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  1. Immunohistochemical study of jejunal graft mucosa cell populations during the initial adaptation phase in the host body in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Stefan; Jonecová, Zuzana; Varga, Ján; Staško, Pavel; Kovalčinová, Barbora; Maretta, Milan; Leško, Dušan; Veselá, Jarmila

    2013-10-01

    The character of the changes in cell populations within the jejunal graft mucosa during the initial adaptation phase in the host body was investigated. 24 adult male Wistar rats underwent intestinal heterotopic allotransplantation. Aorto-aortal and porto-caval anastomoses were performed using the end-to-side microsurgery technique. Graft tissues were compared to the intestinal tissues of the recipients. This study demonstrates that: (1) Distinct injury to the graft mucosa 1h after transplantation was accompanied by significant reduction in numbers of epithelial secretory cell populations. The injury was more intense in the mesenteric portion. Six hours after transplantation the graft mucosa was covered by a continuous epithelium, but the number of goblet and Paneth cells was found to be less than 30% of that in the recipient epithelium. (2) In comparison with recipients, myeloperoxidase-positive cell numbers increased significantly in the graft mucosa 1 h after transplantation. In the epithelial layer, denudation and destruction of villi was associated with a significant reduction in intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers. A significant decrease in mucosal mast cell numbers was detected 6 h after transplantation. They attained only 10% of the number found in the recipients. (3) Time-dependent changes in the graft mucosa revealed that CD163-positive cells increased significantly in the graft mucosa during 6 h after transplantation and reached the level found in the recipients. In contrast, the myeloperoxidase-positive cell population significantly decreased in the graft mucosa within the initial 6 h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural β-carotene and whole body irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Amotz, A.; Rachmilevich, B.; Greenberg, S.; Sela, M.; Weshler, Z.

    1996-01-01

    β-Carotene and other carotenoids are reported to be potent free radical quenchers, singlet oxygen scavengers, and lipid antioxidants. Whole-body irradiation is known to cause an immunosuppression effect in mammals through the possible initiation and production of reactive oxygen species. We decided to test the possible antioxidative effect against whole-body irradiation of a natural β-carotene, composed of equal amounts of the all-trans and 9-cis isomers, obtained from the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Rats were fed on ground commercial food enriched with natural β-carotene (50 mg/kg diet). On completion of 1 week with β-carotene, the rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 Gy whole-body irradiation, after which their livers and blood were removed for β-carotene and retinol analysis in comparison with control livers of animals irradiated or not, or supplemented with β-carotene after irradiation. A normal increase in body weight with no ill effects was noted in the groups of rats whose diet was supplemented by β-carotene before and after irradiation, compared with the reduction in the specific growth rate in the group of rats irradiated without β-carotene. Liver β-carotene and retinol decreased significantly after irradiation compared with the rats which were not irradiated. This decrease was not shown in rats fed β-carotene prior to irradiation, and the effect of irradiation was partially cured by supplementation with β-carotene after irradiation. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the irradiated animals showed a selective decline in 9-cis β-carotene and in retinol over all-trans β-carotene and retinyl esters. These results suggest that 9-cis β-carotene and retinol protect in vivo against the cellular damage by free radicals induced after whole-body irradiation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. Hypoxia and the initiation of erythropoietin production. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooley, J.C.; Mahlmann, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    The initiation of erythropoietin production in rats by hypoxia is dependent upon the magnitude of the hypoxic exposure, the position of the oxygen dissociation curve at the time of the hypoxic exposure, and the animal's endocrine status. Normal male rats produce more erythropoietin and elevate their intraerythrocytic 2,3-DPG levels more than female rats exposed to the same degree of hypoxia. Hypophysectomized rats produce erythropoietin following severe hypoxic exposure, but do not elevate their 2,3-DPG levels above control values. Respiratory acidosis in rats produced by breathing 10 percent CO/sub 2/ or by the injection of acetazolamide inhibits the initiation of erythropoietin production by hypoxic environments, but this inhibition is minimal in animals with metabolic acidosis produced by ureterligation. Changes in serum erythropoietin levels and the in vitro P/sub 50/ appear to be two separate but interrelated physiological events which occur during the adaptation of animals to hypoxic environments.

  4. Whole body exposure of rats to sulfur mustard vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachir, Shlomit; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Yaacov, Guy; Gutman, Hila; Cohen, Liat; Horwitz, Vered; Cohen, Maayan; Kadar, Tamar

    2017-11-24

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent used in numerous conflicts around the world and it is still a major threat for both, army troops and civilians. To evaluate its multiple targets effects in experimental setup, a model of whole body exposure (WBE) to SM vapor was established in rats and its simultaneous effects on lungs and eyes as well as on general wellbeing were examined. Rats were exposed to SM vapor. Evaluation (up to 10 weeks post-exposure) included body weight, general observation, blood counts and histological analysis. Results showed that following a latency-period of several hours, rats typical symptoms developed over a period of more than one week. The initial symptoms, characterized by swollen and erythematic nose, deteriorated into extensive rhinorrhea, eye closure, excessive lacrimation as well as rhonchi, wheezing and breathing difficulties. Alopecia and behavioral abnormality were also recorded. A weight loss of up to 40% was measured within one week with spontaneous recovery to baseline level within three weeks after exposure. Blood counts revealed leukopenia during the first three days post-exposure. Histological evaluation revealed a long lasting damage to the trachea, lungs and eyes. Thus, WBE to SM, was found to closely mimic the deleterious effects of SM on the sensitive tissues previously described in human victims during WWI and the Iran-Iraq war. The use of this animal model will enable comprehensive characterization of changes in biological processes that may lead to the development of therapeutic measures to ameliorate SM induced multi-system injuries.

  5. Deep-body temperature changes in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, J.; Platt, W. T.; Holland, V. B.

    1971-01-01

    Deep-body temperature was monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry in unrestrained rats before, during, and after exposure to prolonged and almost continuous centrifugation. Rats subjected to centrifugation for the first time at various G loads ranging up to 2.5 G show a rapid and significant fall in temperature which is sustained below normal levels for periods as long as 3 days. The magnitude of the temperature fall and the recovery time were generally proportional to the G load imposed. The initial fall and recovery of body temperature closely parallels the decrease in food consumption and to a lesser degree the decrease in body mass experienced by centrifuged rats. After exposure to 2 weeks of centrifugation, rats show either no change or only a small transient increase in temperature when decelerated to a lower G level or when returned to normal gravity. Rats repeatedly exposed to centrifugation consistently showed a smaller temperature response compared to the initial exposure. Implant temperature biotelemetry has been found to be a sensitive, reliable, and extremely useful technique for assessing the initial stress of centrifugation and in monitoring the time course of recovery and acclimation of rats to increase as well as*decrease G.

  6. Effect of whole-body gamma radiation on tissue sulfhydryl contents in experimental rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.R.; Singh, L.R.; Uniyal, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    It has been postulated that vital constituents of cell membranes concerned with the maintenance of cellular integrity are affected by ionizing radiation. Sulfhydryl contents, which form an integral component of cell membranes play vital roles in maintaining cellular integrity. The purpose was to evaluate non-protein and protein sulfhydryl contents in tissues of irradiated rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation of 4 Gy and 10 Gy and non-protein and protein sulfhydryl contents of blood, heart and spleen were studied on postirradiation day 1, 3 and 6. Both groups of experimental rats exhibited unchanged blood non-protein sulfhydryl contents on first day after irradiation with significant diminution subsequently. In contrast, blood protein sulfhydryl groups of both groups of rats were increased on first day post exposure, which became normal on sixth day. Myocardial non-protein and protein sulfhydryl contents of both groups of rats remained unchanged in the initial stage of radiation exposure indicating radioresistance nature of rat heart. Both groups of rats demonstrated biphasic nature of non-protein sulfhydryl contents in spleen, asrevealed by initial increase with subsequent decrease. Protein sulfhydryl contents of rats of 4 Gy group showed significant diminution post exposure throughout, while the same of 10 Gy behaved in opposite way. (author)

  7. Initial data for the relativistic gravitational N-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, Piotr T; Corvino, Justin; Isenberg, James

    2010-01-01

    In general relativity, an initial data set for an isolated gravitational system takes the form of a solution of the Einstein constraint equations which is asymptotically Euclidean on a specified end. Given a collection of N such data sets with a subregion of interest (bounded away from the specified end) chosen in each, we show that there exists a family of new initial data sets, each of which contains exact copies of each of the N chosen subregions, positioned in a chosen array in a single asymptotic end. These composite initial data sets model isolated, relativistic gravitational systems containing N chosen bodies in specified initial configurations. (fast track communication)

  8. Effect of intervention initiation timing of pulsed electromagnetic field on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Liao, Yuan; Zeng, Yahua; Xie, Haitao; Fu, Chengxiao; Li, Neng

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of timing of initiation of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy on bone mass, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties, and to investigate receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK) expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two equal batches of three groups each (10 rats in each group). The first batch comprised of sham-operated (Sham-0 group), ovariectomized (OVX-0 group), and ovariectomized plus treated with PEMF starting from the day of OVX (Early PEMF group). The second batch comprised of sham-operated (Sham-12 group), ovariectomized (OVX-12 group), and ovariectomized plus treated with PEMF starting 12 weeks after OVX (Late PEMF group). Rats (whole body) in the early and late PEMF groups were exposed to PEMF (3.8 mT peak, 8 Hz pulse burst repetition rate). After 12 weeks of PEMF therapy, Early PEMF prevented OVX-induced deterioration in bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in lumbar vertebral body and femur, and deterioration in bone microarchitecture in lumbar vertebral body and proximal tibia. Late PEMF intervention only inhibited deterioration of BMD, bone microarchitecture, and mechanical properties in lumbar vertebral body. Both early and late PEMF therapy suppressed RANK protein expression in OVX rats without a concomitant effect on RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that timing of initiation of PEMF therapy plays an important role in achieving optimal beneficial effects. The specific PEMF parameters may exert these favorable biological responses, at least partially, via inhibition of protein expression of RANK. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:456-465, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Initiating Knowledge Management Project in a Regulatory Body in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakdee, K.; Apichaibukol, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Thailand is one of countries that have adopted the use of nuclear technology in various applications such as medical, agricultural, industrial and research applications. Recognizing this enormous potential in many applications, the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) as a regulatory body under the Ministry of Science and Technology, carries out a variety of activities to disseminate and promote youth, entrepreneurs and public on the awareness of the atomic energy in Thailand. In recent years, “knowledge management” is one of the key factors that contribute to safe, secure and efficient operation of nuclear activities and facilities but also for the regulatory processes as well. In this regards, the OAP is aware and recognize of the importance of studying and initiating nuclear knowledge and human resource development programme in the regulatory body. Even though, the OAP has been initiating the project on nuclear knowledge and human resources for several years but the present status of the projects still remain in primarily stage of the initiating. This paper describes the initiating of nuclear knowledge in the past and present status for knowledge management project in regulatory body in Thailand. (author

  10. Relativistic initial conditions for N-body simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidler, Christian [Catholic University of Louvain—Center for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3) 2, Chemin du Cyclotron, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Tram, Thomas; Crittenden, Robert; Koyama, Kazuya; Wands, David [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Rampf, Cornelius, E-mail: christian.fidler@uclouvain.be, E-mail: thomas.tram@port.ac.uk, E-mail: rampf@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: robert.crittenden@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D–69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    Initial conditions for (Newtonian) cosmological N-body simulations are usually set by re-scaling the present-day power spectrum obtained from linear (relativistic) Boltzmann codes to the desired initial redshift of the simulation. This back-scaling method can account for the effect of inhomogeneous residual thermal radiation at early times, which is absent in the Newtonian simulations. We analyse this procedure from a fully relativistic perspective, employing the recently-proposed Newtonian motion gauge framework. We find that N-body simulations for ΛCDM cosmology starting from back-scaled initial conditions can be self-consistently embedded in a relativistic space-time with first-order metric potentials calculated using a linear Boltzmann code. This space-time coincides with a simple ''N-body gauge'' for z < 50 for all observable modes. Care must be taken, however, when simulating non-standard cosmologies. As an example, we analyse the back-scaling method in a cosmology with decaying dark matter, and show that metric perturbations become large at early times in the back-scaling approach, indicating a breakdown of the perturbative description. We suggest a suitable ''forwards approach' for such cases.

  11. Effects of intestinal bypass surgery on appetite, food intake, and body weight in obese and lean rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Koopmans, H S; Vasselli, J R; Reichman, M

    1978-04-01

    Jejunoileal bypass surgery or sham surgery was performed in female rats made obese with ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) knife cuts, and in lean control rats. After bypass surgery, the VMH rats underate and lost weight until they reached the body weight of the control sham rats, and they then maintained their weight at control levels. Bypass surgery in lean rats produced much smaller reductions in food intake and body weight. Both bypass groups initially consumed less of a sucrose solution and milk diet during 1 h/day tests, but their intakes returned to near normal levels during the second postoperative month. Reconnection of the intestinal tract in the VMH-bypass rats led to renewed hyperphagia and return to obese body weights. A second experiment revealed that bypass surgery reduces food intake and body weight in genetically obese (fatty) rats, but this effect is not as pronounced as that displayed by VMH rats. These results confirm recent clinical observations that reduced appetite and caloric intake are the major causes of the weight loss produced by intestinal bypass surgery.

  12. Methyleugenol hepatocellular cancer initiating effects in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary M; Iatropoulos, Michael J; Jeffrey, Alan M; Duan, Jian-Dong

    2013-03-01

    Methyleugenol (MEG), a constituent of plants used in the human diet, is hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. In an experiment to elucidate its mode of action in rat liver, male F344 rats were administered MEG intragastrically at 3 doses per week for up to 16 weeks in an initiation phase, after which half the rats were fed 500 ppm phenobarbital (PB) in the diet to promote liver neoplasia and the other half were maintained on control diet for 24 weeks. At 8 and 16 week interim terminations, (32)P-nucleotide postlabeling assay revealed 3 adducts in livers of all MEG groups. The hepatocellular replicating fractions, measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry, were doubled or more in all MEG groups. Hepatocellular altered foci, detected by glutathione S-transferase-placental type (π) immunohistochemistry, were present beginning with the high dose group at 8 weeks and extending to all MEG groups at 16 weeks. At the end of maintenance/promotion phase, the incidences, multiplicity and size of foci was similar between control and low dose groups, while those of mid and high dose groups were increased. Hepatocellular adenomas occurred in the mid and high dose groups, attaining higher multiplicity and size with PB. Thus, MEG had rapid initiating activity, reflecting the formation of DNA adducts and possibly cell proliferation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiac, Metabolic and Molecular Profiles of Sedentary Rats in the Initial Moment of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Barcellos Jacobsen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Different types of high-fat and/or high-energy diets have been used to induce obesity in rodents. However, few studies have reported on the effects observed at the initial stage of obesity induced by high-fat feeding on cardiac functional and structural remodelling. Objective: To characterize the initial moment of obesity and investigate both metabolic and cardiac parameters. In addition, the role of Ca2+ handling in short-term exposure to obesity was verified. Methods: Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups (n = 19 each: control (C; standard diet and high-fat diet (HF, unsaturated high-fat diet. The initial moment of obesity was defined by weekly measurement of body weight (BW complemented by adiposity index (AI. Cardiac remodelling was assessed by morphological, histological, echocardiographic and papillary muscle analysis. Ca2+ handling proteins were determined by Western Blot. Results: The initial moment of obesity occurred at the 3rd week. Compared with C rats, the HF rats had higher final BW (4%, body fat (20%, AI (14.5%, insulin levels (39.7%, leptin (62.4% and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (15.5% but did not exhibit alterations in systolic blood pressure. Echocardiographic evaluation did not show alterations in cardiac parameters. In the HF group, muscles were observed to increase their +dT/dt (C: 52.6 ± 9.0 g/mm2/s and HF: 68.0 ± 17.0 g/mm2/s; p < 0.05. In addition, there was no changes in the cardiac expression of Ca2+ handling proteins. Conclusion: The initial moment of obesity promotes alterations to hormonal and lipid profiles without cardiac damage or changes in Ca2+ handling.

  14. Gamma-ray induced delay of fruiting body initiation in a basidiomycete, Hebeloma vinosophyllum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takimoto, K.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of gamma-radiation on fruiting body initiation in a basidiomycete, Hebeloma vinosophyllum, was investigated. Fruiting of this fungus is induced by visible light, but irradiation of the mycelium before or after light treatment delayed fruiting body initiation. The time required for fruiting body initiation increased with the radiation dose. The induction of fruiting bodies had two gamma-radiation sensitive stages, one immediately before fruiting body initiation and the other 15 to 20 h after the start of photoinduction. (author)

  15. Whole-body γ-irradiation decelerates rat hepatocyte polyploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhtiar, Adnan M

    2015-07-01

    To characterize hepatocyte polyploidization induced by intermediate dose of γ-ray. Male Wistar strain rats were whole-body irradiated (WBI) with 2 Gy of γ-ray at the age of 1 month, and 5-6 rats were sacrificed monthly at 0-25 months after irradiation. The nuclear DNA content of individual hepatocytes was measured by flow cytometry, then hepatocytes were classified into various ploidy classes. Survival percentage, after exposure up to the end of the study, did not indicate any differences between the irradiated groups and controls. The degree of polyploidization in hepatocytes of irradiated rats, was significantly lower than that for the control after 1 month of exposure, and it continued to be lower after up to 8 months. Thereafter, the degree of polyploidization in the irradiated group slowly returned to the control level when the irradiated rats reached the age of 10 months. Intermediate dose of ionizing radiation, in contrast to high doses, decelerate hepatocyte polyploidization, which may coincides with the hypothesis of the beneficial effects of low doses of ionizing radiation.

  16. Self-administered nicotine differentially impacts body weight gain in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E; Smith, Tracy T; Donny, Eric C; Sved, Alan F

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and tobacco smoking represent the largest challenges to public health, but the causal relationship between nicotine and obesity is poorly understood. Nicotine suppresses body weight gain, a factor impacting smoking initiation and the failure to quit, particularly among obese smokers. The impact of nicotine on body weight regulation in obesity-prone and obesity-resistant populations consuming densely caloric diets is unknown. In the current experiment, body weight gain of adult male rats maintained on a high energy diet (31.8% kcal from fat) distributed into obesity-prone (OP), obesity-resistant (OR) and an intermediate group, which was placed on standard rodent chow (Chow). These rats were surgically implanted with intravenous catheters and allowed to self-administer nicotine (0 or 60μg/kg/infusion, a standard self-administration dose) in 1-h sessions for 20 consecutive days. Self-administered nicotine significantly suppressed body weight gain but not food intake in OP and Chow rats. Self-administered nicotine had no effect on body weight gain in OR rats. These data suggest that: 1) OR rats are also resistant to nicotine-induced suppression of body weight gain; and 2) nicotine may reduce levels of obesity in a subset of smokers prone to obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic recruitment of active proteasomes into polyglutamine initiated inclusion bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper-Krom, Sabine; Juenemann, Katrin; Jansen, Anne H.; Wiemhoefer, Anne; van den Nieuwendijk, Rianne; Smith, Donna L.; Hink, Mark A.; Bates, Gillian P.; Overkleeft, Hermen; Ovaa, Huib; Reits, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease are hallmarked by neuronal intracellular inclusion body formation. Whether proteasomes are irreversibly recruited into inclusion bodies in these protein misfolding disorders is a controversial subject. In addition, it has been proposed that

  18. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    1991-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  19. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  20. An experimental two-stage rat model of lung carcinoma initiated by radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncy, J.L.; Laroque, P.; Fritsch, P.; Monchaux, G.; Masse, R.; Chameaud, J.

    1992-01-01

    We present the results of a two-stage biological model of lung carcinogenesis in rats. The histogenesis of these tumors was examined, and DNA content of lung cells was measured by flow cytometry during the evolving neoplastic stage. Tumors were induced in rat lungs after radon inhalation (1600 WLM) followed by a promoter treatment; six intramuscular injections of 5,6-benzoflavone (25 mg/kg of body weight/injection) every 2 wk. Less than 3 mo after the first injection of benzoflavone, squamous cell carcinoma was observed in the lungs of all rats exposed to radon. The preneoplastic lesions gradually developed as follows: hyperplastic bronchiolar-type cells migrated to the alveoli from cells that proliferated in bronchioles and alveolar ducts; initial lesions were observed in almost all respiratory bronchioles. From some hyperplasias, epidermoid metaplasias arose distally, forming nodular epidermoid lesions in alveoli, which progressed to form squamous papilloma and, finally, epidermoid carcinomas. The histogenesis of these experimentally induced epidermoid carcinomas showed the bronchioloalveolar origin of the tumor. This factor must be considered when comparing these with human lesions; in humans, lung epidermoid carcinomas are thought to arise mainly in the first bronchial generations. The labeling index of pulmonary tissue after incorporation of 3 H-thymidine by the cells was 0.2% in control rats. This index reached a value of 1 to 2% in the hyperplastic area of the bronchioles and 10 to 15% in epidermoid nodules and epidermoid tumors, respectively. DNA cytometric analysis was performed on cell suspensions obtained after enzymatic treatment of paraffin sections of lungs from rats sacrificed during different stags of neoplastic transformations. Data showed the early appearance of a triploid cell population that grew during the evolution of nodular epidermoid lesions to epidermoid carcinomas

  1. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomchesson, Joshua L

    2006-01-01

    .... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...

  2. Altered gene-expression profile in rat plasma and promoted body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Altered gene-expression profile in rat plasma and promoted body and brain development ... The study was aimed to explore how the prenatal EE impacts affect the ... positively promote the body and nervous system development of offspring, ...

  3. Effect of feeding garlic (allium sativum) on body weight and serum cholesterol levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnaz, S.; Qamar, M.Z.; Karim, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral garlic supplementation may be effective in decreasing serum cholesterol levels as much as 15% to 20%. Garlic indirectly effect atherosclerosis by reduction of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and probably diabetes mellitus and prevents thrombus formation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that garlic powder with a prolonged mode of action promises potent biological effects into hypercholesterolaemia. Methods: Fifty albino rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups (n=10). All rats were initially fed normal diet for at least 7 days. Then Group A was control and was fed a normal diet + 0.5% cholesterol, Group B was fed normal diet and 3 mg garlic per 10 g of feed and Group C was fed normal diet and 10 mg garlic per 10 g of feed. The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Body weight and serum cholesterol were noted before and after giving garlic + cholesterol. Results: Effect of serum cholesterol level was significantly decreased after taking 3 and 10 mg of garlic. However it was observed that the body weight was increased after taking garlic. Conclusion: Garlic consumption although can decrease the level of serum cholesterol but it increases the body weight. Garlic consumption alone can decrease serum cholesterol level, but it cannot be used as the main therapeutic agent for hyperlipidaemia. (author)

  4. [Initiation, promotion, initiation experiments with radon and cigarette smoke: Lung tumors in rats]. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moolgavkar, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    During the past several years, the authors have made considerable progress in modeling carcinogenesis in general, and in modeling radiation carcinogenesis, in particular. They present an overview of their progress in developing stochastic carcinogenesis models and applying them to experimental and epidemiologic data sets. Traditionally, cancer models have been used for the analysis of incidence (or prevalence) data in epidemiology and time to tumor data in experimental studies. The relevant quantities for the analysis of these data are the hazard function and the probability of tumor. The derivation of these quantities is briefly described here. More recently, the authors began to use these models for the analysis of data on intermediate lesions on the pathway to cancer. Such data are available in experimental carcinogenesis studies, in particular in initiation and promotion studies on the mouse skin and the rat liver. If however, quantitative information on intermediate lesions on the pathway to lung cancer were to be come available at some future date, the methods that they have developed for the analysis of initiation-promotion experiments could easily be applied to the analysis of these lesions. The mathematical derivations here are couched in terms of a particular two-mutation model of carcinogenesis. Extension to models postulating more than two mutations is not always straightforward

  5. ANTAGONISM OF PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR SUPPRESSES CAROTID BODY RESPONSES TO HYPOXIA AND NICOTINE IN RAT PUPS

    OpenAIRE

    JOSEPH, V.; NIANE, L. M.; BAIRAM, A.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that antagonism of progesterone receptor (PR) in newborn rats alters carotid body and respiratory responses to hypoxia and nicotinic receptor agonists. Rats were treated with the PR antagonist mifepristone (daily oral gavage 40 μg/g/d) or vehicle between post-natal days 3 and 15. In 11–14-day-old rats, we used in vitro carotid body/carotid sinus nerve preparation and whole body plethysmography to assess the carotid body and ventilatory responses to hypoxia (65 mmHg in...

  6. Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    On November 17, 2003, Attorney General John Ashcroft announced the U.S. Department of Justice's Body Armor Safety Initiative in response to concerns from the law enforcement community regarding the effectiveness of body armor in use...

  7. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing. (author)

  8. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on appearance of osteoclasts during wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Tanaka, Likinobu; Okumura, Kazuhiko; Yajima, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Masayuki

    2007-07-01

    We examined effects of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance and differentiation of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars. Wistar rats weighting 100 g were divided into three groups: non-irradiation group, local irradiation group, and whole body irradiation group. In the local irradiation group, a field made with lead blocks was placed over the maxillary left first molar tooth. In the whole body irradiation group, the animals were irradiated in cages. Both groups were irradiated at 8 Gy. The number of osteoclasts around the interradicular alveolar bone showed chronological changes common to non-irradiated and irradiated animals. Several osteoclasts appeared one day after tooth extraction, and the maximal peak was observed 3 days after extraction. Local irradiation had no difference from non-irradiated controls. In animals receiving whole body irradiation, tooth extraction one day after irradiation caused smaller number of osteoclasts than that 7 day after irradiation during the experimental period. Whole body-irradiated rats had small osteoclasts with only a few nuclei and narrow resorption lacunae, indicating deficiency of radioresistant osteoclast precursor cells. Injection of intact bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction recovered to some content the number of osteoclasts. These findings suggest that bone resorption in the wound healing of alveolar socket requires radioresistant, postmitotic osteoclast precursor cells from hematopoietic organs, but not from local sources around the alveolar socket, at the initial phase of wound healing.

  9. Dynamic recruitment of active proteasomes into polyglutamine initiated inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper-Krom, Sabine; Juenemann, Katrin; Jansen, Anne H; Wiemhoefer, Anne; van den Nieuwendijk, Rianne; Smith, Donna L; Hink, Mark A; Bates, Gillian P; Overkleeft, Hermen; Ovaa, Huib; Reits, Eric

    2014-01-03

    Neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease are hallmarked by neuronal intracellular inclusion body formation. Whether proteasomes are irreversibly recruited into inclusion bodies in these protein misfolding disorders is a controversial subject. In addition, it has been proposed that the proteasomes may become clogged by the aggregated protein fragments, leading to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Here, we show by fluorescence pulse-chase experiments in living cells that proteasomes are dynamically and reversibly recruited into inclusion bodies. As these recruited proteasomes remain catalytically active and accessible to substrates, our results challenge the concept of proteasome sequestration and impairment in Huntington's disease, and support the reported absence of proteasome impairment in mouse models of Huntington's disease. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  10. Physical activity prevents augmented body fat accretion in moderately iron-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Andersen, Nancy E; Tarr, Tyson N; Stahl, Chad H; Young, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies describe an association between poor iron status and obesity in humans, although the mechanism explaining this relationship is unclear. The present study aimed to determine the effect of moderate iron deficiency and physical activity (PA) on body composition in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed iron-adequate (IA; 40 mg/kg) or moderately iron-deficient (ID; 9 mg/kg) diets ad libitum for 12 wk. Rats were assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 10 per group): IA, sedentary (IAS); IA, PA (IAPA); ID, sedentary (IDS); or ID, PA (IDPA). Activity involved running on motorized running wheels at 4 m/min for 1 h/d for 5 d/wk. After 12 wk, ID rats were not anemic, but body iron stores were reduced as indicated by diminished (P IA rats. Treatment group did not affect body weight or feed consumption. However, fat mass was greater (P IAS (31.8 +/- 2.9%), IAPA (31.8 +/- 2.0%), and IDPA (32.8 +/- 4.5%) rats. Furthermore, lean body mass was diminished in IDS rats (58.7 +/- 6.8%) compared with IAS (65.6 +/- 3.0%), IAPA (65.6 +/- 2.1%), and IDPA (64.7 +/- 4.5%) rats. Thus, moderate iron deficiency may cause increased body fat accretion in rats and PA attenuates that effect.

  11. Pregnancy-dependent initiation in tumorigenesis of Wistar rat mammary glands by 60Co-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inano, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Keiko; Ishii-Ohba, Hiroko; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Wakabayashi, Katsumi

    1991-01-01

    Pregnant Wistar rats received whole body irradiation with 260 cGy γ-rays at days 7, 14 and 20 of pregnancy and then were treated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) for 1 year. The highest incidence (92.9%) for tumorigenesis of mammary glands was observed in the rats irradiated in late pregnancy. Histological examination showed that tumors were classified as fibroadenoma and adenocarcinoma. To determine the reasons for specific induction of mammary tumors by irradiation in late pregnancy, hormone concentrations in serum and estrogen receptors in mammary glands during pregnancy were measured. Concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone and placental lactogen at day 20 were higher than at days 7 and/or 14, but no difference was observed in the concentrations of prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone during pregnancy. The estrogen receptor in mammary glands at day 20 was indicated to have the highest affinity and the highest binding capacity during pregnancy. Normal mammary glands at day 20 were suggested to have more abundant epithelial cells in the mammary lobes than those at days 7 and 14. The data suggest that the critical requirements for the initiation of tumorigenesis by γ-rays are dependent upon the differentiated state of mammary glands exposed to various hormones, and that the concentration and persistence of the synthetic estrogen (DES) are necessary for the promotion of tumorigenesis of the irradiated mammary glands. (Author)

  12. ANTAGONISM OF PROGESTERONE RECEPTOR SUPPRESSES CAROTID BODY RESPONSES TO HYPOXIA AND NICOTINE IN RAT PUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOSEPH, V.; NIANE, L. M.; BAIRAM, A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that antagonism of progesterone receptor (PR) in newborn rats alters carotid body and respiratory responses to hypoxia and nicotinic receptor agonists. Rats were treated with the PR antagonist mifepristone (daily oral gavage 40 μg/g/d) or vehicle between post-natal days 3 and 15. In 11–14-day-old rats, we used in vitro carotid body/carotid sinus nerve preparation and whole body plethysmography to assess the carotid body and ventilatory responses to hypoxia (65 mmHg in vitro, 10% O2 in vivo) and to nicotinic receptor agonists (as an excitatory modulator of carotid body activity—nicotine 100 μM for in vitro studies, and epibatidine 5 μg/kg, i.p., which mainly acts on peripheral nicotinic receptors, for in vivo studies). The carotid body responses to hypoxia and nicotine were drastically reduced by mifepristone. Compared with vehicle, mifepristone-treated rats had a reduced body weight. The ventilatory response to epibatidine was attenuated; however, the hypoxic ventilatory response was similar between vehicle and mifepristone-treated pups. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that mifepristone treatment did not change carotid body morphology. We conclude that PR activity is a critical factor ensuring proper carotid body function in newborn rats. PMID:22326965

  13. Effects of thiamine deficiency on food intake and body weight increment in adult female and growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâ, Abdoulaye

    2012-09-01

    The present study compared the effects of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) on the patterns of food intake and body weight in adult female and neonatal Wistar rats. The adults weighed 250-270 g at the start and were fed for 60 days either with a synthetic TD diet (211 B1) or with the same synthetic diet+thiamine (210 B1). TD led to a marked reduction in food intake and the body weight set point, both recovering rapidly to their initial level in only 3 days after dietetic reversion. The effects of TD in developing rats were evaluated by subjecting pregnant rats to thiamine restriction during different time windows: prenatal (3 days before mating to parturition); perinatal (7 days after mating to the 10th postnatal day); and postnatal (from parturition to weaning). The effect of TD on the occurrence of low birth weight and ponderal growth retardation was examined from postnatal days 1 to 45. Only perinatal TD significantly decreased birth weight relative to untreated or pair-fed controls. Moreover, compared with the control treatments, ponderal growth retardation was not induced by prenatal TD, whereas induction of TD from perinatal into postnatal periods did cause ponderal growth retardation, with long-lasting effects persisting in adulthood. The results suggest a major physiological role of thiamine in the homeostasis of body weight programming, increment, and set point regulation in both offspring and adult female rats.

  14. Mechanisms of initial endplate failure in the human vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Aaron J; Lee, Gideon L; Keaveny, Tony M

    2010-12-01

    Endplate failure occurs frequently in osteoporotic vertebral fractures and may be related to the development of high tensile strain. To determine whether the highest tensile strains in the vertebra occur in the endplates, and whether such high tensile strains are associated with the material behavior of the intervertebral disc, we used micro-CT-based finite element analysis to assess tissue-level strains in 22 elderly human vertebrae (81.5 ± 9.6 years) that were compressed through simulated intervertebral discs. In each vertebra, we compared the highest tensile and compressive strains across the different compartments: endplates, cortical shell, and trabecular bone. The influence of Poisson-type expansion of the disc on the results was determined by compressing the vertebrae a second time in which we suppressed the Poisson expansion. We found that the highest tensile strains occurred within the endplates whereas the highest compressive strains occurred within the trabecular bone. The ratio of strain to assumed tissue-level yield strain was the highest for the endplates, indicating that the endplates had the greatest risk of initial failure. Suppressing the Poisson expansion of the disc decreased the amount of highly tensile-strained tissue in the endplates by 79.4 ± 11.3%. These results indicate that the endplates are at the greatest risk of initial failure due to the development of high tensile strains, and that such high tensile strains are associated with the Poisson expansion of the disc. We conclude that initial failure of the vertebra is associated with high tensile strains in the endplates, which in turn are influenced by the material behavior of the disc. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondrial monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain after whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, I.V.; Tsybul'skij, V.V.; Grivtsev, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that γ-irradiation of albino rats with a dose of 30 Gy leads to pronounced phase changes in monoaminoxidase activity and serotonin content in rat brain at early times after whole-body exposure. These is a similar direction of changes in the activity of the enzyme and in the content of the substrate adequate to the latter

  16. [INFLUENCE OF IONIZING RADIATION ON THE LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY AND BODY WEIGHT OF RATS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimova, A; Chaizhunusоva, N; Kairkhanova, Y; Uzbеkоv, D; Hоshi, М

    2017-02-01

    The aim of our study was to study influence of ionizing radiation on the locomotor activity and body weight of rats, for this animals was irradiated by via inhalation. Beta- emitter 56Mn was obtained by neutron activation of powdered MnО2 by using nuclear reactor IVG.1M (experimental facility «Baikal-1», Kurchatov, Kazakhstan). Exposure of rats to radioactive powder had two way, the first experiment was contained only air filter for animal's breathing and the second with the system of forced ventilation. Also we developed the method for observation of the locomotor activity of rats, based on quantitative data. The experiment was conducted on 8 «Wistar» breed white laboratory rats. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric test. Based on our data, we can say that our method has the advantage over the others is that there is no need to move about the animal out of the box in the test field. So we reduce animal stress factor, as the transfer of an animal from one to second place creates additional stress for him. The initial activity of the pulverized powder in both experiments were 2,74х108Bq, but in the second experiment when we used the system of forced ventilation, internal radiation doses were 0.041±0.0075 Gy, this didn't have effect on locomotor activity of rats (Z= -0,841, р=0,4). In the first experiment where we used only air filter for animal's breathing internal radiation doses were 0.15±0.025 Gr, that showed a decrease in locomotor activity in rats (Z=-6,653, р=0,001). After exposure to ionizing radiation changes in the mammals' weight were not found. Thus, based on our data we have made conclusion, that even after a single irradiation at low dose 0.15±0.025 Gr changes occur in the nervous system.

  17. Prevention of crack initiation in valve bodies under thermal shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmas, J.; Coppolani, P.

    1996-12-01

    On site and testing experience has shown that cracking in valves affects mainly the stellite hardfacing on seats and discs but may also be a concern for valve bodies. Metallurgical investigations conducted by EDF laboratories on many damaged valves have shown that most of the damage had either a chemical, manufacturing, or operating origin with a strong correlation between the origins and the type of damage. The chemical defects were either excess ferritic dilution of stellite or excess carburizing. Excess carburizing leads to a too brittle hardfacing which cracks under excessive stresses induced on the seating surfaces, via the stem, by too high operating thrusts. The same conditions can also induce cracks of the seats in the presence, in the hardfacing, of hidden defects generated during the welding process. Reduction of the number of defects results first from controls during manufacturing, mainly in the thickness of stellite. On the other hand, maintenance must be fitted to the type of defect. In-situ lapping may lead to release of cobalt, resulting in contamination of the circuit. Furthermore, it is ineffectual in the case of a crack through the seating surface, as is often found on globe valves. The use of new technologies of valves with removable seats and cobalt-free alloys solves permanently this kind of problem.

  18. HISTOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CONSUMPTION OF NUTMEG ON THE LATERAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic consumption of nutmeg commonly used as a spice in various dishes, as components of teas and soft drinks or mixed in milk and alcohol on the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats was studied.The rats of both sexes, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment and control groups. The rats in the treatment group (n=8 received 2g of nutmeg thoroughly mixed with the feeds on a daily basis for thirty-two days. The control group (n=8 received equal amount of feeds daily without nutmeg added for thirty-two days. The growers mash feeds was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on the thirty-three day of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study.The findings indicate that rats in the treated group showed some cellular degenerative changes like sparse cellular population, pyknotic nuclei with some microcystic changes, edema and vacuolations in the stroma of the treated lateral geniculate body as compared to that of the control group.Chronic consumption of nutmeg may therefore have an adverse effect on the visual sensibilities by affecting the microanatomy of the lateral geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended for further studies aimed at corroborating these observations.

  19. Early efficacy of the ketogenic diet is not affected by initial body mass index percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Shastin; Diaz-Medina, Gloria; Wong-Kisiel, Lily; Nickels, Katherine; Eckert, Susan; Wirrell, Elaine

    2014-05-01

    Predictors of the ketogenic diet's success in treating pediatric intractable epilepsy are not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether initial body mass index and weight percentile impact early efficacy of the traditional ketogenic diet in children initiating therapy for intractable epilepsy. This retrospective study included all children initiating the ketogenic diet at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 2001 to December 2010 who had body mass index (children ≥2 years of age) or weight percentile (those diet initiation and seizure frequency recorded at diet initiation and one month. Responders were defined as achieving a >50% seizure reduction from baseline. Our cohort consisted of 48 patients (20 male) with a median age of 3.1 years. There was no significant correlation between initial body mass index or weight percentile and seizure frequency reduction at one month (P = 0.72, r = 0.26 and P = 0.91, r = 0.03). There was no significant association between body mass index or weight percentile quartile and responder rates (P = 0.21 and P = 0.57). Children considered overweight or obese at diet initiation (body mass index or weight percentile ≥85) did not have lower responder rates than those with body mass index or weight percentiles ketogenic diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of food intake dynamics in rats following acute whole-body irradiation with X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Ahlers, I.; Datelinka, I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects were studied of whole-body X-irradiation with sublethal (2.39 Gy) and medium lethal (5.74 Gy) doses on food intake by rats. The lower dose caused a temporary decrease in food intake, with a minimum of 63.3% of the control level on the 2nd day after irradiation. The decrease was statistically significant up to the 4th day after irradiation. No substantial changes were observed in the parameters of the circadian rhythm in food intake with the maximum on the 3rd day after irradiation, with only 8% of the initial value. The food intake was reduced until the 9th day after irradiation. The daily thythm of food intake was strongly disturbed during the first three days after irradiation, then restoring gradually and on the 9th day showing the original phasing and shape. The results obtained were in agreement with the assumed neural regulation mechanism of food intake and its circadian rhythm in the rat. (author). 5 figs., 12 refs

  1. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubaczeuski, C.; Balbo, S.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Vettorazzi, J.F.; Santos-Silva, J.C.; Carneiro, E.M. [Laboratório de Pâncreas Endócrino e Metabolismo, Departamento de Biologia Estrutural e Funcional, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Bonfleur, M.L. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Endócrina e Metabolismo, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)

    2015-02-24

    The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight) or saline [control (CTL) group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups) or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups). The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch) stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats.

