of manned spaceflight orbital operations has truly began. At this point in the history of human space exploration, it is timely to review the first five decades of adventure and look forward to the next decade and what it might bring. Several notable anniversaries celebrated in 2011 make it the right time to reflect and pay homa...

  18. Man in the middle attacks on SSL/TLS

    OpenAIRE

    Caro Alonso-Rodríguez, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto estudia un tipo concreto de ataque sobre el protocolo SSL/TLS llamado "Man in the middle". El projecte estudia un tipus concret d'atac sobre el protocol SSL/TLS anomenat "Man in the middle".

  19. Abstratcs of the 5th American Rabbit Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    5th American Rabbit Congress Toluca, Estado de México, Mexico, September 8-11, 2014

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 5th American Rabbit Congress was held in Toluca, Mexico State, Mexico from September 8th to the 11th, 2014. Research works representing 14 countries were accepted to take part at the congress, including papers from Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Egypt, France, Hungary, Italy, México, Uruguay, the USA and Venezuela. These research works highlight the enormous interest, effort and commitment of the scientific community that bonds the trinomium of Research+Innovation+Technology Transfer, in favour of the integral development of rabbit rearing as an important primary activity that generates permanent employment, as well as healthy and nutritive meals for their respective countries for the XXI Century World. One major impact at this 5th American Rabbit Congress was the participation of Argentina, Brazil and China. The latter country’s report was presented by Laping Wu and Dong Wang (2014, showing that from 2005 to 2010, meat production of swine, beef and poultry underwent average growth of 2.6%, whereas rabbit meat production reported an annual average growth of 6.29%, reaching an annual volume of 761 000 tons, positioning China as the world’s main rabbit meat producer. This data highlights the great potential of rabbit production, both as an economic activity and a key strategy in the fight against hunger and poverty in many countries all over the world. During the congress, scientific works were presented related with the fields of Ethology, Housing & Welfare; Genetics; Reproduction; Digestive Physiology and Basic Nutrition; Feed Evaluation and Feeding; Pathology & Hygiene, Meat Quality, Safety & Dining; Management, Social & Economy. Furthermore, the meeting of the AB-WRSA chaired by the AB-WRSA founder, Dr. Steven Lukefahr, also took place at this congress, in which the new board of the American Branch was elected and the proposal put forward for the next American Rabbit Congress to be held in Costa

  20. FMRFamide: low affinity inhibition of opioid binding to rabbit brain membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X.Z.; Raffa, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH 2 ) was first isolated from the ganglia of molluscs by Price and Greenberg in 1977. The peptide was subsequently shown to have diverse actions on various types of molluscan and mammalian tissues. The presence of immunoreactive FMRFamide-like material (irFMRF) in multiple areas of rat brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract suggests that irFMRF may have a physiological role in mammals. Tang, Yang and Costa recently demonstrated that FMRFamide attenuates morphine antinociception in rats and postulated, based on this and several other lines of evidence, that irFMRF might be an endogenous opioid antagonist. In the present study, they tested the ability of FMRFamide to inhibit the binding of opioid receptor ligands to rabbit membrane preparations. FMRFamide inhibited the specific binding of both 3 [H]-dihydromorphine and 3 [H]-ethylketocyclazocine (IC 50 = 14 μM and 320 μM, respectively) in a dose-related manner, suggesting that FMRFamide may affect binding to at least two types of opioid receptors (mu and kappa). These data are consistent with the concept that irFMRF might act as an endogenous opioid antagonist. However, the low affinity of FMRFamide leaves open the possibility of another mechanism of opioid antagonism, such as neuromodulation

  1. FMRFamide: low affinity inhibition of opioid binding to rabbit brain membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X.Z.; Raffa, R.B.

    1986-03-05

    FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH/sub 2/) was first isolated from the ganglia of molluscs by Price and Greenberg in 1977. The peptide was subsequently shown to have diverse actions on various types of molluscan and mammalian tissues. The presence of immunoreactive FMRFamide-like material (irFMRF) in multiple areas of rat brain, spinal cord, and gastrointestinal tract suggests that irFMRF may have a physiological role in mammals. Tang, Yang and Costa recently demonstrated that FMRFamide attenuates morphine antinociception in rats and postulated, based on this and several other lines of evidence, that irFMRF might be an endogenous opioid antagonist. In the present study, they tested the ability of FMRFamide to inhibit the binding of opioid receptor ligands to rabbit membrane preparations. FMRFamide inhibited the specific binding of both /sup 3/(H)-dihydromorphine and /sup 3/(H)-ethylketocyclazocine (IC/sub 50/ = 14 ..mu..M and 320 ..mu..M, respectively) in a dose-related manner, suggesting that FMRFamide may affect binding to at least two types of opioid receptors (mu and kappa). These data are consistent with the concept that irFMRF might act as an endogenous opioid antagonist. However, the low affinity of FMRFamide leaves open the possibility of another mechanism of opioid antagonism, such as neuromodulation.

