WorldWideScience

Sample records for rats mice birds

  1. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    Duron, Q.; Bourguet, E.; De Meringo, H.; Millon, A.; Vidal, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Invasive rats (Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats (Rattus rattus and R. exulans) on native bird eggs in a ...

  2. Invasive rats strengthen predation pressure on bird eggs in a South Pacific island rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duron, Quiterie; Bourguet, Edouard; De Meringo, Hélène; Millon, Alexandre; Vidal, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Invasive rats ( Rattus spp.) are known to have pervasive impacts on island birds, particularly on their nesting success. To conserve or restore bird populations, numerous invasive rat control or eradication projects are undertaken on islands worldwide. However, such projects represent a huge investment and the decision-making process requires proper assessment of rat impacts. Here, we assessed the influence of two sympatric invasive rats ( Rattus rattus and R. exulans ) on native bird eggs in a New Caledonian rainforest, using artificial bird-nest monitoring. A total of 178 artificial nests containing two eggs of three different sizes were placed either on the ground or 1.5 m high and monitored at the start of the birds' breeding season. Overall, 12.4% of the nests were depredated during the first 7 days. At site 1, where nests were monitored during 16 days, 41.8% of the nests were depredated. The main predator was the native crow Corvus moneduloides , responsible for 62.9% of the overall predation events. Rats were responsible for only 22.9% of the events, and ate only small and medium eggs at both heights. Our experiment suggests that in New Caledonia, predation pressure by rats strengthens overall bird-nest predation, adding to that by native predators. Experimental rat control operations may allow reduced predation pressure on nests as well as the recording of biodiversity responses after rat population reduction.

  3. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  4. Brain biochemistry of infant mice and rats exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, G.B.; Maes, J.; Gilliavod, N.; Casale, G.

    1978-05-01

    Brains of rats and mice exposed to lead from birth receive biochemical examinations. Mice are given drinking water with lead and are studied until they are 17 days old. Rats ae given lead in the diet and followed for more than a year. In mice a retardation in body growth and development in brain DNA is found. In rats, cathepsin is enhanced at almost all times. An important role of proteolytic processes and biogenic animes is suggested in lead encephalopathy. (33 references, 7 tables)

  5. Distribution of sulfhydryl boranes in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Laster, B.H.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of experiments on the distribution of boranes in rat and mice tissues and melanomas are reported. Comparisons are made between the behavior of borane monomers and dimers under different dose rates and cummulative doses

  6. Chronic Co-species Housing Mice and Rats Increased the Competitiveness of Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Li, Lai-Fu; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Guo, Hui-Fen; Xia, Min; Zhang, Meng-Wei; Jing, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2017-03-01

    Rats are predators of mice in nature. Nevertheless, it is a common practice to house mice and rats in a same room in some laboratories. In this study, we investigated the behavioral and physiological responsively of mice in long-term co-species housing conditions. Twenty-four male mice were randomly assigned to their original raising room (control) or a rat room (co-species-housed) for more than 6 weeks. In the open-field and light-dark box tests, the behaviors of the co-species-housed mice and controls were not different. In a 2-choice test of paired urine odors [rabbit urine (as a novel odor) vs. rat urine, cat urine (as a natural predator-scent) vs. rabbit urine, and cat urine vs. rat urine], the co-species-housed mice were more ready to investigate the rat urine odor compared with the controls and may have adapted to it. In an encounter test, the rat-room-exposed mice exhibited increased aggression levels, and their urines were more attractive to females. Correspondingly, the levels of major urinary proteins were increased in the co-species-housed mouse urine, along with some volatile pheromones. The serum testosterone levels were also enhanced in the co-species-housed mice, whereas the corticosterone levels were not different. The norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-HT levels in the right hippocampus and striatum were not different between the 2. Our findings indicate that chronic co-species housing results in adaptation in male mice; furthermore, it appears that long-term rat-odor stimuli enhance the competitiveness of mice, which suggests that appropriate predator-odor stimuli may be important to the fitness of prey animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Of mice, birds, and men: the mouse ultrasonic song system has some features similar to humans and song-learning birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arriaga

    Full Text Available Humans and song-learning birds communicate acoustically using learned vocalizations. The characteristic features of this social communication behavior include vocal control by forebrain motor areas, a direct cortical projection to brainstem vocal motor neurons, and dependence on auditory feedback to develop and maintain learned vocalizations. These features have so far not been found in closely related primate and avian species that do not learn vocalizations. Male mice produce courtship ultrasonic vocalizations with acoustic features similar to songs of song-learning birds. However, it is assumed that mice lack a forebrain system for vocal modification and that their ultrasonic vocalizations are innate. Here we investigated the mouse song system and discovered that it includes a motor cortex region active during singing, that projects directly to brainstem vocal motor neurons and is necessary for keeping song more stereotyped and on pitch. We also discovered that male mice depend on auditory feedback to maintain some ultrasonic song features, and that sub-strains with differences in their songs can match each other's pitch when cross-housed under competitive social conditions. We conclude that male mice have some limited vocal modification abilities with at least some neuroanatomical features thought to be unique to humans and song-learning birds. To explain our findings, we propose a continuum hypothesis of vocal learning.

  8. Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodmane, Puttappa R.; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rats and mice orally administered with nicotine tartrate for total of 4 weeks. • No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. • Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated rats and mice. • No significant change in BrdU labeling index or SEM classification of urothelium. - Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a

  9. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  10. Strontium-85 in the fetuses of pregnant rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyskowova, Z.; Josifko, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pregnant SPF Wistar rats and ICR/Swiss albino mice were injected in the tail vein with 85 SrCl 2 with 0.05mM inactive carrier (SrCl 2 ) given in volumes of 0.1 ml. The activity in the injected volume.was about 14 MBq per kg of rat and 13 MBq per kg of mouse. The animals were injected on day 3 or 13 of gestation. Activity retained by the fetuses was quantitatively determined at three stages of the fetal intrauterine development: in rats on days 14, 16 and 21 of gestation, in mice on days 14, 16 and 20 of gestation. The activity of fetuses and/or placentas with fetal membranes was measured using a TESLA automatic gamma counter. The results indicate that the fetuses of mice retained a significantly (P<0.01) greater proportion of strontium activity than the fetuses of rats. The highest specific activities (the percentage of total activity retained per gram of fetal tissue) were found in the late pregnancy period on (day 21 of gestation in rats and on day 20 of gestation in mice) in animals that were injected with the radionuclide on day 13 of gestation. (author)

  11. Stevia and Saccharin Preferences in Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

  12. Distribution of sulfhydryl boranes in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatkin, D.N.; Micca, P.L.; Laster, B.H.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of boron in mice bearing transplanted Harding-Passey melanomas after rapid and slow administration of monomer were studied. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the corresponding infusion solution revealed a slow-moving principal band that was later shown to correspond to Na 4 B 24 H 22 S 2 , the dimer of Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH. It was found that while monomer and chemically synthesized dimer yielded similar boron concentrations when they were given rapidly intraperitoneally to mice, the dimer yielded higher boron concentrations in mouse melanoma and higher melanoma-blood boron concentration when each was infused slowly intraperitoneally for 8 to 9 days. Studies have been started on the uptake of dimer into an intracerebrally implanted rat glioma. Boron levels in the rat glioma and in the mouse melanoma from slow intraperitoneal infusion of proportionately comparable amounts of dimer, are similar. However, after these slow infusions boron levels in rat blood are about as high as boron levels in rat brain tumor. 6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Rats and mice immunised with chimeric human/mouse proteinase 3 produce autoantibodies to mouse Pr3 and rat granulocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geld, Ymke M.; Hellmark, Thomas; Selga, Daina; Heeringa, Peter; Huitema, Minke G.; Limburg, Pieter C.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: In this study, we employed chimeric human/ mouse Proteinase 3 ( PR3) proteins as tools to induce an autoantibody response to PR3 in rats and mice. Method: Rats and mice were immunised with recombinant human PR3 ( HPR3), recombinant murine PR3 ( mPR3), single chimeric human/ mouse PR3 ( HHm,

  14. Some factors influencing liver metallothionein levels in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, T.; Lee, M.

    1981-01-01

    Liver metallothionein (MT) was measured by the 203-mercury binding method of Piotrowski in the livers of rats and mice subjected to bilateral adrenalectomy or to sham adrenalectomy. Sham operation was followed by an increase in the level of MT at 24 hours; this immediately began to decrease, reaching control levels by 7 days. Adrenalectomy was also followed by an increase in MT, but the levels remained elevated for several days before beginning to decline. Mice which were adrenalectomized and allowed to recover for 28 days showed an increase in MT when subjected to sham operation. Ether anaesthesia without an incision did not increase the level of MT. Hypophysectomized mice had higher levels of MT than did controls, and these levels were further increased by sham adrenalectomy. Sprague-Dawley rats showed a similar response to adrenalectomy and to sham operation. It is concluded that the sham operation-induced increase in MT is probably not a result of a stress-induced release of adrenal hormones, but that adrenal hormones may play some role in the degradation or turnover of MT. The pituitary may also have some role in MT turnover

  15. Subchronic toxicity studies of t-butyl alcohol in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindamood, C; Farnell, D R; Giles, H D; Prejean, J D; Collins, J J; Takahashi, K; Maronpot, R R

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of t-butyl alcohol, an important commodity chemical, an additive to unleaded gasoline, and a contaminant of drinking water. Ninety-day toxicity studies were conducted in B6C3F1 mice and Fischer 344 (F344) rats of both sexes using dosed water. Dose levels of t-butyl alcohol were 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4% (w/v). Lethality was observed at the 4% level of both sexes and species. Weight-gain depression was present in all dose levels of male rats; 4% female rats; 1, 2, and 4% male mice; and 2 and 4% female mice. Water consumption was increased at lower dose levels in male rats and decreased in the higher dose levels of both sexes of rats and female mice. Clinical signs in rats were ataxia in both sexes and hypoactivity in males. Clinical signs in mice were ataxia, abnormal posture, and hypoactivity. In rats, urine volumes were reduced, in association with crystalluria. Gross lesions at necropsy were urinary tract calculi, renal pelvic and ureteral dilatation, and thickening of the urinary bladder mucosa. Microscopic lesions were hyperplasia of transitional epithelia and inflammation of the urinary bladder. In male rats treated with t-butyl alcohol, microscopic renal changes were suggestive of alpha-2 mu-globulin nephropathy. No-effect levels for the urinary tract lesions were 1% in male rats and mice (803.7 mg/kg/day for the male rats and 1565.8 mg/kg/day for the male mice) and 2% in female rats and mice (1451.5 mg/kg/day for the female rats and 4362.9 mg/kg/day for the female mice). The results indicate that in rodents the urinary tract is the target organ for t-butyl alcohol toxicity, and males are more sensitive to t-butyl alcohol toxicity than females.

  16. Identification of Metabolism and Excretion Differences of Procymidone between Rats and Humans Using Chimeric Mice: Implications for Differential Developmental Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Jun; Tomigahara, Yoshitaka; Tarui, Hirokazu; Omori, Rie; Kawamura, Satoshi

    2018-02-28

    A metabolite of procymidone, hydroxylated-PCM, causes rat-specific developmental toxicity due to higher exposure to it in rats than in rabbits or monkeys. When procymidone was administered to chimeric mice with rat or human hepatocytes, the plasma level of hydroxylated-PCM was higher than that of procymidone in rat chimeric mice, and the metabolic profile of procymidone in intact rats was well reproduced in rat chimeric mice. In human chimeric mice, the plasma level of hydroxylated-PCM was less, resulting in a much lower exposure. The main excretion route of hydroxylated-PCM-glucuronide was bile (the point that hydroxylated-PCM enters the enterohepatic circulation) in rat chimeric mice, and urine in human chimeric mice. These data suggest that humans, in contrast to rats, extensively form the glucuronide and excrete it in urine, as do rabbits and monkeys. Overall, procymidone's potential for causing teratogenicity in humans must be low compared to that in rats.

  17. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eybl, V; Sýkora, J; Koutenský, J; Caisová, D; Schwartz, A; Mertl, F

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of 115mCdCl2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatment of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination of the retention and distribution of Cd in mice, it was demonstrated that the combined application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of 115mCd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes. PMID:6734561

  18. The effects of individual housing on mice and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Thomas Cæcius; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Ottesen, Jan Lund

    2006-01-01

    these animals individually without negative impact on welfare, eg by providing special housing improvements. A range of studies have shown that individual housing or isolation has effects on corticosterone, the open field behaviour, barbiturate sleeping time and the metabolism of different pharmaceuticals...... in the animals. However, this review of 37 studies in rats and 17 studies in mice showed divergence in test results difficult to explain, as many studies lacked basal information about the study, eg information on genetic strains and housing conditions, such as bedding, enrichment and cage sizes. Furthermore......, test and control groups most frequently differed in cage sizes and stocking densities, and behavioural tests differed in ways which may very well explain the differences in results. Overall, there seemed to be an effect of individual housing, although it may be small, and it seems reasonable to assume...

  19. Muscular Basis of Whisker Torsion in Mice and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidarliu, Sebastian; Bagdasarian, Knarik; Shinde, Namrata; Ahissar, Ehud

    2017-09-01

    Whisking mammals move their whiskers in the rostrocaudal and dorsoventral directions with simultaneous rolling about their long axes (torsion). Whereas muscular control of the first two types of whisker movement was already established, the anatomic muscular substrate of the whisker torsion remains unclear. Specifically, it was not clear whether torsion is induced by asymmetrical operation of known muscles or by other largely unknown muscles. Here, we report that mystacial pads of newborn and adult rats and mice contain oblique intrinsic muscles (OMs) that connect diagonally adjacent vibrissa follicles. Each of the OMs is supplied by a cluster of motor end plates. In rows A and B, OMs connect the ventral part of the rostral follicle with the dorsal part of the caudal follicle. In rows C-E, in contrast, OMs connect the dorsal part of the rostral follicle to the ventral part of the caudal follicle. This inverse architecture is consistent with previous behavioral observations [Knutsen et al.: Neuron 59 (2008) 35-42]. In newborn mice, torsion occurred in irregular single twitches. In adult anesthetized rats, microelectrode mediated electrical stimulation of an individual OM that is coupled with two adjacent whiskers was sufficient to induce a unidirectional torsion of both whiskers. Torsional movement was associated with protracting movement, indicating that in the vibrissal system, like in the ocular system, torsional movement is mechanically coupled to horizontal and vertical movements. This study shows that torsional whisker rotation is mediated by specific OMs whose morphology and attachment sites determine rotation direction and mechanical coupling, and motor innervation determines rotation dynamics. Anat Rec, 300:1643-1653, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eybl, V.; Sykora, J.; Koutensky, J.; Caisova, D.; Schwartz, A.; Mertl, F.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl 2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of /sup 115mCdCl 2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatement of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl 2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of /sup 115m/Cd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes

  1. Cadmium in milk and mammary gland in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson Grawe, K.; Oskarsson, A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the uptake of cadmium in mammary tissue, effects on milk secretion and composition, and lactational transport of cadmium to the sucklings. Cadmium exposure during lactation resulted in retention of cadmium in the mammary tissue in mice and rats. The uptake of cadmium in the mammary tissue was rapid, as shown in lactating mice by whole-body autoradiography 4 h after an intravenous injection of a tracer dose of 109 CdCl 2 . Retention of cadmium in kidneys of suckling pups was observed in the autoradiograms at 7 days after exposure of the dams. Lactating rats were intravenously infused with 109 CdCl 2 in 0.9% saline via osmotic minipumps from day 3 to day 16 after parturition. The cadmium dose given was 0, 8.8, 62 and 300 μg Cd/kg body wt. per day. Plasma and milk were collected at day 10 and 16 after parturition. Plasma cadmium levels in dams increased from day 10 to day 16. Cadmium levels were higher in milk than in plasma, with milk/plasma ratios varying from 2 to 6. Zinc levels in milk were positively correlated to cadmium levels in milk (r 2 =0.26; P=0.03). In milk, 109 Cd was distributed in fat (46-52%), casein fraction (40-46%), and whey fraction (6-8%). There was a high correlation between cadmium concentrations in pups' kidney and cadmium concentrations in dam's milk (r 2 =0.98; P 109 Cd was bound to metallothionein in mammary tissue. The fraction of radiolabelled cadmium bound to metallothionein increased in a dose-dependent manner in both the liver (88-98%) and mammary tissue (57-80%). The present results indicate a low transfer of cadmium to the suckling pup, which might be due to binding of cadmium to metallothionein in the mammary tissue. However, during the susceptible developmental period even a low cadmium exposure may be of concern. (orig.)

  2. Enantioselective metabolism of hydroxychloroquine employing rats and mice hepatic microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Dickow Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ is an important chiral drug used, mainly, in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and malaria, and whose pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties look to be stereoselective. Respecting the pharmacokinetic properties, some previous studies indicate that the stereoselectivity could express itself in the processes of metabolism, distribution and excretion and that the stereoselective metabolism looks to be a function of the studied species. So, the in vitro metabolism of HCQ was investigated using hepatic microsomes of rats and mice. The microsomal fraction of livers of Wistar rats and Balb-C mice was separated by ultracentrifugation and 500 μL were incubated for 180 minutes with 10 μL of racemic HCQ 1000 μg mL-1. Two stereospecific analytical methods, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE, were used to separate and quantify the formed metabolites. It was verified that the main formed metabolite is the (--(R-desethyl hydroxychloroquine for both animal species.A hidroxicloroquina (HCQ é um importante fármaco quiral usado, principalmente, no tratamento de artrite reumatóide, lupus eritematoso sistêmico e malária e cujas propriedades farmacocinéticas e farmacodinâmicas parecem ser estereosseletivas. Em relação às propriedades farmacocinéticas, alguns estudos prévios indicam que a estereosseletividade pode se expressar nos processos de metabolismo, distribuição e excreção e que o metabolismo estereosseletivo parece ser função da espécie estudada. Sendo assim, o metabolismo in vitro da HCQ foi investigado usando microssomas de fígado de ratos e de camundongos. A fração microssômica de fígados de ratos Wistar e de camundongos Balb-C foi isolada por ultracentrifugação e 500 μL foram incubados por 180 minutos com 10 μL de HCQ racêmica 1000 μg mL-1. Dois métodos analíticos estereoespecíficos, por cromatografia líquida de

  3. Molecular identification of Heterakis spumosa obtained from brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Japan and its infectivity in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šnábel, Viliam; Utsuki, Daisuke; Kato, Takehiro; Sunaga, Fujiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean; Gambetta, Barbara; Taira, Kensuke

    2014-09-01

    Heterakis spumosa is a nematode of invasive rodents, mainly affiliated with Rattus spp. of Asian origin. Despite the ecological importance and cosmopolitan distribution, little information is available on the genetic characteristics and infectivity to experimental animals of this roundworm. Heterakis isolates obtained from naturally infected brown rats caught in 2007 in the city of Sagamihara, east central Honshu, Japan, and maintained by laboratory passages were subjected to mitochondrial sequence analysis and experimental infection in mice. Sequencing of the cox1 gene revealed that nucleotides of H. spumosa and previously examined Heterakis isolonche isolates from gallinaceous birds in Japan differed by 11.2-12.2% that conforms to the range expected for interspecific differences. The two H. spumosa isolates differed by a single 138T/C non-synonymous substitution in the 393-bp mt sequence. In a dendrogram, the H. spumosa samples formed a subcluster with members of the nematode superfamily Heterakoidea, H. isolonche and Ascaridia galli. In an experimental infection study, ICR, AKR, B10.BR and C57BL/6 mice strains were inoculated with 200 H. spumosa eggs/head and necropsied at 14 and 90 days post-inoculation (DPI) when the number of worms was recorded. Eggs were initially detected in faeces from 32-35 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice and the highest mean number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was 4,800 at 38 DPI, 2,200 at 58 DPI and 800 at 44 and 72 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice, respectively. No eggs were observed in faeces of the C57BL/6 mouse strain during the experiment. A similar number of juvenile worms were isolated from all mouse strains at 14 DPI, whereas no adult worms were detected in C57BL/6 mice at 90 DPI.

  4. Experimental treatment of diabetic mice with microencapsulated rat islet cells transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yun; Xue Yilong; Li Yanling; Li Xinjian

    2006-01-01

    To observe treatment effects of diabetic mice with microcapsulated and non-microcapsulated rat islet cell transplantation, pancreas of SD rat was perfused with collagenase through cloledchus, and then the pancreatic tissues were isolated and digested. Histopaque-1077 was used to purify the digested pancreas. Islet cells were collected and implanted into the peritoneal cavity of diabetic mice. The isolated islets had a response upon glucose stimulation. When the microcapsulated islets and non- microcapsulated islets were transplanted into diabetic mices the high blood glucose level could be decreased to normal. The normal blood glucose level in the diabetic mice transpanted with microcapsulated islets could be maintained for over 30 days,but it could be mainlained only for 2-3 days in the diabetic mice transplanted with non-microcapsulated islets. Thus it is believed that microcapsulated islet cell transplantation exerts good effect on diabetic mice and the microcapsules possessed good immunoisolating function. (authors)

  5. Comparison of predictability for human pharmacokinetics parameters among monkeys, rats, and chimeric mice with humanised liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Maki; Iwasaki, Shinji; Chisaki, Ikumi; Nakagawa, Sayaka; Amano, Nobuyuki; Hirabayashi, Hideki

    2017-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of chimeric mice with humanised liver (PXB mice) for the prediction of clearance (CL t ) and volume of distribution at steady state (Vd ss ), in comparison with monkeys, which have been reported as a reliable model for human pharmacokinetics (PK) prediction, and with rats, as a conventional PK model. 2. CL t and Vd ss values in PXB mice, monkeys and rats were determined following intravenous administration of 30 compounds known to be mainly eliminated in humans via the hepatic metabolism by various drug-metabolising enzymes. Using single-species allometric scaling, human CL t and Vd ss values were predicted from the three animal models. 3. Predicted CL t values from PXB mice exhibited the highest predictability: 25 for PXB mice, 21 for monkeys and 14 for rats were predicted within a three-fold range of actual values among 30 compounds. For predicted human Vd ss values, the number of compounds falling within a three-fold range was 23 for PXB mice, 24 for monkeys, and 16 for rats among 29 compounds. PXB mice indicated a higher predictability for CL t and Vd ss values than the other animal models. 4. These results demonstrate the utility of PXB mice in predicting human PK parameters.

  6. Biologic effects of fenbendazole in rats and mice: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, David; Cray, Carolyn; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2007-11-01

    This review summarizes findings from toxicologic, carcinogenic, immunologic, and metabolic studies on fenbendazole (FBZ). Currently, FBZ is used to treat or prevent pinworm outbreaks in laboratory rodents. Because antiparasitic treatments usually are not part of experimental designs, interactions from the medication on the outcomes of ongoing experiments are a concern. At therapeutic levels, FBZ does not alter the total content of cytochromes P450 but does induce certain hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms, namely 1A1, 1A2, and 2B1. Although expressed constitutively at low or undetectable levels, these isoforms particularly are known for bioactivating a number of procarcinogens. Lifetime studies in rats have shown that FBZ is not a carcinogen but that it may behave as a tumor promoter when given after certain initiators. Unlike in other animal species, FBZ treatment-associated myelosuppression has not been reported to occur in rodents. The few currently available immunologic studies in mice, including an autoimmune model, have not shown effects on selected immune responses. However, data from other animal species suggest that the ability of B and T lymphocytes to proliferate in the secondary immune response may be suppressed during treatment with FBZ.

  7. Comparative disposition and metabolism of 1,2,3-trichloropropane in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, N A; Overstreet, D; Burka, L T

    1991-01-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) has been used as a solvent and degreasing agent and as an intermediate in pesticide manufacture. TCP is currently the subject of a National Toxicology Program chronic toxicity study. The present study is part of a larger effort to characterize the toxicity of TCP. Following acute oral exposure of male and female F344 rats (30 mg/kg) and male B6C3F1 mice (30 and 60 mg/kg), TCP was rapidly absorbed, metabolized, and excreted. The major route of excretion of TCP was in the urine. By 60 hr postdosing, rats had excreted 50% and mice 65% of the administered dose by this route. Exhalation as 14CO2 and excretion in the feces each accounted for 20% of the total dose in 60 hr rats and 20 and 15%, respectively, in mice. No apparent sex-related differences were observed in the ability of the rats to excrete TCP-derived radioactivity. At 60 hr, TCP-derived radioactivity was most concentrated in the liver, kidney, and forestomach in both rats and male mice. Male mice eliminated TCP-derived radioactivity more rapidly than rats and lower concentrations of radioactivity were found in tissues 60 hr after dosing in mice. Two urinary metabolites were isolated and identified by NMR, mass spectroscopy, and comparison with synthetic standards, as N-acetyl- and S-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)cysteine. Analyses of the early urine (0-6 hr) showed this mercapturic acid to be the major metabolite in rat urine and was only a minor component in mouse urine. 2-(S-Glutathionyl)malonic acid was identified by NMR and mass spectrometry and by chemical synthesis as the major biliary metabolite in rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Metabolism of 14C-tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TRCP) in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.M.; Herr, D.W.; Burka, L.T.; Matthews, H.B.

    1990-01-01

    TRCP, a flame retardant, has been demonstrated to produce a dose-, sex-, and species-dependent lesion in the hippocampal region of the brain, following subchronic oral administration. This lesion is more common and more severe in female F344 rats than in male F344 rats, and is not observed in B6C3F1 mice. The present investigation of the metabolism of TRCP was designed to detect sex and species variations that might account for differences in toxicity. Elimination of TRCP-derived radioactivity was more rapid in mice, which excreted >70% of an oral dose of 175 mg/kg in urine in 8 hr vs ∼40% for male or female rats. However, the metabolic profile of TRCP-derived radioactivity in urine was similar for both species. The major metabolite in urine of rats and mice was identified as bis(2-chloroethyl) carboxymethyl phosphate. Two additional metabolites common to both species were bis(2-chloroethyl) hydrogen phosphate and the glucuronide of bis(2-chloroethyl) 2-hydroxyethyl phosphate. The major sex-related variation consisted of up to 2-fold higher levels of TRCP present in plasma of female rats (vs male rats) 5-30 min following an oral dose of 175 mg/kg. TRCP metabolism in rats was not induced or inhibited by 9 daily 175 mg/kg doses. Toxicity, as evidenced by seizures, was potentiated in male rats pretreated with inhibitors of aldehyde dehydrogenase

  9. Metabolite analysis of [11C]Ro15-4513 in mice, rats, monkeys and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, T.; Noguchi, J.; Zhang, M.-R.; Suhara, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2003-01-01

    We performed in vitro and in vivo assays of the metabolism of [ 11 C]Ro15-4513 over time in the plasma of mice, rats, monkeys and humans, using a radio-HPLC equipped with a sensitive positron detector, in order to compare the metabolic rates of the radiopharmaceutical agent among the different animal species and to establish a highly sensitive analytical method for the radiotracer agent. We also examined the metabolism of [ 11 C]Ro15-4513 in the brain tissue of mice and rats. The analytical method used in this study permitted detection of even extremely low levels of radioactivity (approximately 5,000 dpm). In vitro experiments revealed that [ 11 C]Ro15-4513 in the blood was metabolized to hydrolysate [ 11 C]A. The species were classified in descending order of the metabolic rate of the radiotracer in vitro as follows; mice, rats, and monkeys/humans. In the in vitro experiment, the percentage of the unchanged drug in the plasma at 60 minutes postdose was 9% in mice, 70% in rats, 97% in monkeys, and 98% in humans. In vivo metabolite analysis in the blood showed the presence of two radioactive metabolites, consisting of one hydrolysate [ 11 C]A and another unidentified substance. The species were classified in descending order of the metabolic rate of the radiotracer in vivo as follows; mice, rats/humans, and monkeys. The percentage of the unchanged drug in the plasma was 6% in mice, 21% in rats, 26% in humans, and 40% in monkeys. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo experiments conducted to analyze the metabolism of [ 11 C]Ro15-4513 in the brain tissue of mice and rats revealed that the radiotracer was metabolized to some extent in the brain tissue of these animals. In the in vivo experiment, the percentage of the unchanged drug at 60 min postdose was 86% in the brain tissue of mice and 88% in the brain tissue of rats, while in the in vitro experiment, the corresponding percentage was 93% in mice, and 91% in rats

  10. A comparison of various methods of blood sampling in mice and rats: Effects on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harikrishnan, Vs; Hansen, Axel K; Abelson, Klas Sp

    2018-01-01

    -puncture activity and anxiety levels of rats and mice were measured using an elevated plus maze test and an open field test. Stress levels 24 h post-puncture were assessed by analysing faecal corticosteroid metabolites. Sucrose intake and faecal corticosteroid levels were not affected by the blood sampling...... procedures. Rats showed reduced activity in the open field test and an increased level of anxiety in the elevated plus maze test following retrobulbar plexus puncture and isoflurane anaesthesia. In mice, nest building activity was affected in all the groups compared with the control group, except for animals...... subjected to facial vein puncture. Retrobulbar sinus puncture, tail vein puncture and sublingual puncture in mice resulted in reduced activity and increased anxiety. We conclude that, of the tested methods, puncture of the tail vein and the sublingual vein have the least adverse effects in rats, whereas...

  11. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of dipropylene glycol in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooth, Michelle J; Herbert, Ronald A; Haseman, Joseph K; Orzech, Denise P; Johnson, Jerry D; Bucher, John R

    2004-11-15

    Dipropylene glycol (DPG) is a component of many commercial products such as antifreeze, air fresheners, cosmetic products, solvents, and plastics. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to DPG in the drinking water for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years. In the 2-week and 3-month studies, rats and mice were exposed to 0, 5000, 10,000, 20,000, 40,000, or 80,000 ppm DPG. There was no mortality in the 2-week studies. In the 3-month rat study, all animals survived to the end of the study. Liver weights of rats exposed to 10,000 ppm or greater and kidney weights of rats exposed to 40,000 and 80,000 ppm were greater than those of the controls. The incidences of liver and kidney lesions were significantly increased in males exposed to 20,000 ppm or greater and females exposed to 80,000 ppm. Focal olfactory epithelial degeneration was present in all rats exposed to 80,000 ppm. In males, the incidences of testicular atrophy, epididymal hypospermia, and preputial gland atrophy were significantly increased in the 80,000 ppm group. In the 3-month mouse study, three males and one female exposed to 80,000 ppm died. Liver weights were increased, as was the incidence of centrilobular hypertrophy in males exposed to 40,000 ppm and males and females exposed to 80,000 ppm. In the 2-year studies, exposure groups were 0, 2500 (rats only), 10,000, 20,000 (mice only) or 40,000 ppm DPG. Survival of male rats exposed to 40,000 ppm and mean body weights of males and females exposed to 40,000 ppm were significantly less than controls. In male rats, exposure to DPG resulted in increased incidences and severities of nephropathy and secondary lesions in the parathyroid and forestomach. Increased incidences of focal histiocytic and focal granulomatous inflammation of the liver were also observed. In male and female rats, there were increased incidences of bile duct hyperplasia and changes in the olfactory epithelium of the nose. In mice, survival of males and females was similar to

  12. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition enhances the intestinotrophic effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 in rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B; Thulesen, J; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2000-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) induces intestinal growth in mice; but in normal rats, it seems less potent, possibly because of degradation of GLP-2 by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival and effect of GLP-2 in rats and mice afte...

  13. Edible bird’s nest attenuates procoagulation effects of high-fat diet in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Umar Imam, Mustapha; Zhang,Yi Da; Ismail,Maznah; Ismail,Norsharina; Hou,Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Zhang Yida,1,2 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Maznah Ismail,1,3 Norsharina Ismail,1 Zhiping Hou1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Cardiology Department, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, Chengde, Hebei, People’s Republic of China; 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Edible bird&...

  14. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane: a multisite carcinogen in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R D; Haseman, J K; Eustis, S L

    1995-05-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane was evaluated in 2-year toxicology and carcinogenesis studies by the National Toxicology Program. The selection of this chemical for study was based on the potential for human exposure, its positive in vitro genotoxicity, and the carcinogenicity of structurally related chemicals. During the 2-year study 1,2,3-trichloropropane was administered in corn oil by gavage 5 days per week; groups of 60 F344/N rats received 0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg, while groups of 60 B6C3F1 mice received 0,6,20, or 60 mg/kg. Because of reduced survival associated with the development of chemical-related neoplasms, rats that received 30 mg/kg were terminated at 65 weeks (females) or 76 weeks (males). Similarly, mice that received 60 mg/kg were terminated at 73 weeks (females) or 79 weeks (males), while groups of mice that received 20 mg/kg were terminated at 88 weeks. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane induced benign and/or malignant neoplasms at multiple sites in both rats and mice; this included increased incidences of benign and malignant neoplasms of the squamous epithelium of the oral mucosa and forestomach of male and female rats, benign neoplasms of the kidney and pancreas and benign or malignant neoplasms of the preputial gland in male rats, malignant neoplasms of the mammary gland, and benign or malignant neoplasms of the clitoral gland in female rats. In mice, 1,2,3-trichloropropane induced a low incidence of malignant neoplasms of the oral mucosa in females, high incidences of benign and malignant neoplasms of the forestomach in males and females, benign neoplasms of the liver and harderian gland of males and females, and uterine neoplasms in females.

  15. Health surveillance of specific pathogen-free and conventionally-housed mice and rats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Seunghyeok; Park, Jonghwan; Cho, Suna; Baek, Minwon; Lee, Huiyoung; Kim, Dongjae; Yang, Kihwa; Jang, Dongdeuk; Han, Beomseok; Nam, Kitaek; Park, Jaehak

    2005-01-01

    The present study contains information about proper microbiological monitoring of laboratory animals' health and the standardization of microbiological monitoring methods in Korea. Microbiological quality control for laboratory animals, composed of biosecurity and health surveillance, is essential to guard against research complications and public health dangers that have been associated with adventitious infections. In this study, one hundred and twenty-two mice and ninety rats from laboratory animal breeding companies and one animal facility of the national universities in Korea were monitored in 2000-2003. Histopathologically, thickening of the alveolar walls and lymphocytic infiltration around the bronchioles were observed in mice and rats from microbiologically contaminated facilities. Cryptosporidial oocysts were observed in the gastric pits of only conventionally-housed mice and rats. Helicobacter spp. infection was also detected in 1 of 24 feces DNA samples in mice and 9 of 40 feces DNA samples in rats by PCR in 2003, but they were not Helicobacter hepaticus. This paper describes bacteriological, parasitological, and virological examinations of the animals.

  16. Review of CO₂ as a Euthanasia Agent for Laboratory Rats and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Gregory P; Hickman, Debra L; Creamer-Hente, Michelle A; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Bratcher, Natalie A

    2017-09-01

    Selecting an appropriate, effective euthanasia agent is controversial. Several recent publications provide clarity on the use of CO2 in laboratory rats and mice. This review examines previous studies on CO2 euthanasia and presents the current body of knowledge on the subject. Potential areas for further investigation and recommendations are provided.

  17. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. The influence of starvation upon hepatic drug metabolism in rats, mice, and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, R. L.; Feller, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    Male rats, mice, and guinea pigs were starved for 1, 2, or 3 days, and the metabolism of ethylmorphine, p-nitroanisole, and aniline was studied. Results suggest that the oxidative enzyme systems studied are not interdependent, and the pathways studied appear to be species dependent.

  20. Review of CO2 as a Euthanasia Agent for Laboratory Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Gregory P; Hickman, Debra L; Creamer-Hente, Michelle A; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Bratcher, Natalie A

    2017-01-01

    Selecting an appropriate, effective euthanasia agent is controversial. Several recent publications provide clarity on the use of CO2 in laboratory rats and mice. This review examines previous studies on CO2 euthanasia and presents the current body of knowledge on the subject. Potential areas for further investigation and recommendations are provided. PMID:28903819

  1. 9 CFR 355.16 - Control of flies, rats, mice, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of flies, rats, mice, etc. 355.16 Section 355.16 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. Standardisation of environmental enrichment for laboratory mice and rats: Utilisation, practicality and variation in experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumans, V.; Loo, P.L.P. van; Pham, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Rats and mice are the most commonly used species as laboratory animal models of diseases in biomedical research. Environmental factors such as cage size, number of cage mates and cage structure such as environmental enrichment can affect the physiology and behavioural development of laboratory

  3. The Modified Hole Board - Measuring Behavior, Cognition and Social Interaction in Mice and Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labots, Maaike; Van Lith, Hein A.; Ohl, Frauke; Arndt, Saskia S.

    This protocol describes the modified hole board (mHB), which combines features from a traditional hole board and open field and is designed to measure multiple dimensions of unconditioned behavior in small laboratory mammals (e.g., mice, rats, tree shrews and small primates). This paradigm is a

  4. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-11-01

    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. The Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Students use a dead bird to learn about bird life, anatomy, and death. Students examine a bird body and discuss what happened to the bird. Uses outdoor education as a resource for learning about animals. (SAH)

  6. Dose dependent transfer of 203lead to milk and tissue uptake in suckling offspring studied in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palminger Hallen, I.; Oskarsson, A.

    1993-01-01

    The dose-dependent transfer of 203 Pb to milk and uptake in suckling rats and mice during a three-day nursing period was studied. On day 14 of lactation, the dams were administered a single intravenous dose of lead, labelled with 203 Pb, in four or five doses from 0.0005 to 2.0 mg Pb/kg b.wt. There was a linear relationship between Pb levels in plasma and milk of both species. The Pb milk: plasma ratios at 24 hr after administration were 119 and 89 in mice and rats, respectively. At 72 hr the Pb milk: plasma ratio had decreased to 72 in mice and 35 in rats. The tissue levels of lead in the suckling rats and mice were also linearly correlated with lead concentration in milk at 72 hr, showing that milk could be used as an indicator of lead exposure to the suckling offspring. It is concluded that lead is transported into rat and mouse milk to a very high extent and the excretion into milk is more efficient in mice than in rats. On the other hand, rat pups had higher lead levels in tissues than mice pups, which might be due to a higher bioavailability and/or a lower excretion of lead in rat pups. Thus, lead in breast milk could be used as a biological indicator of lead exposure in the mother as well as in the suckling offspring. (au) (38 refs.)

  7. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  8. Relation of type-C RNA virus infectivity and leukemogenesis in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Kenji; Ito, Takaaki; Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1976-01-01

    Observation was made as to movement of type-C RNA virus infectivity in the process of leukemogensis induced by Gross virus, N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU), or, x-ray. Total dose of 680 R in 4 times was given to the whole body or parts of the body at intervals of 5 days. Thymic leukemia occurred in 100% or rats which were inoculated with type-C RNA virus at the period of newborn 64 days after, on the average. Infectious titer of virus rose only in thymus toward leukemogenesis. Thymic leukemia was induced 100% in mice by NEU 122 days after, but its incidence was 9% of mice of which thymus was extracted. Leukemia virus was not detected in non-extracted thymus of mice, and pattern of virus infectivity in other organs did not show any difference with that of mice of which thymus was extracted. Virus showed high infectious titer in uterus of mice of both groups. Leukemia occurred 87% in the whole body irradiated mice, 15% in partially irradiated mice, and 39% in mice of which thymus was extracted and the whole body was irradiated. Virus did not show any homeostatic infectious titer in three kinds of leukemia, but it showed high infectious titer in uterus. (Kanao, N.)

  9. High blood pressure in transgenic mice carrying the rat angiotensinogen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, S; Mullins, J J; Bunnemann, B; Metzger, R; Hilgenfeldt, U; Zimmermann, F; Jacob, H; Fuxe, K; Ganten, D; Kaling, M

    1992-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated by injecting the entire rat angiotensinogen gene into the germline of NMRI mice. The resulting transgenic animals were characterized with respect to hemodynamics, parameters of the renin angiotension system, and expression of the transgene. The transgenic line TGM(rAOGEN)123 developed hypertension with a mean arterial blood pressure of 158 mmHg in males and 132 mmHg in females. In contrast, the transgenic line TGM(rAOGEN)92 was not hypertensive. Rat angiotensinogen was detectable only in plasma of animals of line 123. Total plasma angiotensinogen and plasma angiotensin II concentrations were about three times as high as those of negative control mice. In TGM(rAOGEN)123 the transgene was highly expressed in liver and brain. Transcripts were also detected in heart, kidney and testis. In TGM(rAOGEN)92 the brain was the main expressing organ. In situ hybridization revealed an mRNA distribution in the brain of TGM(rAOGEN)123 similar to the one in rat. In TGM(rAOGEN)92 the expression pattern in the brain was aberrant. These data indicate that overexpression of the angiotensinogen gene in liver and brain leads to the development of hypertension in transgenic mice. The TGM(rAOGEN)123 constitutes a high angiotensin II type of hypertension and may provide a new experimental animal model to study the kinetics and function of the renin angiotensin system. Images PMID:1547785

  10. A neurorobotic platform for locomotor prosthetic development in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zitzewitz, Joachim; Asboth, Leonie; Fumeaux, Nicolas; Hasse, Alexander; Baud, Laetitia; Vallery, Heike; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-04-01

    Objectives. We aimed to develop a robotic interface capable of providing finely-tuned, multidirectional trunk assistance adjusted in real-time during unconstrained locomotion in rats and mice. Approach. We interfaced a large-scale robotic structure actuated in four degrees of freedom to exchangeable attachment modules exhibiting selective compliance along distinct directions. This combination allowed high-precision force and torque control in multiple directions over a large workspace. We next designed a neurorobotic platform wherein real-time kinematics and physiological signals directly adjust robotic actuation and prosthetic actions. We tested the performance of this platform in both rats and mice with spinal cord injury. Main Results. Kinematic analyses showed that the robotic interface did not impede locomotor movements of lightweight mice that walked freely along paths with changing directions and height profiles. Personalized trunk assistance instantly enabled coordinated locomotion in mice and rats with severe hindlimb motor deficits. Closed-loop control of robotic actuation based on ongoing movement features enabled real-time control of electromyographic activity in anti-gravity muscles during locomotion. Significance. This neurorobotic platform will support the study of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of locomotor prosthetics and rehabilitation using high-resolution genetic tools in rodent models.

  11. Expression of Sirtuins in the Retinal Neurons of Mice, Rats, and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdou Luo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuins are a class of histone deacetylases (HDACs that have been shown to regulate a range of pathophysiological processes such as cellular aging, inflammation, metabolism, and cell proliferation. There are seven mammalian Sirtuins (SIRT1-7 that play important roles in stress response, aging, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the location and function of Sirtuins in neurons are not well defined. This study assessed the retinal expression of Sirtuins in mice, rats, and humans and measured the expression of Sirtuins in aged and injured retinas. Expression of all 7 Sirtuins was confirmed by Western blot and Real-Time PCR analysis in all three species. SIRT1 is highly expressed in mouse, rat, and human retinas, whereas SIRT2-7 expression was relatively lower in human retinas. Immunofluorescence was also used to examine the expression and localization of Sirtuins in rat retinal neurons. Importantly, we demonstrate a marked reduction of SIRT1 expression in aged retinal neurons as well as retinas injured by acute ischemia-reperfusion. On the other hand, none of the other Sirtuins exhibit any significant age-related changes in expression except for SIRT5, which was significantly higher in the retinas of adults compared to both young and aged rats. Our work presents the first composite analysis of Sirtuins in the retinal neurons of mice, rats, and humans, and suggests that increasing the expression and activity of SIRT1 may be beneficial for the treatment of glaucoma and other age-related eye dysfunction.

  12. Sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to diagnose pinworm (Syphacia spp.) infections in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred M; Mandrell, Timothy D

    2009-07-01

    We determined the sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to detect Syphacia spp. in rats and mice. We evaluated 300 rat and 200 mouse perianal impressions over 9 wk. Pinworm-positive perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens at necropsy were considered as true positives. Conversely, pinworm-negative perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens were considered false negatives. The sensitivity of perianal tape impressions for detecting Syphacia muris infections in rats was 100%, and for detecting Syphacia obvelata in mice was 85.5%. Intermittent shedding of Syphacia obvelata ova is the most probable explanation for the decreased sensitivity rate we observed in mice. We urge caution in use of perianal tape impressions alone for Syphacia spp. screening in sentinel mice and rats.

  13. Three distinct subsets of thymic epithelial cells in rats and mice defined by novel antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Sawanobori

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are thought to play an essential role in T cell development and have been detected mainly in mice using lectin binding and antibodies to keratins. Our aim in the present study was to create a precise map of rat TECs using antibodies to putative markers and novel monoclonal antibodies (i.e., ED 18/19/21 and anti-CD205 antibodies and compare it with a map from mouse counterparts and that of rat thymic dendritic cells.Rat TECs were subdivided on the basis of phenotype into three subsets; ED18+ED19+/-keratin 5 (K5+K8+CD205+ class II MHC (MHCII+ cortical TECs (cTECs, ED18+ED21-K5-K8+Ulex europaeus lectin 1 (UEA-1+CD205- medullary TECs (mTEC1s, and ED18+ED21+K5+K8dullUEA-1-CD205- medullary TECs (mTEC2s. Thymic nurse cells were defined in cytosmears as an ED18+ED19+/-K5+K8+ subset of cTECs. mTEC1s preferentially expressed MHCII, claudin-3, claudin-4, and autoimmune regulator (AIRE. Use of ED18 and ED21 antibodies revealed three subsets of TECs in mice as well. We also detected two distinct TEC-free areas in the subcapsular cortex and in the medulla. Rat dendritic cells in the cortex were MHCII+CD103+ but negative for TEC markers, including CD205. Those in the medulla were MHCII+CD103+ and CD205+ cells were found only in the TEC-free area.Both rats and mice have three TEC subsets with similar phenotypes that can be identified using known markers and new monoclonal antibodies. These findings will facilitate further analysis of TEC subsets and DCs and help to define their roles in thymic selection and in pathological states such as autoimmune disorders.

  14. Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled tertiary amyl methyl ether in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Frank; Elswick, Barbara; James, R Arden; Marr, Melissa C; Myers, Christina B; Tyl, Rochelle W

    2003-01-01

    This evaluation was part of a much more comprehensive testing program to characterize the mammalian toxicity potential of the gasoline oxygenator additive tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), and was initiated upon a regulatory agency mandate. A developmental toxicity hazard identification study was conducted by TAME vapor inhalation exposure in two pregnant rodent species. Timed-pregnant CD(Sprague-Dawley) rats and CD-1 mice, 25 animals per group, inhaled TAME vapors containing 0, 250, 1500 or 3500 ppm for 6 h a day on gestational days 6-16 (mice) or 6-19 (rats). The developmental toxicity hazard potential was evaluated following the study design draft guidelines and end points proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Based on maternal body weight changes during pregnancy, the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 250 ppm for maternal toxicity in rats and 1500 ppm for developmental toxicity in rats using the criterion of near-term fetal body weights. In mice, more profound developmental toxicity was present than in rats, at both 1500 and 3500 ppm. At the highest concentration, mouse litters revealed more late fetal deaths, significantly reduced fetal body weights per litter and increased incidences of cleft palate (classified as an external malformation), as well as enlarged lateral ventricles of the cerebrum (a visceral variation). At 1500 ppm, mouse fetuses also exhibited an increased incidence of cleft palate and the dam body weights were reduced. Therefore, the NOAEL for the mouse maternal and developmental toxicity was 250 ppm under the conditions of this study. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Opioid microinjection into raphe magnus modulates cardiorespiratory function in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Kevin M; Mendelson, Scott J; Mendez-Duarte, Marco A; Russell, James L; Mason, Peggy

    2009-11-01

    The raphe magnus (RM) participates in opioid analgesia and contains pain-modulatory neurons with respiration-related discharge. Here, we asked whether RM contributes to respiratory depression, the most prevalent lethal effect of opioids. To investigate whether opioidergic transmission in RM produces respiratory depression, we microinjected a mu-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, or morphine into the RM of awake rodents. In mice, opioid microinjection produced sustained decreases in respiratory rate (170 to 120 breaths/min), as well as heart rate (520 to 400 beats/min). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, indicative of enhanced parasympathetic activity, was prevalent in mice receiving DAMGO microinjection. We performed similar experiments in rats but observed no changes in breathing rate or heart rate. Both rats and mice experienced significantly more episodes of bradypnea, indicative of impaired respiratory drive, after opioid microinjection. During spontaneous arousals, rats showed less tachycardia after opioid microinjection than before microinjection, suggestive of an attenuated sympathetic tone. Thus, activation of opioidergic signaling within RM produces effects beyond analgesia, including the unwanted destabilization of cardiorespiratory function. These adverse effects on homeostasis consequent to opioid microinjection imply a role for RM in regulating the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic tone.