  2. Vagotomy ameliorates islet morphofunction and body metabolic homeostasis in MSG-obese rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubaczeuski, C.; Balbo, S.L.; Ribeiro, R.A.; Vettorazzi, J.F.; Santos-Silva, J.C.; Carneiro, E.M.; Bonfleur, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system is important for β-cell secretion and mass regulation. Here, we characterized involvement of the vagus nerve in pancreatic β-cell morphofunctional regulation and body nutrient homeostasis in 90-day-old monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats. Male newborn Wistar rats received MSG (4 g/kg body weight) or saline [control (CTL) group] during the first 5 days of life. At 30 days of age, both groups of rats were submitted to sham-surgery (CTL and MSG groups) or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (Cvag and Mvag groups). The 90-day-old MSG rats presented obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia. Their pancreatic islets hypersecreted insulin in response to glucose but did not increase insulin release upon carbachol (Cch) stimulus, despite a higher intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization. Furthermore, while the pancreas weight was 34% lower in MSG rats, no alteration in islet and β-cell mass was observed. However, in the MSG pancreas, increases of 51% and 55% were observed in the total islet and β-cell area/pancreas section, respectively. Also, the β-cell number per β-cell area was 19% higher in MSG rat pancreas than in CTL pancreas. Vagotomy prevented obesity, reducing 25% of body fat stores and ameliorated glucose homeostasis in Mvag rats. Mvag islets demonstrated partially reduced insulin secretion in response to 11.1 mM glucose and presented normalization of Cch-induced Ca 2+ mobilization and insulin release. All morphometric parameters were similar among Mvag and CTL rat pancreases. Therefore, the higher insulin release in MSG rats was associated with greater β-cell/islet numbers and not due to hypertrophy. Vagotomy improved whole body nutrient homeostasis and endocrine pancreatic morphofunction in Mvag rats

  3. Subacromial bursitis with giant rice bodies as initial presentation of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Ramesh; Tan, Justina Wei Lyn; Chau, Cora Yuk Ping; Lee, Keng Thiam

    2012-10-01

    Rice body formation is a nonspecific response to chronic synovial inflammation associated with tuberculous arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative inflammatory arthritis, and even osteoarthritis. Such bodies were termed rice bodies because of their close resemblance to grains of polished white rice. We present a case report of a middle-aged woman with right shoulder subacromial/subdeltoid bursitis with giant rice body formation as her initial presentation of rheumatoid arthritis. Her right shoulder symptoms resolved after subacromial and subdeltoid bursectomy and removal of the rice bodies. She subsequently developed inflammatory arthritis of other joints, met the criteria for rheumatoid arthritis, and has been treated medically.

  4. Effect of cholinesterase inhibitor malathion on whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.; Dhar, U.; Kapoor, V.; Bawa, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    Two groups of rats were treated with gamma radiation and propylene glycol or malathion in propylene glycol and two groups of unirradiated rats were given propylene glycol or malathion in propylene glycol. Measurements were made on blood glucose, plasma sodium and potassium. Radiation caused an increase in blood glucose and plasma potassium and a fall in plasma sodium. Malathion increased the effects of radiation on blood glucose and reduced the effects of plasma electrolytes

  5. Allometric relationships among body mass, MUZZLE-tail length, and tibia length during the growth of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha de; De Pierro, Lucas Rodolfo; Reis, Rafael Menezes; Caluz, Antônio Gabriel Ricardo Engracia; Ribeiro, Victor Barbosa; Volpon, José Batista

    2015-11-01

    To investigate allometric relationships among body mass (BM), muzzle-tail length (MTL), and tibia length (TL) in Wistar rats and establish their growth rate change parameters. Eighteen male and 18 female Wistar rats were studied from the 3rd to the 21st week of age. BM, MTL, and TL were measured daily, and relative growth was compared using allometry. A positive correlation between BM and MTL (p<0.05) and BM and TL (p<0.05) was observed. Males and females showed comparable curves; however, females had turning points at a younger age. The allometric relationship between BM and MTL presented a regular increase until reaching a mass of 351 g (males) and 405 g (females). BM and TL showed an initial increase until 185 g (males) and 182 g (females), and then reached a plateau that finished at 412 g (males) and 334 g (females), to display another increase. The allometric relationship of body mass with animal length and tibia length was comparable for male and female rats, with female rats maturing earlier. Animal longitudinal growth occurred in a single stage. In contrast, tibia length depicted two stages of accelerated growth with an intermediate period of deceleration.

  6. Effects of the initial conditions on cosmological $N$-body simulations

    OpenAIRE

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2014-01-01

    Cosmology is entering an era of percent level precision due to current large observational surveys. This precision in observation is now demanding more accuracy from numerical methods and cosmological simulations. In this paper, we study the accuracy of $N$-body numerical simulations and their dependence on changes in the initial conditions and in the simulation algorithms. For this purpose, we use a series of cosmological $N$-body simulations with varying initial conditions. We test the infl...

  7. Grading the "good" body: a poststructural feminist analysis of body mass index initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbensky-Kerber, Anne

    2011-06-01

    This article analyzes discourse surrounding Arkansas's legislation requiring public schools to measure students' body mass index (BMI) annually and to send the scores to parents on children's report cards. Using poststructural feminist sensibilities, I explore the tensions experienced by parents, children, educators, and policymakers as this mandate was debated and implemented. The discourse illuminates salient issues about disproportionate disparities in health status that exist in communities with fewer resources, and the potentially unintended gendered consequences of health policies. I explain three dominant threads of discourse: How the economic costs of childhood obesity opened a policy window for the legislation; the presence of tensions between freedom and social control; and how BMI discourses inscribe ideological visions of bodies. Ultimately, the analysis offers insight into the discursive nature of policymaking and how class and gender are implicated in health interventions.

  8. Activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Isabelle; Green, Sara M; Morgan, Drake; Carter, Christy S; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence indicate that melanotan II (MTII) reduces body mass independently of caloric reduction. Because MTII induces a transient hypophagia, caloric reduction is still considered a primary mechanism for MTII-mediated body mass loss. To examine the contribution of caloric reduction to long-term body mass loss in response to MTII, we centrally infused MTII or vehicle in ad libitum fed (MTII and Control) animals in comparison with a group of animals that were pair-fed (PF) to the MTII group. Food intake and body mass were recorded daily, and body composition was assessed biweekly. The present study demonstrates that central MTII-mediated body mass loss is only partially mediated by caloric restriction, and the long-term body mass loss is independent of the initial hypophagia. More importantly, central MTII administration induced a rapid but sustained fat mass loss, independently of caloric reduction. MTII-treated animals preserved their lean/fat mass ratio throughout the study, whereas PF animals underwent a transient reduction of lean/fat mass ratio that was only normalized when food intake returned to Control level. In summary, it can be concluded that activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

  9. The body as a resource for other-initiation of repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses how the human body serves as a resource for other initiation of repair. It describes how a hand gesture, a cupped hand behind the ear, is oriented to as a repair initiation in a foreign language classroom. The gesture typically occurs in the absence of speech and is treated...

  10. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p temperature compared to rats born with low exercise capacity and disease risk. Voluntary running allowed HCRs to maintain high body temperature during aging, which suggests that high PA level was crucial in maintaining the high body temperature of HCRs. PMID:27504097

  11. Lean rats gained more body weight than obese ones from a high-fibre diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoting; Zhang, Cheng; Gu, Yingyi; Chen, Long; Ou, Shiyi; Wang, Yong; Peng, Xichun

    2015-10-28

    There is controversy over previous findings that a high ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteriodetes helps obese animals harvest energy from the diet. To further investigate the relationship between microbial composition and energy harvest, microbial adaptation to diet and time should be considered. In this study, lean and obese rats were successfully induced with low-fat and high-fat diets. An 8-week high soyabean fibre (HSF)-containing diet was then fed to investigate the interaction between the diet and the rats' gut microbiota, as well as their influence on rats' growth. Rats' body weight (BW) was recorded weekly; their plasma lipids and their gut microbiota at week 11, 15 and 19 were analysed. After the consumption of the HSF diet, BW of lean rats increased significantly (Pcontent of plasma cholesterol was lowered and that of TAG was upgraded in both the groups when fed the HSF diet. There was no significant difference observed at each period between lean and obese rats. In the group of lean rats, the diversity of gut microbiota was elevated strongly (Pbacterial diversity and composition in obese rats were less altered after the HSF diet control. In conclusion, the increased Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes might relate to lean rats' higher BW gain; 'obese microbiota' could not help the hosts harvest more energy from the HSF diet.

  12. Whole-body retention of 60Co incorporated into a seaweed in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Ichikawa, Ryushi

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare whole-body retention in the rat of radiocobalt incorporated into a marine green alga with that of 60 Co in inorganic form. Ulva pertusa was incubated in aerated seawater containing 60 Co under fluorescent lamp for 7 days. The radioactive seaweed was homogenated and was given to rats via a stomach tube. The control group of rats was given 60 CoCl 2 with homogenate of non-radioactive seaweed. Whole-body retention of the radionuclide was determined by in vivo counting of the living animal. The result revealed that rats absorbed and retained much more 60 Co incorporated into the seaweed than 60 CoCl 2 . This fact should be taken into account in the estimation of internal dose due to radiocobalt released into marine environment. (author)

  13. Total proteins and protein fractions levels in pregnant rats subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Mazhar, F.M.; Abu-Gabal, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A total number of 180 mature rats (120 females and 60 males) weighing from 120-140 g were used to study the effect of two doses (2 and 4 Gy) whole-body gamma irradiation on the level of total protein and protein fractions in serum of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis. It was found that the levels of total protein, albumin and gamma globulins significantly decreased according to the doses of exposure. The levels of alpha and beta globulins significantly increased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2 Gy than in rats exposed to 4 Gy. The level of A/G ratio significantly decreased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2Gy than in those exposed to 4 Gy

  14. Melatonin, a potential effective protector in whole body γ-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S; El-Nashar, D.E; Ahmed, M.M; Hanafy, Z.E

    2010-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the chief hormone of pineal gland, is widely distributed in animal kingdom. It is claimed for its antioxidant and free radical properties. The present study aimed to examine the radio protective potentiality and efficacy of melatonin against damages induced in whole body γ-irradiated rats. Animals received melatonin (10 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 successive days pre-exposure to 3 Gy of γ-radiation (acute dose). Rats sacrificed at 10 and 20 days post the irradiation time. The results revealed that the prolonged administration of melatonin has ameliorated the radiation- induced depletion in brain, testis and serum glutathione (GSH) level and a decrease in serum glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity when compared with their matched values in irradiated rats. In addition, remarkable decreases in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product; malondialdhyde (MDA) was observed in brain, testis and serum of rats received melatonin pre-radiation exposure. As well as, significant decreases in disulphide glutathione (GSSG) were observed in serum.Histopathological examination of brain and testis showed that administration of melatonin pre-irradiation according to the present regimen has attenuated radiation induced tissue damages and improved tissue architecture. Cytogenetically, the chromosomal aberration (CA) assay in bone marrow pointed out a significant difference between rats received melatonin pre-irradiation and γ-irradiated rats in most CA types. Accordingly, it could be postulated the tissue diversity and cytogenetic impact of the administrated melatonin against acute ion syndrome in rat model.

  15. Responses to selection for body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Th effectiveness of selection for high and low body weight at six weeks of age was studied in descendants of x-irradiated (R) and nonirradiated (C) inbred rats. There were two replicates of each of the direction of selection--irradiation treatments. In C lines, there were no consistent responses to selection, probably due to a low level of genetic variability. In R rats, selection was effective only for decreased body weight. The results of this experiment do not suggest the use of irradiation combined with selection as a means of enhancing responses to selection in animals

  16. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  17. Effects of nicotine on body weight in rats with access to "junk" foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, N E; Popp, K A; Winders, S E

    1988-01-01

    The present experiment examined effects of nicotine on body weight of male and female rats when Oreo cookies, potato chips, laboratory chow, and water were available. Body weight and eating behavior were measured for 17-day periods before, during, and after nicotine or saline administration. There was an inverse relationship between nicotine and body weight. These effects were paralleled by changes in consumption of sweet foods. There were no effects of nicotine on salty or bland food consumption. Excessive gains in body weight after cessation of nicotine administration were greater for females than for males.

  18. The Matter Bispectrum in N-body Simulations with non-Gaussian Initial Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sefusatti, Emiliano; Crocce, Martin; Desjacques, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the dark matter bispectrum in N-body simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions of the local kind for a large variety of triangular configurations and compare them with predictions from Eulerian perturbation theory up to one-loop corrections. We find that the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity at large scales, when compared to perturbation theory, are well described by the initial component of the matter bispectrum, linearly extrapolated at the redshift of ...

  19. Influence of benzodiazepines on body weight and food intake in obese and lean Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, C

    2000-05-01

    1. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system, which is functionally altered in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, plays an important role in controlling energy balance within the central nervous system. 2. GABA receptors seem to be involved in the dysfunction of the hypothalamic energy homeostasis-controlling mechanisms in these animals due to a genetically-induced defect of the leptin-neuropeptide Y system. 3. To shed further light on the possible role played by the GABA system in the pathogenesis of this rat model, two benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor agonists (diazepam and clonazepam) and one BDZ antagonist (flumazenil) were administered intraperitoneally in obese and lean Zucker rats. 4. Body weight gain was reduced by the BDZ agonists in both phenotypes, and one receptor-agonist (diazepam) lowered insulin concentration in obese rats. In GABA-antagonist-treated obese rats, the daily amount of body weight gain and food intake acquired an oscillatory rhythm similar to that of normal rodents. 5. By demonstrating the role of BDZ receptors, these findings may help clarify the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance in fatty Zucker rats.

  20. Response of irradiated diet fed rats to whole body X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Kushwaha, A.K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The response to whole body X irradiation has been studied in the brain of rats fed both on a normal diet (consisting of equal parts of wheat and gram flour) and on a low protein irradiated diet (consisting of a part of normal diet and three parts of wheat). The activity of enzymes related to the glucose metabolism (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose diphosphate aldolase) is reduced, while that of peroxidant enzymes (catalase and lipid peroxidase) increased in the brain of rats that received a diet poor in proteins and irradiated diets (normal or hypoproteic). DNA and RNA levels and protein content show a significant reduction in the brain of rats with hypoproteic and irradiated diets. The total body irradiation causes serious alterations in the brain in animals with a hypoproteic malnutritions due both to a low protein and an irradiated diet. The brain of rats fed on a low protein and irradiated diet exhibits after whole body irradiation damages more severe than those in rats fed on a normal irradiated diet

  1. Body mass, energy intake, and water consumption of rats and humans during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Miller, M. M.; Baer, L. A.; Moran, M. M.; Steele, M. K.; Stein, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Alteration of metabolism has been suggested as a major limiting factor to long-term space flight. In humans and primates, a negative energy balance has been reported. The metabolic response of rats to space flight has been suggested to result in a negative energy balance. We hypothesized that rats flown in space would maintain energy balance as indicated by maintenance of caloric intake and body mass gain. Further, the metabolism of the rat would be similar to that of laboratory-reared animals. We studied the results from 15 space flights lasting 4 to 19 d. There was no difference in average body weight (206 +/- 13.9 versus 206 +/- 14.8 g), body weight gain (5.8 +/- 0.48 versus 5.9 +/- 0.56 g/d), caloric intake (309 +/- 21.0 versus 309 +/- 20.1 kcal/kg of body mass per day), or water intake (200 +/- 8.6 versus 199 +/- 9.3 mL/kg of body mass per day) between flight and ground control animals. Compared with standard laboratory animals of similar body mass, no differences were noted. The observations suggested that the negative balance observed in humans and non-human primates may be due to other factors in the space-flight environment.

  2. Palmitoylated PrRP analog decreases body weight in DIO rats but not in ZDF rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, Martina; Zemenová, Jana; Mikulášková, Barbora; Panajotová, V.; Stöhr, J.; Haluzík, M.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 229, č. 2 (2016), s. 85-96 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * diet-induced obesity * ZDF rats * food intake * rat Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  3. Palmitoylated PrRP analog decreases body weight in DIO rats but not in ZDF rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holubová, M.; Zemenová, J.; Mikulášková, Barbora; Panajotová, V.; Stöhr, J.; Haluzík, M.; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Železná, B.; Maletínská, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 229, č. 2 (2016), s. 85-96 ISSN 0022-0795 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08679S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : prolactin-releasing peptide * lipidization * diet-induced obesity * ZDF rats * food intake rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  4. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (peffect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and whole body distribution of elastase derived angiostatin (k1-3) in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molema, Grietje; van Veen-Hof, Ingrid; van Loenen - Weemaes, Anne-miek; Proost, Johannes; de Leij, Lou F.M.H.; Meijer, Dirk K.F.

    2001-01-01

    In the current study, we determined short-term pharmacokinetics and whole body distribution of elastase derived angiostatin [angiostatin((k1-3))] in rats after i.v. injection of radiolabelled protein. Since In gamma-camera studies, no tumor specific angiostatin((k1-3)) accumulation was observed,

  6. Comparative evaluation of nose-only vs. whole-body inhalation exposures for rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H C; Snipes, M B; Eidson, A F; Hobbs, C H

    1988-12-01

    Two types of rat exposure chambers, nose-only and whole-body chambers, were evaluated simultaneously for the temporal and spatial distribution of the same test aerosols within the chambers, both with and without animals present. Results indicated that both types of exposure chambers performed well, with coefficients of variation less than 10% for both temporal and spatial variations. (author)0.

  7. Comparative evaluation of nose-only vs. whole-body inhalation exposures for rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.C.; Snipes, M.B.; Eidson, A.F.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Two types of rat exposure chambers, nose-only and whole-body chambers, were evaluated simultaneously for the temporal and spatial distribution of the same test aerosols within the chambers, both with and without animals present. Results indicated that both types of exposure chambers performed well, with coefficients of variation less than 10% for both temporal and spatial variations. (author)

  8. The influence of selenium and deiodinases blockers on juvenile rats body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work there was investigated the influence of selenium and deodinases blockers on juvenile rats body weight during three months. The experiment was carried out on 64 rats divided into eight groups with eight individual animals per group. Following groups were formed: 1. Se+PTU-IA- (control group, 2. Se+PTU+IA+, 3. Se+PTU+IA-, 4. Se+PTU- IA+, 5. Se-PTU-IA-, 6. Se-PTU+IA+, 7. Se-PTU+IA- and 8. Se-PTU-IA+. The groups labeled (Se+ were selenium adequate and they were fed with food that contained 0.334 mg Se/kg. The groups labeled (Se- were selenium deficient and obtained food with 0.031 mg Se/kg. As deiodinases blockers there were used propylthiouracil (PTU+ in a dose of 150 mg/L of drinking water and iopanoic acid (IA+ in a dose of 6 mg/100 g TM intraperitoneally. Body weight of experimental rats was measured every seven days. After three weeks of treatment there were taken blood samples of animals from all experimental groups and following parameters were determined: selenium concentration in blood, thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH in blood plasma. Analysis of the samples showed that the animals from the groups treated with PTU had lower body weight in regard to the control group, as well as lower concentration of T3 and T4 in plasma. Selenium deficient rats had lower average body weight compared to the selenium adequate ones after three weeks, but there were no differences in thyroid hormones concentration. The lowest average body weight was noticed in selenium deficient rats groups treated with PTU. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31050 i br. TR31003

  9. EFFECT OF MUSIC EXPOSURE ON THE WEIGHT AND BODY-LENGTH OF RAT-LITTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Puspitawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Music is related to stress reduction and increased levels of growth hormone. In rats, music exposure since prenatal period was found to increase body weight of 7-days-old litters and brain cells. Somatic growth was primarily influenced by growth hormone and supported by psycho-physic condition. The objective of this study was to analyze whether music exposure since prenatal until 35 days post-natal period could affect the weight and body-length of the rat-pups. Four pregnant Wistar rats were daily exposed to one hour classic music (Mozart every 17.30 pm since gestation period day one until the 22 litters were 35 days old. Controls were 5 pregnant rats and their 36 litters caged in a different room with no music. Weighing and measuring the body-length (the most anterior point of the nasal septum to the base of the tail were conducted at day 7, 25, and 35. Data were analyzed using Multivariate General-Linear-Modem (α = 0.05. It was revealed that the mean weight of the experimental litters was significantly higher than those of the controls either at day 7 (p = 0.00, day 25 (p = 0.012 or 35 (p = 0.006. Difference of the body-length of the experiment and control animals only significant at day 25 (p = 0.012. Conclusion: Music exposure since prenatal period has significant influences on the weight of the rat-litters aged 7, 25 and 35 days and on the body-length of the 25-days-old litters.

  10. Relative utilization of fatty acids for synthesis of ketone bodies and complex lipids in the liver of developing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y Y; Streuli, V L; Zee, P

    1977-04-01

    The regulation of hepatic ketogenesis, as related to the metabolism of fatty acids through oxidative and synthetic pathways, was studied in developing rats. [1-14C] palmitate was used as a substrate to determine the proportions of free fatty acids utilized for the production of ketone bodies, CO2 and complex lipids. Similar developmental patterns of hepatic ketogenesis were obtained by measuring the production of either [14C] acetoacetate from exogenous [1-14C] palmitate or the sum of unlabeled acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate from endogenous fatty acids. The production of total ketone bodies was low during the late fetal stage and at birth, but increased rapidly to a miximum value within 24 hr after brith. The maximal ketogenic capacity appeared to be maintained for the first 10 days of life. 14CO2 production from [1-14C] palmitate increased by two- to fourfold during the suckling period, from its initial low rate seen at birth. The capacity for synthesis of total complex lipids was low at birth and had increased by day 3 to a maximal value, which was comparable to that of adult fed rats. The high lipogenic capacity lasted throughout the remaining suckling period. When ketogenesis was inhibited by 4-pentenoic acid, the rate of synthesis of complex lipids did not increase despite an increase in unutilized fatty acids. During the mid-suckling period, approximately equal amounts of [1-14C] palmitate were utilized for the synthesis of ketone plus CO2 and for complex lipid synthesis. By contrast, in adult fed rats, the incorporation of fatty acids into complex lipids was four times higher than that of ketone plus CO2. These observations suggest that stimulated hepatic ketogenesis in suckling rats results from the rapid oxidation of fatty acids and consequent increased production of acetyl CoA, but not from impaired capacity for synthesis of complex lipids.

  11. The development and initial validation of a new measure of male body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochner, Christopher N; Gray, James A; Brickner, Katrina

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop, and establish the initial psychometric properties of, the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS). Ninety-five male students were recruited over three phases. An item-remainder analysis was performed in phase I, convergent and discriminant validity assessed in phase II, and test-retest reliability and factor structure assessed in phase III. The MBDS achieved an alpha level of 0.93 and was inversely related to body esteem (p=0.02) and self-esteem (p=0.03), and positively related to how much participants' opinion of themselves was based on their body shape and weight (pbody shape and weight concerns (pbody dissatisfaction that allows men to weight particular aspects of their body image according to personal importance.

  12. EXERCISE X BCAA SUPPLEMENTATION IN YOUNG TRAINED RATS: WHAT ARE THEIR EFFECTS ON BODY GROWTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lopes de Campos-Ferraz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8: Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex, Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex, Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed. The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation

  13. Body Shape and Weight Loss as Motivators for Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, Sophie C; Witcomb, Gemma L; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-07-11

    Breastfeeding rates in the UK are low. Efforts to promote breastfeeding typically include the known health benefits for mother and child, many of which are not immediate. Gaining immediate benefits can be effective motivators of behaviour. Body-related changes resulting from breastfeeding could be an immediate benefit. This study explored breastfeeding mothers' reports of body-related changes as benefits of breastfeeding. Mothers (N = 182) who currently, or had recently, breastfed an infant completed a survey detailing their infant feeding choices and the perceived benefits of breastfeeding on their bodies. Half of the mothers felt that breastfeeding had a positive effect on their body. Benefits were grouped into five themes: (1) Returning to pre-pregnancy body shape; (2) Health benefits; (3) Physical benefits; (4) Eating benefits; (5) Psychological benefits. These themes highlight the numerous body-related benefits that mothers identified as resulting from breastfeeding and suggest that immediate, personal, and appearance-related gains of breastfeeding are highly valued. These findings indicate that interventions would likely benefit from emphasising the more immediate physical and psychological benefits of breastfeeding, alongside the health and bonding benefits, as a way to promote breastfeeding initiation and continuation in more women. This may be particularly effective for groups such as young mothers, where breastfeeding rates are low and whose emphasis on body image may be greater.

  14. Body Shape and Weight Loss as Motivators for Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie C. Schalla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding rates in the UK are low. Efforts to promote breastfeeding typically include the known health benefits for mother and child, many of which are not immediate. Gaining immediate benefits can be effective motivators of behaviour. Body-related changes resulting from breastfeeding could be an immediate benefit. This study explored breastfeeding mothers’ reports of body-related changes as benefits of breastfeeding. Mothers (N = 182 who currently, or had recently, breastfed an infant completed a survey detailing their infant feeding choices and the perceived benefits of breastfeeding on their bodies. Half of the mothers felt that breastfeeding had a positive effect on their body. Benefits were grouped into five themes: (1 Returning to pre-pregnancy body shape; (2 Health benefits; (3 Physical benefits; (4 Eating benefits; (5 Psychological benefits. These themes highlight the numerous body-related benefits that mothers identified as resulting from breastfeeding and suggest that immediate, personal, and appearance-related gains of breastfeeding are highly valued. These findings indicate that interventions would likely benefit from emphasising the more immediate physical and psychological benefits of breastfeeding, alongside the health and bonding benefits, as a way to promote breastfeeding initiation and continuation in more women. This may be particularly effective for groups such as young mothers, where breastfeeding rates are low and whose emphasis on body image may be greater.

  15. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  16. Serum protein concentration in low-dose total body irradiation of normal and malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, W.C.M.; Lambertz, D.; Borges, E.S.; Neto, A.M.O.; Lambertz, K.M.F.T.; Amaral, A.

    2016-01-01

    Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60. Total protein and Albumin in the blood serum was quantified by colorimetry. This research indicates that procedures involving low-dose total body irradiation in children have repercussions in the reduction in body-mass as well as in the plasma levels of total protein and albumin. Our findings reinforce the periodic monitoring of total serum protein and albumin levels as an important tool in long-term follow-up of pediatric patients in treatments associated to total body irradiation. - Highlights: • Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) in children have repercussions in their body-mass. • Long-term total protein and albumin levels are affected by TBI. • The monitoring of total protein and albumin levels are useful in the follow-up of TBI pediatric patients.

  17. Enhancement recovery of haemostatic system by tocopherol-monoglucoside (TMG) in whole body gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshamy, E.

    2007-01-01

    A preparation of α-tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 600 mg/kg body wt immediately after whole body gamma-irradiation was examined for its radioprotective efficacy towards some haemostatic parameters (protein C, antithrombin III and tissue plasminogen activators). When rats received gamma-rays at a dose of 6.0 Gy, a marked decrease in plasma protein C and antithrombin 111 activities within the early post-irradiated period was observed. On the other hand, increase in tissue plasminogen activators had been found. Accordingly, whole body y-radiation was found to modulate the coagulation system by down regulating the expression of activated protein C (APC), antithrombins and induction of the fibrinolytic systems by hyper regulating the tissue plasminogen activators, modifying in this way, the balance between pro coagulant and anticoagulant activities and so disturbing the homeostasis. This may lead to micro circulatory disturbance, which plays a role in ischemic organ dysfunction. However, these changes were attenuated in TMG-treated mice. Significant protection of the previous parameters was found for the TMG group of rats. The return to normal value of the reduced protein C and antithrombin Ill starting from the 5th day and the increased plasminogen activators starting from the 12 h interval were less in TMG-treated rats than in untreated irradiated rats. Accordingly, TMG administration was found to enhance haemostatic recovery

  18. Can homemade alcohol (Raksi) be useful for preserving dead bodies? An experiment on wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S; Maskey, D; Jha, C B; Bhattacharya, S; Paudel, B H; Shrestha, R N

    2007-01-01

    Embalming is the through disinfection and art of preserving bodies after death using chemical substances. It keeps a body life like in appearance during the time it lies in a state prior to funeral. This study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of Raksi in sacrificed rats in arresting postmortem changes and establishing scientific fact whether Raksi can be an alternative to standard embalming constituent if it is not available. 50 albino rats were systematically randomized into control and experiment groups. Raksi and distilled water were injected for embalming purpose intraventricularly in experiment and control groups of rats respectively and kept for 48 to 96 hours for observation for postmortem changes. Observations made at 48 and 72 hours of embalming revealed that Raksi can arrest postmortem changes in the rats up to 72 hours (3rd day) successfully in the experimental group whereas moderate to severe postmortem changes were seen in the control group. The experimental group showed mild degree of putrefactive changes, liberation of gases and liquefaction of tissues only at 96 hours (4th day) of embalming. The Raksi used in this experiment contained 34% of alcohol, which was determined by an alcohol hydrometer. Experiment clearly demonstrated from its result that raksi can be utilised temporarily for embalming since it contains alcohol and has preservative, bactericidal and disinfectant properties. It is concluded from the study that this knowledge if applied to dead human subjects, may preserve dead bodies temporarily allowing delayed funeral.

  19. An initial boundary value problem for modeling a piezoelectric dipolar body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Marin; Öchsner, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    This study deals with the first initial boundary value problem in elasticity of piezoelectric dipolar bodies. We consider the most general case of an anisotropic and inhomogeneous elastic body having a dipolar structure. For two different types of restrictions imposed on the problem data, we prove two results regarding the uniqueness of solution, by using a different but accessible method. Then, the mixed problem is transformed in a temporally evolutionary equation on a Hilbert space, conveniently constructed based on the problem data. With the help of a known result from the theory of semigroups of operators, the existence and uniqueness of the weak solution for this equation are proved.

  20. Epac Activation Initiates Associative Odor Preference Memories in the Rat Pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Powell, Maria; Gutierrez, Sandra Mohammed; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we examine the role of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in ß-adrenergic-dependent associative odor preference learning in rat pups. Bulbar Epac agonist (8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP, or 8-pCPT) infusions, paired with odor, initiated preference learning, which was selective for the paired odor. Interestingly, pairing odor with Epac…

  1. Measurement of body temperature in normothermic and febrile rats: Limitations of using rectal thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangarembizi, Rachael; Erlwanger, Kennedy H; Mitchell, Duncan; Hetem, Robyn S; Madziva, Michael T; Harden, Lois M

    2017-10-01

    Stress-induced hyperthermia following rectal thermometry is reported in normothermic rats, but appears to be muted or even absent in febrile rats. We therefore investigated whether the use of rectal thermometry affects the accuracy of temperature responses recorded in normothermic and febrile rats. Using intra-abdominally implanted temperature-sensitive radiotelemeters we measured the temperature response to rectal temperature measurement in male Sprague Dawley rats (~200g) injected subcutaneously with Brewer's yeast (20ml/kg of a 20% Brewer's yeast solution=4000mg/kg) or saline (20ml/kg of 0.9% saline). Rats had been pre-exposed to, or were naive to rectal temperature measurement before the injection. The first rectal temperature measurement was taken in the plateau phase of the fever (18h after injection) and at hourly intervals thereafter. In normothermic rats, rectal temperature measurement was associated with an increase in abdominal temperature (0.66±0.27°C) that had a rapid onset (5-10min), peaked at 15-20min and lasted for 35-50min. The hyperthermic response to rectal temperature measurement was absent in febrile rats. Exposure to rectal temperature measurement on two previous occasions did not reduce the hyperthermia. There was a significant positive linear association between temperatures recorded using the two methods, but the agreement interval identified that rectal temperature measured with a thermocouple probe could either be 0.7°C greater or 0.5°C lower than abdominal temperature measured with radiotelemeter. Thus, due to stress-induced hyperthermia, rectal thermometry does not ensure accurate recording of body temperature in short-spaced, intermittent intervals in normothermic and febrile rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise x BCAA Supplementation in Young Trained Rats: What are their Effects on Body Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia Lopes; Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Luz, Silmara Dos Santos; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Tirapegui, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8): Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex), Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex), Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed) and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed). The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day) or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation. Key pointsCartilage proteoglycan synthesis was dramatically reduced in trained animals as a whole.BCAA supplementation augmented liver glycogen stores and reduced proteolysis in our experimental conditionsTrained animals receiving BCAA supplementation featured increased proteoglycan synthesis compared to sedentary ones, probably because BCAA may have attenuated the negative effects of exercise on cartilage development.BCAA supplementation was not capable of neutralizing directly the negative effects of long-term physical training and lower food intake in young male rats on body growth.

  3. Effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in experimental animal models that oxidative stress causes persistent and chronic hyperglycaemia, causing reduction in antioxidant defence system, ultimately leading to accumulation of free radicals.This study was performed to observe the effect of melatonin on serum glucose and body weights in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino rats. Methods: Forty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 4 groups for 6 weeks. Group-A was taken as control. Group-B received streptozotocin I/P in a dose of 37 mg/kg body weight. Group-C received 10 mg/100 ml melatonin in drinking water and Group-D received only melatonin. Results: Streptozotocin significantly increased serum glucose and decreased weight in group B animals, whereas in group C, melatonin significantly restored serum glucose but could not restore the body weights reduced by streptozotocin. There was a significant reduction in body weight in melatonin treated group D animals. Conclusion: Melatonin decreases oxidative stress and hyperglycemia, but cannot restore the body weight reduced by streptozotocin. In fact, it further reduces body weight both in diabetic and normal state. (author)

  4. Effects of whole-body x irradiation on the biogenesis of creatine in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyagarajan, P.; Vakil, U.K.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1977-01-01

    Influences of whole-body x irradiation on various aspects of creatine metabolism have been studied. Exposures to sublethal or lethal doses of x radiation results in excessive urinary excretion as well as higher accumulation of creatine in the skeletal muscle of x-irradiated rats. A sudden fall in CPK activity in muscle with a concomitant rise in serum suggests that changes in serum and tissue CPK activity are of an adaptive nature in rats exposed to sublethal doses of x radiation. In vitro studies on creatine synthesis shows that transaminidase and methyl transferase activities in kidneys and liver, respectively, are decreased on the 5th day in the x-irradiated, are decreased on the 5th day in the x-irradiated rat. However, on the 8th day, the enzyme activities are restored to normal

  5. Dietary treatment for decreasing 141Ce body burden in immature rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kargacin, B.; Kostial, K.; Landeka, M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of prolonged (immediate or delayed) administration of dietary additives to suckling rats on the absorption and retention of radioactive cerium in the body. The experiment was performed on 6-day-old suckling rats. According to dietary treatment the animals were divided into three groups. Each group was artificially fed over 8 h for 6 or 12 days on one of the diets: the first group of animals was fed milk, the second group was given ingredients of rat diet and the third received milk during the first 2 days of the experiment and the ingredients of rat diet afterwards. At the end of the artificial feeding period the pups returned to their mothers and suckled overnight. On the 1st day of the experiment the food was labelled with 141 Ce. Whole body radioactivity was determined in a double crystal scintillation counter every 48 h over a 12-day period. Half of the animals from each group were killed 6 days after 141 Ce administration and the other half after 12 days. At these intervals retention was determined in the gut, liver, kidneys and femur. The early and delayed administration of rat diet ingredients - fish meal, sunflower meal, alfalfa, cane molasses and premix - greatly reduced whole body retention. The early treatment was more efficacious than the delayed one. The reduction was mostly due to decreased gut retention but organ retentions were also lower. The results obtained indicate that by prolonged (immediate or delayed) administration of some dietary means the retention of radioactive cerium in sucklings can be significantly decreased. (orig.)

  6. Dietary treatment for decreasing /sup 141/Ce body burden in immature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargacin, B; Kostial, K; Landeka, M

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of prolonged (immediate or delayed) administration of dietary additives to suckling rats on the absorption and retention of radioactive cerium in the body. The experiment was performed on 6-day-old suckling rats. According to dietary treatment the animals were divided into three groups. Each group was artificially fed over 8 h for 6 or 12 days on one of the diets: the first group of animals was fed milk, the second group was given ingredients of rat diet and the third received milk during the first 2 days of the experiment and the ingredients of rat diet afterwards. At the end of the artificial feeding period the pups returned to their mothers and suckled overnight. On the 1st day of the experiment the food was labelled with /sup 141/Ce. Whole body radioactivity was determined in a double crystal scintillation counter every 48 h over a 12-day period. Half of the animals from each group were killed 6 days after /sup 141/Ce administration and the other half after 12 days. At these intervals retention was determined in the gut, liver, kidneys and femur. The early and delayed administration of rat diet ingredients - fish meal, sunflower meal, alfalfa, cane molasses and premix - greatly reduced whole body retention. The early treatment was more efficacious than the delayed one. The reduction was mostly due to decreased gut retention but organ retentions were also lower. The results obtained indicate that by prolonged (immediate or delayed) administration of some dietary means the retention of radioactive cerium in sucklings can be significantly decreased.

  7. Polysaccharide peptide induces a tumor necrosis factor-α-dependent drop of body temperature in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejewski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Jakub; Wrotek, Sylwia; Kozak, Wieslaw

    2014-08-01

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) extracted from the Coriolus versicolor mushroom is frequently suggested as an adjunct to the chemo- or radiotherapy in cancer patients. It improves quality of the patients' life by decreasing pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. However, the effect of PSP on body temperature has not thus far been studied, although it is well known that treatment with other polysaccharide adjuvants, such as lipopolysaccharides, may induce fever. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the influence of PSP on temperature regulation in rats. We report that intraperitoneal injection of PSP provoked a dose-dependent decrease of temperature in male Wistar rats equipped with biotelemetry devices to monitor deep body temperature (Tb). The response was rapid (i.e., with latency of 15-20min), transient (lasting up to 5h post-injection), and accompanied by a significant elevation of the blood tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level. Pretreatment of the rats with anti-TNF-α antibody prevented the PSP-induced drop in Tb. Based on these data, we conclude that rats may develop an anapyrexia-like response to the injection of peptidopolysaccharide rather than fever, and the response was TNF-α-dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Whole Body Low Dose Radiation (WB-LDR) on diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of type II diabetic mice to LDR has been shown to significantly up regulate pancreatic antioxidants along with reduction of glucose levels. Present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of WB-LDR on type II diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats (n=18) were pre-treated with Alloxan Monohydrate (150 mg/kg body weight, IP) to induce hyperglycemia. Elevated level of blood glucose was monitored for consecutive 10 days by Glucometer (Accu-Chek, Active) before irradiation. Two group of rats (n=12) were exposed to single dose of 0.25 Gy and 0.5 Gy of gamma radiation at the rate of 1.02 Gy/minute. Blood glucose level, feed, water intake and body weight was monitored for 10 days post irradiation. Results revealed weight loss, polydipsia, polyphagia and elevated blood glucose level up to 10th day in diabetic control, whereas; reverse trend was observed from 7th day post irradiation in two treated groups. However, no significant difference was found between two treated groups. The results indicate that treatment with WB-LDR reduces the blood-glucose level and so its complications in diabetic rats. (author)

  9. Continuous gamma irradiation influence on food intake, body weight, and weight of some rat organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z [Institute of Neurobiology SAV, Kosice (Czechoslovakia); Sedlakova, A; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1977-01-01

    Food intake, body weight and weight of some organs were studied in male Wistar rats within 25 days of continuous gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 15.48 x 10/sup -3/ C/kg (6O R) per day in an experimental gamma field. A decrease in food intake and body weight and a decrease in thymus and spleen weights were found during the first week in irradiated rats. The thymus and spleen involutions did not progress within the second week. From the beginning of the third week till the end of the experiment the irradiated animals increased their weight and the food intake was even higher during the last week of irradiation in comparison with controls. The spleen and thymus involutions stopped but the weight remained at the lower level. The relative weight of the adrenal glands in irradiated animals only increased at the end of the period.

  10. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  11. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  12. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)]. E-mail: woody@bnl.gov; Vaska, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schlyer, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Pratte, J.-F. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Junnarkar, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Park, S.-J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Stoll, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Purschke, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Southekal, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kriplani, A. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Krishnamoorthy, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Maramraju, S. [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lee, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Schiffer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Dewey, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Neill, J. [Long Island University, Brookville, NY (United States); Kandasamy, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Radeka, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Fontaine, R. [Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Que. (Canada); Lecomte, R. [Sherbrooke University, Sherbrooke, Que. (Canada)

    2007-02-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4x8 array of 2.2x2.2x5 mm{sup 3} LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of {approx}14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP.

  13. Initial studies using the RatCAP conscious animal PET tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.; Vaska, P.; Schlyer, D.; Pratte, J.-F.; Junnarkar, S.; Park, S.-J.; Stoll, S.; Purschke, M.; Southekal, S.; Kriplani, A.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Maramraju, S.; Lee, D.; Schiffer, W.; Dewey, S.; Neill, J.; Kandasamy, A.; O'Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Fontaine, R.; Lecomte, R.