  2. 29 CFR 780.305 - 500 man-day provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 500 man-day provision. 780.305 Section 780.305 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.305 500 man-day provision. (a) Section 3(u) of the Act defines man-day to mean “any day during which an employee performs agricultural labor for not less than 1 hour.” 500 man-days...

  3. Study on phototherapeutic keratotomy for bacterial corneal lesions in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of phototherapeutic keratectomy(PTKon rabbit bacterial corneal ulcer model and explore the clinical potential of this method. METHODS: Totally 48 eyes from all the 24 New Zealand rabbits were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial corneal ulcer model was established successfully. At 1d after inoculation, 48 eyes were given levofloxacin eye drops when corneal ulcer was confirmed. Then slit lamp inspection and optical coherence tomography(OCTwere performed to measure the central corneal ulcer depth. All the rabbits right eyes were treated with PTK, as an observation group, left eyes were not treated as a control group. The eye section were observed by slit lamp and central thickness of corneal ulcer was measured by OCT at 3 and 7d after this operation. Rabbits were sacrificed and the cornea was removed for pathological section 7d later. RESULTS: The corneal ulcers in both groups had a tendency to heal, showing a decrease in ulcer area and smoothness of the surface. There was no significant difference in the depth of corneal ulcer between the observation group and the control group before PTK(t=0.706, P=0.484. The difference between the two groups of eyes at 3 and 7d after PTK was obviously(PCONCLUSION: PTK can effectively cure rabbit Staphylococcus aureus corneal ulcer and promote ulcer wound healing, which may be used for clinical treatment of patients with bacterial corneal lesions.

  4. Vaccine breaks: Outbreaks of myxomatosis on Spanish commercial rabbit farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, K P; Nicieza, I; de Llano, D; Gullón, J; Inza, M; Petralanda, M; Arroita, Z; Parra, F

    2015-08-05

    Despite the success of vaccination against myxoma virus, myxomatosis remains a problem on rabbit farms throughout Spain and Europe. In this study we set out to evaluate possible causes of myxoma virus (MYXV) vaccine failures addressing key issues with regard to pathogen, vaccine and vaccination strategies. This was done by genetically characterising MYXV field isolates from farm outbreaks, selecting a representative strain for which to assay its virulence and measuring the protective capability of a commercial vaccine against this strain. Finally, we compare methods (route) of vaccine administration under farm conditions and evaluate immune response in vaccinated rabbits. The data presented here show that the vaccine tested is capable of eliciting protection in rabbits that show high levels of seroconversion. However, the number of animals failing to seroconvert following subcutaneous vaccination may leave a large number of rabbits unprotected following vaccine administration. Successful vaccination requires the strict implication of workable, planned, on farm programs. Following this, analysis to confirm seroconversion rates may be advisable. Factors such as the wild rabbit reservoir, control of biting insects and good hygienic practices must be taken into consideration to prevent vaccine failures from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Establishment and characterization of CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ri-ichi; Kuramochi, Takashi; Aoyagi, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Shu; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kasai, Noriyuki; Hakamata, Yoji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ueda, Masatsugu