  16. Comparative analysis of acid sphingomyelinase distribution in the CNS of rats and mice following intracerebroventricular delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Treleaven

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick A (NPA disease is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD caused by a deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM activity. Previously, we reported that biochemical and functional abnormalities observed in ASM knockout (ASMKO mice could be partially alleviated by intracerebroventricular (ICV infusion of hASM. We now show that this route of delivery also results in widespread enzyme distribution throughout the rat brain and spinal cord. However, enzyme diffusion into CNS parenchyma did not occur in a linear dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, although the levels of hASM detected in the rat CNS were determined to be within the range shown to be therapeutic in ASMKO mice, the absolute amounts represented less than 1% of the total dose administered. Finally, our results also showed that similar levels of enzyme distribution are achieved across rodent species when the dose is normalized to CNS weight as opposed to whole body weight. Collectively, these data suggest that the efficacy observed following ICV delivery of hASM in ASMKO mice could be scaled to CNS of the rat.

  17. Intraperitoneal Injection of Ethanol for the Euthanasia of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal H; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-11-01

    Compassion, professional ethics, and public sensitivity require that animals are euthanized humanely and appropriately under both planned and emergent situations. According to the 2013 AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, intraperitoneal injection of ethanol is "acceptable with conditions" for use in mice. Because only limited information regarding this technique is available, we sought to evaluate ethanol by using ECG and high-definition video recording. Mice (n = 85) and rats (n = 16) were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol (70% or 100%), a positive-control agent (pentobarbital-phenytoin combination [Pe/Ph]), or a negative-control agent (saline solution). After injection, animals were assessed for behavioral and physiologic responses. Pain-assessment techniques in mice demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was not more painful than was intraperitoneal Pe/Ph. Median time to loss of consciousness for all mice that received ethanol or Pe/Ph was 45 s. Median time to respiratory arrest was 2.75, 2.25, and 2.63 min, and time (mean ± SE) to cardiac arrest was 6.04 ± 1.3, 2.96 ± 0.6, and 4.03 ± 0.5 min for 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and Pe/Ph, respectively. No mouse that received ethanol or Pe/Ph regained consciousness. Although successful in mice, intraperitoneal ethanol at the doses tested (9.2 to 20.1 g/kg) was unsuitable for euthanasia of rats (age, 7 to 8 wk) because of the volume needed and prolonged time to respiratory effects. For mice, intraperitoneal injection of 70% or 100% ethanol induced rapid and irreversible loss of consciousness, followed by death, and should be considered as "acceptable with conditions."

  18. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  19. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  20. Differential Postnatal Expression of Neuronal Maturation Markers in the Dentate Gyrus of Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Radic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The dentate gyrus (DG is a unique structure of the hippocampus that is distinguished by ongoing neurogenesis throughout the lifetime of an organism. The development of the DG, which begins during late gestation and continues during the postnatal period, comprises the structural formation of the DG as well as the establishment of the adult neurogenic niche in the subgranular zone (SGZ. We investigated the time course of postnatal maturation of the DG in male C57BL/6J mice and male Sprague-Dawley rats based on the distribution patterns of the immature neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX and a marker for mature neurons, calbindin (CB. Our findings demonstrate that the postnatal DG is marked by a substantial maturation with a high number of DCX-positive granule cells (GCs during the first two postnatal weeks followed by a progression toward more mature patterns and increasing numbers of CB-positive GCs within the subsequent 2 weeks. The most substantial shift in maturation of the GC population took place between P7 and P14 in both mice and rats, when young, immature DCX-positive GCs became confined to the innermost part of the GC layer (GCL, indicative of the formation of the SGZ. These results suggest that the first month of postnatal development represents an important transition phase during which DG neurogenesis and the maturation course of the GC population becomes analogous to the process of adult neurogenesis. Therefore, the postnatal DG could serve as an attractive model for studying a growing and functionally maturing neural network. Direct comparisons between mice and rats revealed that the transition from immature DCX-positive to mature CB-positive GCs occurs more rapidly in the rat by approximately 4–6 days. The remarkable species difference in the speed of maturation on the GC population level may have important implications for developmental and neurogenesis research in different rodent species and strains.

  1. Experimental study of neuropharmacological profile of Euphorbia pulcherrima in mice and rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundan Kr Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Euphorbia pulcherrima (EP belongs to the family: Euphorbiaceae and Genus: Euphorbia. Many species of Euphorbia have been reported as having beneficial properties like anticonvulsive effect, central analgesic properties, antipyretic action, central depressant action and strong sedative effect. However, little study has been done and published on EP. Aims: To observe and evaluate various neuropharmacological effects like antinociceptive effect, anticonvulsant effect, motor in-coordination, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats. Setting and Design: Quantitative experimental study in mice and rats by various experimental models. Materials and Methods: Different experimental models were used to assess the antinociceptive effect (hotplate, tail flick and acetic acid induced writhing test, anticonvulsant effect (Maximal Electroshock Seizure test [MES] and Pentylenetetrazole induced seizures [PTZ], motor in-coordination effect (Rota rod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time and behavioral responses of EP in mice and rats after oral administration of EP crude dried extracts in three different doses (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg. Statistical Analysis Used: The significance of difference with respect to control was evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. A probability (P-value level less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In MES test model, duration of tonic hind limb extension in mice treated with EP was significantly less as compared to vehicle treated group. EP was most effective in a dose of 1000 mg/kg. There was also significant increase in the latency and decrease in the incidence of convulsions with the use of EP in three different doses in PTZ induced seizure model. Conclusions: This study showed EP (crude dried extracts to possess anticonvulsant properties but no effect on motor co-ordination and anxiety.

  2. Comparison of hepatotoxicity and metabolism of butyltin compounds in the liver of mice, rats and guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Shunji; Kashimoto, Takashige; Susa, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Masamitsu; Chiba, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Higashi 23-35-1, 034-8628, Towada-shi, Aomori (Japan); Mutoh, Ken-ichiro [Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Higashi 23-35-1, 034-8628, Towada-shi, Aomori (Japan); School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Higashi 23-35-1, 034-8628, Towada-shi, Aomori (Japan); Hoshi, Fumio [Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Higashi 23-35-1, 034-8628, Towada-shi, Aomori (Japan); Suzuki, Takashi [Laboratory of Environmental Health and Toxicology, Kyoto Prefectural University, Hangi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, 606-5822, Kyoto (Japan); Sugiyama, Masayasu [Sugiyama Pharmacy, 1335-1 Shimotama, Tamagawa-cho, 759-3112, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The hepatotoxicity of tributyltin chloride (TBTC) and dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) was compared among mice, rats and guinea pigs in vivo. Further, the metabolism of these butyltin compounds in the liver was also investigated in these species. The oral administration of TBTC and DBTC to mice induced obvious liver injury, as demonstrated by both serodiagnosis and histopathological diagnosis. The concentrations of TBTC and DBTC that induced hepatotoxicity in mice at 24 h after oral administration were 180 and 60 {mu}mol/kg, respectively. In the case of rats, the liver injury induced by TBTC and DBTC was detected at 24 h by the serodiagnosis, but not by histopathological diagnosis. On the other hand, in guinea pigs, TBTC and DBTC administration did not produce any clear liver injury at 24 h, as evaluated by these two diagnostic methods. Thus, the following ranking was obtained with regard to increasing order of sensitivity to liver injury caused by TBTC and DBTC: mice, rats and guinea pigs. The total butyltin contents in the liver of mice were equivalent at 3 h and 24 h after the administration of TBTC or DBTC; however, the contents in the liver of rats and guinea pigs were relatively lower at 3 h and higher at 24 h than those of mice, although there were no differences between rats and guinea pigs in the total liver butyltin content. Concerning the liver metabolism of these butyltin compounds, the main form of butyltin compounds in these animals treated with TBTC was DBTC within 3 h after oral administration, while the main metabolites at 24 h were different in each species, indicating that the liver metabolism of TBTC might vary by animal type. When the animals were treated with DBTC orally, DBTC was hardly metabolized in the livers of these animals even at 24 h, and the liver levels of DBTC were two times greater in mice and guinea pigs than in rats at 3 h and were lower in mice at 24 h than in rats and guinea pigs. The analysis of cellular distributions of DBTC in

  3. Opposite lipemic response of Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice to dietary glucose or fructose supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Barbosa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic effects of carbohydrate supplementation in mice have not been extensively studied. In rats, glucose- and fructose-rich diets induce hypertriacylglycerolemia. In the present study, we compared the metabolic responses to two monosaccharide supplementations in two murine models. Adult male Wistar rats (N = 80 and C57BL/6 mice (N = 60, after 3 weeks on a standardized diet, were submitted to dietary supplementation by gavage with glucose (G or fructose (F solutions (500 g/L, 8 g/kg body weight for 21 days. Glycemia was significantly higher in rats after fructose treatment (F: 7.9 vs 9.3 mM and in mice (G: 6.5 vs 10 and F: 6.6 vs 8.9 mM after both carbohydrate treatments. Triacylglycerolemia increased significantly 1.5 times in rats after G or F supplementation. Total cholesterol did not change with G treatment in rats, but did decrease after F supplementation (1.5 vs 1.4 mM, P < 0.05. Both supplementations in rats induced insulin resistance, as suggested by the higher Homeostasis Model Assessment Index. In contrast, mice showed significant decreases in triacylglycerol (G: 1.8 vs 1.4 and F: 1.9 vs 1.4 mM, P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (G and F: 2.7 vs 2.5 mM, P < 0.05 after both monosaccharide supplementations. Wistar rats and C57BL/6 mice, although belonging to the same family (Muridae, presented opposite responses to glucose and fructose supplementation regarding serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, and insulin levels after monosaccharide treatment. Thus, while Wistar rats developed features of plurimetabolic syndrome, C57BL/6 mice presented changes in serum biochemical profile considered to be healthier for the cardiovascular system.

  4. In vitro gamma irradiation Medical Center of leukemic cells in mice, rats, and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, L.; Dreyfuss, Y.; Ehrenreich, T.; Feldman, D.; Limbert, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    In vitro gamma irradiation of virus-induced (Gross) mouse leukemia cells at doses of 350 to 1600 rads (1 rad = 0.01 gray) had no effect on their ability to induce leukemia, usually within 2 weeks, after transplantation into syngeneic mice. However, when cells irradiated at doses of 2000-20,000 rads were transplanted, they induced leukemia after a latency period exceeding 2.5 months, similar to the results observed in mice inoculated with filtered mouse leukemia extracts. Similar results were also obtained after irradiation of leukemic cells derived from rats in which leukemia had been induced by rat-adapted mouse leukemia virus. Apparently, gamma irradiation at a dose of, or exceeding, 2000 rads, inhibits the ability of mouse and rat leukemic cells to induce leukemia after transplantation into syngeneic hosts; however, it does not inactivate the virus carried by such cells nor prevent it from inducing leukemia. [In previous experiments, doses of more than 4,500,000 rads were needed to inactivate the passage A (Gross) leukemia virus carried in either mouse or rat leukemic cells.] In vitro gamma irradiation of L2C guinea pig leukemic cells at doses of 750 to 2500 rads had no apparent effect on their ability to induce leukemia after transplantation into strain 2 guinea pigs. However, irradiation at doses of 3250 to 20,000 rads inactivated their ability to do so. The morphology of mouse, rat, and guinea pig leukemic cells and the virus particles present in such cells was not affected by irradiation at doses of 20,000 rads

  5. Eosinophilic spleen colonies are produced in rat-marrow-transplanted but not in murine-marrow-transplanted mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, L.G.; Kelemen, E.

    1988-01-01

    Differential counts of about 5000 splenic clusters and colonies developing in whole-body-irradiated mice and rats were made, using semi-serial histological sections prepared 9 to 12 d after transplantation with bone marrow haemopoietic cells. The investigated mouse and rat spleens were from syngeneically, allogeneically, or xenogeneically transplanted recipients. Splenic eosinophil clusters were always found when rat eosinophil-producing progenitors were present in the inoculum, whereas murine inocula failed to produce splenic eosinophilic clusters even in the syngeneic mouse. The limiting factor in the production pf splenic eosinophilic clusters was the appropriate donor progenitor/committed stem cell itself. Changes in the percentages of eosinophil clusters with the number of injected cells and with increased doses of irradiation, as well as formation of rat eosinophil colonies in mice, as against mainly clusters in rats, themselves show that regulatory mechanisms of the recipients also play a role. These regulatory mechanisms cannot be attributed to the splenic microenvironment. (author)

  6. Sensory dynamics of intense microwave irradiation: A comparative study of aversive behaviors by mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D.R.

    1981-10-01

    The results of two experiments are reported, the first on 24 mice and 14 rats, all experimentally naive, that were observed for evidence of adventitious escape from faradic shock or from a potentially lethal, 2450-MHz microwave field in a multi-mode cavity. All of ten rats irradiated at a whole-body-averaged dose rate of 60 mW/g convulsed and expired, presumably from radiation-induced hyperpyrexia. Eight of ten mice irradiated at 60 mW/g survived the four sessions of irradiation, but reliable evidence of escape learning was not observed. The data of the second experiment, which was a pilot study of four rats with an extensive history of exposure to intense but intermittently applied microwave fields, revealed that the animals learned to thermoregulate behaviorally by locomoting in and out of the safe-area circle. A strong relation between dose rate (30, 60, and 120 mW/g) and proportion of time spent in the safe area was observed (r = .97). Post-exposure means of colonic temperature during three sets of sessions under the different rates of energy dosing were highly stable and averaged 39.6 deg C.

  7. Montmorillonite ameliorates hyperthyroidism of rats and mice attributed to its adsorptive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Meng, Xin-fang; Cao, Yong-xiao; Lu, Hua; Zhu, Shao-fei; Zhou, Liang-zhen

    2006-12-03

    The present study aims to evaluate the adsorbing effect of montmorillonite on thyroid hormone in the entero-hepatic circulation. The concentration of thyroid hormone in the serum of hyperthyroidism model rats and in solution was measured by radioimmunoassay and ultraviolet spectrometry, respectively. The body weight, temperature, and consumption of food and water were observed in hyperthyroidism model rats. Furthermore, hypoxia tolerance, sodium-pentobarbital-induced sleep time, spontaneous activities were measured on hyperthyroidism model mice after being treated with montmorillonite. Results showed that montmorillonite adsorbed thyroxin (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) in vitro. Montmorillonite at dosage of 1.0 g/kg and 0.3 g/kg decreased thyroid hormone levels on hyperthyroidism model rats; Montmorillonite (2.0 g/kg and 0.6 g/kg) prolonged the sleep time, improved the hypoxia tolerant capacity and reduced the spontaneous activities of the hyperthyroidism model mice. These results suggest montmorillonite has anti-hyperthyroidism effect attributed to its adsorptive effect.

  8. CM 40907: a structurally novel anticonvulsant in mice, rats and baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambon, J.P.; Brochard, J.; Hallot, A.; Heaulme, M.; Brodin, R.; Roncucci, R.; Biziere, K.

    1985-01-01

    CM 40907 [3-(4-hydroxypiperidyl)-6-(2'-chlorophenyl)-pyridazine] is a chemically original compound which possesses the pharmacological properties of a potent, p.o. active anticonvulsant. The anticonvulsant activity of CM 40907 was examined in mice, rats and photosensitive Papio-papio baboons and compared to that of phenobarbital, diphenylhydantoin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate and ethosuximide. In mice, CM 40907 antagonized electroconvulsive shock and chemically induced seizures with an overall potency comparable to that of carbamazepine and a therapeutic ratio (ED50 rotorod/ED50 electroshock) superior to that of ethosuximide, sodium valproate, phenobarbital and carbamazepine. In the rat CM 40907 suppressed completed kindled amygdaloid seizures and was approximately as active as phenobarbital. In naturally photosensitive Senegalese Papio-papio baboons CM 40907 antagonized myoclonus and cortical paroxysmal discharges. In this model CM 40907 was approximately one-fourth as potent as phenobarbital, twice as potent as carbamazepine and 6 times more potent than sodium valproate. In mice CM 40907, at anticonvulsant doses, increased the affinity of [ 3 H]flunitrazepam for its central receptor site. Based on these results it is postulated that CM 40907 is a potent and relatively nonsedative anticonvulsant and may be of therapeutic benefit in epileptic disorders

  9. Studies on distribution and excretion of 14C-glycerol in rats, rabbits and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takanashi, Shigeru; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hidetaka; Tohira, Yasuo; Ogawa, Machiko

    1978-01-01

    Tissue distribution and excretion of uniformly labeled 14 C-glycerol were investigated using rats, rabbits and mice. Blood disappearance half life of 14 W/V% 14 C-glycerol in mice (1 ml/head), rats (1 ml/head) and rabbits (2 ml/head) given intravenously was 0.4, 1.8 and 2.4 hours, respectively. When 14 W/V% 14 C-glycerol was injected in rats (1 ml/head) and rabbits (2 ml/head), 65% of administered radioactivity was excreted in to expired air within 48 hrs. This suggests that glycerol is mostly metabolised via the Embden-Meyehof pathway and the TCA cycle, and finally converted to CO 2 and H 2 O. At a low dose, the conversion ratio to CO 2 was greater than the case of a high dose, and a inverse relationship was observed between the CO 2 -conversion ratio and the dose. At levels above 1 ml of 56 W/V% glycerol, an approximately constant portion of the administered dose appeared to be oxidized. The results of the whole body autoradiogram showed the distribution of the radioactivity throughout the body. Disappearance of radioactivity from liver and blood was rapid, but transport to brain, excretion to the salivary gland, and secretion to Harder's gland were slow. The distribution in tissues showed that the highest distribution of 14 C-glycerol was found in the carcass; liver showed the next highest distribution; high distribution was also found initially in the kidneys; brain, heart, lung and spleen showed low distribution, but they decreased with time elapsed. Disappearance of radioactivity from the brain was relatively slower than the liver. Besides, another result indicated that in pregnant mice 14 C-glycerol did not cross the placenta very quickly. The fact that the apparent disappearance rate from the foetuses does not seem to parallel that of the placenta is suggestive of selective accumulation in foetal tissues. (auth.)

  10. Jet fuel kerosene is not immunosuppressive in mice or rats following inhalation for 28 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kimber L; DeLorme, Michael P; Beatty, Patrick W; Smith, Matthew J; Peachee, Vanessa L

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that inhalation of JP-8 aviation turbine fuel is immunosuppressive. However, in some of those studies, the exposure concentrations were underestimated, and percent of test article as vapor or aerosol was not determined. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the observed effects are attributable to the base hydrocarbon fuel (jet fuel kerosene) or to the various fuel additives in jet fuels. The present studies were conducted, in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, to evaluate the effects of jet fuel kerosene on the immune system, in conjunction with an accurate, quantitative characterization of the aerosol and vapor exposure concentrations. Two female rodent species (B6C3F1 mice and Crl:CD rats) were exposed by nose-only inhalation to jet fuel kerosene at targeted concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/m(3) for 6 h daily for 28 d. Humoral, cell-mediated, and innate immune functions were subsequently evaluated. No marked effects were observed in either species on body weights, spleen or thymus weights, the T-dependent antibody-forming cell response (plaque assay), or the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. With a few exceptions, spleen cell numbers and phenotypes were also unaffected. Natural killer (NK) cell activity in mice was unaffected, while the NK assessment in rats was not usable due to an unusually low response in all groups. These studies demonstrate that inhalation of jet fuel kerosene for 28 d at levels up to 2000 mg/m(3) did not adversely affect the functional immune responses of female mice and rats.

  11. Toxicological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bark in Mice and Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Y. A.; Veeranjaneyulu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the methanol extract (ME) of the Gmelina arborea stem bark. Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, ME of G. arborea was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 300–5000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the Wistar rats of either sex were orally administered with ME of G. arborea at the doses of 300, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for a period of 28 days. The effects...

  12. THE EFFECT OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DNA ADDUCTION AND CYTOGENETIC DAMAGE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE AND RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mice and rats affects the induction of cytogenetic endpoints and DNA adduction. Both mice and rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg of benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), benzo[b]fl...

  13. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report, April 1975 -- March 1976. [Rats, mice, cattle, /sup 125/I, /sup 131/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations during the past twelve months have included the following subjects: factors which influence release of radioiodine from thyroid glands; contamination of commercially available low-iodine diets; effects of hypoxia on release of iodine from thyroid glands of rats and mice; development of practical tests for available iodine in low-iodine diets; reproduction and abnormal thyroglobulin of rats maintained on low-iodine diets; observations on radioactivity in animal thyroids; collaboration with other laboratories regarding radium in bovine thyroids.

  14. Acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rats and mice: Comparison of protein adducts, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the mechanism of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Williams, C. David; Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2012-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the West. In mice, APAP hepatotoxicity can be rapidly induced with a single dose. Because it is both clinically relevant and experimentally convenient, APAP intoxication has become a popular model of liver injury. Early data demonstrated that rats are resistant to APAP toxicity. As a result, mice are the preferred species for mechanistic studies. Furthermore, recent work has shown that the mechanisms of APAP toxicity in humans are similar to mice. Nevertheless, some investigators still use rats. New mechanistic information from the last forty years invites a reevaluation of the differences between these species. Comparison may provide interesting insights and confirm or exclude the rat as an option for APAP studies. To this end, we treated rats and mice with APAP and measured parameters of liver injury, APAP metabolism, oxidative stress, and activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Consistent with earlier data, we found that rats were highly resistant to APAP toxicity. Although overall APAP metabolism was similar in both species, mitochondrial protein adducts were significantly lower in rats. Accordingly, rats also had less oxidative stress. Finally, while mice showed extensive activation and mitochondrial translocation of JNK, this could not be detected in rat livers. These data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is critical for the development of necrosis after APAP treatment. Because mitochondrial damage also occurs in humans, rats are not a clinically relevant species for studies of APAP hepatotoxicity. Highlights: ► Acetaminophen overdose causes severe liver injury only in mice but not in rats. ► APAP causes hepatic GSH depletion and protein adduct formation in rats and mice. ► Less protein adducts were measured in rat liver mitochondria compared to mouse. ► No oxidant stress, peroxynitrite formation or JNK activation was present in rats. ► The

  15. Screamy Bird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarby, Sara; Cermak, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016.......Sara Tarby, Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath. Screamy Bird. Digital game. Kulturnatten 2016, Danish Science Ministry, Copenhagen, DK, Oct 14, 2016....

  16. Distribution of 18F-5-fluorouracil in tumor-bearing mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.; Wolf, W.; Schlesinger, T.

    1978-01-01

    Extensive distribution studies of 18 F-5-fluorouracil ( 18 F-5-FU) in control and tumor-bearing mice (seven lines) and rats (eight lines) that have been shown or suspected to be responsive to 5-FU treatment were investigated with 18 F-5-FU. Studies were performed as a function of time, loading dose of 5-FU, and after a pretreatment regimen of 5-FU. Following the parenteral administration of 18 F-5-FU to tumor-bearing mice and rats there was slight preferential uptake by some of the tumor types, particularly subcutaneous leukemic tumors and breast adenocarcinomas. The degree of concentration in tumor tissue in comparison with surrounding tissues (blood, Muscle) was not such as to consider the radiopharmaceutical suitable for tumor localization. However, sufficient amounts of radioactivity localized in some tumors so that it might be possible to determine if a correlation exists between tumor uptake and anti-tumor effect of 5-fluorouracil. Another possible area of use might be in regulating the method of administration of the chemotherapeutic agent. (author)

  17. A wireless multi-channel recording system for freely behaving mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, David; Rich, Dylan; Holtzman, Tahl; Ruther, Patrick; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Lopez, Alberto; Rossi, Mark A; Barter, Joseph W; Salas-Meza, Daniel; Herwik, Stanislav; Holzhammer, Tobias; Morizio, James; Yin, Henry H

    2011-01-01

    To understand the neural basis of behavior, it is necessary to record brain activity in freely moving animals. Advances in implantable multi-electrode array technology have enabled researchers to record the activity of neuronal ensembles from multiple brain regions. The full potential of this approach is currently limited by reliance on cable tethers, with bundles of wires connecting the implanted electrodes to the data acquisition system while impeding the natural behavior of the animal. To overcome these limitations, here we introduce a multi-channel wireless headstage system designed for small animals such as rats and mice. A variety of single unit and local field potential signals were recorded from the dorsal striatum and substantia nigra in mice and the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex simultaneously in rats. This wireless system could be interfaced with commercially available data acquisition systems, and the signals obtained were comparable in quality to those acquired using cable tethers. On account of its small size, light weight, and rechargeable battery, this wireless headstage system is suitable for studying the neural basis of natural behavior, eliminating the need for wires, commutators, and other limitations associated with traditional tethered recording systems.

  18. A wireless multi-channel recording system for freely behaving mice and rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fan

    Full Text Available To understand the neural basis of behavior, it is necessary to record brain activity in freely moving animals. Advances in implantable multi-electrode array technology have enabled researchers to record the activity of neuronal ensembles from multiple brain regions. The full potential of this approach is currently limited by reliance on cable tethers, with bundles of wires connecting the implanted electrodes to the data acquisition system while impeding the natural behavior of the animal. To overcome these limitations, here we introduce a multi-channel wireless headstage system designed for small animals such as rats and mice. A variety of single unit and local field potential signals were recorded from the dorsal striatum and substantia nigra in mice and the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex simultaneously in rats. This wireless system could be interfaced with commercially available data acquisition systems, and the signals obtained were comparable in quality to those acquired using cable tethers. On account of its small size, light weight, and rechargeable battery, this wireless headstage system is suitable for studying the neural basis of natural behavior, eliminating the need for wires, commutators, and other limitations associated with traditional tethered recording systems.

  19. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Resveratrol through Classic Models in Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation and pain are closely related to humans’ and animals’ health. Resveratrol (RSV is a natural compound with various biological activities. The current study is aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of RSV in vivo. Materials and Methods. The analgesic effects were assessed by the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests. The anti-inflammatory effects were determined using the xylene-induced mouse ear oedema, the acetic acid-induced rat pleurisy, and carrageenan-induced rat synovitis tests, respectively. Results. The analgesic results showed that RSV could significantly inhibit the number of writhes and improve the time and pain threshold of mice standing on hot plate. The anti-inflammatory results showed that RSV could inhibit the ear oedema of mice. In acetic acid-induced pleurisy test, RSV could significantly inhibit the WBC and pleurisy exudates, could decrease the production of NO, and elevate the activity of SOD in serum. In carrageenan-induced synovitis test, RSV could reduce the content of MDA and elevate the T-SOD activity in serum; RSV could inhibit the expressions of TP, PGE2, NO, and MDA. Conclusion. Shortly, these results indicated that RSV had potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and could be a potential new drug candidate for the treatment of inflammation and pain.

  20. Cadmium accelerates bone loss in ovariectomized mice and fetal rat limb bones in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Whelton, B.D.; Stern, P.H.; Peterson, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral after ovariectomy was studied in mice exposed to dietary cadmium at 0.25, 5, or 50 ppm. Results show that dietary cadmium at 50 ppm increased bone mineral loss to a significantly greater extent in ovariectomized mice than in sham-operated controls. These results were obtained from two studies, one in which skeletal calcium content was determined 6 months after ovariectomy and a second in which 45 Ca release from 45 Ca-prelabeled bones was measured immediately after the start of dietary cadmium exposure. Furthermore, experiments with 45 Ca-prelabeled fetal rat limb bones in culture demonstrated that Cd at 10 nM in the medium, a concentration estimated to be in the plasma of mice exposed to 50 ppm dietary Cd, strikingly increased bone resorption. These in vitro results indicate that cadmium may enhance bone mineral loss by a direct action on bone. Results of the in vivo studies are consistent with a significant role of cadmium in the etiology of Itai-Itai disease among postmenopausal women in Japan and may in part explain the increased risk of postmenopausal osteoporosis among women who smoke

  1. Internally deleted WNV genomes isolated from exotic birds in New Mexico: function in cells, mosquitoes, and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Kendra N; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Ryan, Elizabeth M; Shi, Pei-Yong; Zhang, Bo; Lennon, Niall J; Newman, Ruchi M; Henn, Matthew R; Ebel, Gregory D

    2012-05-25

    Most RNA viruses exist in their hosts as a heterogeneous population of related variants. Due to error prone replication, mutants are constantly generated which may differ in individual fitness from the population as a whole. Here we characterize three WNV isolates that contain, along with full-length genomes, mutants with large internal deletions to structural and nonstructural protein-coding regions. The isolates were all obtained from lorikeets that died from WNV at the Rio Grande Zoo in Albuquerque, NM between 2005 and 2007. The deletions are approximately 2kb, in frame, and result in the elimination of the complete envelope, and portions of the prM and NS-1 proteins. In Vero cell culture, these internally deleted WNV genomes function as defective interfering particles, reducing the production of full-length virus when introduced at high multiplicities of infection. In mosquitoes, the shortened WNV genomes reduced infection and dissemination rates, and virus titers overall, and were not detected in legs or salivary secretions at 14 or 21 days post-infection. In mice, inoculation with internally deleted genomes did not attenuate pathogenesis relative to full-length or infectious clone derived virus, and shortened genomes were not detected in mice at the time of death. These observations provide evidence that large deletions may occur within flavivirus populations more frequently than has generally been appreciated and suggest that they impact population phenotype minimally. Additionally, our findings suggest that highly similar mutants may frequently occur in particular vertebrate hosts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Knockout of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor results in distinct hepatic and renal phenotypes in rats and mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrill, Joshua A. [The Hamner Institute for Health Sciences, Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, RTP, NC 27709 (United States); Hukkanen, Renee R.; Lawson, Marie; Martin, Greg [The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48640 (United States); Gilger, Brian [North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Soldatow, Valerie [University of North Carolina, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); LeCluyse, Edward L. [The Hamner Institute for Health Sciences, Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, RTP, NC 27709 (United States); Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig [The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI 48640 (United States); Thomas, Russell S., E-mail: RThomas@thehamner.org [The Hamner Institute for Health Sciences, Institute for Chemical Safety Sciences, RTP, NC 27709 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays a role in the development of multiple tissues and is activated by a large number of ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to examine the roles of the AHR in both normal biological development and response to environmental chemicals, an AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rat model was created and compared with an existing AHR-KO mouse. AHR-KO rats harboring either 2-bp or 29-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 of the AHR were created on the Sprague–Dawley genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. Rats harboring either mutation type lacked expression of AHR protein in the liver. AHR-KO rats were also insensitive to thymic involution, increased hepatic weight and the induction of AHR-responsive genes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Ahrr) following acute exposure to 25 μg/kg TCDD. AHR-KO rats had lower basal expression of transcripts for these genes and also accumulated ∼ 30–45-fold less TCDD in the liver at 7 days post-exposure. In untreated animals, AHR-KO mice, but not AHR-KO rats, had alterations in serum analytes indicative of compromised hepatic function, patent ductus venosus of the liver and persistent hyaloid arteries in the eye. AHR-KO rats, but not AHR-KO mice, displayed pathological alterations to the urinary tract: bilateral renal dilation (hydronephrosis), secondary medullary tubular and uroepithelial degenerative changes and bilateral ureter dilation (hydroureter). The present data indicate that the AHR may play significantly different roles in tissue development and homeostasis and toxicity across rodent species. - Highlights: • An AHR knockout rat was generated on a Sprague–Dawley outbred background. • AHR-KO rats lack expression of AHR protein. • AHR-KO rats are insensitive to TCDD-mediated effects. • Data suggests difference in the role of AHR in tissue development of rats and mice. • Abnormalities in vascular

  3. Knockout of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor results in distinct hepatic and renal phenotypes in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrill, Joshua A.; Hukkanen, Renee R.; Lawson, Marie; Martin, Greg; Gilger, Brian; Soldatow, Valerie; LeCluyse, Edward L.; Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig; Thomas, Russell S.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays a role in the development of multiple tissues and is activated by a large number of ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to examine the roles of the AHR in both normal biological development and response to environmental chemicals, an AHR knockout (AHR-KO) rat model was created and compared with an existing AHR-KO mouse. AHR-KO rats harboring either 2-bp or 29-bp deletion mutation in exon 2 of the AHR were created on the Sprague–Dawley genetic background using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology. Rats harboring either mutation type lacked expression of AHR protein in the liver. AHR-KO rats were also insensitive to thymic involution, increased hepatic weight and the induction of AHR-responsive genes (Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Ahrr) following acute exposure to 25 μg/kg TCDD. AHR-KO rats had lower basal expression of transcripts for these genes and also accumulated ∼ 30–45-fold less TCDD in the liver at 7 days post-exposure. In untreated animals, AHR-KO mice, but not AHR-KO rats, had alterations in serum analytes indicative of compromised hepatic function, patent ductus venosus of the liver and persistent hyaloid arteries in the eye. AHR-KO rats, but not AHR-KO mice, displayed pathological alterations to the urinary tract: bilateral renal dilation (hydronephrosis), secondary medullary tubular and uroepithelial degenerative changes and bilateral ureter dilation (hydroureter). The present data indicate that the AHR may play significantly different roles in tissue development and homeostasis and toxicity across rodent species. - Highlights: • An AHR knockout rat was generated on a Sprague–Dawley outbred background. • AHR-KO rats lack expression of AHR protein. • AHR-KO rats are insensitive to TCDD-mediated effects. • Data suggests difference in the role of AHR in tissue development of rats and mice. • Abnormalities in vascular

  4. TISCON, a BASIC computer program for the calculation of the biodistribution of radionuclide-labelled drugs in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena, D.J.

    1983-09-01

    Animal biodistribution studies on radionuclide-labelled drugs are labour-intensive and time-consuming. A method for rapidly carrying out these studies on rats and mice is presented. An interactive computer program, written in BASIC, is used to calculate parameters of interest, such as per cent injected dose (%ID),%ID per gram and target to non-target ratios

  5. Comparative Study of Experimentally Induced Cancer of the Kidney in Mice and Rats with X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldague, P. [Cancer Institute, University of Louvain (Belgium)

    1969-11-15

    Local irradiation of a kidney in rats and mice results in the development of radiation- induced cancers in the irradiated kidney. The production of these cancers is considerably greater in rats than in mice, and their frequency depends on: (1) The X-ray dose absorbed by the kidney; (2) The latency period which is longer for carcinomas than for sarcomas; and (3) The degree and extent of renal radiation- induced lesions. A study of the relationship between dose and carcinogenic effect has enabled us to define three types of X-ray dose: (a) An ineffective dose of 570 rads at which the inducement of cancer is zero; (b) An optimum dose of 1700 rads at which the frequency of renal tumours is maximal (85%); and (c) Excessive doses between 7000 and 14 000 rads after which the frequency of radiation-induced cancers of the kidney approaches zero. Studies of the latent period have shown that radiation-induced cancers of the kidney in mice do not appear until 790 days after irradiation, whereas in rats the first cancers appear after 280 days. As regards the mechanism of the inducement of renal cancer by radiation, we have been able to establish that cancers of the kidney only develop from visible renal lesions. Radiation-induced cancers have not been observed in rats or mice whose kidneys were morphologically and functionally normal. (author)

  6. Long-term exposure to hypoxia inhibits tumor progression of lung cancer in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lunyin; Hales, Charles A

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia has been identified as a major negative factor for tumor progression in clinical observations and in animal studies. However, the precise role of hypoxia in tumor progression has not been fully explained. In this study, we extensively investigated the effect of long-term exposure to hypoxia on tumor progression in vivo. Rats bearing transplanted tumors consisting of A549 human lung cancer cells (lung cancer tumor) were exposed to hypoxia for different durations and different levels of oxygen. The tumor growth and metastasis were evaluated. We also treated A549 lung cancer cells (A549 cells) with chronic hypoxia and then implanted the hypoxia-pretreated cancer cells into mice. The effect of exposure to hypoxia on metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice was also investigated. We found that long-term exposure to hypoxia a) significantly inhibited lung cancer tumor growth in xenograft and orthotopic models in rats, b) significantly reduced lymphatic metastasis of the lung cancer in rats and decreased lung metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice, c) reduced lung cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in vitro, d) decreased growth of the tumors from hypoxia-pretreated A549 cells, e) decreased Na + -K + ATPase α1 expression in hypoxic lung cancer tumors, and f) increased expression of hypoxia inducible factors (HIF1α and HIF2α) but decreased microvessel density in the lung cancer tumors. In contrast to lung cancer, the growth of tumor from HCT116 human colon cancer cells (colon cancer tumor) was a) significantly enhanced in the same hypoxia conditions, accompanied by b) no significant change in expression of Na + -K + ATPase α1, c) increased HIF1α expression (no HIF2α was detected) and d) increased microvessel density in the tumor tissues. This study demonstrated that long-term exposure to hypoxia repressed tumor progression of the lung cancer from A549 cells and that decreased expression of Na + -K + ATPase was involved in hypoxic

  7. Dynamics of glucagon secretion in mice and rats revealed using a validated sandwich ELISA for small sample volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon is a metabolically important hormone, but many aspects of its physiology remain obscure, because glucagon secretion is difficult to measure in mice and rats due to methodological inadequacies. Here, we introduce and validate a low-volume, enzyme-linked immunosorbent glucagon assay...... according to current analytical guidelines, including tests of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, and compare it, using the Bland-Altman algorithm and size-exclusion chromatography, with three other widely cited assays. After demonstrating adequate performance of the assay, we measured glucagon...... and returning to basal levels at 6 min (mice) and 12 min (rats). d-Mannitol (osmotic control) was without effect. Ketamine/xylazine anesthesia in mice strongly attenuated (P assay. In conclusion, dynamic analysis...

  8. T-2 Toxin-induced Toxicity in Pregnant Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Sehata

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a cytotoxic secondary fungal metabolite that belongs to the trichothecene mycotoxin family. This mycotoxin is a well known inhibitor of protein synthesis through its high binding affinity to peptidyl transferase, which is an integral part of the ribosomal 60s subunit, and it also inhibits the synthesis of DNA and RNA, probably secondary to the inhibition of protein synthesis. In addition, T-2 toxin is said to induce apoptosis in many types of cells bearing high proliferating activity. T-2 toxin readily passes the placenta and is distributed to embryo/fetal tissues, which include many component cells bearing high proliferating activity. This paper reviews the reported data related to T-2 toxin-induced maternal and fetal toxicities in pregnant mice and rats. The mechanisms of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in maternal and fetal tissues are also discussed in this paper.

  9. Differential metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal in liver, lung and brain of mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Mishin, Vladimir; Richardson, Jason R.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    The lipid peroxidation end-product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is generated in tissues during oxidative stress. As a reactive aldehyde, it forms Michael adducts with nucleophiles, a process that disrupts cellular functioning. Liver, lung and brain are highly sensitive to xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress and readily generate 4-HNE. In the present studies, we compared 4-HNE metabolism in these tissues, a process that protects against tissue injury. 4-HNE was degraded slowly in total homogenates and S9 fractions of mouse liver, lung and brain. In liver, but not lung or brain, NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H markedly stimulated 4-HNE metabolism. Similar results were observed in rat S9 fractions from these tissues. In liver, lung and brain S9 fractions, 4-HNE formed protein adducts. When NADH was used to stimulate 4-HNE metabolism, the formation of protein adducts was suppressed in liver, but not lung or brain. In both mouse and rat tissues, 4-HNE was also metabolized by glutathione S-transferases. The greatest activity was noted in livers of mice and in lungs of rats; relatively low glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in brain. In mouse hepatocytes, 4-HNE was rapidly taken up and metabolized. Simultaneously, 4-HNE-protein adducts were formed, suggesting that 4-HNE metabolism in intact cells does not prevent protein modifications. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to liver, lung and brain have a limited capacity to metabolize 4-HNE. The persistence of 4-HNE in these tissues may increase the likelihood of tissue injury during oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Lipid peroxidation generates 4-hydroxynonenal, a highly reactive aldehyde. • Rodent liver, but not lung or brain, is efficient in degrading 4-hydroxynonenal. • 4-hydroxynonenal persists in tissues with low metabolism, causing tissue damage

  10. Differential metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal in liver, lung and brain of mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Dragomir, Ana-Cristina; Mishin, Vladimir [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University-Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Richardson, Jason R. [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Science, School of Health Sciences and Practice, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University-Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers University-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The lipid peroxidation end-product 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) is generated in tissues during oxidative stress. As a reactive aldehyde, it forms Michael adducts with nucleophiles, a process that disrupts cellular functioning. Liver, lung and brain are highly sensitive to xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress and readily generate 4-HNE. In the present studies, we compared 4-HNE metabolism in these tissues, a process that protects against tissue injury. 4-HNE was degraded slowly in total homogenates and S9 fractions of mouse liver, lung and brain. In liver, but not lung or brain, NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H markedly stimulated 4-HNE metabolism. Similar results were observed in rat S9 fractions from these tissues. In liver, lung and brain S9 fractions, 4-HNE formed protein adducts. When NADH was used to stimulate 4-HNE metabolism, the formation of protein adducts was suppressed in liver, but not lung or brain. In both mouse and rat tissues, 4-HNE was also metabolized by glutathione S-transferases. The greatest activity was noted in livers of mice and in lungs of rats; relatively low glutathione S-transferase activity was detected in brain. In mouse hepatocytes, 4-HNE was rapidly taken up and metabolized. Simultaneously, 4-HNE-protein adducts were formed, suggesting that 4-HNE metabolism in intact cells does not prevent protein modifications. These data demonstrate that, in contrast to liver, lung and brain have a limited capacity to metabolize 4-HNE. The persistence of 4-HNE in these tissues may increase the likelihood of tissue injury during oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Lipid peroxidation generates 4-hydroxynonenal, a highly reactive aldehyde. • Rodent liver, but not lung or brain, is efficient in degrading 4-hydroxynonenal. • 4-hydroxynonenal persists in tissues with low metabolism, causing tissue damage.

  11. Comparative analysis of kisspeptin-immunoreactivity reveals genuine differences in the hypothalamic Kiss1 systems between rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Franceschini, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    cells, only after axonal transport inhibition. Interestingly, the density of kisspeptin innervation in the anterior periventricular area was higher in female compared to male in both species. Species differences in the ARC were evident, with the mouse ARC containing dense fibers, while the rat ARC......-immunoreactivity in the mouse compared to the rat, independently of brain region and gender. In the female mouse AVPV high numbers of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons were present, while in the rat, the female AVPV displays a similar number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons compared to the level of Kiss1 mRNA expressing...... contains clearly discernable cells. In addition, we show a marked sex difference in the ARC, with higher kisspeptin levels in females. These findings show that the translation of Kiss1 mRNA and/or the degradation/transportation/release of kisspeptins are different in mice and rats....

  12. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition enhances the intestinotrophic effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 in rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B; Thulesen, J; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2000-01-01

    ; 15 mg VP; 40 microg GLP-2, 40 microg GLP-2+15 mg VP; 40 microg GLP-2 (3-33). Mice were treated for 10 days with: saline; 5 microg GLP-2; 5 microg GLP-2+1.5 mg VP; 25 microg GLP-2; 25 microg GLP-2 (3-33). In both cases, body weight, intestinal weight, length, and morphometric data were measured. After...... (4.68 +/- 0.11%, relative to body weight), compared with the two control groups, [3.01 +/- 0.06% (VP) and 2.94 +/- 0.07% (NaCl)] and GLP-2 alone (3.52 +/- 0.10%). In mice, the growth effect of 5 microg GLP-2+VP was comparable with that of 25 microg GLP-2. GLP-2 (3-33) had no effect in rats......, but it had a weak effect on intestinal growth in mice. The extensive GLP-2 degradation in rats can be reduced by VP, and DPP-IV inhibition markedly enhances the intestinotrophic effect of GLP-2 in both rats and mice. We propose that DPP-IV inhibition may be considered to enhance the efficacy of GLP-2...

  13. Dose-response and histopathological study, with special attention to the hypophysis, of the differential effects of domoic acid on rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Andrés Crespo; Martínez, J Manuel Cifuentes; Pose, Roberto Bermúdez; Queijo, Álvaro Antelo; Posadas, Nuria Alemañ; López, Luis M Botana

    2015-05-01

    The effects of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) in the central nervous system of rodents (essentially rats and mice) after intraperitoneal administration have been profusely studied in the past. These observations have shown that the toxin induces similar symptoms and pathology in both species, but the lethality varies greatly. This article addresses the common and specific histopathological effects in rats and mice and the difference in sensitivity of these species to DA. Various sublethal and lethal doses were employed in mice (from 3 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg) to observe their neurotoxicity by using different histological techniques, and these results were compared with the pathological effects after the administration of LD50 in rats (2.5 mg/kg). Additionally we also detected the presence of this toxin in various tissues by means of immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that rats are more vulnerable than mice to the neurotoxic effects of DA after intraperitoneal inoculation: lethality was extremely high in rats and the toxin produced hippocampal damage in rats surviving the intoxication, while lesions were not observed in DA-inoculated mice. As for similarities between rats and mice, both displayed similar clinical signs and in both the toxin was detected in the hypophysis by immunohistochemistry, a brain region not reported to date as target of the toxin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Studies of (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) metabolism and disposition in rats and mice: relationship to neuroprotection and neurotoxicity profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Melanie; Maldonado-Adrian, Concepcion; Yuan, Jie; McCann, Una D; Ricaurte, George A

    2013-02-01

    The neurotoxicity of (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") is influenced by temperature and varies according to species. The mechanisms underlying these two features of MDMA neurotoxicity are unknown, but differences in MDMA metabolism have recently been implicated in both. The present study was designed to 1) assess the effect of hypothermia on MDMA metabolism, 2) determine whether the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia is related to inhibition of MDMA metabolism, and 3) determine if different neurotoxicity profiles in mice and rats are related to differences in MDMA metabolism and/or disposition in the two species. Rats and mice received single neurotoxic oral doses of MDMA at 25°C and 4°C, and body temperature, pharmacokinetic parameters, and serotonergic and dopaminergic neuronal markers were measured. Hypothermia did not alter MDMA metabolism in rats and only modestly inhibited MDMA metabolism in mice; however, it afforded complete neuroprotection in both species. Rats and mice metabolized MDMA in a similar pattern, with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine being the major metabolite, followed by 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine and 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine, respectively. Differences between MDMA pharmacokinetics in rats and mice, including faster elimination in mice, did not account for the different profile of MDMA neurotoxicity in the two species. Taken together, the results of these studies indicate that inhibition of MDMA metabolism is not responsible for the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia in rodents, and that different neurotoxicity profiles in rats and mice are not readily explained by differences in MDMA metabolism or disposition.

  15. Gastroprotective activity of ferruginol in mice and rats: effects on gastric secretion, endogenous prostaglandins and non-protein sulfhydryls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areche, Carlos; Theoduloz, Cristina; Yáñez, Tania; Souza-Brito, Alba R M; Barbastefano, Víctor; de Paula, Débora; Ferreira, Anderson L; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Jaime A

    2008-02-01

    The gastroprotective mechanism of the natural diterpene ferruginol was assessed in mice and rats. The involvement of gastric prostaglandins (PGE(2)), reduced glutathione, nitric oxide or capsaicin receptors was evaluated in mice either treated or untreated with indometacin, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or ruthenium red, respectively, and then orally treated with ferruginol or vehicle. Gastric lesions were induced by oral administration of ethanol. The effects of ferruginol on the parameters of gastric secretion were assessed in pylorus-ligated rats. Gastric PGE(2) content was determined in rats treated with ferruginol and/or indometacin. The reduction of gastric glutathione (GSH) content was determined in rats treated with ethanol after oral administration of ferruginol, lansoprazole or vehicle. Finally, the acute oral toxicity was assessed in mice. Indometacin reversed the gastroprotective effect of ferruginol (25 mg kg(-1)) but not NEM, ruthenium red or L-NAME. The diterpene (25 mg kg(-1)) increased the gastric juice volume and its pH value, and reduced the titrable acidity but was devoid of effect on the gastric mucus content. Ferruginol (25, 50 mg kg(-1)) increased gastric PGE(2) content in a dose-dependent manner and prevented the reduction in GSH observed due to ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. Single oral doses up to 3 g kg(-1) ferruginol did not elicit mortality or acute toxic effects in mice. Our results showed that ferruginol acted as a gastroprotective agent stimulating the gastric PGE(2) synthesis, reducing the gastric acid output and improving the antioxidant capacity of the gastric mucosa by maintaining the GSH levels.