    2007-01-01

    The RatCAP is a small, head-mounted PET tomograph designed to image the brain of a conscious rat without the use of anesthesia. The detector is a complete, high-performance 3D tomograph consisting of a 3.8 cm inside-diameter ring containing 12 block detectors, each of which is comprised of a 4x8 array of 2.2x2.2x5 mm 3 LSO crystals readout with a matching APD array and custom ASIC, and has a 1.8 cm axial field of view. Construction of the first working prototype detector has been completed and its performance characteristics have been measured. The results show an intrinsic spatial resolution of 2.1 mm, a time resolution of ∼14 ns FWHM, and a sensitivity of 0.7% at an energy threshold of 150 keV. First preliminary images have been obtained using 18 F-FDG and 11 C-methamphetamine, which show comparable image quality to those obtained from a commercial MicroPET R4 scanner. Initial studies have also been carried out to study stress levels in rats wearing the RatCAP

  14. The carotid body of the spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The carotid bodies from adult spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetic rats (strain BB/S were perfusion-fixed at normal arterial blood pressure with 3% phosphate-buffered glutaraldehyde and compared with the organs from control rats (strain BB/Sc prepared in the same way. Serial 5-µm sections were cut, stained, and using an interactive image analysis system, were analysed to determine the volumes of the carotid body and its vascular and extravascular compartments. There was no evidence of systemic arterial disease in the carotid stem arteries in either group of animals, and the microvasculature of the organs appeared normal by light microscopy. The volume of the carotid body was unchanged 3 months after the onset of diabetes but was increased at 6 months. The total vascular volume of the organ was unchanged, but the volume of the small vessels (5-12 µm was increased. In the control group the small vessels comprised 5% of the total volume of the carotid body, or about 44% of the vascular compartment. The percentage of small vessels increased at 3 months in the diabetic group, but had returned to normal at 6 months. The extravascular volume followed the same pattern as the total carotid body volume and so did not change appreciably when expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the organ. The increase in size of the carotid body in diabetic rats is due, therefore, to an augmented extravascular volume. In one diabetic specimen the carotid sinus nerve showed signs of diabetic neuropathy, axonal swelling and intramyelinic oedema. The clinical implications of these results are discussed.

  15. Percutaneous fiducial marker placement prior to stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Kengo; Shimohira, Masashi; Murai, Taro; Nishimura, Junichi; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Hashizume, Takuya; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe our initial experience with a gold flexible linear fiducial marker and to evaluate the safety and technical and clinical efficacy of stereotactic body radiotherapy using this marker for malignant liver tumors. Between July 2012 and February 2015, 18 patients underwent percutaneous fiducial marker placement before stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors. We evaluated the technical and clinical success rates of the procedure and the associated complications. Technical success was defined as successful placement of the fiducial marker at the target site, and clinical success was defined as the completion of stereotactic body radiotherapy without the marker dropping out of position. All 18 fiducial markers were placed successfully, so the technical success rate was 100% (18/18). All 18 patients were able to undergo stereotactic body radiotherapy without marker migration. Thus, the clinical success rate was 100% (18/18). Slight pneumothorax occurred as a minor complication in one case. No major complications such as coil migration or bleeding were observed. The examined percutaneous fiducial marker was safely placed in the liver and appeared to be useful for stereotactic body radiotherapy for malignant liver tumors

  16. Effect of dietary protein quality on the resistance of rats to total body radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounous, G.; Pageau, R.

    1983-02-01

    Young rats have been fed four defined-formula diets before and after ..gamma..-irradiation (700 rd (7.0 Gy), 75 rd/min (750 mGy), 80 cm from the source, total body). Animals eating a diet containing lactalbumin hydrolyzate (20 g/100 g diet) exhibited less anorexia and weight loss following ..gamma..-rays than a corresponding group eating casein hydrolyzate (20 g/100 g diet).

  17. Late biochemical changes in the rat lung after whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancewicz, A.M.; Kubicka, T.

    1976-01-01

    Young Wistar rats were exposed to 650 R of whole body X-rays then sacrificed at different times after exposure up to one year, and various biochemical parameters in lung tissue were determined. Decrease in protein and elastin content and elevation in fibrinolytic and catheptic activity lasted during the whole observation period. In other parameters a fluctuation, mostly decrease followed by an increase, was seen only during the acute phase of radiation disease. (author)

  18. Mechanisms of taurine hyperexcretion after whole-body irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrovnaya, L.A.; Lapteva, T.A.; Dokshina, G.A.; Baranova, M.I.

    1976-01-01

    Mechanisms of postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine with urine have been investigated. In the course of three days after a whole-body exposure of rats (700 rads), the excretion of taurine increases. The experiments in vitro have demonstrated that taurine synthesis decreases in the thymus and liver of irradiated animals. The experiments conducted have shown that the postirradiation hyperexcretion of taurine is partly due to its release from the lymohoid tissue (thymus)

  19. Low body weight and cardiac tolerance to ischemia in neonatal rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chvojková, Zuzana; Ošťádalová, Ivana; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2005), s. 357-362 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/00/1659; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : low body weight * cardiac tolerance to ischemia * neonatal rats Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  20. Autoradiographic changes in the kidney of the whole-body sublethally x-ray irradiated rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olinic, A; Uray, Z

    1977-01-01

    203Hg-hydroxymersalyl uptake/gram of kidney (HU), renal autoradiographic and histologic aspect after 800 R x-ray whole-body rat irradiation was studied. Twenty-four to seventy-two hours after irradiation, HU increased, while tubular autoradiographic granularity decreased. Their return to the control levels occurred gradually within two weeks. The relations of these findings to the early circulatory and dystrophic changes, as well as to the subsequent postirradiation restoring renal process are discussed.

  1. In vivo determination of body composition of rats using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Vasselli, J; Wu, E; Gallagher, D

    2000-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has potential as an instrument to measure body composition because it can discriminate various soft tissues in vivo. These soft tissues include adipose tissue, muscle, organs, and brain. We report on preliminary studies using a 4.2-tesla MRI for measuring body composition in the mouse and rat. We employed image segmentation methods that include an image correction method, a necessary requirement when the images are taken in the presence of nonuniform radio-frequency (RF) coil response. The software for 3-D data segmentation, quantification, correction, image manipulation, and visualization has been developed as a research tool. This method currently is being validated.

  2. Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassab, F.M.A.; Taha, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

  3. Effect of liposome entrapped Cu/Zn bovine superoxide dismutase in rat after total body (neutron-gamma) irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, I.; Martin, S.; Lambert, F.; Fontanille, P.; Fessi, H.; Puisieux, F.; Colas-Linhart, N.; Bok, B.; Fatome, M.; Martin, C.

    1998-01-01

    Our purpose was, to study in rat the effects of (neutron-gamma) exposure and of LIPSOD treatment (liposomal Cu/Zn super-oxide dismutase) on cognitive functions. Our data demonstrate that whole-body irradiation induces in Sprague-Dawley rats some cognitive dysfunction. Treatment using LIPSOD corrects in a significantly way this trend. Moreover, in sham-irradiated rats, this treatment shows an inhibitory effect. (authors)

  4. Diethylnitrosamine initiation does not alter clofibric acid-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cecile; Desdouets, Chantal; Slaoui, Mohamed; Isaacs, Kevin Robert; Roberts, Ruth Angela; Boitier, Eric

    2007-09-01

    Clofibric acid (CLO) is a nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogen in rodents that causes altered hepatocellular foci and/or neoplasms. Initiation by DNA-damaging agents such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) accelerates focus and tumor appearance and could therefore significantly contribute to shortening of the regulatory 2-year rodent carcinogenicity bioassays. However, it is crucial to evaluate the histological and molecular impact of initiation with DEN on hepatocarcinogenesis promoted by CLO. Male F344 rats were given a single nonnecrogenic injection of DEN (0 or 30 mg/kg) followed by Control diet or CLO (5000 ppm) in diet for up to 20 months. Histopathology and gene expression profiling were performed in liver tumors and surrounding nontumoral liver tissues. The molecular signature of DEN was characterized and its histopathological and immunohistopathological effects on focus and tumor types were also determined. Although foci and tumors appeared earlier in the DEN+CLO-treated group compared to the group treated with CLO alone, DEN had little impact on gene expression in nontumoral tissues since the gene expression profiles were highly similar between Control and DEN-treated rats, and DEN+CLO- and CLO-treated rats. Finally, tumors obtained from DEN+CLO and CLO-treated groups displayed highly correlated gene expression profiles (r>0.83, independently of the time-point). The pathways involved in tumor development revealed by Gene Ontology functional analysis are similar when driven either by spontaneous initiation or by a chemically induced initiation step. Our work described here may contribute to the design optimization of shorter preclinical tests for the evaluation of the nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenic potential of drugs under development.

  5. Caloric Restriction in Lean and Obese Strains of Laboratory Rat: Effects on Body Composition, Metabolism, Growth, and Overall Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How do lean and obese rats respond physiologically to caloric restriction? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese rats show marked benefits compared with lean animals. Reduced body fat is associated with improv...

  6. Tail position affects the body temperature of rats during cold exposure in a low-energy state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yuki; Tokizawa, Ken; Nakamura, Mayumi; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Nagashima, Kei

    2012-02-01

    Rats place their tails underneath their body trunks when cold (tail-hiding behavior). The aim of the present study was to determine whether this behavior is necessary to maintain body temperature. Male Wistar rats were divided into 'fed' and '42-h fasting' groups. A one-piece tail holder (8.4 cm in length) that prevented the tail-hiding behavior or a three-piece tail holder (2.8 cm in length) that allowed for the tail-hiding behavior was attached to the tails of the rats. The rats were exposed to 27°C for 180 min or to 20°C for 90 min followed by 15°C for 90 min with continuous body temperature and oxygen consumption measurements. Body temperature decreased by -1.0 ± 0.1°C at 15°C only in the rats that prevented tail-hiding behavior of the 42-h fasting group, and oxygen consumption increased at 15°C in all animals. Oxygen consumption was not different between the rats that prevented tail-hiding behavior and the rats that allowed the behavior in the fed and 42-h fasting groups under ambient conditions. These results show that the tail-hiding behavior is involved in thermoregulation in the cold in fasting rats.

  7. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on the appearance of osteoblasts during wound healing in tooth extraction sockets in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Kudo, Kohsei; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Sakakura, Yasunori; Irie, Kazuharu

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation before tooth extraction delays wound healing in the alveolar socket. This study examined the influences of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance of osteoblasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars because bone formation is observed at the initial phase of wound healing. Several osteoblasts were generated 3 days after tooth extraction, and the number of cells increased day by day. Morphological studies showed there were little differences between local irradiation and non-irradiated controls. In contrast, the extraction wound in the whole body irradiation group showed delayed healing, and there was poor granulation tissue and very few osteoblasts at the bottom of the socket. An ultrastructural study showed that the osteoblasts in the extraction socket of whole body irradiation rats were smaller, and had poorly developed organelles. Injection of bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction partially restored the number of osteoblasts. New periosteal bone formations outside of sockets showed little delay in the whole body irradiation group. These findings suggest that bone formation in the wound healing of extraction socket requires bone marrow cells from hematopoietic organs such as the bone marrow as well as local sources around the alveolar socket, during the initial phase of wound healing. (author)

  8. Effects of local and whole body irradiation on the appearance of osteoblasts during wound healing in tooth extraction sockets in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Sakakura, Yasunori; Irie, Kazuharu; Kudo, Kohsei; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation before tooth extraction delays wound healing in the alveolar socket. This study examined the influences of local and whole body irradiation before tooth extraction on appearance of osteoblasts in the alveolar bone of rat maxillary first molars because bone formation is observed at the initial phase of wound healing. Several osteoblasts were generated 3 days after tooth extraction, and the number of cells increased day by day. Morphological studies showed there were little differences between local irradiation and non-irradiated controls. In contrast, the extraction wound in the whole body irradiation group showed delayed healing, and there was poor granulation tissue and very few osteoblasts at the bottom of the socket. An ultrastructural study showed that the osteoblasts in the extraction socket of whole body irradiation rats were smaller, and had poorly developed organelles. Injection of bone marrow cells to whole body-irradiated animals immediately after tooth extraction partially restored the number of osteoblasts. New periosteal bone formations outside of sockets showed little delay in the whole body irradiation group. These findings suggest that bone formation in the wound healing of extraction socket requires bone marrow cells from hematopoietic organs such as the bone marrow as well as local sources around the alveolar socket, during the initial phase of wound healing.

  9. Caloric restriction in lean and obese strains of laboratory rat: effects on body composition, metabolism, growth and overall health

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data related to obese and lean strains of rat commonly used in the laboratory that are calorically restricted and its effects on physiologic parameters (Body...

  10. Effect of genetic strain and gender on age-related changes in body composition of the laboratory rat.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Body composition data for common laboratory strains of rat as a function of age. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gordon , C., K. Jarema ,...

  11. Quantification of discreteness effects in cosmological N-body simulations: Initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, M.; Marcos, B.

    2007-01-01

    The relation between the results of cosmological N-body simulations, and the continuum theoretical models they simulate, is currently not understood in a way which allows a quantification of N dependent effects. In this first of a series of papers on this issue, we consider the quantification of such effects in the initial conditions of such simulations. A general formalism developed in [A. Gabrielli, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066131 (2004).] allows us to write down an exact expression for the power spectrum of the point distributions generated by the standard algorithm for generating such initial conditions. Expanded perturbatively in the amplitude of the input (i.e. theoretical, continuum) power spectrum, we obtain at linear order the input power spectrum, plus two terms which arise from discreteness and contribute at large wave numbers. For cosmological type power spectra, one obtains as expected, the input spectrum for wave numbers k smaller than that characteristic of the discreteness. The comparison of real space correlation properties is more subtle because the discreteness corrections are not as strongly localized in real space. For cosmological type spectra the theoretical mass variance in spheres and two-point correlation function are well approximated above a finite distance. For typical initial amplitudes this distance is a few times the interparticle distance, but it diverges as this amplitude (or, equivalently, the initial redshift of the cosmological simulation) goes to zero, at fixed particle density. We discuss briefly the physical significance of these discreteness terms in the initial conditions, in particular, with respect to the definition of the continuum limit of N-body simulations

  12. Pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives may reduce body weight in rats with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Magdalena; Knutelska, Joanna; Bednarski, Marek; Nowiński, Leszek; Zygmunt, Małgorzata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Mordyl, Barbara; Głuch-Lutwin, Monika; Zaręba, Paula; Kulig, Katarzyna; Sapa, Jacek

    2016-04-05

    Obesity affects an increasing number of individuals in the human population and significant importance is attached to research leading to the discovery of drug which would effectively reduce weight. The search for new drugs with anorectic activity and acting within the adrenergic system has attracted the interest of researchers. This study concerns the experimental effects on body weight of α2-adrenoceptor antagonists from the group of pyrrolidin-2-one derivatives in rats with diet-induced obesity. The intrinsic activity of the test compounds at the α-adrenoreceptors was tested. Obesity in rats was obtained by the use of fatty diet and then the influence of the test compounds on body weight, food and water intakes, lipid and glucose profiles and glycerol and cortisol levels were determinated. The effects of the compounds on locomotor activity, body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate were tested. One of the test compounds (1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one) reduces the animal's body weight and the amount of peritoneal adipose tissue during chronic administration, at the same time it does not cause significant adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. This compound decreases temperature and elevates glycerol levels and does not change the locomotor activity and cortisol level at anti-obese dose. Some derivatives of pyrrolidin-2-one that act as antagonists of the α2-adrenoreceptor may reduce body weight. Reducing body weight for 1-(3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl)pyrrolidin-2-one can be associated with decrease in food intake, body fat reduction, reduction of blood glucose, and increased thermogenesis and lipolysis. This effect cannot be the result of changes in spontaneous activity or stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tail nerve electrical stimulation induces body weight-supported stepping in rats with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Huang, Fengfa; Gates, Mary; White, Jason; Holmberg, Eric G

    2010-03-30

    Walking or stepping has been considered the result from the activation of the central pattern generator (CPG). In most patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) the CPG is undamaged. To date, there are no noninvasive approaches for activating the CPG. Recently we developed a noninvasive technique, tail nerve electrical stimulation (TANES), which can induce positive hind limb movement of SCI rats. The purpose of this study is to introduce the novel technique and examine the effect of TANES on CPG activation. A 25 mm contusion injury was produced at spinal cord T10 of female, adult Long-Evans rats by using the NYU impactor device. Rats received TANES ( approximately 40 mA at 4 kHz) 7 weeks after injury. During TANES all injured rats demonstrated active body weight-supported stepping of hind limbs with left-right alternation and occasional front-hind coordination, resulting in significant, temporary increase in BBB scores (p<0.01). However, there is no response to TANES from rats with L2 transection, consistent with other reports that the CPG may be located at L1-2. S1 transection negatively implies the key role of TANES in CPG activation. The TANES not only renders paralyzed rats with a technique-induced ability to walk via activating CPG, but also is likely to be used for locomotor training. It has more beneficial effects for physical training over other training paradigms including treadmill training and invasive functional electrical stimulation. Therefore the TANES may have considerable potential for achieving improvement of functional recovery in animal models and a similar method may be suggested for human study. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ept7 influences estrogen action in the pituitary gland and body weight of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Scott G; Dennison, Kirsten L; Samanas, Nyssa Becker; Hickman, Maureen Peters; Eckert, Quincy A; Walker, Tiffany L; Cupp, Andrea S; Shull, James D

    2014-06-01

    Estrogens control many aspects of pituitary gland biology, including regulation of lactotroph homeostasis and synthesis and secretion of prolactin. In rat models, these actions are strain specific and heritable, and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been mapped that impact the responsiveness of the lactotroph to estrogens. One such QTL, Ept7, was mapped to RNO7 in female progeny generated in an intercross between BN rats, in which the lactotroph population is insensitive to estrogens, and ACI rats, which develop lactotroph hyperplasia/adenoma and associated hyperprolactinemia in response to estrogen treatment. The primary objective of this study was to confirm the existence of Ept7 and to quantify the impact of this QTL on responsiveness of the pituitary gland of female and male rats to 17β-estradiol (E2) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), respectively. Secondary objectives were to determine if Ept7 influences the responsiveness of the male reproductive tract to DES and to identify other discernible phenotypes influenced by Ept7. To achieve these objectives, a congenic rat strain that harbors BN alleles across the Ept7 interval on the genetic background of the ACI strain was generated and characterized to define the effect of administered estrogens on the anterior pituitary gland and male reproductive tissues. Data presented herein indicate Ept7 exerts a marked effect on development of lactotroph hyperplasia in response to estrogen treatment, but does not affect atrophy of the male reproductive tissues in response to hormone treatment. Ept7 was also observed to exert gender specific effects on body weight in young adult rats.

  15. Moderate red-wine consumption partially prevents body weight gain in rats fed a hyperlipidic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Montserrat; Bargalló, Montserrat Vadillo; Ardévol, Anna; Grau, Anna Ardévol; Fernández-Larrea, Juan; Fernández-Larrea, Juan de Dios; Pujadas, Gerard; Anguiano, Gerard Pujadas; Bladé, Cinta; Segarra, Maria Cinta Bladé; Salvadó, Maria Josepa; Rovira, Maria Josepa Salvadó; Arola, Lluís; Ferré, Lluia Arola; Blay, Mayte; Olivé, Mayte Blay

    2006-02-01

    Red wine is a beverage that can exert a broad spectrum of health-promoting actions both in humans and laboratory animal models if consumed moderately. However, information about its effect on body weight is scarce. We have evaluated the effect of moderate red wine consumption on body weight and energy intake in male Zucker lean rats fed a hypercaloric diet for 8 weeks. For this purpose, we used three 5-animal groups: a high-fat diet group (HFD), a high-fat-diet red-wine-drinking group (HFRWD), and a standard diet group (SD). After 8 weeks, the HFRWD group had a lower body weight gain (175.66 +/- 2.78% vs 188.22 +/- 4.83%; Pred wine didn't modified the fed efficiency 0.012 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for HFRWD group versus 0.013 +/- 0.001 g/KJ for the HFD one (P=.080). These findings, though preliminary, show that moderate red wine intake can prevent the increase of body weight by modulating energy intake in a rat diet-induced model of obesity.

  16. Method for solving the problem of nonlinear heating a cylindrical body with unknown initial temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaparova, N.

    2017-10-01

    We consider the problem of heating a cylindrical body with an internal thermal source when the main characteristics of the material such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and material density depend on the temperature at each point of the body. We can control the surface temperature and the heat flow from the surface inside the cylinder, but it is impossible to measure the temperature on axis and the initial temperature in the entire body. This problem is associated with the temperature measurement challenge and appears in non-destructive testing, in thermal monitoring of heat treatment and technical diagnostics of operating equipment. The mathematical model of heating is represented as nonlinear parabolic PDE with the unknown initial condition. In this problem, both the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are given and it is required to calculate the temperature values at the internal points of the body. To solve this problem, we propose the numerical method based on using of finite-difference equations and a regularization technique. The computational scheme involves solving the problem at each spatial step. As a result, we obtain the temperature function at each internal point of the cylinder beginning from the surface down to the axis. The application of the regularization technique ensures the stability of the scheme and allows us to significantly simplify the computational procedure. We investigate the stability of the computational scheme and prove the dependence of the stability on the discretization steps and error level of the measurement results. To obtain the experimental temperature error estimates, computational experiments were carried out. The computational results are consistent with the theoretical error estimates and confirm the efficiency and reliability of the proposed computational scheme.

  17. Low dose DDT inhibition of hepatocarcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosamine in male rats: Possible mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushida, Masahiko; Sukata, Tokuo; Uwagawa, Satoshi; Ozaki, Keisuke; Kinoshita, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Morimura, Keiichirou; Okuno, Yasuyoshi; Fukushima, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    Previously we reported a tendency for reduction of the development of glutathione-S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci, recognized as preneoplastic changes in rat liver, by a low dose of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), which belongs to the same group of hepatic cytochrome P-450 inducers as phenobarbital and is itself a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen. In order to clarify the biological significance of this phenomenon, we investigated the reproducibility and changes in other parameters using an initiation-promotion model in which male F344 rats were treated with DDT at doses of 0, 0.005, 0.5, 500 ppm in the diet for 11 or 43 weeks after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN). When 500 ppm DDT was applied, the formation of GST-P positive foci and tumor were markedly elevated. In contrast, induction of GST-P positive foci and liver tumors tended to be inhibited at a dose of 0.005 ppm, correlating with protein levels of cytochrome P450 2B1 and 3A2 (CYP2B1 and 3A2) and generation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage. mRNA levels for 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1), an 8-OHdG repair enzyme, connexin 32 (Cx32), a major component of Gap junctions, and hepatic nuclear factor 1α (HNF-1α), a Cx32 regulator, were inversely correlated with GST-P positive foci and tumor formation. These results indicate that low dose DDT may indeed exhibit inhibitory effects on chemically initiated-rat hepatocarcinogenicity, in contrast to the promotion observed with high doses, and that this is related to changes in metabolizing enzymes, cell communication, and DNA damage and its repair

  18. Rrol of Zinc Cystenine in the Regulation of Metallothionnein Induction in whole body gamma irradiation rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, Kh. Sh.; Zaharn, A.M.; Noaman, E.

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant competence of metallothionein (MT) in cellular injury lunched by free radicals released in view of ionizing radiation has been proposed. The present work was conducted to elucidate the role of Zinc cysteine in the regulation of metallothionein induction in whole body gamma irradiated rats. cysteine was delivered to rats via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at a concentration of 25-mg/kg body weight/day for two successive 2 days. The second injection was 30- min. pre irradiation. Whole body γ- irradiation at dose level 6.5 Gy induced significant increase in the levels of metallothionein in all investigated tissues (serum, liver and kidney) accompanied with significant increase in the levels of Zn in the liver. Cu concentrations increased in serum and kidney and decreased significantly in liver tissues. Data of lipid peroxidation demonstrated significant increase in TBARS as compared with control valuws in serum, liver and kidney. Iron was decreased significantly in serum and liver but a significant increase was recorded in kidney at 7 days after irradiation. Ca increased significantly in the liver only as compared with control rats. In addition, K concentration increased significantly in serum, liver and kidney while, P increased in serum and liver when compared with control values. The administration of zinc cysteine pre-irradiation induces significant increases in liver metallothionin from irradiated rat's value. It is only serum show significant decrease in level of MT from the irradiated rat's value on the 1st day post irradiation. However, the changes observed in the levels of Zn, Cu, Iron and Ca, K and P are less manifested when compared with values of irradiated animals. The reduction in the levels of TBARS was obvious comparing with irradiated rat's data. The amelioration occurred in the levels of Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, P and K when, zinc cysteine administrated before irradiation postulate the positive role zinc cysteine in the adjustment of

  19. Alterations in tissue lipids of rats subjected to whole-body X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, A K; Aiyar, A S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1978-02-01

    Whole-body irradiation of rats at sublethal doses leads to hepatic lipid accumulation which reaches a maximum by the sixth day; this effect on lipid metabolism does not appear to be due to accompanying inanition but due to irradiation per se. The female rats show a greater and more consistent increase in liver lipids than males and this better response of the females is not abolished by prolonged administration of testosterone to these animals. An accumulation of triglycerides accounts for almost all the increases in total liver lipids, although smaller elevations in the levels of free fatty acids and cholesterol are also seen. Free fatty acids of liver show a marked decrease on the second day following irradiation. Serum lipids do not show any appreciable changes while adipose lipids progressively decrease reaching a minimum by the sixth day. Although an insufficiency of ATP may be responsible for lipid accumulation in the irradiated rat as in the case in rats treated with ethionine or orotic acid, adenine administration, which prevents fatty infiltration due to these chemical agents, does not protect against the radiation-induced increase in liver triglycerides.

  20. Liuwei Dihuang Lowers Body Weight and Improves Insulin and Leptin Sensitivity in Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Perry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the efficacy and mechanism(s of action of a Chinese herbal formulation, Liuwei Dihuang (LWDH, as a prospective natural weight-lowering product. Following a 2-week acclimation period, 48 obesity-prone (OP-CD rats were divided into 4 groups (n=12 each. One group served as a positive control for obesity (OP, while the other 3 were challenged twice daily by oral gavage with total daily dosages of 500, 1500, or 3500 mg/kg BW LWDH, respectively, for 10 weeks. One group (n=12 of obesity-resistant (OR-CD rats served as the normal control group. All rats were fed the same AIN-93G diet modified to contain 60% energy from fat. The highest LWDH dose significantly reduced body weight during the last 4 weeks of treatment. Food intake was reduced beginning in week 2. The high LWDH dose lowered serum triglyceride (TG and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and body fat. Both the high and medium doses also lowered serum leptin and insulin levels. Liver function testing revealed no adverse side effects under the current experimental conditions. The results of the present study suggest that LWDH has potential as a preventive or therapeutic natural product against overweight and obesity.

  1. Whole-body metabolism varies across the estrous cycle in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G C; McKee, M E; Bishop, C; Coscina, D V

    2001-10-01

    Food intake in rats and other mammals is lowest at estrus and highest at diestrus. While much is known about the effects of different estrous phases on energy intake, as well as some of the metabolic effects the associated hormones exert, little has been reported about changes in whole-body metabolism that accompany those phases. This study investigates how energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) vary in intact female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) tested mid-light cycle over 2 h on days associated with estrus vs. diestrus. Rats showed small but reliable decreases in body weight on days associated with estrus, but not diestrus. EE was significantly increased by approximately 21% on the day associated with estrus compared to diestrus. At the same time, RQ was significantly decreased by approximately 7% on the day associated with estrus, indicating a relative shift to fat over carbohydrate as the energy substrate to support energetic needs. Future investigations of ingestive processes can integrate the present findings to investigate how gender differences in feeding and metabolism contribute to regulatory behaviors.

  2. Radioprotection of liver lipids of whole-body gamma-irradiated female rats by cystamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, R.; Misra, U.K.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of administration of cystamine (5 mg/100 g body weight) before 1,200 R whole-body gamma irradiation has been studied on irradiation-induced changes in liver and its subcellular fractions'lipids of fasted female rats. Cystamine prevented the irradiation-induced increase in liver triglycerides and liver mitochondrial total phospholipids, but it decreased microsomal total phospholipids and proteins. Cystamine prevented the radiation-induced increased 32 P-radioactivity (counts/min/μmole phospholipid phosphorus) of microsomal phosphatidyl choline. Cystamine prevented the radiation-induced increased uptake of NaH 2 32 PO 4 (counts/min/g liver) in liver microsomal phosphatidyl ethanolamine and supernatant phosphatidyl choline; but in microsomal phosphatidyl choline, cystamine did not do so, but on the other hand it itself increased the uptake in control rats. Cystamine did not prevent the irradiation-induced decreased incorporation of (U- 14 C)glucose into liver triglycerides, total phospholipids and phosphatidyl choline. Cystamine itself decreased the incorporation of (U- 14 C)glucose into liver triglycerides and phosphoglycerides of control rats. (orig.) [de

  3. Protection from radiation induced changes in liver and serum transaminase of whole body gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkashef, H.S.; Roushdy, H.M.; Saada, H.N.; Abdelsamie, M.

    1986-01-01

    Whole body gamma irradiation of rats with a dose of 5.5 Gy induced significant changes in the activity of liver and serum transaminase. The results indicated that this radiation dose caused a significant increase in the activity of serum Got and GPT on the third and seventh days after irradiation. This was followed by significant decreases on the fourteenth post-irradiation day. The activity of Got returned to is control activity, while the activity of GPT was significantly above the control on the twenty ones post-irradiation day. The activity of Got, in the liver of irradiated rats was elevated during the post-irradiation days, but on the twenty one day activity was about the normal value. The activity of liver GPT firstly decreased and then increased very much but attained the control level on the fourteenth after irradiation. The intraperitoneal injection of testosterone-vitamin E mixture 10 days before whole body gamma irradiation caused complete recovery for the activity of liver and serum Got. No indication of remarkable recovery in the case of GPT activity was recorded either in liver or in serum of irradiated rats. The applied mixture could protect against radiation induced changes in Got activity of liver and serum but could not protect or ameliorate the changes which occurred in the activity of GPT of the two tissues. 2 tab

  4. Analysis of time-dependent adaptations in whole-body energy balance in obesity induced by high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghdoori Babak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-fat (HF diet has been extensively used as a model to study metabolic disorders of human obesity in rodents. However, the adaptive whole-body metabolic responses that drive the development of obesity with chronically feeding a HF diet are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the physiological mechanisms by which whole-body energy balance and substrate partitioning are adjusted in the course of HF diet-induced obesity. Methods Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum either a standard or a HF diet for 8 weeks. Food intake (FI and body weight were monitored daily, while oxygen consumption, respiratory exchange ratio, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE were assessed weekly. At week 8, fat mass and lean body mass (LBM, fatty acid oxidation and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1 content in brown adipose tissue (BAT, as well as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC content in liver and epidydimal fat were measured. Results Within 1 week of ad libitum HF diet, rats were able to spontaneously reduce FI to precisely match energy intake of control rats, indicating that alterations in dietary energy density were rapidly detected and FI was self-regulated accordingly. Oxygen consumption was higher in HF than controls throughout the study as whole-body fat oxidation also progressively increased. In HF rats, EE initially increased, but then reduced as dark cycle ambulatory activity reached values ~38% lower than controls. No differences in LBM were detected; however, epidydimal, inguinal, and retroperitoneal fat pads were 1.85-, 1.89-, and 2.54-fold larger in HF-fed than control rats, respectively. Plasma leptin was higher in HF rats than controls throughout the study, indicating the induction of leptin resistance by HF diet. At week 8, UCP-1 content and palmitate oxidation in BAT were 3.1- and 1.5-fold higher in HF rats than controls, respectively, while ACC content in liver and epididymal fat was markedly reduced

  5. Unmasking a sustained negative effect of SGLT2 inhibition on body fluid volume in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yuko; Fukuda, Keiko; Watanabe, Minami; Onishi, Akira; Ohara, Ken; Imai, Toshimi; Koepsell, Hermann; Muto, Shigeaki; Vallon, Volker; Nagata, Daisuke

    2018-05-23

    The chronic intrinsic diuretic and natriuretic tone of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors is incompletely understood, because their effect on body fluid volume (BFV) has not been fully evaluated and because they often increase food and fluid intake at the same time. Here we first compared the effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin (Ipra, 0.01% in diet for 8 weeks) and vehicle (Veh) in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rat, a non-obese type 2 diabetic model, and non-diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. In non-diabetic rats, Ipra increased urinary excretion of Na+ (UNaV) and fluid (UV) associated with increased food and fluid intake. Diabetes increased these 4 parameters, but Ipra had no further effect; probably due to its antihyperglycemic effect, such that glucosuria and as a consequence food and fluid intake were unchanged. Fluid balance and BFV, determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy, were similar among the 4 groups. To study the impact of food and fluid intake, non-diabetic rats were treated for 7 days with Veh, Ipra or Ipra+pair-feeding+pair-drinking (Pair-Ipra). Pair-Ipra maintained a small increase in UV and UNaV versus Veh despite similar food and fluid intake. Pair-Ipra induced a negative fluid balance and decreased BFV, while Ipra or Veh had no significant effect compared with basal values. In conclusion, SGLT2 inhibition induces a sustained diuretic and natriuretic tone. Homeostatic mechanisms are activated to stabilize body fluid volume, including compensatory increases in fluid and food intake.

  6. Ontogenic timing mechanism initiates the expression of rat intestinal sucrase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, K.Y.; Holt, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Morphologic and enzymic differentiation occurs in rat small intestinal epithelium during 16-20 days of postnatal life. This change is considered to be initiated by an ontogenic timing mechanism and is modulated by extrinsic systemic and luminal factors. The importance of the ontogenic timing was tested directly using a transplantation technique in which jejunal isografts from newborn (day 0) and 5-day-old (day 5) rats were implanted under the skin of newborn (day 0) hosts. Isografts showing cryptvillus architecture were obtained in 44% and 21% of transplants, respectively. Day 0 isografts and host intestine expressed sucrase activity at about 16-18 days of age and showed similar crypt cell labeling and epithelial migration after [3H]thymidine injection. Day 5 isografts expressed sucrase activity when the hosts were 13 days of age, whereas host intestine showed no detectable sucrase activity. Isograft lactase activities in both experimental transplant models were significantly higher than host intestinal lactase up to 28 days of age, suggesting that luminal factors are important in modulating lactase activity during the first 4 wk of postnatal life. It is concluded that (a) no systemic factors at day 13 inhibit the expression of sucrase activity and (b) an ontogenic timing mechanism in the jejunum initiates the expression of sucrase activity

  7. Low Dietary Protein Status Potentiating Risk of Health Hazard in Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gawish, M.A.M.; Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdel-Reheem, K.A.; Al-Mossallamy, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigations were planned to assess the changes in certain biochemical parameters as affected by the synergistic effect of exposure to fractionated doses of rays and / or feeding on different protein levels. The date showed that animals kept on normal or low protein diet exhibited a significant decrease in serum total protein and glucose. Also , a significant increase was recorded in insulin level in rats exposed at the radiation dose level of 20 Gy. Exposure to cumulative doses of irradiation has aggrevated the hyperglycemic effect of high protein diet with a significant and marked increase of insulin at all the applied doses. Animals fed normal high or low protein diet were found to exert significant decreases in T3, T4 while a significant increase in TSH of high protein group occurred as a result of exposure to cumulative doses of gamma-irradiation. Rats kept on low protein diet exhibited losses in body weight, hypercholesterolemia, low levels of phospholipids and triglycerides as compared with the normal protein diet group. In contrast high protein diet group showed no serious effects. Irradiation has potentiated body weight losses, hypotriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia in animal group fed low protein diet with a significant increase in serum phospholipids due to the higher radiation dose of 20 Gy. Protein deficiency acted synergistically with gamma irradiation and increased the susceptibility of body organs to radiation damage. Such findings contributed to the knowledge which stimulated the decrease of the internationally recognized occupational dose limits from 50 down to 20 m Sv (ICRP 1991)

  8. Effects of body temperature on post-anoxic oxidative stress from the perspective of postnatal physiological adaptive processes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletkiewicz, H; Rogalska, J; Nowakowska, A; Wozniak, A; Mila-Kierzenkowska, C; Caputa, M

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that decrease in body temperature provides protection to newborns subjected to anoxia/ischemia. We hypothesized that the normal body temperature of 33°C in neonatal rats (4°C below normal body temperature in adults) is in fact a preadaptation to protect CNS from anoxia and further reductions as well as elevations in temperature may be counterproductive. Our experiments aimed to examine the effect of changes in body temperature on oxidative stress development in newborn rats exposed to anoxia. Two-day-old Wistar rats were divided into 4 temperature groups: i. hypothermic at body temperature of 31°C, ii. maintaining physiological neonatal body temperature of 33°C, iii. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 37°C, and i.v. forced to maintain hyperthermic temperature of 39°C. The temperature was controlled starting 15 minutes before and afterword during 10 minutes of anoxia as well as for 2 hours post-anoxia. Cerebral concentrations of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated dienes (CD) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes had been determined post mortem: immediately after anoxia was finished and 3, 7, and 14 days later. There were no post-anoxic changes in the concentration of MDA, CD and in antioxidant enzymes activity in newborn rats kept at their physiological body temperature of 33°C. In contrast, perinatal anoxia at body temperature elevated to 37°C or 39°C as well as under hypothermic conditions (31°C) intensified post-anoxic oxidative stress and depleted the antioxidant pool. Overall, these findings suggest that elevated body temperature (hyperthermia or fever), as well as exceeding cooling beyond the physiological level of body temperature of newborn rats, may extend perinatal anoxia-induced brain lesions. Our findings provide new insights into the role of body temperature in anoxic insult in vivo.

  9. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  10. Central inhibitory effect of α-methyldopa on blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature of renal hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, F.P.; Ezer, Joseph; Jong, Wybren de

    The central inhibitory effect of α-methyldopa on blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature was studied in conscious renal hypertensive rats. Systemic administration of α-methyldopa decreased mean arterial blood pressure and body temperature and caused a short lasting increase in heart rate

  11. Synthetic cannabinoids found in "spice" products alter body temperature and cardiovascular parameters in conscious male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Charles W; Gramling, Benjamin R; Justinova, Zuzana; Thorndike, Eric B; Baumann, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The misuse of synthetic cannabinoids is a persistent public health concern. Because these drugs target the same cannabinoid receptors as the active ingredient of marijuana, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), we compared the effects of synthetic cannabinoids and THC on body temperature and cardiovascular parameters. Biotelemetry transmitters for the measurement of body temperature or blood pressure (BP) were surgically implanted into separate groups of male rats. THC and the synthetic cannabinoids CP55,940, JWH-018, AM2201 and XLR-11 were injected s.c., and rats were placed into isolation cubicles for 3h. THC and synthetic cannabinoids produced dose-related decreases in body temperature that were most prominent in the final 2h of the session. The rank order of potency was CP55,940>AM2201=JWH-018>THC=XLR-11. The cannabinoid inverse agonist rimonabant antagonized the hypothermic effect of all compounds. Synthetic cannabinoids elevated BP in comparison to vehicle treatment during the first h of the session, while heart rate was unaffected. The rank order of potency for BP increases was similar to that seen for hypothermia. Hypertensive effects of CP55,940 and JWH-018 were not antagonized by rimonabant or the neutral antagonist AM4113. However, the BP responses to both drugs were antagonized by pretreatment with either the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium or the α 1 adrenergic antagonist prazosin. Our results show that synthetic cannabinoids produce hypothermia in rats by a mechanism involving cannabinoid receptors, while they increase BP by a mechanism independent of these sites. The hypertensive effect appears to involve central sympathetic outflow. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Clinical Subtypes of Dementia with Lewy Bodies Based on the Initial Clinical Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenas-Rodríguez, Estrella; Sala, Isabel; Subirana, Andrea; Pascual-Goñi, Elba; Sánchez-Saudinós, MaBelén; Alcolea, Daniel; Illán-Gala, Ignacio; Carmona-Iragui, María; Ribosa-Nogué, Roser; Camacho, Valle; Blesa, Rafael; Fortea, Juan; Lleó, Alberto

    2018-06-04

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a heterogeneous disease in which clinical presentation, symptoms, and evolution widely varies between patients. To investigate the existence of clinical subtypes in DLB based on the initial clinical presentation. 81 patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable DLB were consecutively included. All patients underwent a neurological evaluation including a structured questionnaire about neuropsychiatric symptoms and sleep, an assessment of motor impairment (Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale subscale III), and a formal neuropsychological evaluation. Onset of core symptoms (hallucinations, parkinsonism, and fluctuations) and dementia were systematically reviewed from medical records. We applied a K-means clustering method based on the initial clinical presentation. Cluster analysis yielded three different groups. Patients in cluster I (cognitive-predominant, n = 46) presented more frequently with cognitive symptoms (95.7%, n = 44, p presented more frequently with psychotic symptoms (77.3%, n = 17), and had a shorter duration until the onset of hallucinations (p clinical DLB can be defined when considering the differential initial presentations. The proposed subtypes have distinct clinical profiles and progression patterns.