    2007-02-01

    Cell marking is a very important procedure for identifying donor cells after cell and/or organ transplantation in vivo. Transgenic animals expressing marker proteins such as enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their tissues are a powerful tool for research in fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The purpose of this study was to establish transgenic rabbit lines that ubiquitously express EGFP under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/beta-actin promoter (CAG) to provide a fluorescent transgenic animal as a bioresource. We microinjected the EGFP expression vector into 945 rabbit eggs and 4 independent transgenic candidate pups were obtained. Two of them died before sexual maturation and one was infertile. One transgenic male candidate founder rabbit was obtained and could be bred by artificial insemination. The rabbit transmitted the transgene in a Mendelian manner. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, we detected the transgene at 7q11 on chromosome 7 as a large centromeric region in two F1 offspring (one female and one male). Eventually, one transgenic line was established. Ubiquitous EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in all examined organs. There were no gender-related differences in fluorescence. The established CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit will be an important bioresource and a useful tool for various studies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  6. Biotransformation of hydralazine (HDZ) in monolayer cultures of rabbit hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, C.A.; Rosado, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Adverse reactions to HDZ have been associated with the acetylator polymorphism; slow acetylators are more likely to develop HDZ-induced lupus erythematosus. In studying the role of this polymorphism in susceptibility to HDZ toxicity, the biotransformation of HDZ was investigated in rabbit hepatocytes. New Zealand white rabbits, like humans, are classified as rapid or slow acetylators. Heptocytes were isolated from rapid acetylator rabbits by collagenase perfusion. Monolayer cultures were initiated and exposed to 14 C-HDZ. Since HDZ is unstable at neutral pH, parallel incubations were done in the absence of cells. Metabolites in the media were determined by reverse phase HPLC. Phthalazine (P), phthalazinone (PZ), triazoloph-thalazine (TP), methyl TP (MTP) and 3-hydroxy MTP were identified. In the absence of cells, more TP was formed than MTP, probably resulting from reaction of HDZ with components in the medium. In the presence of cells, there was a three-fold increase in MTP, while the amount of TP was relatively constant. Only trace amounts of P, PZ 3-hydroxy MTP were detected. These data indicate that monolayer cultures of rapid acetylator rabbit hepatocytes were capable of metabolizing HDZ with acetylation playing a major role. These studies are being extended to cells from slow acetylator rabbits

  7. Flagella-induced immunity against experimental cholera in adult rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, R J; Willis, D L; Berry, L J

    1979-07-01

    The adult rabbit ligated ileal loop model was used to evaluate the prophylactic potential of a crude flagellar (CF) vaccine produced from the classical. Inaba strain CA401. A greater than 1,000-fold increase in the challenge inoculum was required to induce an intestinal fluid response in actively immunized adult rabbits equivalent to that produced in unimmunized animals. Similar protection was afforded against challenge with classical and El Tor biotypes of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Highly virulent 35S-labeled vibrios were inhibited in their ability to associated with the intestinal mucosa of CF-immunized rabbits. The protection conferred by CF immunization was found to be superior to that of a commercial bivalent vaccine and also to that of glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid. The critical immunogenic component of CF appears to be a flagella-derived protein. The immunogenicity of CF was destroyed by heat treatment, and absorption of CF-immune serum with aflagellated mutant vibrios did not diminish its ability to confer a high level of passive protection. The intestinal protection of CF-immunized rabbits was completely reversed by the introduction of both goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins A and G, but by neither alone.

  8. Creating a Long-Term Diabetic Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianpu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies.

  9. Placental transfer of radioactive salts in the pregnant rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachner, E.; Shani, J.; Shechtman, M.; Pfeiffer, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The risks of radionuclidic contamination due to the easy transfer of water-soluble ions from the circulation of the pregnant woman to her fetus, encouraged us to study whether the ease of penetration of such ions is size-dependent. Three radiochemicals--/sup 22/NaCl, /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/Na and /sup 201/TlCl were injected i.v. into pregnant rabbits on the 16th day of their pregnancy, and the rabbits were killed 15, 30, 60 or 120 min later. From each rabbit the blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle were sampled and counted as well as placenta, amniotic fluid and some fetuses. At 15 and 60 min hearts and livers were excised from selected fetuses and blood clearance, organ-to-muscle and fetus-to-placenta ratios were calculated. The results indicate that the transplacental transfer of the small radionuclide /sup 22/Na+ is faster than that of 99mTcO4- and /sup 201/Tl+, reaching equilibrium about 3 h after its injection to the pregnant rabbit. /sup 201/Tl+ demonstrated a high localization in the pregnant rabbits' and fetuses' heart and kidneys, with a similar myocardial retention in both groups. Due to the concentration of /sup 201/Tl+, in spite of its large diameter, into the fetuses' heart muscle, careful consideration should be taken when injecting /sup 201/TlCl into pregnant women for myocardial imaging.

  10. Intrinsic connectivity of neural networks in the awake rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Matthew P; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Disterhoft, John F; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The way in which the brain is functionally connected into different networks has emerged as an important research topic in order to understand normal neural processing and signaling. Since some experimental manipulations are difficult or unethical to perform in humans, animal models are better suited to investigate this topic. Rabbits are a species that can undergo MRI scanning in an awake and conscious state with minimal preparation and habituation. In this study, we characterized the intrinsic functional networks of the resting New Zealand White rabbit brain using BOLD fMRI data. Group independent component analysis revealed seven networks similar to those previously found in humans, non-human primates and/or rodents including the hippocampus, default mode, cerebellum, thalamus, and visual, somatosensory, and parietal cortices. For the first time, the intrinsic functional networks of the resting rabbit brain have been elucidated demonstrating the rabbit's applicability as a translational animal model. Without the confounding effects of anesthetics or sedatives, future experiments may employ rabbits to understand changes in neural connectivity and brain functioning as a result of experimental manipulation (e.g., temporary or permanent network disruption, learning-related changes, and drug administration). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A practical method for quantifying atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zheng, H; Yu, Q; Yang, P; Li, Y; Cheng, F; Fan, J; Liu, E