  16. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M [Armour, SD

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  17. Experimental Inoculation in Rats and Mice by the Giant Marseillevirus Leads to Long-Term Detection of Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Aherfi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the giant virus of amoeba Marseillevirus has been identified at many different sites on the human body, including in the bloodstream of asymptomatic subjects, in the lymph nodes of a child with adenitis, in one adult with Hodgkin's disease, and in the pharynx of an adult. A high seroprevalence of the Marseillevirus has been recorded in the general population. Whether Marseillevirus can disseminate and persist within a mammal after entry remains unproven. We aimed to assess the ability of the virus to disseminate and persist into healthy organisms, especially in the lymphoid organs. Parenteral inoculations were performed by intraperitoneal injection (in rats and mice or intravenous injection (in rats. Airway inoculation was performed by aerosolization (in mice. Dissemination and persistence were assessed by using PCR and amebal co-culture. Serologies were performed by immunofluorescent assay. Pathological examination was conducted after standard and immunohistochemistry staining. After intraperitoneal inoculation in mice and rats, Marseillevirus was detected in the bloodstream during the first 24 h. Persistence was noted until the end of the experiment, i.e., at 14 days in rats. After intravenous inoculation in rats, the virus was first detected in the blood until 48 h and then in deep organs with infectious virus detected until 14 and 21 days in the liver and the spleen, respectively. Its DNA was detected for up to 30 days in the liver and the spleen. After aerosolization in mice, infectious Marseillevirus was present in the lungs and nasal associated lymphoid tissue until 30 days post inoculation but less frequently and at a lower viral load in the lung than in the nasal associated lymphoid tissue. No other site of dissemination was found after aerosol exposure. Despite no evidence of disease being observed, the 30-day long persistence of Marseillevirus in rats and mice, regardless of the route of inoculation, supports the

  18. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium in mice, rats, and dogs: application to establishing values of f1 for soluble plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Spaletto, M.I.

    1985-04-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of plutonium was measured in mice, rats, and dogs under conditions relevant to setting drinking water standards. The fractional GI absorption of Pu(VI) in adult mice was 2 x 10 -4 (0.02%) in fed mice and 2 x 10 -3 (0.2%) in fasted mice. The GI absorption of plutonium was independent of plutonium oxidation state, administration medium, and plutonium concentration; absorption was dependent upon animal species, state of animal fasting, state of Pu(IV) hydrolysis, and age of the animal. Fractional GI absorption values ranged from 3 x 10 -5 (0.003%) for hydrolyzed Pu(IV) administered to fed adult mice to 7 x 10 -3 (0.7%) for Pu(VI) administered to fed neonatal rats. From analysis of our data, we suggested values of f 1 (the fraction transferred from gut to blood in humans) for use in establishment of oral limits of exposure to plutonium. For an acute exposure in the occupational setting, we proposed one value of f 1 for fed (2 x 10 -4 ) and one for fasted (2 x 10 -3 ) individuals. For the environmental setting, we developed two approaches to obtaining values of f 1 ; suggested values were 6 x 10 -4 and 4 x 10 -3 , respectively. Both approaches took into account effects of animal age and fasting. We discussed uncertainties in proposed values of f 1 and made recommendations for further research. 41 refs., 8 figs., 24 tabs

  19. Uptake of elemental mercury and activity of catalase in rat, hamster, guinea-pig, normal and acatalasemic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, I.; Syversen, T.L.M.

    1982-01-01

    Uptake of elemental mercury after inhalation (3.5 mg/m 3 ) and the activity of catalase in brain, liver, kidney and blood were investigated in rat, hamster, guinea-pig, and normal and acatalasemic mice. The uptake of mercury in the species investigated varied considerably, being highest in the two strains of mice, followed by rat and hamster, and lowest in the guinea-pig. The uptake seemed to be more dependent on pulmonary ventilation than on the activity of catalase. The two strains of mice were exposed to a wide range of mercury concentrations in air (0.002-3.5 mg/m 3 ). The content of mercury in brain, liver and kidney was linearly dependent on the mercury concentration in the air, whereas in blood this relationship was exponential. At the lower concentraions of mercury in the inhaled air, the mercury level in blood was significantly lower, and in kidney higher in the acatalasemic mice compared to the normal ones. In acatalasemic mice the mercury content in the liver has higher at all concentrations investigated, whereas in brain no difference between the two strains was found. (author)

  20. Disposition and metabolism of the bisphenol analogue, bisphenol S, in Harlan Sprague Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice and in vitro in hepatocytes from rats, mice, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidyanatha, Suramya; Black, Sherry R; Snyder, Rodney W; Yueh, Yun Lan; Sutherland, Vicki; Patel, Purvi R; Watson, Scott L; Fennell, Timothy R

    2018-05-10

    With the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from many consumer products, the potential use of alternatives such as bisphenol S (BPS) and its derivatives is causing some concerns. These studies investigated the comparative in vitro hepatic clearance and metabolism of BPS and derivatives and the disposition and metabolism of BPS in rats and mice following gavage and intravenous administration. The clearance of BPS and its derivatives was slower in human hepatocytes than in rodents. In male rats following gavage administration of 50, 150, and 500 mg/kg [ 14 C]BPS the main route of excretion was via urine; the urinary excretion decreased (72 to 48%) and the fecal excretion increased (16 to 30%) with increasing dose. The disposition was similar in female rats and male and female mice following gavage administration. Radioactivity remaining in tissues at 72 h in both species and sexes was ≤2.4%. In bile duct cannulated rats 53% of a gavage dose was secreted in bile suggesting extensive enterohepatic recirculation of [ 14 C]BPS. Following an intravenous dose in rats and mice, the pattern of excretion was similar to gavage. These data suggest that the dose excreted in feces folowing gavage administration is likely the absorbed dose. Urinary metabolites included the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates with a moderate amount of parent. The pattern of in vitro hepatic metabolsim was similar to in vivo with some difference among derivatives. These data suggest that similar to other bisphenol analogues, BPS was well absorbed following oral expsosure and extensively excreted with minimal tissue retention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Threshold dose to developing central nerve system of rats and mice from prenatal exposure to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiangyan; Wang Bing; Gao Weimin; Lu Huimin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the threshold dose to the developing central nerve system of rats and mice from prenatal exposure to tritiated water. methods: Pregnant adult C 57 BL/6J strain mice and Wistar strain rats were irradiated with beta-rays from HTO by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5 th and 13 th days of gestation. The activities of HTO were 24.09, 48.18 and 144.54 ( x 10 4 Bq/g bw), respectively. Fifty-six parameters including postnatal growth, neutro-behavior, pathology of brain, neuropeptide contents, changes of hippocampal neurons, Ca 2+ conductance of hippocampal neurons etc were used to test the teratogenic threshold dose the lowest dose was different from that of the control). Results: Of the observed 56 parameters of rats and mice 80.4% indicated that the threshold doses for prenatal HTO exposure ranged from 0.030 Gy to 0.092 Gy, and the other 19.6% showed the threshold doses from 0.093 to 0.300 Gy. Conclusions: There exists threshold dose from the low level tritiated water irradiation of the developing central nerve system

  2. Studies on the localization of Trypanosoma brucei in the female reproductive tract of bka mice and hooded lister rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipepa, J.A.S.; Brown, H.; Holmes, P.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish whether Trypanosoma brucei migrated preferentially to the reproductive tracts of female BKA mice, or Hooded Lister rats and lodged there as the site of choice compared to other organs. Blood flow to the reproductive tracts, the liver and spleen was measured using red blood cells labelled with chromium- 51. The distribution of trypanosomes labelled with 75 Se-methionine. The average percentage of the blood flow to the reproductive tract was 0.21Plus or minus0.08 in mice, while the mean concentration of trypanosomes there was 0.30% in both mice and rats. Blood flow to the liver was lower than the percentage distribution of Se-labelled T.Brucei(5.17Plus or minus1.34 versus 8.1Plus or Minus1.2). There were, on the contrary, less labelled trypanosomes as compared to the mean blood flow to the spleen (0.54% plus or minus0.18 versus 2.10%pPlus or minus0.88). After 24 hours there were adequate numbers of T. brucei in the reproductive tract to cause parasitaemia in recipient mice. From these preliminary data it was concluded that T. brucei did not lodge in the reproductive organ system a site of choice. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs

  3. Testing declarative memory in laboratory rats and mice using the nonconditioned social discrimination procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Mario; Hädicke, Jana; Noack, Julia

    2011-07-14

    Testing declarative memory in laboratory rodents can provide insights into the fundamental mechanisms underlying this type of learning and memory processing, and these insights are likely to be applicable to humans. Here we provide a detailed description of the social discrimination procedure used to investigate recognition memory in rats and mice, as established during the last 20 years in our laboratory. The test is based on the use of olfactory signals for social communication in rodents; this involves a direct encounter between conspecifics, during which the investigatory behavior of the experimental subject serves as an index for learning and memory performance. The procedure is inexpensive, fast and very reliable, but it requires well-trained human observers. We include recent modifications to the procedure that allow memory extinction to be investigated by retroactive and proactive interference, and that enable the dissociated analysis of the central nervous processing of the volatile fraction of an individual's olfactory signature. Depending on the memory retention interval under study (short-term memory, intermediate-term memory, long-term memory or long-lasting memory), the protocol takes ~10 min or up to several days to complete.

  4. The touchscreen operant platform for testing working memory and pattern separation in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Charlotte A; Hvoslef-Eide, Martha; Heath, Christopher J; Mar, Adam C; Horner, Alexa E; Bussey, Timothy J; Saksida, Lisa M

    2013-10-01

    The automated touchscreen operant chamber for rats and mice allows for the assessment of multiple cognitive domains within the same testing environment. This protocol presents the location discrimination (LD) task and the trial-unique delayed nonmatching-to-location (TUNL) task, which both assess memory for location. During these tasks, animals are trained to a predefined criterion during ∼20-40 daily sessions. In LD sessions, touching the same location on the screen is rewarded on consecutive trials, followed by a reversal of location-reward contingencies. TUNL, a working memory task, requires animals to 'nonmatch' to a sample location after a delay. In both the LD and TUNL tasks, spatial similarity can be varied, allowing assessment of pattern separation ability, a function that is thought to be performed by the dentate gyrus (DG). These tasks are therefore particularly useful in animal models of hippocampal, and specifically DG, function, but they additionally permit discernment of changes in pattern separation from those in working memory.

  5. Sustained release of BMP-2 in bioprinted alginate for osteogenicity in mice and rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T Poldervaart

    Full Text Available The design of bioactive three-dimensional (3D scaffolds is a major focus in bone tissue engineering. Incorporation of growth factors into bioprinted scaffolds offers many new possibilities regarding both biological and architectural properties of the scaffolds. This study investigates whether the sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 influences osteogenicity of tissue engineered bioprinted constructs. BMP-2 loaded on gelatin microparticles (GMPs was used as a sustained release system, which was dispersed in hydrogel-based constructs and compared to direct inclusion of BMP-2 in alginate or control GMPs. The constructs were supplemented with goat multipotent stromal cells (gMSCs and biphasic calcium phosphate to study osteogenic differentiation and bone formation respectively. BMP-2 release kinetics and bioactivity showed continuous release for three weeks coinciding with osteogenicity. Osteogenic differentiation and bone formation of bioprinted GMP containing constructs were investigated after subcutaneous implantation in mice or rats. BMP-2 significantly increased bone formation, which was not influenced by the release timing. We showed that 3D printing of controlled release particles is feasible and that the released BMP-2 directs osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Effects of a thirteen-week inhalation exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether on fischer-344 rats and CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medinsky, M A; Wolf, D C; Cattley, R C; Wong, B; Janszen, D B; Farris, G M; Wright, G A; Bond, J A

    1999-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that oxygenates be added to automotive fuels to reduce emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. One potential oxygenate is the aliphatic ether ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). Our objective was to provide data on the potential toxic effects of ETBE. Male and female Fisher 344 rats and CD-1 mice were exposed to 0 (control), 500, 1750, or 5000 ppm of ETBE for 6 h/day and 5 days/wk over a 13-week period. ETBE exposure had no effect on mortality and body weight with the exception of an increase in body weights of the female rats in the 5000-ppm group. No major changes in clinical pathology parameters were noted for either rats or mice exposed to ETBE for 6 (rats only) or 13 weeks. Liver weights increased with increasing ETBE-exposure concentration for both sexes of rats and mice. Increases in kidney, adrenal, and heart (females only) weights were noted in rats. Degenerative changes in testicular seminiferous tubules were observed in male rats exposed to 1750 and 5000 ppm but were not seen in mice. This testicular lesion has not been reported previously for aliphatic ethers. Increases in the incidence of regenerative foci, rates of renal cell proliferation, and alpha2u-globulin containing protein droplets were noted in the kidneys of all treated male rats. These lesions are associated with the male rat-specific syndrome of alpha2u-globulin nephropathy. Increases in the incidence of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy and rates of hepatocyte cell proliferation were seen in the livers of male and female mice in the 5000-ppm group, consistent with a mitogenic response to ETBE. These two target organs for ETBE toxicity, mouse liver and male rat kidney, have also been reported for methyl tertiary butyl ether and unleaded gasoline.

  7. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  8. Reactive oxygen species and fatigue-induced prolonged low-frequency force depression in skeletal muscle fibres of rats, mice and SOD2 overexpressing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Joseph D; Place, Nicolas; Yamada, Takashi; Silva, José P; Andrade, Francisco H; Dahlstedt, Anders J; Zhang, Shi-Jin; Katz, Abram; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Westerblad, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle often shows a delayed force recovery after fatiguing stimulation, especially at low stimulation frequencies. In this study we focus on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this fatigue-induced prolonged low-frequency force depression. Intact, single muscle fibres were dissected from flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscles of rats and wild-type and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) overexpressing mice. Force and myoplasmic free [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](i)) were measured. Fibres were stimulated at different frequencies before and 30 min after fatigue induced by repeated tetani. The results show a marked force decrease at low stimulation frequencies 30 min after fatiguing stimulation in all fibres. This decrease was associated with reduced tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) in wild-type mouse fibres, whereas rat fibres and mouse SOD2 overexpressing fibres instead displayed a decreased myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity. The SOD activity was approximately 50% lower in wild-type mouse than in rat FDB muscles. Myoplasmic ROS increased during repeated tetanic stimulation in rat fibres but not in wild-type mouse fibres. The decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity in rat fibres could be partially reversed by application of the reducing agent dithiothreitol, whereas the decrease in tetanic [Ca(2+)](i) in wild-type mouse fibres was not affected by dithiothreitol or the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, we describe two different causes of fatigue-induced prolonged low-frequency force depression, which correlate to differences in SOD activity and ROS metabolism. These findings may have clinical implications since ROS-mediated impairments in myofibrillar function can be counteracted by reductants and antioxidants, whereas changes in SR Ca(2+) handling appear more resistant to interventions.

  9. Response properties of the pharyngeal branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve for umami taste in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Junichi; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Shigeji; Shingai, Tomio

    2007-04-24

    Many studies have reported the mechanism underlying umami taste. However, there are no investigations of responses to umami stimuli taste originating from chemoreceptors in the pharyngeal region. The pharyngeal branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (GPN-ph) innervating the pharynx has unique responses to taste stimulation that differs from responses of the chorda tympani nerve and lingual branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. Water evokes robust response, but NaCl solutions at physiological concentrations do not elicit responses. The present study was designed to examine umami taste (chemosensory) responses in the GPN-ph. Response characteristics to umami taste were compared between mice and rats. In mice, stimulation with compounds eliciting umami taste (0.1M monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), 0.01M inosine monophosphate (IMP) and the mixture of 0.1M MSG+0.01M IMP) evoked higher responses than application of distilled water (DW). However, synergistic response of a mixture of 0.1M MSG+0.01M IMP was not observed. In rats, there is no significant difference between the responses to umami taste (0.1M MSG, 0.01M IMP and the mixture of 0.1M MSG+0.01M IMP) and DW. Monopotassium glutamate (MPG) was used in rats to examine the contribution of the sodium component of MSG on the response. Stimulation with 0.1M MPG evoked a higher response when compared with responses to DW. The present results suggest that umami taste compounds are effective stimuli of the chemoreceptors in the pharynx of both mice and rats.

  10. Damaged Neocortical Perineuronal Nets Due to Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice, Rats and Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Härtig

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the extracellular matrix (ECM, perineuronal nets (PNs are polyanionic, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG-rich coatings of certain neurons, known to be affected in various neural diseases. Although these structures are considered as important parts of the neurovascular unit (NVU, their role during evolution of acute ischemic stroke and subsequent tissue damage is poorly understood and only a few preclinical studies analyzed PNs after acute ischemic stroke. By employing three models of experimental focal cerebral ischemia, this study was focused on histopathological alterations of PNs and concomitant vascular, glial and neuronal changes according to the NVU concept. We analyzed brain tissues obtained 1 day after ischemia onset from: (a mice after filament-based permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO; (b rats subjected to thromboembolic MACO; and (c sheep at 14 days after electrosurgically induced focal cerebral ischemia. Multiple fluorescence labeling was applied to explore simultaneous alterations of NVU and ECM. Serial mouse sections labeled with the net marker Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA displayed largely decomposed and nearly erased PNs in infarcted neocortical areas that were demarcated by up-regulated immunoreactivity for vascular collagen IV (Coll IV. Subsequent semi-quantitative analyses in mice confirmed significantly decreased WFA-staining along the ischemic border zone and a relative decrease in the directly ischemia-affected neocortex. Triple fluorescence labeling throughout the three animal models revealed up-regulated Coll IV and decomposed PNs accompanied by activated astroglia and altered immunoreactivity for parvalbumin, a calcium-binding protein in fast-firing GABAergic neurons which are predominantly surrounded by neocortical PNs. Furthermore, ischemic neocortical areas in rodents simultaneously displayed less intense staining of WFA, aggrecan, the net components neurocan, versican and the

  11. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  12. Synthesis of lipid mediators during UVB-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sisignano

    Full Text Available Peripheral sensitization during inflammatory pain is mediated by a variety of endogenous proalgesic mediators including a number of oxidized lipids, some of which serve endogenous modulators of sensory TRP-channels. These lipids are eicosanoids of the arachidonic acid and linoleic acid pathway, as well as lysophophatidic acids (LPAs. However, their regulation pattern during inflammatory pain and their contribution to peripheral sensitization is still unclear. Here, we used the UVB-model for inflammatory pain to investigate alterations of lipid concentrations at the site of inflammation, the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs as well as the spinal dorsal horn and quantified 21 lipid species from five different lipid families at the peak of inflammation 48 hours post irradiation. We found that known proinflammatory lipids as well as lipids with unknown roles in inflammatory pain to be strongly increased in the skin, whereas surprisingly little changes of lipid levels were seen in DRGs or the dorsal horn. Importantly, although there are profound differences between the number of cytochrome (CYP genes between mice and rats, CYP-derived lipids were regulated similarly in both species. Since TRPV1 agonists such as LPA 18∶1, 9- and 13-HODE, 5- and 12-HETE were elevated in the skin, they may contribute to thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia during UVB-induced inflammatory pain. These results may explain why some studies show relatively weak analgesic effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in UVB-induced skin inflammation, as they do not inhibit synthesis of other proalgesic lipids such as LPA 18∶1, 9-and 13-HODE and HETEs.

  13. Use of permethrin eradicated the tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) from a colony of mutagenized and transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William A; Randolph, Mildred M; Boyd, Keli L; Mandrell, Timothy D

    2005-09-01

    The tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti, was identified in a colony of mutagenized and transgenic mice at a large academic institution. O. bacoti is an obligate, blood-feeding ectoparasite with an extensive host range. Although the source of the infestation was likely feral rodents, none were found in the room housing infested mice. We hypothesize that construction on the floor above the vivarium and compromised ceiling integrity within the animal room provided for vermin entry and subsequent O. bacoti infestation. O. bacoti infestation was eliminated by environmental decontamination with synthetic pyrethroids and weekly application of 7.4% permethrin-impregnated cotton balls to mouse caging for five consecutive weeks. Visual examination of the macroenvironment, microenvironment, and colony for 38 days confirmed the efficacy of treatment. We noted no treatment-related toxicities or effects on colony production.

  14. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic flower extract of Newbouldia laevis in mice and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Y Tanko; B Kamba; MI Saleh; K Y Musa; A Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The ethanolic flower extract of Newbouldia laevis was investigated for possible anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. Acetic acid induced writhing (in mice) and formalin tests (in rats) were used to study. The extract caused a significant decrease (P< 0.05), which was not dose a dependent inhibition on acetic acid-induced writhing and the neurogenic pain induced by formalin. The extract at the doses (25, 50 and 100mg/kg) tested showed 59, 71 and 47% inhibition...

  15. Investigation of radio-sensitive period of the male gonad in the foetus and newborn of rat and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    After a presentation of the different steps of germ line development, and a description of the different effects and consequences of ionizing radiations from a general point of view and in the peculiar case of testis development (DNA damage, stopping of the cellular cycle, apoptosis, DNA methylation), this research thesis reports an experimental work in the field of reproductive physiology performed on foetus and newborns of rats and mice. Results give information on early testis radio-sensitivity for rodents. The unusual response of gonocytes with respect to DNA radio-induced damages seems related to the protection of the genome integrity of the germ line [fr

  16. Cell structure and function and response to chemotherapy in tumors heterotransplanted into the subrenal capsule of mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbäck, F; Kangas, L; Wasenius, V M

    1985-12-01

    Specimens from 16 freshly biopsied human tumors, two mammary adenocarcinomas, ten ovarian adenocarcinomas, two squamous cell carcinomas, one malignant histiocytoma and one chondrosarcoma of the bone, two human ovarian adenocarcinomas established by transplantation into nude mice and two adenocarcinomas induced in rat mammary gland were transplanted under the renal capsule of 510 normal immunocompetent mice and 180 rats and the effects of chemotherapy were evaluated. The results showed successful transplantation of all types of tumors in both animal species. Morphological analysis revealed preserved glandular structures with surface microvilli, mucin and CEA production and partially preserved basement membranes. Treatment with cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, adriamycin and cisplatin caused cell shrinkage, degradation and partial or total disappearance of the tumor cells. Vascularization was distinct in all specimens. A cellular infiltrate was found frequently but not consistently. A common end stage was a fibrotic scar with no cellular activity, occasionally giving a misleading impression of a growing tumor on gross observation. The results were obtained rapidly and suggest that the subrenal capsule assay would be useful for evaluating the sensitivity of human tumors to therapeutic manipulation, but needs supplementary histological examination.

  17. Biodistribution of the GATA-3-specific DNAzyme hgd40 after inhalative exposure in mice, rats and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turowska, Agnieszka; Librizzi, Damiano; Baumgartl, Nadja; Kuhlmann, Jens; Dicke, Tanja; Merkel, Olivia; Homburg, Ursula; Höffken, Helmut; Renz, Harald; Garn, Holger

    2013-01-01

    The DNAzyme hgd40 was shown to effectively reduce expression of the transcription factor GATA-3 RNA which plays an important role in the regulation of Th2-mediated immune mechanisms such as in allergic bronchial asthma. However, uptake, biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of hgd40 have not been investigated yet. We examined local and systemic distribution of hgd40 in naive mice and mice suffering from experimental asthma. Furthermore, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics as a function of dose following single and repeated administration in rats and dogs. Using intranasal administration of fluorescently labeled hgd40 we demonstrated that the DNAzyme was evenly distributed in inflamed asthmatic mouse lungs within minutes after single dose application. Systemic distribution was investigated in mice using radioactive labeled hgd40. After intratracheal application, highest amounts of hgd40 were detected in the lungs. High amounts were also detected in the bladder indicating urinary excretion as a major elimination pathway. In serum, low systemic hgd40 levels were detected already at 5 min post application (p.a.), subsequently decreasing over time to non-detectable levels at 2 h p.a. As revealed by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, trace amounts of hgd40 were detectable in lungs up to 7 days p.a. Also in the toxicologically relevant rats and dogs, hgd40 was detectable in blood only shortly after inhalative application. The plasma pharmacokinetic profile was dose and time dependent. Repeated administration did not lead to drug accumulation in plasma of dogs and rats. These pharmacokinetic of hgd40 provide guidance for clinical development, and support an infrequent and convenient dose administration regimen. - Highlights: • Local and systemic distribution of GATA-3-specific DNAzyme hgd40 was investigated. • Pharmacokinetics of hgd40 was tested in rats and dogs. • hgd40 dissolved in PBS was easily taken up into the lungs after local application. • No

  18. Biodistribution of the GATA-3-specific DNAzyme hgd40 after inhalative exposure in mice, rats and dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turowska, Agnieszka [sterna biologicals GmbH and Co. KG, Marburg (Germany); Librizzi, Damiano [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg GmbH, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Baumgartl, Nadja [Institute of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiochemistry-Molecular Diagnostics, Philipps University of Marburg (Germany); Kuhlmann, Jens; Dicke, Tanja [sterna biologicals GmbH and Co. KG, Marburg (Germany); Merkel, Olivia [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit (United States); Homburg, Ursula [sterna biologicals GmbH and Co. KG, Marburg (Germany); Höffken, Helmut [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg GmbH, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Renz, Harald [Institute of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiochemistry-Molecular Diagnostics, Philipps University of Marburg (Germany); Garn, Holger, E-mail: garn@staff.uni-marburg.de [Institute of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiochemistry-Molecular Diagnostics, Philipps University of Marburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The DNAzyme hgd40 was shown to effectively reduce expression of the transcription factor GATA-3 RNA which plays an important role in the regulation of Th2-mediated immune mechanisms such as in allergic bronchial asthma. However, uptake, biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of hgd40 have not been investigated yet. We examined local and systemic distribution of hgd40 in naive mice and mice suffering from experimental asthma. Furthermore, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics as a function of dose following single and repeated administration in rats and dogs. Using intranasal administration of fluorescently labeled hgd40 we demonstrated that the DNAzyme was evenly distributed in inflamed asthmatic mouse lungs within minutes after single dose application. Systemic distribution was investigated in mice using radioactive labeled hgd40. After intratracheal application, highest amounts of hgd40 were detected in the lungs. High amounts were also detected in the bladder indicating urinary excretion as a major elimination pathway. In serum, low systemic hgd40 levels were detected already at 5 min post application (p.a.), subsequently decreasing over time to non-detectable levels at 2 h p.a. As revealed by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, trace amounts of hgd40 were detectable in lungs up to 7 days p.a. Also in the toxicologically relevant rats and dogs, hgd40 was detectable in blood only shortly after inhalative application. The plasma pharmacokinetic profile was dose and time dependent. Repeated administration did not lead to drug accumulation in plasma of dogs and rats. These pharmacokinetic of hgd40 provide guidance for clinical development, and support an infrequent and convenient dose administration regimen. - Highlights: • Local and systemic distribution of GATA-3-specific DNAzyme hgd40 was investigated. • Pharmacokinetics of hgd40 was tested in rats and dogs. • hgd40 dissolved in PBS was easily taken up into the lungs after local application. • No

  19. Individual Differences in Behavioural Reaction to a Changing Environment in Mice and Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1987-01-01

    Aggressive and non-aggressive male mice differ in their reaction to a changing social environment. In order to investigate if this differentiation holds also for non-social situations male mice are trained in a standard maze task, whereafter a change (extramaze and intramaze, respectively) is

  20. Comparison of dosimetric mapping of radiation induced skin ulcer animal model in Nud mice and Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Nelson M.; Mosca, Rodrigo C.; Ferreira, Danilo C.; Somessari, Elizabeth S.R.; Silveira, Carlos Gaia da; Dornelles, Leonardo D.P.; Bueno, Carmem C.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2013-01-01

    Skin ulcer (SU) is the damage caused to the skin by ionizing radiation, becoming evident at the end or after the conclusion of radiotherapeutic treatments. Technological advances have enabled dose increases in radiotherapy protocols, augmenting SU cases. In order to investigate potential therapies for the SU, an animal model (AM) was devised for Wistar rats, based upon the AM of the Nud mice. The AM dose rate (DR) was measured with silicium diode in the gamma irradiator and lead blocks. Three animals were positioned into immobilizers with their dorsal region skin pinched and held up by a suture point fixed in the immobilizer and exposed to 85 Gy. The DR variation in the immobilizer tangential point with the source median plane was non-significant, thus establishing an average DR. Such shielding reduced the DR in the rat in more than 93%. The difference in the immobilizer's dimensions impaired the comparison between the DRs; nevertheless, the DR comparison in the immobilizer tangential point with the source median plane became the reference point for AM comparison. The appearance of SU symptoms and their maximum extensions were similar, notwithstanding the difference regarding their healing periods. The specified dose induced the SU emerging. Mass variation exerted no influence onto the healing, despite having age affected it. The animals, throughout and after the experiment, showed normal health with just the SU symptoms. This work granted us the AM for the Wistar rats, which shall reinforce the investigation of new therapies for SU treatment. (author)

  1. Comparison of dosimetric mapping of radiation induced skin ulcer animal model in Nud mice and Wistar rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Nelson M.; Mosca, Rodrigo C.; Ferreira, Danilo C.; Somessari, Elizabeth S.R.; Silveira, Carlos Gaia da; Dornelles, Leonardo D.P.; Bueno, Carmem C.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: nelsonnininho@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Skin ulcer (SU) is the damage caused to the skin by ionizing radiation, becoming evident at the end or after the conclusion of radiotherapeutic treatments. Technological advances have enabled dose increases in radiotherapy protocols, augmenting SU cases. In order to investigate potential therapies for the SU, an animal model (AM) was devised for Wistar rats, based upon the AM of the Nud mice. The AM dose rate (DR) was measured with silicium diode in the gamma irradiator and lead blocks. Three animals were positioned into immobilizers with their dorsal region skin pinched and held up by a suture point fixed in the immobilizer and exposed to 85 Gy. The DR variation in the immobilizer tangential point with the source median plane was non-significant, thus establishing an average DR. Such shielding reduced the DR in the rat in more than 93%. The difference in the immobilizer's dimensions impaired the comparison between the DRs; nevertheless, the DR comparison in the immobilizer tangential point with the source median plane became the reference point for AM comparison. The appearance of SU symptoms and their maximum extensions were similar, notwithstanding the difference regarding their healing periods. The specified dose induced the SU emerging. Mass variation exerted no influence onto the healing, despite having age affected it. The animals, throughout and after the experiment, showed normal health with just the SU symptoms. This work granted us the AM for the Wistar rats, which shall reinforce the investigation of new therapies for SU treatment. (author)

  2. FAT/CD36: a major regulator of neuronal fatty acid sensing and energy homeostasis in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Christelle; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose; Musatov, Serguei; Magnan, Christophe; Levin, Barry E

    2013-08-01

    Hypothalamic "metabolic-sensing" neurons sense glucose and fatty acids (FAs) and play an integral role in the regulation of glucose, energy homeostasis, and the development of obesity and diabetes. Using pharmacologic agents, we previously found that ~50% of these neurons responded to oleic acid (OA) by using the FA translocator/receptor FAT/CD36 (CD36). For further elucidation of the role of CD36 in neuronal FA sensing, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) CD36 was depleted using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector expressing CD36 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in rats. Whereas their neuronal glucosensing was unaffected by CD36 depletion, the percent of neurons that responded to OA was decreased specifically in glucosensing neurons. A similar effect was seen in total-body CD36-knockout mice. Next, weanling rats were injected in the VMH with CD36 AAV shRNA. Despite significant VMH CD36 depletion, there was no effect on food intake, body weight gain, or total carcass adiposity on chow or 45% fat diets. However, VMH CD36-depleted rats did have increased plasma leptin and subcutaneous fat deposition and markedly abnormal glucose tolerance. These results demonstrate that CD36 is a critical factor in both VMH neuronal FA sensing and the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis.

  3. The relevance of inter- and intrastrain differences in mice and rats and their implications for models of seizures and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, Wolfgang; Ferland, Russell J; Ferraro, Thomas N

    2017-08-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the genetic background of mice and rats, even in inbred strains, can have a profound influence on measures of seizure susceptibility and epilepsy. These differences can be capitalized upon through genetic mapping studies to reveal genes important for seizures and epilepsy. However, strain background and particularly mixed genetic backgrounds of transgenic animals need careful consideration in both the selection of strains and in the interpretation of results and conclusions. For instance, mice with targeted deletions of genes involved in epilepsy can have profoundly disparate phenotypes depending on the background strain. In this review, we discuss findings related to how this genetic heterogeneity has and can be utilized in the epilepsy field to reveal novel insights into seizures and epilepsy. Moreover, we discuss how caution is needed in regards to rodent strain or even animal vendor choice, and how this can significantly influence seizure and epilepsy parameters in unexpected ways. This is particularly critical in decisions regarding the strain of choice used in generating mice with targeted deletions of genes. Finally, we discuss the role of environment (at vendor and/or laboratory) and epigenetic factors for inter- and intrastrain differences and how such differences can affect the expression of seizures and the animals' performance in behavioral tests that often accompany acute and chronic seizure testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 9 CFR 93.104 - Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for pet birds, commercial birds, zoological birds, and research birds. 93.104 Section 93.104 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN...

  5. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Molybdenum Trioxide (CAS No. 1313-27-5) in F344 Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Molybdenum is an essential element for the function of nitrogenase in plants and as a cofactor for enzymes including xanthine oxidoreductase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfide oxidase in animals. Molybdenum trioxide is used primarily as an additive to steel and corrosion-resistant alloys. It is also used as a chemical intermediate for molybdenum products; an industrial catalyst; a pigment; a crop nutrient; components of glass, ceramics, and enamels; a flame retardant for polyester and polyvinyl chloride resins; and a reagent in chemical analyses. Molybdenum trioxide was nominated by the NCI for toxicity and carcinogenicity studies as a representative inorganic molybdenum compound. The production of molybdenum trioxide is the largest of all the molybdenum compounds examined. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to molybdenum trioxide (approximately 99% pure) by inhalation for 14 days, 13 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. 14-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, or 300 mg molybdenum trioxide/m(3). Rats were exposed for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a total of 10 exposure days during a 14-day period. All rats survived to the end of the study. The final mean body weights of male rats exposed to 100 mg/m(3) and male and female rats exposed to 300 mg/m(3) were significantly lower than those of the control groups. Male rats exposed to 300 mg/m(3) lost weight during the study. There were no clinical findings related to exposure to molybdenum trioxide. No chemical-related lesions were observed. 14-DAY STUDY IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, or 300 mg molybdenum trioxide/m(3). Mice were exposed 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for a total of 10 exposure days during a 14-day period. All mice survived to the end of the study. Final mean

  6. Hyperplasia of the lymphoepithelium of NALT in rats but not in mice upon 28-day exposure to 15ppm formaldehyde vapor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C. F.; Oostrum, L. van; Ma-Hock, L.; Durrer, S.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate if local lymphoid tissues are a target of FA, nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) and upper-respiratory tract-draining lymph nodes were examined in a 28-day inhalation study with FA vapor in Fischer-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice.Paraffin-embedded tissues were sectioned and

  7. Hyperplasia of the lymphoepithelium of NALT in rats but not in mice upon 28-day exposure to 15 ppm formaldehyde vapor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Oostrum, van L.; Ma-Hock, I.; Durrer, S.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate if local lymphoid tissues are a target of FA, nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) and upper-respiratory tract-draining lymph nodes were examined in a 28-day inhalation study with FA vapor in Fischer-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Paraffin-embedded tissues were sectioned and

  8. Alterations by peroxisome proliferators of acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine in rats, mice and guinea-pigs. Role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Y; Hirose, A; Kozuka, H

    1986-01-01

    Rats, mice and guinea-pigs were administered p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (clofibric acid) or 2,2'-(decamethylenedithio)diethanol (tiadenol). The treatments of rats and mice with either clofibric acid or tiadenol increased markedly the activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase, palmitoyl-CoA chain elongation, 1-acylglycerophosphate (1-acyl-GP) acyltransferase and 1-acylglycerophosphocholine (1-acyl-GPC) acyltransferase, but not 2-acylglycerophosphocholine (2-acyl-GPC) acyltransferase in liver microsomes. The treatment of guinea-pigs with clofibric acid did not cause any change in the activities of these enzymes. The treatment of guinea-pigs with tiadenol caused a slight, but significant, increase in the activities of 1-acyl-GP acyltransferase and 1-acyl-GPC acyltransferase. The treatment of rats and mice with either clofibric acid or tiadenol increased markedly the proportion of 18:1 and decreased greatly the proportion of 18:0 in liver microsomal phosphatidylcholine. However, there is a considerable difference in the effects of the two peroxisome proliferators on the composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine between rats and mice. The treatment of guinea-pigs with either of the two peroxisome proliferators caused no change in acyl composition of phosphatidylcholine. The possible role of stearoyl-CoA desaturation in the regulation of acyl composition of phosphatidylcholine was discussed. PMID:2874791

  9. Disparate patterns of age-related changes in lipid peroxidation in long-lived naked mole-rats and shorter-lived mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andziak, Blazej; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2006-12-01

    A key tenet of the oxidative stress theory of aging is that levels of accrued oxidative damage increase with age. Differences in damage generation and accumulation therefore may underlie the natural variation in species longevity. We compared age-related profiles of whole-organism lipid peroxidation (urinary isoprostanes) and liver lipid damage (malondialdehyde) in long living naked mole-rats [maximum lifespan (MLS) > 28.3 years] and shorter-living CB6F1 hybrid mice (MLS approximately 3.5 years). In addition, we compared age-associated changes in liver non-heme iron to assess how intracellular conditions, which may modulate oxidative processes, are affected by aging. Surprisingly, even at a young age, concentrations of both markers of lipid peroxidation, as well as of iron, were at least twofold (P naked mole tats than in mice. This refutes the hypothesis that prolonged naked mole-rat longevity is due to superior protection against oxidative stress. The age-related profiles of all three parameters were distinctly species specific. Rates of lipid damage generation in mice were maintained throughout adulthood, while accrued damage in old animals was twice that of young mice. In naked mole-rats, urinary isoprostane excretion declined by half with age (P naked mole-rats is independent of oxidative stress parameters.

  10. Differences in the metabolism and disposition of inhaled [3H]benzene by F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, P.J.; Bechtold, W.E.; Birnbaum, L.S.; Lucier, G.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Benzene is a potent hematotoxin and has been shown to cause leukemia in man. Chronic toxicity studies indicate that B6C3F1 mice are more susceptible than F334/N rats to benzene toxicity. The purpose of the studies presented in this paper was to determine if there were metabolic differences between F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice which might be responsible for this increased susceptibility. Metabolites of benzene in blood, liver, lung, and bone marrow were measured during and following a 6-hr 50 ppm exposure to benzene vapor. Hydroquinone glucuronide, hydroquinone, and muconic acid, which reflect pathways leading to potential toxic metabolites of benzene, were present in much greater concentrations in the mouse than in rat tissues. Phenylsulfate, a detoxified metabolite, and an unknown water-soluble metabolite were present in approximately equal concentrations in these two species. These results indicate that the proportion of benzene metabolized via pathways leading to the formation of potentially toxic metabolites as opposed to detoxification pathways was much higher in B6C3F1 mice than in F344 rats, which may explain the higher susceptibility of mice to benzene-induced hematotoxicity and carcinogenicity

  11. Tofogliflozin, a potent and highly specific sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control in diabetic rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Honda, Kiyofumi; Fukazawa, Masanori; Ozawa, Kazuharu; Hagita, Hitoshi; Kawai, Takahiro; Takeda, Minako; Yata, Tatsuo; Kawai, Mio; Fukuzawa, Taku; Kobayashi, Takamitsu; Sato, Tsutomu; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Sachiya

    2012-06-01

    Sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is the predominant mediator of renal glucose reabsorption and is an emerging molecular target for the treatment of diabetes. We identified a novel potent and selective SGLT2 inhibitor, tofogliflozin (CSG452), and examined its efficacy and pharmacological properties as an antidiabetic drug. Tofogliflozin competitively inhibited SGLT2 in cells overexpressing SGLT2, and K(i) values for human, rat, and mouse SGLT2 inhibition were 2.9, 14.9, and 6.4 nM, respectively. The selectivity of tofogliflozin toward human SGLT2 versus human SGLT1, SGLT6, and sodium/myo-inositol transporter 1 was the highest among the tested SGLT2 inhibitors under clinical development. Furthermore, no interaction with tofogliflozin was observed in any of a battery of tests examining glucose-related physiological processes, such as glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, glycogen synthesis, hepatic glucose production, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and glucosidase reactions. A single oral gavage of tofogliflozin increased renal glucose clearance and lowered the blood glucose level in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Tofogliflozin also improved postprandial glucose excursion in a meal tolerance test with GK rats. In db/db mice, 4-week tofogliflozin treatment reduced glycated hemoglobin and improved glucose tolerance in the oral glucose tolerance test 4 days after the final administration. No blood glucose reduction was observed in normoglycemic SD rats treated with tofogliflozin. These findings demonstrate that tofogliflozin inhibits SGLT2 in a specific manner, lowers blood glucose levels by increasing renal glucose clearance, and improves pathological conditions of type 2 diabetes with a low hypoglycemic potential.

  12. Explanation for Cancer in Rats, Mice and Humans due to Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, the National Toxicology Program reported a correlation between exposure to whole body 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation and cancer in the brains and hearts of Sprague Dawley male rats. This paper proposes the following explanation for these results. The neurons around the rat's brain and heart form closed electrical circuits and, following Faraday's Law, 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces 900 MHz electrical currents in these neural circuits. In turn, these 900 MHz currents...

  13. Identification and characterization of metabolites of ASP015K, a novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor, in rats, chimeric mice with humanized liver, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Naoyuki; Oda, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    1. Here, we elucidated the structure of metabolites of novel oral Janus kinase inhibitor ASP015K in rats and humans and evaluated the predictability of human metabolites using chimeric mice with humanized liver (PXB mice). 2. Rat biological samples collected after oral dosing of (14)C-labelled ASP015K were examined using a liquid chromatography-radiometric detector and mass spectrometer (LC-RAD/MS). The molecular weight of metabolites in human and the liver chimeric mouse biological samples collected after oral dosing of non-labelled ASP015K was also investigated via LC-MS. Metabolites were also isolated from rat bile samples and analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance. 3. Metabolic pathways of ASP015K in rats and humans were found to be glucuronide conjugation, methyl conjugation, sulfate conjugation, glutathione conjugation, hydroxylation of the adamantane ring and N-oxidation of the 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine ring. The main metabolite of ASP015K in rats was the glucuronide conjugate, while the main metabolite in humans was the sulfate conjugate. Given that human metabolites were produced by human hepatocytes in chimeric mice with humanized liver, this human model mouse was believed to be useful in predicting the human metabolic profile of various drug candidates.

  14. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Benzene (CAS No. 71-43-2) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    Benzene ranks 16th in production volume for chemicals produced in the United States, with approximately 9.9 billion pounds being produced in 1984, 9.1 billion pounds in 1983, and 7.8 billion pounds in 1982. This simplest aromatic chemical in used in the synthesis of styrene (polystyrene plastics and synthetic rubber), phenol (phenolic resins), cyclohexane (nylon), aniline, maleic anhydride (polyester resins), alkylbenzenes (detergents), chlorobenzenes, and other products used in the production of drugs, dyes, insecticides, and plastics. Benzene, along with other light, high-octane aromatic hydrocarbons, such as toluene and xylenes, is a component of motor gasoline. Benzene is also used as a solvent, but for most applications, it has been replaced by less hazardous solvents. During the 17-week studies, groups of 10 or 15 male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were gavaged 5 days per week with benzene in corn oil (5 ml/kg) at doses of 0 to 600 mg/kg. No benzene-related deaths occurred; in rats that received benzene, final mean body weights were 14%-22% lower compared with vehicle controls and in mice, slight dose-related reductions were observed (less than 10% differences). Doses for the 2-year studies were selected based on clinical observations (tremors in higher dosed mice), on clinical pathologic findings (lymphoid depletion in rats and leukopenia in mice), and on body weight effects. Two-year toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of benzene (greater than 99.7% pure) were conducted in groups of 50 F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1 mice of each sex and for each dose. Doses of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg body weight benzene in corn oil (5 ml/kg) were administered by gavage to male rats, 5 days per week, for 103 weeks. Doses of 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg benzene in corn oil were administered by gavage to female rats and to male and female mice for 103 weeks. Ten additional animals in each of the 16 groups were killed at 12 months and necropsies were performed. Hematologic

  15. Disposition and metabolism of aniline in Fischer 344 rats and C57BL/6 X C3H F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, D.J.; Waud, W.R.; Struck, R.F.; Hill, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    We examined the metabolism and disposition of aniline, which induces spleen hemangiosarcomas in rats but no tumors in mice, in normal and predosed Fischer 344 rats, and C57BL/6 X C3H F1 mice administered low (50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) or high (250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively) doses. Of 11 tissues examined, the highest levels of binding of [ 14 C]aniline to DNA were in the kidney, large intestine, and spleen of high-dose rats that had received prior dosing; these tissues had covalent binding indices of 14.2, 4.3, and 3.7 mumol/mol nucleotides/dose, respectively. Protein and RNA were the major macromolecular targets for binding of radioactivity from [ 14 C]aniline. Relative to controls, most tissues from predosed mice (low dose and high dose) showed less binding to protein and RNA; but for most tissues from predosed rats administered 50-mg/kg doses of [ 14 C]aniline, there was more extensive binding. Also relative to controls, binding of radioactivity in the spleen of predosed rats given [ 14 C]aniline (50 mg/kg) was 148% greater for protein and 302% greater for RNA. For rats administered 250 mg of [ 14 C]aniline per kg, however, there were no outstanding differences in binding to RNA and protein between normal and predosed animals. The profiles of urinary metabolites produced by rats and mice were not appreciably different in animals predosed with aniline. For rats, however, the profiles were different for the low and high doses, suggesting that the main metabolic pathway was saturated at the higher dose. p-Acetamidophenyl sulfate represented over 70% of the total radioactivity recovered from the urine of rats dosed with 50 mg of aniline per kg but only 30% in the urine of those dosed with 250 mg/kg. The urine of the high-dose rats contained greater percentages of p-aminophenyl sulfate, p-acetamidophenyl glucuronide, and unconjugated metabolites

  16. Acute oral toxicity of 3-MCPD mono- and di-palmitic esters in Swiss mice and their cytotoxicity in NRK-52E rat kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Gao, Bo-Yan; Qin, Fang; Wu, Ping-Ping; Shi, Hai-Ming; Luo, Wei; Ma, Ai-Niu; Jiang, Yuan-Rong; Xu, Xue-Bing; Yu, Liang-Li Lucy

    2012-10-01

    The acute oral toxicity of 1-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate) and 1,2-bis-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD dipalmitate) in Swiss mice were examined, along with their cytotoxicity in NRK-52E rat kidney cells. LD50 (median lethal dose) value of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate was determined 2676.81 mg/kg body weight (BW). The results showed that 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate dose-dependently decreased the mean body weight, and caused significant increase of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine in dead mice compared to the control and survived mice. Major histopathological changes in mice fed 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate were renal tubular necrosis, protein casts and spermatids decrease in the seminiferous tubules. According to the limit test for 3-MCPD dipalmitate, LD50 value of 3-MCPD dipalmitate was presumed to be greater than 5000 mg/kg BW. Obvious changes were not observed on mean body weight, absolute and relative organ weight or serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in mice fed 3-MCPD dipalmitate. However, renal tubular necrosis, protein casts and spermatids decrease were also observed in the dead mice. In addition, MTT and LDH assay results only showed the cytotoxicity of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate in NRK-52E rat kidney cells in a dose-dependent manner. Together, the results indicated a greater toxicity of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate compared to 3-MCPD dipalmitate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of tetralin (CAS No. 119-64-2) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Tetralin is used as an industrial solvent primarily for naphthalene, fats, resins, oils, and waxes; as a solvent and stabilizer for shoe polishes and floor waxes; as a solvent for pesticides, rubber, asphalt, and aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., anthracene); as a dye solvent carrier in the textile industry; as a substitute for turpentine in lacquers, paints, and varnishes; in paint thinners and as a paint remover; in alkali-resistant lacquers for cleaning printing ink from rollers and type; as a constituent of motor fuels and lubricants; for the removal of naphthalene in gas distribution systems; and as an insecticide for clothes moths. Tetralin was nominated by the National Cancer Institute for carcinogenicity and disposition studies because of its structure, high production volume, and high potential for worker and consumer exposure. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to tetralin (at least 97% pure) by inhalation for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years; male NCI Black Reiter (NBR) rats were exposed to tetralin by inhalation for 2 weeks. Male NBR rats do not produce 2u-globulin; the NBR rats were included to study the relationship of 2u-globulin and renal lesion induction. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male (F344/N and NBR) and five female (F344/N) rats were exposed to tetralin at air concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 120 ppm, 6 hours plus T90 (12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 12 exposures. All rats survived to the end of the studies. The final mean body weight of female rats exposed to 120 ppm and mean body weight gains of female rats exposed to 30 ppm or greater were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Final mean body weights of exposed groups of male NBR rats and mean body weight gains of all exposed groups of male rats were significantly less than those of the chamber controls. Dark

  18. The traffic and homing of lymphocytes in rats and lymphoblasts in mice and the radiation effects on the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huibin; Xie Ping; Yin Zhiwei; Zhu Jingwei; Mao Zijun

    1988-12-01

    In vitro 60 Co γ-ray irradiation of 51 Cr or 3 H-UR-labeled lymphocytes from rat spleen and 3 H-TdR-labeled lymphoblasts from mouse mesenteric lympho nodi (MLN) was found to alter their subsequent in vivo distribution significantly in syngeneic rats and mice using techniques of γ-counting and liquid scintillation counting in combination with autoradiography. The experimental results suggested as follows: Irradiated lymphocytes demonstrated an increased distribution to the liver, lungs and spleen. Cells going to the MLN and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) showed a significant decrease in homing following irradiation. The effects of 60 Co γ-rays on the lymphocyte and lymphoblast traffic and homing were related to the radiation doses. There was a significant inhibiting effect on the ability of selective homing of MLN lymphoblasts to GALT and intestinal mucosa with doses over 4 Gy, while the selective homing of splenic lymphocytes was affected after 0.5 Gy exposure. The autoradiography showed that the migration of the irradiated lymphocytes into B cell areas of MLN and spleen was depressed more remarkably than that into T cell areas. These studies provide some experimental materials for radiation immunology

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of fixed oil of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Syeda Anum; Baig, Sadia Ghousia; Hasan, Muhammad Mohtasheemul; Ahmed, Salman; Salma, -

    2018-03-01

    Macrotyloma uniflorum commonly known as horse gram or kulthi bean is grown as a pulse for livestock and human consumption. The beans contain about 1.3% fat, 18% protein, 15% carbohydrate along with vitamins and minerals. In traditional medicine it is used as antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, antihypertensive and diuretic. Other important medicinal uses include treatment of renal stones, obesity, piles, oedema and fever. The present study evaluated analgesic (by acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate and tail flick tests in mice) and anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced paw edema in rats) activities of Macrotyloma uniflorum fixed oil (MUFO). Four groups were included in study: Group-I: Normal Saline Control (2ml/kg), Group-II: MUFO (2ml/kg), Group-III: MUFO (4ml/kg), and Group-IV: Standard Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA 300mg/kg). All results were significant however delayed onset of action was observed in tail flick and paw edema tests. Acute oral toxicity of the oil was also checked in mice and was found safe upto 4ml/kg dose, as no signs of toxicity and mortality were observed. It is concluded that Macrotyloma uniflorum fixed oil may possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity which can be related with a peripheral mechanism of action.