  13. Reference gene validation for qPCR in rat carotid body during postnatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll John L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The carotid bodies are the main arterial oxygen chemoreceptors in mammals. Afferent neural output from the carotid bodies to brainstem respiratory and cardiovascular nuclei provides tonic input and mediates important protective responses to acute and chronic hypoxia. It is widely accepted that the selection of reference genes for mRNA normalization in quantitative real-time PCR must be validated for a given tissue and set of conditions. This is particularly important for studies in carotid body during early postnatal maturation as the arterial oxygen tension undergoes major changes from fetal to postnatal life, which may affect reference gene expression. In order to determine the most stable and suitable reference genes for the study of rat carotid body during development, six commonly used reference genes, β-actin, RPII (RNA polymerase II, PPIA (peptidyl-proyl-isomerase A, TBP (TATA-box binding protein, GAPDH, and 18s rRNA, were evaluated in two age groups (P0-1 and P14-16 under three environmental oxygen conditions (normoxia, chronic hypoxia and chronic hyperoxia using the three most commonly used software programs, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Findings The three programs produced similar results but the reference gene rankings were not identical between programs or experimental conditions. Overall, 18s rRNA was the least stable reference gene for carotid body and, when hyperoxia and/or hypoxia conditions were included, actin was similarly unstable. Conclusions Reference or housekeeping gene expression for qPCR studies of carotid body during postnatal development may vary with developmental stage and environmental conditions. Selection of the best reference gene or combination of reference genes for carotid body development studies should take environmental conditions into account. Two commonly used reference genes, 18s rRNA and actin, may be unsuitable for studies of carotid body maturation, especially if the study

  14. Influence of whole-body irradiation on calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pento, J.T.; Kenny, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Previous irradiation studies have revealed marked alterations in calcium metabolism. Moreover, the maintenance of calcium homeostasis with parathyroid hormone or calcium salts has been reported to reduce radiation lethality. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the influence of irradiation on calcium homeostasis in the rat. Nine hundred rad of whole-body irradiation produced a significant depression of both plasma calcium and phosphate at 4 days postirradiation. This effect of irradiation was observed to be dose-dependent over a range of 600 to 1200 rad, and possibly related to irradiation-induced anorexia. The physiological significance of these observations is discussed

  15. Caffeine and Aspirin Protecting Albino Rats A gainst Biochemical and Histological Disorders Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Sherif, N.H.

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is an alkaloid (purine derivative) that contains flavonoids, where as aspirin, natural component of mammalian tissue ( acetylsalicylic acid) is one of the most commonly used non steroidal anti - inflammatory , and it is a necessary factor in the utilization of long - chain fatty acids to produce energy. Furthermore, it has been shown to protect cells from per oxidative stress. Th e objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of caffeine (1,3,7 - trimethyl xanthine) 80 mg/kg b.wt. a nd aspirin ( acetylsalicylic acid) in the amelioration of the physiological and histological changes in stomach and intestine of rats exposed to gamma irradiation . Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups. 1 - Control group: rats not subject to any treatment, 2 - Caffeine group: rats received caffeine ( 80 ml/Kg body weight )via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, 3 - Aspirin group: rats received aspirin (150 mg / kg body) via intraperitoneal injection for 21 days , 4 - Caffeine + Aspirin group: rats received caffeine a nd aspirin treatment, 5 - Radiation groups: rats were whole body gamma irradiated at 8 Gy , 6 - Caffeine + Radiation group: rats received caffeine for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation at 8 Gy, 7 - Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received aspirin during 21 days before w hole body gamma irradiation , 8 - Caffeine + Aspirin + Radiation group: rats received caffeine parallel to aspirin for 21 days before whole body gamma irradiation. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs post irradiation. The results demonstrated that rats exposed to whole body gamma irradiation showed a significant increase in alanine amino transferase (AL ) , aspartate amino transferase ( AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, and a significant decrease in total protein indicating liver injury. A significant increase in urea, creatinine, Na + ,and K + were recorded indicating kidney damage. Alteration of liver and kidney functions was accompanied by a significant

  16. Hertwig’s Epithelial Root Sheath Fate during Initial Cellular Cementogenesis in Rat Molars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Yamada, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Hongo, Hiromi; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the fate of the epithelial root sheath during initial cellular cementogenesis, we examined developing maxillary first molars of rats by immunohistochemistry for keratin, vimentin, and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) and by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). The advancing root end was divided into three sections, which follow three distinct stages of initial cellular cementogenesis: section 1, where the epithelial sheath is intact; section 2, where the epithelial sheath becomes fragmented; and section 3, where initial cellular cementogenesis begins. After fragmentation of the epithelial sheath, many keratin-positive epithelial sheath cells were embedded in the rapidly growing cellular cementum. A few unembedded epithelial cells located on the cementum surface. Dental follicle cells, precementoblasts, and cementoblasts showed immunoreactivity for vimentin and TNALP. In all three sections, there were virtually no cells possessing double immunoreactivity for vimentin-keratin or TNALP-keratin and only embedded epithelial cells showed TUNEL reactivity. Taken together, these findings suggest that: (1) epithelial sheath cells divide into two groups; one group is embedded in the cementum and thereafter dies by apoptosis, and the other survives on the cementum surface as epithelial cell rests of Malassez; and (2) epithelial sheath cells do not undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition during initial cellular cementogenesis

  17. Body mass index, initial neurological severity and long-term mortality in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Wi-Sun; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Chi Kyung; Kim, Beom Joon; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is believed to increase the risks of ischemic stroke or coronary heart disease; however, regarding outcome after established vascular diseases, recent unexpected evidence has suggested that an increased body mass index (BMI) might have beneficial effects (obesity paradox). The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent association between BMI and long-term mortality after ischemic stroke. A total of 1,592 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were prospectively included through our stroke cohort. In this study, the levels of BMI were classified based on guidelines for the Asian-Pacific population. Initial neurological severity was estimated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Information on mortality was collected until the end of 2009, and the median follow-up period was 4 years. To examine the association between BMI and long-term mortality, we used Cox's proportional regression analysis. During follow-up, 23% of patients died. Linear regression analysis showed that the level of BMI was inversely related to initial neurological severity (p = 0.002). In the model of adjustment of age and gender using Cox's proportional regression analysis, this inverse trend was also significant (reference, normal weight; hazard ratio of underweight, 2.45; overweight, 0.77; obesity, 0.60). However, after adjustment of all covariates, including initial neurological severity, only the harmful effect of underweight remained significant (2.79; 95% CI, 1.92-4.05); however, beneficial effects of overweight and obesity did not. Our study showed that an independent association between BMI and long-term mortality after ischemic stroke was found only in underweight patients. The obesity paradox phenomenon seems to be limited, and might not be interpreted as a direct causal relationship due to a strong association with initial neurological severity. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Use of a specific cholecystokinin receptor antagonist (L-364,718) to determine the role of cholecystokinin on feeding and body weight in rats with obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangoku, A; Doi, R; Chowdhury, P; Pasley, J N; McKay, D W; Rayford, P L

    1992-01-01

    We conducted a study to examine the role of cholecystokinin in feeding behavior and weight change in rats with obstructive jaundice. Daily food and water intake, body weight, and short-term food intake were determined in two groups of rats with surgically induced obstructive jaundice and in control rats. One group of rats with obstructive jaundice was given L-364,718, a selective cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. Plasma bilirubin and cholecystokinin levels were measured in each rat before and 7 days after surgery. Daily food intake and body weight were decreased in obstructive jaundice rats compared with control rats during the first week after surgery (P less than .05); however, obstructive jaundice rats treated with L-364,718 had increased food intake and body weight (P less than .05). Short-term food intake measured for 30 minutes and 120 minutes in food-deprived obstructive jaundice rats was decreased when compared with control rats (P less than .05), but the obstructive jaundice rats given L-364,718 had increased short-term food intake (P less than .05). Water intake was similar between the two groups of rats. Plasma levels of cholecystokinin and bilirubin were increased in obstructive jaundice rats with and without L-364,718 treatment (P less than .05). The results support the concept that endogenously elevated levels of plasma cholecystokinin play an important role in decreased food intake and subsequent loss of body weight in rats with obstructive jaundice.

  19. Insulin detemir attenuates food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain in diet-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J M; Printz, R L; Niswender, K D

    2011-07-04

    Initiation and intensification of insulin therapy commonly causes weight gain, a barrier to therapy. A contrasting body of evidence indicates that insulin functions as an adiposity negative feedback signal and reduces food intake, weight gain and adiposity via action in the central nervous system. Basal insulin analogs, detemir (Det) and glargine (Glar), have been associated with less hypoglycemia compared with neutral protamine hagedorn insulin, and Det with less weight gain, especially in patients with higher body mass index (BMI). We sought to determine whether insulin therapy per se causes body weight and fat mass gain when delivered via a clinically relevant subcutaneous (SC) route in the absence of hypoglycemia and glycosuria in non-diabetic lean and diet-induced obese rats. Rats were exposed to either a low-fat diet (LFD; 13.5% fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% fat), and received Det (0.5 U kg(-1)), Glar (0.2 U kg(-1)) or vehicle (Veh) SC once daily for 4 weeks. These dosages of insulin were equipotent in rats with respect to blood-glucose concentration and did not induce hypoglycemia. As predicted by current models of energy homeostasis, neither insulin Det nor Glar therapy affected food intake and weight gain in LFD rats. Det treatment significantly attenuated food intake, body weight gain and fat mass gain relative to the Glar and Veh in high-fat fed animals, mirroring observations in humans. That neither insulin group gained excess weight, suggests weight gain with SC basal insulin therapy may not be inevitable. Our data further suggest that Det possesses a unique property to attenuate the development of obesity associated with a HFD.

  20. Effects of ancestral x irradiation followed by random mating on body weight of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on body weight were examined. After six generations of random mating (avoiding inbreeding) following the termination of irradiation, descendants of irradiated males (R) were significantly lighter than their controls (C) at 3 and 6 weeks, but not at 10 weeks of age. However, differences in growth between R and C populations were small. Among-litter and within-litter variance estimates were generally larger in the R lines than in the C lines, suggesting that selection responses would be greater in R than in C lines. In conjunction with previous evidence--obtained during the irradiation phase of the experiment--this suggested that more rapid response to selection for 6-week body weight, in particular, might accrue in the R lines

  1. High-dose dextromethorphan produces myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Quyen Tran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dextromethorphan (DM administered at supra-antitussive doses produce psychotoxic and neurotoxic effects in humans. We administered DM (80 mg/kg to rats intraperitoneally to determine the ultrastructural change induced by DM, because intraperitoneal route is sensitive for the behavioral responses. Treatment with DM resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus. MK-801 [(+-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate] attenuated DM-induced cytosolic oxidative burdens. However, neither MK-801 nor naloxone affected DM-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies, indicating that the neurotoxic mechanism needs to be further elucidated. Therefore, the spectrum of toxicological effects associated with DM need to be reassessed.

  2. High-dose dextromethorphan produces myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai-Quyen; Chung, Yoon Hee; Shin, Eun-Joo; Kim, Won Ki; Lee, Jae-Chul; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Wie, Myung Bok; Jang, Choon-Gon; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2016-10-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) administered at supra-antitussive doses produce psychotoxic and neurotoxic effects in humans. We administered DM (80 mg/kg) to rats intraperitoneally to determine the ultrastructural change induced by DM, because intraperitoneal route is sensitive for the behavioral responses. Treatment with DM resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies in the hippocampus. MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate] attenuated DM-induced cytosolic oxidative burdens. However, neither MK-801 nor naloxone affected DM-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of myelinoid bodies, indicating that the neurotoxic mechanism needs to be further elucidated. Therefore, the spectrum of toxicological effects associated with DM need to be reassessed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on a Rat Model of Osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Daniel B; Griesel, Markus H; Brockhusen, Bastian; Tezval, Mohammad; Komrakova, Marina; Menger, Bjoern; Wassmann, Marco; Stuermer, Klaus Michael; Sehmisch, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Background. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is the phytoestrogen with the highest affinity for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), which is required to maintain BMD. The osteoprotective properties of 8-PN have been demonstrated previously in tibiae. We used a rat osteopenia model to perform the first investigation of 8-PN with whole-body vertical vibration (WBVV). Study Design. Ovariectomy was performed on 52 of 64 Sprague-Dawley rats. Five weeks after ovariectomy, one group received daily injections (sc) of 8-PN (1.77 mg/kg) for 10 weeks; a second group was treated with both 8-PN and WBVV (twice a day, 15 min, 35 Hz, amplitude 0.47 mm). Other groups received either only WBVV or no treatment. Methods. The rats were sacrificed 15 weeks after ovariectomy. Lumbar vertebrae and femora were removed for biomechanical and morphological assessment. Results. 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose did not cause fundamental improvements in osteoporotic bones. Treatment with 8-PN caused a slight increase in uterine wet weight. Combined therapy using WBVV and 8-PN showed no significant improvements in bone structure and biomechanical properties. Conclusion. We cannot confirm the osteoprotective effects of 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose in primary affected osteoporotic bones. Higher concentrations of 8-PN are not advisable for safety reasons. Adjunctive therapy with WBVV demonstrates no convincing effects on bones.

  4. Effects of 8-Prenylnaringenin and Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on a Rat Model of Osteopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Hoffmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN is the phytoestrogen with the highest affinity for estrogen receptor-α (ER-α, which is required to maintain BMD. The osteoprotective properties of 8-PN have been demonstrated previously in tibiae. We used a rat osteopenia model to perform the first investigation of 8-PN with whole-body vertical vibration (WBVV. Study Design. Ovariectomy was performed on 52 of 64 Sprague-Dawley rats. Five weeks after ovariectomy, one group received daily injections (sc of 8-PN (1.77 mg/kg for 10 weeks; a second group was treated with both 8-PN and WBVV (twice a day, 15 min, 35 Hz, amplitude 0.47 mm. Other groups received either only WBVV or no treatment. Methods. The rats were sacrificed 15 weeks after ovariectomy. Lumbar vertebrae and femora were removed for biomechanical and morphological assessment. Results. 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose did not cause fundamental improvements in osteoporotic bones. Treatment with 8-PN caused a slight increase in uterine wet weight. Combined therapy using WBVV and 8-PN showed no significant improvements in bone structure and biomechanical properties. Conclusion. We cannot confirm the osteoprotective effects of 8-PN at a cancer-safe dose in primary affected osteoporotic bones. Higher concentrations of 8-PN are not advisable for safety reasons. Adjunctive therapy with WBVV demonstrates no convincing effects on bones.

  5. Effects of Tribulus tertesris extract on body weight, testis histopathology and size in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kaffashi Elahi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris (TT is a flowering plant, traditionally being used as an aphrodisiac agent. Studies shown that TT extract increases testosterone levels and produces aphrodisiac effects. Nowadays is a major ingredient of most aphrodisiac drugs but there is no document about its testicular pathology in long term use. The purpose of our study was to identify the effects in rats of oral TT on body weight, testicular histopathology and weight at normal and double doses to presume its probable negative effects in human while using exaggerated for long period of time. 30 male mature SD rats were used, kept in individual cages, fed with standard ration and water ad libitum, divided into 3 groups (G; c, a and b received placebo and oral doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg of TT, SID for 8weeks .Rats were weighted at day 1, and At the end of the study, all were weighted, anaesthetized and the left testis excised. Testicular weigh with and without epididymis was recorded then histopathologic slides prepared with H&E and Masson trichrome, and focused on seminiferous tube diameter, epithelial layer thickness, interstitial space length, testicular capsule thickness. All stages of the experiment were conducted as blind. Data statistically analyzed by variance analysis (ANOVA and Tukey test, at a significance level of 5% (p

  6. Research Report: Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and hyperbaric oxygen on GAP-43 in the rat carotid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengwu; Fan, Juan; Liu, Ling; Kuang, Fang; Xue, Fen; Wang, Bairen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive changes in the carotid body (CB) including the expression of the growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) have been studied in response to low, but not high, oxygen exposure. Expression of GAP-43 in the CB of rats under different atmospheric pressures and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) conditions was investigated. Mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH, 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks), intermittent hyperbaric oxygen (IHBO2, 0, 1, 5 and 10 days, sacrificed six hours or 24 hours after the last HBO2 exposure), and intermittent hyperbaric normoxia (IHN, same treatment pattern as IHBO2). GAP-43 was highly expressed (mainly in type I cells) in the CB of normal rats. IHH u-regulated GAP-43 expression in the CB with significant differences (immunohistochemical staining [IHC]: F(3,15)=40.64, P GAP-43 expression in the CB was inhibited by IHBO2 (controls vs. IHBO2 groups, IHC: F(6,30) = 15.85, P GAP-43 expression were found for IHN. These findings indicated that different PO2 conditions, but not air pressures, played an important role in the plasticity of the CB, and that GAP-43 might be a viable factor for the plasticity of the CB.

  7. Initial screening test for blunt cerebrovascular injury: Validity assessment of whole-body computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser, Adriana; Kufera, Joseph A; Bruns, Brandon R; Sliker, Clint W; Tesoriero, Ronald B; Scalea, Thomas M; Stein, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    Our whole-body computed tomography protocol (WBCT), used to image patients with polytrauma, consists of a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) followed by a multidetector computed tomography (40- or 64- slice) that includes an intravenous, contrast-enhanced scan from the face through the pelvis. WBCT is used to screen for blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) during initial CT imaging of the patient with polytrauma and allows for early initiation of therapy with the goal of avoiding stroke. WBCT has not been directly compared with CT angiography (CTA) of the neck as a screening tool for BCVI. We hypothesize that WBCT is a valid modality to diagnose BCVI compared with neck CTA, thus screening patients with polytrauma for BCVI and limiting the need for subsequent CTA. A retrospective review of the trauma registry was conducted for all patients diagnosed with BCVI from June 2009 to June 2013 at our institution. All injuries, identified and graded on initial WBCT, were compared with neck CTA imaging performed within the first 72 hours. Sensitivity was calculated for WBCT by the use of CTA as the reference standard. Proportions of agreement also were calculated between the grades of injury for both imaging modalities. A total of 319 injured vessels were identified in 227 patients. On initial WBCT 80 (25%) of the injuries were grade I, 75 (24%) grade II, 45 (14%) grade III, 41 (13%) grade IV, and 58 (18%) were classified as indeterminate: 27 vertebral and 31 carotid lesions. Twenty (6%) of the 319 injuries were not detected on WBCT but identified on subsequent CTA (9 grade I, 7 grade II, 4 grade III); 6 vertebral and 14 carotid. For each vessel type and for all vessels combined, WBCT demonstrated sensitivity rates of over 90% to detect BCVI among the population of patients with at least one vessel injured. There was concordant grading of injuries between WBCT and initial diagnostic CTA in 154 (48% of all injuries). Lower grade injures were more discordant than higher

  8. Ghrelin in small intestine, its contribution to regulation of food intake and body weight in cross-intestinal parabiotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hitoshi; Masaki, Takayuki; Kakuma, Tetsuya; Nakazato, Masamitsu; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin has been shown to be associated with feeding behavior in humans and rodents. It has been suggested that ghrelin may play a role behind the effect of bariatric surgery. Inbred rats were made into parabiotic pairs so that they shared a single abdominal cavity. A further operation is performed later in which the small intestines are transected and re-connected so that one rat continually lost nutrition to its partner. Changes in food intake and body weight were recorded. Seven weeks later, content of ghrelin in the plasma, stomach and upper intestines were measured in the paired rats. Rats which lost nutrients to its counterpart (Loss rats) ingested significantly more food than sham control rats (pgained nutrient (Gain rats) ingested less than controls (pweight, blood glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and triglycerides between the paired rats. There was significantly higher levels of ghrelin in the plasma (pGain rats, which ate less than controls. Because no remarkable changes in the ghrelin content were observed in the stomach, difference in the quality of the chime may affect the local synthesis and release of ghrelin.

  9. Influence of initial lung deposit on pulmonary clearance after plutonium oxide inhalation in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Grillon, G.; Tourdes, F.; Rateau, S.; Le Gall, B.; Griffiths, N.

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are a key element in the clearance of inhaled particles after phagocytosis, and thus participate actively in lung dose distribution and in the risk of tumour formation. We studied the influence of initial lung deposit (ILD) on lung clearance and distribution of activity from 3 d to 3 months after inhalation of two forms of PuO 2 (97% 239 Pu and 70% 239 Pu) in rats. ILDs ranging from 2.1 to 17 kBq were used. The total activity measured using X-ray spectrometry 3 months post-inhalation, relative to the ILD, showed a similar decrease in all groups, with the remaining activity representing ∼30% of the ILD. The total activity recovered in bronchoalveolar lavages represented ∼60% of the total lung activity. This ratio remained stable over time for the lowest ILD tested but decreased for higher ILD. In addition, the percentage of macrophages associated with particles decreased faster with time in rats with the highest ILD. Under our experimental conditions, there were no marked differences in lung clearance between groups. However, the distribution of the activity seems to vary with the time post-exposure between low and high ILD. (authors)

  10. Changes in Serum Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin Levels of Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.I.; Shaban, H.A.; El Gohary, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Rats are whole body irradiated with different Gamma radiation doses. Zinc and Copper, two important trace elements in the biological processes and Ceruloplasmin, a protein which carries more than 95% of serum Cu and has important roles in many vital processes are followed up in the irradiated rat sera. This work aimed to determine the changes in the serum levels of the three parameters (Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin) through eight weeks follow up period (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week) post whole body gamma irradiation with three sub-lethal doses (2, 3.5 and 5 Gy) of rats. All the experimental animals did not receive any medical treatment. Zinc and Copper were measured using discrete nebulization flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Ceruloplasmin was measured using a colorimetric method. The statistical analyses of the results show that the Zinc levels of the irradiated groups decreased significantly post irradiation and then were recovered at the 6th week post irradiation. The Copper levels of the irradiated groups increased significantly and then were recovered at 6th week post irradiation. The levels of Ceruloplasmin in the same groups increased significantly throughout the whole follow up period. The conclusion is that, Zinc, Copper and Ceruloplasmin levels changed significantly in the irradiated groups compared to the control group with a maximum effect noted in the groups irradiated with the higher doses and that the lower dose irradiated groups recover earlier than the higher ones. Also the correlation between Copper and Zinc is reversible at different doses and that between Copper and Ceruloplasmin is direct

  11. Initiation of bladder voiding with epidural stimulation in paralyzed, step trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Parag N; Roy, Roland R; Zhong, Hui; Lu, Daniel C; Gerasimenko, Yury P; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2014-01-01

    The inability to control timely bladder emptying is one of the most serious challenges among the several functional deficits that occur after a complete spinal cord injury. Having demonstrated that electrodes placed epidurally on the dorsum of the spinal cord can be used in animals and humans to recover postural and locomotor function after complete paralysis, we hypothesized that a similar approach could be used to recover bladder function after paralysis. Also knowing that posture and locomotion can be initiated immediately with a specific frequency-dependent stimulation pattern and that with repeated stimulation-training sessions these functions can improve even further, we reasoned that the same two strategies could be used to regain bladder function. Recent evidence suggests that rats with severe paralysis can be rehabilitated with a multisystem neuroprosthetic training regime that counteracts the development of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. No data regarding the acute effects of locomotion on bladder function, however, were reported. In this study we show that enabling of locomotor-related spinal neuronal circuits by epidural stimulation also influences neural networks controlling bladder function and can play a vital role in recovering bladder function after complete paralysis. We have identified specific spinal cord stimulation parameters that initiate bladder emptying within seconds of the initiation of epidural stimulation. The clinical implications of these results are substantial in that this strategy could have a major impact in improving the quality of life and longevity of patients while simultaneously dramatically reducing ongoing health maintenance after a spinal cord injury.

  12. Initiation of bladder voiding with epidural stimulation in paralyzed, step trained rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag N Gad

    Full Text Available The inability to control timely bladder emptying is one of the most serious challenges among the several functional deficits that occur after a complete spinal cord injury. Having demonstrated that electrodes placed epidurally on the dorsum of the spinal cord can be used in animals and humans to recover postural and locomotor function after complete paralysis, we hypothesized that a similar approach could be used to recover bladder function after paralysis. Also knowing that posture and locomotion can be initiated immediately with a specific frequency-dependent stimulation pattern and that with repeated stimulation-training sessions these functions can improve even further, we reasoned that the same two strategies could be used to regain bladder function. Recent evidence suggests that rats with severe paralysis can be rehabilitated with a multisystem neuroprosthetic training regime that counteracts the development of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. No data regarding the acute effects of locomotion on bladder function, however, were reported. In this study we show that enabling of locomotor-related spinal neuronal circuits by epidural stimulation also influences neural networks controlling bladder function and can play a vital role in recovering bladder function after complete paralysis. We have identified specific spinal cord stimulation parameters that initiate bladder emptying within seconds of the initiation of epidural stimulation. The clinical implications of these results are substantial in that this strategy could have a major impact in improving the quality of life and longevity of patients while simultaneously dramatically reducing ongoing health maintenance after a spinal cord injury.

  13. Body retention and tissue distribution of 59Fe and 54Mn in newborn rats fed iron-supplemented cow's milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruden, Nevenka

    1980-01-01

    The effect of iron-fortified cow's milk on body 59 Fe and 54 Mn retention and selective tissue distribution has been studied in newborn rats. Six-day old rats, divided into three groups were artificially fed for 7 hrs 0,45 ml of cow's milk or cow's milk enriched with either 52 or 103 μg of Fe /ml and marked with 59 Fe and 54 Mn. After 4 days there was no significant difference in whole body or carcass activity between the groups. Iron added to milk in large amounts did not influence body 59 Fe or 54 Mn retention in newborn rats, whereas it enhanced 59 Fe deposition in the liver and the intestinal wall and, to a lesser extent, 54 Mn deposition in the liver

  14. Evaluation of a Mathematical Model of Rat Body Weight Regulation in Application to Caloric Restriction and Drug Treatment Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimkhanov, Jangir; Thompson, W Clayton; Patterson, Terrell A; Hadcock, John R; Scott, Dennis O; Maurer, Tristan S; Musante, Cynthia J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model of energy balance and body weight regulation that can predict species-specific response to common pre-clinical interventions. To this end, we evaluate the ability of a previously published mathematical model of mouse metabolism to describe changes in body weight and body composition in rats in response to two short-term interventions. First, we adapt the model to describe body weight and composition changes in Sprague-Dawley rats by fitting to data previously collected from a 26-day caloric restriction study. The calibrated model is subsequently used to describe changes in rat body weight and composition in a 23-day cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist (CB1Ra) study. While the model describes body weight data well, it fails to replicate body composition changes with CB1Ra treatment. Evaluation of a key model assumption about deposition of fat and fat-free masses shows a limitation of the model in short-term studies due to the constraint placed on the relative change in body composition components. We demonstrate that the model can be modified to overcome this limitation, and propose additional measurements to further test the proposed model predictions. These findings illustrate how mathematical models can be used to support drug discovery and development by identifying key knowledge gaps and aiding in the design of additional experiments to further our understanding of disease-relevant and species-specific physiology.

  15. Evaluation of a Mathematical Model of Rat Body Weight Regulation in Application to Caloric Restriction and Drug Treatment Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangir Selimkhanov

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model of energy balance and body weight regulation that can predict species-specific response to common pre-clinical interventions. To this end, we evaluate the ability of a previously published mathematical model of mouse metabolism to describe changes in body weight and body composition in rats in response to two short-term interventions. First, we adapt the model to describe body weight and composition changes in Sprague-Dawley rats by fitting to data previously collected from a 26-day caloric restriction study. The calibrated model is subsequently used to describe changes in rat body weight and composition in a 23-day cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist (CB1Ra study. While the model describes body weight data well, it fails to replicate body composition changes with CB1Ra treatment. Evaluation of a key model assumption about deposition of fat and fat-free masses shows a limitation of the model in short-term studies due to the constraint placed on the relative change in body composition components. We demonstrate that the model can be modified to overcome this limitation, and propose additional measurements to further test the proposed model predictions. These findings illustrate how mathematical models can be used to support drug discovery and development by identifying key knowledge gaps and aiding in the design of additional experiments to further our understanding of disease-relevant and species-specific physiology.

  16. Effect of dietary fiber in lowering serum glucose and body weight in sprague dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Chohan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The present study evaluated the hypoglycemic perspectives and weight loss significance of dietary fiber. Dietary fiber was supplemented in commercial wheat flour (atta for the preparation of chapaties, a staple diet of South Asia. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 100 were randomly divided into 4 diet groups (n = 25 per group. The control group was fed basal diet that included commercial wheat flour chapati, cornstarch, corn oil, salt and vitamin mixture in such a way that 10% of the protein was available from the final diet. To the basal diet of other 3 groups, chapaties supplemented with 2% guar gum (GG 2%, 3% guar gum (GG 3% and 5% chickpea + 1% guar gum (CP5%+GG1% were added, respectively. All diets were fed to the rats for a period of 8 weeks to perceive the impact of respective compositions. Rats fed on CP 5% + GG1%, showed maximum glucose reduction (14.57% followed by GG 3% (11.64% and GG 2% (9.60% as compared to control diet. Likewise, rats fed on 3% GG showed maximum decline (7.90% in body weight. It was concluded that chapaties prepared from selected treatments provide an additional dietary fiber that could be supportive for diabetic and obese individuals.Results:The results indicated that addition of dietary fiber influenced the physical characteristics of chapati non-significantly. Maximum glucose concentration was found to be 112.50 mg/dL in control group followed by 101.70 and 99.41 mg/dL in groups fed on guar gum 2% and guar gum 3%, respectively. Lowest glucose concentration (96.11 mg/dL was observed in rats fed on the combination of chickpea 5 %+ guar gum 1%. Maximum serum protein concentration was found to be 6.39 g/dL in rats fed on combination of chickpea 5 % + guar gum 1% whilst the remaining three groups showed non significant variations with respect to each other. Means for serum Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:261-278 protein were 6.33, 6.30 and 6.32 g/dL for control, guar gum 3%, and guar gum 2

  17. Effect of Hippophae leaves on neurotransmitters and hematological parameters in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vanita; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Till date no approved radio-protective agent is available world over. WR-2721 had severe side effects and was behaviourally toxic even at sub-lethal doses of ionizing radiation. Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is known for its nutraceutical and therapeutic values. Our studies demonstrated that treatment with leaves of H. rhamnoides rendered > 90% whole body radioprotection in 60 Co-g-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population in comparison to 100% death in non-Hippophae treated irradiated (10 Gy) mice population. Our studies also demonstrated that treatment with leaves of H. rhamnoides prevented conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in irradiated (2 Gy) Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study was planned to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of Hippophae leaves on changes in levels of neurotransmitters ((acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and dopamine (DA)) in plasma and brain, haematological parameters in blood/plasma; and brain histology in Sprague-Dawley rats showing CTA after 60 Co-g-irradiation (2 Gy). The results showed that whole body 60 Co-g-irradiation (2 Gy) (i) increased the levels of Ach, Eepinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE); oxidative stress (MDA and NO), and (ii) decreased the levels of DA; WBC counts and RBC counts and antioxidants (GSH), in comparison to untreated control. Treatment with 12 mg/kg b.w. drug concentration, prior to irradiation significantly (p<0.05) (i) decreased the levels of AChE, E and NE, and MDA and NO levels in plasma and brain, and (ii) increased the WBC counts; RBC counts and levels of antioxidants (GSH), in comparison to radiation control group. Histological changes in brain were also recorded. The results demonstrated that Hippophae leaves extract had neuro-protective and reduced oxidative stress in brain of whole body irradiated mice and could be, thereby contributing to behavioural protection. (author)

  18. Electron-microscopic characteristics of neuroendocrine neurons in the amygdaloid body of the brain in male rats and female rats at different stages of the estral cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2008-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of neuroendocrine neurons in the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) of the amygdaloid body of the brain - one of the major zones of sexual dimorphism - in 12 Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were studied in three males and nine females at different stages of the estral cycle. On the basis of ultrastructural characteristics, analysis of the functional states of an average of 50 DMN neurons were studied in each animal. A morphofunctional classification reflecting hormone-dependent variations in neuron activity is proposed. DMN neurons were found to be in different structural-functional states, which could be classified as the states of rest, moderate activity, elevated activity, tension (maximal activity), decreased activity (types 1 and 2, depending on prior history), return to the initial state, and apoptosis. At the estrus stage, there was a predominance of neurons in the states of elevated activity (40% of all cells) and maximal activity (26%). At the metestrus stage, neurons in the state of decreased activity type 1 (with increased nuclear heterochromatin content) predominated (30% of cells), while 25% and 20% of cells were in the states of maximal activity and elevated activity respectively. In diestrus, neurons in the resting state, in moderate and elevated activity, in maximal activity, and in decreased activity type 1 were present in essentially identical proportions (18%, 21%, 18%, 20%, and 16% respectively). In males, 35% and 22% of neurons were in the states of elevated and maximal activity respectively. Neuron death was seen only in males.

  19. Histochemical alternations in the Nissl bodies and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the spinal, gangalion neurones of gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Tohamy A.; Roushdy, Hamed M.; Raid, Nahed A.; Al-Zahaby, Al-Ahmady S.; Sanad, Samia M.

    1984-01-01

    Four groups of adult male albino rats were subjected to whole body gamma-irradiation at the exposure levels of 200, 400, 600 and 1000 rads and the spinal ganglia were dissected out after different intervals of 3 hr., 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 30 days. Nissl bodies and ribonucleic acid were demonstrated histochemically. Gamma irradiation may cause a decrease in RNA synthesis which was reflected in a reduced amount of Nissl substance visible in toluidine blue stained you thick sections of spinal ganglion of gamma irradiated rats and in the total amount of cytoplasmic RNA in pyronin-methyl green stained sections compared with control animals

  20. The effect of micronized corn fiber on body weight, glycemia, and lipid metabolism in rats fed cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Barbosa de Moraes THOMPSON

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During corn industrial dry milling, a residue rich in dietary fibers is generated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of micronized corn fiber (MCF as part of a cafeteria diet in the macronutrient metabolism and body weight. Wistar male rats, with initial body weight of 249 ± 14 g (n = 13, received AIN-93M diet (Group 1 or cafeteria diet (Groups 2, 3 and 4, composed of commercial ration, cookies, fried potato sticks, milk chocolate, bacon and chicken liver pâté. Groups 3 and 4 received MCF to replace 100 and 50% of the cellulose from the AIN-93M diet, respectively. After 35 days, blood, tissues and feces were collected. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p < 0.10. The weight gain of the animals increased by 25.9%, 20.8% and 22.0%, when fed cafeteria diet or 100 and 50% of MCF respectively, compared to the control group, although food consumption did not differ between them. Body weight and food efficiency ratio did not differ between the groups fed cafeteria diet with or without MCF. The addition of MCF to the cafeteria diet did not alter the animal lipid profile and glycemia, however, the accumulation of lipids in their livers was similar to the control group. The intake of 100% MCF resulted in higher fecal weight and fecal excretion of lipids, and lower fecal nitrogen, lipid absorption and lipid deposition in the liver than the cafeteria diet. In conclusion, MCF has a potential to improve intestinal transit and lipid excretion, but showed no benefit on blood lipid and glucose levels.

  1. Salvage Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Following In-Field Failure of Initial SBRT for Spinal Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Isabelle; Campbell, Mikki; Tseng, Chia-Lin; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Letourneau, Daniel; Yu, Eugene; Cho, B C John; Lee, Young K; Fehlings, Michael G; Sahgal, Arjun

    2015-10-01

    We report our experience in salvaging spinal metastases initially irradiated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), who subsequently progressed with imaging-confirmed local tumor progression, and were re-irradiated with a salvage second SBRT course to the same level. From a prospective database, 56 metastatic spinal segments in 40 patients were identified as having been irradiated with a salvage second SBRT course to the same level. In addition, 24 of 56 (42.9%) segments had initially been irradiated with conventional external beam radiation therapy before the first course of SBRT. Local control (LC) was defined as no progression on magnetic resonance imaging at the treated segment, and calculated according to the competing risk model. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated for each patient treated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. The median salvage second SBRT total dose and number of fractions was 30 Gy in 4 fractions (range, 20-35 Gy in 2-5 fractions), and for the first course of SBRT was 24 Gy in 2 fractions (range, 20-35 Gy in 1-5 fractions). The median follow-up time after salvage second SBRT was 6.8 months (range, 0.9-39 months), the median OS was 10.0 months, and the 1-year OS rate was 48%. A longer time interval between the first and second SBRT courses predicted for better OS (P=.02). The crude LC was 77% (43/56), the 1-year LC rate was 81%, and the median time to local failure was 3.0 months (range, 2.7-16.7 months). Of the 13 local failures, 85% (11/13) and 46% (6/13) showed progression within the epidural space and paraspinal soft tissues, respectively. Absence of baseline paraspinal disease predicted for better LC (Pinitial SBRT is a feasible and efficacious salvage treatment option. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimates of genetic parameters of body weight in descendants of x-irradiated rat spermatogonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.; Chapman, A.B.; Rutledge, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450 R per generation of ancestral spermatogonial x irradiation of inbred rats on genetic parameters of body weight at 3, 6 and 10 weeks of age and of weight gains between these periods were studied. Covariances among relatives were estimated by mixed model and regression techniques in randomly selected lines with (R) and without (C) radiation history. Analyses of the data were based on five linear genetic models combining additive direct, additive indirect (maternal), dominance and environmental effects. Parameters in these models were estimated by generalized least-squares. A model including direct and indirect genetic effects fit more closely to the data in both R and C lines. Overdominance of induced mutations did not seem to be present. Ancestral irradiation increased maternal additive genetic variances of body weights and gains but not direct genetic variances. Theoretically, due to a negative direct-maternal genetic correlation, within full-sib family selection would be ineffective in increasing body weight at six weeks in both R and C lines. However, progress from mass selection would be expected to be faster in the R lines

  3. The effects of sildenafil ciltrate on the lateral geniculate body of adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus- A histological study

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    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The histological effect of oral administration of sildenafil citrate (Viagra, commonly used as an aphrodisiac and for the treatment of erectile dysfunction on one of the visual relay centres namely the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rat was carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 202g were randomly assigned into three treatment (n=18 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatment groups ‘A’, ‘B’ and ‘C’ received respectively, 0.25mg/kg, 0.70mg/kg and 1.43mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate base dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days, through orogastric feeding tube, while that of the control group D, received equal volume of distilled water daily during the period of the experiment. The rats were fed with growers’ mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State, Nigeria and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day thirty-one of the experiment. The lateral geniculate body (LGB was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological studies. The histological findings after H&E method indicated that the treated section of the lateral geniculate body (LGB showed some varying degree of reduced cellular population based on its sparse distribution, degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma. Varying dosage and long administration of sildenafil citrate may have some deleterious effects on the neurons of the intracranial visual relay centre and this may probably have some adverse effects on visual sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the cells of the lateral geniculate body (LGB of adult Wistar rats. It is therefore recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  4. Salvage Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Following In-Field Failure of Initial SBRT for Spinal Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, Isabelle; Campbell, Mikki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tseng, Chia-Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Letourneau, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Eugene [Department of Radiology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Cho, B.C. John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Lee, Young K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fehlings, Michael G. [Department of Radiology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: We report our experience in salvaging spinal metastases initially irradiated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), who subsequently progressed with imaging-confirmed local tumor progression, and were re-irradiated with a salvage second SBRT course to the same level. Methods and Materials: From a prospective database, 56 metastatic spinal segments in 40 patients were identified as having been irradiated with a salvage second SBRT course to the same level. In addition, 24 of 56 (42.9%) segments had initially been irradiated with conventional external beam radiation therapy before the first course of SBRT. Local control (LC) was defined as no progression on magnetic resonance imaging at the treated segment, and calculated according to the competing risk model. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated for each patient treated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median salvage second SBRT total dose and number of fractions was 30 Gy in 4 fractions (range, 20-35 Gy in 2-5 fractions), and for the first course of SBRT was 24 Gy in 2 fractions (range, 20-35 Gy in 1-5 fractions). The median follow-up time after salvage second SBRT was 6.8 months (range, 0.9-39 months), the median OS was 10.0 months, and the 1-year OS rate was 48%. A longer time interval between the first and second SBRT courses predicted for better OS (P=.02). The crude LC was 77% (43/56), the 1-year LC rate was 81%, and the median time to local failure was 3.0 months (range, 2.7-16.7 months). Of the 13 local failures, 85% (11/13) and 46% (6/13) showed progression within the epidural space and paraspinal soft tissues, respectively. Absence of baseline paraspinal disease predicted for better LC (P<.01). No radiation-induced vertebral compression fractures or cases of myelopathy were observed. Conclusion: A second course of spine SBRT, most often with 30 Gy in 4 fractions, for spinal metastases that failed initial SBRT is a feasible and efficacious salvage treatment option.

  5. Regulation of body temperature and nociception induced by non-noxious stress in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, C; Suaudeau, C; Jacob, J

    1984-04-09

    The effects of 3 different non-noxious stressors on body temperature (Tb) were investigated in the rat: (1) loose restraint in cylinders, (2) removal of the rats from cylinders, exposure to a novel environment and replacement in cylinders, a stressor called here 'novelty', and (3) gentle holding of the rats by the nape of the neck. Loose restraint and 'novelty' produced hyperthermia. On the contrary, holding induced hypothermia. Hypophysectomy (HX) reduced basal Tb, abolished restraint hyperthermia and reduced both 'novelty' hyperthermia and holding hypothermia. Dexamethasone ( DEXA ) had no effect upon either restraint or novelty hyperthermia but reduced the hypothermia. Naloxone (Nx) produced a slight fall in basal Tb accounting for its reduction of restraint and 'novelty' hyperthermias ; it did not affect holding hypothermia. The inhibitory effects of HX suggest a participation of the pituitary in the hyperthermias ; the neurointermediate lobe would be involved as the hyperthermias were not affected by DEXA , which is known to block the stress-induced release of pituitary secretions from the anterior lobe but not from the neurointermediate lobe. In contrast, substances from the anterior lobe might participate in hypothermia due to holding since it is reduced by HX and DEXA . As to the effects of Nx, endogenous opioids would not be significantly involved in the thermic effects of the stressors used in this study; they might play, if any, only a minor role in the regulation of basal Tb. These results are compared with those previously obtained on nociception using the same non-noxious stressors. It emerges that, depending on the stressor, different types of association between thermoregulation and nociception may occur, i.e. hyperthermia with analgesia, hyperthermia with hyperalgesia and hypothermia with hyperalgesia.