    2010-01-01

    The rabbit has been widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis; however, the method for analysis of the atherosclerotic lesions has not been standardized between laboratories. The present study reports a practical method for quantifying the changes that occur in aortic atherosclerosis of rabbits. Male Japanese white rabbits were fed with either a standard chow or a diet containing 10% fat and 0.3% cholesterol for 16 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assessed in quantitative fashion using an image analysis system that measured (1) the gross area of the entire aorta affected by atherosclerosis as defined by Sudan IV staining, (2) the microscopical intimal lesion defined by the elastic van Gieson stain and (3) the infiltration of macrophages and smooth muscle cell proliferation as determined immunohistochemically. The rabbits developed severe aortic atherosclerosis without apparent abnormality of glucose metabolism. The quantitative method described here will be useful for the further investigation of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo determination of arterial collagen synthesis in atherosclerotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opsahl, W.P.; DeLuca, D.J.; Ehrhart, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Collagen and non-collagen protein synthesis rates were determined in vivo in tissues from rabbits fed a control or atherogenic diet supplemented with 2% peanut oil and 0.25% cholesterol for 4 months. Rabbits received a bolus intravenous injection of L-[ 3 H]-proline (1.0 mCi/kg) and unlabeled L-proline (7 mmoles/kg) in 0.9% NaCl. Plasma proline specific activity decreased only 20% over 5 hr and was similar to the specific activity of free proline in tissues. Thoracic aortas from atherosclerotic rabbits exhibited raised plaques covering at least 75% of the surface. Thoracic intima plus a portion of the media (TIM) was separated from the remaining media plus adventitia (TMA). Dry delipidated weight, total collagen content, and collagen as a percent of dry weight were increased significantly in the TIM of atherosclerotic rabbits. Collagen synthesis rates and collagen synthesis as a percent of total protein synthesis were likewise increased both in the TIM and in the abdominal aortas. No differences from controls either in collagen content or collagen synthesis rates were observed in the TMA, lung or skin. These results demonstrate for the first time in vivo that formation of atherosclerotic plaques is associated with increased rates of collagen synthesis. Furthermore, as previously observed with incubations in vitro, collagen synthesis was elevated to a greater extent than noncollagen protein synthesis in atherosclerotic aortas from rabbits fed cholesterol plus peanut oil

  13. Fattening and slaughter traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Zgur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate of 4 genotypes, two lines of Slovene SIKA meat rabbit (maternal line A and sire line C, both 50 rabbits, hybrid AxC (50 rabbits and crossbred AxCal (A and Californian, 38 rabbits was recorded from weaning (35 days of age to slaughter (93 days. Growth performance and slaughter traits of AxC were different from line A (live weight at 91st day: A 2720, C 3158, AxC 3043 g (P£0.05, heterosis effect (H +3.38%; carcass weight: A 1490, C 1787, AxC 1716 g (P£0.05, H +5.65%; dressing percentage: A 54.1, C 55.6, AxC 55.5% (P£0.05; H +1.26%. Weaning weight of AxCal was significantly lower than of AxC (AxCal 843, AxC 1050 g, P£0.05, but at the end of the experiment the weight of AxCal rabbits was very close to AxC (AxCal 2958, AxC 3043 g, P>0.05. Other growth and slaughter traits did not differ between AxC and AxCal group.

  14. The distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.Y.; In, J.W.; Min, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    For clinical application of radioreceptor assay, we studied preliminarily the distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit by a dextran-charcoal method using 6,7- 3 H-es-tradiol. The results were expressed as binding index, which is the ratio of specific estradiol receptor binding radioactivity to total radioactivity. The materials consist of 5 female rabbits and 3 male rabbits. For female rabbits the binding index was highest in the uterine tissue. This binding index of the uterine tissue was 9.4 times that of the liver, 21.9 times that of the kidney, 24.6 times that of the brain, 28.1 times that of the lung and 65.7 times that of the muscle. For male rabbits the binding index was highest in the liver and decreased in the order of the kidney, the testis, the lung, the brain and the muscle. It is suggested that the estrogen receptor is not confined to any specific target organ but is widely distributed in the various organs, to a different degree. (author)