  20. Enhanced sensitivity of postsynaptic serotonin-1A receptors in rats and mice with high trait aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, BJ; de Boer, SF; Buwalda, B; de Ruiter, AJH; de Jong, JG; Koolhaas, JM

    2001-01-01

    Individual differences in aggressive behaviour have been linked to variability in central serotonergic activity, both in humans and animals. A previous experiment in mice, selectively bred for high or low levels of aggression, showed an up-regulation of postsynaptic serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors,

  1. Assessment of Thermal Pain Sensation in Rats and Mice Using the Hargreaves Test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cheah, M.; Fawcett, James; Andrews, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 16 (2017), e2506 ISSN 2331-8325 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000419 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : behavioral testing * hargreaves * mice Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neuroscience s (including psychophysiology

  2. Metallochaperone for Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CCS) protein but not mRNA is higher in organs from copper-deficient mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Joseph R; Broderius, Margaret; Brokate, Bruce

    2003-09-15

    Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an abundant metalloenzyme important in scavenging superoxide ions. Cu-deficient rats and mice have lower SOD1 activity and protein, possibly because apo-SOD1 is degraded faster than holo-SOD1. SOD1 interacts with and requires its metallochaperone CCS for donating copper. We produced dietary Cu deficiency in rodents to determine if the reduction in SOD1 was related to the level of its specific metallochaperone CCS. CCS levels determined by immunoblot were 2- to 3-fold higher in liver, heart, kidney, and brain from male Cu-deficient rats and mice under a variety of conditions. CCS was also higher in livers of Cu-deficient dams. Interestingly, CCS levels in brain of Cu-deficient mice were also higher even though SOD1 activity and protein were not altered, suggesting that the rise in CCS is correlated with altered Cu status rather than a direct result of lower SOD1. A DNA probe specific for rat CCS detected a single transcript by Northern blot hybridization with liver RNA. CCS mRNA levels in mouse and rat liver were not altered by dietary treatment. These results suggest a posttranscriptional mechanism for higher CCS protein when Cu is limiting in the cell, perhaps due to slower protein turnover. Elevation in CCS level is one of the most dramatic alterations in Cu binding proteins accompanying Cu deficiency and may be useful to assess Cu status.

  3. Blood pharmacokinetics of tertiary amyl methyl ether in male and female F344 rats and CD-1 mice after nose-only inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Susan C J; Janszen, Derek B; Asgharian, Bahman; Moore, Timothy A; Bobbitt, Carol M; Fennell, Timothy R

    2003-01-01

    Interest in understanding the biological behavior of aliphatic ethers has increased owing to their use as gasoline additives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood pharmacokinetics of the oxygenate tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), its major metabolite tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA) and acetone in rats and mice following inhalation exposure to TAME. Species differences in the area under the curve (AUC) for TAME were significant at each exposure concentration. For rats, the blood TAME AUC increased in proportion with an increase in exposure concentration. For mice, an increase in exposure concentration (100-500 ppm) resulted in a disproportional increase in the TAME AUC. Mice had greater (two- to threefold) blood concentrations of TAA compared with rats following exposure to 2500 or 500 ppm TAME. Mice had a disproportional increase in the TAA AUC with an increase in exposure concentration (100-500 ppm). This difference could result from saturation of a process (e.g. oxidation, glucuronide conjugation) that is involved in the further metabolism of TAA. For each species, gender and exposure concentration, acetone increased during exposure and returned to control values by 16 h following exposure. The source of acetone could be both as a metabolite of TAA or an effect on endogenous metabolism produced by exposure to TAME. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Comparison of TCDD-elicited genome-wide hepatic gene expression in Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nault, Rance; Kim, Suntae; Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu

    2013-03-01

    Although the structure and function of the AhR are conserved, emerging evidence suggests that downstream effects are species-specific. In this study, rat hepatic gene expression data from the DrugMatrix database (National Toxicology Program) were compared to mouse hepatic whole-genome gene expression data following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). For the DrugMatrix study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were gavaged daily with 20 μg/kg TCDD for 1, 3 and 5 days, while female C57BL/6 ovariectomized mice were examined 1, 3 and 7 days after a single oral gavage of 30 μg/kg TCDD. A total of 649 rat and 1386 mouse genes (|fold change| ≥ 1.5, P1(t) ≥ 0.99) were differentially expressed following treatment. HomoloGene identified 11,708 orthologs represented across the rat Affymetrix 230 2.0 GeneChip (12,310 total orthologs), and the mouse 4 × 44K v.1 Agilent oligonucleotide array (17,578 total orthologs). Comparative analysis found 563 and 922 orthologs differentially expressed in response to TCDD in the rat and mouse, respectively, with 70 responses associated with immune function and lipid metabolism in common to both. Moreover, QRTPCR analysis of Ceacam1, showed divergent expression (induced in rat; repressed in mouse) functionally consistent with TCDD-elicited hepatic steatosis in the mouse but not the rat. Functional analysis identified orthologs involved in nucleotide binding and acetyltransferase activity in rat, while mouse-specific responses were associated with steroid, phospholipid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. These results provide further evidence that TCDD elicits species-specific regulation of distinct gene networks, and outlines considerations for future comparisons of publicly available microarray datasets. - Highlights: ► We performed a whole-genome comparison of TCDD-regulated genes in mice and rats. ► Previous species comparisons were extended using data from the DrugMatrix database. ► Less than 15% of TCDD

  5. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuanfei; Li, Yang; Holmes, Andrew; Szafranski, Karol; Faulkes, Chris G; Coen, Clive W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Platzer, Matthias; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam), a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m), and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  6. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfei Yu

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam, a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m, and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  7. Differences in predatory pressure on terrestrial snails by birds and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary table 2. Number of collected individuals of particular morph categories of C. nemoralis and C. hortensis with specification of undamaged and damaged snails. Morph. Total number of individuals. Undamaged individuals. Shells damaged by. Mice. Birds. Mouse + bird. Cepaea nemoralis. 732. 172. 105. 436.

  8. Effect of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Calotropis procera leaf extracts on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Sultan, Shamsuddin; Toma, Tanzila Taher; Lucky, Sayeda-A-Safa; Chowdhury, Majeedul H; Haque, Wahid Mozammel; Annay, Eashmat Ara; Jahan, Rownak

    2009-12-30

    Cuscuta reflexa (whole plant) and Calotropis procera (leaves) are used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control blood sugar in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. The hypoglycemic effects of methanol and chloroform extracts of whole plants of Cuscuta reflexa, and methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera were investigated in oral glucose tolerance tests in Long Evans rats and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Both methanol and chloroform extracts of Cuscuta reflexa whole plant demonstrated significant oral hypoglycemic activity in glucose-loaded rats at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. The methanol extract of leaves of Calotropis procera, when tested at doses of 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight did not demonstrate any oral hypoglycemic effect when tested in glucose-loaded mice.

  9. Drug metabolism in birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huo Ping; Fouts, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Papers published over 100 years since the beginning of the scientific study of drug metabolism in birds were reviewed. Birds were found to be able to accomplish more than 20 general biotransformation reactions in both functionalization and conjugation. Chickens were the primary subject of study but over 30 species of birds were used. Large species differences in drug metabolism exist between birds and mammals as well as between various birds, these differences were mostly quantitative. Qualitative differences were rare. On the whole, drug metabolism studies in birds have been neglected as compared with similar studies on insects and mammals. The uniqueness of birds and the advantages of using birds in drug metabolism studies are discussed. Possible future studies of drug metabolism in birds are recommended.

  10. Dimethylarsinic acid: Results of chronic toxicity/oncogenicity studies in F344 rats and in B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Lora L.; Eldan, Michal; Nyska, Abraham; Gemert, Marcia van; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V , cacodylic acid), a foliar herbicide, was administered in the diet to B6C3F1 mice (at dose levels of 0, 8, 40, 200, and 500 ppm) and to F344 rats (at dose levels of 0, 2, 10, 40, and 100 ppm) for 2 years, according to US EPA guidelines. In mice, there were no treatment-related tumors observed at any site. Treatment-related progressive glomerulonephropathy and nephrocalcinosis were observed in the kidneys in both sexes. The incidence of vacuolation of the epithelium in the urinary bladder was increased in both sexes, but was not associated with cytotoxicity, necrosis or hyperplasia. Based on non-neoplastic lesions found in the urinary bladder, the NOEL for mice was assessed to be 40 ppm in males and 8 ppm in females. In rats, treatment-related mortality occurred early in the study in five males in the 100 ppm group and in one male in the 40 ppm group. Papillomas and carcinomas with degeneration of the urothelium, necrosis and urothelial cell hyperplasia, were found in the urinary bladders of both sexes. In male rats, one papilloma was found in each of the 10 and 40 ppm groups; one urothelial cell carcinoma was found in the 2 ppm group and two in the 100 ppm group. Four papillomas and six urothelial cell carcinomas were found in the female 100 ppm group. Non-neoplastic treatment-related kidney lesions were confined to the 40 and 100 ppm levels and included necrosis, pyelonephritis, medullary nephrocalcinosis and tubular cystic dilation, hyperplasia of the epithelial lining of the papilla, and pelvic urothelial cell hyperplasia. All of these kidney changes appear to be related to an increase in the aging nephropathy of the rat. Dose-related increases in the height of the thyroid follicular epithelium were also noted in males and females, however, such changes reflect an adaptive response of the thyroid to decreased levels of circulating thyroid hormone, rather than an adverse effect. Based on the kidney and bladder lesions, the NOEL for

  11. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of methyl isobutyl ketone in F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice following 2-year inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, Matthew D.; Herbert, Ronald A.; Kissling, Grace E.; Suarez, Fernando; Roycroft, Joseph H.; Chhabra, Rajendra S.; Bucher, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is primarily used as a denaturant for rubbing alcohol, as a solvent and in the manufacture of methyl amyl alcohol. Inhalation of vapors is the most likely route of exposure in the work place. In order to evaluate the potential of MIBK to induce toxic and carcinogenic effects following chronic exposure, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to MIBK at concentrations of 0, 450, 900, or 1800 ppm by inhalation, 6 h/day, 5 days per week for 2 years. Survival was decreased in male rats at 1800 ppm. Body weight gains were decreased in male rats at 900 and 1800 ppm and in female mice at 1800 ppm. The primary targets of MIBK toxicity and carcinogenicity were the kidney in rats and the liver in mice. In male rats, there was increased mineralization of the renal papilla at all exposure concentrations. The incidence of chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) was increased at 1800 ppm and the severity was increased in all exposed groups. There were also increases in renal tubule hyperplasia at all exposure concentrations, and in adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma (combined) at 1800 ppm; these lesions are thought to represent a continuum in the progression of proliferative lesions in renal tubule epithelium. These increases may have resulted from the increased severity of CPN, either through α2μ-globulin-dependent or -independent mechanisms. An increase in mononuclear cell leukemia at 1800 ppm was an uncertain finding. Adrenal medulla hyperplasia was increased at 1800 ppm, and there was a positive trend for increases in benign or malignant pheochromocytomas (combined). In female rats, there were increases in the incidence of CPN in all exposure concentrations and in the severity at 1800 ppm, indicating that CPN was increased by mechanisms in addition to those related to α2μ-globulin. There were renal mesenchymal tumors, which have not been observed in historical control animals, in two female rats at 1800 ppm. The

  12. Comparative tissue distribution and excretion of orally administered [3H]diacetoxyscirpenol (anguidine) in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.; Busby, W.F. Jr.; Wogan, G.N.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative comparison of tissue distribution and excretion of an orally administered sublethal dose of [3H]diacetoxyscirpenol (anguidine) was made in rats and mice 90 min, 24 hr, and 7 days after treatment. Total recoveries of 95-100% were obtained. Approximately 90% of the dose was excreted in urine and feces during the first 24 hr with a feces:urine ratio of about 1:4.5 in both species. Carcass and tissue radioactivity dropped rapidly during the first 24 hr but remained relatively constant at low, but detectable, levels over the course of the experiment. Few substantive interspecies differences were noted in tissue distribution. At 90 min the highest percentage of dose was in tissues involved in sequestering diacetoxyscirpenol because of high body water/lipid content or the absorption, metabolism, or excretion of the toxin. The rank order of these tissues was generally stable over the course of the experiment. When data were expressed as specific radioactivity instead, the carcass and skin dropped from the top rank tissues at 90 min and were replaced by the spleen and cecum. At 24 hr and 7 days the top-ranked order of tissues shifted to include organs associated with trichothecene-induced toxicity such as the lymphohematopoietic system (spleen, thymus, and femur bone marrow), heart, and testis (in mouse) as well as the cecum and large intestine. In addition, the rate of loss of radioactivity with time generally did not decrease as rapidly in these target organs as observed in liver, kidney, skin, and carcass. Brain radioactivity, though very low, also diminished relatively slowly. Significant differences in specific radioactivity which did occur between the rat and mouse tended to occur in target organs and with the higher levels present in the mouse. These data were discussed in terms of interspecies differences in lethality and target organ toxicity

  13. Effect of food azo dye tartrazine on learning and memory functions in mice and rats, and the possible mechanisms involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonglin; Li, Chunmei; Shen, Jingyu; Yin, Huaxian; An, Xiulin; Jin, Haizhu

    2011-08-01

    Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in human food and pharmaceutical products. The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxic effect of tartrazine on the learning and memory functions in mice and rats. Animals were administered different doses of tartrazine for a period of 30 d and were evaluated by open-field test, step-through test, and Morris water maze test, respectively. Furthermore, the biomarkers of the oxidative stress and pathohistology were also measured to explore the possible mechanisms involved. The results indicated that tartrazine extract significantly enhanced active behavioral response to the open field, increased the escape latency in Morris water maze test and decreased the retention latency in step-through tests. The decline in the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as a rise in the level of malonaldehyde (MDA) were observed in the brain of tartrazine-treated rats, and these changes were associated with the brain from oxidative damage. The dose levels of tartrazine in the present study produced a few adverse effects in learning and memory functions in animals. The mechanisms might be attributed to promoting lipid peroxidation products and reactive oxygen species, inhibiting endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes and the brain tissue damage. Tartrazine is an artificial azo dye commonly used in human food and pharmaceutical products. Since the last assessment carried out by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 1964, many new studies have been conducted. However, there is a little information about the effects on learning and memory performance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxic effect of tartrazine on the learning and memory functions in animals and its possible mechanism involved. Based on our results, we believe that more extensive assessment of food additives in current use is warranted. © 2011 Institute of Food

  14. Species and gender differences in the metabolism and distribution of tertiary amyl methyl ether in male and female rats and mice after inhalation exposure or gavage administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Susan C J; Janszen, Derek B; Asgharian, Bahman; Moore, Timothy A; Parkinson, Horace D; Fennell, Timothy R

    2003-01-01

    Tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) is a gasoline fuel additive used to reduce emissions. Understanding the metabolism and distribution of TAME is needed to assess potential human health issues. The effect of dose level, duration of exposure and route of administration on the metabolism and distribution of TAME were investigated in male and female F344 rats and CD-1 mice following inhalation or gavage administration. By 48 h after exposure, >96% of the administered radioactivity was expired in air (16-71%) or eliminated in urine and feces (28-72%). Following inhalation exposure, mice had a two- to threefold greater relative uptake of [14C]TAME compared with rats. Metabolites were excreted in urine of rats and mice that are formed by glucuronide conjugation of tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA), oxidation of TAA to 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane and glucuronide conjugation of 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane. A saturation in the uptake and metabolism of TAME with increased exposure concentration was indicated by a decreased relative uptake of total [14C]TAME equivalents and an increase in the percentage expired as volatiles. A saturation of P-450 oxidation of TAA was indicated by a disproportional decrease of 2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutane and its glucuronide conjugate with increased exposure concentration. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Comments on "Ochratoxin A: In utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA. Toxins 2010, 2, 1428-1444"-Mis-Citation of Rat Literature to Justify a Hypothetical Role for Ochratoxin A in Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, Peter G

    2010-10-01

    A manuscript in the journal recently cited experimental rat data from two manuscripts to support plausibility of a thesis that ochratoxin A might be a cause of human testicular cancer. I believe that there is no experimental evidence that ochratoxin A produces testicular cancer in rats or mice.

  16. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Furfuryl Alcohol (CAS No. 98-00-0) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Furfuryl alcohol-based resins are used as binding agents in foundry sand and as corrosion inhibitors in mortar, grout, and cement. Because of their heat resistance, furan resins are used in the manufacture of fiberglass-reinforced plastic equipment. Furfuryl alcohol was selected for evaluation because of the absence of data on its carcinogenic potential and its large production volume, widespread use in manufacturing, and ubiquitous presence in consumer goods. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to furfuryl alcohol (greater than 98% pure) by inhalation for 16 days, 14 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and mouse bone marrow cells. 16-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female rats were exposed to concentrations of 0, 16, 31, 63, 125, or 250 ppm furfuryl alcohol by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 16 days. All male and female rats exposed to 250 ppm died by day 2 of the study, and one male rat exposed to 125 ppm died on day 5. Final mean body weights of male and female rats exposed to 125 ppm were significantly less than those of the chamber control groups. Male rats exposed to 31, 63, or 125 ppm and female rats exposed to 125 ppm gained less weight than the chamber control groups. Clinical findings included dyspnea, hypoactivity, and nasal and ocular discharge in males and females exposed to 63, 125, or 250 ppm. All exposed animals developed lesions in the nasal respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, and the severities of these lesions generally increased with increasing exposure concentration. 16-DAY STUDY IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female mice were exposed to concentrations of 0, 16, 31, 63, 125, or 250 ppm furfuryl alcohol by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for 16 days. All male and female mice exposed to 250 ppm died by day 4 of the study, and one female mouse exposed to 125 ppm died on day

  17. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus in Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norollah Pakdel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%, 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%, and five Rattus rattus (4.00%. The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%, Syphacia obvelata (13.76%, Syphacia muris (2.89%, Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%, Heterakis spumosa (5.07%, Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%, Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%, and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%. Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

  18. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of a nondecolorized [corrected] whole leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (drinking water study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, M D; Beland, F A; Nichols, J A; Pogribna, M

    2013-08-01

    Extracts from the leaves of the Aloe vera plant (Aloe barbadensis Miller) have long been used as herbal remedies and are also now promoted as a dietary supplement, in liquid tonics, powders or tablets, as a laxative and to prevent a variety of illnesses. We studied the effects of Aloe vera extract on rats and mice to identify potential toxic or cancer-related hazards. We gave solutions of nondecolorized extracts of Aloe vera leaves in the drinking water to groups of rats and mice for 2 years. Groups of 48 rats received solutions containing 0.5%, 1% or 1.5% of Aloe vera extract in the drinking water, and groups of mice received solutions containing 1%, 2%, or 3% of Aloe vera extract. Similar groups of animals were given plain drinking water and served as the control groups. At the end of the study tissues from more than 40 sites were examined for every animal. In all groups of rats and mice receiving the Aloe vera extract, the rates of hyperplasia in the large intestine were markedly increased compared to the control animals. There were also increases in hyperplasia in the small intestine in rats receiving the Aloe vera extract, increases in hyperplasia of the stomach in male and female rats and female mice receiving the Aloe vera extract, and increases in hyperplasia of the mesenteric lymph nodes in male and female rats and male mice receiving the Aloe vera extract. In addition, cancers of the large intestine occurred in male and female rats given the Aloe vera extract, though none had been seen in the control groups of rats for this and other studies at this laboratory. We conclude that nondecolorized Aloe vera caused cancers of the large intestine in male and female rats and also caused hyperplasia of the large intestine, small intestine, stomach, and lymph nodes in male and female rats. Aloe vera extract also caused hyperplasia of the large intestine in male and female mice and hyperplasia of the mesenteric lymph node in male mice and hyperplasia of the stomach

  19. Fructose stimulates GLP-1 but not GIP secretion in mice, rats, and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Gribble, Fiona M; Hartmann, Bolette

    2014-01-01

    Nutrients often stimulate gut hormone secretion, but the effects of fructose are incompletely understood. We studied the effects of fructose on a number of gut hormones with particular focus on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). In healthy humans......, fructose intake caused a rise in blood glucose and plasma insulin and GLP-1, albeit to a lower degree than isocaloric glucose. Cholecystokinin secretion was stimulated similarly by both carbohydrates, but neither peptide YY3-36 nor glucagon secretion was affected by either treatment. Remarkably, while...... glucose potently stimulated GIP release, fructose was without effect. Similar patterns were found in the mouse and rat, with both fructose and glucose stimulating GLP-1 secretion, whereas only glucose caused GIP secretion. In GLUTag cells, a murine cell line used as model for L cells, fructose...

  20. Influence of diet pellet hardness and particle size on food utilization by mice, rats and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, D J

    1977-10-01

    Increasing hardness of diet pellets reduced food wastage by each species. Also, less wastage occurred when pellets made from finely ground materials were given, an effect that was not related to hardness. The hardest diet reduced growth of the mice by reducing true food consumption and a poorer food conversion efficiency (true food consumption/growth) was obtained. Apparent food consumption increased with the softness of the diet and food utilization (apparent food consumption/growth) of the softest diets was less efficient than those of the others. Grinding of the raw materials prior to pelleting had no effect on food conversion, but food utilization was less efficient because of the greater wastage of pellets from coarsely ground materials and consequent apparent food comsumption.

  1. Birds and music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Amini

    2009-03-01

    Through research in old mythological narrations, and literary texts, one could assume an intrinsic relationship between music and such sweet-singing mythological birds as phoenix, sphinx, Song-song, holy birds like Kership-tah, and other birds including swan and ring dove.

  2. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pet’s health Visit a veterinarian who has experience with pet birds for routine check-ups to keep your bird healthy and prevent infectious diseases. If your bird becomes sick or dies within a month after purchase or adoption: Contact your veterinarian. Inform the pet ...

  3. Audubon Bird Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are a student reader, "The Story of Birds," a leaders' guide, a large colored Audubon bird chart, and a separate guide for the chart. The student reader is divided into eleven sections which relate to the various physical and behavioral features of birds such as feathers, feeding habits as related to the shape of bills and feet, nests,…

  4. NTP toxicology and carcinogensis studies of dipropylene glycol (CAS No. 25265-71-8) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (drinking water studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Dipropylene glycol is found in antifreeze, air fresheners, cosmetic products, solvents, and plastics. We studied the effects of dipropylene glycol on male and female rats and mice to identify potential or cancer-related hazards to humans. We gave groups of 50 male and female mice drinking water containing dipropylene glycol at concentrations of 10,000, 20,000, or 40,000 parts per million (corresponding to 1%, 2%, or 4%) for two years. Male and female rats received concentrations of 2,500, 10,000, or 40,000 parts per million. Other groups received untreated water and were the control group. Tissues from more than 40 sites were examined for every animal. The groups of animals receiving 40,000 ppm dipropylene glycol weighed less than the control animals. All the make rats receiving 40,000 ppm dipropylene glycol died before the end of the study, mainly because of kidney disease. All the other animal group survived as well as the controls. No increase in tumor rates were seen in any of the groups of rats or mice. We conclude that dipropylene glycol did not cause cancer in male or female rats or mice. Exposure to dipropylene glycol did increase the rate and severity of kidney nephropathy and inflammation of the liver and salivary gland in male rats and some atrophy of the epithelial tissue of the nose in male and female rats.

  5. Negligible colon cancer risk from food-borne acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats and nude (nu/nu mice-bearing human colon tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Raju

    Full Text Available Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a "complete carcinogen", but acts as a "co-carcinogen" by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters.

  6. DETERMINATION OF AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THE DISPOSITION OF 2-BUTOXYETHANOL AND ITS METABOLITES IN MICE AND RATS TO IMPROVE PBPK MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corley, Rick A.; Grant, Donna M.; Farris, Elizabeth; Weitz, Karl K.; Soelberg, Jolen J.; Thrall, K D.; Poet, Torka S.

    2005-03-28

    2-Butoxyethanol (BE) is the most widely used glycol ether solvent. BE's major metabolite, butoxyacetic acid (BAA), causes hemolysis with significant species differences in sensitivity. Several PBPK models have been developed over the past two decades to describe the disposition of BE and BAA in male rats and humans to refine health risk assessments. More recent efforts by Lee et al. (1998) to describe the kinetics of BE and BAA in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) chronic inhalation studies required the use of several assumptions to extrapolate model parameters from earlier PBPK models developed for young male rats to include female F344 and both sexes of B6C3F1 mice and the effects of aging. To replace these assumptions, studies were conducted to determine the impact of age, gender and species on the metabolism of BE, and the tissue partitioning, renal acid transport and plasma protein binding of BAA. In the current study, the Lee et al. PBPK model was updated and expanded to include the further metabolism of BAA and the salivary excretion of BE and BAA which may contribute to the forestomach irritation observed in mice in the NTP study. The revised model predicted that peak blood concentrations of BAA achieved following 6-hr inhalation exposures are greatest in young adult female rats at concentrations up to 300 ppm. This is not the case predicted for old (>18 months) animals, where peak blood concentrations of BAA in male and female mice were similar to or greater than female rats. The revised model serves as a quantitative tool for integrating an extensive pharmacokinetic and mechanistic database into a format that can readily be used to compare internal dosimetry across dose, route of exposure and species.

  7. Antidiarrheal Activity of 19-Deoxyicetexone Isolated from Salvia ballotiflora Benth in Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Sánchez-Mendoza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The antidiarrheal properties of 19-deoxyicetexone, a diterpenoid isolated from Salvia ballotiflora were evaluated on castor oil-, arachidonic acid (AA- and prostaglandin (PGE2-induced diarrhea in rodent models. The structure of 19-deoxyicetexone was determined by X-ray crystallography, mass spectrometry (EI-MS, as well as ultraviolet (UV-Vis, infrared (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies. This compound significantly and dose-dependently reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, and at dose of 25 mg/kg it also inhibited diarrhea induced with AA, while it had no effect on PGE2-induced diarrhea. This compound at doses of 25 mg/kg also diminished castor oil-induced enteropooling and intestinal motility, and inhibited the contraction of the rats’ ileum induced by carbachol chloride at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. 19-Deoxyicetexone did not present acute toxicity at doses of 625 mg/kg. Its antidiarrheal activity may be due to increased reabsorption of NaCl and water and inhibition of the release of prostaglandins, gastrointestinal motility and fluid accumulation in the intestinal tracts of rats. These findings suggest that 19-deoxyicetexone may be used in the treatment of diarrhea, although more studies must be carried out to confirm this.

  8. Analysis of toxicity produced by inhalation of trichloroethylene within rat and mice`s respiratory epithelium; Comparazione del danno indotto dall`inalazione di tricloroetilene nell`epitelio nasale e tracheobronchiale del ratto e del topo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, M.T.; Fravolini, M.E.; Parasacchi, P.; Lombardi, C.C.; Giovanetti, A. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

    1994-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the sites of cytotoxicity within the respiratory tract (nasal cavity and tracheobronchial tree) after acute inhalation of trichloroethylene (TCE), an organic solvent requiring metabolic activation by cytochrome P-450 enzymatic system to exert its toxic effects. Two animals species, rats and mice, were exposed to 3500 and 7000 ppm of TCE for 30 minutes. The morphological analysis of the respiratory epithelium has underlined a species-specific difference in the cellular sensitivity after treatment with TCE. This work is a part of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) INTO program, environmental department, sector of effects on man and ecosystem.

  9. Neuronal death and synapse elimination in the olivocerebellar system. II. Cell counts in the inferior olive of adult x-irradiated rats and weaver and reeler mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaeian, H.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J.

    1985-01-01

    Cell death in the developing rat inferior olive precedes the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons (i.e., climbing fibers), suggesting that the involution of the redundant olivocerebellar contacts is caused by a withdrawal of supernumerary axonal collaterals rather than by degeneration of the parent cell. However, a subsequent apparent increase of the olivary population occurs, which could eventually mask a residual presynaptic cell death taking place at the same time. Therefore, cell counts were performed in the inferior olive of adult rodents in which the multiple innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons is maintained, with the idea that if cell death plays a role in the regression of supernumerary climbing fibers, the number of olivary cells should be higher in these animals than in their controls. The results show that the size of the cell population in the inferior olive of weaver and reeler mutant mice and rats degranulated by early postnatal x-irradiation does not differ significantly from that of their controls. Similarly, the distribution of the cells in the four main olivary subnuclei is not modified in weaver mice and x-irradiated rats. The present data further support the assumption that the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells occurs independently of cell death in the presynaptic population

  10. Toxicokinetics of α-thujone following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or α- and β-thujone mixture in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waidyanatha, Suramya; Johnson, Jerry D.; Hong, S. Peter; Robinson, Veronica Godfrey; Gibbs, Seth; Graves, Steven W.; Hooth, Michelle J.; Smith, Cynthia S.

    2013-01-01

    Plants containing thujone have widespread use and hence have significant human exposure. α-Thujone caused seizures in rodents following gavage administration. We investigated the toxicokinetics of α-thujone in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or a mixture of α- and β-thujone (which will be referred to as α,β-thujone). Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid without any dose-, species-, sex- or test article-related effect. Absolute bioavailability of α-thujone following administration of α-thujone or α,β-thujone was generally higher in rats than in mice. In rats, females had higher bioavailability than males following administration of either test article although a sex difference was not observed in mice. C max and AUC ∞ increased greater than proportional to the dose in female rats following administration of α-thujone and in male and female mice following administration of α,β-thujone suggesting possible saturation of elimination kinetics with increasing dose. Dose-adjusted AUC ∞ for male and female rats was 5- to 15-fold and 3- to 24-fold higher than mice counterparts following administration of α-thujone and α,β-thujone, respectively (p-value < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Following both intravenous and gavage administration, α-thujone was distributed to the brains of rats and mice with females, in general, having higher brain:plasma ratios than males. These data are in support of the observed toxicity of α-thujone and α,β-thujone where females were more sensitive than males of both species to α-thujone-induced neurotoxicity. In general there was no difference in toxicokinetics between test articles when normalized to α-thujone concentration. - Highlights: • Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid in rats and mice. • Rats undergo higher exposure to α-thujone than mice. • α-Thujone brain:plasma ratios

  11. Toxicokinetics of α-thujone following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or α- and β-thujone mixture in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidyanatha, Suramya, E-mail: waidyanathas@niehs.nih.gov [Division of National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Johnson, Jerry D.; Hong, S. Peter [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Robinson, Veronica Godfrey [Division of National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Gibbs, Seth; Graves, Steven W. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Hooth, Michelle J.; Smith, Cynthia S. [Division of National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Plants containing thujone have widespread use and hence have significant human exposure. α-Thujone caused seizures in rodents following gavage administration. We investigated the toxicokinetics of α-thujone in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice following intravenous and gavage administration of α-thujone or a mixture of α- and β-thujone (which will be referred to as α,β-thujone). Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid without any dose-, species-, sex- or test article-related effect. Absolute bioavailability of α-thujone following administration of α-thujone or α,β-thujone was generally higher in rats than in mice. In rats, females had higher bioavailability than males following administration of either test article although a sex difference was not observed in mice. C{sub max} and AUC{sub ∞} increased greater than proportional to the dose in female rats following administration of α-thujone and in male and female mice following administration of α,β-thujone suggesting possible saturation of elimination kinetics with increasing dose. Dose-adjusted AUC{sub ∞} for male and female rats was 5- to 15-fold and 3- to 24-fold higher than mice counterparts following administration of α-thujone and α,β-thujone, respectively (p-value < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Following both intravenous and gavage administration, α-thujone was distributed to the brains of rats and mice with females, in general, having higher brain:plasma ratios than males. These data are in support of the observed toxicity of α-thujone and α,β-thujone where females were more sensitive than males of both species to α-thujone-induced neurotoxicity. In general there was no difference in toxicokinetics between test articles when normalized to α-thujone concentration. - Highlights: • Absorption of α-thujone following gavage administration was rapid in rats and mice. • Rats undergo higher exposure to α-thujone than mice. • α-Thujone brain

  12. North Slope, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls and terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and waterfowl for the North Slope of Alaska....

  13. Locomotor activity and discriminative stimulus effects of a novel series of synthetic cathinone analogs in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatch, Michael B; Dolan, Sean B; Forster, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the recreational use of novel, synthetic psychoactive substances. There are little or no data on the abuse liability of many of the newer compounds. The current study investigated the discriminative stimulus and locomotor effects of a series of synthetic analogs of cathinone: α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP), α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (α-PVT), 3,4-methylenedioxybutiophenone (MDPBP), and ethylone. Locomotor activity was assessed in an open-field assay using Swiss-Webster mice. Discriminative stimulus effects were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate either cocaine or methamphetamine from vehicle. Each of the compounds produced an inverted-U dose-effect on locomotor activity. Maximal effects were similar among the test compounds, but potencies varied with relative potencies of MDPBP > α-PPP = α-PHP > ethylone > α-PVT. Each of the test compounds substituted fully for the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. α-PPP, α-PHP, and ethylone fully substituted for cocaine. α-PVT produced a maximum of 50% cocaine-appropriate responding, and MDPBP produced an inverted-U-shaped dose-effect curve with maximum effects of 67%. These data provide initial evidence that these structurally similar, emerging novel psychoactive substances demonstrate potential for abuse and may be utilized for their stimulant-like effects, given their ability to stimulate locomotor activity and their substitution for the discriminative stimulus effects of the classical psychostimulants cocaine and/or methamphetamine.

  14. Birds of Sabaki Birds of Sabaki

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CJ

    2005-02-25

    Feb 25, 2005 ... covers approximately 250ha.The area encompassed by this study extends from Mambrui to the north, the sea to the east, the opposite bank of the estuary to the south and the Sabaki bridge and Malindi-Garsen road to the west. The area is defined as an Important Bird Area(IBA) by BirdLife International in ...

  15. Methymazole (MMI) effects on seric levels of thyroid hormones in rats and mices; Influencia do metimazol (MMI) sob os niveis sericos dos hormonios da tireoide em rato e camundongos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Filho, G.L.; Carvalho, E.B.; Lima, G.M.S.; Neves, S.R.S.; Catanho, M.T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Lima, G.M.T. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). DMC

    1997-12-01

    The thyroid gland secretes the metabolic hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) which regulate the oxygen consumption of the majority of cells in the body. Their synthesis and release are controlled by the anterior pituitary hormone and also for drugs that mediated the serum concentration of T4 and T3 in the thyroid gland or in the peripheral tissues. The present study evaluates the sinergic effect on the basal secretion of the T4 and T3 after administration of throidal and nonthyroidal drugs in rats and mice. The study achievements with the oral administration of methymazole (MMI) in rats and mice. The study achievements with the oral administration of Methymazole (MMI) in rats and mice resulted in the reduction of the T4 and T3 serum levels, obtained through kinertic treatment. there was a significant reduction in T4 serum values among treated rats and mice for up to 14 days of MMI. Moreover, increased T3 serum concentration was found in rats treated with MMI, after 7 days of treatment, when compared to the serum level of treated mice. The serie levels of T3 and T4 were determined by radioimmunoassay. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  16. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Castor Oil (CAS No. 8001-79-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dosed Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R

    1992-03-01

    Castor oil is a natural oil derived from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis. It is comprised largely of triglycerides with a high ricinolin content. Toxicity studies with castor oil were performed by incorporating the material at concentrations as high as 10% in diets given to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes for 13 weeks. Genetic toxicity studies also were performed and were negative for mutation induction in Salmonella typhimurium, for induction of sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and for induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice evaluated at the end of the 13-week studies. Exposure to castor oil at dietary concentrations as high as 10% in 13-week studies did not affect survival or body weight gains of rats or mice (10 per sex and dose). There were no biologically significant effects noted in hematologic analyses in rats. Mild increases in total bile acids and in serum alkaline phosphatase were noted at various times during the studies in rats receiving the higher dietary concentrations of castor oil. Liver weights were increased in male rats receiving the 10% dietary concentration and in male and female mice receiving diets containing 5% or 10% castor oil. However, there were no histopathologic lesions associated with these liver changes, nor were there any compound-related morphologic changes in any organ in rats or mice. No significant changes were noted in a screening for male reproductive endpoints, including sperm count and motility, and no changes were observed in the length of estrous cycles of rats or mice given diets containing castor oil. Thus, no significant adverse effects of castor oil administration were noted in these studies. Synonyms: Ricinus Oil, oil of Palma Christi, tangantangan oil, phorboyl, Neoloid.

  17. Prevention of pathogenic Escherichia coli infection in mice and stimulation of macrophage activation in rats by an oral administration of probiotic Lactobacillus casei I-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida-Fujii, Keiko; Sato, Rieko; Goto, Shingo; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Kuboki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Sato, Michikatsu

    2007-04-01

    Lactobacillus casei I-5 isolated from an alcohol fermentation broth enhanced immunity and prevented pathogenic infection as a probiotic. Mice fed with I-5 cells for 11 days prior to an intraperitoneal challenge with pathogenic Escherichia coli Juhl exhibited a high survival rate compared with the control group. Rats fed with I-5 cells for 10 days significantly increased the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages. In a cell culture system employing peritoneal macrophages from rats, the I-5 administration activated NF-kappaB stimulated by LPS. It also enhanced LPS-stimulated IL-12 and TNF-alpha production, but not IL-6 production. These results show that L. casei I-5 effectively prevented infection by pathogenic E. coli possibly through the activation of peritoneal macrophages. The strain would be useful to prevent pathogenic microbial infections in humans and farm animals.

  18. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals. (orig.)

  19. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of nitrofurantoin (CAS No. 67-20-9) in F344/n rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, J.E.

    1989-09-01

    Two-year toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering diets containing 0, 600, or 1,300 ppm nitrofurantoin to groups of 50 female rats for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 male rats and 50 mice of each sex were fed diets containing 0, 1,300 or 2,500 ppm for 103 weeks. Under the conditions of these 2-year feed studies, there was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for male F344/N rats as shown by increased incidences of uncommon kidney tubular cell neoplasms. Uncommon osteosarcomas of the bone and neoplasms of the subcutaneous tissue were observed in dosed male rats. Incidences of interstitial cell adenomas of the testis and neoplasms of the preputial gland were decreased in the 2,500-ppm group of male rats. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for female F344/N rats fed diets containing 600 ppm or 1,300 ppm for 2 years. Female rats may have been able to tolerate higher doses. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for male B6C3F(1) mice fed diets containing 1,300 ppm or 2,500 ppm for 2 years. There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for female B6C3F(1) mice as shown by increased incidences of tubular adenomas, benign mixed tumors, and granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.

  20. Effect of ghrelin on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in experimental rat and mice models of heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF continues to be a challenging condition in terms of prevention and management of the disease. Studies have demonstrated various cardio-protective effects of Ghrelin. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of Ghrelin on mortality and cardiac function in experimental rats/mice models of HF.Data sources: PUBMED, Scopus. We searched the Digital Dissertations and conference proceedings on Web of Science. Search methods: We systematically searched for all controlled trials (upto November 2014 which assessed the effects of Ghrelin (irrespective of dose, form, frequency, duration and route of administration on mortality and cardiac function in rats/ mice models of HF. Ghrelin administration irrespective of dose, form, frequency, duration and route of administration. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed each abstract for eligibility and extracted data on characteristics of the experimental model used, intervention and outcome measures. We assessed the methodological quality by SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for all studies and the quality of evidence by GRADEpro. We performed meta-analysis using RevMan 5.3.A total of 325 animals (rats and mice were analyzed across seven studies. The meta-analysis revealed that the mortality in Ghrelin group was 31.1% and in control group was 40% (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.47 i.e Ghrelin group had 68 fewer deaths per 1000 (from 216 fewer to 188 more as compared to the control group. The meta-analysis reveals that the heart rate in rats/mice on Ghrelin was higher (MD 13.11, 95% CI 1.14 to 25.08, P=0.66 while the mean arterial blood pressure (MD -1.38, 95% CI -5.16 to 2.41, P=0.48 and left ventricular end diastolic pressure (MD -2.45, 95% CI -4.46 to -0.43, P=0.02 were lower as compared to the those on placebo. There were insignificant changes in cardiac output (SMD 0.28, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.80, P=0.29 and left ventricular end systolic pressure (MD 1.48, 95% CI -3.86 to 6

  1. Diseases Transmitted by Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    Although many people these days actually work very hard at leisure time activities, diseases are most commonly acquired from birds during the course of work in the usual sense of the term, not leisure. However, travel for pleasure to areas where the diseases are highly endemic puts people at risk of acquiring some of these bird-related diseases (for example, histoplasmosis and arbovirus infections), as does ownership of birds as pets (psittacosis).

  2. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  3. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  4. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (CAS No. 756-79-6) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (98% pure) is one of four chemicals nominated by the U.S. Army for toxicology and carcinogenesis studies because it was being considered for use to simulate the physical and spectroscopic (but not the biologic) properties of anticholinesterase (nerve) agents. Dimethyl methylphosphonate is also used as a flame retardant, a preignition additive for gasoline, an antifoam agent, a plasticizer and stabilizer, a textile conditioner and antistatic agent, and an additive for solvents and low-temperature hydraulic fluids. The United States produces 0.2-2 million pounds (91,000-910,000 kg) of per year. Gavage was chosen as the route of administration for all four candidate "simulants" to mimic potential exposure. Experimental Design: Dimethyl methylphosphonate was administered in corn oil by gavage to male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice in single-administration, 15-day, and 13-week studies to obtain toxicity data, to establish dose levels for the 2-year studies, and to identify target tissues. Additional studies were also performed to determine toxicity to the reproductive system of male F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and to study the potential for genetic damage in bacteria, mammalian cells, and Drosophila. Single-Administration Studies: In the single-administration studies, dimethyl methylphosphonate was given to rats and mice at doses up to 6,810 mg/kg body weight. No compound-related deaths were seen in male or female rats or male mice; two high dose female mice died. Rats exhibited inactivity, unsteady gait, and prostration after dosing; mice were inactive after dosing. Fifteen-Day Studies: Rats and mice received doses of 0, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, or 15,000 mg/kg dimethyl methylphosphonate per day. Compound-related deaths occurred in the three highest dose groups of rats and the two highest dose groups of mice. Rats receiving doses of 2,500 mg/kg or higher were inactive and at 5,000 or 10,000 mg/kg had an unsteady gait after dosing

  5. Rivastigmine alleviates experimentally induced colitis in mice and rats by acting at central and peripheral sites to modulate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Shifrin

    Full Text Available The cholinergic anti-inflammatory system and α7 nicotinic receptors in macrophages have been proposed to play a role in neuroimmunomodulation and in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. We investigated the ability of a cholinesterase (ChE inhibitor rivastigmine, to improve the pathology of ulcerative colitis by increasing the concentration of extracellular acetylcholine in the brain and periphery. In combination with carbachol (10 µM, rivastigmine (1 µM significantly decreased the release of nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 from lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages and this effect was abolished by α7 nicotinic receptor blockade by bungarotoxin. Rivastigmine (1 mg/kg but not (0.5 mg/kg, injected subcutaneously once daily in BALB/c mice with colitis induced by 4% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS, reduced the disease activity index (DAI by 60% and damage to colon structure. Rivastigmine (1 mg/kg also reduced myeloperoxidase activity and IL-6 by >60%, and the infiltration of CD11b expressing cells by 80%. These effects were accompanied by significantly greater ChE inhibition in cortex, brain stem, plasma and colon than that after 0.5 mg/kg. Co-administration of rivastigmine (1 mg/kg with the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine significantly increased the number of CD11b expressing cells in the colon but did not change DAI compared to those treated with rivastigmine alone. Rivastigmine 1 and 2 mg given rectally to rats with colitis induced by rectal administration of 30 mg dintrobezene sulfonic acid (DNBS also caused a dose related reduction in ChE activity in blood and colon, the number of ulcers and area of ulceration, levels of TNF-α and in MPO activity. The study revealed that the ChE inhibitor rivastigmine is able to reduce gastro-intestinal inflammation by actions at various sites at which it preserves ACh. These include ACh released from vagal nerve endings that activates alpha7 nicotinic receptors on circulating macrophages

  6. Induction of an antigen specific gut inflammatory reaction in mice and rats: a model for human Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlinde Agate Platais Brasil Teixeira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an adverse reaction that occurs in susceptible people when they eat sensitizing foods and is one of the causes of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. The effort to understand the induction process of these diseases is important as IBD is increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental antigen specific inflammatory process of the gut of mice and rats, using peanut seeds. Animals were immunized with peanut protein extract before their exposure to the in natura peanut seeds. Results showed that systemic immunization with peanut protein extracts rendered significantly higher antibody titers than control groups and that immunized animals submitted to a challenge diet containing peanuts presented time dependent alterations of the gut similar to celiac disease. In conclusion, results suggested that this experimental model was a convenient tool to study the evolution of alterations in chronic antigen specific gut inflammatory process.A alergia alimentar consiste em uma reação adversa que ocorre em pessoas susceptíveis quando ingerem alimentos sensibilizantes, sendo uma das causas das Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais (IBD. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um protocolo experimental de indução de um processo inflamatório intestinal antígeno-específico em camundongos e ratos. Foi escolhida para a indução deste processo a semente de amendoim. Os animais foram imunizados com o extrato protéico previamente à exposição com a semente in natura. Nossos resultados mostram que a imunização sistêmica com extratos protéicos de amendoim ocasiona títulos significativamente maiores de anticorpos quando comparado ao grupo controle e que os animais imunizados submetidos ao desafio com a dieta contendo exclusivamente amendoim apresentam alterações intestinais tempo-dependente similares àquelas observadas na doença celíaca. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que este modelo

  7. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Cupric Sulfate (CAS No. 7758-99-8) Administered in Drinking Water and Feed to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Charles

    1993-07-01

    Cupric sulfate is an inorganic salt which is widely used in industry, agriculture, and veterinary medicine. Its applications include use as an algicide in potable waters and as a feed additive and therapeutic agent in swine, sheep, and cattle. Because copper salts are found in human water supplies, toxicity studies of cupric sulfate pentahydrate were conducted in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice by the drinking water (2-week studies only) and dosed feed routes (2-week and 13-week studies). Animals were evaluated for hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, reproductive toxicity, tissue metal accumulation, and histopathology. In the 2-week drinking water studies, groups of five rats and five mice per sex received cupric sulfate at concentrations of 300 to 30,000 ppm for 15 days. One female rat, one male mouse, and three female mice in the 3000 ppm groups and all rats and mice in the 10,000 and 30,000 ppm groups died before the end of the studies. The remaining mice and rats in the 3000 ppm groups gained little or lost weight. Water consumption in the three highest dose groups of both species was reduced by more than 65%. Clinical signs observed in these groups were typical of those seen in moribund animals and were attributed to dehydration. The only gross or microscopic change specifically related to cupric sulfate toxicity was an increase in the size and number of cytoplasmic protein droplets in the epithelium of the renal proximal convoluted tubule in male rats from the 300 and 1000-ppm groups. In the 2-week feed studies, groups of five rats and five mice per sex were fed diets containing 1000 to 16,000 ppm cupric sulfate. No chemical-related deaths occurred in any dose group. Compared to the controls, rats and mice in the two highest dose groups had reduced body weight gains which were attributed to decreased feed consumption. Hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis of the squamous epithelium on the limiting ridge of the forestomach was seen in rats and

  8. Effect of dietary fructose on portal and systemic serum fructose levels in rats and in KHK−/− and GLUT5−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chirag; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Douard, Veronique; Shah, Ami; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Elevated blood fructose concentrations constitute the basis for organ dysfunction in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that diet-induced changes in blood fructose concentrations are regulated by ketohexokinase (KHK) and the fructose transporter GLUT5. Portal and systemic fructose concentrations determined by HPLC in wild-type mice fed for 7 days 0% free fructose were fructose levels, however, increased markedly in those fed isocaloric 20% fructose, causing significant hyperglycemia. Deletion of KHK prevented fructose-induced hyperglycemia, but caused dramatic hyperfructosemia (>1 mM) with reversed portal to systemic gradients. Systemic fructose in wild-type and KHK−/− mice changed by 0.34 and 1.8 mM, respectively, for every millimolar increase in portal fructose concentration. Systemic glucose varied strongly with systemic, but not portal, fructose levels in wild-type, and was independent of systemic and portal fructose in KHK−/−, mice. With ad libitum feeding for 12 wk, fructose-induced hyperglycemia in wild-type, but not hyperfructosemia in KHK−/− mice, increased HbA1c concentrations. Increasing dietary fructose to 40% intensified the hyperfructosemia of KHK−/− and the fructose-induced hyperglycemia of wild-type mice. Fructose perfusion or feeding in rats also caused duration- and dose-dependent hyperfructosemia and hyperglycemia. Significant levels of blood fructose are maintained independent of dietary fructose, KHK, and GLUT5, probably by endogenous synthesis of fructose. KHK prevents hyperfructosemia and fructose-induced hyperglycemia that would markedly increase HbA1c levels. These findings explain the hyperfructosemia of human hereditary fructosuria as well as the hyperglycemia of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:26316589

  9. Tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and Algerian mice (Mus spretus Lataste) from an abandoned mine area (Southeast Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Pereira, M.L.; Ribeiro, R.; Goncalves, F.