  6. A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity enhances lean body mass in male rats and stimulates sexual behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George F; Tannenbaum, Pamela; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Zhang, Xuqing; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott G

    2007-08-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) ligands with tissue selectivity (selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs) have potential for treating muscle wasting, hypogonadism of aging, osteoporosis, female sexual dysfunction, and other indications. JNJ-28330835 is a nonsteroidal AR ligand with mixed agonist and antagonist activity in androgen-responsive cell-based assays. It is an orally active SARM with muscle selectivity in orchidectomized rat models. It stimulated growth of the levator ani muscle, stimulating maximal growth at a dose of 10 mg/kg. At the same time, JNJ-28330835 reduced prostate weight in intact rats by a mean of 30% at 10 mg/kg, while having no inhibitory effect on muscle. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor body composition, it prevented half of the loss of lean body mass associated with orchidectomy, and restored about 30% of lost lean mass to aged orchidectomized rats. It had agonist effects on markers of both osteoclast and osteoblast activity, suggesting that it reduces bone turnover. In a model of sexual behavior, JNJ-28330835 enhanced the preference of ovariectomized female rats for sexually intact male rats over nonsexual orchidectomized males. JNJ-28330835 is a prostate-sparing SARM with the potential for clinically beneficial effects in muscle-wasting diseases and sexual function disorders.

  7. Effect of Whole-Body Cryotherapy on Antioxidant Systems in Experimental Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC in rats on their antioxidant systems, lipid peroxidation products, and their total oxidative status at different exposure times and temperatures. Methods. Antioxidants in serum, plasma, liver, and erythrocytes were evaluated in two study groups following 1 min of exposure to −60°C and −90°C, for 5 and 10 consecutive days. Results. WBC increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase in the group subjected to 5 and 10 days exposure, −60°C. The glutathione S-transferase activity increased in the groups subjected to 10 days WBC sessions. Total antioxidant capacity increased after 5 and 10 days of 1 min WBC, −60°C; a decrease was observed at −90°C. A decreased level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration was observed at −60°C after 5 and 10 days of cryostimulation. An increased concentration was measured at −90°C after 10 days, and increase of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration after 5 days, −90°C. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research showing the effect of WBC in rats at different exposure times and temperatures. The effect of cryotherapy on enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems was observed in the serum of animals exposed to a temperature of −60°C in comparison to control.

  8. Effects of immobilization and whole-body vibration on rat serum Type I collagen turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Gürhan; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Suljevic, Şenay; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Bilgili, Hasan; Demirel, Haydar Ali

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high-magnitude whole-body vibration (WBV) on serum type I collagen turnover in immobilized rats. Thirty Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into the following 5 groups: immobilization (IS), immobilization + remobilization (IR), immobilization + WBV (IV), control (C), and WBV control (CV). Immobilization was achieved by casting from the crista iliaca anterior superior to the lower part of the foot for 2 weeks. The applied WBV protocol involved a frequency of 45 Hz and amplitude of 3 mm for 7 days starting a day after the end of the immobilization period. Serum type I collagen turnover markers were measured by using ELISA kits. Serum NH2-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP) levels were significantly lower in the immobilization groups (p immobilization groups. Similarly, serum COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) levels were higher in the WBV controls than their own controls (p Immobilization led to deterioration of tendon tissue, as observed by histopathological analysis with a transmission electron microscope. Although 1 week of WBV had a positive effect on type I collagen turnover in controls, it is not an efficient method for repairing tissue damage in the early stage following immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiac ultrastructural changes in rats following 250 Gy whole body. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Guo; Mingyue, Zhu; Zhiqin, Zhao

    1985-10-01

    Sixteen rats were whole body irradiated with 250 Gy of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays, killed at different intervals after exposure, and then observed by electron microscope. We found lysis of part of myofilaments in specimen obtained at 10 minutes after exposure, and resolution of Z-band at 30 minutes after exposure. These changes were more significant in sections at 12 hours postirradiation, but there also appeared cell regeneration at the same time. The vascular changes were more obvious with the endothelial cytoplasma projected in capillary lumen, nearly obstructing it. All of above described changes may be found in hematologic or intestinal forms of radiation sickness, but they must take place more late after exposure. In cardiovascular form, however, these changes were found as early as 10-30 minutes after exposure; this is a special feature helpful to diagnosis.

  10. Metabolism of fatty acids and the levels of ketone bodies in the livers of pyridoxine-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomikawa, Shuzo; Okada, Mitsuko

    1978-01-01

    Lipid metabolism was examined in rats fed a high-protein pyridoxine-deficient diet, and their livers were found to contain large amounts of lipids, mainly in the forms of triglycerides and cholesteryl ester. The contents of ketone bodies in the livers of pyridoxine-deficient and the control rats were similar. Their NAD + /NADH ratios, calculated from the amounts of ketone bodies, were also similar in pyridoxine-deficient and control groups when the animals were fed, but the ratio in pyridoxine-deficient rats was lower than that of control rats when the animals were starved. After injection of 14 C-linoleic acid, the amounts of expired 14 CO 2 in pyridoxine-deficient and control rats were similar. The pattern of incorporations of 14 C-linoleic acid into various lipid components of the livers were examined; incorporation into the phospholipid fraction was similar in control and deficient rats, but the incorporation into the triglyceride fraction was slower, and the incorporation into cholesterol was faster in deficient animals than in controls. (auth.)

  11. Relation of soya bean meal level to the concentration of plasma free amino acids and body growth in white rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Tapas K; Parvin, Nargish; Mondal, Santanu; Saxena, Vijaylaxmi; Saxena, Ashok K; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Saha, Mitali

    2012-04-01

    Amino acid (AA) levels in plasma and body growth were determined in rats (n20) fed diets with different soya bean meal levels. Free AA in plasma was determined by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. We have used four levels of protein diets like 8%, 15%, 23% and 35% in this trial. Rats which were fed the low-protein (8%) diet with low percentage of soya bean meal were found to be growth-retarded. The body weight gain of high protein group (35%) was lower than that of the 23% groups. In the rats fed with the low-soya bean meal diet, some nonessential AA (NEAA) in plasma like asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid and serine increased, whereas the essential AA (EAA), with the exception of arginine, methionine and valine decreased. Here, plasma EAA-to-NEAA ratios were not correlated to growth and experimental diet. We hypothesize that AA metabolism is associated to changes in growth in rats on different protein intake. This study has showed the sensitivity of body mass gain, feed intake, feed conversion rate of rats to four levels of protein in the diet under controlled experimental conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. A selective androgen receptor modulator with minimal prostate hypertrophic activity restores lean body mass in aged orchidectomized male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Ng, Raymond; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Androgens are required for the maintenance of normal sexual activity in adulthood and for enhancing muscle growth and lean body mass in adolescents and adults. Androgen receptor (AR) ligands with tissue selectivity (selective androgen receptor modulators, or SARMs) have potential for treating muscle wasting, hypogonadism of aging, osteoporosis, female sexual dysfunction, and other indications. JNJ-37654032 is a nonsteroidal AR ligand with mixed agonist and antagonist activity in androgen-responsive cell-based assays. It is an orally active SARM with muscle selectivity in orchidectomized rat models. It stimulated growth of the levator ani muscle with ED(50) 0.8 mg/kg, stimulating maximal growth at a dose of 3mg/kg. In contrast, it stimulated ventral prostate growth to 21% of its full size at 3mg/kg. At the same time, JNJ-37654032 reduced prostate weight in intact rats by 47% at 3mg/kg, while having no inhibitory effect on muscle. Using magnetic resonance imaging to monitor body composition, JNJ-37654032 restored about 20% of the lean body mass lost following orchidectomy in aged rats. JNJ-37654032 reduced follicle-stimulating hormone levels in orchidectomized rats and reduced testis size in intact rats. JNJ-37654032 is a potent prostate-sparing SARM with the potential for clinical benefit in muscle-wasting diseases.

  13. Protective Effect Of Avocado Oil Against Biochemical And Histological Changes In Whole Body Gamma Irradiation In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Rahman, N.A.; Abd El Azime, A.SH.; Sherif, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    Avocado oil, extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic acids and the monounsaturated fatty acid. It also contains B-sitosterol, B-carotene, lecithin, minerals and vitamins A, C, D and E. Avocado oil lowers the blood levels of serum lipids and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. Male albino rats were divided into 5 groups. 1- Control group: rats not subjected to any treatment, 2- Avocado treated group: rats received avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3- Irradiated group: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 4- Avocado + irradiated group: rats received avocado oil for 21 days then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation with 7 Gy and 5- Radiation + avocado group: rats were exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then received avocado oil for 21 days. Avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, for 21 days before exposure to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then the treatment was continued for 10 days after irradiation. Several investigations were carried out such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), lipid profile and blood sugar. High significant increase in MDA was observed and treatment with avocado before irradiation caused significant increase in GSH, CAT and SOD and significant decrease in MDA as compared to the irradiated groups. The results also showed that treatment with avocado oil significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations observed in the levels of lipid profile and glucose. The results demonstrated that whole body gamma irradiated rats showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. By studying the lipid profile, significant increases in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were recorded while significant decrease was

  14. Acrolein inhalation alters arterial blood gases and triggers carotid body-mediated cardiovascular responses in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Christina M; Hazari, Mehdi S; Ledbetter, Allen D; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P; Cascio, Wayne E; Winsett, Darrell W; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure affects autonomic function, heart rate, blood pressure and left ventricular function. While the mechanism for these effects is uncertain, several studies have reported that air pollution exposure modifies activity of the carotid body, the major organ that senses changes in arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, and elicits downstream changes in autonomic control and cardiac function. We hypothesized that exposure to acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde and mucosal irritant found in cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust, would activate the carotid body chemoreceptor response and lead to secondary cardiovascular responses in rats. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were exposed once for 3 h to 3 ppm acrolein gas or filtered air in whole body plethysmograph chambers. To determine if the carotid body mediated acrolein-induced cardiovascular responses, rats were pretreated with an inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), an enzyme essential for carotid body signal transduction. Acrolein exposure induced several cardiovascular effects. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure increased during exposure, while cardiac contractility decreased 1 day after exposure. The cardiovascular effects were associated with decreases in pO2, breathing frequency and expiratory time, and increases in sympathetic tone during exposure followed by parasympathetic dominance after exposure. The CSE inhibitor prevented the cardiovascular effects of acrolein exposure. Pretreatment with the CSE inhibitor prevented the cardiovascular effects of acrolein, suggesting that the cardiovascular responses with acrolein may be mediated by carotid body-triggered changes in autonomic tone. (This abstract does not reflect EPA policy.).

  15. TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood after total-body and localized irradiation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, J.; Geerdink, A. G.; Rodermond, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    The levels of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood of female WAG/Rij rats were assessed both after total-body irradiation (TBI) and localized irradiation of the right hind leg. The results show that enhanced levels of IL-1 in the circulation reflect a stress situation presumably resulting from

  16. Stress-induced changes in circadian rhythms of body temperature and activity in rats are not caused by pacemaker changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; vandenHoofdakker, RH; Koolhaas, JM; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has shown that social stress in rats (i.e., defeat by an aggressive male conspecific) causes a variety of behavioral and physiological changes including alterations in the daily rhythms of body temperature and activity. To study the role of the circadian pacemaker in these

  17. Absorption and retention studies of trace elements and minerals in rats using radiotracers and whole-body counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Beynen, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    A description is given of a whole-body counting technique using radiotracers, permitting the determination of true absorption and endogenous excretion of trace elements and minerals in the rat in vivo. This non-invasive counting method involves oral and intraperitoneal administration of tracer doses

  18. Effects of oxcarbazepine on monoamines content in hippocampus and head and body shakes and sleep patterns in kainic acid-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso; González-Piña, Rigoberto; Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Ávila-Luna, Alberto; Uribe-Escamilla, Rebeca; Vargas-Sánchez, Javier

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of oxcarbazepine (OXC) on sleep patterns, "head and body shakes" and monoamine neurotransmitters level in a model of kainic-induced seizures. Adult Wistar rats were administered kainic acid (KA), OXC or OXC + KA. A polysomnographic study showed that KA induced animals to stay awake for the whole initial 10 h. OXC administration 30 min prior to KA diminished the effect of KA on the sleep parameters. As a measure of the effects of the drug treatments on behavior, head and body shakes were visually recorded for 4 h after administration of KA, OXC + KA or saline. The presence of OXC diminished the shakes frequency. 4 h after drug application, the hippocampus was dissected out, and the content of monoamines was analyzed. The presence of OXC still more increased serotonin, 5-hidroxyindole acetic acid, dopamine, and homovanilic acid, induced by KA.

  19. Effect of aflatoxin ingestion on total body water (T OH3 - space), total body solids A KD on some physiological and reproductive characteristics of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowar, M.S.; Eldarawany, A.A.; Habeeb, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation aimed to study the effects of aflatoxins B 1 +G 1 mixture mainly on total body water (TBW) and on total body solids (TBS) of male albino rats. Some blood components and some reproductive characteristic were also taken into consideration. Two groups, each of 8 male rats were fed the same ration. Rats of one group had been individually ingested daily with a dose of 22 μg B 1 plus 22 μg G 1 for 15 successive weeks. The obtained results showed that aflatoxin administration caused: 1- A decrease in final body weight (FBW), TBW (P<0.01) and TBS (P<0.05). 2- A decrease in serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.05), globulin (P<0.05), glucose (P<0.05) and increase in serum cholesterol, GOT and GPT (P<0.05) activities. 3- A decrease in each of the number of effective matings of males and delivery percentages of females mated with treated males.1 tab

  20. Modulator Effect of Turmeric on Oxidative Damage in Whole Body Gamma Irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, H.H.; Abdou, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its penetrating power and its ability to travel great distances, gamma rays are considered the primary hazard to the population during most radiological emergencies. So, there is a need to develop medical countermeasures to protect the first responders and remediation workers from biomedical effect of ionizing radiation. Turmeric has been reported to have many beneficial health effects, including a strong anti-oxidant effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. In the present study, turmeric was investigated as a therapeutic agent against hazards induced by ionizing radiation on kidney, liver, urinary and serum calcium levels and blood counts. A daily dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight was used in whole body gamma irradiated female rats with 3 Gy. Radiation effects were followed up for four weeks post irradiation. The results revealed that the administration of turmeric post-irradiation resulted in a significant inhibition in the frequency of radiation induced oxidative damage. It could be concluded that definite turmeric dose exerts a vital modulator role against gamma irradiation hazard

  1. Influence of whole-body gamma irradiation upon arachidonic acid metabolism in rat platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lognonne, J.L.; Ducousso, R.; Rocquet, G.; Kergonou, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of whole-body gamma irradiation (8.4 Gy) were studied on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in rat's blood platelets, from day D + 1 to day D + 10 after irradiation. AA conversion into thromboxane B 2 (TxB 2 ) increased at D + 1 and then gradually decreased to very low values from D + 7 to D + 10. This decrease in the conversion of exogenous AA into TxB 2 was due to a lower AA incorporation into platelets and not to a decrease of cyclooxygenase and thromboxane-synthetase activities. AA incorporation into membrane phospholipids of blood platelets was much more decreased than AA incorporation into whole platelets; moreover, the lipid composition of the platelet membranes was markedly modified after irradiation, which must have resulted in structural and functional changes in these membranes; from these effects of whole-body gamma irradiation on platelets, the latter's membranes appeared as a major site of in vivo radiation damage in these cells

  2. Central and peripheral des-acyl ghrelin regulates body temperature in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keiko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Hayashi, Yujiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2013-01-04

    In the present study using rats, we demonstrated that central and peripheral administration of des-acyl ghrelin induced a decrease in the surface temperature of the back, and an increase in the surface temperature of the tail, although the effect of peripheral administration was less marked than that of central administration. Furthermore, these effects of centrally administered des-acyl ghrelin could not be prevented by pretreatment with [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 GH secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) antagonists. Moreover, these actions of des-acyl ghrelin on body temperature were inhibited by the parasympathetic nerve blocker methylscopolamine but not by the sympathetic nerve blocker timolol. Using immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that des-acyl ghrelin induced an increase of cFos expression in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Additionally, we found that des-acyl ghrelin dilated the aorta and tail artery in vitro. These results indicate that centrally administered des-acyl ghrelin regulates body temperature via the parasympathetic nervous system by activating neurons in the MnPO through interactions with a specific receptor distinct from the GHS-R1a, and that peripherally administered des-acyl ghrelin acts on the central nervous system by passing through the blood-brain barrier, whereas it exerts a direct action on the peripheral vascular system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  4. Modification of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea initiated bladder carcinogenesis in Wistar rats by terephthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lunbiao; Shi Yuan; Dai Guidong; Pan Hongxin; Chen Jianfeng; Song Ling; Wang Shouling; Chang, Hebron C.; Sheng Hongbing; Wang Xinru

    2006-01-01

    The effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was examined. Male Wistar rats were initiated by injection of N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea (MNU) (20 mg/kg b.w. ip) twice a week for 4 weeks, then given basal diet containing 5% TPA, 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) or 1% TPA for the next 22 weeks, and then euthanized. 5% TPA treatment induced a high incidence of urinary bladder calculi and a large amount of precipitate. Though 5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and 1% TPA treatment did not induce urinary bladder calculi formation, they resulted in a moderate increase in urinary precipitate. Histological examination of urinary bladder revealed that MNU-5% TPA treatment resulted in a higher incidence of simple hyperplasia, papillary or nodular hyperplasia (PN hyperplasia), papilloma and cancer than MNU control. MNU-5% TPA plus 4% Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and 1% TPA treatment increased slightly the incidence of simple hyperplasia and PN hyperplasia (not statistically significant). The major elements of the precipitate are phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, chloride, calcium and TPA. The present study indicated that the calculi induced by TPA had a strong promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis and the precipitate containing calcium terephthalate (CaTPA) may also have weak promoting activity on urinary bladder carcinogenesis

  5. Initiation of glycogen biosynthesis in rat heart. Studies with a purified preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, M.L.; Krisman, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Two fractions of glycogen synthase were isolated from rat cardiac muscle on the basis of a different affinity for DEAE-cellulose and omega-aminobutyl-agarose. One of these fractions was able to transfer glucosyl residues from UDP-glucose not only to glycogen (GS-1 activity) but also to an endogenous acceptor. The latter reaction (GS-2 activity) occurred in the absence of added glycogen, and its reaction product was insoluble in trichloroacetic acid. This compound was degraded by amylolytic enzymes, thus showing that the product synthesized on the endogenous acceptor was an alpha 1,4-glucan. After incubation with alpha-amylase-free proteolytic enzyme, the compound was rendered trichloroacetic acid-soluble. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, under both native and denaturing conditions, showed that GS-2 reaction products moved electrophoretically associated to protein. The results give further evidence for the association between an alpha 1,4-glucan and protein, which the authors postulate is related to the initiation of glycogen biosynthesis

  6. Humans make near-optimal adjustments of control to initial body configuration in vertical squat jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; Casius, L.J.R.; Kistemaker, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated adjustments of control to initial posture in squat jumping. Eleven male subjects jumped from three initial postures: preferred initial posture (PP), a posture in which the trunk was rotated 18° more backward (BP) and a posture in which it was rotated 15° more forward (FP) than in PP.

  7. Leucine-rich diet alters the eukaryotic translation initiation factors expression in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Maria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-cachexia induces a variety of metabolic disorders on protein turnorver, decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Controversly, insulin, other hormones, and branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, stimulate protein synthesis and modulate the activity of translation initiation factors involved in protein synthesis. Since the tumour effects are more pronounced when associated with pregnancy, ehancing muscle-wasting proteolysis, in this study, the influence of a leucine-rich diet on the protein synthesis caused by cancer were investigated. Methods Pregnant rats with or without Walker 256 tumour were distributed into six groups. During 20 days of experiment, three groups were fed with a control diet: C – pregnant control, W – tumour-bearing, and P – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the W group; three other groups of pregnant rats were fed a leucine-rich diet: L – pregnant leucine, WL – tumour-bearing, and PL – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the WL group. Results The gastrocnemius muscle of WL rats showed increased incorporation of leucine in protein compared to W rats; the leucine-rich diet also prevented the decrease in plasma insulin normally seen in W. The expression of translation initiation factors increased when tumour-bearing rats fed leucine-rich diet, with increase of ~35% for eIF2α and eIF5, ~17% for eIF4E and 20% for eIF4G; the expression of protein kinase S6K1 and protein kinase C was also highly enhanced. Conclusion The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet increased the protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in tumour-bearing rats possibly through the activation of eIF factors and/or the S6kinase pathway.

  8. Leucine-rich diet alters the eukaryotic translation initiation factors expression in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventrucci, Gislaine; Mello, Maria Alice R; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C

    2007-01-01

    Cancer-cachexia induces a variety of metabolic disorders on protein turnorver, decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Controversly, insulin, other hormones, and branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, stimulate protein synthesis and modulate the activity of translation initiation factors involved in protein synthesis. Since the tumour effects are more pronounced when associated with pregnancy, ehancing muscle-wasting proteolysis, in this study, the influence of a leucine-rich diet on the protein synthesis caused by cancer were investigated. Pregnant rats with or without Walker 256 tumour were distributed into six groups. During 20 days of experiment, three groups were fed with a control diet: C – pregnant control, W – tumour-bearing, and P – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the W group; three other groups of pregnant rats were fed a leucine-rich diet: L – pregnant leucine, WL – tumour-bearing, and PL – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the WL group. The gastrocnemius muscle of WL rats showed increased incorporation of leucine in protein compared to W rats; the leucine-rich diet also prevented the decrease in plasma insulin normally seen in W. The expression of translation initiation factors increased when tumour-bearing rats fed leucine-rich diet, with increase of ~35% for eIF2α and eIF5, ~17% for eIF4E and 20% for eIF4G; the expression of protein kinase S6K1 and protein kinase C was also highly enhanced. The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet increased the protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in tumour-bearing rats possibly through the activation of eIF factors and/or the S6kinase pathway

  9. Leucine-rich diet alters the eukaryotic translation initiation factors expression in skeletal muscle of tumour-bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventrucci, Gislaine [Laboratório de Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, 13083-970, São Paulo (Brazil); Mello, Maria Alice R [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto Biociências, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, UNESP, Rio Claro, 13506-900, São Paulo (Brazil); Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina C [Laboratório de Nutrição e Câncer, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, 13083-970, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-03-06

    Cancer-cachexia induces a variety of metabolic disorders on protein turnorver, decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation. Controversly, insulin, other hormones, and branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, stimulate protein synthesis and modulate the activity of translation initiation factors involved in protein synthesis. Since the tumour effects are more pronounced when associated with pregnancy, ehancing muscle-wasting proteolysis, in this study, the influence of a leucine-rich diet on the protein synthesis caused by cancer were investigated. Pregnant rats with or without Walker 256 tumour were distributed into six groups. During 20 days of experiment, three groups were fed with a control diet: C – pregnant control, W – tumour-bearing, and P – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the W group; three other groups of pregnant rats were fed a leucine-rich diet: L – pregnant leucine, WL – tumour-bearing, and PL – pair-fed, which received the same amount of food as ingested by the WL group. The gastrocnemius muscle of WL rats showed increased incorporation of leucine in protein compared to W rats; the leucine-rich diet also prevented the decrease in plasma insulin normally seen in W. The expression of translation initiation factors increased when tumour-bearing rats fed leucine-rich diet, with increase of ~35% for eIF2α and eIF5, ~17% for eIF4E and 20% for eIF4G; the expression of protein kinase S6K1 and protein kinase C was also highly enhanced. The results suggest that a leucine-rich diet increased the protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in tumour-bearing rats possibly through the activation of eIF factors and/or the S6kinase pathway.

  10. Microwave radiation (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress: Whole-body exposure effect on histopathology of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Parul; Verma, H N; Sisodia, Rashmi; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Man-made microwave and radiofrequency (RF) radiation technologies have been steadily increasing with the growing demand of electronic appliances such as microwave oven and cell phones. These appliances affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, thus leading to oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on histology and the level of lipid peroxide (LPO) in Wistar rats. Sixty-day-old male Wistar rats with 180 ± 10 g body weight were used for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed (control) and microwave exposed. These animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 d to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation (power density, 0.2 mW/cm 2 ). The whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. After completion of the exposure period, rats were sacrificed, and brain, liver, kidney, testis and spleen were stored/preserved for determination of LPO and histological parameters. Significantly high level of LPO was observed in the liver (p body microwave exposure, compared to the control group. Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that exposure to microwave radiation 2 h a day for 35 d can potentially cause histopathology and oxidative changes in Wistar rats. These results indicate possible implications of such exposure on human health.

  11. Changes in melatonin in epiphysis after whole-body irradiation of rats with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Kassayova, M.; Ahlers, I.

    1998-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were exposed to a whole-body gamma dose of 14.4 or 9.6 Gy in darkness. Other groups were exposed to fractionated irradiation with 2.4 Gy twice a week up to 9.6 and 14.4 Gy. At 30 and 60 min after acute lethal irradiation, a decrease in the melatonin (Mel) concentration in the epiphysis was observed; the activity of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) did not differ from that in the control group. Later, signs of increased synthesis of Mel were observed. NAT activity and Mel concentration in the serum increased on day 3 following exposure to 14.4 Gy. Concentration of Mel in epiphysis and serum increased 5 days after exposure to 9.6 Gy. Fractionated irradiation up to 9.6 Gy brought about a decrease in NAT activity 6 h after exposure, without changes in Mel in epiphysis. In rats with an accumulated dose of 14.4 Gy, NAT activity and Mel concentration in epiphysis (serum) decreased 6 h and 3 days, respectively, after exposure, and monoaminooxidase (MAO) increased appreciably on day 3. On day 5, the enzyme activities and Mel concentrations did not differ from those in the control group. Fractionated irradiation up to 14.4 Gy brought about temporary decrease in the synthesis of Mel in epiphysis, which may be due to preferential oxidative deamination of serotonin as compared to its N-acetylation leading to the synthesis of melatonin. The temporary decrease in the Mel concentration in epiphysis in 60 min after single-dose exposure to 14.4 or 9.6 Gy may be a result of similar metabolic changes. The increased synthesis of Mel in epiphysis at a later stage following acute lethal exposure is seen as an adaptive effort of the organism to produce a sufficient amount of hormone with an antioxidative, antistress and immunomodulative effect

  12. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I.; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Éva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Farrugia Sant’Angelo, Victoria; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%−95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30−0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20−1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school

  13. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively. School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93. Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70 countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02, indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the

  14. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School nutrition environment and body mass index in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; van Raaij, Joop M A; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Eva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-10-30

    Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children's weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children's BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z

  15. Influence of dietary fat and selenium fed during initiation or promotion on the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, S.; Parker, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1)-induced γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci in rat liver were assessed in animals fed different levels of fat and selenium (Se) during either initiation (IN) or promotion (PR). Male Sprague Dawley rats (50g) were divided into 12 groups. One of six modified AIN-76 experimental diets were fed to groups 1-6 during weeks 1-4.5 (IN) and to groups 7-12 during weeks 4.5-15 (PR). During weeks 3-4, 13 rats/group received 10 daily doses of AFB1 (.4 mg/kg bwt/dose, i.g.). Two levels of corn oil (2% and 20%) were fed, each containing 3 levels of Se: < 0.02; 0.15; 2.5 (IN) or 1.9 (PR) ppm. When not fed the experimental diets rats were fed a standard AIN-76 diet. In groups 1-6, 0.03% phenobarbital was added to the standard diet. At week 15 rats were sacrificed. Compared to all low-fat groups, the high-fat diets with either < 0.02 or 0.15 ppm Se fed during IN resulted in a marked increase in mean diameter of GGT-positive foci and % liver section occupied by foci. In rats fed high-fat 2.5 ppm Se, preneoplastic development was decreased below all low-fat groups. During PR, Se status but not dietary fat level influenced foci formation. Rats fed < 0.02 ppm Se had greater mean diameter of foci and % section occupied by foci than either 0.15 or 1.9 ppm Se. Thus, an interaction was observed between dietary fat and selenium during IN, but not during PR

  16. A Whole-Body Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Colistin and Colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchene, Salim; Marchand, Sandrine; Couet, William; Friberg, Lena E; Gobin, Patrice; Lamarche, Isabelle; Grégoire, Nicolas; Björkman, Sven; Karlsson, Mats O

    2018-04-17

    Colistin is a polymyxin antibiotic used to treat patients infected with multidrug-resistant Gram negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). The objective of this work was to develop a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model to predict tissue distribution of colistin in rat. The distribution of a drug in a tissue is commonly characterized by its tissue-to-plasma partition coefficient, K p . Colistin and its prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) K p priors were measured experimentally from rat tissue homogenates or predicted in silico. The PK parameters of both compounds were estimated fitting in vivo their plasma concentration-time profiles from six rats receiving an i.v. bolus of CMS. The variability in the data was quantified by applying a non-linear mixed effect (NLME) modelling approach. A WB-PBPK model was developed assuming a well-stirred and perfusion-limited distribution in tissue compartments. Prior information on tissue distribution of colistin and CMS was investigated following three scenarios: K p were estimated using in silico K p priors (I) or K p were estimated using experimental K p priors (II) or K p were fixed to the experimental values (III). The WB-PBPK model best described colistun and CMS plasma concentration-time profiles in scenario II. Colistin predicted concentrations in kidneys in scenario II were higher than in other tissues, which was consistent with its large experimental K p prior. This might be explained by a high affinity of colistin for renal parenchyma and active reabsorption into the proximal tubular cells. In contrast, renal accumulation of colistin was not predicted in scenario I. Colistin and CMS clearance estimates were in agreement with published values. The developed model suggests using experimental priors over in silico K p priors for kidneys to provide a better prediction of colistin renal distribution. Such models might serve in drug development for interspecies scaling and investigating the impact of

  17. Effects of liraglutide and sibutramine on food intake, palatability, body weight and glucose tolerance in the gubra DIO-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gitte; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels

    2012-02-01

    To validate the gubra DIO-rats as a useful animal model of human obesity. The gubra diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model was based on male Sprague-Dawley rats with ad libitum access to regular chow and a palatable diet rich in fat and sugar. To evaluate the versatility of the gubra DIO-rats as a valid model of human obesity syndrome, the efficacy of 2 weight loss compounds liraglutide and sibutramine with different mechanisms of action were examined in 7-month-old gubra DIO-rats. Liraglutide (200 μg/kg, sc) was administered bi-daily, and sibutramine (5 mg/kg, po) was administered once daily for 23 d. Both the compounds effectively reduced the food intake, body weight and total fat mass as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance. Whereas the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor/5-HT receptor agonist sibutramine reduced the intake of both chow and the gubra-diet, the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide predominantly reduced the intake of the highly palatable diet, indicating a shift in food preference. Sibutramine lowered the insulin sensitivity index, primarily via reductions in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This animal model responds well to 2 weight loss compounds with different mechanisms of action. Moreover, the gubra DIO-rat can be particularly useful for the testing of compounds with potential effects on diet preference.

  18. Diesel engine exhaust initiates a sequence of pulmonary and cardiovascular effects in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, I.M.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Boere, A.J.F.; Leseman, D.L.A.C.; Fokkens, P.H.B.; Spronk, H.M.H.; Frederix, K.; Ten Cate, H.; Knaapen, A.M.; Vreman, H.J.; Cassee, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the sequence of events leading to cardiopulmonary effects following acute inhalation of diesel engine exhaust in rats. Rats were exposed for 2h to diesel engine exhaust (1.9mg/m3), and biological parameters related to antioxidant defense, inflammation,

  19. Changes in some blood lipid fractions in whole-body irradiated rats as influenced by some radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, R.M.; Roushdy, H.; Gawish, M.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of sublethal and lethal total body gamma irradiation on some serum lipid fractions in male rats was investigated. The protective efficacy of estradiol and/or α-tocopherol was also studied. The results of this study demonstrate that the lethally irradiated rats showed significant alteration in serum triglycerides, cholesterol, total lipids and phospholipids level. Estradiol exerted a benefical effect on lipid fractions after one and two days post lethal α-irradiation (8 Gy). No consistent radioprotective effect of tocopherol could be detected on the levels of serum lipid fractions. This finding was also observed when both radioprotectors were used. (orig.) [de

  20. Arginine-esterase activity of kallikrein in the sera of whole-body irradiated rats and guinea-pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouckova, P; Pospisil, J; Dienstbier, Z [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Biofyzikalni Ustav

    1977-09-01

    In whole-body irradiated rats (800 R=LDsub(50/30)) and guinea pigs (300 R=LDsub(50/30)) changes were investigated in the arginine esterase activity of kallikrein in native serum as well as in serum exposed to contact with a clay suspension. From the values obtained the activity of prekallikrein was calculated. While in the rat serum significant changes in the arginine esterase activity of kallikrein were found, in the guinea pig serum the kallikrein activity did not change markedly. The activity of prekallikrein immediately after irradiation assumes a similar course in both types of laboratory animals while during later intervals a reverse pattern was observed.

  1. The effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on body composition in free-fed and diet-restricted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L L; Doan, T D; Lennon, D L; Nagle, F J; Lardy, H A

    1987-04-01

    The effects of the non-selective beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol (known for its anti-lipolytic activity) on body composition were investigated in growing male rats on normal unrestricted diet (N = 7) and on diet restriction (N = 7, 95% of controls). Three animals in each group were injected i.p. with 30 mg propranolol per kg body weight (bw) dissolved in saline, 5 days/week. This dose attenuates exercising heart rate by 25% and exercise training-induced enzyme activity. The remaining animals received saline. Fat, glycogen, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were determined in the homogenized residue of the whole animal. After 9 weeks on the experimental regimen, bw gain was significantly lower in the diet restricted rats, whereas propranolol had no effect on the bw gain. The percentage of fat, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were unchanged by either propranolol or diet restriction. However, glycogen content was significantly lower in the beta-blocked rats either with or without diet restriction. These data indicated that neither beta-adrenergic blockade nor minimal diet restriction influences the percentage body fat, whereas body glycogen content is decreased under both conditions.

  2. Body Shape and Weight Loss as Motivators for Breastfeeding Initiation and Continuation

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie C. Schalla; Gemma L. Witcomb; Emma Haycraft

    2017-01-01

    Breastfeeding rates in the UK are low. Efforts to promote breastfeeding typically include the known health benefits for mother and child, many of which are not immediate. Gaining immediate benefits can be effective motivators of behaviour. Body-related changes resulting from breastfeeding could be an immediate benefit. This study explored breastfeeding mothers? reports of body-related changes as benefits of breastfeeding. Mothers (N = 182) who currently, or had recently, breastfed an infant c...

  3. Effects of rocuronium and vecuronium on initial rundown of endplate potentials in the isolated phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Liu, Yong-Qin; Zhang, Han-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Rocuronium and vecuronium, two non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers, have been widely used in surgery procedures. However, their electrophysiological properties need to be more widely explored. We examined the effects of rocuronium and vecuronium on initial rundown of endplate potential amplitudes in the non-uniform stretched muscle preparation of the rat isolated phrenic nerve diaphragm. More specifically, the endplate potentials were recorded with one microelectrode from a single endplat...

  4. Different Short-Term Mild Exercise Modalities Lead to Differential Effects on Body Composition in Healthy Prepubertal Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Sontam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has a vital role in regulating and improving bone strength. Responsiveness of bone mass to exercise is age dependent with the prepubertal period suggested to be the most effective stage for interventions. There is a paucity of data on the effects of exercise on bone architecture and body composition when studied within the prepubertal period. We examined the effect of two forms of low-impact exercise on prepubertal changes in body composition and bone architecture. Weanling male rats were assigned to control (CON, bipedal stance (BPS, or wheel exercise (WEX groups for 15 days until the onset of puberty. Distance travelled via WEX was recorded, food intake measured, and body composition quantified. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. WEX led to a higher lean mass and reduced fat mass compared to CON. WEX animals had greater femoral cortical cross-sectional thickness and closed porosity compared to CON. The different exercise modalities had no effect on body weight or food intake, but WEX significantly altered body composition and femoral microarchitecture. These data suggest that short-term mild voluntary exercise in normal prepubertal rats can alter body composition dependent upon the exercise modality.

  5. Central effects of insulin detemir on feeding, body weight, and metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Wall, Daniel G; John, Catherine S; Chapman, Colin D; Currie, Paul J

    2017-11-01

    Insulin detemir (DET) is a basal insulin analog that, in contrast to other long-acting forms of insulin, has significant weight-gain-sparing effects in diabetic patients. We hypothesized that this effect of DET may be due to its enhanced catabolic action in the central nervous system. We investigated the long-term effects of single third ventricular (3V) microinjections of equimolar doses of DET and regular insulin in normal male rats on feeding, body weight, energy expenditure (EE), and respiratory quotient (RQ). Also, in acute testing, we assessed the ability of lower doses of DET to alter feeding, EE, and RQ when microinjected directly into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The anabolic peptide ghrelin served as a positive control in acute testing. 3V administration of both DET (0.5-2.0 mU) and regular insulin (2.0-8.0 mU) significantly reduced feeding and body weight over 48 and 120 h, respectively, with DET yielding greater inhibitory effects. DET also stimulated greater elevations of EE and reductions of RQ over 72 and 48 h postinjection, respectively. In acute (4 h) testing, microinjections of DET (0.5 mU) into the PVN reduced feeding, increased EE, and reduced RQ, while ghrelin (100 pmol) had the opposite effects. When administered sequentially into the PVN, DET (0.25 and 0.5 mU) reversed ghrelin-induced feeding, EE, and RQ effects. These data support the notion that the weight-sparing effect of DET is at least in part based on its central catabolic action and that enhanced EE and reduced RQ may participate in this effect. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation in gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon) and house rat (Rattus rattus rufescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, V.P.; Agrawal, M.; Gupta, C.

    1976-01-01

    Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation has been studied in domestic and desert rat species. A significant elevation in the serum transaminases activity was noticed both in gerbil and house rat. Alkaline phosphatase and plasma cholesterol levels were also increased indicating an early radiation impairment of the liver tissue, which was later confirmed by histological studies. A steady fall in liver glycogen in irradiated gerbils was strikingly in contrast to an increase in irradiated house rat. Drastic depletion in liver glycogen, changes in the serum enzyme levels and the severity of the hepatic necrosis in gerbils point out that desert mammalian species are much more sensitive to radiation hazard as compared with domestic ones. (orig.) [de

  7. Whole body gamma radiation effects on rheological behaviour (deformability) of rat erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of whole body gamma irradiation on the rheological behaviour of rat erythrocytes (deformability). Animals were divided into 4 irradiated groups and 4 control groups according to their sacrificing time intervals (1 st, 3 rd, 5 th and 7 th days) post-irradiation with dose (6 Gy). In all animals and at the previous time intervals, red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins electrophoretic pattern, RBC membrane lipids levels (cholesterol and phospholipids), RBC electrolytes levels (sodium, potassium and calcium), corpuscular osmotic fragility and RBC morphological by scanning electron microscopy were determined. Highly significant increase in membrane cholesterol, RBC sodium, calcium and corpuscular osmotic fragility accompanied by highly significant decrease in membrane phospholipids, RBC potassium and RBC deformability were found. No changes in membrane proteins electrophoretic patterns were detected. Morphologically, there were increase in the incidences of echinocytes and spherocytes development, which were time dependent. According to the previous results, irradiation promotes alterations in RBC shape (echinocytosis), membrane skeletal dysfunction, membrane lipid peroxidation, increase in membrane cholesterol/phospholipid content, changes in membrane electrolyte permeability and decrease then increase in osmotic fragility. These alterations in turn led to decrease in cellular deformability as a result of increased membrane rigidity and also due to cells dehydration caused by excess leakage of potassium ions from the RBCs

  8. Changes in rat plasma fibrinolytic factors during long term follow up after whole body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek-Wojciechowska, G.; Dancewicz, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Rats were whole body irradiated with a dose of 7.0 Gy and then bled at different times after exposure, from 1 day to 12 months; in their plasma the activity of plasmin, the level of plasminogen, the activity of plasminogen activator as well as α 2 -antiplasmin and α 2 -macroglobulin were determined. In comparison to control values obtained in parallel determinations it was found that during the acute phase of radiation disease (up to 30 days after irradiation) the activity of plasmin and the level of plasminogen underwent fluctuation: at the beginning there was an increase, followed by a decrease at later time intervals. There was also a distinct decrease (over 50%) in the activity of plasminogen activator. During the 2 to 4 weeks after exposure the activity of inhibitors was somewhat decreased, especially that of α 2 -macroglobulin. At later periods the level of plasminogen and the activity of plasminogen activator returned to normal but that of plasmin underwent fluctuation again, reaching a significant decrease in activity 6 and 12 months after exposure. At these time points also some decrease in activity of inhibitors was observed, especially in that of α 2 -macroglobulin. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs. (author)

  9. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Banin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B, and protein kinase B (Akt, as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD or a normal fat diet (NFD for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V, and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb. NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.