  15. The Distribution of Estrogen Receptor in Various Organs of Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ho Young; In, Jae Whan; Min, Byong Sok

    1978-01-01

    For clinical application of radioreceptor assay, we studied preliminarily the distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit by a dextran-charcoal method using 6, 7- 3 H-estradiol. The results were expressed as binding index, which is the ratio of specific estradiol receptor binding radioactivity to total radioactivity. The materials consist of 5 female rabbits and 3 male rabbits. The results were as follows: 1) Female rabbits. The binding index was highest in the uterine tissue. This binding index of the uterine tissue was 9.4 times that of the liver, 21.9 times that of the kidney, 24.6 times that of the brain, 28.1 times that of the lung and 65.7 times that of the muscle. 2) Male rabbits. The binding index was highest in the liver and decreased in the order of the kidney, the testis, the lung, the brain and the muscle. It is suggested that the estrogen receptor is not confined to any specific target organ but is widely distributed in the various organs, to a different degree.

  16. TaxMan: a taxonomic database manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaxter Mark

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic analysis of large, multiple-gene datasets, assembled from public sequence databases, is rapidly becoming a popular way to approach difficult phylogenetic problems. Supermatrices (concatenated multiple sequence alignments of multiple genes can yield more phylogenetic signal than individual genes. However, manually assembling such datasets for a large taxonomic group is time-consuming and error-prone. Additionally, sequence curation, alignment and assessment of the results of phylogenetic analysis are made particularly difficult by the potential for a given gene in a given species to be unrepresented, or to be represented by multiple or partial sequences. We have developed a software package, TaxMan, that largely automates the processes of sequence acquisition, consensus building, alignment and taxon selection to facilitate this type of phylogenetic study. Results TaxMan uses freely available tools to allow rapid assembly, storage and analysis of large, aligned DNA and protein sequence datasets for user-defined sets of species and genes. The user provides GenBank format files and a list of gene names and synonyms for the loci to analyse. Sequences are extracted from the GenBank files on the basis of annotation and sequence similarity. Consensus sequences are built automatically. Alignment is carried out (where possible, at the protein level and aligned sequences are stored in a database. TaxMan can automatically determine the best subset of taxa to examine phylogeny at a given taxonomic level. By using the stored aligned sequences, large concatenated multiple sequence alignments can be generated rapidly for a subset and output in analysis-ready file formats. Trees resulting from phylogenetic analysis can be stored and compared with a reference taxonomy. Conclusion TaxMan allows rapid automated assembly of a multigene datasets of aligned sequences for large taxonomic groups. By extracting sequences on the basis of

  17. Development of a hypoallergenic recombinant parvalbumin for first-in-man subcutaneous immunotherapy of fish allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Huber, Hans; Swoboda, Ines; Rigby, Neil; Versteeg, Serge A; Jensen, Bettina M; Quaak, Suzanne; Akkerdaas, Jaap H; Blom, Lars; Asturias, Juan; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Bernardi, Maria L; Clausen, Michael; Ferrara, Rosa; Hauer, Martina; Heyse, Jet; Kopp, Stephan; Kowalski, Marek L; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Maderegger, Bernhard; Maillere, Bernard; Mari, Adriano; Martinez, Alberto; Mills, E N Clare; Neubauer, Angela; Nicoletti, Claudio; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Portoles, Antonio; Ranta-Panula, Ville; Santos-Magadan, Sara; Schnoor, Heidi J; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T; Stahl-Skov, Per; Stavroulakis, George; Stegfellner, Georg; Vázquez-Cortés, Sonia; Witten, Marianne; Stolz, Frank; Poulsen, Lars K; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Valenta, Rudolf; van Ree, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The FAST (food allergy-specific immunotherapy) project aims at developing safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy for fish allergy, using recombinant hypoallergenic carp parvalbumin, Cyp c 1. Preclinical characterization and good manufacturing practice (GMP) production of mutant Cyp (mCyp) c 1. Escherichia coli-produced mCyp c 1 was purified using standard chromatographic techniques. Physicochemical properties were investigated by gel electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism spectroscopy, reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Allergenicity was assessed by ImmunoCAP inhibition and basophil histamine release assay, immunogenicity by immunization of laboratory animals and stimulation of patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Reference molecules were purified wild-type Cyp c 1 (natural and/or recombinant). GMP-compliant alum-adsorbed mCyp c 1 was tested for acute toxicity in mice and rabbits and for repeated-dose toxicity in mice. Accelerated and real-time protocols were used to evaluate stability of mCyp c 1 as drug substance and drug product. Purified mCyp c 1 behaves as a folded and stable molecule. Using sera of 26 double-blind placebo-controlled food-challenge-proven fish-allergic patients, reduction in allergenic activity ranged from 10- to 5,000-fold (1,000-fold on average), but with retained immunogenicity (immunization in mice/rabbits) and potency to stimulate human PBMCs. Toxicity studies revealed no toxic effects and real-time stability studies on the Al(OH)3-adsorbed drug product demonstrated at least 20 months of stability. The GMP drug product developed for treatment of fish allergy has the characteristics targeted for in FAST: i.e. hypoallergenicity with retained immunogenicity. These results have warranted first-in-man immunotherapy studies to evaluate the safety of this innovative vaccine. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. 29 CFR 780.317 - Man-day exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Man-day exclusion. 780.317 Section 780.317 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.317 Man-day exclusion. Section 3(e)(2) specifically excludes from the employer's man-day total (as defined in section 3(u)) employees who qualify for exemption under section 13(a)(6...