    2006-01-01

    Data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and Algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. Although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the Algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. Hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of Cr in rats. Significant positive associations were found between the levels of this element in hair/kidney (r = 0.826, n = 9, p < 0.01) and hair/liver (r = 0.697, n = 9, p = 0.037). Although no association was found between the levels of As recorded in the hair and in the organs, the levels of this element recorded in the hair, of both species, were significantly higher in animals captured in the mining area, which met the data from the organs analysed. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed to reduce uncertainty about cause-effect relationships. - The bioaccumulation of As and Cd and signs of renal histopathological injury proved the value of Algerian mice as a bioindicator species in the risk assessment of contaminated sites

  10. Tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and Algerian mice (Mus spretus Lataste) from an abandoned mine area (Southeast Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal) and Instituto Piaget, Campus Academico de Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal)]. E-mail: ruthp@bio.ua.pt; Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ribeiro, R. [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, F. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2006-02-15

    Data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and Algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. Although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the Algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. Hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of Cr in rats. Significant positive associations were found between the levels of this element in hair/kidney (r = 0.826, n = 9, p < 0.01) and hair/liver (r = 0.697, n = 9, p = 0.037). Although no association was found between the levels of As recorded in the hair and in the organs, the levels of this element recorded in the hair, of both species, were significantly higher in animals captured in the mining area, which met the data from the organs analysed. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed to reduce uncertainty about cause-effect relationships. - The bioaccumulation of As and Cd and signs of renal histopathological injury proved the value of Algerian mice as a bioindicator species in the risk assessment of contaminated sites.

  11. Bird Flu (Avian Influenza)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird flu (avian influenza) Overview Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. More than a ... for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that seasonal influenza is responsible for ... heat destroys avian viruses, cooked poultry isn't a health threat. ...

  12. Nanoscale magnetoreceptors in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field provides an important source of directional information for many living organisms, especially birds, but the sensory receptor responsible for magnetic field detection still has to be identified. Recently, magnetic iron oxide particles were detected in dendritic endings...... field, by a bird....

  13. Understanding how birds navigate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Schulten, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye.......A proposed model for migrating birds' magnetic sense can withstand moderate orientational disorder of a key protein in the eye....

  14. Metabolism and disposition of 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate following oral gavage and dermal exposure in Harlan Sprague Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice and in hepatocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Timothy R; Mathews, James M; Snyder, Rodney W; Hong, Yan; Watson, Scott L; Black, Sherry R; McIntyre, Barry S; Waidyanatha, Suramya

    2017-11-23

    1. 2-Ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) is commonly used as an ingredient in sunscreens, resulting in potential oral and dermal exposure in humans. 2. Clearance and metabolism of EHMC in hepatocytes and disposition and metabolism of EHMC in rodents following oral (8-800 mg/kg) intravenous (IV) (8 mg/kg) or dermal (0.8-80 mg/kg representing 0.1-10% formulation concentration) exposure to [ 14 C]EHMC were investigated in rats and mice. 3. EHMC was rapidly cleared from rat and mouse hepatocytes (half-life ≤3.16 min) and less rapidly (half-life ≤48 min) from human hepatocytes. 4. [ 14 C]EHMC was extensively absorbed and excreted primarily in urine by 72 h after oral administration to rats (65-80%) and mice (63-72%). Oral doses to rats were excreted to a lesser extent (3-8%) in feces and as CO 2 (1-4%). Radioactive residues in tissues were <1% of the dose. There were no sex or species differences in disposition in rats. 5. Following dermal application, 34-42% of an 8-mg/kg dose was absorbed in rats, and 54-62% in mice in 72-h. 6. Among numerous urinary metabolites associated with hydrolysis of the ester, two potential reproductive and developmental toxicants, 2-ethylhexanol and 2-ethylhexanoic acid were produced by metabolism of EHMC.

  15. Dietary Manipulations That Induce Ketosis Activate the HPA Axis in Male Rats and Mice: A Potential Role for Fibroblast Growth Factor-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Karen K; Packard, Amy E B; Larson, Karlton R; Stout, Jayna; Fourman, Sarah M; Thompson, Abigail M K; Ludwick, Kristen; Habegger, Kirk M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2018-01-01

    In response to an acute threat to homeostasis or well-being, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is engaged. A major outcome of this HPA axis activation is the mobilization of stored energy, to fuel an appropriate behavioral and/or physiological response to the perceived threat. Importantly, the extent of HPA axis activity is thought to be modulated by an individual's nutritional environment. In this study, we report that nutritional manipulations signaling a relative depletion of dietary carbohydrates, thereby inducing nutritional ketosis, acutely and chronically activate the HPA axis. Male rats and mice maintained on a low-carbohydrate high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) exhibited canonical markers of chronic stress, including increased basal and stress-evoked plasma corticosterone, increased adrenal sensitivity to adrenocorticotropin hormone, increased stress-evoked c-Fos immunolabeling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and thymic atrophy, an indicator of chronic glucocorticoid exposure. Moreover, acutely feeding medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) to rapidly induce ketosis among chow-fed male rats and mice also acutely increased HPA axis activity. Lastly, and consistent with a growing literature that characterizes the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) as both a marker of the ketotic state and as a key metabolic stress hormone, the HPA response to both KD and MCTs was significantly blunted among mice lacking FGF21. We conclude that dietary manipulations that induce ketosis lead to increased HPA axis tone, and that the hepatokine FGF21 may play an important role to facilitate this effect. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  16. About Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some rodent species are pests. Others are helpful. Pests can damage habitats, food supplies, and spread disease through bites or contamination. Prevent or reduce infestations by eliminating conditions that provide access to food, water, and shelter.

  17. Hatching synchrony in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Tippeltová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is about hatching synchrony in birds. Generally, among birds there are two types of hatching - asynchronous and synchronous- and the type of hatching is primarily determined by the time of the onset of incubation. In many bird species, including most precocial ones, incubation does not begin until the last egg has been laid, which results in hatching of all the eggs within a few hours. In synchronously-hatched broods, all the chicks are about the same age. Thus no single ...

  18. Infecção via oral por Trypanosoma evansi em animais de laboratório Oral infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rats and mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a infecção de Trypanosoma evansi pela via oral em ratos e camundongos, através de sangue contaminado de ambas as espécies. Dez ratos e dez camundongos foram alocados em quatro grupos iguais A e B (ratos, C e D (camundongos. Os grupos A e C receberam sangue contaminado de um rato e o grupo B e D de um camundongo, através de uma sonda. O volume de sangue administrado foi de 0,2ml, o qual apresentava uma concentração de 10(7 tripanossomas ml-1. Os animais foram mantidos em temperatura e umidade constantes (25°C e 80% UR, sendo realizados esfregaços sanguíneos diários para identificar o período pré-patente e a evolução do parasita na circulação. Nos grupos A e B, o período pré-patente variou de 19 a 25 dias, e o período entre a detecção dos parasitas e a morte dos animais foi em média de 12,7 dias. Os camundongos do grupo C e D não apresentaram infecção pelo parasita, sendo estes avaliados por 60 dias. Os ratos foram susceptíveis a infecção por T. evansi pela via oral; entretanto, os camundongos não se contaminaram com o protozoário por via digestiva.In this research, Trypanosoma evansi infection was tested in rats and mice by oral ingestion of contaminated blood. Groups of ten rats and ten mice were disposed in four experimental groups: A and B (rats, C and D (mice. The groups A and C were contaminated by rat-contaminated blood; B and C groups by mouse-contaminated blood. The blood was given using a probe filled with 0.2ml of contaminated blood with 10(7 trypanosomes ml-1. These animals were maintained at constant temperature and humidity (25°C and 80% UR. Dairy blood smear were done to identify the prepatent period and evolution of parasite in the circulation. In the A and B groups, the pre latency period varied from 19 to 25 days and the period of parasite detection and animals death was an average of 12.7 days. The C and D groups did not present infection by the parasite even when evaluated for 60 days

  19. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  20. Calcium metabolism in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Calcium is one of the most important plasma constituents in mammals and birds. It provides structural strength and support (bones and eggshell) and plays vital roles in many of the biochemical reactions in the body. The control of calcium metabolism in birds is highly efficient and closely regulated in a number of tissues, primarily parathyroid gland, intestine, kidney, and bone. The hormones with the greatest involvement in calcium regulation in birds are parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (calcitriol), and estrogen, with calcitonin playing a minor and uncertain role. The special characteristics of calcium metabolism in birds, mainly associated with egg production, are discussed, along with common clinical disorders secondary to derangements in calcium homeostasis.

  1. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... and applications.?Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data...... from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa....

  2. Awesome Audubon Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a watercolor art lesson on Audubon birds. She also discusses how science, technology, writing skills, and the elements and principles of art can be incorporated into the lesson.

  3. Nuisance Birds Webinar Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    All over the nation, birds of all shapes and sizes attempt to make schools a their favorite hangout. Their arrival can lead to sanitation issues, added facility degradation, distracted students and health problems.

  4. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  5. Breeding bird survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are maintained by the USGS (https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/RawData/) and provides information on the trends and status of North American bird populations...

  6. Modeling birds on wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, A; Frasca, P; D'Apice, C; Manzo, R; Thornton, J M; Gachomo, B; Wilson, T; Cheung, B; Tariq, U; Saidel, W; Piccoli, B

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we introduce a mathematical model to study the group dynamics of birds resting on wires. The model is agent-based and postulates attraction-repulsion forces between the interacting birds: the interactions are "topological", in the sense that they involve a given number of neighbors irrespective of their distance. The model is first mathematically analyzed and then simulated to study its main properties: we observe that the model predicts birds to be more widely spaced near the borders of each group. We compare the results from the model with experimental data, derived from the analysis of pictures of pigeons and starlings taken in New Jersey: two different image elaboration protocols allow us to establish a good agreement with the model and to quantify its main parameters. We also discuss the potential handedness of the birds, by analyzing the group organization features and the group dynamics at the arrival of new birds. Finally, we propose a more refined mathematical model that describes landing and departing birds by suitable stochastic processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases. General Field Procedures and Diseases of Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    designed for blood- less castration of cattle or sheep; has been used for eutha- nasia of birds by cervical dislocation. Encrustation — forming a crust...ian populations. Cattle graze the adjacent area. There are no residential or industrial buildings within 1 mile of the site. Human visitation is...infections between birds and mammals. Strains isolated from birds will usually kill rabbits and mice but not other mam- mals. Strains isolated from cattle

  8. Different importance of the volatile and non-volatile fractions of an olfactory signature for individual social recognition in rats versus mice and short-term versus long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Julia; Richter, Karin; Laube, Gregor; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Veh, Rüdiger W; Engelmann, Mario

    2010-11-01

    When tested in the olfactory cued social recognition/discrimination test, rats and mice differ in their retention of a recognition memory for a previously encountered conspecific juvenile: Rats are able to recognize a given juvenile for approximately 45 min only whereas mice show not only short-term, but also long-term recognition memory (≥ 24 h). Here we modified the social recognition/social discrimination procedure to investigate the neurobiological mechanism(s) underlying the species differences. We presented a conspecific juvenile repeatedly to the experimental subjects and monitored the investigation duration as a measure for recognition. Presentation of only the volatile fraction of the juvenile olfactory signature was sufficient for both short- and long-term recognition in mice but not rats. Applying additional volatile, mono-molecular odours to the "to be recognized" juveniles failed to affect short-term memory in both species, but interfered with long-term recognition in mice. Finally immunocytochemical analysis of c-Fos as a marker for cellular activation, revealed that juvenile exposure stimulated areas involved in the processing of olfactory signals in both the main and the accessory olfactory bulb in mice. In rats, we measured an increased c-Fos synthesis almost exclusively in cells of the accessory olfactory bulb. Our data suggest that the species difference in the retention of social recognition memory is based on differences in the processing of the volatile versus non-volatile fraction of the individuals' olfactory signature. The non-volatile fraction is sufficient for retaining a short-term social memory only. Long-term social memory - as observed in mice - requires a processing of both the volatile and non-volatile fractions of the olfactory signature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for oral exposures to chromium in mice, rats, and humans to address temporal variation and sensitive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Suh, M; Proctor, D M; Hays, S M

    2017-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in mice, rats, and humans developed previously (Kirman et al., 2012, 2013), was updated to reflect an improved understanding of the toxicokinetics of the gastrointestinal tract following oral exposures. Improvements were made to: (1) the reduction model, which describes the pH-dependent reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the gastrointestinal tract under both fasted and fed states; (2) drinking water pattern simulations, to better describe dosimetry in rodents under the conditions of the NTP cancer bioassay; and (3) parameterize the model to characterize potentially sensitive human populations. Important species differences, sources of non-linear toxicokinetics, and human variation are identified and discussed within the context of human health risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  11. Comprehensive study of the drug delivery properties of poly(l-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) nanoparticles in rats and tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalgunov, Vladimir; Zaytseva-Zotova, Daria; Zintchenko, Arkadi; Levada, Tatiana; Shilov, Yuri; Andreyev, Dmitry; Dzhumashev, Dzhangar; Metelkin, Evgeny; Urusova, Alexandra; Demin, Oleg; McDonnell, Kevin; Troiano, Greg; Zale, Stephen; Safarovа, Elmira

    2017-09-10

    Nanoparticles made of polylactide-poly(ethylene glycol) block-copolymer (PLA-PEG) are promising vehicles for drug delivery due to their biodegradability and controllable payload release. However, published data on the drug delivery properties of PLA-PEG nanoparticles are heterogeneous in terms of nanoparticle characteristics and mostly refer to low injected doses (a few mg nanoparticles per kg body weight). We have performed a comprehensive study of the biodistribution of nanoparticle formulations based on PLA-PEG nanoparticles of ~100nm size at injected doses of 30 to 140mg/kg body weight in healthy rats and nude tumor-bearing mice. Nanoparticle formulations differed by surface PEG coverage and by release kinetics of the encapsulated model active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Increase in PEG coverage prolonged nanoparticle circulation half-life up to ~20h in rats and ~10h in mice and decreased retention in liver, spleen and lungs. Circulation half-life of the encapsulated API grew monotonously as the release rate slowed down. Plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics was dose-linear for inactive nanoparticles, but markedly dose-dependent for the model therapeutic formulation, presumably because of the toxic effects of released API. A mathematical model of API distribution calibrated on the data for inactive nanoparticles and conventional API form correctly predicted the distribution of the model therapeutic formulation at the lowest investigated dose, but for higher doses the toxic action of the released API had to be explicitly modelled. Our results provide a coherent illustration of the ability of controllable-release PLA-PEG nanoparticles to serve as an effective drug delivery platform to alter API biodistribution. They also underscore the importance of physiological effects of released drug in determining the biodistribution of therapeutic drug formulations at doses approaching tolerability limits. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is lower and copper chaperone CCS is higher in erythrocytes of copper-deficient rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth C; Prohaska, Joseph R

    2004-09-01

    Discovery of a sensitive blood biochemical marker of copper status would be valuable for assessing marginal copper intakes. Rodent models were used to investigate whether erythrocyte concentrations of copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the copper metallochaperone for SOD (CCS) were sensitive to dietary copper changes. Several models of copper deficiency were studied in postweanling male Holtzman rats, male Swiss Webster mice offspring, and both rat and mouse dams. Treatment resulted in variable but significantly altered copper status as evaluated by the presence of anemia, and lower liver copper and higher liver iron concentrations in copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate animals. Associated with this copper deficiency were consistent reductions in immunoreactive SOD and robust enhancements in CCS. In most cases, the ratio of CCS:SOD was several-fold higher in red blood cell extracts from copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate rodents. Determination of red cell CCS:SOD may be useful for assessing copper status of humans.

  13. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of acrylamide (CASRN 79-06-1) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed and drinking water studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Acrylamide, a water-soluble α,β-unsaturated amide, is a contaminant in baked and fried starchy foods, including french fries, potato chips, and bread, as a result of Maillard reactions involving asparagine and reducing sugars. Additional sources of acrylamide exposure include cigarettes, laboratory procedures involving polyacrylamide gels, and various occupations (e.g, monomer production and polymerization processes). Acrylamide is carcinogenic in experimental animals. To obtain data for developing quantitative risk assessments for dietary exposures to acrylamide, the Food and Drug Administration nominated acrylamide for an in-depth toxicological evaluation by the National Toxicology Program. As part of this evaluation, male and female B6C3F1/Nctr (C57BL/6N x C3H/HeN MTV-) mice and male and female F344/N Nctr rats were exposed to acrylamide (at least 99.4% pure) in drinking water for 2 years. 2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of four male and four female F344/N rats were administered 0, 0.14, 0.35, 0.70, 1.41, 3.52, or 7.03 mM acrylamide in the drinking water (0, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, or 500 ppm acrylamide) or 0.0, 7.4, 18.5, 37, 74, 185, or 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet for 14 days. One male rat administered 7.03 mM acrylamide in the drinking water died on day 14. Male and female rats receiving 7.03 mM acrylamide weighed 56% and 64% of controls, respectively. Male and female rats fed 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet weighed 74% and 83% of controls, respectively. Female rats receiving 3.52 mM acrylamide in drinking water and male rats fed 185 mg acrylamide per kg diet weighed 85% and 89% of controls, respectively. Rats receiving 7.03 mM acrylamide in drinking water or 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet exhibited hind-leg paralysis on day 14. Mild to moderate dilatation of the urinary bladder was observed in all rats given 370 mg acrylamide per kg diet, and in three of four male rats and all four female rats given 7.03 mM acrylamide in drinking water, and in one of four male

  14. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  15. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. (+/-)-cis-2-methylspiro[1,3-oxathiolane-5,3'-quinuclidine] hydrochloride, hemihydrate (SNI-2011, cevimeline hydrochloride) induces saliva and tear secretions in rats and mice: the role of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, Y; Arisawa, H; Ogane, N; Saito, Y; Tomizuka, T; Nakagawa-Yagi, Y; Masunaga, H; Yasuda, H; Miyata, N

    1998-11-01

    We investigated effects of (+/-)-cis-2-methylspiro[1,3-oxathiolane-5,3'-quinuclidine] hydrochloride, hemihydrate (SNI-2011, cevimeline hydrochloride), a rigid analogue of acetylcholine, on saliva and tear secretions in rats and mice to evaluate its therapeutical efficacy for xerostomia and xerophthalmia in patients with Sjogren's syndrome and X-ray exposure in the head and neck. Intraduodenal administrations of SNI-2011 increased saliva secretion in a dose-dependent manner at doses ranging from 3 to 30 mg/kg in normal rats and mice, two strains of autoimmune disease mice and X-irradiated saliva secretion defective rats. The salivation elicited by SNI-2011 was completely inhibited by atropine. A similar atropine-sensitive response was observed in tear secretion. In rat submandibular/sublingual gland membranes, [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding was saturable, and Scatchard plot analysis revealed a single population of binding sites with a Kd of 22 pM and a maximal binding capacity of 60 fmol/mg protein. The competitive inhibition curve of the [3H]QNB binding by SNI-2011 was obtained, and its dissociation constant value calculated from IC50 was 1-2 microM. These results suggest that SNI-2011 increases saliva and tear secretions through a direct stimulation to muscarinic receptors in salivary and lacrimal glands, and they suggest that SNI-2011 should be beneficial to patients with Sjögren's syndrome and X-ray exposure in the head and neck.

  17. NTP toxicity studies of dimethylaminopropyl chloride, hydrochloride (CAS No. 5407-04-5) administered by Gavage to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Km

    2007-07-01

    Dimethylaminopropyl chloride, hydrochloride is used primarily as an industrial and research organic chemical intermediate acting as an alkylating reagent in Grignard and other types of reactions. It is also used as a pharmaceutical intermediate for the synthesis of many types of drugs, as an agricultural chemical intermediate, as a photographic chemical intermediate, and as a biochemical reagent for enzyme and other studies. Human occupational or other accidental exposure can occur by inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice received dimethylaminopropyl chloride, hydrochloride (greater than 99% pure) in water by gavage for 2 weeks or 3 months. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. In the 2-week toxicity studies, groups of five male and five female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were administered doses of 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 mg dimethylaminopropyl chloride, hydrochloride/kg body weight in deionized water by gavage, 5 days per week for 16 days. All dosed male and female rats and mice survived until the end of the 2-week study; one vehicle control female mouse died early. Mean body weights of all dosed groups of rats and mice were similar to those of the vehicle control groups. No gross or microscopic lesions were considered related to dimethylaminopropyl chloride, hydrochloride administration. In the 3-month toxicity studies, groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were administered doses of 0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg in deionized water by gavage, 5 days per week for 3 months. One male rat in the 50 mg/kg group died during week 12 of the study, and one female mouse in the 100 mg/kg group died during week 9 and another during week 13. The final mean body weights of 50 mg/kg male rats and 50 mg/kg female mice were significantly less than those of the vehicle controls. Possible chemical-related clinical findings in rats

  18. Effect of serum from rats with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus on the formation of hemopoietic colonies in the spleen of lethally irradiated mice after bone marrow cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, N.A.; Likhovetskaya, Z.M.; Kurbanova, G.N.; Prigozhina, T.A.; L'vovich, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Colony formation capability of serum from animals with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus was studied in lethally irradiated mice. Male-rats of Wistar line and hybrid mice (CBA x C57 BL) were used in the experiments. The serum from rats with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus was injected simultaneously with bone marrow transplantation into lethally irradiated mice. The number of macrocolonies in the spleen was counted on the 9th day. It was ascertained that the serum from rats with destructed nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus caused an increase of the number of macroscopically visible colonies in the spleen of lethally irradiated mice. The determination of hemopoetic types of colonies showed that the effect of the serum from those animals caused an increase of the number of granulocytic-type colonies. The initiation of colony stimulating and leukopoetic activity in the blood of animals after the destruction of mammillary body nuclei and posterior hypothalamic nucleus attested, according to the authors point of view, that humoral mediators (humoral mediator) could participated in the mechanism of hypothalamus effect on leulopoiesis

  19. Aging in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travin, D Y; Feniouk, B A

    2016-12-01

    Rodents are the most commonly used model organisms in studies of aging in vertebrates. However, there are species that may suit this role much better. Most birds (Aves), having higher rate of metabolism, live two-to-three times longer than mammals of the same size. This mini-review briefly covers several evolutionary, ecological, and physiological aspects that may contribute to the phenomenon of birds' longevity. The role of different molecular mechanisms known to take part in the process of aging according to various existing theories, e.g. telomere shortening, protection against reactive oxygen species, and formation of advanced glycation end-products is discussed. We also address some features of birds' aging that make this group unique and perspective model organisms in longevity studies.

  20. Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula, Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula,...

  1. Hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, in humans, dogs, rats, and mice: an in vitro analysis using microsomal fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Isobe, Takashi; Kinashi, Yu; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto

    2016-07-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and has endocrine-disrupting effects. MEHP is metabolized into glucuronide by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in mammals. In the present study, the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of MEHP in humans, dogs, rats, and mice was examined in an in vitro system using microsomal fractions. The kinetics of MEHP glucuronidation by liver microsomes followed the Michaelis-Menten model for humans and dogs, and the biphasic model for rats and mice. The K m and V max values of human liver microsomes were 110 µM and 5.8 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The kinetics of intestinal microsomes followed the biphasic model for humans, dogs, and mice, and the Michaelis-Menten model for rats. The K m and V max values of human intestinal microsomes were 5.6 µM and 0.40 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the high-affinity phase, and 430 µM and 0.70 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the low-affinity phase. The relative levels of V max estimated by Eadie-Hofstee plots were dogs (2.0) > mice (1.4) > rats (1.0) ≈ humans (1.0) for liver microsomes, and mice (8.5) > dogs (4.1) > rats (3.1) > humans (1.0) for intestinal microsomes. The percentages of the V max values of intestinal microsomes to liver microsomes were mice (120 %) > rats (57 %) > dogs (39 %) > humans (19 %). These results suggest that the metabolic abilities of UGT enzymes expressed in the liver and intestine toward MEHP markedly differed among species, and imply that these species differences are strongly associated with the toxicity of DEHP.

  2. Wind power and bird kills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-01-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

  3. Wind power and bird kills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynolds, M.

    1998-12-01

    The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy.

  4. Effects of methimepip and JNJ-5207852 in Wistar rats exposed to an open-field with and without object and in Balb/c mice exposed to a radial-arm maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhamdah, Rushdie M A; van Rensburg, Ruan; Lethbridge, Natasha L; Ennaceur, Abdel; Chazot, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    The role of the histamine H(3) receptor (H(3)R) in anxiety is controversial, due to limitations in drug selectivity and limited validity of behavioral tests used in previous studies. In the present report, we describe two experiments. In the first one, Wistar rats were treated with an H(3)R agonist (methimepip), and exposed to an open-field. In the second one, Balb/c mice were treated with H(3)R agonist (methimepip) or antagonist (JNJ-5207852), and exposed to an open space 3D maze which is a modified version of the radial-arm maze. C57BL/6J saline treated mice were included for comparisons. When exposed to an empty open field, Wistar rats spent more time in the outer area and made very low number of brief crossings in the central area. However, when an object occupied the central area, rats crossed frequently into and spent a long time in the central area. Administration of a range of different doses of methimepip (selective H(3)R agonist) reduced the entries into the central area with a novel object, indicating enhanced avoidance response. In the 3D maze, both Balb/c and C57BL/6J saline-treated mice crossed frequently onto the bridges that radiate from the central platform but only C57BL/6J mice crossed onto the arms which extend the bridges. This suggests that Balb/c mice are more anxious than C57BL/6J mice. Neither methimepip nor JNJ-5207852 (selective H(3)R antagonist/inverse agonist) induced entry into the arms of the maze, indicative of lack of anxiolytic effects.

  5. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Chloroprene (CAS No. 126-99-8) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Chloroprene is used almost exclusively in the manufacture of neoprene (polychloroprene). Chloroprene was chosen for study because it is a high-volume production chemical with limited information on its carcinogenic potential and because it is the 2-chloro analogue of 1,3-butadiene, a potent, multi-species, multi-organ carcinogen. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to chloroprene (greater than 96% pure) by inhalation for 16 days, 13 weeks, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Drosophila melanogaster, and B6C3F1 mice (bone marrow cells and peripheral blood erythrocytes). 16-Day Study in Rats: Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were exposed to 0, 32, 80, 200, or 500 ppm chloroprene by inhalation, 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 16 days. Three 500 ppm males died on day 2 or 3 of the study. Mean body weight gains of 200 ppm males and females and 500 ppm females were significantly less than those of the chamber control groups. On the first day of exposure, rats exposed to 500 ppm were hypoactive and unsteady and had rapid shallow breathing. These effects were also observed to some degree in animals exposed to 200 ppm. After the second day of exposure, the effects in these groups worsened, and hemorrhage from the nose was observed. A normocytic, normochromic, responsive anemia; thrombocytopenia; and increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase occurred on day 4 in 200 ppm females and 500 ppm males. Kidney weights of 80 and 500 ppm females were significantly greater than those of the chamber control group, as were the liver weights of 200 and 500 ppm females. The incidences of minimal to mild olfactory epithelial degeneration of the nose in all exposed groups of males and females were significantly greater than those in the chamber control groups. The incidence of squamous metaplasia of the respiratory epithelium was

  6. Beneficial Effect of HHI-Ⅰ(活血化瘀注射液Ⅰ号)on Cerebral Microcirculation,Blood-Brain Barrier in Rats and Anti-hypoxic Activity in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连根; 吴咸中; 伍孝先

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of HHI-Ⅰ(活血化瘀注射液Ⅰ号) on the cerebral microcirculation,the blood-brain barrier permeability in rats and anti-hypoxic activity in mice.Methods:(1) The blood microcirculation of the brain in rats was investigated by laser Doppler flowmetry with the probes laid on the cerebral pia mater or inserted into the brain parenchyma.(2) The protective action of HHI-Ⅰagainst the brain microcirculation disturbance induced by intravenous injection of high-molecular dextran(10%,9 mL/kg)...

  7. Europe's last Mesozoic bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyke, Gareth J.; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W.; Mulder, Eric W. A.; Schulp, Anne S.; Chiappe, Luis M.

    2002-01-01

    Birds known from more than isolated skeletal elements are rare in the fossil record, especially from the European Mesozoic. This paucity has hindered interpretations of avian evolution immediately prior to, and in the aftermath of, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event. We report on a

  8. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not

  9. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  10. Fish, birds and flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbings, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    The article in your animal physics special issue on the use of magnetic field sensing in bird navigation (November 2012 pp38-42) reminded me of a comment made regarding a paper that I presented in the US many years ago.

  11. Cavity Nesting Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgil E. Scott; Keith E. Evans; David R. Patton; Charles P. Stone

    1977-01-01

    Many species of cavity-nesting birds have declined because of habitat reduction. In the eastern United States, where primeval forests are gone, purple martins depend almost entirely on man-made nesting structures (Allen and Nice 1952). The hole-nesting population of peregrine falcons disappeared with the felling of the giant trees upon which they depended (Hickey and...

  12. Eating Like a Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Chris; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    This teacher guide and student workbook set contains two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on the adaptations of shorebird beaks for a variety of habitats and food sources, and the effect of toxic chemicals in the food chain on the birds. In activity A, students discover how shorebirds are…

  13. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    or drive the birds away. However, the droppings of the birds provide a rich source of fertilizer and this ... birds of India are under severe threat and require urgent protection. he~ries'(Box 1), can ... there will be no fish and then suddenly a school.

  14. New antimicrobial nitrofuran, trans-5-amino-3-[2-(5-nitro-2-furyl)vinyl]-delta2-1,2,4-oxadiazole: antimicrobial efficacy in mice, rats, and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRipley, R J; Gadebusch, H H; Pansy, F; Semar, R

    1974-09-01

    A new antimicrobial nitrofuran designated SQ 18,506 showed some therapeutic activity when administered orally to mice infected with Escherichia coli, Salmonella schottmuelleri, Shigella flexneri, or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Animals infected parenterally with Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Candida albicans, or topically with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, did not respond to therapy with the drug at the dosage levels used. The compound was as effective as metronidazole in the topical treatment of experimental trichomonal infections in mice and in guinea pigs and as effective as nystatin, candicidin, or a sulfanilamide-aminacrine hydrochloride cream in the treatment of a candidal vaginal infection in rats. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of SQ 18,506 in experimental vaginitis caused by Escherichia coli in the rat surpassed that shown by four commercial products available for the treatment of bacterial vaginitis.

  15. New Antimicrobial Nitrofuran, trans-5-Amino-3-[2-(5-Nitro-2-Furyl)Vinyl]-Δ2 -1,2,4-Oxadiazole: Antimicrobial Efficacy in Mice, Rats, and Guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRipley, R. J.; Gadebusch, H. H.; Pansy, F.; Semar, R.

    1974-01-01

    A new antimicrobial nitrofuran designated SQ 18,506 showed some therapeutic activity when administered orally to mice infected with Escherichia coli, Salmonella schottmuelleri, Shigella flexneri, or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Animals infected parenterally with Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Candida albicans, or topically with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, did not respond to therapy with the drug at the dosage levels used. The compound was as effective as metronidazole in the topical treatment of experimental trichomonal infections in mice and in guinea pigs and as effective as nystatin, candicidin, or a sulfanilamide-aminacrine hydrochloride cream in the treatment of a candidal vaginal infection in rats. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of SQ 18,506 in experimental vaginitis caused by Escherichia coli in the rat surpassed that shown by four commercial products available for the treatment of bacterial vaginitis. PMID:15830472

  16. Assessment of immunotoxicity in female Fischer 344/N and Sprague Dawley rats and female B6C3F1 mice exposed to hexavalent chromium via the drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipkowski, Kelly A; Sheth, Christopher M; Smith, Matthew J; Hooth, Michelle J; White, Kimber L; Germolec, Dori R

    2017-12-01

    Sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD), an inorganic compound containing hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), is a common environmental contaminant of groundwater sources due to widespread industrial use. There are indications in the literature that Cr(VI) may induce immunotoxic effects following dermal exposure, including acting as both an irritant and a sensitizer; however, the potential immunomodulatory effects of Cr(VI) following oral exposure are relatively unknown. Following the detection of Cr(VI) in drinking water sources, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) conducted extensive evaluations of the toxicity and carcinogenicity of SDD following drinking water exposure, including studies to assess the potential for Cr(VI) to modulate immune function. For the immunotoxicity assessments, female Fischer 344/N (F344/N) and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and female B 6 C 3 F 1 mice were exposed to SDD in drinking water for 28 consecutive days and evaluated for alterations in cellular and humoral immune function as well as innate immunity. Rats were exposed to concentrations of 0, 14.3, 57.3, 172, or 516 ppm SDD while mice were exposed to concentrations of 0, 15.6, 31.3, 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm SDD. Final mean body weight and body weight gain were decreased relative to controls in 250 ppm B 6 C 3 F 1 mice and 516 ppm SD rats. Water consumption was significantly decreased in F344/N and SD rats exposed to 172 and 516 ppm SDD; this was attributed to poor palatability of the SDD drinking water solutions. Several red blood cell-specific parameters were significantly (5-7%) decreased in 250 ppm mice; however, these parameters were unaffected in rats. Sporadic increases in the spleen IgM antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were observed, however, these increases were not dose-dependent and were not reproducible. No significant effects were observed in the other immunological parameters evaluated. Overall, exposure to Cr(VI) in drinking water had limited effects on

  17. 14 CFR 33.76 - Bird ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... single bird, the single largest medium bird which can enter the inlet, and the large flocking bird must...) (d) Large flocking bird. An engine test will be performed as follows: (1) Large flocking bird engine.... (4) Ingestion of a large flocking bird under the conditions prescribed in this paragraph must not...

  18. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and metabolites of a polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated norcantharidin chitosan nanoparticle formulation in rats and mice, using LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding XY

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Xin-Yuan Ding1, Cheng-Jiao Hong2, Yang Liu1, Zong-Lin Gu1, Kong-Lang Xing1, Ai-Jun Zhu1, Wei-Liang Chen1, Lin-Seng Shi1, Xue-Nong Zhang1, Qiang Zhang31Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 2Jiang Su Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Suzhou, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: A novel formulation containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30-coated norcantharidin (NCTD chitosan nanoparticles (PVP–NCTD–NPs was prepared by ionic gelation between chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate. The average particle size of the PVP–NCTD–NPs produced was 140.03 ± 6.23 nm; entrapment efficiency was 56.33% ± 1.41%; and drug-loading efficiency was 8.38% ± 0.56%. The surface morphology of NCTD nanoparticles (NPs coated with PVP K30 was characterized using various analytical techniques, including X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. NCTD and its metabolites were analyzed using a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method with samples from mice and rats. The results indicated the importance of the PVP coating in controlling the shape and improving the entrapment efficiency of the NPs. Pharmacokinetic profiles of the NCTD group and PVP–NCTD–NP group, after oral and intravenous administration in rats, revealed that relative bioavailabilities were 173.3% and 325.5%, respectively. The elimination half-life increased, and there was an obvious decrease in clearance. The tissue distribution of NCTD in mice after the intravenous administration of both formulations was investigated. The drug was not quantifiable at 6 hours in all tissues except for the liver and kidneys. The distribution of the drug in the liver and bile was notably improved in the PVP–NCTD–NP group. The metabolites and excretion properties of NCTD were investigated by analyzing

  19. Novel 5-HT5A receptor antagonists ameliorate scopolamine-induced working memory deficit in mice and reference memory impairment in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Mayako; Okabe, Mayuko; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Yarimizu, Junko; Harada, Katsuya

    2015-03-01

    Despite the human 5-HT5A receptor being cloned in 1994, the biological function of this receptor has not been extensively characterized due to a lack of specific ligands. We recently reported that the selective 5-HT5A receptor antagonist ASP5736 ameliorated cognitive impairment in several animal models of schizophrenia. Given that areas of the brain with high levels of 5-HT5A receptor expression, such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, have important functions in cognition and memory, we evaluated the chemically diverse, potent and brain-penetrating 5-HT5A receptor antagonists ASP5736, AS2030680, and AS2674723 in rodent models of cognitive dysfunction associated with dementia. Each of these compounds exhibited a high affinity for recombinant 5-HT5A receptors that was comparable to that of the non-selective ligand of this receptor, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Although each compound had a low affinity for other receptors, 5-HT5A was the only receptor for which all three compounds had a high affinity. Each of the three compounds ameliorated scopolamine-induced working memory deficit in mice and improved reference memory impairment in aged rats at similar doses. Further, ASP5736 decreased the binding of LSD to 5-HT5A receptors in the olfactory bulb of rats in a dose-dependent manner and occupied 15%-50% of brain 5-HT5A receptors at behaviorally effective doses. These results indicate that the 5-HT5A receptor is involved in learning and memory and that treatment with 5-HT5A receptor antagonists might be broadly effective for cognitive impairment associated with not only schizophrenia but also dementia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biotransformation of a novel antimitotic agent, I-387, by mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes and in vivo pharmacokinetics in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sunjoo; Kearbey, Jeffrey D; Li, Chien-Ming; Duke, Charles B; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2011-04-01

    3-(1H-Indol-2-yl)phenyl)(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methanone (I-387) is a novel indole compound with antitubulin action and potent antitumor activity in various preclinical models. I-387 avoids drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein and showed less neurotoxicity than vinca alkaloids during in vivo studies. We examined the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of I-387 in mice as a component of our preclinical development of this compound and continued interest in structure-activity relationships for antitubulin agents. After a 1 mg/kg intravenous dose, noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis in plasma showed that clearance (CL), volume of distribution at steady state (Vd(ss)), and terminal half-life (t(1/2)) of I-387 were 27 ml per min/kg, 5.3 l/kg, and 7 h, respectively. In the in vitro metabolic stability study, half-lives of I-387 were between 10 and 54 min by mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, demonstrating interspecies variability. I-387 was most stable in rat liver microsomes and degraded quickly in monkey liver microsomes. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify phase I metabolites. Hydroxylation, reduction of a ketone group, and O-demethylation were the major metabolites formed by the liver microsomes of the five species. The carbonyl group of I-387 was reduced and identified as the most labile site in human liver microsomes. The results of these drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies provide the foundation for future structural modification of this pharmacophore to improve stability of drugs with potent anticancer effects in cancer patients.

  1. Comments on “Ochratoxin A: In utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA. Toxins 2010, 2, 1428–1444”—Mis-Citation of Rat Literature to Justify a Hypothetical Role for Ochratoxin A in Testicular Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Mantle

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A manuscript in the journal recently cited experimental rat data from two manuscripts to support plausibility of a thesis that ochratoxin A might be a cause of human testicular cancer. I believe that there is no experimental evidence that ochratoxin A produces testicular cancer in rats or mice.

  2. The effects of nutritional factors on absorption, retention and excretion of organic and inorganic mercury in mice and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjedsted Hoejbjerg, S.

    1995-01-01

    The industrial use of mercury compounds is declining, but naturally occurring mercury always exists. Earlier experiments have demonstrated effects of dietary fibres, high protein diets and dry milk on whole-body retention and relative organ distribution of orally and intraperitoneally administered methylmercy chloride and mercuric chloride were determined in female NMRI/born mice fed semisynthetic diets in which the energy contribution from protein (soy protein, caseinate or fish protein), or from lipids (coconut oil, cod liver oil, or soy oil), was varied or to which different amounts and types of dietary fibres (cellulose, 60% fibre tablet, pectin K, oat, corn and soy fibre) were added. The whole-body retention of both organic and inorganic mercury depended on the diet composition. Thus, highly significant reductions in whole-body retention of mercury were observed in groups of mice orally administered methylmercury chloride and fed diets with cod liver oil as lipid energy source, or diets with high amounts of soy protein or fish protein as protein energy source, compared to groups fed diets with coconut oil, soy oil, caseinate and lower amounts of fish or soy protein. In most cases, the relative organ distribution was not significantly affected by the diet composition, except that the fractional mercury deposition in the brain was increased in the groups receiving high amounts of cod liver oil compared to the group fed high amounts of coconut oil. (au) 112 p

  3. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of p,p'-dichlorophenyl sulfone (CAS No. 80-07-9) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    p,pN-Dichlorodiphenyl sulfone is used as a starting material in the production of polysulfones and polyethersulfones and as a component in reactive dyes in the textile industry; it is also a by-product of pesticide production. p,pN-Dichlorodiphenyl sulfone was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute because of its history of high production and use, the prospect of increased production and use, and the absence of adequate toxicity testing. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed top,pN-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (greater than 99% pure)in feed for 14 weeks or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium,cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and mouse bone marrow. 14-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 0, 30, 100, 300, 1,000, or 3,000 ppm p,pN-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 2, 6, 19, 65, or 200 mgp,pN-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone/kg body weight) for 14 weeks. All rats survived until the end of the study. Mean body weights of groups exposed to 300 ppm or greater were significantly less than those of the controls. Liver weights of groups exposed to 100 ppm or greater and kidney weights of 1,000 and 3,000 ppm male rats were significantly greater than those of the controls. Centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy of the liver was observed in most male rats exposed to 100 ppm or greater and in all female rats exposed to 300 ppm or greater, and the severities were increased in 300 ppm males and 1,000 and 3,000 ppm males and females. The incidences of nephropathy in 1,000 and 3,000 ppm female rats were significantly increased. Dose-related increases in severity of nephropathy were observed in male rats. 14-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 10 male and 10 female B6C3F1 mice were fed diets containing 0, 30, 100, 300, 1,000, or 3,000 ppm p,pN-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 3.5, 15, 50

  4. DNA adduct formation in B6C3F1 mice and Fischer-344 rats exposed to 1,2,3-trichloropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, D K; Lilly, P D; Anderegg, R J; Swenberg, J A

    1995-06-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a multispecies, multisite carcinogen which has been found to be an environmental contaminant. In this study, we have characterized and measured DNA adducts formed in vivo following exposure to TCP. [14C]TCP was administered to male B6C3F1 mice and Fischer-344 rats by gavage at doses used in the NTP carcinogenesis bioassay. Both target and nontarget organs were examined for the formation of DNA adducts. Adducts were hydrolyzed from DNA by neutral thermal or mild acid hydrolysis, isolated by HPLC, and detected and quantitated by measurement of radioactivity. The HPLC elution profile of radioactivity suggested that one major DNA adduct was formed. To characterize this adduct, larger yields were induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of TCP (300 mg/kg). The DNA adduct was isolated by HPLC based on coelution with the radiolabeled adduct, and compared to previously identified adducts. The isolated adduct coeluted with S-[1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(N7-guanyl)-ethyl]glutathione, an adduct derived from the structurally related carcinogen 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). Analysis by electrospray mass spectrometry suggested that the TCP-induced adduct and the DBCP-derived adduct were identical. The 14C-labeled DNA adduct was distributed widely among the organs examined. Adduct levels varied depending on species, organ, and dose. In rat organs, adduct concentrations for the low dose ranged from 0.8 to 6.6 mumol per mol guanine and from 7.1 to 47.6 mumol per mol guanine for the high dose. In the mouse, adduct yields ranged from 0.32 to 28.1 mumol per mol guanine for the low dose and from 12.2 to 208.1 mumol per mol guanine for the high dose. The relationship between DNA adduct formation and organ-specific tumorigenesis was unclear. Although relatively high concentrations of DNA adducts were detected in target organs, several nontarget sites also contained high adduct levels. Our data suggest that factors in addition to adduct formation

  5. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas J; Lu, Ying; Jüttner, René; Smith, Ewan St J; Hu, Jing; Brand, Antje; Wetzel, Christiane; Milenkovic, Nevena; Erdmann, Bettina; Heppenstall, Paul A; Laurito, Charles E; Wilson, Steven P; Lewin, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  6. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  7. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented.

  8. Windmills and birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, N W; Poulsen, E

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this study is an investigation of potential conflicts between windmills and birds. Emphasis is on frightening, collision risk and biotopic changes due to windmill systems. The study is based on the environment of Koldby and Nibe windmills (South Jutland). Biotopic changes were not observed around the existing windmills. Drainage of mill grounds at Nibe had probably no effect on water level in the area around; a longer observation is necessary to draw any decisive conclusions.(EG).

  9. A 90-day continuous vapor inhalation toxicity study of JP-8 jet fuel followed by 20 or 21 months of recovery in Fischer 344 rats and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattie, D R; Alden, C L; Newell, T K; Gaworski, C L; Flemming, C D

    1991-01-01

    The kerosene-type jet fuel, JP-8, consists of a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Because of the utility of JP-8, studies have been conducted to identify the potential long-term consequence of occupational inhalation exposure. Fischer 344 rats and C57BL/6 mice of both sexes were exposed to JP-8 vapors at 0, 500, and 1,000 mg/m3 on a continuous basis for 90 days, then followed by recovery until approximately 24 months of age. Occurrence of necrotizing dermatitis associated with fighting resulted in an increase in mortality in mice (male greater than female) during the 2 week to 9 month post-exposure recovery period. The male rat kidney developed a reversible ultrastructural increase in size and propensity for crystalloid changes of phagolysosomal proteinic reabsorption droplets in the proximal convoluted tubular epithelium. A specific triad of persisting light microscopic renal lesions occurred but functional change was limited to a decrease in urine concentration compared to controls that persisted throughout the recovery period. The response is comparable to the chronic effect of lifetime exposure of the male rat to unleaded gasoline, d-limonene, and p-dichlorobenzene, except for the absence of tubular tumorigenesis. The active toxicologic response presumably must occur over a greater proportion of the male rat's life span for the tumor component of this male rat hydrocarbon nephropathy syndrome. The predictiveness for humans must be questioned, since the pathologic response to JP-8 involved only one tissue in one sex of one species, and since the male rat response appears to be linked to an inherent renal protein peculiarity.

  10. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole D. Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg; and a fast T2W* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2W* signal intensity under carbogen (T+ was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2W* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  11. Early effects of combretastatin A4 phosphate assessed by anatomic and carbogen-based functional magnetic resonance imaging on rat bladder tumors implanted in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole D; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease postCA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents.