  10. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banin, R.M.; Hirata, B.K.S.; Andrade, I.S.; Zemdegs, J.C.S.; Clemente, A.P.G.; Dornellas, A.P.S.; Boldarine, V.T.; Estadella, D.; Albuquerque, K.T.; Oyama, L.M.; Ribeiro, E.B.; Telles, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), and protein kinase B (Akt), as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal fat diet (NFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V), and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb). NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment

  11. Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on insulin signaling cascade, dyslipidemia, and body adiposity of diet-induced obese rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banin, R. M.; Hirata, B. K.S. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Andrade, I. S.; Zemdegs, J. C.S. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Clemente, A. P.G. [Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, AL (Brazil); Dornellas, A. P.S.; Boldarine, V. T. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Estadella, D. [Departamento de Biociências, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Baixada Santista, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, K. T. [Curso de Nutrição, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Oyama, L. M.; Ribeiro, E. B. [Disciplina de Fisiologia da Nutrição, Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Telles, M. M. [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-25

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), and protein kinase B (Akt), as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal fat diet (NFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V), and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb). NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.

  12. Single whole-body exposure to sarin vapor in rats: Long-term neuronal and behavioral deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, Ettie; Chapman, Shira; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Raveh, Lily; Weissman, Ben-Avi; Kadar, Tamar; Allon, Nahum

    2008-01-01

    Freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (34.2 ± 0.8 μg/l) for 10 min. Mortality at 24 h was 35% and toxic sings in the surviving rats ranged from sever (prolonged convulsions) through moderate to almost no overt signs. Some of the surviving rats developed delayed, intermittent convulsions. All rats were evaluated for long-term functional deficits in comparison to air-exposed control rats. Histological analysis revealed typical cell loss at 1 week post inhalation exposure. Neuronal inflammation was demonstrated by a 20-fold increase in prostaglandin (PGE 2 ) levels 24 h following exposure that markedly decreased 6 days later. An additional, delayed increase in PGE 2 was detected at 1 month and continued to increase for up to 6 months post exposure. Glial activation following neural damage was demonstrated by an elevated level of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) seen in the brain 4 and 6 months after exposure. At the same time muscarinic receptors were unaffected. Six weeks, four and six months post exposure behavioral evaluations were performed. In the open field, sarin-exposed rats showed a significant increase in overall activity with no habituation over days. In a working memory paradigm in the water maze, these same rats showed impaired working and reference memory processes with no recovery. Our data suggest long lasting impairment of brain functions in surviving rats following a single sarin exposure. Animals that seem to fully recover from the exposure, and even animals that initially show no toxicity signs, developed some adverse neural changes with time

  13. High Folic Acid Intake during Pregnancy Lowers Body Weight and Reduces Femoral Area and Strength in Female Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. P. Huot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats fed gestational diets high in multivitamin or folate produce offspring of altered phenotypes. We hypothesized that female rat offspring born to dams fed a gestational diet high in folic acid (HFol have compromised bone health and that feeding the offspring the same HFol diet attenuates these effects. Pregnant rats were fed diets with either recommended folic acid (RFol or 10-fold higher folic acid (HFol amounts. Female offspring were weaned to either the RFol or HFol diet for 17 weeks. HFol maternal diet resulted in lower offspring body weights (6%, P=0.03 and, after adjusting for body weight and femoral length, smaller femoral area (2%, P=0.03, compared to control diet. After adjustments, HFol pup diet resulted in lower mineral content (7%, P=0.01 and density (4%, P=0.002 of lumbar vertebra 4 without differences in strength. An interaction between folate content of the dam and pup diets revealed that a mismatch resulted in lower femoral peak load strength (P=0.01 and stiffness (P=0.002. However, the match in folate content failed to prevent lower weight gain. In conclusion, HFol diets fed to rat dams and their offspring affect area and strength of femurs and mineral quantity but not strength of lumbar vertebrae in the offspring.

  14. The effects of whole-body irradiation on the serum levels and kinetics of thyroid hormones in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of a single whole-body dose of X-rays on the serum levels and kinetics of thyroid hormones in rats were studied. The influence of radiation-induced anorexia was monitored by using pair fed control groups. A dose of 800 rad caused a reduction in T 4 levels and 750 rad had a similar effect on T 3 ; in each case the control group showed a smaller reduction. The kinetic results indicated that, in the control groups, the early reduction in hormone concentrations was caused by decreased production, whereas, in the irradiated groups, it was caused by a change in the distribution of the hormone; however the continuing reduction in hormone levels in the irradiated rats appeared to result from decreased production. The results suggest that the thyroid system may play an active part in the early metabolic changes which follow whole-body irradiation. (author)

  15. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  16. Investigation of changes in body chemical composition of rats after the spaceflight by the negatively charged muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, R.-D.; Evseev, V.S.; Ortlepp, H.G.; Sabirov, B.M.; Haupt, H.

    1978-01-01

    A body chemical composition of three white rats of the ''Wistar'' line has been investigated by the muonic x-ray spectroscopy technique, sojourned during three weeks in the spaceflight on earth artificial satellites ''Cosmos-605'' and ''Cosmos-690''. It is shown that a chemical composition of these animals has not been changed after the spaceflight. The obtained results confirm the hypothesis by that due to the influence of space flight on alive organism apparently no carrying out of heavy elements from an organism is happened, but their redistribution between various tissues of the body occurs

  17. Sweetpotato- and cereal-based infant foods: protein quality assessment, and effect on body composition using sprague dawley rats as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    Full Text Available The Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS of sweetpotato-based complementary foods (OFSP ComFa and CFSP ComFa and cereal-based infant products (Weanimix and Cerelac was assessed using 3 wk-old male Sprague Dawley rats weighing between 53-67 g as a model for human infants. Also, the effect of consumption of the infant formulations on lean mass, bone mass content and fat mass was evaluated by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA using 6 wk-old Sprague Dawley rats (initial weight, 206-229 g. The ComFa products and Weanimix are household-level formulations, and Cerelac is a commercial infant cereal. The true protein digestibility score for Cerelac was 96.27%, and about 1.8% (P<0.0001 higher than that for OFSP ComFa, CFSP ComFa and Weanimix. However, OFSP ComFa had the highest un-truncated PDCAAS by a difference of 4.1%, than CFSP ComFa, and about 20% difference compared with both the Weanimix and Cerelac. All the products investigated had PDCAAS greater than 70%, the minimum protein quality requirement for complementary foods. Among the rats assigned to the four formulations, their bone mass and fat mass composition were not significantly different (P=0.08 and P=0.85, respectively. However, the rats on CFSP ComFa had higher lean mass than those on Cerelac (321.67 vs. 297.19 g; P=0.03. The findings from the PDCAAS and the DEXA-measured body composition studies indicate that complementary foods could be formulated from readily available agricultural resources at the household-level to support growth as would a nutritionally adequate industrial-manufactured infant cereal. Nonetheless, it should be noted that the findings of our studies are based on an animal model.

  18. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries.

  19. Association of body mass index with decline in residual kidney function after initiation of dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drechsler, Christiane; de Mutsert, Renée; Grootendorst, Diana C.; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W.; Krediet, Raymond T.; le Cessie, Saskia; Wanner, Christoph; Dekker, Friedo W.; Apperloo, A. J.; Bijlsma, J. A.; Boekhout, M.; Boer, W. H.; Büller, H. R.; de Charro, F. T. H.; de Fijter, C. W. H.; Doorenbos, C. J.; Fagel, W. J.; Feith, G. W.; Frenken, L. A. M.; Gerlag, P. G. G.; Gorgels, J. P. M. C.; Grave, W.; Huisman, R. M.; Jager, K. J.; Jie, K.; Koning-Mulder, W. A. H.; Koolen, M. I.; Kremer Hovinga, T. K.; Lavrijssen, A. T. J.; Luik, A. J.; Parlevliet, K. J.; Raasveld, M. H. M.; Schonck, M. J. M.; Schuurmans, M. M. J.; Siegert, C. E. H.; Stegeman, C. A.; Stevens, P.; Thijssen, J. G. P.; Valentijn, R. M.; van Buren, M.; van den Dorpel, M. A.; van der Boog, P. J. M.; van der Meulen, J.; van der Sande, F. M.; van Es, A.; van Geelen, J. A. C. A.; Vastenburg, G. H.; Verburgh, C. A.; Vincent, H. H.; Vos, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for loss of kidney function in the general population, but it is unknown whether it proceeds to affect residual kidney function when patients require dialysis. Our aim was to study the effects of body mass index (BMI) on decline in kidney function and risk to

  20. Resveratrol Co-Treatment Attenuates the Effects of HIV Protease Inhibitors on Rat Body Weight and Enhances Cardiac Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Symington

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV, aspirin (ASP or vitamin C (VitC co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months. Body weights and weight gain, blood metabolite levels (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, echocardiography and cardiac mitochondrial respiration were assessed in PI-treated rats ± various co-treatments. Our data reveal that PI treatment significantly lowered body weight and cardiac respiratory function while no significant changes were found for heart function and blood metabolite levels. Moreover, all co-treatments ameliorated the PI-induced decrease in body weight after 4 months of PI treatment, while RSV co-treatment enhanced cardiac mitochondrial respiratory capacity in PI-treated rats. This pilot study therefore provides novel hypotheses regarding RSV co-treatment that should be further assessed in greater detail.

  1. Body weight gain in rats by a high-fat diet produces chronodisruption in activity/inactivity circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Rafael; Cubero, Javier; Franco, Lourdes; Mesa, Mónica; Galán, Carmen; Rodríguez, Ana Beatriz; Jarne, Carlos; Barriga, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    In the last few decades, obesity has become one of the most important public health problems. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine tissue which follows a rhythmic pattern in its functions and may produce alterations in certain circadian rhythms. Our aim was to evaluate whether the locomotor activity circadian rhythm could be modified by a hypercaloric diet in rodents. Two groups were considered in the experiment: 16 rats were used as a control group and were fed standard chow; the other group comprised 16 rats fed a high-fat diet (35.8% fat, 35% glucides). The trial lasted 16 weeks. Body weight was measured every week, and a blood sample was extracted every two weeks to quantify triglyceride levels. The activity/inactivity circadian rhythm was logged through actimetry throughout the trial, and analysed using the DAS 24© software package. At the end of the experiment, the high-fat fed rats had obese-like body weights and high plasma triglyceride levels, and, compared with the control group, increased diurnal activity, decreased nocturnal activity, reductions in amplitude, midline estimating statistic of rhythm, acrophase and interdaily stability, and increases in intradaily variability of their activity rhythms. The results thus show how obesity can lead to symptoms of chronodisruption in the body similar to those of ageing.

  2. Humans make near-optimal adjustments of control to initial body configuration in vertical squat jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Maarten F; Richard Casius, L J; Kistemaker, Dinant A

    2013-05-01

    We investigated adjustments of control to initial posture in squat jumping. Eleven male subjects jumped from three initial postures: preferred initial posture (PP), a posture in which the trunk was rotated 18° more backward (BP) and a posture in which it was rotated 15° more forward (FP) than in PP. Kinematics, ground reaction forces and electromyograms (EMG) were collected. EMG was rectified and smoothed to obtain smoothed rectified EMG (srEMG). Subjects showed adjustments in srEMG histories, most conspicuously a shift in srEMG-onset of rectus femoris (REC): from early in BP to late in FP. Jumps from the subjects' initial postures were simulated with a musculoskeletal model comprising four segments and six Hill-type muscles, which had muscle stimulation (STIM) over time as input. STIM of each muscle changed from initial to maximal at STIM-onset, and STIM-onsets were optimized using jump height as criterion. Optimal simulated jumps from BP, PP and FP were similar to jumps of the subjects. Optimal solutions primarily differed in STIM-onset of REC: from early in BP to late in FP. Because the subjects' adjustments in srEMG-onsets were similar to adjustments of the model's optimal STIM-onsets, it was concluded that the former were near-optimal. With the model we also showed that near-maximum jumps from BP, PP and FP could be achieved when STIM-onset of REC depended on initial hip joint angle and STIM-onsets of the other muscles were posture-independent. A control theory that relies on a mapping from initial posture to STIM-onsets seems a parsimonious alternative to theories relying on internal optimal control models. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Orbital bleeding in rats while under diethylether anaesthesia does not influence telemetrically determined heart rate, body temperature, locomotor and eating activity when compared with anaesthesia alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanHerck, H; DeBoer, SF; Hesp, APM; VanLith, HA; Baumans, [No Value; Beynen, AC; Herck, H. van; Lith, H.A. van

    The question addressed was whether orbital bleeding in rats, while under diethylether anaesthesia, affects their locomotor activity, body core temperature, heart rate rhythm and eating pattern. Roman High Avoidance (RHA) and Roman Low Avoidance (RLA) rats were used to enhance generalization of the

  4. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This dataset...

  5. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishikawa Y

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoichi KishikawaKishikawa Orthopaedic Clinic, Saga City, Saga, JapanPurpose: The aim of the present conventional observational study was to compare the clinical outcomes of initial non-weight-bearing therapy and conventional relative rest therapy among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures.Methods: In total, 196 consecutive patients with clinical vertebral fractures (mean age: 78 years who were hospitalized for treatment between January 1999 and March 2007 were analyzed. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy consisted of complete bed rest allowing rolling on the bed without any weight-bearing to the spine for 2 weeks, followed by rehabilitation wearing a soft brace. The indications for initial non-weight-bearing therapy were vertebral fracture involving the posterior portion of the vertebral body at the thoraco-lumbar spine, mild neurological deficit, instability of the fracture site, severe pain, multiple vertebral fractures arising from trauma, malalignment at the fracture site, and mild spinal canal stenosis caused by the fracture. Patients who met the indication criteria were treated with initial non-weight-bearing therapy (n = 103, while the other patients were treated with conventional relative rest (n = 93. All the patients were uniformly treated with intramuscular elcatonin to relieve pain. The primary endpoint was progression of the vertebral fracture. The secondary endpoints included bony union and subjective back pain. The follow-up period was 12 weeks.Results: Compared with the conventional relative rest group, the collapse rate of the anterior and posterior portions of the vertebral body was significantly smaller in the initial non-weight-bearing group. The bony union rate was 100% in the initial non-weight-bearing group and 97% in the conventional relative rest group. The number of patients who experienced back pain was significantly lower in the initial non-weight-bearing group than in the conventional relative rest

  6. Effect of whole body vibration therapy on circulating serotonin levels in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiu-Shi; Huang, Li; Chen, Xian-Hong; Wang, Hai-Bin; Sun, Wei-Shan; Huo, Shao-Chuan; Li, Zi-Qi; Deng, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported that whole body vibration (WBV) played a vital role in bone remodeling. Circulating serotonin is also involved in negative regulating bone mass in rodents and humans. However, both WBV and inhibition of serotonin biosynthesis may suppress receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of WBV therapy on the levels of serum serotonin in ovariectomized rats. Thirty-six-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 276.15±37.75 g were ovariectomized to induce osteoporosis, and another ten rats underwent sham operation to establish sham control (SHAM) group. After 3 months, ovariectomized rats were divided into three subgroups and then separately treated with WBV, Alendronate (ALN) and normal saline (OVX), SHAM group was given normal saline. After 6 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed. Serum serotonin, RANKL, bone turnover markers, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone strength were evaluated. The serum serotonin level was significantly lower in WBV group than OVX and ALN groups (P<0.05 and P<0.001). RANKL levels significantly decreased in WBV and ALN groups compared to OVX group (P<0.001 for both). BMD and biomechanical parameters of femur significantly increased (P<0.05 for both) and bone turnover levels decreased (P<0.001 for both) in WBV group compared to OVX group. These data indicated that WBV enhanced the bone strength and BMD in ovariectomized rats most likely by reducing the levels of circulating serotonin.

  7. Inhaled /sup 147/Pm and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Lauhala, K.E.; McGee, D.R.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Kuffel, E.G.; Park, J.F.; Ragan, H.A.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1989-05-01

    Rats were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or lung burdens of /sup 147/Pm (in fused aluminosilicate particles) within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses for the radiation insults within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Acute mortality and morbidity from inhaled promethium were caused primarily by radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis that occurred more than 53 days after exposure. Acute mortality and morbidity from total-body gamma irradiation occurred within 30 days of exposure and resulted from the bone-marrow radiation syndrome. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell levels and by reduced body weight gain in animals that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled promethium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function, but its only effect on blood cell levels was lymphocytopenia. Combined gamma irradiation and promethium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Promethium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the later effect of promethium lung burdens. 70 refs., 68 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. Chronic Electrical Stimulation at Acupoints Reduces Body Weight and Improves Blood Glucose in Obese Rats via Autonomic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiemin; Jin, Haifeng; Foreman, Robert D; Lei, Yong; Xu, Xiaohong; Li, Shiying; Yin, Jieyun; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects and mechanisms of chronic electrical stimulation at acupoints (CEA) using surgically implanted electrodes on food intake, body weight, and metabolisms in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Thirty-six DIO rats were chronically implanted with electrodes at acupoints ST-36 (Zusanli). Three sets of parameters were tested: electrical acupuncture (EA) 1 (2-s on, 3-s off, 0.5 ms, 15 Hz, 6 mA), EA2 (same as EA1 but continuous pulses), and EA3 (same as EA2 but 10 mA). A chronic study was then performed to investigate the effects of CEA on body weight and mechanisms involving gastrointestinal hormones and autonomic functions. EA2 significantly reduced food intake without uncomfortable behaviors. CEA at EA2 reduced body weight and epididymal fat pad weight (P fasting plasma level of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (P < 0.05); the increase of GLP-1 was inversely correlated with postprandial blood glucose (R (2) = 0.89, P < 0.05); and the plasma ghrelin level remained unchanged. EA increased sympathetic activity (P < 0.01) and reduced vagal activity (P < 0.01). CEA at ST-36 reduces body weight and improves blood glucose possibly attributed to multiple mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility and hormones via the autonomic pathway.

  9. Evaluation of initial setup errors of two immobilization devices for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Teruki; Cárdenes, Higinia; Das, Indra J

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and efficacy of two commonly used commercial immobilization systems for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung cancer. This retrospective study assessed the efficacy and setup accuracy of two immobilization systems: the Elekta Body Frame (EBF) and the Civco Body Pro-Lok (CBP) in 80 patients evenly divided for each system. A cone beam CT (CBCT) was used before each treatment fraction for setup correction in both devices. Analyzed shifts were applied for setup correction and CBCT was repeated. If a large shift (>5 mm) occurred in any direction, an additional CBCT was employed for verification after localization. The efficacy of patient setup was analyzed for 105 sessions (48 with the EBF, 57 with the CBP). Result indicates that the CBCT was repeated at the 1 st treatment session in 22.5% and 47.5% of the EBF and CBP cases, respectively. The systematic errors {left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), cranio-caudal (CC), and 3D vector shift: (LR 2 + AP 2 + CC 2 ) 1/2 (mm)}, were {0.5 ± 3.7, 2.3 ± 2.5, 0.7 ± 3.5, 7.1 ± 3.1} mm and {0.4 ± 3.6, 0.7 ± 4.0, 0.0 ± 5.5, 9.2 ± 4.2} mm, and the random setup errors were {5.1, 3.0, 3.5, 3.9} mm and {4.6, 4.8, 5.4, 5.3} mm for the EBF and the CBP, respectively. The 3D vector shift was significantly larger for the CBP (P patient comfort could dictate the use of CBP system with slightly reduced accuracy. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  10. Instrument translation and initial psychometric evaluation of the Danish Body Image Quality of Life Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Dixon, Jane

    2016-01-01

    . The purpose of the study was thus to translate and validate a Danish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI), in order to obtain a valid instrument applicable for healthcare research. METHODS: The study consisted of two phases: (i) instrument adaptation, including forward and back...... to be semantically sound, yet concerns about face validity did arise through cognitive interviews. Danish college students (n = 189, 65 men, Mage = 21.1 years) participated in the piloting of the BIQLI-DA. Convergent construct validity was demonstrated through associations to related constructs. Exploratory factor...

  11. Intermittent whole-body vibration attenuates a reduction in the number of the capillaries in unloaded rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneguchi, Akinori; Ozawa, Junya; Kawamata, Seiichi; Kurose, Tomoyuki; Yamaoka, Kaoru

    2014-09-26

    Whole-body vibration has been suggested for the prevention of muscle mass loss and muscle wasting as an attractive measure for disuse atrophy. This study examined the effects of daily intermittent whole-body vibration and weight bearing during hindlimb suspension on capillary number and muscle atrophy in rat skeletal muscles. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control (CONT), hindlimb suspension (HS), HS + weight bearing (WB), and HS + whole-body vibration (VIB) (n = 15 each). Hindlimb suspension was applied for 2 weeks in HS, HS + WB, and HS + VIB groups. During suspension, rats in HS + VIB group were placed daily on a vibrating whole-body vibration platform for 20 min. In HS + WB group, suspension was interrupted for 20 min/day, allowing weight bearing. Untreated rats were used as controls. Soleus muscle wet weights and muscle fiber cross-sectional areas (CSA) significantly decreased in HS, HS + WB, and HS + VIB groups compared with CONT group. Both muscle weights and CSA were significantly greater in HS + WB and HS + VIB groups compared with HS group. Capillary numbers (represented by capillary-to-muscle fiber ratio) were significantly smaller in all hindlimb suspension-treated groups compared with CONT group. However, a reduction in capillary number by unloading hindlimbs was partially prevented by whole-body vibration. These findings were supported by examining mRNA for angiogenic-related factors. Expression levels of a pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-A mRNA, were significantly lower in all hindlimb suspension-treated groups compared with CONT group. There were no differences among hindlimb suspension-treated groups. Expression levels of an anti-angiogenic factor, CD36 (receptor for thrombospondin-1) mRNA, were significantly higher in all hindlimb suspension-treated groups compared with CONT group. Among the hindlimb suspension-treated groups, expression of CD

  12. Effect of irradiation-timing on the initial socket healing in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Y.; Sela, M.N.; Shlomi, B.; Ulmansky, M.; Sela, J.; Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a single dose of 1500 R on early postextraction socket healing was studied in jaws of rats. A severe delay in healing was found in animals irradiated 2 weeks prior to extraction. Retardation of healing to a lesser degree was demonstrated in sockets irradiated immediately after exodontia. (author)

  13. Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Initiatives of the Forum of Nuclear Regulatory Bodies in Africa (FNRBA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, R.

    2010-01-01

    Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources: Initiatives of the Forum of Nuclear Regulatory Bodies in Africa(FNRBA) is a regional organization comprising of nuclear regulatory bodies it’s goals are to promote the establishment of regulatory infrastructure in all countries of the Region to adopt joint action plan for implementation of self-assessment and work with Member States to upgrade their regulatory infrastructures, develop and promote a framework for capacity building in areas of radiation and nuclear safety and security, to create an opportunity for mutual support and coordination of regional initiatives by leveraging the development and utilization of regional and international resources and expertise and to serve as reference body on matters relating to nuclear and radiation safety and security in the Region. Radioactive active sources continue to play an increasingly important role in socio-economic activities on the African continent. There is also an ever increasing need to ensure that radioactive sources are utilized in a safe and secure manner

  14. Ghrelin treatment causes increased food intake and retention of lean body mass in a rat model of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Mark D; Zhu, Xin Xia; Levasseur, Peter; Meguid, Michael M; Suzuki, Susumu; Inui, Akio; Taylor, John E; Halem, Heather A; Dong, Jesse Z; Datta, Rakesh; Culler, Michael D; Marks, Daniel L

    2007-06-01

    Cancer cachexia is a debilitating syndrome of anorexia and loss of lean body mass that accompanies many malignancies. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone with a short half-life that has been shown to improve food intake and weight gain in human and animal subjects with cancer cachexia. We used a rat model of cancer cachexia and administered human ghrelin and a synthetic ghrelin analog BIM-28131 via continuous infusion using sc osmotic minipumps. Tumor-implanted rats receiving human ghrelin or BIM-28131 exhibited a significant increase in food consumption and weight gain vs. saline-treated animals. We used dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans to show that the increased weight was due to maintenance of lean mass vs. a loss of lean mass in saline-treated animals. Also, BIM-28131 significantly limited the loss of fat mass normally observed in tumor-implanted rats. We further performed real-time PCR analysis of the hypothalami and brainstems and found that ghrelin-treated animals exhibited a significant increase in expression of orexigenic peptides agouti-related peptide and neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus and a significant decrease in the expression of IL-1 receptor-I transcript in the hypothalamus and brainstem. We conclude that ghrelin and a synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist improve weight gain and lean body mass retention via effects involving orexigenic neuropeptides and antiinflammatory changes.

  15. Biochemical and histological changes in whole body gamma-irradiated rats feed on wheat, barely and corn bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Hassan, A.A.; Ragab, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    The present work aims to study the effect of adding 3 different of dietary fibers (wheat, barley or corn bran) to normal balanced diet on liver function, blood, cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose level to counteract their elevation in whole body gamma irradiation rats. The experimental diets (balanced diet + fibre additive) were fed for 4 weeks. Samples (blood and tissue) were collected at intervals of times 7, 14 and 28 days post exposure to single dose (7 Gy) gamma irradiation. The control group consumed a fibre diet for 4 weeks, but not irradiated. The minimum aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and the lowest blood total cholestrol, triglycerides and blood glucose were observed in rats (irradiated and non-irradiated rats) fed on wheat bran experimental diet (barley or corn bran). It could be concluded that wheat fibers were more effective, as compared with other fibers contained in balanced diet, in improving the investigated parameters observed after whole body gamma irradiation exposure

  16. Post-initiation chlorophyllin exposure does not modulate aflatoxin-induced foci in the liver and colon of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orner Gayle A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlorophyllin (CHL is a promising chemopreventive agent believed to block cancer primarily by inhibiting carcinogen uptake through the formation of molecular complexes with the carcinogens. However, recent studies suggest that CHL may have additional biological effects particularly when given after the period of carcinogen treatment. This study examines the post-initiation effects of CHL towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-induced preneoplastic foci of the liver and colon. The single concentration of CHL tested in this study (0.1% in the drinking water had no significant effects on AFB1-induced foci of the liver and colons of rats.

  17. The halo bispectrum in N-body simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefusatti, E.; Crocce, M.; Desjacques, V.

    2012-10-01

    We present measurements of the bispectrum of dark matter haloes in numerical simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions of local type. We show, in the first place, that the overall effect of primordial non-Gaussianity on the halo bispectrum is larger than on the halo power spectrum when all measurable configurations are taken into account. We then compare our measurements with a tree-level perturbative prediction, finding good agreement at large scales when the constant Gaussian bias parameter, both linear and quadratic, and their constant non-Gaussian corrections are fitted for. The best-fitting values of the Gaussian bias factors and their non-Gaussian, scale-independent corrections are in qualitative agreement with the peak-background split expectations. In particular, we show that the effect of non-Gaussian initial conditions on squeezed configurations is fairly large (up to 30 per cent for fNL = 100 at redshift z = 0.5) and results from contributions of similar amplitude induced by the initial matter bispectrum, scale-dependent bias corrections as well as from non-linear matter bispectrum corrections. We show, in addition, that effects at second order in fNL are irrelevant for the range of values allowed by cosmic microwave background and galaxy power spectrum measurements, at least on the scales probed by our simulations (k > 0.01 h Mpc-1). Finally, we present a Fisher matrix analysis to assess the possibility of constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with future measurements of the galaxy bispectrum. We find that a survey with a volume of about 10 h-3 Gpc3 at mean redshift z ≃ 1 could provide an error on fNL of the order of a few. This shows the relevance of a joint analysis of galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum in future redshift surveys.

  18. Effects of different sources of fructans on body weight, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in normal and obese non-diabetic and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Huerta, Juan A; Juárez-Flores, Bertha; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Aguirre-Rivera, J Rogelio; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E

    2012-03-01

    Fructans contribute significantly to dietary fiber with beneficial effects on gastrointestinal physiology in healthy individuals and offer a promising approach to treating some diseases. Two experiments (Experiment 1 = rats with normal weight; Experiment 2 = obese rats) were developed to compare the effects of three fructan sources (Cichorium intybus L. Asteraceae, Helianthus tuberosus L. Asteraceae and Agave angustifolia ssp. tequilana Haw, Agavaceae) on body weight change, blood metabolites and fecal bacteria in non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) rats. In Experiment 1 total body weight gain and daily feed intake in D and ND rats decreased (P tequilana decreased blood cholesterol and LDL and liver steatosis. For both ND and D rats, fecal Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. counts were higher (P < 0.05) with fructan supplements.

  19. Cardiac cine imaging at 3 Tesla: initial experience with a 32-element body-array coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenchel, Michael; Deshpande, Vibhas S; Nael, Kambiz; Finn, J Paul; Miller, Stephan; Ruehm, Stefan; Laub, Gerhard

    2006-08-01

    We sought to assess the feasibility of cardiac cine imaging and evaluate image quality at 3 T using a body-array coil with 32 coil elements. Eight healthy volunteers (3 men; median age 29 years) were examined on a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Medical Solutions) using a 32-element phased-array coil (prototype from In vivo Corp.). Gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) cine (GRAPPAx3), GRE cine with tagging lines, steady-state-free-precession (SSFP) cine (GRAPPAx3 and x4), and SSFP cine(TSENSEx4 andx6) images were acquired in short-axis and 4-chamber view. Reference images with identical scan parameters were acquired using the total-imaging-matrix (Tim) coil system with a total of 12 coil elements. Images were assessed by 2 observers in a consensus reading with regard to image quality, noise and presence of artifacts. Furthermore, signal-to-noise values were determined in phantom measurements. In phantom measurements signal-to-noise values were increased by 115-155% for the various cine sequences using the 32-element coil. Scoring of image quality yielded statistically significant increased image quality with the SSFP-GRAPPAx4, SSFP-TSENSEx4, and SSFP-TSENSEx6 sequence using the 32-element coil (P < 0.05). Similarly, scoring of image noise yielded a statistically significant lower noise rating with the SSFP-GRAPPAx4, GRE-GRAPPAx3, SSFP-TSENSEx4, and SSFP-TSENSEx6 sequence using the 32-element coil (P < 0.05). This study shows that cardiac cine imaging at 3 T using a 32-element body-array coil is feasible in healthy volunteers. Using a large number of coil elements with a favorable sensitivity profile supports faster image acquisition, with high diagnostic image quality even for high parallel imaging factors.

  20. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Iroaganachi; C O, Eleazu; P N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone.

  1. Genetically engineered rat gliomas: PDGF-driven tumor initiation and progression in tv-a transgenic rats recreate key features of human brain cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina P Connolly

    Full Text Available Previously rodent preclinical research in gliomas frequently involved implantation of cell lines such as C6 and 9L into the rat brain. More recently, mouse models have taken over, the genetic manipulability of the mouse allowing the creation of genetically accurate models outweighed the disadvantage of its smaller brain size that limited time allowed for tumor progression. Here we illustrate a method that allows glioma formation in the rat using the replication competent avian-like sarcoma (RCAS virus / tumor virus receptor-A (tv-a transgenic system of post-natal cell type-specific gene transfer. The RCAS/tv-a model has emerged as a particularly versatile and accurate modeling technology by enabling spatial, temporal, and cell type-specific control of individual gene transformations and providing de novo formed glial tumors with distinct molecular subtypes mirroring human GBM. Nestin promoter-driven tv-a (Ntv-a transgenic Sprague-Dawley rat founder lines were created and RCAS PDGFA and p53 shRNA constructs were used to initiate intracranial brain tumor formation. Tumor formation and progression were confirmed and visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and spectroscopy. The tumors were analyzed using histopathological and immunofluorescent techniques. All experimental animals developed large, heterogeneous brain tumors that closely resembled human GBM. Median survival was 92 days from tumor initiation and 62 days from the first point of tumor visualization on MRI. Each tumor-bearing animal showed time dependent evidence of malignant progression to high-grade glioma by MRI and neurological examination. Post-mortem tumor analysis demonstrated the presence of several key characteristics of human GBM, including high levels of tumor cell proliferation, pseudopalisading necrosis, microvascular proliferation, invasion of tumor cells into surrounding tissues, peri-tumoral reactive astrogliosis, lymphocyte infiltration, presence of numerous tumor

  2. The effect of synchronized running activity with chronic stress on passive avoidance learning and body weight in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Radahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Results: Our results showed that: (1 Exercise under no stress provides beneficial effects on memory acquisition and retention time compared to Control group; especially retention time had significantly (P < 0.05 increased in exercised group. (2 Chronic stress with and without synchronized exercise significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively impaired acquisition and retention time. (3 Body weight differences were significantly (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 lower than Control group in exercise, stress and synchronized exercise with stress groups, respectively. (4 Adverse effects of restraint stress (psychical stress were probably greater than physical activity effects on learning, memory and weight loss. Conclusions: The data confirmed that synchronized exercise with stress had not significantly protective role in improvement of passive avoidance acquisition and retention time; hence it did not significantly improve learning and memory deficit in stressed rats; whereas exercise alone could improve memory deficit in rats.

  3. The effects of perioperative pain management techniques on food consumption and body weight after laparotomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavit, Yehuda; Fish, Gila; Wolf, Gilly; Mayburd, Eduard; Meerson, Ylia; Yirmiya, Raz; Beilin, Benzion

    2005-10-01

    We examined the effects of two perioperative pain management techniques on recovery after laparotomy, as assessed by body weight (BW) and food consumption (FC). All rats received a preoperative intrathecal mixture of morphine plus bupivacaine combined with one of two treatments: (a) injection of slow-release morphine at the end of the surgery or (b) an antiinflammatory drug, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), combined with the preoperative mixture. Laparotomy significantly decreased FC and BW. Both analgesic treatments resulted in a faster recovery of FC and BW. This beneficial effect was more pronounced in the group receiving preoperative analgesics combined with IL-1ra. Effective perioperative pain management can improve postoperative recovery. We studied the effects of two preoperative pain management techniques on recovery after laparotomy in rats. Both analgesic treatments resulted in a faster recovery, especially preoperative analgesics combined with interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.

  4. Differential body composition effects of protease inhibitors recommended for initial treatment of HIV infection: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Esteban; Gonzalez-Cordon, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Domingo, Pere; Negredo, Eugenia; Gutierrez, Felix; Portilla, Joaquin; Curran, Adrià; Podzamczer, Daniel; Ribera, Esteban; Murillas, Javier; Bernardino, Jose I.; Santos, Ignacio; Carton, Jose A.; Peraire, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    This article has been accepted for publication in Clinical Infectious Diseases ©2014 The Authors .Published by Oxford University Press on Clinical Infectious Disease 60.5. DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu898 Background. It is unclear whether metabolic or body composition effects may differ between protease inhibitor-based regimens recommended for initial treatment of HIV infection. Methods. ATADAR is a phase IV, open-label, multicenter randomized clinical trial. Stable antiretroviral-naive HIV-in...

  5. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    marshmallows , etc.) gained more weight than did the rats that were provided standard chow. The animals with access to the activity wheel (activity...salami, cheese, bananas, marshmallows , milk chocolate, and peanut butter (Sclafani & Springer, 1976). In fact, adult female rats given constant...them foods that are high in fat and sugar through foods usually used for human consumption such as cream filled cookies, marshmallows , milk chocolate

  6. Central inhibition of initiation of swallowing by systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Sakai, Shogo; Suzuki, Taku; Ujihara, Izumi; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Canning, Brendan J; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Dysphagia is caused not only by neurological and/or structural damage but also by medication. We hypothesized memantine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, and baclofen, all commonly used drugs with central sites of action, may regulate swallowing function. Swallows were evoked by upper airway (UA)/pharyngeal distension, punctate mechanical stimulation using a von Frey filament, capsaicin or distilled water (DW) applied topically to the vocal folds, and electrical stimulation of a superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in anesthetized rats and were documented by recording electromyographic activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles and by visualizing laryngeal elevation. The effects of intraperitoneal or topical administration of each drug on swallowing function were studied. Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topically applied diazepam or baclofen had no effect on swallowing. These data indicate that diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topical applied diazepam or baclofen was without effect on swallowing. Diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. The rate of cerebral utilization of glucose, ketone bodies, and oxygen: a comparative in vivo study of infant and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, G; Persson, B

    1976-11-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by means of Celabeled microspheres in infant (20-day-old) and adult (3-month-old) rats, anesthetised with Na-5-ethyl-5-(1-methylpropyl)2-thiobarbituric acid. Cerebral arteriovenous differences of acetoacetate, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, lactate, and oxygen and brain DNA content were determined in other groups of similarly treated infant and adult animals fed or starved for 48 or 72 hr. The mean CBF values of 0.48+/-0.04 and 0.62+/-0.07 ml/(g X min), +/- SEM, in infant and adult animals, respectively, were not significantly different. CBF was unaffected by starvation. At any given arterial concentration the cerebral arteriovenous difference of acetoacetate was significantly higher in infant than adult rats. The same was true for D-beta-hydroxybutyrate at arterial concentrations above 1 mmol/liter. There was an approximately linear relationship between arterial concentration of acetoacetate and its cerebral arteriovenous difference in both infant and adult rats. A similar relationship was found for D-beta-hydroxybutyrate only in infant animals. In the fed state, the cerebral uptake of glucose and ketone bodies (micromoles per (mg DNA X min)) was not different in infant and adult rats. During starvation, cerebral uptake of ketone bodies expressed as micromoles per (mg DNA X min) was higher in infant than adult rats, indicating a higher rate of utilization of ketone bodies per cell in these animals. For glucose, no such difference was found in either fed or starved groups (Table 3). The average percentage of the total cerebral uptake of substrates (micromoles per min) accounted for by ketone bodies increased in both infant and adult rats during starvation. This percentage value was clearly higher in infant than adult rats during starvation. After 72 hr of starvation the values were 38.8% and 15.2% in infant and adult rats, respectively (Fig. 3). Calculated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2), assuming complete

  8. High spatial resolution whole-body MR angiography featuring parallel imaging: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, H.H.; Vogt, F.M.; Madewald, S.; Herborn, C.U.; Bosk, S.; Goehde, S.; Debatin, J.F.; Ladd, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Materials and methods: whole-body multi-station MRA was performed with a rolling table platform (AngioSURF) on 5 volunteers in two imaging series: 1) standard imaging protocol, 2) modified high-resolution protocol employing PAT using the generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA) algorithm with an acceleration factor of 3. For an intra-individual comparison of the two MR examinations, the arterial vasculature was divided into 30 segments. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated for all 30 arterial segments of each subject. Vessel segment depiction was qualitatively assessed applying a 5-point scale to each of the segments. Image reconstruction times were recorded for the standard as well as the PAT protocol. Results: compared to the standard protocol, PAT allowed for increased spatial resolution through a 3-fold reduction in mean voxel size for each of the 5 stations. Mean SNR and CNR values over all specified vessel segments decreased by a factor of 1.58 and 1.56, respectively. Despite the reduced SNR and CNR, the depiction of all specified vessel segments increased in PAT images, reflecting the increased spatial resolution. Qualitative comparison of standard and PAT images showed an increase in vessel segment conspicuity with more detailed depiction of intramuscular arterial branches in all volunteers. The time for image data reconstruction of all 5 stations was significantly increased from about 10 minutes to 40 minutes when using the PAT acquisition. (orig.) [de

  9. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwe, Kelechi A; Adegboye, Amanda R A; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined which lifestyle factors relate to the development of fat distribution. Therefore, the identification of the determinants of changes in fat deposition is highly relevant. The association between the change in physical activity (PA) and the subsequent changes in regional body fat distributions was examined. In total, 1,236 men and 1,201 women were included at baseline and participated in the Danish MONICA (MONItoring Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease) study. A questionnaire was used to assess PA at 5 and 11 years after baseline examination, while waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured at both follow-ups. Among men, WC increased in the constant active group to a lesser extent than in the non-constant active group (3.4 vs. 4.1 cm; p = 0.03) concerning leisure time physical activities (LTPA). A similar pattern was observed for both WC and HC in relation to occupational physical activities (OPA) (p = 0.02). Among women, the results went in the same direction for LTPA, whereas the associations with OPA were in the opposite direction (p = 0.001). LTPA and OPA were associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men. For women, no associations were observed in relation to WC; however, OPA seemed to increase HC among women. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Initial Clinical Experience in Multiple Myeloma Staging by Means of Whole-Body Resonance Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J. I.; Concepcion, L.; Alonso, S.; Sanchez, B.; Manzi, F.