  19. 29 CFR 780.309 - Man-day exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Man-day exclusion. 780.309 Section 780.309 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.309 Man-day exclusion. Section 3(e)(1) specifically excludes from the employer's man-day total (as defined in section 3(u)) employees who qualify for exemption under section 13(a)(6...

  20. The Modern Igbo Man and Quest for Freedom | Ogugua | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The modern Igbo man has through the decades been beset with one type of problem or the other. He has known multi-quam problems: poverty, ignorance, marginalization, genocide, betrayal, war etc. It is the onus of this paper to examine our operative concepts, Igbo man.s set of unfreedoms, and the shades of Igboman.s ...

  1. Plasmodium Infection In Man: A Review | Ekpenyong | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium infection in man is caused by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. This results in the disease, malaria. Malaria has serious debilitating effects on man. It adversely affectsman's health, strength and productivity. Here, a review of Plasmodium infection in man including the life cycle transmisson, ...

  2. 32 CFR 707.2 - Man overboard lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Man overboard lights. 707.2 Section 707.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.2 Man overboard lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of indicating man overboard, two...

  3. Man bhawan - new chrysanthemum cultivar induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts were made to find out the biochemical difference between two gamma ray induced chrysanthemum cultivars, 'Flirt' and 'Man Bhawan' by thin layer chromatographic and spectrophotometric analysis of pigments. The analysis were done from florets extracts of original cv., 'Flirt' and mutant 'Man Bhawan' at full bloom stage and also at fading of 'Man Bhawan'. (author)

  4. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  5. Grounding the RPA Force: Why Machine Needs Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GROUNDING THE RPA FORCE: WHY MACHINE NEEDS MAN by Charles M. Washuk, Major, USAF (MBA...6 CHALLENGES OF MANNED FLIGHT...tactics will still require the presence of an operator, or “ man .” This paper focuses on the need for the Air Force to address the 18X career field and

  6. The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We…

  7. Effect of aguamiel (agave sap) on hematic biometry in rabbits and its antioxidant activity determination

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Silos-Espino; José Luis Moreno Hernández-Duque; Fidel Guevara-Lara; Juan Florencio Gómez-Leyva; Luis Lorenzo Valera-Montero; Alejandro Nava-Cedillo; Catarino Perales-Segovia; Clara Lourdes Tovar-Robles

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we analysed the effect of aguamiel (sap from Agave salmiana) on haematic biometry in rabbits as well as its antioxidant activity with the objective of determining its nutritional value. Nine male Landrace 55-day-old rabbits were sorted into three groups of three rabbits each, which had access to fresh aguamiel, boiled aguamiel and water instead of aguamiel. Commercial rabbit food was supplied ad libitum to each experimental unit. Fresh aguamiel promoted weight increases of about...

  8. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in...

  9. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  10. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdad Khiati; Moussa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated...

  11. Malignant neoplasms of decidual origin (deciduosarcomas) induced by estrogen-progestin-releasing intravaginal devices in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Zook, B. C.; Spiro, I.; Hertz, R.

    1987-01-01

    A combination of estrogen and levonorgestrel was continuously delivered to 23 adult rabbits for up to 2 years via a Silastic ring device sutured into the vagina. Twenty-one control rabbits were given similar rings devoid of drugs. A marked decidual reaction of the endometrium occurred in 16 of 23 test rabbits. In 14 test rabbits (61%) malignant tumors developed of decidual type cells not heretofore described. The deciduosarcomas were composed of anaplastic cells that invaded the uterine walls...