  12. Improved physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for oral exposures to chromium in mice, rats, and humans to address temporal variation and sensitive populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirman, C.R., E-mail: ckirman@summittoxicology.com [Summit Toxicology, PO Box 3209, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); Suh, M.; Proctor, D.M. [ToxStrategies, Mission Viejo, CA (United States); Hays, S.M. [Summit Toxicology, PO Box 3209, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in mice, rats, and humans developed previously (Kirman et al., 2012, 2013), was updated to reflect an improved understanding of the toxicokinetics of the gastrointestinal tract following oral exposures. Improvements were made to: (1) the reduction model, which describes the pH-dependent reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the gastrointestinal tract under both fasted and fed states; (2) drinking water pattern simulations, to better describe dosimetry in rodents under the conditions of the NTP cancer bioassay; and (3) parameterize the model to characterize potentially sensitive human populations. Important species differences, sources of non-linear toxicokinetics, and human variation are identified and discussed within the context of human health risk assessment. - Highlights: • An improved version of the PBPK model for Cr(VI) toxicokinetics was developed. • The model incorporates data collected to fill important data gaps. • Model predictions for specific age groups and sensitive subpopulations are provided. • Implications to human health risk assessment are discussed.

  13. Life-Time Dosimetric Assessment for Mice and Rats Exposed in Reverberation Chambers of the 2-Year NTP Cancer Bioassay Study on Cell Phone Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yijian; Capstick, Myles; Kuehn, Sven; Wilson, Perry; Ladbury, John; Koepke, Galen; McCormick, David L; Melnick, Ronald L; Kuster, Niels

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present the detailed life-time dosimetry analysis for rodents exposed in the reverberation exposure system designed for the two-year cancer bioassay study conducted by the National Toxicology Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The study required the well-controlled and characterized exposure of individually housed, unrestrained mice at 1900 MHz and rats at 900 MHz, frequencies chosen to give best uniformity exposure of organs and tissues. The wbSAR, the peak spatial SAR and the organ specific SAR as well as the uncertainty and variation due to the exposure environment, differences in the growth rates, and animal posture were assessed. Compared to the wbSAR, the average exposure of the high-water-content tissues (blood, heart, lung) were higher by ~4 dB, while the low-loss tissues (bone and fat) were less by ~9 dB. The maximum uncertainty over the exposure period for the SAR was estimated to be <49% (k=2) for the rodents whereas the relative uncertainty between the group was <14% (k=1). The instantaneous variation (averaged over 1 min) was <13% (k=1), which is small compared to other long term exposure research projects. These detailed dosimetric results empowers comparison with other studies and provides a reference for studies of long-term biological effects of exposure of rodents to RF energy.

  14. Rapid learning of magnetic compass direction by C57BL/6 mice in a 4-armed 'plus' water maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B Phillips

    Full Text Available Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in all five vertebrate classes. In rodents, nest building experiments have shown the use of magnetic cues by two families of molerats, Siberian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice. However, assays widely used to study rodent spatial cognition (e.g. water maze, radial arm maze have failed to provide evidence for the use of magnetic cues. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice can learn the magnetic direction of a submerged platform in a 4-armed (plus water maze. Naïve mice were given two brief training trials. In each trial, a mouse was confined to one arm of the maze with the submerged platform at the outer end in a predetermined alignment relative to magnetic north. Between trials, the training arm and magnetic field were rotated by 180(° so that the mouse had to swim in the same magnetic direction to reach the submerged platform. The directional preference of each mouse was tested once in one of four magnetic field alignments by releasing it at the center of the maze with access to all four arms. Equal numbers of responses were obtained from mice tested in the four symmetrical magnetic field alignments. Findings show that two training trials are sufficient for mice to learn the magnetic direction of the submerged platform in a plus water maze. The success of these experiments may be explained by: (1 absence of alternative directional cues (2, rotation of magnetic field alignment, and (3 electromagnetic shielding to minimize radio frequency interference that has been shown to interfere with magnetic compass orientation of birds. These findings confirm that mice have a well-developed magnetic compass, and give further impetus to the question of whether epigeic rodents (e.g., mice and rats have a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass similar to that found in amphibians and migratory birds.

  15. Rapid learning of magnetic compass direction by C57BL/6 mice in a 4-armed 'plus' water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John B; Youmans, Paul W; Muheim, Rachel; Sloan, Kelly A; Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S; Anderson, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoreception has been demonstrated in all five vertebrate classes. In rodents, nest building experiments have shown the use of magnetic cues by two families of molerats, Siberian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice. However, assays widely used to study rodent spatial cognition (e.g. water maze, radial arm maze) have failed to provide evidence for the use of magnetic cues. Here we show that C57BL/6 mice can learn the magnetic direction of a submerged platform in a 4-armed (plus) water maze. Naïve mice were given two brief training trials. In each trial, a mouse was confined to one arm of the maze with the submerged platform at the outer end in a predetermined alignment relative to magnetic north. Between trials, the training arm and magnetic field were rotated by 180(°) so that the mouse had to swim in the same magnetic direction to reach the submerged platform. The directional preference of each mouse was tested once in one of four magnetic field alignments by releasing it at the center of the maze with access to all four arms. Equal numbers of responses were obtained from mice tested in the four symmetrical magnetic field alignments. Findings show that two training trials are sufficient for mice to learn the magnetic direction of the submerged platform in a plus water maze. The success of these experiments may be explained by: (1) absence of alternative directional cues (2), rotation of magnetic field alignment, and (3) electromagnetic shielding to minimize radio frequency interference that has been shown to interfere with magnetic compass orientation of birds. These findings confirm that mice have a well-developed magnetic compass, and give further impetus to the question of whether epigeic rodents (e.g., mice and rats) have a photoreceptor-based magnetic compass similar to that found in amphibians and migratory birds.

  16. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Barium Chloride Dihydrate (CAS No. 10326-27-9) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Drinking Water Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Barium chloride dihydrate, a white crystalline granule or powder, is used in pigments, aluminum refining, leather tanning and coloring, the manufacture of magnesium metal, ceramics, glass, and paper products, as a pesticide, and in medicine as a cardiac stimulant. Toxicology and carcinogenicity studies were conducted by administering barium chloride dihydrate (99% pure) in drinking water to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice for 15 days, 13 weeks, and 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, and mouse lymphoma cells. 15-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five males and five females received barium chloride dihydrate in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 ppm for 15 days, corresponding to average daily doses of 10, 15, 35, 60, or 110 mg barium/kg body weight to males and females. No chemical-related deaths, differences in final mean body weights, or clinical findings of toxicity were observed. Water consumption by male and female rats exposed to 2,000 ppm was slightly less (S16%) than controls during week 2. There were no significant differences in absolute or relative organ weights between exposed and control rats. No biologically significant differences in hematology, clinical chemistry, or neurobehavioral parameters occurred in rats. 15-DAY STUDY IN MICE: Groups of five males and five females received barium chloride dihydrate in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 40, 80,173, 346, or 692 ppm for 15 days, corresponding to average daily doses of 5,10, 20, 40, or 70 mg barium/kg body weight to males and 5, 10, 15, 40, or 85 mg barium/kg body weight to females. No chemical-related deaths, differences in mean body weights or in water consumption, or clinical findings of toxicity were observed in mice. The relative liver weight of males receiving 692 ppm was significantly greater than that of the controls. The absolute and relative liver weights of females that

  17. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  18. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of psidium guajava in albino rats and albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, N Chandra; Jayasree, T; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-09-01

    Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms.

  19. The North Sea Bird Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, P.A.T.; Gorman, M.L.; Patterson, I.J.; Howe, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the creation of a club for the purpose of encouraging oil and gas workers to watch birds may not at first seem a viable proposition. To the layperson, birds offshore conjures up an image of hundreds of seagulls following fishing boats, and very little else. Also, the act of birdwatching is not seen as a typical offshore worker's activity. Anyone who has worked on an installation offshore and who has any interest in wildlife will be aware of the occasional presence of land-birds. Two decades ago, prompted by some keen offshore workers, a single oil company set up a monitoring program, which quickly became popular with a number of its employees. Birds seem offshore were recorded on data forms and collected together. At this stage the club was purely another recreation facility; however, when the data were collated it was soon realized that installations offshore were being used as staging posts by birds on migration, and that the information being collected would be of great interest in the study of bird movements. All over Britain, at strategic points on the coastline, there are bird observatories which record the arrival and departure of migrating birds. The presence of several hundred solid structures up and down the North Sea, which are used by birds en route, represents a huge, unique bird observatory, capable of uncovering facts about bird migration which have long eluded land-based scientists. Eleven years ago, the North Sea Bird Club began, composed of eight member companies, a recorder from Aberdeen University and a representative from the Nature Conservancy Council. The club received data from 41 installations, and the recorder collated these on Aberdeen University's computer and produced an annual report of sightings

  20. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  1. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  4. Glucuronidation of deoxynivalenol (DON) by different animal species: identification of iso-DON glucuronides and iso-deepoxy-DON glucuronides as novel DON metabolites in pigs, rats, mice, and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Hametner, Christian; Nagl, Veronika; Fiby, Iris; Macheiner, Lukas; Winkler, Janine; Dänicke, Sven; Clark, Erica; Pestka, James J; Berthiller, Franz

    2017-12-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of cereal-based food and feed. Mammals metabolize DON by conjugation to glucuronic acid (GlcAc), the extent and regioselectivity of which is species-dependent. So far, only DON-3-glucuronide (DON-3-GlcAc) and DON-15-GlcAc have been unequivocally identified as mammalian DON glucuronides, and DON-7-GlcAc has been proposed as further DON metabolite. In the present work, qualitative HPLC-MS/MS analysis of urine samples of animals treated with DON (rats: 2 mg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; mice: 1 mg/kg bw, single i.p. injection; pigs: 74 µg/kg bw, single bolus, gavage; cows: 5.2 mg DON/kg dry mass, oral for 13 weeks) revealed additional DON and deepoxy-DON (DOM) glucuronides. To elucidate their structures, DON and DOM were incubated with human (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). Besides the expected DON/DOM-3- and 15-GlcAc, minor amounts of four DON- and four DOM glucuronides were formed. Isolation and enzymatic hydrolysis of four of these compounds yielded iso-DON and iso-DOM, the identities of which were eventually confirmed by NMR. Incubation of iso-DON and iso-DOM with RLM and HLM yielded two main glucuronides for each parent compound, which were isolated and identified as iso-DON/DOM-3-GlcAc and iso-DON/DOM-8-GlcAc by NMR. Iso-DON-3-GlcAc, most likely misidentified as DON-7-GlcAc in the literature, proved to be a major DON metabolite in rats and a minor metabolite in pigs. In addition, iso-DON-8-GlcAc turned out to be one of the major DON metabolites in mice. DOM-3-GlcAc was the dominant DON metabolite in urine of cows and an important DON metabolite in rat urine. Iso-DOM-3-GlcAc was detected in urine of DON-treated rats and cows. Finally, DON-8,15-hemiketal-8-glucuronide, a previously described by-product of DON-3-GlcAc production by RLM, was identified in urine of DON-exposed mice and rats. The discovery of several novel DON-derived glucuronides in animal urine requires adaptation of

  5. Ectopic bone formation and chondrodysplasia in transgenic mice carrying the rat C3(1)/T{sub AG} fusion gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.E.; Maroulakou, I.G.; Anver, M. [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the SV40 large T-antigen (T{sup AG}) under the regultory control of the hormone-responsive rat C3(1) prostatein promoter develop unusual bone and cartilage lesions, as well as ectopic bone and cartilage formation. Two lines of transgenic animals have been propagated in which the expression of the transgene in chondrocytes results in a mild to moderate generalized disorganization of cartilage growth which appears to affect multiple tissues, including the trachea, ear pinna and articular cartilage. The epiphyseal plates are also affected with normal architecture of the zones of proliferation and maturation, but marked elongation of the zone of hypertrophy. Immunocytochemistry demonstrates that expression of T{sup AG} is limited to the zone of hypertropny in the epiphyseal plates, suggesting that the chondrocytes become hormone-responsive at this particular stage of differentiation. Normal mineralization and trabecular formation in long bone appears to occur. Ectopic bone and cartilage formation occurs in the foot pads of the fore- and hind- feet over the course of several months. This is preceded by proliferation of sweat gland epithelial cells followed by the appearance of nodules of cartilage and bone. The nodules are closely associated with proliferating epithelium but are not contiguous with bony structures normally found in the feet. The roles of BMP`s, growth factors, oncogenes and hormones in the development of these lesions will be presented. These transgenic animals may provide new insights into hormone-responsiveness of chondrocytes, as well as factors involved in the processes of bone and cartilage differentiation and growth. These transgenic animals may serve as a useful model for human heterotopic bone formation.

  6. Early Effects of Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Assessed by Anatomic and Carbogen-Based Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging on Rat Bladder Tumors Implanted in Nude Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carole D.; Walczak, Christine; Kaffy, Julia; Pontikis, Renée; Jouanneau, Jacqueline; Volk, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes rapid disruption of the tumor vasculature and is currently being evaluated for antivascular therapy. We describe the initial results obtained with a noninvasive multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to assess the early effects of CA4P on rat bladder tumors implanted on nude mice. MRI (4.7 T) comprised a fast spin-echo sequence for growth curve assessment; a multislice multiecho sequence for T2 measurement before, 15 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P (100 mg/kg); and a fast T2w* gradient-echo sequence to assess MR signal modification under carbogen breathing before, 35 minutes after, and 24 hours after CA4P. The tumor fraction with increased T2w* signal intensity under carbogen (T+) was used to quantify CA4P effect on functional vasculature. CA4P slowed tumor growth over 24 hours and accelerated necrosis development. T+ decrease was observed already at 35 minutes post-CA4P. Early T2 increase was observed in regions becoming necrotic at 24 hours post-CA4P, as confirmed by high T2 and histology. These regions exhibited, under carbogen, a switch from T2w* signal increase before CA4P to a decrease post-CA4P. The combination of carbogen-based functional MRI and T2 measurement may be useful for the early follow-up of antivascular therapy without the administration of contrast agents. PMID:16867221

  7. Novel Hg2+-Induced Nephropathy in Rats and Mice Lacking Mrp2: Evidence of Axial Heterogeneity in the Handling of Hg2+ Along the Proximal Tubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Joshee, Lucy; Bridges, Christy C.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the multi-resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) in the nephropathy induced by inorganic mercuric mercury (Hg2+) was studied in rats (TR−) and mice (Mrp2−/−), which lack functional Mrp2, and control animals. Animals were exposed to nephrotoxic doses of HgCl2. Forty-eight or 24 hours after exposure, tissues were harvested and analyzed for Hg content and markers of injury. Histological analyses revealed that the proximal tubular segments affected pathologically by Hg2+ were significantly different between Mrp2-deficient animals and controls. In the absence of Mrp2, cellular injury localized almost exclusively in proximal tubular segments in the subcapsular (S1) to midcortical regions (early S2) of the kidney. In control animals, cellular death occurred mainly in the proximal tubular segments in the inner cortex (late S2) and outer stripe of the outer medulla (S3). These differences in renal pathology indicate that axial heterogeneity exists along the proximal tubule with respect to how mercuric ions are handled. Total renal and hepatic accumulation of mercury was also greater in animals lacking Mrp2 than in controls, indicating that Mrp2 normally plays a significant role in eliminating mercuric ions from within proximal tubular cells and hepatocytes. Analyses of plasma creatinine, BUN, and renal expression of Kim-1 and Ngal tend to support the severity of the nephropathies detected histologically. Collectively, our findings indicate that a fraction of mercuric ions is normally secreted by Mrp2 in early portions of proximal tubules into the lumen and then is absorbed downstream in straight portions, where mercuric species typically induce toxic effects. PMID:25145654

  8. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  9. Two new rhabdoviruses (Rhabdoviridae) isolated from birds during surveillance for arboviral encephalitis, northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Mather, Thomas N; Takeda, Tsutomu; Whitehouse, Chris A; Shope, Robert E; Popov, Vsevolod L; Guzman, Hilda; Coffey, Lark; Araujo, Tais P; Tesh, Robert B

    2002-06-01

    Two novel rhabdoviruses were isolated from birds during surveillance for arboviral encephalitis in the northeastern United States. The first, designated Farmington virus, is a tentative new member of the Vesiculovirus genus. The second, designated Rhode Island virus, is unclassified antigenically, but its ultrastructure and size are more similar to those of some of the plant rhabdoviruses. Both viruses infect birds and mice, as well as monkey kidney cells in culture, but their importance for human health is unknown.

  10. Resumes of the Bird mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, E.; Borwald, W.; Briess, K.; Kayal, H.; Schneller, M.; Wuensten, Herbert

    2004-11-01

    The DLR micro satellite BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra Red Detection) was piggy- back launched with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C3 into a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001. The BIRD mission, fully funded by the DLR, answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra- red push-broom sensor system on board of a micro satellite and demonstrates new spacecraft bus technologies. BIRD mission control is conducted by DLR / GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen. Commanding, data reception and data processing is performed via ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany). The BIRD mission is a demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring. In the year 2003 BIRD has been used in the ESA project FUEGOSAT to demonstrate the utilisation of innovative space technologies for fire risk management.

  11. Unzipping bird feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexander; Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-03-06

    The bird feather vane can be separated into two parts by pulling the barbs apart. The original state can be re-established easily by lightly stroking through the feather. Hooklets responsible for holding vane barbs together are not damaged by multiple zipping and unzipping cycles. Because numerous microhooks keep the integrity of the feather, their properties are of great interest for understanding mechanics of the entire feather structure. This study was undertaken to estimate the separation force of single hooklets and their arrays using force measurement of an unzipping feather vane. The hooklets usually separate in some number synchronously (20 on average) with the highest observed separation force of 1.74 mN (average force 0.27 mN), whereas the single hooklet separation force was 14 μN. A simple numerical model was suggested for a better understanding of zipping and unzipping behaviour in feathers. The model demonstrates features similar to those observed in experiments.

  12. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    habitats with those in rural habitats. Some species have decreased the frequency of migrants and migration distance in urban environments, and others have not. The other manuscript describes the small scale movements of three different Palaearctic migrants during winter in Africa in a farmland habitat....... In another species, environmental conditions are not a good predictor of movements, and possibly effects of timing constraints or food type play a role. Two manuscripts focus on the effects of human-induced habitat alterations on migratory behaviour. One compares the movements of partial migrants in urban...... and a forest reserve. In the degraded habitat all species used more space, although the consequence on bird density is less clear. Two manuscripts relate the migratory movements of a long-distance migrant with models of navigation. One compares model predictions obtained by simulation with actual movements...

  13. Heterologous human/rat HER2-specific exosome-targeted T cell vaccine stimulates potent humoral and CTL responses leading to enhanced circumvention of HER2 tolerance in double transgenic HLA-A2/HER2 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yufeng; Wu, Jie; Xu, Aizhang; Ahmeqd, Shahid; Sami, Amer; Chibbar, Rajni; Freywald, Andrew; Zheng, Changyu; Xiang, Jim

    2018-03-07

    DNA vaccines composed of heterologous human HER2 and rat neu sequences induce stronger antibody response and protective antitumor immunity than either HER2 or neu DNA vaccines in transgenic mice. We previously developed HER2-specific exosome-targeted T-cell vaccine HER2-T EXO capable of stimulating HER2-specific CD8 + T-cell responses, but only leading to partial protective immunity in double-transgenic HLA-A2/HER2 mice with self-immune tolerance to HER2. Here, we constructed an adenoviral vector AdV HuRt expressing HuRt fusion protein composed of NH 2 -HER2 1-407 (Hu) and COOH-neu 408-690 (Rt) fragments, and developed a heterologous human/rat HER2-specific exosome-targeted T-cell vaccine HuRt-T EXO using polyclonal CD4 + T-cells uptaking exosomes released by AdV HuRt -transfected dendritic cells. We found that the HuRt-T EXO vaccine stimulates enhanced CD4 + T-cell responses leading to increased induction of HER2-specific antibody (∼70 µg/ml) compared to that (∼40 µg/ml) triggered by the homologous HER2-T EXO vaccine. By using PE-H-2K d /HER2 23-71 tetramer, we determined that HuRt-T EXO stimulates stronger HER2-specific CD8 + T-cell responses eradicating 90% of HER2-specific target cells, while HER2-T EXO -induced CD8 + T-cell responses only eliminating 53% targets. Furthermore, HuRt-T EXO , but not HER2-T EXO vaccination, is capable of suppressing early stage-established HER2-expressing 4T1 HER2 breast cancer in its lung metastasis or subcutaneous form in BALB/c mice, and of completely protecting transgenic HLA-A2/HER2 mice from growth of HLA-A2/HER2-expressing BL6-10 A2/HER2 melanoma. HuRt-T EXO -stimulated HER2-specific CD8 + T-cells not only are cytolytic to trastuzumab-resistant HLA-A2/HER2-expressing BT474/A2 breast tumor cells in vitro but also eradicates pre-established BT474/A2 tumors in athymic nude mice. Therefore, our novel heterologous human/rat HER2-specific T-cell vaccine HuRt-T EXO, circumventing HER2 tolerance, may provide a new

  14. Bird on a (live) wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, M.

    2003-09-30

    Bird mortality as a result of contact with power lines is discussed. U. S. statistics are cited, according to which 174 million birds annually die as a result of contact with power lines, specifically when birds touch two phases of current at the same time. Raptors are particularly vulnerable to power-line electrocution due to their habit of perching on the highest vantage point available as they survey the ground for prey. Hydro lines located in agricultural areas, with bodies of water on one side and fields on the other, also obstruct flight of waterfowl as dusk and dawn when visibility is low. Various solutions designed to minimize the danger to birds are discussed. Among these are: changing the configuration of wires and cross arms to make them more visible to birds in flight and less tempting as perches, and adding simple wire markers such as flags, balloons, and coloured luminescent clips that flap and twirl in the wind. There is no evidence of any coordinated effort to deal with this problem in Ontario. However, a report is being prepared for submission to Environment Canada outlining risks to birds associated with the growing number of wind turbine power generators (negligible compared with power lines and communications towers), and offering suggestions on remedial measures. The Fatal Light Awareness Program (FLAP) also plans to lobby the Canadian Wildlife Service to discuss the possibility of coordinating efforts to monitor, educate about and ultimately reduce this form of bird mortality.

  15. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, and seabirds in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  16. Protein and lipid oxidative damage and complex I content are lower in the brain of budgerigar and canaries than in mice. Relation to aging rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Reinald; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Sanz, Alberto; Ayala, Victoria; Vasileva, Ekaterina; Barja, Gustavo

    2005-12-01

    What are the mechanisms determining the rate of animal aging? Of the two major classes of endothermic animals, bird species are strikingly long-lived compared to mammals of similar body size and metabolic rate. Thus, they are ideal models to identify longevity-related characteristics not linked to body size or low metabolic rates. Since oxidative stress seems to be related to the basic aging process, we measured specific markers of different kinds of oxidative damage to proteins, like glutamic and aminoadipic semialdehydes (GSA and AASA, specific protein carbonyls), Nɛ-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), Nɛ-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and Nɛ-(malondialdehyde)lysine (MDAL), as well as mitochondrial Complex I content and amino acid and membrane fatty acyl composition, in the brain of short-lived mice (maximum life span [MLSP] 3.5 years) compared with those of long-lived budgerigar 'parakeets' (MLSP, 21 years) and canaries (MLSP, 24 years). The brains of both bird species had significantly lower levels of compounds formed as a result of oxidative (GSA and AASA), glycoxidative (CEL and CML), and lipoxidative (CML and MDAL) protein modifications, as well as a lower levels of mitochondrial complex I protein. Although it is known that fatty acid unsaturation is lower in many tissues of long-lived compared to short-lived mammals, this is not true in the particular case of brain. In agreement with this, we also found that the brain tissue of bugerigars and canaries contains no fewer double bonds than that of mice. Amino acid composition analyses revealed that bird proteins have a significantly lower content of His, Leu and Phe, as well as, interestingly, of methionine, whereas Asp, Glu, Ala, Val, and Lys contents were higher than in the mammals. These results, together with those previously described in other tissues of pigeons (MLSP, 35 years) compared to rats (MLSP, 4 years), indicate that oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA are lower in birds (very

  17. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty. It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Marco Polo also made notes on Mongol bird use. There are a few other records. This allows us to draw conclusions about Mongol ornithology, which apparently was sophisticated and detailed.

  18. [Histological structure of the trabecular meshwork in the eyeball: challenging the traditional concept and preliminary findings in rabbits, rats and mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun; Zhou, Fan-Qi; Luo, Zhou-Cai; Chen, Ying-Hua; Chen, Yu; Dong, Wei-Ren

    2017-10-20

    To verify that the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the wall of the eyeball consists of smooth muscle fibers instead of collagen fibers or endothelial cells. Eighteen fresh eyeballs from 3 rabbits, 3 SD rats and 3 mice were sectioned along the sagittal plane and sliced after paraffin embedding for HE staining, VG staining, Masson staining, α-SMA immunohistochemistry or CD31 immunohistochemistry. These slices were observed under microscope and the structure of the TM was compared with those of scleral collagen fibers, ciliary muscles and endothelial cells. HE staining of the eyeball slices from the 3 animal species resulted in purplish red staining of the TM, which was highly consistent with ciliary muscle fibers. The cell?like structures on the surface of the TM were not clearly outlined, with flat nuclei showing a dark purple staining; these structures did not show obvious boundaries from the TM. Ciliary muscle fibers, which were smooth muscle cells in nature, were aligned in bundles in various directions. The longitudinally sectioned cells were flat and contained purplish cytoplasm and highly flattened nuclei. Scleral collagen fibers were stained dark red with a few fibroblasts sandwiched among them. The long axis of the fibroblasts was in parallel with that of the collagen fibers. The outline of the fibroblast was not clear and the nucleus was flat in dark blue. The vascular endothelial cells presented with different morphologies and contained light purplish cytoplasm and dark nuclei, protruding into the vascular cavity. VG staining of the TM revealed a pale red filamentous structure, and the collagen fibers were stained bright red. Masson staining of the TM showed a reticular structure consisting mainly of dark red fibers intermingled with thin green fibers. Scleral collagen fibers presented with a cord?like green wavy structure. The endothelial cells were green and flat, while the ciliary smooth muscle fibers were purple. In immunohistochemistry for α?SMA, the TM

  19. 21 CFR 1240.65 - Psittacine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Psittacine birds. 1240.65 Section 1240.65 Food and... DISEASES Specific Administrative Decisions Regarding Interstate Shipments § 1240.65 Psittacine birds. (a) The term psittacine birds shall include all birds commonly known as parrots, Amazons, Mexican double...

  20. Robird : a robotic bird of prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkertsma, Gerrit Adriaan; Straatman, Wessel; Nijenhuis, Nico; Venner, Cornelis H.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Ever since the start of aviation, birds and airplanes have posed a mutual risk: Birds are killed when struck by aircraft, but, in return, bird strikes cause billions in damage to the aviation industry. Airports employ bird-control methods such as audiovisual deterrents (like scarecrows, lasers, and

  1. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).

  2. 'WORLD OF BIRDS' WILDLIFE SANCTUARY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development and activities of the 'World of Birds' Wildlife. Sanctuary, near Cape Town, are .... For the time being the benefit for school outings will be mainly visual ... feed, sing, display, build nests, incubate, feed chicks - and even fight.

  3. Birds of the Mongol Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene N. Anderson

    2016-01-01

    The Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous empire the world has ever known, had, among other things, a goodly number of falconers, poultry raisers, birdcatchers, cooks, and other experts on various aspects of birding. We have records of this, largely in the Yinshan Zhengyao, the court nutrition manual of the Mongol empire in China (the Yuan Dynasty). It discusses in some detail 22 bird taxa, from swans to chickens. The Huihui Yaofang, a medical encyclopedia, lists ten taxa used medicinally. Ma...

  4. 78 FR 53217 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ..., and by what means such birds or any part, nest, or egg thereof may be taken, hunted, captured, killed... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...

  5. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ..., carriage, or export of any * * * bird, or any part, nest, or egg'' of migratory game birds can take place... 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird...

  6. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Xylenes (Mixed) (60% m-Xylene, 14% p-Xylene, 9% o-Xylene, and 17% Ethylbenzene) (CAS No. 1330-20-7) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    The technical grade of xylenes (mixed) (hereafter termed xylenes) contains the three isomeric forms and ethylbenzene (percentage composition shown above). The annual production for 1985 was approximately 7.4 x 108 gallons. Xylenes is used as a solvent and a cleaning agent and as a degreaser and is a constituent of aviation and automobile fuels. Xylenes is also used in the production of benzoic acid, phthalate anhydride, and isophthalic and terephthalic acids as well as their dimethyl esters. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of xylenes were conducted in laboratory animals because a large number of workers are exposed and because the long- term effects of exposure to xylenes were not known. Exposure for the present studies was by gavage in corn oil. In single-administration studies, groups of five F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of each sex received 500, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, or 6,000 mg/kg. Administration of xylenes caused deaths at 6,000 mg/kg in rats and mice of each sex and at 4,000 mg/kg in male rats. In rats, clinical signs observed within 24 hours of dosing at 4,000 mg/kg included prostration, muscular incoordination, and loss of hind limb movement; these effects continued through the second week of observation. Tremors, prone position, and slowed breathing were recorded for mice on day 3, but all mice appeared normal by the end of the 2- week observation period. In 14- day studies, groups of five rats of each sex were administered 0, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg, and groups of five mice of each sex received 0, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000, or 4,000 mg/kg. Chemical- related mortality occurred only at 2,000 mg/kg in rats and at 4,000 mg/kg in mice. Rats and mice exhibited shallow breathing and prostration within 48 hours following dosing at 2,000 mg/kg. These signs persisted until day 12 for rats, but no clinical signs were noted during the second week for mice. In 13- week studies, groups of 10 rats of each sex received 0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 mg

  7. Characterizing uncertainty and population variability in the toxicokinetics of trichloroethylene and metabolites in mice, rats, and humans using an updated database, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, and Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Okino, Miles S.; Evans, Marina V.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive, Bayesian, PBPK model-based analysis of the population toxicokinetics of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its metabolites in mice, rats, and humans, considering a wider range of physiological, chemical, in vitro, and in vivo data than any previously published analysis of TCE. The toxicokinetics of the 'population average,' its population variability, and their uncertainties are characterized in an approach that strives to be maximally transparent and objective. Estimates of experimental variability and uncertainty were also included in this analysis. The experimental database was expanded to include virtually all available in vivo toxicokinetic data, which permitted, in rats and humans, the specification of separate datasets for model calibration and evaluation. The total combination of these approaches and PBPK analysis provides substantial support for the model predictions. In addition, we feel confident that the approach employed also yields an accurate characterization of the uncertainty in metabolic pathways for which available data were sparse or relatively indirect, such as GSH conjugation and respiratory tract metabolism. Key conclusions from the model predictions include the following: (1) as expected, TCE is substantially metabolized, primarily by oxidation at doses below saturation; (2) GSH conjugation and subsequent bioactivation in humans appear to be 10- to 100-fold greater than previously estimated; and (3) mice had the greatest rate of respiratory tract oxidative metabolism as compared to rats and humans. In a situation such as TCE in which there is large database of studies coupled with complex toxicokinetics, the Bayesian approach provides a systematic method of simultaneously estimating model parameters and characterizing their uncertainty and variability. However, care needs to be taken in its implementation to ensure biological consistency, transparency, and objectivity.

  8. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (CAS No. 96-18-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Gavage Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane is a colorless liquid used as a paint and varnish remover, solvent, and degreasing agent, and as a crosslinking agent in the synthesis of polysulfides and hexafluoropropylene. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane may be found as an impurity in certain nematocides and soil fumigants and as a contaminant of drinking and ground water. Studies on the toxic and carcinogenic effects of 1,2,3-trichloropropane were initiated because of the close structural relationship of this chemical to other short-chain halogenated compounds that were demonstrated to be carcinogenic in experimental animals, and because of the potential for human exposure. Toxicology and carcinogenicity studies were conducted by administering 1,2,3-trichloropropane (greater than 99% pure) in corn oil by gavage to groups of F344/N rats and B6C3FI mice for 17 weeks and 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium strains, mouse lymphoma cells, and Chinese hamster ovary cells. 17-Week Studies: Groups of 20 male and 20 female rats received 1,2,3-trichloropropane in corn oil by gavage at doses of 8, 16, 32, 63, 125, or 250 mg/kg body weight 5 days per week for up to 17 weeks; 30 male and 30 female rats received corn oil alone and served as controls. Animals were evaluated at 8 or 17 weeks. All rats in the 250 mg/kg groups died by week 5. One male and four female rats in the 125 mg/kg groups died during the study. The mean body weight gains and final mean body weights of males receiving 63 mg/kg and of males and females receiving 125 mg/kg were lower than those of the controls. Hematocrit values, hemoglobin concentrations, and erythrocyte counts decreased with dose in males and females. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased in some female rats receiving 125 mg/kg. Serum pseudocholinesterase activity decreased with dose in females. Increases in kidney and liver weights were related

  9. No-carrier-added (NCA) N-(3-( sup 18 F)fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine and N-(3-( sup 18 F)fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine -synthesis, anatomical distribution in mice and rats, and tomographic studies in a baboon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Lanqin; Teng, Renrui; Shiue, Chyngyann; Wolf, A P; Dewey, S L [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Holland, M J; Simon, E J [New York Univ., NY (USA). Medical Center

    1990-01-01

    N-(3-Fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine (3a) and N-(3-fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine (4a) were synthesized by N-alkylation of norbuprenorphine (1) and nordiprenorphine (2) with 1-bromo-3-fluoropropane. The corresponding no-carrier-added (NCA) N-(3-({sup 18}F)fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine (3b) and N-(3-({sup 18}F)fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine (4b) were synthesized by N-alkylation of 1 and 2 with NCA 1-({sup 18}F)fluoro-3-iodopropane. In vitro studies indicate that in the absence of sodium chloride, compounds 3a, 4a, N-propyl-N-norbuprenorphine (5), buprenorphine and diprenorphine are reasonably comparable in binding affinity for opioid receptors. In the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride, however, compounds 3a, 4a and 5, are clearly less potent than buprenorphine and diprenorphine. The anatomical distribution study of compound 3b in mice shows radioactivity accumulating in bone. Rat studies of both compounds 3b and 4b indicate the specific distribution of these two radioligands within certain cortical and subcortical regions of rat brain. However, the absolute uptake of compound 4b in rat brain was only half that of compound 3b. PET studies of 3b in a baboon revealed specific binding of compound 3b in striatum and cerebellum. At 1 h after injection, ratios of specific/non-specific binding of 3b in striatum and cerebellum of a baboon were 1.9 and 1.7 respectively. (author).

  10. No-carrier-added (NCA) N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine and N-(3-[18F]fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine -synthesis, anatomical distribution in mice and rats, and tomographic studies in a baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanqin Bai; Renrui Teng; Chyngyann Shiue; Wolf, A.P.; Dewey, S.L.; Holland, M.J.; Simon, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    N-(3-Fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine (3a) and N-(3-fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine (4a) were synthesized by N-alkylation of norbuprenorphine (1) and nordiprenorphine (2) with 1-bromo-3-fluoropropane. The corresponding no-carrier-added (NCA) N-(3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl)-N-norbuprenorphine (3b) and N-(3-[ 18 F]fluoropropyl)-N-nordiprenorphine (4b) were synthesized by N-alkylation of 1 and 2 with NCA 1-[ 18 F]fluoro-3-iodopropane. In vitro studies indicate that in the absence of sodium chloride, compounds 3a, 4a, N-propyl-N-norbuprenorphine (5), buprenorphine and diprenorphine are reasonably comparable in binding affinity for opioid receptors. In the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride, however, compounds 3a, 4a and 5, are clearly less potent than buprenorphine and diprenorphine. The anatomical distribution study of compound 3b in mice shows radioactivity accumulating in bone. Rat studies of both compounds 3b and 4b indicate the specific distribution of these two radioligands within certain cortical and subcortical regions of rat brain. However, the absolute uptake of compound 4b in rat brain was only half that of compound 3b. PET studies of 3b in a baboon revealed specific binding of compound 3b in striatum and cerebellum. At 1 h after injection, ratios of specific/non-specific binding of 3b in striatum and cerebellum of a baboon were 1.9 and 1.7 respectively. (author)

  11. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, and gulls/terns in Northwest...

  13. Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Short, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    .... This annotated bibliography of bird hazards to aircraft, termed ABBHA, is a compilation of citations with abstracts on a wide range of related topics such as bird strike tolerance engineering, bird...

  14. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  15. Birds as predators in tropical agroforestry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bael, Sunshine A; Philpott, Stacy M; Greenberg, Russell; Bichier, Peter; Barber, Nicholas A; Mooney, Kailen A; Gruner, Daniel S

    2008-04-01

    Insectivorous birds reduce arthropod abundances and their damage to plants in some, but not all, studies where predation by birds has been assessed. The variation in bird effects may be due to characteristics such as plant productivity or quality, habitat complexity, and/or species diversity of predator and prey assemblages. Since agroforestry systems vary in such characteristics, these systems provide a good starting point for understanding when and where we can expect predation by birds to be important. We analyze data from bird exclosure studies in forests and agroforestry systems to ask whether birds consistently reduce their arthropod prey base and whether bird predation differs between forests and agroforestry systems. Further, we focus on agroforestry systems to ask whether the magnitude of bird predation (1) differs between canopy trees and understory plants, (2) differs when migratory birds are present or absent, and (3) correlates with bird abundance and diversity. We found that, across all studies, birds reduce all arthropods, herbivores, carnivores, and plant damage. We observed no difference in the magnitude of bird effects between agroforestry systems and forests despite simplified habitat structure and plant diversity in agroforests. Within agroforestry systems, bird reduction of arthropods was greater in the canopy than the crop layer. Top-down effects of bird predation were especially strong during censuses when migratory birds were present in agroforestry systems. Importantly, the diversity of the predator assemblage correlated with the magnitude of predator effects; where the diversity of birds, especially migratory birds, was greater, birds reduced arthropod densities to a greater extent. We outline potential mechanisms for relationships between bird predator, insect prey, and habitat characteristics, and we suggest future studies using tropical agroforests as a model system to further test these areas of ecological theory.

  16. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko eMaekawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds.

  17. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  18. WT Bird. Bird collision recording for offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Schekkerman, H. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    A new method for monitoring of bird collisions has been developed using video and audio registrations that are triggered by sound and vibration measurements. Remote access to the recorded images and sounds makes it possible to count the number of collisions as well as to identify the species. After the successful proof of principle and evaluation on small land-based turbines the system is now being designed for offshore wind farms. Currently the triggering system and video and audio registration are being tested on large land-based wind turbines using bird dummies. Tests of three complete prototype systems are planned for 2005.

  19. WT-Bird. Bird collision recording for offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggelinkhuizen, E.J.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Barhorst, S.A.M. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Den Boon, H.J. [E-Connection Project, Bunnik (Netherlands); Dirksen, S. [Bureau Waardenburg, Culemborg (Netherlands); Schekkerman, H. [Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    A new method for registration of bird collisions has been developed using video cameras and microphones combined with event triggering by acoustic vibration measurement. Remote access to the recorded images and sounds makes it possible to count the number of collisions as well as to identify the species. Currently a prototype system is being tested on an offshore-scale land-based wind turbine using bird dummies. After these tests we planned to perform endurance tests on other land-based turbines under offshore-like conditions.

  20. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... on Invasive Alien Species implemented in January 2015 establishes a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  1. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Timme; Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony David

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation on Invasive...... Alien Species implemented in January 2015 requires a framework for actions to combat alien species, which requires Member States to prevent the spread of alien species, provide early warning and rapid responses to their presence and management of established alien species where they occur. We show...... the importance of mechanisms such as DOFs (Danish Ornithological Society, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Monitoring (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already present...

  2. Chemical compass for bird navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Hore, Peter J.; Ritz, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Migratory birds travel spectacular distances each year, navigating and orienting by a variety of means, most of which are poorly understood. Among them is a remarkable ability to perceive the intensity and direction of the Earth's magnetic field. Biologically credible mechanisms for the detection...... increased interest following the proposal in 2000 that free radical chemistry could occur in the bird's retina initiated by photoexcitation of cryptochrome, a specialized photoreceptor protein. In the present paper we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible radical...

  3. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...

  4. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had meat or egg) production for the family (86.44%) or as pet or hobby birds (42.27%). The backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  5. East Africa's diminishing bird habitats and bird species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    foreign exchange earnings for each national exchequer. However, recent national census records have .... Dar-es-. Salaam: Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania. Bennun, L & Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya, Nairobi: East Africa Natural. History Society. Byaruhanga, A, Kasoma, P. & Pomeroy, D. 2001.

  6. Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species community ... variables on bird species diversity and richness of respective foraging guilds, and ... of the species assessed: (1) increasing closed cover due to woody plant density, ...

  7. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans-Saharan m......Bird migration has attracted a lot of interests over past centuries and the methods used for studying this phenomenon has greatly improved in terms of availability, dimension, scale and precision. In spite of the advancements, relatively more is known about the spring migration of trans...... of birds from Europe to Africa and opens up the possibility of studying intra-African migration. I have used long-term, standardized autumn ringing data from southeast Sweden to investigate patterns in biometrics, phenology and population trends as inferred from annual trapping totals. In addition, I...... in the population of the species. The papers show that adult and juvenile birds can use different migration strategies depending on time of season and prevailing conditions. Also, the fuel loads of some individuals were theoretically sufficient for a direct flight to important goal area, but whether they do so...

  8. Physiological adaptation in desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Williams, Joseph B.

    We call into question the idea that birds have not evolved unique physiological adaptations to desert environments. The rate at which desert larks metabolize energy is lower than in mesic species within the same family, and this lower rate of living translates into a lower overall energy requirement

  9. Millipedes (Diplopoda) in birds' nests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tajovský, Karel; Mock, A.; Krumpál, M.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2001), s. 321-323 ISSN 1164-5563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : bird s nest s * microsites * millipedes Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.317, year: 2001

  10. Notes on some Sumatran birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, G.C.A.

    1948-01-01

    During the war I was able to identify some collections of birds from Sumatra, present in the Leiden Museum. These collections were brought together by E. Jacobson and W. C. van Heurn in the Padang Highlands in 1013; by W. Groeneveldt in the same area in 1914 and 1915; bij L. P. Cosquino de Bussy and

  11. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  12. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and birds has inspired poetry, art, l~terature, science and tech- nology. In Monsoon, Wilbur ... Henk Tennekes, an aerospace engineering professor at Pennsyl- vania State University, USA, has a different story to tell in his popular book The ...

  13. Birds and Bird Habitat: What Are the Risks from Industrial Wind Turbine Exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Terry; Harrington, M. Elizabeth; Krogh, Carmen M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bird kill rate and disruption of habitat has been reported when industrial wind turbines are introduced into migratory bird paths or other environments. While the literature could be more complete regarding the documentation of negative effects on birds and bird habitats during the planning, construction, and operation of wind power projects,…

  14. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by... Forces to incidentally take migratory birds during approved military readiness activities without violating the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA). The Authorization Act provided this interim authority to...

  15. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... such birds or any part, nest, or egg thereof may be taken, hunted, captured, killed, possessed, sold...-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on... Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special late-season migratory bird...

  16. The Physics of Bird Flight: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Michael D.; George, Thomas F.; Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an experiment that measures the forces acting on a flying bird during takeoff. The experiment uses a minimum of equipment and only an elementary knowledge of kinematics and Newton's second law. The experiment involves first digitally videotaping a bird during takeoff, analyzing the video to determine the bird's position as a…

  17. DNA barcoding of Dutch birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Aliabadian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I (COI can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification of animal species, and has been applied in a number of studies on birds. We here sequenced the COI gene for 387 individuals of 147 species of birds from the Netherlands, with 83 species being represented by >2 sequences. The Netherlands occupies a small geographic area and 95% of all samples were collected within a 50 km radius from one another. The intraspecific divergences averaged 0.29% among this assemblage, but most values were lower; the interspecific divergences averaged 9.54%. In all, 95% of species were represented by a unique barcode, with 6 species of gulls and skua (Larus and Stercorariusat least one shared barcode. This is best explained by these species representing recent radiations with ongoing hybridization. In contrast, one species, the Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca showed deep divergences, averaging 5.76% and up to 8.68% between individuals. These possibly represent two distinct taxa, S. curruca and S. blythi, both clearly separated in a haplotype network analysis. Our study adds to a growing body of DNA barcodes that have become available for birds, and shows that a DNA barcoding approach enables to identify known Dutch bird species with a very high resolution. In addition some species were flagged up for further detailed taxonomic investigation, illustrating that even in ornithologically well-known areas such as the Netherlands, more is to be learned about the birds that are present.

  18. A comparison of the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of two novel bispyridinium oximes (K727, K733) with the oxime HI-6 and obidoxime in sarin-poisoned rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Sepsova, Vendula; Matouskova, Lenka; Horova, Anna; Musilek, Kamil

    2015-03-01

    The ability of two novel bispyridinium oximes K727 and K733 and currently available oximes (HI-6, obidoxime) to reactivate sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and to reduce acute toxicity of sarin was evaluated. To investigate the reactivating efficacy of the oximes, the rats were administered intramuscularly with atropine and oximes in equitoxic doses corresponding to 5% of their LD50 values at 1 min after the intramuscular administration of sarin at a dose of 24 µg/kg (LD50). The activity of acetylcholinesterase was measured at 60 min after sarin poisoning. The LD50 value of sarin in non-treated and treated mice was assessed using probit-logarithmical analysis of death occurring within 24 h after intramuscular administration of sarin at five different doses. In vivo determined percentage of reactivation of sarin-inhibited rat blood, diaphragm and brain acetylcholinesterase showed that the potency of both novel oximes K727 and K733 to reactivate sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase roughly corresponds to the reactivating efficacy of obidoxime. On the other hand, the oxime HI-6 was found to be the most efficient reactivator of sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase. While the oxime HI-6 was able to reduce the acute toxicity of sarin >3 times, both novel oximes and obidoxime decreased the acute toxicity of sarin HI-6 and, therefore, they are not suitable for the replacement of the oxime HI-6 for the antidotal treatment of acute sarin poisoning.

  19. Prevention of pneumonic plague in mice, rats, guinea pigs and non-human primates with clinical grade rV10, rV10-2 or F1-V vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Ciletti, Nancy A.; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy M.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Yersinia pestis causes plague, a disease with high mortality in humans that can be transmitted by fleabite or aerosol. A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed plague vaccine is currently not available. Vaccine developers have focused on two subunits of Y. pestis: LcrV, a protein at the tip of type III secretion needles, and F1, the fraction 1 pilus antigen. F1-V, a hybrid generated via translational fusion of both antigens, is being developed for licensure as a plague vaccine. The rV10 vaccine is a non-toxigenic variant of LcrV lacking residues 271–300. Here we developed Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) protocols for rV10. Comparison of clinical grade rV10 with F1-V did not reveal significant differences in plague protection in mice, guinea pigs or cynomolgus macaques. We also developed cGMP protocols for rV10-2, a variant of rV10 with an altered affinity tag. Immunization with rV10-2 adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide elicited antibodies against LcrV and conferred pneumonic plague protection in mice, rats, guinea pigs, cynomolgus macaques and African Green monkeys. The data support further development of rV10-2 for FDA Investigational New Drug (IND) authorization review and clinical testing. PMID:21763383

  20. Deadly hairs, lethal feathers--convergent evolution of poisonous integument in mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V; Astrowski, Aliaksandr A

    2014-07-01

    Hairs and feathers are textbook examples of the convergent evolution of the follicular appendage structure between mammals and birds. While broadly recognized for their convergent thermoregulatory, camouflage and sexual display functions, hairs and feathers are rarely thought of as deadly defence tools. Several recent studies, however, show that in some species of mammals and birds, the integument can, in fact, be a de facto lethal weapon. One mammalian example is provided by African crested rats, which seek for and chew on the bark of plants containing the highly potent toxin, ouabain. These rats then coat their fur with ouabain-containing saliva. For efficient toxin retention, the rodents have evolved highly specialized fenestrated and mostly hollow hair shafts that soak up liquids, which essentially function as wicks. On the avian side of the vertebrate integumental variety spectrum, several species of birds of New Guinea have evolved resistance to highly potent batrachotoxins, which they acquire from their insect diet. While the mechanism of bird toxicity remains obscure, in a recently published issue of the journal, Dumbacher and Menon explore the intriguing idea that to achieve efficient storage of batrachotoxins in their skin, some birds exploit the basic permeability barrier function of their epidermis. Batrachotoxins become preferentially sequestered in their epidermis and are then transferred to feathers, likely through the exploitation of specialized avian lipid-storing multigranular body organelles. Here, we discuss wider implications of this intriguing concept. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Sarcocystis pantherophis, n. sp. from eastern rat snakes (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) definitive hosts and interferongamma gene knockout mice as experimental intermediate hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report a new species, Sarcocystis pantherophisi with the Eastern rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) as natural definitive host and the interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mouse as the experimental intermediate host. Sporocysts (n=15) from intestinal contents of the snake were 17.3 x 10....