    2003-01-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) exploratory technique equivalent to serial bone X-ray, and to compare their precision in the staging of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Multiple acquisition T1-weights TSE and STIR sequences in the coronal plane were performed. Ten healthy volunteers and 11 multiple myeloma diagnosed patients were included. The visualization of bony structures was particularly noted,with special attention given to those which would normally be included in a serial bone X-ray. In the case of the patients, a comparison was made between diagnostic capacities of the MR sequences. MR highlighters significantly more (p<0.05) bony elements than did the serial bone X-ray. This was greatly due to a sequential displacement of the scanner bed, allowing for field-of-views which were minimally from head to third proximal of the leg. Magnetic resonance detected a significantly higher number (p<0.05) of lesions. It was, in turn, capable of revealing greater lesion extensions, even to the point of implying staging classification changes in 18% of the patients. The utilization of whole-body MR techniques in multiple myeloma patients is feasible and clinically beneficial. MR is both more sensitive and more specific than serial bone X-ray for evaluation of bony lesions in MM. It is currently serving as a valid alternative in a growing numbers of patients. (Author) 10 refs

  11. Inability of donor total body irradiation to prolong survival of vascularized bone allografts: Experimental study in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    At the present time, the toxic side effects of recipient immunosuppression cannot be justified for human non-vital organ transplantation. Total body irradiation has proven effective in ablating various bone-marrow-derived and endothelial immunocompetent cellular populations, which are responsible for immune rejection against donor tissues. Irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy was given to donor rats six days prior to heterotopic transplantation of vascularized bone allografts to host animals. Another group of recipient rats also received a short-term (sixth to fourteenth day after grafting), low dose of cyclosporine. Total body irradiation was able merely to delay rejection of grafts across a strong histocompatibility barrier for one to two weeks, when compared to nonirradiated allografts. The combination of donor irradiation plus cyclosporine did not delay the immune response, and the rejection score was similar to that observed for control allografts. Consequently, allograft viability was quickly impaired, leading to irreversible bone damage. This study suggest that 10 Gy of donor total body irradiation delivered six days prior to grafting cannot circumvent the immune rejection in a vascularized allograft of bone across a strong histocompatibility barrier

  12. Epinephrine ameliorating response of serum proteins and protein fractions to whole body gamma irradiation in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.A.; Saada, H.N.; Roushdy, H.M.; Awad, O.M.; El-Sayed, M.M.; Azab, Kh.Sh.

    1997-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the role of epinephrine in modifying the radiation induced effects on serum protein as presented by total protein, protein fractions and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio in adult albino rats. Epinephrine was intraperitoneally injected at a concentration of 200 M/g body weight, 15 min, pre-9 or just after 0 whole body gamma-irradiation of rats at a dose of 6 Gy (single dose). Studies have been undertaken at periods of 1 hr, 4 hrs, 1,3 and 7 days after irradiation. Data of the present study revealed that whole body gamma-irradiation induced significant decreased in the total content of serum protein and albumin at 1,3 and 7 days post radiation exposure alpha 1-globulin significantly increased only on the 1 st hr post-irradiation, however alpha 1-globulin significantly increased along all the experimental periods. B-globulin insignificantly changed after irradiation but gamma-globulin significantly decreased during the experimental periods. These changes were associated with significant decreases in A/G ratio at 3 and 7 days post-irradiation. Administration of epinephrine pre-or after radiation exposure produced some amelioration in the radiation induced changes in the studied parameters. So, it could be concluded that epinephrine plays a beneficial radioprotective role through its pharmacologic properties

  13. Trunk's natural inclination influences stance limb kinetics, but not body kinematics, during gait initiation in able men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Leteneur

    Full Text Available The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination--forward (FW or backward (BW with respect to the vertical--on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation.Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5 moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (P<0.001 for the BW group, before the heel contact. At the hip, although the BW group displays a flexor moment 2.4 times higher (P<0.001 before the swing limb's heel-off, the FW group displays an extensor moment 3.1 times higher (P<0.01 during the swing phase. The three L5 extensor peaks after the toe-off are respectively 1.7 (P<0.001, 1.4 (P<0.001 and 1.7 (P<0.01 times higher for the FW group. The main results support the idea that the patterns described during steady-state gait are already observable during gait initiation. This study also provides reference data to further investigate stance limb kinetics in specific or pathologic populations during gait initiation. It will be of particular interest for elderly people, knowing that this population displays atypical trunk postures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping.

  14. An experimental model of acute encephalopathy after total body irradiation in the rat: effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, Ioannis; Magdelenat, Henri; Boisserie, Gilbert; Baillet, Francois; Mayo, Willy; Fessi, Hatem; Puisieux, Francis; Perderau, Bernard; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an experimental model of acute encephalopathy following total body irradiation in rats and to define the therapeutic effect of liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 4-month-old rats received 4.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) while 120 rats received sham irradiation. A behavioral study based on a conditioning test of negative reinforcement, the one-way avoidance test, was performed 5 hours before irradiation and repeated the following days. Subcutaneous treatment was started 1 hour after irradiation and repeated daily for 2 weeks. In both the irradiated and sham group, three subgroups were defined according to the treatment received: liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (0.5 mg/kg), liposomes only, normal saline. Results: This work comprised two consecutive studies. In study A (90 rats) the one-way avoidance test was administered daily from day 0 to day 4 with a recall session at day 14. In study B (validation phase in 150 rats) the behavioral test was performed only from day 0 to day 6. Before irradiation, all rats showed a similar behavioral response. Study A (6 groups of 15 rats): Following TBI, irradiated rats treated with liposomes only or saline demonstrated a significant delay in learning the one-way avoidance test in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.05 < p <0.001 depending upon the day of evaluation and the subgroup type). In contrast, irradiated rats treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from sham-irradiated rats. Study B (6 groups of 25 rats): The results were the same as those in study A, demonstrating a significant delay in the learning of the test in the liposome and saline-treated irradiated rats in comparison with sham-irradiated rats (0.02 < p < 0.001). The irradiated rats, treated with liposome-entrapped Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase did not differ from the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusion: This study indicates that a relatively

  15. Role of spared pathways in locomotor recovery after body-weight-supported treadmill training in contused rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anita; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Murray, Marion; Lemay, Michel; Houle, John

    2011-12-01

    Body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT)-related locomotor recovery has been shown in spinalized animals. Only a few animal studies have demonstrated locomotor recovery after BWSTT in an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) model, such as contusion injury. The contribution of spared descending pathways after BWSTT to behavioral recovery is unclear. Our goal was to evaluate locomotor recovery in contused rats after BWSTT, and to study the role of spared pathways in spinal plasticity after BWSTT. Forty-eight rats received a contusion, a transection, or a contusion followed at 9 weeks by a second transection injury. Half of the animals in the three injury groups were given BWSTT for up to 8 weeks. Kinematics and the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) test assessed behavioral improvements. Changes in Hoffmann-reflex (H-reflex) rate depression property, soleus muscle mass, and sprouting of primary afferent fibers were also evaluated. BWSTT-contused animals showed accelerated locomotor recovery, improved H-reflex properties, reduced muscle atrophy, and decreased sprouting of small caliber afferent fibers. BBB scores were not improved by BWSTT. Untrained contused rats that received a transection exhibited a decrease in kinematic parameters immediately after the transection; in contrast, trained contused rats did not show an immediate decrease in kinematic parameters after transection. This suggests that BWSTT with spared descending pathways leads to neuroplasticity at the lumbar spinal level that is capable of maintaining locomotor activity. Discontinuing training after the transection in the trained contused rats abolished the improved kinematics within 2 weeks and led to a reversal of the improved H-reflex response, increased muscle atrophy, and an increase in primary afferent fiber sprouting. Thus continued training may be required for maintenance of the recovery. Transected animals had no effect of BWSTT, indicating that in the absence of spared pathways this

  16. Glutamate co-transmission from developing medial nucleus of the trapezoid body - Lateral superior olive synapses is cochlear dependent in kanamycin-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Ho [Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Pradhan, Jonu [Department of Nanobio Medical Science, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Maskey, Dhiraj; Park, Ki Sup [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwa [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, School of Medicine, 50, Irwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Myung-Whan [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeung Ju, E-mail: mjukim99@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Cheol, E-mail: ansil67@hanmail.net [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Dankook University, San 29, Anseo-dong, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Glutamate co-transmission is enhanced in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} VGLUT3 expression is increased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR expression is decreased in kanamycin-treated rats. {yields} GlyR, VGLUT3 expression patterns are asymmetric in unilaterally cochlear ablated rat. -- Abstract: Cochlear dependency of glutamate co-transmission at the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) - the lateral superior olive (LSO) synapses was investigated using developing rats treated with high dose kanamycin. Rats were treated with kanamycin from postnatal day (P) 3 to P8. A scanning electron microscopic study on P9 demonstrated partial cochlear hair cell damage. A whole cell voltage clamp experiment demonstrated the increased glutamatergic portion of postsynaptic currents (PSCs) elicited by MNTB stimulation in P9-P11 kanamycin-treated rats. The enhanced VGLUT3 immunoreactivities (IRs) in kanamycin-treated rats and asymmetric VGLUT3 IRs in the LSO of unilaterally cochlear ablated rats supported the electrophysiologic data. Taken together, it is concluded that glutamate co-transmission is cochlear-dependent and enhanced glutamate co-transmission in kanamycin-treated rats is induced by partial cochlear damage.

  17. The effective dose and pattern of soybean extract administration to regulate body weight of laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilinah Hidayat

    2016-07-01

    the intake of protein and suppress appetite for short-term. Detam 1 variety is a high-quality soybean according to the Minister of Agriculture of Indonesia. Soybean protein extract Detam 1 by Deak method contains high levels of β conglycinin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effective dose of protein extract Detam 1 soybean Deak Method (PEDSDM in reducing food intake, regulate body weight, and plasma CCK level for 14 and 28 days at various dosage and pattern of treatment on male Wistar rats. Methods: There were eleven groups of treatment (n = 3, administrated with extracts at 5 mg/1x/day, 10 mg/1x/day, 20 mg/1x/day, 2.5 mg/2x/day, 5 mg/2x/day, 10 mg/2x/day and 1.7mg/3x/day, 3.4mg/3x/day, 6.7 mg/3x/day, negative control group (distilled water and positive control group (Sibutramine. Food intake (g, weight loss (g and measurement of plasma Cholecystokinin levels by ELISA (ng /ml Results: The results showed that the highest percentage decrease in food intake is: group 3.4mg /3x/ day (p <0.05, inhibition weight gain for 14 days: group 10 mg /1x/ day, for 28 days: group 1.7 mg/3x/day (p <0.05, increased plasma Cholecystokinin levels: group 20 mg /1x/day (p <0.05. Conclusions: The effective dose and pattern administrating the rats for 14 days is extract of 10 mg once a day in the morning, for 28 days is 1.7 mg three times a day. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7:17-26 Keywords: Soybean var Detam 1 -effective dose - body weight - Cholecystokinin 

  18. EFFECTS TO MODIFY THE CALORIC CONTENT OF WATER ON BODY WEIGHT, WATER, FOOD AND CALORIES CONSUMPTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMA GABRIELA MARTÍNEZ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Six albino rats were divided in two experimental groups and one control. The experiment began withfifteen days of free access; subsequently experimental groups maintained available three concentrationsof glucose: high, middle and low. First group received high-middle-low-high-middle-low sequence andsecond group received low-middle-high-low-middle-high sequence during six days. Control group notreceived glucose concentrations. Caloric concentration of food never changed. Results suggest thatmodification of caloric concentration in water affects feeding behavior. Nevertheless, water with glucoseconsumption did not change body weight.

  19. Rapid decrease in brain enkephalin content after low-dose whole-body X-irradiation of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyachi, Yukihisa (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.); Ogawa, Norio; Mori, Akitane

    1992-03-01

    Methionine-eckephalin (ME) contents in the hypothalamus and other rat brain structures were measured immediately after 10 or 20 cGy whole-body X-irradiation. The ME contents of homogenates of the striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain + thalamus, hindbrain and pituitary were assayed radioimmunologically with {sup 125}I. The contents of all the structure, except the pituitary, decreased significantly after 20 cGy irradiation. The reduction in the hypothalamus was transient, ME content gradually recovering with time. These results suggest that the central nervous system of mammals is one of the most radiosensitive organs as judged by changes in stress-induced mediators such as ME. (author).

  20. The effect of individual antiretroviral drugs on body composition in HIV-infected persons initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlay, Judith C; Sharma, Shweta; Peng, Grace; Gibert, Cynthia L; Grunfeld, Carl

    2009-07-01

    To examine the long-term effects of individual antiretroviral drugs on body composition among 416 persons initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). In a substudy of a clinical trial of persons initiating ART, changes in body composition attributable to individual ART were examined. ARTs assessed were as follows: indinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, efavirenz, nevirapine, stavudine (d4T), zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), didanosine, and abacavir. Skinfolds and circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 months. Mid arm, mid thigh, and waist subcutaneous tissue areas and nonsubcutaneous tissue areas were calculated. Rates of change per year of exposure to each individual ART drug were determined using multivariate longitudinal regression. d4T and ZDV use was associated with losses in subcutaneous tissue area and skinfold thickness. 3TC use was associated with gains in all subcutaneous tissue areas and skinfold thickness, whereas abacavir use was associated with an increase in waist subcutaneous tissue area. Indinavir was associated with gains in waist subcutaneous tissue area, whereas indinavir, efavirenz, and nevirapine were associated with increases in upper back skinfolds. d4T use was also associated with increases in all nonsubcutaneous tissue areas; 3TC use was associated with the greatest increase in waist nonsubcutaneous tissue area. In this prospective nonrandomized evaluation, the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors d4T and ZDV were associated with decreases in subcutaneous tissue areas, whereas 3TC use was associated with increased subcutaneous tissue areas and waist nonsubcutaneous tissue area.

  1. Trunk's natural inclination influences stance limb kinetics, but not body kinematics, during gait initiation in able men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leteneur, Sébastien; Simoneau, Emilie; Gillet, Christophe; Dessery, Yoann; Barbier, Franck

    2013-01-01

    The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination--forward (FW) or backward (BW) with respect to the vertical--on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation.Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW) during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5) moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (Ppostures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping.

  2. Body Mass Index at onset of Puberty in Rats Exposed to Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    ... Index Medicus (WHO), CAB Abstracts, Index Copernicus, Global Health Abstracts, Asian Science Index, Index ... has any effect on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and weights of some ... detrimental when nutrition was more abundant in.

  3. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATHÁLIA M. RESENDE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group, G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm. The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  4. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by chemical carcinogens in cultures of initiated and normal proliferating rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novicki, D.L.; Rosenberg, M.R.; Michalopoulos, G.

    1985-01-01

    Rat hepatocytes in primary culture can be stimulated to replicate under the influence of rat serum and sparse plating conditions. Higher replication rates are induced by serum from two-thirds partially hepatectomized rats. The effects of carcinogens and noncarcinogens on the ability of hepatocytes to synthesize DNA were examined by measuring the incorporation of [3H]thymidine by liquid scintillation counting and autoradiography. Hepatocyte DNA synthesis was not decreased by ethanol or dimethyl sulfoxide at concentrations less than 0.5%. No effect was observed when 0.1 mM ketamine, Nembutal, hypoxanthine, sucrose, ascorbic acid, or benzo(e)pyrene was added to cultures of replicating hepatocytes. Estrogen, testosterone, tryptophan, and vitamin E inhibited DNA synthesis by approximately 50% at 0.1 mM, a concentration at which toxicity was noticeable. Several carcinogens requiring metabolic activation as well as the direct-acting carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine interfered with DNA synthesis. Aflatoxin B1 inhibited DNA synthesis by 50% (ID50) at concentrations between 1 X 10(-8) and 1 X 10(-7) M. The ID50 for 2-acetylaminofluorene was between 1 X 10(-7) and 1 X 10(-6) M. Benzo(a)pyrene and 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene inhibited DNA synthesis 50% between 1 X 10(-5) and 1 X 10(-4) M. Diethylnitrosamine and dimethylnitrosamine (ID50 between 1 X 10(-4) and 5 X 10(-4) M) and 1- and 2-naphthylamine (ID50 between 1 X 10(-5) and 5 X 10(-4) M) caused inhibition of DNA synthesis at concentrations which overlapped with concentrations that caused measurable toxicity

  5. Ultrastructural changes in spermatogonia of Wistar strain rats following acute whole-body X-ray exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrehorovsky, M; Horak, J [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1980-01-01

    Changes in spermatogonia ultrastructure in rats of Wistar strain after single whole-body X-ray irradiation with 6.4 mC.kg/sup -1/, 25.8 mC.kg/sup -1/ and 51.6 mC.kg/sup -1/ respectively, were studied. Intracellular spaces were found between spermatogonia enlarged, nuclear membranes were bent, the pheripheral teritories of chromation were electronoptically denser, the morphology of nucleoli was changed, cytoplasm was vacuolised, mitochondria were damaged, the vacuolar dilatation of agranular endoplasmic reticulum was evident and electronoptically empty vacuoles near the Golgi complex occured 48 hours after single whole-body X-ray irradiation. Qualitative changes in the ultrastructure of individual types of spermatogonia after individual exposures were similar.

  6. Effect of repeated administration of cinnamon aqueous extract on body weight, glucose levels and lipid profile on over weight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, F.; Akhtar, N.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are the source of both traditional and medicinal plant for curing and treatment of diseases in recent year. Plant extracts containing several active constituents which often work together synergistically. The study was designed to investigate the effect CNAE on lipid profile and glucose level in overweight albino wistar rats. Animal were divided into two group 1 receive CNAE and 2 receive equal volume of tap water. Extract were given daily once a day at the dose of 2ml/animal. After the 17 % of reduction of weight treatment were terminated and blood sample were collected for biochemical estimation. The result show significant decrease in body weight total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and significant increase in high y density lipoprotein while non-significant effect were observed in electrolyte levels. The data of present research demonstrated that CNAE not only possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties as well as it could be used for reduction body weight. (author)

  7. Four-week dietary supplementation with 10- and/or 15-fold basal choline caused decreased body weight in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Ehresman, David J; Eveland, Alan; Parker, George A; Peters, Jeffrey M; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-10-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient utilized for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and lipoprotein packaging and secretion. Recently, choline supplementation has been used by athletes and the public for weight loss. However, the potential toxicological impact of choline dietary supplementation requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were fed diets containing basal choline levels (control) or 5-, 10-, or 15-fold (5×, 10×, or 15×) basal diet concentration. In groups fed choline-supplemented diets, there were no toxicologically relevant findings in clinical observations, food intake, clinical chemistry, liver weights, or liver histopathology. However, decreased mean body weights (8.5-10.2%) and body weight gains (24-31%) were noted for the 10× choline-supplemented (females only) and 15× choline-supplemented (both sexes) groups relative to the control groups from day 3 onward. These body weight effects were not related to a persistent reduction in average food intake. Serum cholesterol was increased in the 15× choline-supplemented male rats relative to the controls, an expected effect of choline supplementation; however, there were no changes in the serum cholesterol of female rats. Serum choline concentrations were increased in female rats relative to the male rats across all treatment groups. The maximum tolerated dose for male and female rats were the 15× and 10× choline supplements, respectively, based on decreased mean body weight and body weight gains. This study supported the conclusions of a clinical trial that showed a high choline diet can decrease body weight in humans.

  8. [Effect of growth hormone combined with Radix Dipsaci on the body growth and the bone metabolism of hypophysectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-ke; Zhang, Zhi-xin; Zhang, Qiong

    2011-12-01

    To study the effect of growth hormone (GH) combined with Radix Dipsaci on the body growth and the bone mineral content (BMC) of hypophysectomized rats. The GH deficiency rats model was established using the hypophysectomized operation through the skull and the throat. Qualified rats were divided into the sham-operation group (n = 15), the negative control group (n = 13), the GH intervention group (n = 13), and the GH combined with Radix Dipsaci group(n = 12). GH (0.25 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected from the cervical part in the GH intervention group and the GH combined with Radix Dipsaci group at the same time, while equal volume of normal saline was injected to the rest groups. 0.7 mL/100 kg Radix Dipsaci was given by gastrogavage to the GH combined with Radix Dipsaci group at the same time, while equal volume of normal saline was given by gastrogave to the rest groups. The body weight, the tail length, and the body length were measured during the intervention period. Blood was withdrawn after 14-day intervention. The femoral bone and the tibial bone were taken out. The levels of GH, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OC) were measured. The width of the tibial epiphyseal plate was measured. The bilateral femur bone mineral density (BMD) and BMC were measured using the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The body weight, the body length, the length of the femoral bone, the length of the tibial bone, the width of the epiphyseal plate, the levels of the GH, IGF-1, ALP, and OC increased in the GH intervention group and the GH combined with Radix Dipsaci group after 2-week intervention, showing statistical difference when compared with the model group (P 0.05). There was insignificant difference in the aforesaid indices between the two groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the model group, the BMD of the GH combined with Radix Dipsaci group increased with statistical difference (P growth. But it could elevate BMD and BMC

  9. The nuclear pore density in rat liver cells upon regeneration and total body X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, S.N.; Troitskaya, L.P.; Mirkhamidova, P.A.; Bul'dyaeva, T.V.; Zbarskij, I.B.; Grigor'ev, V.B.; Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Virusologii)

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear pore density has been investigated in rat liver cells in the course of regeneration and X-ray irradiation. It has been found that the number of pore complexes (PC) per nuclear shell (NS) unit area in the liver cells is not constant. In an hour following whole-body irradiation of rats with a regenerating liver at the 1200 R dose the number of PC per 1 μm 2 of the nuclear shell area decreases by 5, 8 times as compared with the PC density in the regenerating liver cells of the irradiated rats, the PC degradation and structural rupture being observed. It has been established by means of the freezing-etching method which enables PC surfaces observation as for cytoplasma as well as for nucleoplasma that the PC peripheral granulas and the central granula consist of subparticles being approximately of the same size. The central granula forms a channel through which the material containing RNA passes from the nucleus to the cytoplasma. On the basis of the fact that the treatement by Triton X-100, disarranging the integrity of the NS membranous structure, preserves PC in relation to the fibrous layer as well as on the basis of the unequal nuclear pore state observed on the platinum-carbon replicas from nuclei splits it is supposed that PC can be formed in the nucleus and then in the course of repening ''built in'' PS

  10. Early detection of metastases using whole-body MRI for initial staging and routine follow-up of myxoid liposarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelik, Natalia; Reddy, Santhosh Mauvva Venkatesh; Powell, Thomas I. [McGill University Health Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Turcotte, Robert E.; Goulding, Krista [McGill University Health Center, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Jung, Sungmi [McGill University Health Center, Department of Pathology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Alcindor, Thierry [McGill University Health Center, Gerald Bronfman Department of Oncology, Division of Medical Oncology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2018-03-15

    To define the role of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) for initial staging and routine follow-up of myxoid liposarcoma (MLS). A retrospective review of all the patients with MLS who underwent WBMRI for initial staging and routine follow-up at our institution between October 1, 2006, and September 30, 2016 was performed. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, imaging findings, tumor histology, and occurrence and location of metastatic disease were recorded. Thirty-three patients who underwent a total of 150 WBMRI examinations were included in the study. Nine patients (27%) were diagnosed with metastases between 0 and 60 months (median 10; interquartile range, 7-13) from the diagnosis of the primary tumor. The initial site of metastatic disease was extrapulmonary in all patients. Only two patients developed pulmonary metastases, which were diagnosed by CT chest 9 and 29 months after the diagnosis of extrapulmonary metastases. The first metastasis was diagnosed by WBMRI in seven patients (78%), by thoracic CT in one patient, and by abdominal CT in one patient. Eight of nine patients (89%) were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis of the metastases. In seven patients (78%), WBMRI demonstrated metastases included within the field of view of, but occult on a contemporaneous CT scan. Our 10-year institutional experience demonstrates that WBMRI facilitates early detection of extrapulmonary MLS metastases before the onset of clinical symptoms and pulmonary metastases. WBMRI also depicts extrapulmonary metastases that are occult on CT scans. The current surveillance strategies are insufficient for screening for extrapulmonary MLS metastases. (orig.)

  11. Initial dose of vancomycin based on body weight and creatinine clearance to minimize inadequate trough levels in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, N; Ohkuchi, A; Tashiro, Y; Kim, M R; Le, M; Sakamoto, T; Matsubara, S; Hakamata, Y

    2012-10-01

    Our aims were to elucidate the factors that affected vancomycin (VCM) serum trough levels and to find the optimal initial dose based on creatinine clearance (CrCl) and body weight (BW) to minimize inadequate trough levels in a retrospective observational study among Japanese adults. One hundred and six inpatients, in whom VCM trough levels were measured after completing the third dosing, were consecutively recruited into our study in a tertiary hospital. We considered the frequency of initial VCM total daily dose, CrCl, and BW were independent risk factors of VCM trough levels. In patients with CrCl ≥30 and level of ≥20 mcg/mL, regardless of BW. In patients with CrCl ≥50 mL/min, 2 g/day yielded low frequencies of a trough level of initial total daily dose may be 1 g/day in patients with CrCl ≥30 and <50 mL/min regardless of BW and 2 g/day in patients weighing <55 kg with CrCl ≥50 mL/min among Japanese adults.

  12. An investigation on body weights, blood glucose levels and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones in diabetic and metformin-treated diabetic female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Pournaghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disorder which affects whole body systems including reproductive system. Diabetes is also a contributing factor to infertility. Metformin is one of the most common drugs to control hyperglycemia. In this study, 36 adult Sprague-Dawley female rats (170-210 g were divided into 3 groups (control, diabetic and diabetic-treated by metformin. In second and third groups, diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (45 mg kg-1, IP and the third group was treated by metformin hydrochloride (100 mg kg-1 day-1, PO for 8 weeks. Body weights were compared and blood glucose, gonadotropins and sexual hormones were measured. In diabetic group the blood glucose level significantly (P < 0.05 increased in comparison with that of control and metformin-treated diabetic rats. The results also revealed that, in the untreated diabetic rats, the mean body weights and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones were significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in comparison with the control. Although there were significant (P < 0.05 reduction in mean body weights in metformin-treated diabetic rats, reduction in pituitary-gonadal axis hormones was not as sharp as in untreated diabetic rats and only level of progesterone was significantly (P < 0.05 reduced in comparison with the control. The results of this investigation revealed that there was a clear relationship between experimental diabetes with body weight and pituitary-gonadal axis hormones, and treatment with metformin relatively restored diabetic complications.

  13. The translation initiation factor 3 subunit eIF3K interacts with PML and associates with PML nuclear bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salsman, Jayme; Pinder, Jordan; Tse, Brenda [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, P.O. Box 15000, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4R2 (Canada); Corkery, Dale [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dellaire, Graham, E-mail: dellaire@dal.ca [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, P.O. Box 15000, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 4R2 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is a tumor suppressor protein that regulates a variety of important cellular processes, including gene expression, DNA repair and cell fate decisions. Integral to its function is the ability of PML to form nuclear bodies (NBs) that serve as hubs for the interaction and modification of over 90 cellular proteins. There are seven canonical isoforms of PML, which encode diverse C-termini generated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Recruitment of specific cellular proteins to PML NBs is mediated by protein–protein interactions with individual PML isoforms. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen employing peptide sequences unique to PML isoform I (PML-I), we identified an interaction with the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit K (eIF3K), and in the process identified a novel eIF3K isoform, which we term eIF3K-2. We further demonstrate that eIF3K and PML interact both in vitro via pull-down assays, as well as in vivo within human cells by co-immunoprecipitation and co-immunofluorescence. In addition, eIF3K isoform 2 (eIF3K-2) colocalizes to PML bodies, particularly those enriched in PML-I, while eIF3K isoform 1 associates poorly with PML NBs. Thus, we report eIF3K as the first known subunit of the eIF3 translation pre-initiation complex to interact directly with the PML protein, and provide data implicating alternative splicing of both PML and eIF3K as a possible regulatory mechanism for eIF3K localization at PML NBs. - Highlights: • The PML-I C-terminus, encoded by exon 9, interacts with translation factor eIF3K. • We identify a novel eIF3K isoform that excludes exon 2 (eIF3K-2). • eIF3K-2 preferentially associates with PML bodies enriched in PML-I vs. PML-IV. • Alternative splicing of eIF3K regulates association with PML bodies.

  14. Effects of a whole body gamma irradiation on GABA repartition in infant rats cerebellum and hippocampal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, F.; Vernois, Y.; Court, L.

    1992-01-01

    'Full-Text:' Thirteen-day-old rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 or 0,5 Gy of gamma at a dose rate of 0,25 Gy/min and were killed about 5h after. Fixation was achieved in situ using glutaraldehyde. For GABA immunocytochemistry transversal sections were incubated with antiserum against GABA, then with PAP and revealed with diaminobenzidine. Proliferative layers are still observed in the infant rat cerebellum (external granular layer) and hippocampal formation (subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus). When irradiation occurs a high percent of these two layers cells are pycnotic. In the normal cerebellum, no immunostaining is observed in external granular layer cell bodies. The only labelled structures are few cytoplasmic expansions coming from subjacent layers. When irradiated, a strong GABA staining appears around pycnotic cells as a network with labelled meshes. GABA staining and pycnotic cells were more especially important when the irradiation increases. Further studies are needed to specify the nature of labelled meshes. In the normal hippocampal formation, subgranular cells are not GABA stained. Staining occurs in cells which are not granule cells. They are scattered throughout cell layers of the dentate gyrus with predominance in the hilus. After irradiation, GABA repartition is not modified. After a 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, the inhibitory GABA system is not injured. Other amino-acid neurotransmitters such as Glutamate could be modified. (author)

  15. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Renata Attademo, E-mail: luizronaldoa@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa da Santa Casa, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1{sup st} week) and end (18{sup th} week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm 2 , while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. (author)

  16. Effects of chronic consumption of green tea on weight and body fat distribution of Wistar rats evaluated by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raso, Renata Attademo; Paim, Rebecca Rodrigues Bergamaschini; Pinheiro, Sergio Veloso Brant; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of chronic consumption of green tea on body weight and distribution of visceral fat by Computed tomography in female Wistar rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into control group (n = 5), which received water and feed ad libitum, and green tea group (n = 8), in which water has been replaced by green tea. The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1 st week) and end (18 th week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat. The animals were followed for 18 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference in body weight between the groups. However, there was significant difference in visceral fat area. The green tea group had less visceral fat area at the end of the experiment, 3.67 ± 1.2 cm 2 , while the control group showed an area of 6.25 ± 2.2 cm (p = 0.00). Conclusions: Chronic consumption of green tea leads to decreased visceral adipose tissue area. (author)

  17. Hemorrhagic tendency following whole-body irradiation of conventional and decontaminated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemeyer, V.; Hohage, R.

    1974-01-01

    Female SIV 50 rats were irradiated with 700 r, and the blood platelets were counted in blood obtained by aortal puncture. A significant decrease could be observed already after a few days. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation showed only a little increase of the aggregation amplitude and a prolongation of the desaggregation time in irradiated animals. The increase of the collagen-induced platelet aggregation might be due to a reduced release of endogenic ADP rather than to reduced sensitivity to ADP. In order to examine the question whether the haemorrhagic tendency of decontaminated animals is reduced after irradiation, female rats were orally given Bacitracin, Neomycin, and Streptomycin over a period of 10 days. Increasing anaemia could be observed from the 7th day p.t. on. In decontaminated animals, anaemia occurrence was not as high as in conventional ones. The erythrocyte count of the lymph in the conventional animals was remarkably higher than in decontaminated animals, which as also the case in the haemoglobin content in the lymph notes. This proves definitely that rats kept conventionally have a stronger tendency to bleeding than decontaminated rats. (MG) [de

  18. Influence of physical activity on the metabolism and the total body content of sodium and potassium in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J.K.; Yasumura, A.; Aloia, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise (EX) and immobilization (IMB) on the absorption, excretion and total body content of sodium (TBNa) and potassium (TBK). Female Sprague Dawley rats 5 weeks old were divided into four groups: EX; Control (CON); EX with pair feeding to the level equal to the CON (EX-P); IMB by sciatica denervation. The nutritional balance study data was taken 5 weeks into the experimental period and the animals were sacrificed after 5 additional weeks of experimentation. The carcasses were kept frozen and used for total body composition by neutron activation. The results of the total body composition show that EX resulted in an increase, IMB resulted in a decrease, of the TBNa and TBK. There was no significant difference in TBNa of TBK, between the EX and the EX-P groups even though, the food intake was higher in the EX group. The results of the nutritional balance study confirmed the results of the total body composition

  19. Moderately Low Magnesium Intake Impairs Growth of Lean Body Mass in Obese-Prone and Obese-Resistant Rats Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Bertinato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical and biochemical changes resulting from moderately low magnesium (Mg intake are not fully understood. Obesity and associated co-morbidities affect Mg metabolism and may exacerbate Mg deficiency and physiological effects. Male rats selectively bred for diet-induced obesity (OP, obese-prone or resistance (OR, obese-resistant were fed a high-fat, high-energy diet containing moderately low (LMg, 0.116 ± 0.001 g/kg or normal (NMg, 0.516 ± 0.007 g/kg Mg for 13 weeks. The growth, body composition, mineral homeostasis, bone development, and glucose metabolism of the rats were examined. OP and OR rats showed differences (p < 0.05 in many physical and biochemical measures regardless of diet. OP and OR rats fed the LMg diet had decreased body weight, lean body mass, decreased femoral size (width, weight, and volume, and serum Mg and potassium concentrations compared to rats fed the NMg diet. The LMg diet increased serum calcium (Ca concentration in both rat strains with a concomitant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone concentration only in the OR strain. In the femur, Mg concentration was reduced, whereas concentrations of Ca and sodium were increased in both strains fed the LMg diet. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in an oral glucose tolerance test were similar in rats fed the LMg or NMg diets. These results show that a moderately low Mg diet impairs the growth of lean body mass and alters femoral geometry and mineral metabolism in OP and OR rats fed a high-energy diet.

  20. Sibutramine reduces feeding, body fat and improves insulin resistance in dietary-obese male Wistar rats independently of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bing, Chen; King, Peter; Pickavance, Lucy; Heal, David; Wilding, John

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effects of the novel noradrenaline and serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor sibutramine on feeding and body weight in a rat model of dietary obesity, and whether it interacts with hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurones.Chow-fed and dietary-obese (DIO) male Wistar rats were given sibutramine (3 mg kg−1 day−1 p.o.) or deionized water for 21 days.Sibutramine decreased food intake throughout the treatment period in both dietary-obese rats (Psibutramine-treated dietary-obese rats (Psibutramine treatment (Psibutramine compared to untreated controls.The hypophagic and anti-obesity effects of sibutramine in dietary-obese Wistar rats appear not to be mediated by inhibition of ARC NPY neurones. PMID:11309262

  1. Transients from initial conditions based on Lagrangian perturbation theory in N-body simulations II: the effect of the transverse mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatekawa, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    We study the initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations for precision cosmology. In general, Zel'dovich approximation has been applied for the initial conditions of N-body simulations for a long time. These initial conditions provide incorrect higher-order growth. These error caused by setting up the initial conditions by perturbation theory is called transients. We investigated the impact of transient on non-Gaussianity of density field by performing cosmological N-body simulations with initial conditions based on first-, second-, and third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory in previous paper. In this paper, we evaluates the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory for several statistical quantities such as power spectrum and non-Gaussianty. Then we clarified that the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory is quite small

  2. Direct measurement of the initial proton extrusion to oxygen uptake ratio accompanying succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, O H; Shrager, R I; Bunow, B; Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L; Hendler, R W

    1986-01-01

    The problem of obtaining very early ratios for the H+/O stoichiometry accompanying succinate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria was attacked using new techniques for direct measurement rather than extrapolations based on data obtained after mixing and the recovery of the electrode from initial injection of O2. Respiration was quickly initiated in a thoroughly mixed O2-containing suspension of mitochondria under a CO atmosphere by photolysis of the CO-cytochrome c oxidase complex-. Fast responding O2 and pH electrodes were used to collect data every 10 ms. The response time for each electrode was experimentally measured in each experiment and suitable corrections for electrode relaxations were made. With uncorrected data obtained after 0.8 s, the extrapolation back to zero time on the basis of single-exponential curve fitting confirmed values close to 8.0 as previously reported (Costa et al., 1984). The data directly obtained, however, indicate an initial burst in H+/O ratio that peaked to values of approximately 20 to 30 prior to 50 ms and which was no longer evident after 0.3 s. Newer information and considerations that place all extrapolation methods in question are discussed. PMID:3019443

  3. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  4. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Moriya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet. Body mass, organ mass, and blood variables were not affected by excess vitamin intake before starvation. Interestingly, urinary riboflavin excretion showed a different pattern. Urine riboflavin in the excess vitamin intake group declined gradually during starvation, whereas it increased in the low vitamin intake group. Excess vitamin intake before starvation does not affect body mass, organ mass, or blood variables but does affect the urinary excretion of riboflavin in starving rats.

  5. Protective Effect of Exogenous Dehydro-epiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) on Liver Cell Organs of Whole Body y-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; El-Gawish, M.A.; Abou-Safi, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHES) are adrenal hormones. They are powerful endogenous antioxidants and are important in protecting the cells from damage. The present work aimed to evaluate the exogenous DHEAS as a protector against the whole body exposure to gamma radiation damages on DNA and RNA content of the nuclear fraction, calcium and acid phosphatase in the mitochondria fraction and glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the cytosol fraction in the liver of male rats. Fifty male albino rats weighing 130-150 g were categorized into the following groups: 1-Control untreated. 2-Exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy). 3-Received a single oral administration of DHEAS at a dose level of 200 mg/kg b.wt. 4-Administered with DHEAS (200 mg/kg) two h pre-exposure to whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy). Three time intervals were determined for tissue sampling: after one day, one week and two weeks post irradiation (groups 2 and 4) and post administration of DHEAS (group 3). The results showed that: 1- DHEAS has a radioprotective effect on DNA and RNA content decreases in the liver nuclear fraction. 2- It significantly ameliorated the changes in mitochondria Ca21 content and acid phosphatase activity. 3- It improved both GSH and MDA contents in the cytosolic fraction. It could be concluded that, DHEAS showed an obvious protective role against the hazard of gamma radiation on liver cells. Several mechanisms were discussed about its effects. Therefore, more investigations are needed to understand well the role of DHEAS in protecting the animal tissues against ionizing radiation hazard

  6. Effectiveness of ancestral irradiation on the direct and correlated responses to selection for body weight in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianola, D.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of ancestral irradiation of rat spermatogonia (a cumulative total of 4050 r of x-rays) were studied in a highly inbred line of rats to explore the feasibility of using irradiation to enhance the effectiveness of selection. Six generations after irradiation was terminated, a selection experiment for body weight at six weeks of age was started in both ancestrally irradiated and non-irradiated populations. There were two non-contemporaneous replicates in each of the populations. Within each of the ancestral treatment-replicate combinations one line was selected for high, one for low body weight at six weeks of age, and a third line was maintained by random selection. In each line, avoidance of mating of animals with grandparents in common was attempted. Data on the first ten progeny generations of selection were included in this study. Five types of covariances among relatives were used to estimate causal components of variance for five different genetic models within the ''non-irradiated'' and ''irradiated'' randomly selected models. The parameters in the genetic models were estimated by generalized least-squares. This analysis suggested that a genetic model including direct genetic and maternal genetic effects was adequate to describe the body weights at 3, 6 and 10 weeks of age and the weight gains between these ages. Ancestral irradiation seemed to have enhanced the maternal genetic variance and the covariance between the direct genetic and the maternal genetic effects. On the basis of the above analysis, it was deduced that mass selection should have been more effective in the descendants of irradiated males than in those of the non-irradiated males as a consequence of greater phenotypic variability in their progeny and an enhancement in the regression of the genetic value on the selection criterion

  7. The impact of bodyweight and body condition on behavioral testing for painful diabetic neuropathy in the streptozotocin rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoybergs, Yves M J J; Biermans, Ria L V; Meert, Theo F

    2008-05-02

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model is widely used for the induction of neuropathy in the rat. In this model, diabetic animals often display chronic illness, which raises objections not only on ethical but also on scientific grounds. In this study, the investigators set out to determine the impact of bodyweight and body condition (BC) on behavioral testing in the rat. Animals were allocated to four different groups as a function of their bodyweight, in particular one control group and three experimental groups with different starting weights (low bodyweight [LBW], medium bodyweight [MBW] and high bodyweight [HBW]), the groups having been rendered diabetic with an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65mg/kg). Bodyweight, blood glucose, body condition and thresholds for mechanical hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia were measured or evaluated over a 68-day period. Animals with a LBW at the start of the experiment showed a gradual increase in BW with a decrease in mechanical nociceptive thresholds, while MBW and HBW animals presented a decrease in both thresholds and BW. The body condition score (BCS) decreased in all STZ-treated groups over time. Since correlations between mechanical thresholds and BW were similar between the control group and the HBW and MBW groups, the loss in BW clearly contributed to the decrease in thresholds. In the LBW group, thresholds and BW correlated negatively, so that the decrease in thresholds was mainly caused by the development of a painful neuropathy. From an ethical and a scientific point of view, in the STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy model, animals should be chosen on the basis of bodyweight and it must also be ensured that STZ is correctly dosed.