  12. Economic weights in rabbit meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cartuche

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A profit function was designed for an industrial commercial rabbitry with the most common management in industrial rabbit production. The incomes, costs, and profit function were calculated and economic weights of the traits were estimated. The variable costs (feeding, artificial insemination, health and replacement represented 62% of the total costs, and the fixed costs (labour, utilities, amortisation and administration represented 38% of the total costs. Major costs were feeding of fattening kits and labour cost, at 26% and 18% of the total cost, respectively. The economic weights were feed conversion rate during fattening (–20.2 €/[g feed/g liveweight], number of kits born alive (15.7 €/kit, pregnancy rate (1.7 €/percentage unit, weaning survival (1.7 €/percentage unit, fattening survival (2.0 €/percentage unit, daily feed intake (–0.50 €/(g feed/d, daily gain during fattening (1.33 €/(g weight/d, and replacement rate (–0.29 €/percentage unit. When varying the prices of kg of fattening feed and kg of liveweight, only the economic weights of feed conversion rate during fattening in the first case and the number of kits born alive in the second case changed considerably. Changes in labour cost produced appreciable changes in the whole production cost. Although economic weights are robust to changes in prices, these weights should be recalculated after some generations of selection, because changes in the mean of the traits due to selection can also change economic weights.

  13. Experimental microangiographic study in normal rabbit liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Gyoo; Park, Jong Yeon; Han, Kook Sang; Moon, Ki Ho; Choi, Chang Ho; Han, Koon Taek; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    Microangiography is an experimental radiologic technique for evaluation of the morphology and the function of small vessels. The purpose of this study is to introduce a good microangiographic technique and to present the microangiographic appearance of normal hepatic vascular pattern. Five white rabbits weighing 2.5-2.9Kg were objected. Polyethylene catheters were inserted in portal vein and then in IVC. Heparin mixed normal saline (2cc/1000cc) was infused through portal vein and blood was drained to IVC. Barium suspension was infused via the catheter placed in portal vein until the liver surface showed satisfactory finding in barium filling. The liver was removed and this preparation was fixed in 10% formaline for 7 days. After fixation, the liver was sectioned on 1-2mm thickness. The slices were radiographed on high resolution plate using Faxitron. H-E staining of liver tissue was also done. The microbrium was well distributed in all small vessels without filling defect. And we could find the hexagonal shaped classic liver lobule, in which the central vein was located at central portion and portal vein at periphery. The enlargement was showed numerous sinusoids, but there was less dye in the central portion of lobule, but the central vein was well filled by microbarium. The peripheral portion of lobule was well filled with microbarium. So, we could find diamond shaped liver acinus, in which central vein was located at priperal portion and the center of liver acinus was terminal portal vein that growed out from a small portal space. The three acini made the complex acinus and acinar agglomerate was composed of three or four complex acini. It is considered that the liver acinus pattern of Rapparport is more acceptable on microangiography than the classic concept of hepatic lobule

  14. Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacios-Palma, Isabel; Santoro, Simone; Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration. Consequently, the persistence and viability of natural populations are affected. The main goal of our study was to determine if blood biochemistry is correlated with serostatus in wild European rabbits. We carried out seven live-trapping sessions in three wild rabbit populations over a two-year period. Blood samples were collected to measure anti-MV and anti-RHDV antibody concentrations and to measure biochemical parameters related to organ function, protein metabolism, and nutritional status. Overall, we found no significant relationships between rabbit serostatus and biochemistry. Our main result was that rabbits that were seropositive for both MV and RHDV had low gamma glutamyltransferase concentrations. Given the robustness of our analyses, the lack of significant relationships may indicate that the biochemical parameters measured are poor proxies for serostatus. Another explanation is that wild rabbits might be producing attenuated physiological responses to these viruses because the latter are now enzootic in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of rabbit Haemorrhagic disease virus 2 during the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) eradication from the Berlengas archipelago, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abade Dos Santos, F A; Carvalho, C; Nuno, Oliveira; Correia, J J; Henriques, M; Peleteiro, M C; Fevereiro, M; Duarte, M D

    2017-11-15

    In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those deaths was never investigated. Our aim was to investigate the cause of death of 11 rabbits collected between April and May 2016. While screening samples from rabbit carcasses for the major viral rabbit pathogens, five tested positive to RHDV2 but all were negative for RHDV and myxoma virus (MYXV). For six RHDV2-negative specimens, emaciation and parasitism were considered the most probable cause of death. Lesions identified in the RHDV2-positive rabbits included non-suppurative diffuse hepatic necrosis and pulmonary lesions varying from congestion and oedema of the lungs to interstitial pneumonia. Sequencing analysis of the vp60 gene obtained from two specimens showed identical vp60 sequences. Comparison with other known RHDV2 strains from public databases through BLAST analysis revealed a closer similarity with strains from Alentejo collected during 2013. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that the 2016 strains from the archipelago have a higher resemblance with a group of strains mostly collected in the South of Portugal between 2013 and 2014. The results suggest that RHDV2 may have been introduced on the Berlenga Island a few years ago, having evolved separately from mainland strains due to insularity.