  2. Nesting bird "host funnel" increases mosquito-bird contact rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Riggan, Anna E; Bulluck, Lesley P; Carlson, John C; Sabo, Roy T

    2013-03-01

    Increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. We investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT). The number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from nesting season. Our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a "host funnel," concentrating host-seeking mosquitoes to the few remaining nestlings. The relative abundance of mosquitoes collected by the NMT suggests that significantly more Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex pipiens (L.) /restuans (Theobald) sought nesting bird bloodmeals than were predicted by their relative abundances in CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light and gravid traps. Culex salinarius (Coquillett) and Culex erraticus Dyar and Knab were collected in NMTs in proportion to their relative abundances in the generic traps. Temporal host funnels and nesting bird host specificity may enhance arbovirus amplification and explain observed West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus amplification periods.

  3. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  4. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  5. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  6. (Urginea Altissima), Against the Field Rat, Arvicanthis Abyssinicus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    the field rat, Arvicanthis abyssincus with the aim of developing locally based ... inhabited by humans and is commonly found in open ... rat, A. abyssinicus in a choice and non-choice tests. ..... sowing control of house mice (Mus domesticus):.

  7. The birds of Blyth Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, D.; Carver, H.; Little, B.; Lawrence, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Blyth Harbour Wind Farm, constructed upon an exposed pier, is not a Site of Special Scientific Interest and is designated to become a RAMSAR location because of the presence of a significant population of the Purple Sandpiper. A study of the effect of the wind farm on the birds was started before the wind farm was constructed and is ongoing. Initial evidence of how the wind turbines have affected the 110 varieties of birds recorded within the harbour will be presented and compared to previous research carried out in Europe and the USA. Methodology has included intensive beach surveys, visits to wind farms in the UK and USA and consultations with wildlife advisory bodies. The study will continue until 1996. (Author)

  8. Comparative Phylogeography of Neotropical Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    birds, butterflies, plants , soil type, and precipitation (Whitmore and Prance 1987); (C) study populations based largely on neo-tropical lowland...Caballero, A. 1994. Developments in the prediction of effective population size. Heredity 73:657- 679. Camargo, A., R. O. De Sa, and W. R. Heyer. 2006...157-183. Hamrick, J. L., and M. J. W. Godt. 1996. Effects of life history traits on genetic diversity in plant species. Philosophical Transactions Of

  9. Freeing Maya Angelou's Caged Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Joyce L.

    1991-01-01

    This study involves a comprehensive examination of one book, Maya Angelou's autobiographical I Know Why Why the Caged Bird Sings, since it was first published in 1970. Recognized as an important literary work, the novel is used in many middle and secondary school classrooms throughout the united States. Additionally, the work often is challenged in public schools on the grounds of its sexual and/or racial content. The purpose of this study included establishing th...

  10. Clinical Procedures Training for Veterinary Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus musculus), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), Guinea Pigs (Gavia porcellus), Rabbits (Otyctolagus cuniculus), Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), Pigs (Sus scrofa), Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please !ml all information. Use...Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus muscu/us), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus...DATE: 14 November 2016 FUNDING SOURCE: SG O&M funds LAST TRIENNIAL REVISION DATE: 15 October 2015 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species: Total

  11. Fluff-thieving birds sabotage seed dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Rohwer, Vanya G.; Pauw, Anton; Martin, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing many species interactions as mutualisms can be misleading because some members of the interaction derive greater fitness benefits at the expense of other members. We provide detailed natural history data on a suspected bird?plant mutualism in South Africa where many species of birds use fluffy Eriocephalus seed material to construct their nests, potentially dispersing seeds for the plant. We focus on a common bird, Prinia maculosa, which invests heavily in gathering Eriocephalu...

  12. Birds and bird habitats: guidelines for wind power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-10-01

    Established in 2009, the Green Energy Act aims to increase the use of renewable energy sources including wind, water, solar and bioenergy in Ontario. The development of these resources is a major component of the province's plan, which aims to mitigate the contribution to climate change and to involve the Ontario's economy in the improvement of the quality of the environment. The Green Energy Act also considers as important the implementation of a coordinated provincial approval process, suggesting the integration of all Ministry requirements into a unique process during the evaluation of newly proposed renewable energy projects. The Ministry of the Environment's Renewable Energy Approval Regulation details the requirements for wind power projects involving significant natural features. Birds are an important part of Ontario's biodiversity and, according to the Ministry of Natural Resources, their habitats are considered as significant wildlife habitat (SWH). The Renewable Energy Approval Regulation and this guideline are meant to provide elements and guidance in order to protect bird SWH during the selection of a location of wind power facilities. . 27 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  13. Bird sexing by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Bartels, Thomas; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Koch, Edmund

    2010-02-01

    Birds are traditionally classified as male or female based on their anatomy and plumage color as judged by the human eye. Knowledge of a bird's gender is important for the veterinary practitioner, the owner and the breeder. The accurate gender determination is essential for proper pairing of birds, and knowing the gender of a bird will allow the veterinarian to rule in or out gender-specific diseases. Several biochemical methods of gender determination have been developed for avian species where otherwise the gender of the birds cannot be determined by their physical appearances or characteristics. In this contribution, we demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy is a suitable tool for a quick and objective determination of the bird's gender. The method is based on differences in chromosome size. Male birds have two Z chromosomes and female birds have a W-chromosome and a Z-chromosome. Each Z-chromosome has approx. 75.000.000 bps whereas the W-chromosome has approx. 260.00 bps. This difference can be detected by FT-IR spectroscopy. Spectra were recorded from germ cells obtained from the feather pulp of chicks as well as from the germinal disk of fertilized but non-bred eggs. Significant changes between cells of male and female birds occur in the region of phosphate vibrations around 1080 and 1120 cm-1.

  14. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Niemi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance such as fire, insect outbreaks, and wind. In addition, the boreal system is vulnerable to global climate change as well as increasing pressure on forest and water resources. Current knowledge indicates that birds play an important role in boreal forests, and sustaining these populations affords many benefits to the health of boreal forests. Many issues must be approached with caution, including the lack of knowledge on our ability to mimic natural disturbance regimes with management, our lack of understanding on fragmentation due to logging activity, which is different from permanent conversion to other land uses such as agriculture or residential area, and our lack of knowledge on what controls variability in boreal bird populations or the linkage between bird population fluctuations and productivity. The essential role that birds can provide is to clarify important ecological concerns and variables that not only will help to sustain bird populations, but also will contribute to the long-term health of the boreal forest for all species, including humans.

  15. Lead and zinc intoxication in companion birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    Although the toxicity of lead and zinc to birds is widely recognized by veterinarians and bird owners, these metals are frequently found in the environments of pet and aviary birds, and intoxications are common. Clinical signs exhibited by intoxicated birds are often nonspecific, which makes early diagnosis difficult. Fortunately, lead and zinc analyses of whole blood and serum or plasma, respectively, are readily available and inexpensive; elevated concentrations can confirm intoxication. Once diagnosed, intoxication can be effectively treated by (1) preventing further exposure, (2) administering chelating drugs, and (3) providing symptomatic and supportive care.

  16. How to Throw a Bird?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Anne Lassen; Bruun, Charlotte

    been left behind in global economic development, it is important to recognise that interventions, such as within tourism, cannot start on a tabula rasa. Hence, in this paper we argue that geographical locations are living systems where different stakeholders, formal and informal institutions......, environment with its wildlife, etc., all interact and influence interventions and outcomes. In metaphorical terms developing locations through tourism is like attempting to make a bird fly in a desired direction: One can never predict completely the direction in which it will fly. On the contrary throwing...

  17. Characterization of H7 Influenza A Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Park, Ha-Young; Lee, Kyu-Jun; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228), no NA stalk deletion (positions 69–73), no C-terminal deletion (positions 218–230) in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10 0.7–1.3EID50/50 µl) in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7–10 dpi, 10 0.7–4.3EID50/50 µl) in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia. PMID:24776918

  18. Characterization of H7 influenza A virus in wild and domestic birds in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Mi Kang

    Full Text Available During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228, no NA stalk deletion (positions 69-73, no C-terminal deletion (positions 218-230 in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10⁰·⁷⁻¹·³ EID₅₀/50 µl in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7-10 dpi, 10⁰·⁷⁻⁴·³EID₅₀/50 µl in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia.

  19. Priority setting for bird conservation in Mexico: the role of the Important Bird Areas program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma. del Coro Arizmendi; Laura Marquez Valdelamar; Humberto Berlanga

    2005-01-01

    Many species in Mexico are threatened and in need of protection. At least seventy species are considered to be globally threatened, yet conservation actions have been scarce and not coordinated. In 1996 BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas Program was initiated in Mexico to identify a network of the most important places in Mexico for birds, with the...

  20. 78 FR 11988 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ..., accomplishments since the Migratory Bird Treaties with Canada and Mexico were amended, and a history, was... purposes during the spring and summer months. The Canada and Mexico migratory bird treaties were amended...-0066; FF09M21200-123-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AY70 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska...

  1. 75 FR 18764 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... rulemaking, accomplishments since the Migratory Bird Treaties with Canada and Mexico were amended, and a... the spring and summer months. The Canada and Mexico migratory bird treaties were recently amended for... rural Alaska. The amendments to the Migratory Bird Treaties with Canada and Mexico recognize the...

  2. 75 FR 27143 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Convention and the subsequent 1936 Mexico Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds and Game Mammals... Part III Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian...

  3. 78 FR 65578 - Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...-0037; FF09M21200-134-FXMB1231099BPP0] RIN 1018-AY65 Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We revise the regulations that allow control of depredating birds in California. We specify the counties in...

  4. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ...-0082; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...

  5. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.

  6. Do Birds Experience Sensory Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabanac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To answer the question of whether sensory pleasure exists in birds, I trained an African-gray parrot (Psittacus erythacus named Aristote to speak. Stage 1 of the study consisted in gaining Aristote's affection. In Stage 2 Aristote was taught to speak, following Irene Pepperberg's triangular method: another person and I would talk together and look at Aristote only when it used understandable French words. Thus Aristote learned to say a few words for obtaining toys or getting my attention; e.g. “donne bouchon” (give cork or “donne gratte” (give scratch/tickle, with the appropriate reward. In Stage 3, the word bon (good was added to the short list of words used by Aristote. I said “bon” when giving Aristote the stimuli it requested and which would, presumably, be pleasurable; e.g. gratte bon. Aristote started to use short sentences such as “yaourt bon” (good yogurt. Eventually, Aristote transferred the word bon to new stimuli such as raisin (grape, an association I myself had never made. Such a use of vocabulary, and moreover its transfer, likely shows that this bird experienced sensory pleasure.

  7. Dermal extracellular lipid in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, M W; Hinsman, E J; Hullinger, R L

    1990-01-01

    A light and electron microscopic study of the skin of domestic chickens, seagulls, and antarctic penguins revealed abundant extracellular dermal lipid and intracellular epidermal lipid. Dermal lipid appeared ultrastructurally as extracellular droplets varying from less than 1 micron to more than 25 microns in diameter. The droplets were often irregularly contoured, sometimes round, and of relatively low electron density. Processes of fibrocytes were often seen in contact with extracellular lipid droplets. Sometimes a portion of such a droplet was missing, and this missing part appeared to have been "digested away" by the cell process. In places where cells or cell processes are in contact with fact droplets, there are sometimes extracellular membranous whorls or fragments which have been associated with the presence of fatty acids. Occasionally (in the comb) free fat particles were seen in intimate contact with extravasated erythrocytes. Fat droplets were seen in the lumen of small dermal blood and lymph vessels. We suggest that the dermal extracellular lipid originates in the adipocyte layer and following hydrolysis the free fatty acids diffuse into the epidermis. Here they become the raw material for forming the abundant neutral lipid contained in many of the epidermal cells of both birds and dolphins. The heretofore unreported presence and apparently normal utilization of abundant extracellular lipid in birds, as well as the presence of relatively large droplets of neutral lipid in dermal vessels, pose questions which require a thorough reappraisal of present concepts of the ways in which fat is distributed and utilized in the body.

  8. Local equilibrium in bird flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Ginelli, Francesco; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Viale, Massimiliano; Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene

    2016-12-01

    The correlated motion of flocks is an example of global order emerging from local interactions. An essential difference with respect to analogous ferromagnetic systems is that flocks are active: animals move relative to each other, dynamically rearranging their interaction network. This non-equilibrium characteristic has been studied theoretically, but its impact on actual animal groups remains to be fully explored experimentally. Here, we introduce a novel dynamical inference technique, based on the principle of maximum entropy, which accommodates network rearrangements and overcomes the problem of slow experimental sampling rates. We use this method to infer the strength and range of alignment forces from data of starling flocks. We find that local bird alignment occurs on a much faster timescale than neighbour rearrangement. Accordingly, equilibrium inference, which assumes a fixed interaction network, gives results consistent with dynamical inference. We conclude that bird orientations are in a state of local quasi-equilibrium over the interaction length scale, providing firm ground for the applicability of statistical physics in certain active systems.

  9. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  10. GLP-1 Amidation Efficiency Along the Length of the Intestine in Mice, Rats and Pigs and in GLP-1 Secreting Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin

    2014-01-01

    and whether this varied with the six different locations. We also analyzed the amidation in 3 GLP-1 secreting cell lines (GLUTag, NCI-H716 and STC-1). To our surprise there were marked differences between the 3 species with respect to the concentration of GLP-1 in gut. In the mouse, concentrations increased...... sites, whereas rats and pigs on average had around 2.5 and 4 times higher levels of amidated compared to non-amidated GLP-1, although the ratio varied depending upon the location. GLUTag, NCI-H716 and STC-1 cells all exhibited partial amidation with 2-4 times higher levels of amidated compared to non...

  11. The Netherlands Bird Avoidance Model, Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to

  12. Cryptococcosis outbreak in psittacine birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, T F; Werther, K; Miranda, E T; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2004-08-01

    An outbreak of cryptococcosis occurred in a breeding aviary in São Paulo, Brazil. Seven psittacine birds (of species Charmosyna papou, Lorius lory, Trichoglossus goldiei, Psittacula krameri and Psittacus erithacus) died of disseminated cryptococcosis. Incoordination, progressive paralysis and difficulty in flying were seen in five birds, whereas superficial lesions coincident with respiratory alterations were seen in two birds. Encapsulated yeasts suggestive of Cryptococcus sp. were seen in faecal smears stained with India ink in two cases. Histological examination of the birds showed cryptococcal cells in various tissues, including the beak, choana, sinus, lungs, air sacs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines and central nervous system. High titres of cryptococcal antigen were observed in the serum of an affected bird. In this case, titres increased during treatment and the bird eventually died. Yeasts were isolated from the nasal mass, faeces and liver of one bird. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serovar B was identified based on biochemical, physiological and serological tests. These strains were resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration 64 microg/ml) to fluconazole. This is the first report of C. neoformans var. gattii occurring in psittacine birds in Brazil.

  13. Bird observations in Severnaya Zemlya, Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de ext. Korte, J.; Volkov, A.E; Gavrilo, M.V

    Fieldwork in different parts of Severnaya Zemlya in 1985, 1991, 1992 and 1993 and aerial surveys in 1994 revealed a limited bird fauna with a total of 17 breeding species. The most numerous breeding birds are cliff-nesting seabirds, comprising little auk (Alle alle), 10 000-80 000 pairs; kittiwake

  14. Estimating the Impact of Bird Strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Bird strikes have the potential to cause severe damage to aircraft. Therefore, measures to reduce the risk of bird strikes are performed at airports. However, this risk is not limited to the airport but is increased in the arrival and departure corridors as well. Consequently, a significant amount

  15. Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, S.P.; Balthazart, J.

    2010-01-01

    Birds are anosmic or at best microsmatic… This misbelief persisted until very recently and has strongly influenced the outcome of communication studies in birds, with olfaction remaining neglected as compared to acoustic and visual channels. However, there is now clear empirical evidence showing

  16. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  17. The Popularity of Birding is Still Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Nancy G. Herbert

    2002-01-01

    What are the "field marks" of the entry-level birder of the past few years? She is probably between 40 and 59 years old and is white. She puts in about 10 birding days or fewer per year, trying to squeeze birding into a busy life, although she also finds herself engaged in related activities: walking for pleasure, attending family outdoor gatherings...

  18. PREVALENCE OF BIRD LOUSE, MENACANTHUS CORNUTUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Department of Biological Sciences, Bayero University P.M.B 3011 Kano, Nigeria ... Birds were randomly picked and viewed under day light with the aid of hand lens and dissecting forceps to facilitate ... another when birds are kept in close contact (Price et al., 2003). They are ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  19. Smelling out predators is innate in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amo, L.; Visser, M.E.; Van Oers, K.

    2011-01-01

    The role of olfaction for predation risk assessment remains barely explored in birds, although predator chemical cues could be useful in predator detection under low visibility conditions for many bird species. We examine whether Great Tits Parus major are able to use the odour of mustelids to

  20. Current perspectives on the evolution of birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ericson, P.G.P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current understanding of the evolution and diversification of birds. New insights into this field have mainly come from two fundamentally different, but complementary sources of information: the many newly discovered Mesozoic bird fossils and the wealth of genetic analyses

  1. [Hemoparasites in wild birds in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raharimanga, V; Soula, F; Raherilalao, M J; Goodman, S M; Sadonès, H; Tall, A; Randrianarivelojosia, M; Raharimalala, L; Duchemin, J B; Ariey, F; Robert, V

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and density of haemoparasites in native Malagasy birds. Among the 387 birds, belonging to 43 species sampled at six localities in different bio-climatic zones of the island, 139 (35.9%) showed at least 1 hemoparasite with, by order of frequency, Plasmodium and/or Haemoproteus (19.9%), microfilariae (13.7% of 387 birds), Leucocytozoon (11.1%) and Trypanosoma (1.0%). An analysis to further elucidate these observations took into account the interaction of different environmental variables (altitude, season, site of collection) or aspects of the birds (age, weight, sex). There is evidence that some parasites preferentially infect some bird species or families. The largest male birds harboured the highest prevalences and densities of haemoparasite, regardless of species. These findings extend knowledge of bird/blood parasite relationships of Malagasy birds and provide interesting insights, especially concerning the pathogenicity of this type of parasitism and the parasite transmission by insect vectors.

  2. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Rajendran, C; Ferreira, L R; Kwok, O C H; Choudhary, S; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Rodríguez-Peña, S; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2011-10-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds in Mexico. In the present study, serum samples and tissues from 653 birds from Durango State, Mexico, were evaluated for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, titer 1∶25 or higher) were found in 17 (2.6%) of the 653 birds, including 1 of 2 curve-billed thrashers (Toxostoma curvirostre), 2 (1 Anas platyrhynchos, 1 Anas diazi) of 4 ducks, 1 of 2 eagles (Aquila sp.), 5 (27.8%) of 18 great-tailed grackles (Quiscalus mexicanus), 7 (1.3%) of 521 rock pigeons (Columba livia), and 1 (14.3%) of 7 quail (Coturnix coturnix). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in birds captured in a park outside the city zoo (11.6%, 8/69) was significantly higher than that found in birds from other regions (1.5%, 9/584, OR  =  8.38; 95% CI: 2.82-24.77; P  =  0.0001). Brains and hearts of 23 birds (17 seropositive, 6 seronegative) were bioassayed in mice for the isolation of T. gondii . Viable T. gondii was isolated from 1 of 7 seropositive pigeons. The DNA obtained from the T. gondii isolate from the pigeon was genotyped using the PCR-RFLP typing using 11 markers (B1, SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) and revealed an atypical genotype. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in great-tailed grackles, the Mexican duck, and curved-billed thrashers and the first survey of wild birds in Mexico.

  3. Chronic mitochondrial uncoupling treatment prevents acute cold-induced oxidative stress in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Antoine; Massemin, Sylvie; Criscuolo, François

    2014-12-01

    Endotherms have evolved two major types of thermogenesis that allow them to actively produce heat in response to cold exposure, either through muscular activity (i.e. shivering thermogenesis) or through futile electro-chemical cycles (i.e. non-shivering thermogenesis). Amongst the latter, mitochondrial uncoupling is of key importance because it is suggested to drive heat production at a low cost in terms of oxidative stress. While this has been experimentally shown in mammals, the oxidative stress consequences of cold exposure and mitochondrial uncoupling are clearly less understood in the other class of endotherms, the birds. We compared metabolic and oxidative stress responses of zebra finches chronically treated with or without a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol: DNP), undergoing an acute (24 h) and a chronic (4 weeks) cold exposure (12 °C). We predicted that control birds should present at least a transient elevation of oxidative stress levels in response to cold exposure. This oxidative stress cost should be more pronounced in control birds than in DNP-treated birds, due to their lower basal uncoupling state. Despite similar increase in metabolism, control birds presented elevated levels of DNA oxidative damage in response to acute (but not chronic) cold exposure, while DNP-treated birds did not. Plasma antioxidant capacity decreased overall in response to chronic cold exposure. These results show that acute cold exposure increases oxidative stress in birds. However, uncoupling mitochondrial functioning appears as a putative compensatory mechanism preventing cold-induced oxidative stress. This result confirms previous observations in mice and underlines non-shivering thermogenesis as a putative key mechanism for endotherms in mounting a response to cold at a low oxidative cost.

  4. Neospora caninum in birds: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Miura, Ana Carolina; Minutti, Ana Flávia; Vidotto, Odilon; Garcia, João Luis

    2018-08-01

    Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects domestic and wild animals. Canids are considered to be definitive hosts since they may shed oocysts into the environment through their feces. The disease is recognized as one of the major causes of bovine abortion worldwide, leading to important economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industries. Previous studies have reported N. caninum infection in different species of birds; infection in birds has been associated with increased seroprevalence and reproductive problems in dairy cattle. Although the role of birds in the epidemiological cycle of neosporosis is unknown, birds are exposed to infection because they feed on the ground and could thus contribute to parasite dissemination. This review is focused on the current state of knowledge of neosporosis in birds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence of keratinophilic fungi on Indian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K

    1991-01-01

    Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.

  6. Ionizing radiation and wild birds: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Schultz, V.

    1975-01-01

    Since the first atomic explosion, 16 July 1945 at the Trinity Site in south-central New Mexico, the impact of ionizing radiation on bird populations has been of concern to a few individuals. The proliferation of nuclear power plants has increased public concern as to possible deleterious effects of nuclear power plant operation on resident and migratory bird populations. Literature involving wild birds and ionizing radiation is not readily available, and only a few studies have been anywhere near comprehensive, with most effort directed towards monitoring radionuclide concentration in birds. The objective of the paper is to document the literature on wild birds and ionizing radiation including a brief description of pertinent papers

  7. The Origin and Diversification of Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; O'Connor, Jingmai K; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-10-05

    Birds are one of the most recognizable and diverse groups of modern vertebrates. Over the past two decades, a wealth of new fossil discoveries and phylogenetic and macroevolutionary studies has transformed our understanding of how birds originated and became so successful. Birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic (around 165-150 million years ago) and their classic small, lightweight, feathered, and winged body plan was pieced together gradually over tens of millions of years of evolution rather than in one burst of innovation. Early birds diversified throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous, becoming capable fliers with supercharged growth rates, but were decimated at the end-Cretaceous extinction alongside their close dinosaurian relatives. After the mass extinction, modern birds (members of the avian crown group) explosively diversified, culminating in more than 10,000 species distributed worldwide today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Cassia tora extract toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jyoti; Koley, K M; Sahu, B D

    2017-02-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cassia tora toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds. A limit test was conducted for C. tora extract in Wistar albino rats. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of leaves of C. tora was carried out. In-vitro antibacterial activity was measured by disc diffusion method. 1-day-old Ven Cobb broiler birds (n=90) were randomly allocated into three groups consisting of three replicates with 10 birds in each group. The birds of group T1 (Control) received basal diet, whereas birds of group T2 (Standard) received an antibiotic (Lincomycin at 0.05% in feed). The birds of group T3 (Test) received Cassia tora extract (CSE) at 0.4 g/L in drinking water in addition to basal diet. The treatment was given to birds of all the groups for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activity of C. tora was determined in blood of broiler birds. Cumulative body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percent, and organ weight factor were evaluated to determine growth performance in broiler birds. Phytochemicals in C. tora were screened. Sensitivity to Escherichia coli and resistant to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in in-vitro antibacterial activity test. At the end of 6 th week, antioxidant activity reflected significantly (p≤0.05) lower level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde and higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH peroxidase in broiler birds of group T2 and T3 as compared to broiler of group T1. Mean cumulative body weight gain of birds of T2 and T3 were significantly (p≤0.05) higher as compared to T1. Mean FCR of birds of group T3 decreased significantly than group T1. Supplementation of C. tora leaves extract at 0.4 g/L in drinking water improved growth performance in broiler birds due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative to antibiotic growth

  9. Attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Cassia tora extract toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Sahu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cassia tora toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: A limit test was conducted for C. tora extract in Wistar albino rats. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of leaves of C. tora was carried out. In-vitro antibacterial activity was measured by disc diffusion method. 1-day-old Ven Cobb broiler birds (n=90 were randomly allocated into three groups consisting of three replicates with 10 birds in each group. The birds of group T1 (Control received basal diet, whereas birds of group T2 (Standard received an antibiotic (Lincomycin at 0.05% in feed. The birds of group T3 (Test received Cassia tora extract (CSE at 0.4 g/L in drinking water in addition to basal diet. The treatment was given to birds of all the groups for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activity of C. tora was determined in blood of broiler birds. Cumulative body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR, dressing percent, and organ weight factor were evaluated to determine growth performance in broiler birds. Results: Phytochemicals in C. tora were screened. Sensitivity to Escherichia coli and resistant to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in in-vitro antibacterial activity test. At the end of 6th week, antioxidant activity reflected significantly (p≤0.05 lower level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde and higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH and GSH peroxidase in broiler birds of group T2 and T3 as compared to broiler of group T1. Mean cumulative body weight gain of birds of T2 and T3 were significantly (p≤0.05 higher as compared to T1. Mean FCR of birds of group T3 decreased significantly than group T1. Conclusion: Supplementation of C. tora leaves extract at 0.4 g/L in drinking water improved growth performance in broiler birds due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity

  10. Biosecurity and bird movement practices in upland game bird facilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slota, Katharine E; Hill, Ashley E; Keefe, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2011-06-01

    Since 1996, the emergence of Asian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 has spurred great concern for the global poultry industry. In the United States, there is concern over the potential of a foreign avian disease incursion into the country. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as upland game bird facilities in the United States, may serve as a potential source of avian disease introduction to other bird populations including the commercial poultry industry, backyard flocks, or wildlife. In order to evaluate how to prevent disease transmission from these facilities to other populations, we examined biosecurity practices and bird movement within the upland game bird industry in the United States. Persons that held a current permit to keep, breed, or release upland game birds were surveyed for information on biosecurity practices, flock and release environments, and bird movement parameters. Biosecurity practices vary greatly among permit holders. Many facilities allow for interaction between wild birds and pen-reared birds, and there is regular long-distance movement of live adult birds among facilities. Results suggest that upland game bird facilities should be targeted for biosecurity education and disease surveillance efforts.

  11. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Gangoso, Laura; Bouten, Willem; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-13

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has never been directly observed nor quantified. By sampling birds caught while in migratory flight by GPS-tracked wild falcons, we show that migratory birds transport seeds over hundreds of kilometres and mediate dispersal from mainland to oceanic islands. Up to 1.2% of birds that reached a small island of the Canary Archipelago (Alegranza) during their migration from Europe to Sub-Saharan Africa carried seeds in their guts. The billions of birds making seasonal migrations each year may then transport millions of seeds. None of the plant species transported by the birds occurs in Alegranza and most do not occur on nearby Canary Islands, providing a direct example of the importance of environmental filters in hampering successful colonization by immigrant species. The constant propagule pressure generated by these LDD events might, nevertheless, explain the colonization of some islands. Hence, migratory birds can mediate rapid range expansion or shifts of many plant taxa and determine their distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Pet birds II. Complementary diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beregi, A.; Molnar, V.; Felkai, F.; Biro, F.

    1997-01-01

    Microscopical examinations are useful in detecting bacteria from droppings and body fluids. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests are also used to perform antimicrobial therapy. Parasitological examinations can also be done on pet birds. Hematological examinations are not very common because of the difficulties in determining the normal serum values that might vary by species and sexes. The vena cutanea ulnaris is the best vein for drawing blood from a pet bird but nail clipping for this purpose is also widely used. The most common and basic complementary examination method is radiology. Birds can be radiographed without anesthesia. Ventrodorsal and latero-lateral pictures are required. The right positioning and setting the adequate values is the most important. Contrast radiographs can also be made on birds. Endoscopy is widely used for sex determination but also can be used for the examination of abdominal organs. Ultrasound examination of pet birds is not a common method because of the difficulties provided by the air sacs. ECG is not a widely used method either because of the high heart beat frequency of birds. Other methods such as necropsy, cytological, histological and toxicological examinations can also be performed on pet birds

  13. Impact of estuarine pollution on birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Kerwin, J.A.; Stendell, R.C.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Stickel, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    Pollution of estuaries affects bird populations indirectly through changes in habitat and food supply. The multi-factor pollution of Chesapeake Bay has resulted in diminution of submerged aquatic plants and consequent change in food habits of the canvasback duck. Although dredge-spoil operations can improve wildlife habitat, they often result in its demise. Pollution of estuaries also affects birds directly, through chemical toxication, which may result in outright mortality or in reproductive impairment. Lead from industrial sources and roadways enters the estuaries and is accumulated in tissues of birds. Lead pellets deposited in estuaries as a result of hunting are consumed by ducks with sufficient frequency .to result m large annual die-offs from lead poisoning. Fish in certain areas, usually near industrial sources, may contain levels of mercury high enough to be hazardous to birds that consume them. Other heavy metals are present in estuarine birds, but their significance is poorly known. Oil exerts lethal or sublethal effects on birds by oiling their feathers, oiling eggs and young by contaminated parents, and by ingestion of oil-contaminated food. Organochlorine chemicals, of both agricultural and industrial origin, travel through the food chains and reach harmful levels in susceptible species of birds in certain estuarine ecosystems. Both outright mortality and reproductive impairment have occurred.

  14. O modelo experimental de carcinogênese gástrica induzido por n-methyl-n-nitrosourea em ratos F344 e camundongos C3H é válido para os ratos Wistar? Experimental model of gastric carcinogenesis with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea for F344 rats and C3H mices is valid for Wistar rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissandro Tarso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O N-metil-N-nitrosourea (MNU tem ação cancerígena direta, induzindo tumores em várias espécies em uma variedade de órgãos, incluindo o estômago de ratos. Tratamento do MNU na água de beber por 25-42 semanas, seletivamente, induz carcinoma gástrico glandular de ratos F344 e camundongos C3H. OBJETIVO: Estabelecer um modelo experimental para indução seletiva de câncer no estômago glandular de ratos Wistar com MNU. MÉTODOS: Um total de 48 ratos Wistar machos com oito semanas, foram utilizados no presente estudo. MNU (Sigma-Aldrich foi dissolvido em DMSO e liberada água potável ad libitum por um período variando de 16 a 70 semanas. Após 16 semanas, quatro ratos foram selecionados aleatoriamente e mortos. Depois, de seis em seis semanas, quatro animais também foram mortos até 70 semanas. RESULTADOS: A taxa de sobrevivência foi superior a 90%. Ocorreu a indução de dois adenocarcinomas, um carcinoma espinocelular e um sarcoma. A incidência de adenocarcinoma gástrico foi de 4,5% (0,5 a 15. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo experimental de carcinogênese gástrica em ratos Wistar, utilizando MNU dissolvido na água, não mostrou viabilidade prática neste estudo, devido à baixa taxa de adenocarcinoma gástrico que ocorreu.BACKGROUND: The N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU is a direct acting carcinogen, inducing tumors in several species in a variety of organs, including stomach of rats. Treatment of MNU in the drinking water for 25-42 weeks selectively induced glandular gastric carcinoma in F344 rats and C3H mice. AIM: To establish an experimental model for selective MNU induction of glandular stomach cancer in Wistar rats. METHODS: A total of 48 males eight-week-old Wistar rats were used in the present study. MNU (Sigma-Aldrich was dissolved in DMSO and provided as the drinking water ad libitum for a period ranging from 16 to 70 weeks. After 16 weeks, four rats were randomly selected and killed. After every six weeks four animals

  15. Yes-associated protein/TEA domain family member and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) repress reciprocally to regulate hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wang-Yu; Lin, Ling-Yun; Hao, Han; Zhang, Sai-Man; Ma, Fei; Hong, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Ye, Guo-Dong; Sun, Guang-Bin; Liu, Yun-Jia; Li, Sheng-Nan; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Cai, Jian-Chun; Li, Bo-An

    2017-04-01

    Great progress has been achieved in the study of Hippo signaling in regulating tumorigenesis; however, the downstream molecular events that mediate this process have not been completely defined. Moreover, regulation of Hippo signaling during tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unknown. In the present study, we systematically investigated the relationship between Yes-associated protein/TEA domain family member (YAP-TEAD) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) in the hepatocarcinogenesis of HCC cells. Our results indicated that HNF4α expression was negatively regulated by YAP1 in HCC cells by a ubiquitin proteasome pathway. By contrast, HNF4α was found to directly associate with TEAD4 to compete with YAP1 for binding to TEAD4, thus inhibiting the transcriptional activity of YAP-TEAD and expression of their target genes. Moreover, overexpression of HNF4α was found to significantly compromise YAP-TEAD-induced HCC cell proliferation and stem cell expansion. Finally, we documented the regulatory mechanism between YAP-TEAD and HNF4α in rat and mouse tumor models, which confirmed our in vitro results. There is a double-negative feedback mechanism that controls TEAD-YAP and HNF4α expression in vitro and in vivo, thereby regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation. Given that YAP acts as a dominant oncogene in HCC and plays a crucial role in stem cell homeostasis and tissue regeneration, manipulating the interaction between YAP, TEADs, and HNF4α may provide a new approach for HCC treatment and regenerative medicine. (Hepatology 2017;65:1206-1221). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. Grassland birds wintering at U.S. Navy facilities in southern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary Kay; Bryan, Pearce D.; Ruddy, Amanda J.; Hickman, Graham C.

    2010-01-01

    greater in native grasslands than in exotic grasslands.Among the three types of management (mowed, burned, and control) applied to exotic grasses, birds were most abundant in the mowed area. Sedge Wrens, however, were never encountered in mowed sites. Meadowlarks were similarly abundant in all treatments, but Le Conte’s Sparrows were detected only in the control (unmanaged) area. Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) accounted for 93 percent of all rodent captures, with the number of captures peaking December through February. Hispid cotton rat numbers and total rodent numbers were greatest in control and pre-burn areas, and lowest in the mowed area. Mammal diversity, however, was greatest in the mowed habitat.Native and exotic grasslands differed essentially in all categories (bird numbers and diversity, vegetation characteristics, components of variation, diversity of insects and arachnids, and seed abundance and diversity) used to measure and compare them. This indicates that fundamental ecosystem processes have been altered after native grasslands have undergone invasion and ultimate domination by exotic grass species. Future research in Texas grassland ecosystems is essential because: 1) Texas sustains more area in grasslands than any other state or province in the Central Flyway; 2) Texas serves as the winter destination or migration pathway for hundreds of species of birds, including winter residents and Neotropical migrants; 3) ecology, distribution, and numbers of grassland birds wintering in southern latitudes of the United States remains poorly understood; and 4) climate change threatens to further accelerate advances of invading grass species.

  17. 19 CFR 10.76 - Game animals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Game animals and birds. 10.76 Section 10.76... TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Animals and Birds § 10.76 Game animals and birds. (a) The following classes of live game animals and birds may be...

  18. 50 CFR 20.37 - Custody of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Custody of birds of another. 20.37 Section... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.37 Custody of birds of another. No person shall receive or have in custody any migratory game birds belonging to another person unless such...

  19. 50 CFR 20.62 - Importation of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds of another. 20.62... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Importations § 20.62 Importation of birds of another. No person shall import migratory game birds belonging to another person. ...

  20. 45 CFR 670.20 - Designation of native birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native birds. 670.20 Section 670.20... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.20 Designation of native birds. The following are designated native birds: Albatross Black-browed—Diomedea...

  1. 50 CFR 20.38 - Possession of live birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession of live birds. 20.38 Section 20... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.38 Possession of live birds. Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately killed...

  2. Avian Bornavirus in Free-Ranging Psittacine Birds, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas-Nagel, Nuri; Enderlein, Dirk; Piepenbring, Anne; Herden, Christiane; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Felippe, Paulo A.N.; Arns, Clarice; Hafez, Hafez M.

    2014-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) has been identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease in birds, but the virus is also found in healthy birds. Most studies of ABV have focused on captive birds. We investigated 86 free-ranging psittacine birds in Brazil and found evidence for natural, long-term ABV infection. PMID:25417715

  3. 50 CFR 20.42 - Transportation of birds of another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation of birds of another. 20.42... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Transportation Within the United States § 20.42 Transportation of birds of another. No person shall transport migratory game birds belonging to another person...

  4. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  5. Biology: Birds and butterflies in climatic debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    A European-wide analysis of changing species distributions shows that butterflies outrun birds in the race to move northwards in response to climate change, but that neither group keeps up with increasing temperatures.

  6. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    The function of migratory bird calls: do they influence orientation and navigation?   Thomas Reichl1, Bent Bach Andersen2, Ole Naesbye Larsen2, Henrik Mouritsen1   1Institute of Biology, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg, Germany 2Institute of Biology, University of Southern...... migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...

  7. Birds - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds315

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data are summary statistics of abundances of birds counted within 100-m radius circles with 10-minute point counts at 15 sample points within Spears and Didion...

  8. Birding Lessons and the Teachings of Cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the ecological and pedagogical images hidden within a tale of the author's returning to the place where he grew up and going for a birding walk with some old friends. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

  9. Riparian Birds - Sierra Nevada Foothill [ds303

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data are summary statistics of abundances of birds counted within 100-m radius circles with 10-minute point counts at multiple sample points along 36 randomly...

  10. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines,

  11. Chernobyl birds have smaller brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans.Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals.Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage.

  12. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.; Puebla-Olivares, F

    2014-01-01

    Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the...

  13. Coccidia of gallinaceous meat birds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Marcel; Melo, Antônio Diego Brandão; Albuquerque, George Rego; Rocha, Patrícia Tironi; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease that limits the production and marketing of gallinaceous birds in North America, especially quails, pheasants and chukar partridges. Virtually no research has been conducted in South America on the causative agents of diseases among these birds, including coccidia. The aim of this work was to make first observations on Eimeria spp. in the chukar partridge Alectoris chukar and the grey quail Coturnix coturnix, which are reared for meat in Brazil. Fecal and tissue sampl...

  14. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mityay I.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds.

  15. Eimeria tenella: host specificity in gallinaceous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterling, J M

    1976-02-01

    Eight species representing 8 genera of gallinaceous birds were used: Alectoris graeca; Colinus virginianus; Coturnix coturnix; Gallus gallus; Meleagris gallopavo; Numidia meleagris; Pavo cristatus; Phasianus colchicus. Three week-old birds were dosed with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella Beltsville strain. At 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144, and 168 hr after inoculation, 1-3 infected birds and uninoculated controls of each species were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Pieces of intestines were fixed and examined for stages of E. tenella as stained paraffin sections or indirect fluorescent antibody preparations. Oocyst counts were made in droppings collected for the first 6 days of the patent period. Sporozoites were found in the lamina propria of some birds of 5 species at 4 hr postinoculation, but no stages were found thereafter except in the breeds of G. gallus and A. gracea. At 144 and 168 hr postinoculation, a few macrogametes were found in the ceca of 2 A. gracea, but no oocysts were found in the feces. No statistical difference was found between the number of oocysts produced/bird in the breeds of G. gallus examined. It is evident from these observations the E. tenella did not complete its life cycle in several close phylogenetic relatives of G. gallus, even though in other studies this parasite was found to complete its life cycle in cell cultures derived from the same birds.

  16. Impact of wind turbines on birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausager, I.; Nohr, H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is a review of the present knowledge on impacts of wind turbines on birds, requested by the Danish Ministry of the Environment and Energy. The main conclusions of the review are, that in nearly all the studies so far the numbers of birds recorded colliding with wind turbines have been limited. Some studies indicate that stationary (breeding) birds inside the wind turbine area in the short run habituate to wind turbines, especially the noise and visual impacts, and that the risk for collision becomes low. However, some of the few more long term studies indicate that a negative impact may occur in later generations of breeding birds. In some studies a disturbance effect on bird species, which temporarily stay inside a wind turbine area in order to forage or rest, is observed. The degree of impact is species-specific. An effect is typically recorded inside a zone of up to 250-800 m, with geese and waders as the most sensitive groups of birds. (author)

  17. Magnetic Orientation in Birds and Other Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    The use of the geomagnetic field for compass orientation is widespread among animals, with two types of magnetic compass mechanisms described: an shape inclination compass in birds, turtles and salamanders and a shape polarity compass in arthropods, fishes and mammals. Additionally, some vertebrates appear to derive positional information from the total intensity and/or inclination of the geomagnetic field. For magnetoreception by animals, two models are currently discussed, the shape Radical Pair model assuming light-dependent processes by specialized photopigments, and the shape Magnetite hypothesis proposing magnetoreception by crystals of magnetite, Fe304. Behavioral experiments with migratory birds, testing them under monochromatic lights and subjecting them to a brief, strong pulse that could reverse the magnetization of magnetite particles, produced evidence for both mechanisms. However, monochromatic lights affect old, experienced and young birds alike, whereas the pulse affects only experienced birds, leaving young, inexperienced birds unaffected. These observations suggest that a radical pair mechanism provides birds with directional information for their innate magnetic compass and a magnetite-based mechanism possibly mediates information about total intensity for indicating position.

  18. 9 CFR 95.30 - Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI... THE UNITED STATES § 95.30 Restrictions on entry of products and byproducts of poultry, game birds, or other birds from regions where highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 exists. (a...

  19. Neotropical Migratory Bird Communities in a Developing Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson; Richard N. Conner; J. Howard Williamson

    1993-01-01

    Birds were censused annually from 4 250-x80-in transects in a young pine plantation from age to 2 to 17 to assess changes in the bird community.Bird abundance was low and the bird communitry was the least diverse when the pine plantation was sparsely vegetated at age 2. As the plantation developed rapidly into the shrub stage, the bird communitry became more abundant...

  20. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  1. Linking snake behavior to nest predation in a Midwestern bird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Patrick J; Carfagno, Gerardo L F; Sperry, Jinelle H; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Robinson, Scott K

    2010-01-01

    Nest predators can adversely affect the viability of songbird populations, and their impact is exacerbated in fragmented habitats. Despite substantial research on this predator-prey interaction, however, almost all of the focus has been on the birds rather than their nest predators, thereby limiting our understanding of the factors that bring predators and nests into contact. We used radiotelemetry to document the activity of two snake species (rat snakes, Elaphe obsoleta; racers, Coluber constrictor) known to prey on nests in Midwestern bird communities and simultaneously monitored 300 songbird nests and tested the hypothesis that predation risk should increase for nests when snakes were more active and in edge habitat preferred by both snake species. Predation risk increased when rat snakes were more active, for all nests combined and for two of the six bird species for which we had sufficient nests to allow separate analyses. This result is consistent with rat snakes being more important nest predators than racers. We found no evidence, however, that nests closer to forest edges were at greater risk. These results are generally consistent with the one previous study that investigated rat snakes and nest predation simultaneously. The seemingly paradoxical failure to find higher predation risk in the snakes' preferred habitat (i.e., edge) might be explained by the snakes using edges at least in part for non-foraging activities. We propose that higher nest predation in fragmented habitats (at least that attributable to snakes) results indirectly from edges promoting larger snake populations, rather than from edges directly increasing the risk of nest predation by snakes. If so, the notion of edges per se functioning as ecological "traps" merits further study.

  2. Invasive rats on tropical islands: Their population biology and impacts on native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A. Harper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most invasive rat species, black or ship rat Rattus rattus, brown or Norway rats, R. norvegicus and Pacific rat, R. exulans have been incrementally introduced to islands as humans have explored the world’s oceans. They have caused serious deleterious effects through predation and competition, and extinction of many species on tropical islands, many of which are biodiversity hotspots. All three rat species are found in virtually all habitat types, including mangrove and arid shrub land. Black rats tend to dominate the literature but despite this the population biology of invasive rats, particularly Norway rats, is poorly researched on tropical islands. Pacific rats can often exceed population densities of well over 100 rats ha−1 and black rats can attain densities of 119 rats ha−1, which is much higher than recorded on most temperate islands. High densities are possibly due to high recruitment of young although the data to support this are limited. The generally aseasonally warm climate can lead to year-round breeding but can be restricted by either density-dependent effects interacting with resource constraints often due to aridity. Apparent adverse impacts on birds have been well recorded and almost all tropical seabirds and land birds can be affected by rats. On the Pacific islands, black rats have added to declines and extinctions of land birds caused initially by Pacific rats. Rats have likely caused unrecorded extinctions of native species on tropical islands. Further research required on invasive rats on tropical islands includes the drivers of population growth and carrying capacities that result in high densities and how these differ to temperate islands, habitat use of rats in tropical vegetation types and interactions with other tropical species, particularly the reptiles and invertebrates, including crustaceans.

  3. Comparative analysis of vestibular ecomorphology in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Roger B J; Starmer-Jones, Ethan; Close, Roger A; Walsh, Stig A

    2017-12-01

    The bony labyrinth of vertebrates houses the semicircular canals. These sense rotational accelerations of the head and play an essential role in gaze stabilisation during locomotion. The sizes and shapes of the semicircular canals have hypothesised relationships to agility and locomotory modes in many groups, including birds, and a burgeoning palaeontological literature seeks to make ecological interpretations from the morphology of the labyrinth in extinct species. Rigorous tests of form-function relationships for the vestibular system are required to support these interpretations. We test the hypothesis that the lengths, streamlines and angles between the semicircular canals are related to body size, wing kinematics and flying style in birds. To do this, we applied geometric morphometrics and multivariate phylogenetic comparative methods to a dataset of 64 three-dimensional reconstructions of the endosseous labyrinth obtained using micro-computed tomography scanning of bird crania. A strong relationship between centroid size of the semicircular canals and body size indicates that larger birds have longer semicircular canals compared with their evolutionary relatives. Wing kinematics related to manoeuvrability (and quantified using the brachial index) explain a small additional portion of the variance in labyrinth size. We also find strong evidence for allometric shape change in the semicircular canals of birds, indicating that major aspects of the shape of the avian labyrinth are determined by spatial constraints. The avian braincase accommodates a large brain, a large eye and large semicircular canals compared with other tetrapods. Negative allometry of these structures means that the restriction of space within the braincase is intense in small birds. This may explain our observation that the angles between planes of the semicircular canals of birds deviate more strongly from orthogonality than those of mammals, and especially from agile, gliding and flying

  4. Sleep deprivation impairs object recognition in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palchykova, S; Winsky-Sommerer, R; Meerlo, P; Durr, R; Tobler, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Many studies in animals and humans suggest that sleep facilitates learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval. Moreover, sleep deprivation (SD) incurred after learning, impaired memory in humans, mice, rats, and hamsters. We investigated the importance of sleep and its timing in in object

  5. Environmental Assessment: Bird Strike Risk Reduction at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    mglkg in rats, 291 - 609 mglkg in mice, > 1000 mglkg in sheep , > 100 mglkg in dogs and > 1000 mglkg in rabbits (Pesticide Residues in Food-1987... vineyards . Wildl. Soc. Bull. 21:47-51. LAFB Strike Risk Reduction EA - 39 Gaines, T.B. 1969. Acute toxicity of pesticides. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol

  6. Are Distal and Proximal Visual Cues Equally Important during Spatial Learning in Mice? A Pilot Study of Overshadowing in the Spatial Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hébert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals use distal and proximal visual cues to accurately navigate in their environment, with the possibility of the occurrence of associative mechanisms such as cue competition as previously reported in honey-bees, rats, birds and humans. In this pilot study, we investigated one of the most common forms of cue competition, namely the overshadowing effect, between visual landmarks during spatial learning in mice. To this end, C57BL/6J × Sv129 mice were given a two-trial place recognition task in a T-maze, based on a novelty free-choice exploration paradigm previously developed to study spatial memory in rodents. As this procedure implies the use of different aspects of the environment to navigate (i.e., mice can perceive from each arm of the maze, we manipulated the distal and proximal visual landmarks during both the acquisition and retrieval phases. Our prospective findings provide a first set of clues in favor of the occurrence of an overshadowing between visual cues during a spatial learning task in mice when both types of cues are of the same modality but at varying distances from the goal. In addition, the observed overshadowing seems to be non-reciprocal, as distal visual cues tend to overshadow the proximal ones when competition occurs, but not vice versa. The results of the present study offer a first insight about the occurrence of associative mechanisms during spatial learning in mice, and may open the way to promising new investigations in this area of research. Furthermore, the methodology used in this study brings a new, useful and easy-to-use tool for the investigation of perceptive, cognitive and/or attentional deficits in rodents.

  7. 76 FR 44729 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...- 2010 average (3.4 0.03 million). As expected, residual water from summer 2010 precipitation remained in... preliminary 2010 Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program (HIP) estimate of harvest was 84,900 birds. In... trend in the population indices between 1966 and 2010. According to HIP surveys, the preliminary harvest...

  8. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... million). Residual water remains in the Parklands and these were classified as fair to good. Most of the... stabilized at around 100,000 birds; the preliminary 2009 Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program (HIP... and 2009. According to HIP surveys, the preliminary harvest estimate for 2009 was 66,100 white-winged...

  9. 78 FR 75321 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... the taking of migratory birds and the collection of their eggs, by the indigenous inhabitants of the... particular land ownership, but applies to the harvesting of migratory bird resources throughout Alaska. A... ensure an effective and meaningful role for Alaska's indigenous inhabitants in the conservation of...

  10. 77 FR 58443 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... to move toward a more holistic and uniform approach to Canada goose harvest management across the... selections to: Chief, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, ms MBSP-4107... address above, or from the Division of Migratory Bird Management's Web site at http://www.fws.gov...

  11. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Mityay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa, therefore, the identity of materials depends on the number of analyzed criteria and their quality, ie, they should be the backbone. The greater the number of system-features will be included in the analysis and in one other case, the like are dendrogram. In other cases, we will have a fragmentary similarity, which is also very important when dealing with controversial issues. The main message of our research was to figure out the eligibility of usage the morphological characteristics of eggs as additional information in taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Our studies show that the shape parameters of bird eggs show a stable attachment to certain types of birds and complex traits are species-specific. Dendrogram and diagrams built by the quantitative value of these signs, exhibit significant similarity with the dendrogram constructed by morphological, comparative anatomy, paleontology and molecular criteria for adult birds. This suggests the possibility of using morphological parameters eggs as additional information in dealing with taxonomy and phylogeny of birds. Keywords: oology, geometrical parameters of eggs, bird systematics

  12. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  13. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  14. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  15. Birds of Sierra de Vallejo, Nayarit, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Esquivel, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sierra de Vallejo, is considered a priority region for conservation, and is strongly affected by anthropogenic pressures. The inventory of birds are refers to studies in near areas. This study is a concrete contribution of the birds of the mountain chain and north of it. We considered bibliographic records and databases available on the web with records of ocurrence and specimens of scientific collections. Also we perform point counts in different localities inside the reserve. We observed a richness of 261 birds species, the family Tyrannidae is the best represented. Of the species recorded, 177 are permanent residents (31 are endemic and 15 are quasi-endemics to Mexico and 73 are migratory; the remaining eleven records have other status. Also 43 species are in endangered categories. We include species that have not been recorded in the lists of the area and records of species expand their ranges at Nayarit. Due to the great diversity of birds observed, it is necesary to continue the research work about habitat use, abundance and monitoring, it will provides the basis for the conservation of birds of Sierra de Vallejo.

  16. Temporal genomic evolution of bird sex chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zongji; Zhang, Jilin; Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sex chromosomes exhibit many unusual patterns in sequence and gene expression relative to autosomes. Birds have evolved a female heterogametic sex system (male ZZ, female ZW), through stepwise suppression of recombination between chrZ and chrW. To address the broad patterns and complex...... driving forces of Z chromosome evolution, we analyze here 45 newly available bird genomes and four species' transcriptomes, over their course of recombination loss between the sex chromosomes. RESULTS: We show Z chromosomes in general have a significantly higher substitution rate in introns and synonymous...... ('fast-Z' evolution). And species with a lower level of intronic heterozygosities tend to evolve even faster on the Z chromosome. Further analysis of fast-evolving genes' enriched functional categories and sex-biased expression patterns support that, fast-Z evolution in birds is mainly driven by genetic...

  17. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Breeding bird response to juniper woodland expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Steven S.; van Riper, Charles

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have expanded into large portions of the Southwest historically occupied by grassland vegetation. From 1997-1998, we studied responses of breeding birds to one-seed juniper (J. monosperma) woodland expansion at 2 grassland study areas in northern Arizona. We sampled breeding birds in 3 successional stages along a grassland-woodland gradient: un-invaded grassland, grassland undergoing early stages of juniper establishment, and developing woodland. Species composition varied greatly among successional stages and was most different between endpoints of the gradient. Ground-nesting grassland species predominated in uninvaded grassland but declined dramatically as tree density increased. Tree- and cavity-nesting species increased with tree density and were most abundant in developing woodland. Restoration of juniper-invaded grasslands will benefit grassland-obligate birds and other wildlife.

  19. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  20. Light-Activated Magnetic Compass in Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss the suggest......Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss...... the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds....

  1. Visual perception and social foraging in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Erichsen, Jonathan T; Kacelnik, Alex

    2004-01-01

    Birds gather information about their environment mainly through vision by scanning their surroundings. Many prevalent models of social foraging assume that foraging and scanning are mutually exclusive. Although this assumption is valid for birds with narrow visual fields, these models have also been applied to species with wide fields. In fact, available models do not make precise predictions for birds with large visual fields, in which the head-up, head-down dichotomy is not accurate and, moreover, do not consider the effects of detection distance and limited attention. Studies of how different types of visual information are acquired as a function of body posture and of how information flows within flocks offer new insights into the costs and benefits of living in groups.

  2. Behavior of emu bird (Dromaius novaehollandiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Patodkar

    Full Text Available Emu is the second largest living bird of world belonging to order Ratite. This order is of flightless birds with flat breast bone and it includes emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary and kiwi. Emus are reared commercially in many parts of the world for their meat, oil, skin and feathers, which are of high economic value. The anatomical and physiological features of these birds appear to be suitable for temperate and tropical climatic conditions. Emu is newly introduced species in India. Although emu farming is considered to be economical, we have to study the behavior of emus to increase the profitability by providing housing, feeding and breeding facilities more or less same as that of in wild condition during their rearing in captivity and we will have to carry out comparative study of behavior in captivity as well as in wild condition. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 439-440

  3. Regionalizing land use impacts on farmland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glemnitz, Michael; Zander, Peter; Stachow, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The environmental impacts of land use vary regionally. Differences in geomorphology, climate, landscape structure, and biotope inventories are regarded as the main causes of this variation. We present a methodological approach for identifying regional responses in land use type to large-scale changes and the implications for the provision of habitat for farmland birds. The methodological innovations of this approach are (i) the coupling of impact assessments with economic models, (ii) the linking of cropping techniques at the plot scale with the regional distribution of land use, and (iii) the integration of statistical or monitoring data on recent states. This approach allows for the regional differentiation of farmers' responses to changing external conditions and for matching the ecological impacts of land use changes with regional environmental sensitivities. An exemplary scenario analysis was applied for a case study of an area in Germany, assessing the impacts of increased irrigation and the promotion of energy cropping on farmland birds, evaluated as a core indicator for farmland biodiversity. The potential effects on farmland birds were analyzed based on the intrinsic habitat values of the crops and cropping techniques. The results revealed that the strongest decrease in habitat availability for farmland birds occurred in regions with medium-to-low agricultural yields. As a result of the limited cropping alternatives, the increase in maize production was highest in marginal regions for both examined scenarios. Maize production replaced many crops with good-to-medium habitat suitability for birds. The declines in habitat quality were strongest in regions that are not in focus for conservation efforts for farmland birds.

  4. Radionuclides and the birds at Ravenglass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, V.P.W.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1983 concern has been expressed about the apparent decline in numbers of birds in the Ravenglass estuary in west Cumbria, particularly of the black-headed gull colony on the Drigg dunes, and suggestions have been made that this decline might be due to excessive radiation in the birds' food and their general environment. Twelve species of marine invertebrates from Ravenglass, known to be important foods for birds, were analysed, and further samples were taken from sites along the west Cumbrian coast. None of these samples showed excessive contamination with any of the radionuclides analysed. Analysis of a sample of bird carcasses from the area showed oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) to have some of the highest concentrations of 137 Cs in their tissues; yet their breeding success and populations were not affected. Black-headed gulls were found to be feeding mainly inland, and were the least contaminated with radionuclides of all the birds at Ravenglass, yet this species and its breeding success were in decline. Calculations of the total dose equivalent rate to the whole body of the most contaminated black-headed gull amounted to 9.8 x 10 -4 mSv h -1 (∼ 8.4 x 10 -4 mGy h -1 , whole-body absorbed dose rate), and the background exposure dose was of the order of 8.3 x 10 -4 mGy h -1 . As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 mGy day -1 has been found necessary to retard growth of nestling birds, and 9600 mGy over 20 days of incubation to cause the death of 50% of embryos in black-headed gulls' eggs, the concentrations of radionuclides in the foods, body tissues and general environment were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have had any effects. (author)

  5. An overview of migratory birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Somenzari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed the occurrences and distributional patterns of migratory species of birds in Brazil. A species was classified as migratory when at least part of its population performs cyclical, seasonal movements with high fidelity to its breeding grounds. Of the 1,919 species of birds recorded in Brazil, 198 (10.3% are migratory. Of these, 127 (64% were classified as Migratory and 71 (36% as Partially Migratory. A few species (83; 4.3% were classified as Vagrant and eight (0,4% species could not be defined due to limited information available, or due to conflicting data.

  6. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Freeman J [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  7. Blood protozoa of free-living birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; McDiarmid, Archibald

    1969-01-01

    Blood protozoa were first reported from wild birds in 1884. Since then numerous surveys throughout the world have demonstrated their presence in a wide variety of hosts and localities with continuing designations of new species. Taxonomic determinations include parasites in the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Babesia, Lankesterella and Trypanosoma. Transmission of Plasmodium by mosquitoes was demonstrated with a bird parasite before these insects were proven as vectors of human malaria. All the genera under consideration require an insect vector to complete their life-cycles and susceptible vectors have been demonstrated. Most experimental work on the blood protozoa of birds has been carried on with captive birds. An extensive volume of research has been conducted on Plasmodium because of its close similarity to malaria in man. Field studies that would provide information on the epizootiology of occurrence of these parasites in wild populations have been very limited, mainly confined to single blood film surveys. Such data are inadequate to provide an understanding of true prevalence or incidence or of factual knowledge of their impact on the wild population. Mechanisms for procuring such information are available in some cases and can be developed to fit other situations. Isodiagnosis, inoculation of blood from wild birds into susceptible captive hosts, has revealed a prevalence of over 60 % for Plasmodium in situations where microscope examination of single peripheral blood preparations yielded less than 1 %. Culture of bone marrow collected by biopsy demonstrates high prevalence of trypanosomes even when none are evident from microscopic examination of blood. Often preparations of tissues collected at necropsy reveal Leucocytozoon and Lankesterella when examination of peripheral blood gave no indication of infection. Methods developed by bird ringers provide techniques for obtaining repeat examinations of free-living birds that can yield further

  8. Birds and frogs in mathematics and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2010-01-01

    Some scientists are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time. A brief history of mathematics and its applications in physics is presented in this article. (from the history of physics)

  9. On the magnetoreception mechanism in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses a mechanism of avian magnetoreception, which is based on the interaction of magnetite and maghemite micro particles, recently found in subcellular compartments within the sensory dendrites of the upper beak of several bird species. The analysis of forces acting between...... the iron particles shows that the orientation of the external geomagnetic field can significantly change the probability of the mechanosensitive ion channels opening and closing inducing a primary receptor potential via strain-sensitive membrane channels leading to a certain bird orientation effect...

  10. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Because their prescription to birds is off-label, these drugs are considered appropriate only when a sound rationale can be provided for their use. This requires a (correct) behavioral diagnosis to be established. In addition, regular monitoring and follow-up are warranted to determine the efficacy of the treatment and evaluate the occurrence of potential adverse side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of bird carcass removals by urban scavengers to adjust bird-window collision estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcass removal by scavengers has been identified as one of the largest biases in estimating bird mortality from anthropogenic sources. Only two studies have examined carcass removal by scavengers in an urban environment, and previous estimates of bird-window collision mortality at houses have relied on carcass removal rates from wind turbine studies. We placed a bird carcass and time-lapse camera at 44 houses in Edmonton, Alberta. In total, 166 7-day trials were conducted throughout 2015. Time-to-event (survival analysis was used to identify covariates that affected removal. The carcass removal rate was determined for use in estimating the number of birds killed from bird-window collisions at houses in Alberta. In total, 67.5% of carcasses were removed. The date the carcass was placed, the year the house was built, and the level of development within 50 m of the house were the covariates that had the largest effect on carcass removal. In calculating our removal rate, the number of detected carcasses in the first 24 hours was adjusted by 1.47 to account for removal by scavengers. Previously collected citizen science data were used to create an estimate of 957,440 bird deaths each year in Alberta as a result of bird-window collisions with houses. This number is based on the most detailed bird-window collision study at houses to date and a carcass removal study conducted in the same area. Similar localized studies across Canada will need to be completed to reduce the biases that exist with the previous bird-window collision mortality estimate for houses in Canada.

  12. 2002 Bird Strike Committee USA/Canada Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolbeer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Over 380 people from 20 countries and 17 exhibitors attended the 4th annual joint meeting of Bird Strike Committee-USA and Bird Strike Committee Canada in Sacramento, California on October 21-24, 2002...

  13. Net-bottom Cage Inserts for Water Bird Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Belle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available My Bright Idea is a net-bottomed cage insert, which is used to support pelagic avian casualties. The idea was designed and modified by the International Bird Rescue in California (Bird Rescue.

  14. A Comparative Study of Species Diversity of Migrant Birds Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stop migration. Despite Hadejia-Nguru Wetlands (Ramsar site) being an important wintering ground for migratory birds, little is known about the diversity while density is completely lacking. This study assessed the status of migratory birds in the ...

  15. Evolution: How Some Birds Survived When All Other Dinosaurs Died.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L

    2016-05-23

    The end-Cretaceous mass extinction wiped out the dinosaurs, including many birds. But some bird lineages survived. May seed-eating have been the key? Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. BIRD/WILDLIFE STRIKE CONTROL FOR SAFER AIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Keywords: bird/wildlife, strike, aviation, hazard, control. Introduction ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management EJESM Vol. 5 No. 3 2012 .... Aircraft Bird. Strike Avoidance Rader System (ABARS) and.

  17. Research on an infectious disease transmission by flocking birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingsheng; Mao, Xinjun; Guessoum, Zahia

    2013-01-01

    The swarm intelligence is becoming a hot topic. The flocking of birds is a natural phenomenon, which is formed and organized without central or external controls for some benefits (e.g., reduction of energy consummation). However, the flocking also has some negative effects on the human, as the infectious disease H7N9 will easily be transmited from the denser flocking birds to the human. Zombie-city model has been proposed to help analyzing and modeling the flocking birds and the artificial society. This paper focuses on the H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and from the flocking birds to the human. And some interesting results have been shown: (1) only some simple rules could result in an emergence such as the flocking; (2) the minimum distance between birds could affect H7N9 virus transmission in the flocking birds and even affect the virus transmissions from the flocking birds to the human.

  18. Social stress in rats and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; de Boer, S.F.; de Ruiter, A.J.H.; Meerlo, P; Sgoifo, A

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the highlights of our current social stress research in rodents as it was inspired by the work of Jim Henry. First, it is argued that social defeat can be considered as one of the most severe stressors among a number of laboratory stressful stimuli in terms of

  19. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in wild birds and rodents in close proximity to farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Skov, Marianne; Madsen, Jesper J.

    2004-01-01

    Wild animals living close to cattle and pig farms (four each) were examined for verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC; also known as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli). The prevalence of VTEC among the 260 samples from wild animals was generally low. However, VTEC isolates from a starling...... (Sturnus vulgaris) and a Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) were identical to cattle isolates from the corresponding farms with respect to serotype, virulence profile, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type. This study shows that wild birds and rodents may become infected from farm animals or vice versa...

  20. 9 CFR 130.10 - User fees for pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for pet birds. 130.10... AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.10 User fees for pet birds. (a) User fees for pet birds of U.S. origin returning to the United States, except pet birds of U.S. origin returning from Canada, are as follows...

  1. Breeding birds on organic and conventional arable farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kragten, Steven

    2009-01-01

    As a result of agricultural intensification, farmland bird populations have been declining dramatically over the past decades. Organic farming is often mentioned to be a possible solution to stop these declines. In order to see whether farmland birds really benefit from organic farming a study was carried out comparing breeding bird densities, breeding success and bird food abundance between organic and conventional arable farms in Flevoland, the Netherlands. skylark (Alauda arvensis) and lap...

  2. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti–T. gondii–specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

  3. Low ecological disparity in Early Cretaceous birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Makovicky, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological divergence is thought to be coupled with evolutionary radiations, yet the strength of this coupling is unclear. When birds diversified ecologically has received much less attention than their hotly debated crown divergence time. Here, we quantify how accurately skeletal morphology can predict ecology in living and extinct birds, and show that the earliest known assemblage of birds (= pygostylians) from the Jehol Biota (≈ 125 Ma) was substantially impoverished ecologically. The Jehol avifauna has few representatives of highly preservable ecomorphs (e.g. aquatic forms) and a notable lack of ecomorphological overlap with the pterosaur assemblage (e.g. no large or aerially foraging pygostylians). Comparisons of the Jehol functional diversity with modern and subfossil avian assemblages show that taphonomic bias alone cannot explain the ecomorphological impoverishment. However, evolutionary simulations suggest that the constrained ecological diversity of the Early Cretaceous pygostylians is consistent with what is expected from a relatively young radiation. Regardless of the proximate biological explanation, the anomalously low functional diversity of the Jehol birds is evidence both for ecological vacancies in Cretaceous ecosystems, which were subsequently filled by the radiation of crown Aves, and for discordance between taxonomic richness and ecological diversity in the best-known Mesozoic ecosystem. PMID:24870044

  4. On some birds from southern Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1970-01-01

    In the years 1962/64 our museum purchased from Mr. Otto Epping, now of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., a collection of 700 bird-specimens from southern Mexico (mainly from Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, a few specimens from Puebla). As our museum was poorly provided with material from Mexico, this was a very welcome

  5. Louse flies on birds of Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Tella, José Luis; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Blanco, Guillermo

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (México). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  6. Are Birds a Manace to Outdoor Monuments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Vasiliu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of laboratory tests on real samples have shown that the uric acid which is found in bird droppings has a negative influence on metals. Results of experiments have confirmed that the damage is significant when considering the cultural heritage, statues or monuments.

  7. Calcium, snails, and birds: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mänd

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that wild birds breeding in acidified areas have difficulties with obtaining sufficient calcium for their eggshells, and that the cause of it is the shortage of land snails. Many birds have to search for Ca-rich snail shells on a daily basis during egg production. Molluscs depend on litter calcium, which has decreased due to acidification of the environment. Calcium limitation may be a widespread phenomenon also in non-acidified, naturally Ca-poor areas. The problem is that while in the latter areas the time for development of specific adaptations may have been sufficient, then in acidified areas, on the contrary, calcium shortage is a recent phenomenon. Therefore, since the extent of calcium limitation in non-acidified areas is hard to derive from observational data, experimental approach is needed. We provide experimental evidence that specific calcium deficit does affect reproductive traits also in the birds breeding in naturally base-poor habitats. Our study was conducted in a heterogeneous woodland area in Estonia containing deciduous forest patches as well as base-poor pine forest with low snail abundance. Ca supplementation, using snail shell and chicken eggshell fragments, was carried out for pied flycatchers and great tits. Extra calcium affected positively several reproductive traits like egg volume and eggshell thickness, start of breeding, and fledglings’ parameters. The negative relationship between calcium availability and lay-date suggests that birds adjust their breeding tactics to conditions of Ca deficiency, for example, by postponing laying.

  8. Influence of hiking trails on montane birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    William V. Deluca; David I. King

    2014-01-01

    Montane forests contribute significantly to regional biodiversity. Long-term monitoring data, often located along hiking trails, suggests that several indicator species of this ecosystem have declined in recent decades. Declining montane bird populations have been attributed to anthropogenic stressors such as climate change and atmospheric deposition. Several studies...

  9. Angry Birds Mathematics: Parabolas and Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, John H.

    2013-01-01

    John Lamb, a professor of mathematics education and a teacher of high school precalculus, describes how he developed a way to use the elements of the game Angry Birds® as a platform to engage his students with the concepts of parabolas and vectors. The game could be categorized as a type of microworld game in which students interact with the…

  10. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pet birds are a not-so-well known veterinarian’s clientship fraction. Bought individually or in couples, as families often do (which is a lucrative business for pet shops or local breeders) or traded (sometimes illegally) for their very high genetic or exotic value, these birds, commonly canaries, parakeets or parrots, are regularly sold at high prices. These animals, however, are potential carriers and/or transmitters of zoonotic diseases. Some of them could have an important impact on human health, like chlamydophilosis, salmonellosis or even highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1. This review paper, although non exhaustive, aims at enlightening, by the description of several cases of bird-human transmission, the risks encountered by bird owners, including children. Public health consequences will be discussed and emphasis will be made on some vector-borne diseases, known to be emergent or which are underestimated, like those transmitted by the red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Finally, biosecurity and hygiene, as well as prevention guidelines will be developed and perspectives proposed. PMID:23687940

  11. Omnivory in birds is a macroevolutionary sink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burin, G.; Kissling, W.D.; Guimarães, P.R.; Şekercioğlu, Ç.H.; Quental, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Diet is commonly assumed to affect the evolution of species, but few studies have directly tested its effect at macroevolutionary scales. Here we use Bayesian models of trait-dependent diversification and a comprehensive dietary database of all birds worldwide to assess speciation and extinction

  12. Book review - The saga of birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Fostowicz-Frelik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sankar Chatterjee 2015. The Rise of Birds. 225 Million Years of Evolution. Second Edition. 370 pp. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-1590-1 (hardcover. Price $59.95; e-book $59.95.

  13. Interspecific nest use by aridland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1982-01-01

    Nest holes drilled by woodpeckers (Picidae) are frequently used by secondary cavity-nesting species, but interspecific use of open and domed nests is less well known. Nests constructed by many southwestern desert birds last longer than one year (pers. obs.) and are consequently reused by the same pair (e.g., Abert's Towhees [Pipilo aberti], pers. obs.) or by other...

  14. Fluff-thieving birds sabotage seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Vanya G; Pauw, Anton; Martin, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing many species interactions as mutualisms can be misleading because some members of the interaction derive greater fitness benefits at the expense of other members. We provide detailed natural history data on a suspected bird-plant mutualism in South Africa where many species of birds use fluffy Eriocephalus seed material to construct their nests, potentially dispersing seeds for the plant. We focus on a common bird, Prinia maculosa , which invests heavily in gathering Eriocephalus material. Prinias spent 5 of their median 6-day nest construction period adding seed material to their nests and frequently travelled outside their territory boundary to gather Eriocephalus material. Yet, prinias gathered primarily Eriocephalus fluff and actively avoided gathering seeds. The average prinia nest contained only 6.6 seeds, but contained fluff from 579 seeds. These data suggest that prinias provide limited dispersal benefits to Eriocephalus plants. By contrast, the large amounts of Eriocephalus fluff in prinia nests, and the effort that prinias invest in gathering it, suggest that prinias benefit from constructing their nests with Eriocephalus material. We end by outlining hypotheses for possible fitness benefits that Eriocephalus material could provide prinias and other birds.

  15. Teaching Bird Identification & Vocabulary with Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Tyler A.; Robinson, W. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Species identification is essential to biology, conservation, and management. The ability to focus on specific diagnostic characteristics of a species helps improve the speed and accuracy of identification. Birds are excellent subjects for teaching species identification because, in combination with their different shapes and sizes, their plumages…

  16. The Hungry Worm Feeds the Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onrust, J.; Piersma, T.

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are important prey for many birds. Based on theirown feeding ecology, earthworms can be separated into two ecotypes: the detritivoresthat feed on organic material and the geophages that feed on soil particlesand organic matter. Detritivores collect their food on the surface

  17. Bird-marking in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1911-01-01

    Since May of this year the Museum of Natural History at Leyden is carrying into execution the inquiry into migration and other movements of birds in the Netherlands by means of aluminium rings. The results will be published in this periodical and at the same time in Dutch in the periodical of the

  18. Overseas seed dispersal by migratory birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana, D.S.; Gangoso, L.; Bouten, W.; Figuerola, J.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance dispersal (LDD) promotes the colonization of isolated and remote habitats, and thus it has been proposed as a mechanism for explaining the distributions of many species. Birds are key LDD vectors for many sessile organisms such as plants, yet LDD beyond local and regional scales has

  19. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    SUMMARY: Residues of organochlorine pesticides and their breakdown products are present in the tissues of essentially all wild birds throughout the world. These chemicals accumulate in fat from a relatively small environmental exposure. DDE and dieldrin are most prevalent. Others, such as heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, and benzene hexachloride also occur, the quantities and kinds generally reflecting local or regional use. Accumulation may be sufficient to kill animals following applications for pest control. This has occurred in several large-scale programmes in the United States. Mortality has also resulted from unintentional leakage of chemical from commercial establishments. Residues may persist in the environment for many years, exposing successive generations of animals. In general, birds that eat other birds, or fish, have higher residues than those that eat seeds and vegetation. The kinetic processes of absorption, metabolism, storage, and output differ according to both kind of chemical and species of animal. When exposure is low and continuous, a balance between intake and excretion may be achieved. Residues reach a balance at an approximate animal body equilibrium or plateau; the storage is generally proportional to dose. Experiments with chickens show that dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide have the greatest propensity for storage, endrin next, then DDT, then lindane. The storage of DDT was complicated by its metabolism to DDE and DDD, but other studies show that DDE has a much greater propensity for storage than either DDD or DDT. Methoxychlor has little cumulative capacity in birds. Residues in eggs reflect and parallel those in the parent bird during accumulation, equilibrium, and decline when dosage is discontinued. Residues with the greatest propensity for storage are also lost most slowly. Rate of loss of residues can be modified by dietary components and is speeded by weight loss of the animal. Under sublethal conditions of continuous

  20. Integrated bird conservation web site in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxanne Bogart; Chris Eberly; Elizabeth Martin

    2005-01-01

    In working towards a vision of integrated bird conservation, scientists, conservationists, land managers, and administrators are faced with a variety of scientific, managerial, administrative, and logistical challenges and complexities. The broad scope of integrated bird conservation requires organizations to work together to conserve birds across taxonomic groups,...

  1. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry

  2. Species Diversity and Bird Feed in Residential Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinoto; Suhesti, Eni

    2017-12-01

    Bird is one component of the ecosystem which has an important role in supporting the occurrence of an organism's life cycle. Therefore, the presence of birds in an area is important, because it can affect the existence and distribution of plant species. The purpose of this study is to calculate the diversity of bird species and identify the source of bird feed in the compound. This study was conducted by field surveys in the residential complex. In addition to the birds as a research object vegetation as habitat / foraging birds were also observed. Data were analyzed by using the bird diversity index, richenes index, bundance index, dominance analysis, analysis of bird distribution and analysis of the level of meeting types, while vegetation will be analyzed based on the type and part of what is eaten by birds. In Pandau Jaya housing complex, found as many as 12 species of birds which consists of seven families. Bird species often present is Cucak Kutilang (Pycnonotus aurigaster) of 20 individuals, Bondol Peking (Lonchura punctulata) 14 individuals and Perkutut Jawa (Geopelia striata) 10 individuals. Bird species diversity (H ‘) in Pandau Jaya housing complex is still relatively moderate with a value of 2.27, while the Evenness Index (E) of 0.91 and Richenes Index (R) of 2.45. Types of vegetation as a food source, among others: mango, guava, cherry, jackfruit, ketapang, coconut, areca, palm, banana, papaya, flowers and grasses.

  3. Evaluating the Effects of a Bird Strike Advisory System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Mühlhausen, T; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes have operational impacts and cause economic loss to the aviation industry. In the worst case, the damages resulting from bird strikes lead to crashes. The highest risk for bird strikes lies in the area below 3000 ft and thus mainly in airport environments. Despite intense efforts from

  4. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... promulgating migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or other...). Background In response to public interest in the use of trained raptors to haze (scare) depredating and other...

  5. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or... for a specific permit authorizing the use of raptors in abatement activities (76 FR 39368). The...

  6. Bird Conservation Planning and Implementation in Canada's Intermountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilia Hartasanchez; Krista De Groot; Andre Breault; Rob W. Butler

    2005-01-01

    Bird conservation planning in British Columbia and Yukon has been carried out by each of the major bird initiatives. The purpose of this paper is to provide a status report of planning activities and to discuss how integration of the initiatives is being accomplished for efficient and effective implementation of bird conservation actions.

  7. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds...

  8. Bird species richness and abundance in different forest types at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The avifauna of differently disturbed forest types of Kakamega Afrotropical forest were compared from December 2004 to May 2005. A total of 11 220 individual birds comprising of 129 bird species were recorded. Significant differences in abundance of birds among Psidium guajava, Bischoffia javanica, mixed indigenous, ...

  9. A review of climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. M. Finch; K. E. Bagne; M. M. Friggens; D. M. Smith; K. M. Brodhead

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated existing literature on predicted and known climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds. We asked the following questions: 1) How does climate change affect birds? 2) How will birds respond to climate change? 3) Are species already responding? 4) How will habitats be impacted?

  10. 76 FR 9529 - Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ...-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX53 Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance AGENCY: Fish and... mail to: Attention: Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish... implementing statutes including the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act...

  11. 50 CFR 216.83 - Importation of birds or mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83 Section 216.83 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or birds...

  12. 50 CFR 14.17 - Personally owned pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personally owned pet birds. 14.17 Section 14.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Ports § 14.17 Personally owned pet birds. Any person may import a personally owned pet bird at any port...

  13. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No...

  14. European birds and aposematic Heteroptera: review of comparative experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exnerová, A.; Svádová, K.; Fousová, P.; Fučiková, E.; Ježová, D.; Niederlová, A.; Kopečková, M.; Štys, P.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of defensive mechanisms in 11 European aposematic species of Heteroptera against various passerine predators was analysed. Bird species differed in their reactions to aposematic preys: small insectivorous birds generally avoided aposematic bugs, but granivorous birds as well as large

  15. Point Count Length and Detection of Forest Neotropical Migrant Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanna K. Dawson; David R. Smith; Chandler S. Robbins

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of bird abundances among years or among habitats assume that the rates at which birds are detected and counted are constant within species. We use point count data collected in forests of the Mid-Atlantic states to estimate detection probabilities for Neotropical migrant bird species as a function of count length. For some species, significant differences...

  16. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was < 3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be < rmax. Further, the ratio of desired harvest rate to 0.5 x rmax may be a useful metric for ascertaining the applicability of specific requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act.

  17. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Music for the birds: effects of auditory enrichment on captive bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lindsey; Margulis, Susan W

    2016-01-01

    With the increase of mixed species exhibits in zoos, targeting enrichment for individual species may be problematic. Often, mammals may be the primary targets of enrichment, yet other species that share their environment (such as birds) will unavoidably be exposed to the enrichment as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if (1) auditory stimuli designed for enrichment of primates influenced the behavior of captive birds in the zoo setting, and (2) if the specific type of auditory enrichment impacted bird behavior. Three different African bird species were observed at the Buffalo Zoo during exposure to natural sounds, classical music and rock music. The results revealed that the average frequency of flying in all three bird species increased with naturalistic sounds and decreased with rock music (F = 7.63, df = 3,6, P = 0.018); vocalizations for two of the three species (Superb Starlings and Mousebirds) increased (F = 18.61, df = 2,6, P = 0.0027) in response to all auditory stimuli, however one species (Lady Ross's Turacos) increased frequency of duetting only in response to rock music (X(2) = 18.5, df = 2, P < 0.0001). Auditory enrichment implemented for large mammals may influence behavior in non-target species as well, in this case leading to increased activity by birds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 75 FR 58993 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for...

  20. Bird species and numbers of birds in oak savannas of the Southwestern Borderlands region including effects of burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Hui Chen; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Oak savannas of the Southwestern Borderlands region provide food, cover, and sites for nesting, roosting, and perching for a diversity of bird species. The results of a five-year (2003-2007) study of bird species, numbers of birds, and their diversities in the naturally occurring (unburned) oak savannas of the region are reported in this paper. Effects of cool-season...

  1. 76 FR 59271 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...-0014; 91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule... of migratory birds is prohibited unless specifically provided for by annual regulations. This rule...

  2. International Trade of CITES Listed Bird Species in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  3. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  4. Bird interactions with wind turbines : a Canadian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Hamilton, B. [TAEM Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    An environmental study has been conducted on a wind farm adjacent to Castle River, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta. The objective was to determine the impact of the many wind turbines on birds. The study involved observations of different bird species including raptors, waterfowl and passerines. The observations looked at bird numbers, location relative to turbines, and changes in flight pattern. The study found that raptors flew around or over the turbine blades, while passerines remained below, and waterfowl flew up and over the blades. Very few dead birds were found over the monitoring period, suggesting that wind turbines do not have a major impact on birds. figs.

  5. Leucocytozoon spp. infection in Accipitriformes birds in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassouli, Maryam; Aghazamani, Ghazaleh; Ardekani, Abbas Oliya

    2017-09-01

    Leucocytozoon spp. (Haemosporida, Leucocytozoidae) are vector-borne parasites of various birds. Leucocytozoon can infect different reticuloendothelial tissues and blood cells of birds. In this study peripheral blood samples were collected from Accipitriformes birds [three marsh harriers ( Circus aeruginosus ) and one tawny eagle ( Aquila rapax )] in one birds' garden in Iran. Blood films were observed for identification of hemoparasites. All samples were infected by different Leucocytozoon species. All of the observed species were first reported in Iran in Accipitriformes birds which one of them was described as a new species.

  6. Radionuclides in Tissues of Marine Birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, N.; Matishov, D.

    2004-01-01

    The birds are higher links of trophic nets of marine ecosystems and are capable to store in organs and tissues radionuclides. We can inspect radionuclides contents in marine ecosystems on a their contents of in birds. Objects of our research were marine birds, including seagull (the Herring gull Larus aregentatus, the Great Blackback Larus marinus), the Black guillemot Cepphus grylle, the Eider Somateria mollissima, the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and the Arctic Stercorarius parasiticus. Researches were conducted in August 2000 and 2001 near to the biological station of Murmansk Marine Biological Institute in a point Dalnije Zelentsy on the cost of the Sea Barents. Contents of plutonium-239, 240, cesium-137 and strontium-90 in bones, skin and fatherless and muscles of birds were researched. The contents of cesium - 137 varied from 0,99 Bq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Herring gull up to 177 Bq/kg in muscles of the Great Blackback, the contents strontium-90 varied from 25 mBq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant up to 7140 mBq/kg in bones the Eider. The contents of plutonium-239,240 varied from 1,8 mBq/kg in muscles of the Eider up to 23 mBq/kg in skeleton of the Great Blackback. The content of this radionuclide was higher for adult, i.e. was enlarged with age. Higher concentrations in tissues are founded for the Eider and the Great Blackback. So, the average concentrations of cesium - 137 in muscles the Eider have constituted 1,5 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback -73,5 Bq/kg, the Black guillemot -16 Bq/kg, the Arctic scua - 1,3 Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 8,7 Bq/kg. Average concentrations of cesium - 137 in bones of the Eider were1,6 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback - 19,8Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 2,2 Bq/kg. The average concentrations strontium-90 in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant were 20 mBq/kg, the Great Blackback - 1288 mBq/kg, the Herring gull - 690 mBq/kg. It is founded that distribution the contents of strontium-90 in bones significantly varies from species

  7. Birds in Kurigram district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Khan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the birds in the area adjacent to the Dharala and Brahmaputra rivers in Kurigram District, Bangladesh, was conducted between November 2000 and February 2002. A total of 105 species of birds belonging to 12 orders, 35 families and 77 genera were recorded. Out of 105 species, 51 (48.6% were non-passerine and 54 (51.4% passerine, 33 (31.4% migratory and 72 (68.6% resident. Of the non-passerine birds, 15 (29.4% were migratory and 36 (70.6% were resident, while, among the passerines 18 (33.3% were migratory and 36 (66.7% were resident. Of the total (105 species 14 (13.3% were found to be very common, 30 (28.6% common, 25 (23.8% fairly common and 36 (34.3% were rare or few. Out of 105 species, 30 (28.6% were aquatic and semiaquatic birds and 75 (71.4% were terrestrial. Among 105 species, 52 (49.5% were widely distributed in Kurigram, 31 (29.5% restricted only to the northern side, five (4.8% to the central side, eight (7.6% to the southern side, and nine (8.6% species were common in two or three parts of the study area. Among the three canopy categories, 16 (15.2% species were observed in lower canopy, 32 (30.5% species were recorded from both lower and middle canopies, 19 (18.1% species from upper and middle canopies and only one (1% species was recorded from upper canopy. In the study area 37 (35.2% species of birds used all levels of the canopy. Out of 105 species, 48 (45.7% were insectivorous, 11 (10.4% were grainivorous, five (4.8% frugivorous, 10 (9.5% were piscivorous, five (4.8% were predatory, and 19 (18.1% species of birds were omnivorous. Only one (1% was vegetarian and the diet of 6 (5.7% species could not be determined.

  8. Quantification of bird-to-bird and bird-to-human infections during 2013 novel H7N9 avian influenza outbreak in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ying-Hen; Wu, Jianhong; Fang, Jian; Yang, Yong; Lou, Jie

    2014-01-01

    From February to May, 2013, 132 human avian influenza H7N9 cases were identified in China resulting in 37 deaths. We developed a novel, simple and effective compartmental modeling framework for transmissions among (wild and domestic) birds as well as from birds to human, to infer important epidemiological quantifiers, such as basic reproduction number for bird epidemic, bird-to-human infection rate and turning points of the epidemics, for the epidemic via human H7N9 case onset data and to acquire useful information regarding the bird-to-human transmission dynamics. Estimated basic reproduction number for infections among birds is 4.10 and the mean daily number of human infections per infected bird is 3.16*10-5 [3.08*10-5, 3.23*10-5]. The turning point of 2013 H7N9 epidemic is pinpointed at April 16 for bird infections and at April 9 for bird-to-human transmissions. Our result reveals very low level of bird-to-human infections, thus indicating minimal risk of widespread bird-to-human infections of H7N9 virus during the outbreak. Moreover, the turning point of the human epidemic, pinpointed at shortly after the implementation of full-scale control and intervention measures initiated in early April, further highlights the impact of timely actions on ending the outbreak. This is the first study where both the bird and human components of an avian influenza epidemic can be quantified using only the human case data.

  9. An experimental analysis of the specificity of actively acquired tolerance in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, G.

    1963-08-15

    Tolerance to CBA skin was induced in C3H mice by neonatal injection of CBA spleen cells. When two months old, the C3H recipients were grafted with CBA skin. These skin grafts showed no signs of rejection during the observation time of three months, whereas CBA skins grafted onto C3H mice non injected at birth showed complete necrosis in 11.7 days. Normal C3H and C3H mice tolerant to CBA skin were injected with rat RBC and sacrificed 12 days later for serum titration of anti-rat RBC agglutinins. The agglutinin titer was the same in both groups. This indicates that the unresponsiveness of C3H mice to CBA skin was specific, for the tolerant mice were able to respond with normal vigor to antigens (rat RBC) unrelated to C3H and CBA. Whether this response was due to the host immune system or to the CBA spleen cells which may have colonized the C3H newborns was subsequently investigated. Spleen cells from tolerant C3H mice sensitized to rat RBC were injected into two groups of lethally irradiated recipients: C3H mice preimmunized against CBA and CBA mice preimmunized against C3H. Both groups were given rat RBC immediately after the spleen cell transfer from the tolerant mice and sacrified a week later for serum titration of anti-rat RBC agglutinins. These agglutinins, due to the secondary response of the transferred spleen cells, could be detected only in the group of C3H recipients preimmunized against CBA. This shows that anti-rat RBC agglutinins in tolerant mice were produced y the immune system of the C3H host. The theoretical implications of this finding are discussed. (auth)

  10. Assessing collision risk for birds and bats : radar survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, R. [Genivar SEC, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described some of the inventories and instrumentation available for monitoring winged fauna in and around wind farms. In addition to visual observations, bird calls and songs can be recorded to determine the amount and different types of birds located at wind farm sites. Radio-telemetry devices are also used to evaluate bird activities, and nest searches are conducted to determine the amount of eggs or young birds that will soon add to the bird population. Between 90 and 100 percent of birds and bats migrate at night. Acoustic radar, Doppler radar, and maritime surveillance radar instruments are used to monitor night-time activities in wind farm locations. Doppler radar is also used to detect bird and bat migration corridors. Screen-shots of various radar interfaces were presented. tabs., figs.

  11. Comparison of semiautomated bird song recognition with manual detection of recorded bird song samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Venier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Automated recording units are increasingly being used to sample wildlife populations. These devices can produce large amounts of data that are difficult to process manually. However, the information in the recordings can be summarized with semiautomated sound recognition software. Our objective was to assess the utility of the semiautomated bird song recognizers to produce data useful for conservation and sustainable forest management applications. We compared detection data generated from expert-interpreted recordings of bird songs collected with automated recording units and data derived from a semiautomated recognition process. We recorded bird songs at 109 sites in boreal forest in 2013 and 2014 using automated recording units. We developed bird-song recognizers for 10 species using Song Scope software (Wildlife Acoustics and each recognizer was used to scan a set of recordings that was also interpreted manually by an expert in birdsong identification. We used occupancy models to estimate the detection probability associated with each method. Based on these detection probability estimates we produced cumulative detection probability curves. In a second analysis we estimated detection probability of bird song recognizers using multiple 10-minute recordings for a single station and visit (35-63, 10-minute recordings in each of four one-week periods. Results show that the detection probability of most species from single 10-min recordings is substantially higher using expert-interpreted bird song recordings than using the song recognizer software. However, our results also indicate that detection probabilities for song recognizers can be significantly improved by using more than a single 10-minute recording, which can be easily done with little additional cost with the automate procedure. Based on these results we suggest that automated recording units and song recognizer software can be valuable tools to estimate detection probability and

  12. Evolution of nesting height in an endangered Hawaiian forest bird in response to a non-native predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwerf, Eric A

    2012-10-01

    The majority of bird extinctions since 1800 have occurred on islands, and non-native predators have been the greatest threat to the persistence of island birds. Island endemic species often lack life-history traits and behaviors that reduce the probability of predation and they can become evolutionarily trapped if they are unable to adapt, but few studies have examined the ability of island species to respond to novel predators. The greatest threat to the persistence of the Oahu Elepaio (Chasiempis ibidis), an endangered Hawaiian forest bird, is nest predation by non-native black rats (Rattus rattus). I examined whether Oahu Elepaio nest placement has changed at the individual and population levels in response to rat predation by measuring nest height and determining whether each nest produced offspring from 1996 to 2011. Average height of Oahu Elepaio nests increased 50% over this 16-year period, from 7.9 m (SE 1.7) to 12.0 m (SE 1.1). There was no net change in height of sequential nests made by individual birds, which means individual elepaios have not learned to place nests higher. Nests ≤3 m off the ground produced offspring less often, and the proportion of such nests declined over time, which suggests that nest-building behavior has evolved through natural selection by predation. Nest success increased over time, which may increase the probability of long-term persistence of the species. Rat control may facilitate the evolution of nesting height by slowing the rate of population decline and providing time for this adaptive response to spread through the population. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Bird communities and biomass yields in potential bioenergy grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Blank

    Full Text Available Demand for bioenergy is increasing, but the ecological consequences of bioenergy crop production on working lands remain unresolved. Corn is currently a dominant bioenergy crop, but perennial grasslands could produce renewable bioenergy resources and enhance biodiversity. Grassland bird populations have declined in recent decades and may particularly benefit from perennial grasslands grown for bioenergy. We asked how breeding bird community assemblages, vegetation characteristics, and biomass yields varied among three types of potential bioenergy grassland fields (grass monocultures, grass-dominated fields, and forb-dominated fields, and assessed tradeoffs between grassland biomass production and bird habitat. We also compared the bird communities in grassland fields to nearby cornfields. Cornfields had few birds compared to perennial grassland fields. Ten bird Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN were observed in perennial grassland fields. Bird species richness and total bird density increased with forb cover and were greater in forb-dominated fields than grass monocultures. SGCN density declined with increasing vertical vegetation density, indicating that tall, dense grassland fields managed for maximum biomass yield would be of lesser value to imperiled grassland bird species. The proportion of grassland habitat within 1 km of study sites was positively associated with bird species richness and the density of total birds and SGCNs, suggesting that grassland bioenergy fields may be more beneficial for grassland birds if they are established near other grassland parcels. Predicted total bird density peaked below maximum biomass yields and predicted SGCN density was negatively related to biomass yields. Our results indicate that perennial grassland fields could produce bioenergy feedstocks while providing bird habitat. Bioenergy grasslands promote agricultural multifunctionality and conservation of biodiversity in working landscapes.

  14. Can a bird brain do phonology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget D. Samuels

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies have revealed correspondences between song- and language-related neural structures, pathways, and gene expression in humans and songbirds. Analyses of vocal learning, song structure, and the distribution of song elements have similarly revealed a remarkable number of shared characteristics with human speech. This article reviews recent developments in the understanding of these issues with reference to the phonological phenomena observed in human language. This investigation suggests that birds possess a host of abilities necessary for human phonological computation, as evidenced by behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular genetic studies. Vocal-learning birds therefore present an excellent model for studying some areas of human phonology, though differences in the primitives of song and language as well as the absence of a human-like morphosyntax make human phonology differ from birdsong phonology in crucial ways.

  15. Siadenovirus infection in two psittacine bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellehan, James F X; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Fleming, Gregory J; Stetter, Mark D; Childress, April L; Terrell, Scott P

    2009-10-01

    Consensus polymerase chain reaction was used to identify a novel adenovirus from two psittacine birds: a plum-headed parakeet (Psittacula cyanocephala) with lethargy, weight loss, and marked leukocytosis; and an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) with lethargy, weight loss, and feather abnormalities. Phylogenetic and comparative sequence analysis suggested that this virus is a member of the genus Siadenovirus, and is here termed psittacine adenovirus 2. This extends the characterized adenoviruses of psittacine birds beyond Aviadenovirus to include the genus Siadenovirus. Identification and further study of adenoviral types and species will provide useful diagnostic, prognostic, and epidemiologic information for the clinician. Like other known members of the genus Siadenovirus, Psittacine adenovirus 2 is AT-rich over the region sequenced, and it is hypothesized that this may be associated with shorter host-virus evolutionary association.

  16. West Nile virus infection of birds, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, Sergio; Cuevas-Romero, Sandra; Nemeth, Nicole M; Trujillo-Olivera, María Teresa Jesús; Worwa, Gabriella; Dupuis, Alan; Brault, Aaron C; Kramer, Laura D; Komar, Nicholas; Estrada-Franco, José Guillermo

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused disease in humans, equids, and birds at lower frequency in Mexico than in the United States. We hypothesized that the seemingly reduced virulence in Mexico was caused by attenuation of the Tabasco strain from southeastern Mexico, resulting in lower viremia than that caused by the Tecate strain from the more northern location of Baja California. During 2006-2008, we tested this hypothesis in candidate avian amplifying hosts: domestic chickens, rock pigeons, house sparrows, great-tailed grackles, and clay-colored thrushes. Only great-tailed grackles and house sparrows were competent amplifying hosts for both strains, and deaths occurred in each species. Tecate strain viremia levels were higher for thrushes. Both strains produced low-level viremia in pigeons and chickens. Our results suggest that certain avian hosts within Mexico are competent for efficient amplification of both northern and southern WNV strains and that both strains likely contribute to bird deaths.

  17. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    Mityay I.S.; Matsyura A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similar...

  18. GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF EGGS IN BIRD SYSTEMATICS

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Mityay; A. V. Matsyura

    2014-01-01

    Our ideas are based on the following assumptions. Egg as a standalone system is formed within another system, which is the body of the female. Both systems are implemented on the basis of a common genetic code. In this regard, for example, the dendrogram constructed by morphological criteria eggs should be approximately equal to those constructed by other molecular or morphological criteria adult birds. It should be noted that the dendrogram show only the degree of genetic similarity of taxa,...

  19. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2010-01-01

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound (∼0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  20. Migratory birds and West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58 ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003