  16. Cutaneous lesions in pet rabbits following subcutaneous administration of a novel bivalent vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Vögtlin, Andrea; Fileccia, Ivan; Hoop, Richard; Bongiovanni, Laura

    2014-12-01

    A novel bivalent vaccine to protect against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease is commercially available for pet rabbits. To describe the appearance of cutaneous lesions arising in pet rabbits positive for myxoma virus (MV) by RT-PCR evaluation shortly after vaccination. Four pet rabbits presenting with papular, crusting skin lesions ~10 days after vaccination. Histological evaluation of formalin-fixed skin biopsies obtained from lesional skin (case 1). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) evaluation of paraffin-embedded tissue from skin biopsies (case 1) and crusts obtained from the lesion surface (cases 2-4) for myxoma virus are reported as cycle threshold (Ct ) values. Lesions affecting the ear pinna, dorsal aspect of the nose, vulva and/or conjunctiva are reported. Histopathological findings included severe ulcerative, necrotizing dermatitis and intralesional cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in myxoma cells. DNA was amplified from all the paraffin-embedded skin biopsies (Ct  = 34-35) and crusts (Ct  = 20-24). Although a wild virus challenge cannot be definitively excluded, veterinarians and pet-owners should be aware that cutaneous lesions have been observed after vaccination with this novel vaccine in low numbers of rabbits. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Immune response in rabbit ovaries following infection of a recombinant myxoma virus expressing rabbit zona pellucida protein B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wenyi; Holland, Michael; Janssens, Peter; Seamark, Robert; Kerr, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the autoimmune response in rabbit ovaries following infection with a recombinant myxoma virus expressing rabbit zona pellucida protein B (MV-ZPB). A specific IgG antibody response to ZPB was elicited in the serum of infected rabbits and the antibody strongly bound to the zona pellucida of oocytes in secondary and tertiary follicles. T cell infiltration in the ovary was detected in a small proportion of the infected rabbits. In spite of this, the mean number of preovulatory and tertiary follicles in the ovary was significantly reduced at 30 days postinfection compared with that of the infected and uninfected controls. Histological analysis revealed that the cortex and medulla of these ovaries had accumulated a large number of probably luteinized cells and there were no follicles in these areas, indicating the ovaries were in a severe pathological condition. The data suggest that the delivery of ZP antigens using a recombinant myxoma virus is a prospective way to develop immunocontraceptive vaccines for rabbit population control, but that more understanding of the kinetics of the autoimmune response induced by viral delivery is needed

  18. Dissociative anesthetic combination reduces intraocular pressure (IOP in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of three anesthetic combinations, ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam, on IOP in rabbits. In a experimental, blind, randomized, crossover study, six rabbits were anesthetized with each of 3 treatments in random order. Groups KM (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + midazolam, 1 mg/kg; KX (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + xylazine, 3 mg/kg; and TZ (tiletamine + zolazepam, 20 mg/kg. The drugs were mixed in the same syringe injected intramuscularly (IM into the quadriceps muscle. IOP was measured before drug administration (baseline and at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The data were analyzed by a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test. All groups had significant decreases in IOP compared to baseline (p 0.05. Administration of either ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine, or tiletamine-zolazepam similarly decrease IOP in rabbits within 30 minutes of injection.

  19. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32 were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin. The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p0.05. However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05. In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits.

  20. Development and homology of the incisor teeth in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muylle, S.; Simoens, P.; Lauwers, H.

    1996-01-01

    The morphology and development of the incisors were investigated stercomicroscopically, radiographically and by means of serial histologic sections in fetal, juvenile and adult New Zealand White rabbits. A vestigial and a major incisor develop on both sides of the upper and of the lower jaw, while a diphyodont minor incisor is located caudal to the major incisor on both sides of the upper jaw. The present study describes a unique case of incisor polyodontia in an adult wild rabbit, that exhibited all the characteristics of a typical atavistic dentition. From these observations it was deduced that the vestigial and the major incisors in the rabbit are monophyodont and correspond to the first and second incisors respectively, while the minor diphyodont incisor in the upper jaw is homologous with the third incisor