  8. Age dependency in the absorption of radioactive Iodine (131I) in the thyroid and total body of newborn, pubertal and adult fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Endo, Satoru; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Kamiya, Kenji; Ohtaki, Megu; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1998-01-01

    In this study, activities of 131 I in the thyroid, total body and blood were measured for rats of three different ages to estimate the movement of 131 I in the body, the absorbed doses were calculated in the thyroid and total body under the exposed condition of iodine deficiency and sufficiency, and the standard curves for the determination of absorbed doses in the thyroid and total body were obtained for rats of newborn, pubertal and adult. Authors used female rats of Fisher 344 strain in this experiment and set up twelve experimental group of different ages (1, 4 and 9 weeks old), and divided each age group into one standard diet (SD) group and three iodine deficient diet (IDD) groups. Rats were intravenously injected once with 131 I in 0.9% saline with the activity of 0.38, 1.03 and 9.42 kBq per g weight. In the thyroid and total body, the absorbed dose values increased in an injected activity-dependent manner, and those of 1-week-old rats were significantly higher than those of 4- and 9-weeks old rats. The absorbed dose values in IDD-treated groups were higher than those in the SD-treated groups. The speed of 131 I accumulation into the thyroid and that of 131 I excretion from the body was slow in 1-week-old groups. The data also showed that most of injected 131 I distributed in the thyroid and blood in 4- and 9-week-old groups but not in the 1-week-old group, indicating that 131 I is pooled in certain tissues or organs except the thyroid in rats of the 1-week-old group at which the development of the thyroid has not been completed. Standard curves were obtained for the estimation of absorbed doses in the thyroid and total body on the bases of injected activity of 131 I for each age group of rats. These standard curves are to be used in the carcinogenesis experiment which compare the effectiveness of internal with external irradiation under the condition of iodine deficiency or sufficiency in the rats of different ages. (K.H.)

  9. MRI allows for longitudinal quantitative analysis of body fat composition in rats: an analysis of sibutramine-associated changes at the group level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Niessen, Heiko G; Kaulisch, Thomas; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan; Stiller, Detlef

    2013-09-01

    Body fat distribution changes are associated with multiple alterations in metabolism. Therefore, the assessment of body fat compartments by MRI in animal models is a promising approach to obesity research. Standard T1-weighted (T1w) whole body MRI was used here to quantify different effects in the subcutaneous and visceral fat compartments in rats under treatment with an anorexiant. Twenty rats on a high caloric diet were investigated by the identical MRI protocol at baseline and after seven weeks. Ten rats received a treatment with sibutramine, 10 rats served as vehicle control group. To longitudinally assess body fat components, MRI analysis was used with two approaches: 2D slicewise graphic analysis (SGA) was compared with an automated 3D analysis algorithm (3DA). At the group level, fat volume differences showed a longitudinal increase of subcutaneous and visceral fat volumes for the control group, whereas the sibutramine group showed stable subcutaneous fat volumes and decrease in visceral fat volumes. SGA and 3DA volume determination showed significant correlations for subcutaneous fat volume (C=0.85, psibutramine separate on the fat compartments in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Excess Vitamin Intake before Starvation does not Affect Body Mass, Organ Mass, or Blood Variables but Affects Urinary Excretion of Riboflavin in Starving Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Moriya, Aya; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    B-vitamins are important for producing energy from amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of excess vitamin intake before starvation on body mass, organ mass, blood, and biological variables as well as on urinary excretion of riboflavin in rats. Adult rats were fed two types of diets, one with a low vitamin content (minimum vitamin diet for optimum growth) and one with a sufficient amount of vitamins (excess vitamin diet). Body mass, organ ma...

  11. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., P. Phillips , A. Johnstone , T. Beasley , A. Ledbetter , M. Schladweiler , S. Snow, and U. Kodavanti. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28(5): 203-15, (2016).

  12. Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschero Antonio C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in early life is associated with obesity in adulthood and soybean products may have a beneficial effect on its prevention and treatment. This study evaluated body composition, serum leptin and energy balance in adult rats subjected to protein restriction during the intrauterine stage and lactation and recovering on a soybean flour diet. Methods Five groups of the Wistar strain of albino rats were used: CC, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed the same diet after weaning; CS, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning; LL, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet and fed the same diet after weaning; LC, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a control diet after weaning; LS, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning. Food intake, body, perirenal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were measured in grams. Leptin was quantified using the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA and insulin by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Carcass composition was determined by chemical methods and energy expenditure was calculated by the difference between energy intake and carcass energy gain. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The LC and LS groups had higher energetic intake concerning body weight, lower energy expenditure, proportion of fat carcass and fat pads than CC and CS groups. The LS group showed reduced body weight gain and lower energy efficiency, which was reflected in less energy gain as protein and the proportion of carcass protein, and lower energy gain as lipid than in the LC groups, although both groups had eaten the same amount of diet and showed equal energy expenditure. Serum leptin did not differ among groups and was unrelated to food or energy intake and energy expenditure. Serum insulin was higher in the LS than in the LC

  13. Neonatal immune challenge does not affect body weight regulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah J; Mouihate, Abdeslam; Galic, Michael A; Ellis, Shaun L; Pittman, Quentin J

    2007-08-01

    The perinatal environment plays a crucial role in programming many aspects of adult physiology. Myriad stressors during pregnancy, from maternal immune challenge to nutritional deficiency, can alter long-term body weight set points of the offspring. In light of the increasing concern over body weight issues, such as obesity and anorexia, in modern societies and accumulating evidence that developmental stressors have long-lasting effects on other aspects of physiology (e.g., fever, pain), we explored the role of immune system activation during neonatal development and its impact on body weight regulation in adulthood. Here we present a thorough evaluation of the effects of immune system activation (LPS, 100 microg/kg ip) at postnatal days 3, 7, or 14 on long-term body weight, adiposity, and body weight regulation after a further LPS injection (50 microg/kg ip) or fasting and basal and LPS-induced circulating levels of the appetite-regulating proinflammatory cytokine leptin. We show that neonatal exposure to LPS at various times during the neonatal period has no long-term effects on growth, body weight, or adiposity. We also observed no effects on body weight regulation in response to a short fasting period or a further exposure to LPS. Despite reductions in circulating leptin levels in response to LPS during the neonatal period, no long-term effects on leptin were seen. These results convincingly demonstrate that adult body weight and weight regulation are, unlike many other aspects of adult physiology, resistant to programming by a febrile-dose neonatal immune challenge.

  14. Initial Case Reports of Cancer in Naked Mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, M A; Ward, J M; Walsh, T F; Chinnadurai, S K; Kerns, K; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-05-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs;Heterocephalus glaber) are highly adapted, eusocial rodents renowned for their extreme longevity and resistance to cancer. Because cancer has not been formally described in this species, NMRs have been increasingly utilized as an animal model in aging and cancer research. We previously reported the occurrence of several age-related diseases, including putative pre-neoplastic lesions, in zoo-housed NMR colonies. Here, we report for the first time 2 cases of cancer in zoo-housed NMRs. In Case No. 1, we observed a subcutaneous mass in the axillary region of a 22-year-old male NMR, with histologic, immunohistochemical (pancytokeratin positive, rare p63 immunolabeling, and smooth muscle actin negative), and ultrastructural characteristics of an adenocarcinoma possibly of mammary or salivary origin. In Case No. 2, we observed a densely cellular, poorly demarcated gastric mass of polygonal cells arranged in nests with positive immunolabeling for synaptophysin and chromogranin indicative of a neuroendocrine carcinoma in an approximately 20-year-old male NMR. We also include a brief discussion of other proliferative growths and pre-cancerous lesions diagnosed in 1 zoo colony. Although these case reports do not alter the longstanding observation of cancer resistance, they do raise questions about the scope of cancer resistance and the interpretation of biomedical studies in this model. These reports also highlight the benefit of long-term disease investigations in zoo-housed populations to better understand naturally occurring disease processes in species used as models in biomedical research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Marciano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobacillus gasseri, and NaCl. The animals were weighed over the course of 8 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period, they were measured and subjected to bioelectrical impedance analysis. The results show that the group receiving tetracycline alone had a higher body mass index (p=0.030, a greater Lee index (p=0.008, and a lower body water percentage than the control group, indicating a greater accumulation of body fat. The group receiving the probiotics with tetracycline presented similar results to the control group, indicating a possible protective effect of body fat accumulation in the group receiving tetracycline alone. The results show that tetracycline increased the concentration of body fat, and the use of probiotics was associated with an ability to protect the animals from the pro-obesity effect.

  16. Influence of body weight and type of chow on the sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of the direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; France, Charles P

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Amount and type of food can alter dopamine systems and sensitivity to drugs acting on those systems. Objectives This study examined whether changes in body weight, food type, or both body weight and food type contribute to these effects. Methods Rats had free or restricted access (increasing, decreasing, or maintaining body weight) to standard (5.7% fat) or high fat (34.3%) chow. Results In rats gaining weight with restricted or free access to high fat chow, both limbs of the quinpirole yawning dose-response curve (0.0032–0.32 mg/kg) shifted leftward compared with rats eating standard chow. Restricting access to standard or high fat chow (maintaining or decreasing body weight) decreased or eliminated quinpirole-induced yawning; within one week of resuming free feeding, sensitivity to quinpirole was restored, although the descending limb of the dose-response curve was shifted leftward in rats eating high fat chow. These are not likely pharmacokinetic differences because quinpirole-induced hypothermia was not different among groups. PG01037 and L-741,626 antagonized the ascending and descending limbs of the quinpirole dose-response curve in rats eating high fat chow, indicating D3 and D2 receptor mediation, respectively. Rats eating high fat chow also developed insulin resistance. Conclusions These results show that amount and type of chow alter sensitivity to a direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist with the impact of each factor depending on whether body weight increases, decreases, or is maintained. These data demonstrate that feeding conditions, perhaps related to insulin and insulin sensitivity, profoundly impact the actions of drugs acting on dopamine systems. PMID:21544521

  17. Influence of body weight and type of chow on the sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of the direct-acting dopamine-receptor agonist quinpirole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; France, Charles P

    2011-10-01

    Amount and type of food can alter dopamine systems and sensitivity to drugs acting on those systems. This study examined whether changes in body weight, food type, or both body weight and food type contribute to these effects. Rats had free or restricted access (increasing, decreasing, or maintaining body weight) to standard (5.7% fat) or high-fat (34.3%) chow. In rats gaining weight with restricted or free access to high-fat chow, both limbs of the quinpirole yawning dose-response curve (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg) shifted leftward compared with rats eating standard chow. Restricting access to standard or high-fat chow (maintaining or decreasing body weight) decreased or eliminated quinpirole-induced yawning; within 1 week of resuming free feeding, sensitivity to quinpirole was restored, although the descending limb of the dose-response curve was shifted leftward in rats eating high-fat chow. These are not likely pharmacokinetic differences because quinpirole-induced hypothermia was not different among groups. PG01037 and L-741,626 antagonized the ascending and descending limbs of the quinpirole dose-response curve in rats eating high-fat chow, indicating D3 and D2 receptor mediation, respectively. Rats eating high-fat chow also developed insulin resistance. These results show that amount and type of chow alter sensitivity to a direct-acting dopamine-receptor agonist with the impact of each factor depending on whether body weight increases, decreases, or is maintained. These data demonstrate that feeding conditions, perhaps related to insulin and insulin sensitivity, profoundly impact the actions of drugs acting on dopamine systems.

  18. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Y; Hicsonmez, A; Uluoglu, C; Guney, H Z; Ozel Turkcu, U; Take, G; Yucel, B; Caglar, G; Bilgihan, A; Erdogan, D; Nalca Andrieu, M; Kurtman, C; Zengil, H

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB) or abdominopelvic (AP) irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g) in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset) or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset). Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively) to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05) and TB (P < 0.05) irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05) or evening (P < 0.05) decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05). Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  19. Melatonin prevents inflammation and oxidative stress caused by abdominopelvic and total body irradiation of rat small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Guney

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the day-night differences in intestinal oxidative-injury and the inflammatory response following total body (TB or abdominopelvic (AP irradiation, and the influence of melatonin administration on tissue injury induced by radiation. Rats (male Wistar, weighing 220-280 g in the irradiated groups were exposed to a dose of 8 Gy to the TB or AP region in the morning (resting period - 1 h after light onset or evening (activity span - 13 h after light onset. Vehicle or melatonin was administered immediately before, immediately after and 24 h after irradiation (10, 2.0 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively to the irradiated rats. AP (P < 0.05 and TB (P < 0.05 irradiation applied in the morning caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Melatonin treatment in the morning (P < 0.05 or evening (P < 0.05 decreased TBARS levels after TB irradiation. After AP irradiation, melatonin treatment only in the morning caused a significant decrease in TBARS levels (P < 0.05. Although we have confirmed the development of inflammation after radiotherapy by histological findings, neither AP nor TB irradiation caused any marked changes in myeloperoxidase activity in the morning or evening. Our results indicate that oxidative damage is more prominent in rats receiving TB and AP irradiation in the morning and melatonin appears to have beneficial effects on oxidative damage irrespective of the time of administration. Increased neutrophil accumulation indicates that melatonin administration exerts a protective effect on AP irradiation-induced tissue oxidative injury, especially in the morning.

  20. Combination treatment with whole body vibration and a kidney-tonifying herbal Fufang prevent osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiu-shi; Wang, Hai-bin; Wang, Jun-ling; Fang, Bin; Zhou, Guang-quan; Tan, Xin; He, Wei; Deng, Wei-min

    2015-02-01

    To assess the ability of whole body vibration (WBV) with the kidney-tonifying herbal Fufang (Bushen Zhuanggu Granules, BZG) to prevent osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Fifty 6-month-old female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups: sham-operated (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX with WBV (OVX + WBV), OVX with BZG (OVX + BZG), OVX with both WBV and BZG (OVX + WBV + BZG). The SHAM group received normal saline. After 12 weeks of treatment, the rats were killed, their serum concentrations of osteopontin (OPN), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand RANKL and bone turnover markers assayed and bone mineral density (BMD), histomorphometry and bone strength evaluated. Concentrations of OPN were significantly lower in the SHAM, OVX + WBV and OVX + WBV + BZG groups at 12 weeks, whereas concentrations of RANKL had decreased significantly in the SHAM, OVX + WBV, OVX + BZG and OVX + WBV + BZG groups. In the OVX + WBV, OVX + BZG and OVX + WBV + BZG groups the amount of bone turnover had been significantly antagonized. Compared with OVX group, BMD, % trabecular area (Tb.Ar), number of trabeculae (Tb.N) and assessed biomechanical variables were higher in OVX+WBV group, whereas and BMD, %Tb.Ar, Tb.N, maximal load and yield load were higher in the OVX + BZG group. All tested indices were significantly lower in the OVX + WBV and OVX + BZG groups than in the OVX + WBV + BZG group. Either WBV or BZG alone prevents OVX-induced bone loss. However, BZG enhances the effect of WBV by further enhancing BMD, bone architecture and strength. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Effects of dose and of partial body ionizing radiation on taste aversion learning in rats with lesions of the area postrema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of area postrema lesions on the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following partial body exposure to ionizing radiation was investigated in rats exposed to head-only irradiation at 100, 200 and 300 rad or to body-only irradiation at 100 and 200 rad. Following head-only irradiation area postrema lesions produced a significant attenuation of the radiation-induced taste aversion at all dose levels, although the rats still showed a significant reduction in sucrose preference. Following body-only exposure, area postrema lesions completely disrupted the acquisition of the conditioned taste aversion. The results are interpreted as indicating that: (a) the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion following body-only exposure is mediated by the area postrema; and (b) taste aversion learning following radiation exposure to the head-only is mediated by both the area postrema and a mechanism which is independent of the area postrema

  2. Vacuolar ATPase regulates surfactant secretion in rat alveolar type II cells by modulating lamellar body calcium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendranath Reddy Chintagari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant reduces surface tension and maintains the stability of alveoli. How surfactant is released from alveolar epithelial type II cells is not fully understood. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase is the enzyme responsible for pumping H(+ into lamellar bodies and is required for the processing of surfactant proteins and the packaging of surfactant lipids. However, its role in lung surfactant secretion is unknown. Proteomic analysis revealed that vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase dominated the alveolar type II cell lipid raft proteome. Western blotting confirmed the association of V-ATPase a1 and B1/2 subunits with lipid rafts and their enrichment in lamellar bodies. The dissipation of lamellar body pH gradient by Bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1, an inhibitor of V-ATPase, increased surfactant secretion. Baf A1-stimulated secretion was blocked by the intracellular Ca(2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, the protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor, staurosporine, and the Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, KN-62. Baf A1 induced Ca(2+ release from isolated lamellar bodies. Thapsigargin reduced the Baf A1-induced secretion, indicating cross-talk between lamellar body and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+ pools. Stimulation of type II cells with surfactant secretagogues dissipated the pH gradient across lamellar bodies and disassembled the V-ATPase complex, indicating the physiological relevance of the V-ATPase-mediated surfactant secretion. Finally, silencing of V-ATPase a1 and B2 subunits decreased stimulated surfactant secretion, indicating that these subunits were crucial for surfactant secretion. We conclude that V-ATPase regulates surfactant secretion via an increased Ca(2+ mobilization from lamellar bodies and endoplasmic reticulum, and the activation of PKC and CaMKII. Our finding revealed a previously unrealized role of V-ATPase in surfactant secretion.

  3. Effects of melatonin in rats in the initial third stage of pregnancy exposed to sub-lethal doses of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lécio Leone de; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho; Soares, Anísio Francisco; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Silva, Valdemiro Amaro da; Vieira Filho, Leucio Duarte; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to the herbicides Paraquat (PQ) and Roundup ® may cause cell lesions due to an increase in oxidative stress levels in different biological systems, even in the reproductive system. Evaluate the possible changes in reproductive parameters and hepatic, as well as its prevention by simultaneous application of melatonin. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 3 months were divided into seven groups: three groups exposed to sub-lethal doses of the herbicides PQ (50mg/kg) and Roundup ® (500mg/kg) (n=5, G2, G3 and G4); three groups exposed to herbicides and simultaneous treatment with 10mg/kg of Melatonin (n=5, G5, G6 and G7) and control group (n=5, G1) from the first to the seventh day of pregnancy. On the seventh day of pregnancy, the rats were anesthetized and euthanized, followed by laparotomy to remove their reproductive tissues and liver. Body and ovary weights were taken and the number of implantation sites, corpora lutea, preimplantation losses, implantation rates were counted and histopathology of the implantation sites, morphometry of the surface and glandular epithelia of endometrium and hepatic oxidative stress were undertaken. The present study shows the decrease in body and ovary weight, decrease in the number of implantation sites, implantation rate, in the total number of corpora lutea and increase of preimplantation percentages were observed when compared to the G1: Fig. 1 and Table 1, (p>0.001 ANOVA/Tukey). The histopathological analysis of the implantation sites showed a disorder of the cytotrophoblast and cell degeneration within the blastocyst cavity in Fig. 4. Morphometry revealed a reduction in surface and glandular epithelia and in the diameter of the endometrial glands (Table 2; p>0.05 ANOVA/Tukey), whereas in liver, serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were found to be significantly elevated (Fig. 2; p>0.001; p>0.05 ANOVA/Tukey), and serum level of reduced glutathione (GSH) was significantly lower (Fig. 3; p>0

  4. Whey protein improves HDL/non-HDL ratio and body weight gain in rats subjected to the resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Raspante Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise, such as weight-lifting (WL on the biochemical parameters of lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk in the rats fed casein (control or whey protein (WP diets. Thirty-two male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise-trained groups and were fed control or WP diets. The WL program consisted of inducing the animals to perform the sets of jumps with weights attached to the chest. After seven weeks, arteriovenous blood samples were collected for analysis. The WL or WP ingestion were able to improve the lipid profile, reducing the TC and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations, but only WP treatment significantly increased the serum HDL concentrations, thereby also affecting the TC/HDL and HDL/non-HDL ratios. However, WL plus WP was more effective in improving the HDL/non-HDL ratio than the exercise or WP ingestion alone and the body weight gain than exercise without WP ingestion.

  5. Neurodevelopmental and body composition outcomes in children with congenital hypothyroidism treated with high-dose initial replacement and close monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Benjamin B; Heather, Natasha; Derraik, José G B; Cutfield, Wayne S; Wouldes, Trecia; Tregurtha, Sheryl; Mathai, Sarah; Webster, Dianne; Jefferies, Craig; Gunn, Alistair J; Hofman, Paul L

    2013-09-01

    Despite newborn screening and early levothyroxine replacement, there are continued reports of mild neurocognitive impairment in children with congenital hypothyroidism (CHT). In Auckland, New Zealand, cases are identified by a neonatal screening program with rapid institution of high-dose levothyroxine replacement (10-15 μg/kg·d), producing prompt normalization of thyroid function. Subsequently, frequent monitoring and dose alterations are performed for 2 years. We aimed to assess whether the Auckland treatment strategy prevents impairment of intellectual and motor development. This study encompassed all children with CHT born in 1993-2006 in Auckland and their siblings. Neurocognitive assessments included the following: 1) intelligence quotient via Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence III or Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children IV; 2) Movement Assessment Battery for Children; and 3) Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Forty-four CHT cases and 53 sibling controls aged 9.6 ± 3.9 years were studied. Overall intelligence quotient was similar among CHT cases and controls (95.2 vs 98.6; P = .20), and there were also no differences in motor function. Severity of CHT did not influence outcome, but greater time to normalize free T4 was associated with worse motor balance. There were no differences in anthropometry or body composition between groups. These findings suggest that a strategy of rapidly identifying and treating infants with CHT using high-dose levothyroxine replacement is associated with normal intellectual and motor development. The subtle negative impact on motor function associated with time to normalize free T4 levels is consistent with benefit from rapid initial correction.

  6. Effects of bark flour of Passiflora edulis on food intake, body weight and behavioral response of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara A.F. Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Effects of treatment with the bark flour of Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were treated for 30 days (130 mg/kg, p.o. with the albedo flour, flavedo and full bark of P. edulis, corresponding to albedo associated with flavedo. Behavioral response observed after treatment with bark flour P. edulis showed sedative effects by the reduction of exploratory activity and increased duration of immobility in the open field test for the group of animals that received the albedo flour associated with the flavedo. Sedative effects were observed in the absence of motor incoordination or muscle relaxation. Food intake of experimental animals was not changed, but the weight gain was decreased both in animals that received only albedo flour, and in those who received the full bark flour. The full bark flour of Passiflora showed sedative effects, without anxiolytic effect detectable and muscle relaxation or motor incoordination, and reduces body weight gain.

  7. Biogenic amines in brain areas of rats and response to varying dose levels of whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, F.M.; Elmossalamy, N.; Othman, S.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Abdelraheem, K.

    1994-01-01

    The levels of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were examined in the brain areas:cortex,: cerebellum, striatum and pons in rats exposed to whole body gamma-irradiation at the dose levels 6.5 and 10 Gy. The data obtained indicated that: 6.5 Gy induced in all brain areas, a slight increase in 5-HT concomitant with significant decrease in NE, DA levels, besides a significant increase in 5-HTAA in cerebellum and pons. After the dose 10 Gy the maximum excitation of 5-HT level was in striatum whereas declines in NE, DA were recorded in all brain areas. 5-HIAA displayed significant increase in cerebellum and pons and maximum decline in the cortex. 4 tab

  8. The influence of whole-body γ-irradiation with low doses on enzyme activity of rat adrenal medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amvros'ev, A.P.; Shostak, Yu.A.

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of the pattern of changes in histological indices of key enzymes of the tricarbonic acid cycle (succinate dehydrogenase) and glycolysis (lactate dehydrogenase) as well as of catecholamines (monoamine oxidase) in cells of the adrenal medulla of young and adult albino rats subjected to external whole-body γ-irradiation with doses of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy (dose-rate of 2.7·10 -4 Gy/s). Radiosensitivity of the enzyme systems under study in the adrenal gland cells of young animals was higher than in that of adult. Changes of their levels in different periods of observation were mainly of phase nature and indicated the development of adaptation syndrome in the animal organism

  9. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Chen, Chuck T; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing ALA or DHA for 15 weeks. Over the 15 weeks, whole body and brain DHA accretion was measured, while at the end of the study, whole body DHA synthesis rates, brain gene expression, and DHA uptake rates were measured. Despite large differences in body DHA accretion, there was no difference in brain DHA accretion between rats fed ALA and DHA. In rats fed ALA, DHA synthesis and accretion was 100-fold higher than brain DHA accretion of rats fed DHA. Also, ALA-fed rats synthesized approximately 3-fold more DHA than the DHA uptake rate into the brain. This work indicates that DHA synthesis from ALA may be sufficient to supply the brain.

  10. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Chen, Chuck T.; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P. Mark; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing ALA or DHA for 15 weeks. Over the 15 weeks, whole body and brain DHA accretion was measured, while at the end of the study, whole body DHA synthesis rates, brain gene expression, and DHA uptake rates were measured. Despite large differences in body DHA accretion, there was no difference in brain DHA accretion between rats fed ALA and DHA. In rats fed ALA, DHA synthesis and accretion was 100-fold higher than brain DHA accretion of rats fed DHA. Also, ALA-fed rats synthesized approximately 3-fold more DHA than the DHA uptake rate into the brain. This work indicates that DHA synthesis from ALA may be sufficient to supply the brain. PMID:24212299

  11. Diet-induced obesity reduces core body temperature across the estrous cycle and pregnancy in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rachael C; Waddell, Brendan J; Maloney, Shane K; Mark, Peter J

    2018-04-16

    Obesity during pregnancy causes adverse maternal and fetal health outcomes and programs offspring for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Obesity also disrupts core body temperature (T c ) regulation in nonpregnant rodents; however, it is unknown whether obesity alters normal maternal T c adaptations to pregnancy. Since T c is influenced by the circadian system, and both obesity and pregnancy alter circadian biology, it was hypothesized that obesity disrupts the normal rhythmic patterns of T c before and during gestation. Obesity was induced by cafeteria (CAF) feeding in female Wistar rats for 8 weeks prior to and during gestation, whereas control (CON) animals had free access to chow. Intraperitoneal temperature loggers measured daily T c profiles throughout the study, while maternal body composition and leptin levels were assessed near term. Daily temperature profiles were examined for rhythmic features (mesor, amplitude and acrophase) by cosine regression analysis. CAF animals exhibited increased fat mass (93%) and associated hyperleptinemia (3.2-fold increase) compared to CON animals. CAF consumption reduced the average T c (by up to 0.29°C) across the estrous cycle and most of pregnancy; however, T c for CAF and CON animals converged toward the end of gestation. Obesity reduced the amplitude of T c rhythms at estrus and proestrus and on day 8 of pregnancy, but increased the amplitude at day 20 of pregnancy. Photoperiod analysis revealed that obesity reduced T c exclusively in the light period during pre-pregnancy but only during the dark period in late gestation. In conclusion, obesity alters rhythmic T c profiles and reduces the magnitude of the T c decline late in rat gestation, which may have implications for maternal health and fetal development.

  12. Persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport by isolated rat liver mitochondria after preincubation with adenine nucleotides and calcium ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaartjes, W.J.; Breejen, J.N. den; Geelen, M.J.H.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1980-01-01

    1. Preincubation of isolated rat-liver mitochondria in the presence of adenine nucleotides or Ca2+ results in definite and persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport. 2. These changes in the rate of pyruvate transport are accompanied by equally persistent changes in the opposite

  13. Effects of chronic systemic administration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on food intake and body weight in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2010-06-10

    The effects of daily administration of physiological saline of baclofen (1 and 4mg/kg, i.p.) for 27 days were investigated on food intake and body weight in non-deprived rats in Experiment 1. Baclofen (1 and 4mg/kg) significantly increased daily short-term food intake when measured at 30min (F((2,15))=11.011, P<0.01) and 90min (F((2,15))=7.3801, P<0.01) over the 27 day experimental period.. Tolerance did not develop to the short-term hyperphagic effects of baclofen. Baclofen (1mg/kg) had no significant effects on body weight gain of the rats compared with controls. By contrast, baclofen (4mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) decreased the body weight gain of the animals. In Experiment 2, the effect of daily administration of baclofen (4mg/kg, i.p.) for 24 days was investigated on 24h food intake in rats measured after the first, eight, fifteenth and twenty second injections. The 24h food intake of the animals was not significantly different from those of control rats on any of the measurement days (F((1,14))=1.602, ns). However, the body weight gain of the rats chronically treated with baclofen (4mg/kg) was significantly reduced. (F((1,14))=14.011, P<0.01). The observations that chronic administration of baclofen (4mg/kg) stimulates short-term food intake without affecting long term (24h) feeding, but decreases body weight gain, suggest that baclofen may act through different mechanisms to influence food intake and body weight.

  14. Studies on the lipid peroxidation in mitochondria of x-ray whole-body irradiated rat liver, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The results of investigation made on the mitochondria of rat liver on the 3rd day after irradiation of 650 R are as follows: After lipid peroxidation, the mitochondria showed a decrease of polyenoic acids (C-20:4, C-22:6) suggesting that polyenoic acids are the substrate of the reaction. Unsaturated fatty acids were decreased due to the decrement of C-18:1 and C-18:2, and polyenoic acid was relatively increased. These changes were transient, reaching a maximum on the 3rd day after irradiation. The rate of peroxidation in total lipids extracted form normal mitochondria was the same as that from whole-body irradiated mitochondria. There was no lag in the induction period in either reaction. Marked peroxidation of the total lipid was seen in the phospholipid fraction and slight peroxidation in the simple lipid fractions. No significant effect of whole-body irradiation on the peroxidation activities of the phospholipid was observed. With thin-layer chromatography, peroxidation of subfractionated phospholipid showed marked activity in the lecithin and aminophosphatide fractions containing large amounts of C-20:4 and C-22.6. Recovery of activity in the subfractions was greater than that in the total phospholipid. The effect of whole-body irradiation appeared to be significant in these subfractions. However no relationships could be seen between the activities peroxidation and the fatty acid composition of the subfractions. The ratio of phospholipid to total lipid increased in whole-body irradiated samples. From these findings there was a discussion of whether or not Fe ++ -induced lipid peroxidation at the mitochondrial level is due to change in the composition of fatty acid and the association of lipid in the membrane. (Evans, J.)

  15. Effects of whole body x-ray irradiation on induction by phenobarbital of rat liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitny-Szlachto, S.; Szyszko, A. (Wojskowy Inst. Higieny i Epidemiologii, Warsaw (Poland))

    1979-01-01

    In rats treated with phenobarbital (3x100 mg/kg, i.p.), liver G-6-P dehydrogenase activity increased by 70% in the cytosol and in the 9.000xg supernatant, and only by 20% in microsomes. Moreover, the phenobarbital treatment increased rat liver GSSG reductase activity by 30%. On the other hand, activity of the liver microsomal G-6-P dehydrogenase was found to increase by some 20% in whole body irradiated, both control and phenobarbital treated rats. In rats irradiated with 600 R prior to the first dose of the inducer there was not noted any increase in G-6-P dehydrogenase of the 9.000xg supernatant, and increase in the cytosol activity dropped to 38%. Thus, induction of the soluble liver G-6-P dehydrogenase by phenobarbital has turned out to be radiosensitive, whereas phenobarbital induction of GSSG reductase was unaffected by irradiation.

  16. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (p0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (p0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  17. Ketone-body utilization and lipid synthesis by developing rat brain—a comparison between in vivo and in vitro experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, W.; Lopes-Cardozo, M.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of ketone bodies between oxidation and lipid synthesis was analysed in homogenates of developing rat brain. The capacity for lipid synthesis of homogenized or minced brain preparations was compared with rates of lipid synthesis in vivo, assessed by incorporation of ³H from

  18. EPID-based in vivo dosimetry for stereotactic body radiotherapy of non-small cell lung tumors: Initial clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consorti, R; Fidanzio, A; Brainovich, V; Mangiacotti, F; De Spirito, M; Mirri, M A; Petrucci, A

    2017-10-01

    EPID-based in vivo dosimetry (IVD) has been implemented for stereotactic body radiotherapy treatments of non-small cell lung cancer to check both isocenter dose and the treatment reproducibility comparing EPID portal images. 15 patients with lung tumors of small dimensions and treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy were enrolled for this initial experience. IVD tests supplied ratios R between in vivo reconstructed and planned isocenter doses. Moreover a γ-like analysis between daily EPID portal images and a reference one, in terms of percentage of points with γ-value smaller than 1, P γlevels of 5% for R ratio, P γlevel, and an average P γ90%. Paradigmatic discrepancies were observed in three patients: a set-up error and a patient morphological change were identified thanks to CBCT image analysis whereas the third discrepancy was not fully justified. This procedure can provide improved patient safety as well as a first step to integrate IVD and CBCT dose recalculation. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impaired body calcium metabolism with low bone density and compensatory colonic calcium absorption in cecectomized rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongwattanapisan, P.; Suntornsaratoon, P.; Wongdee, K.; Dorkkam, N.; Krishnamra, N.; Charoenphandhu, N.

    2012-01-01

    An earlier study reported that cecal calcium absorption contributes less than 10% of total calcium absorbed by the intestine, although the cecum has the highest calcium transport rate compared with other intestinal segments. Thus, the physiological significance of the cecum pertaining to body

  20. Body, heart, thyroid gland and skeletal muscle weight changes in rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.; Jirmanová, Isa

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2001), s. 619-626 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thyroid state * skeletal muscles * body and organ weight Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2001

  1. Chronic delivery of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in rat hypothalamus using albumin-alginate microparticles: effects on food intake and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, N; Legrand, R; Breton, J; Déchelotte, P; Edwards-Lévy, F; Fetissov, S O

    2015-04-02

    Chronic delivery of neuropeptides in the brain is a useful experimental approach to study their long-term effects on various biological parameters. In this work, we tested albumin-alginate microparticles, as a potential delivery system, to study if continuous release in the hypothalamus of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), an anorexigenic neuropeptide, may result in a long-term decrease in food intake and body weight. The 2-week release of α-MSH from peptide-loaded particles was confirmed by an in vitro assay. Then, daily food intake and body weight were studied for 18 days in rats injected bilaterally into the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus with particles loaded or not with α-MSH. A decrease in body weight gain, persisting throughout the study, was found in rats injected with α-MSH-charged particles as compared with rats receiving non-charged particles and with rats injected with the same dose of α-MSH in solution. Food intake was significantly decreased for 3 days in rats receiving α-MSH-loaded particles and it was not followed by the feeding rebound effect which appears after food restriction. The presence of α-MSH-loaded particles in the hypothalamus was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, our study validates albumin-alginate microparticles as a new carrier system for long-term delivery of neuropeptides in the brain and demonstrates that chronic delivery of α-MSH in the hypothalamus results in a prolonged suppression of food intake and a decrease of body weight gain in rats. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serotonin exerting protection of serum lipid pattern in male albino rat subjected to shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dighidy, E.A.M.; El-Kady, M.H.R.

    1995-01-01

    Certain cancer patients are subjected to varying levels of intermittent radiation delivered in certain cases as whole body exposure. Effective control of many haematological complications built up during radiation treatment would necessarily contribute to up-grading of cancer radiotherapy. In the present study, the effect of either shot or intermittent whole body gamma irradiation at cumulative dose levels up to 6 and 10 Gy, have been evaluated on the levels of total lipids and lipid fractions in blood serum of male albino rats. The pharmacological role of serotonin and its potential radioprotective capacity have been assessed on the serum lipid pattern. The results indicated generally significant increases in the levels of blood lipid fractions especially HDL-cholesterol. On the other hand, the level of LDL-cholesterol recorded a significant decrease on the third day post either shot or cumulative dose levels at 6 or 10 Gy and also post 4 successive doses of serotonin administration. The only exceptions were recorded in the case of LDL-cholesterol post administration of single dose of serotonin and serotonin prior to shot dose levels of 6 or 10 Gy. 2 tabs

  3. Effect of rat whole-body irradiation on oxidase chain and glucose-6-phosphatase of liver microsome: influence of cysteamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Pierre.

    1979-11-01

    Three enzymatic systems of the male rat liver endoplasmic reticulum were studied by biochemical methods. Two means of investigation were used: - whole-body irradiation of the animal, - administration of cysteamine. The results obtained are discussed, in view of the functioning of these enzymatic systems, from two viewpoints: - the study of enzymatic radiolesions in relation to the radiobiological effect on the animal, the organ and the sub-cellular organite, - the study of chemical radioprotection. After a 900 R whole-body gamma irradiation a severe drop was observed in the enzymatic activity of two essential elements of the microsome oxydase chain: NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase and ethylmorphine N-demethylation. Glucose 6 phosphatase is also impaired by irradiation. Here it seems that the microsomal protein fraction could be responsible for the change in the enzyme activity. The irradiation effect is therefore not specific to one enzyme. The changes in these enzymatic activities correspond to the different phases of the acute irradiation syndrome which also affects the weight of the experimental animal and of the organ studied. Cysteamine used under chemical radioprotection conditions was found to be especially useful as a means of investigation complementary to the study of enzymatic radiolesions. From the combined action of irradiation and of the radioprotector it was possible to obtain a partial idea of the mechanisms of these radiolesions [fr

  4. Skeletal site-specific effects of whole body vibration in mature rats: from deleterious to beneficial frequency-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Marion; Lavet, Cédric; Elbadaoui, Mohamed; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Laroche, Norbert; Gnyubkin, Vasily; Vico, Laurence

    2013-07-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is receiving increasing interest as an anti-osteoporotic prevention strategy. In this context, selective effects of different frequency and acceleration magnitude modalities on musculoskeletal responses need to be better defined. Our aim was to investigate the bone effects of different vibration frequencies at constant g level. Vertical WBV was delivered at 0.7 g (peak acceleration) and 8, 52 or 90 Hz sinusoidal vibration to mature male rats 10 min daily for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Peak accelerations measured by skin or bone-mounted accelerometers at L2 vertebral and tibia crest levels revealed similar values between adjacent skin and bone sites. Local accelerations were greater at 8 Hz compared with 52 and 90 Hz and were greater in vertebra than tibia for all the frequencies tested. At 52 Hz, bone responses were mainly seen in L2 vertebral body and were characterized by trabecular reorganization and stimulated mineral apposition rate (MAR) without any bone volume alteration. At 90 Hz, axial and appendicular skeletons were affected as were the cortical and trabecular compartments. Cortical thickness increased in femur diaphysis (17%) along with decreased porosity; trabecular bone volume increased at distal femur metaphysis (23%) and even more at L2 vertebral body (32%), along with decreased SMI and increased trabecular connectivity. Trabecular thickness increased at the tibia proximal metaphysis. Bone cellular activities indicated a greater bone formation rate, which was more pronounced at vertebra (300%) than at long bone (33%). Active bone resorption surfaces were unaffected. At 8 Hz, however, hyperosteoidosis with reduced MAR along with increased resorption surfaces occurred in the tibia; hyperosteoidosis and trend towards decreased MAR was also seen in L2 vertebra. Trabecular bone mineral density was decreased at femur and tibia. Thus the most favorable regimen is 90 Hz, while deleterious effects were seen at 8 Hz. We concluded that

  5. Changes in protein metabolism after irradiation. Pt. 1. Protease activity, protease pattern, protein and free amino acids in cytoplasm and cell organelles of the rat spleen after 600 R whole body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valet, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie, Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Abt. fuer Experimentelle Medizin

    1975-12-01

    The protease activity of cytoplasm and cell organelles of the rat spleen against spleen protein and hemoglobin as a substrate increases during a initial reaction phase of the organism on the first day after 600 R whole body X-irradiation. The alkaline protease in the cytoplasm and the acid protease in the cell organelles increase, whereas the protease activity against externally added hemoglobin as substrate decreases below the initial values. The protein, the protease activity and the free amino acids of the cytoplasm and the cell organelles decrease during the disease phase on day 3 and 4 after irradiation. The protein loss of the spleen is therefore not explained by an increased protease activity. Acid proteases appear in the cytoplasm which derive probably from the cell organelles. The protease activity and the free amino acids are increased in the cytoplasm and the cell organelles during the regeneration phase of the organism between day 15 and 18 after irradiation.

  6. Effects of whole-body gamma irradiation on oxygen transport by rat erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriot, Christian; Kergonou, J.F.; Rocquet, Guy; Allary, Michel; Saint-Blancard, Jacques

    1982-01-01

    In this work, we studied the influence of whole-body gamma irradiation (8 Gy) upon oxygen transport by erythrocytes, through the erythrocyte count and related parameters, and through the factors affecting the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. The oxygen affinity of hemoglobin is increased from day D + 5 after irradiation, and a severe erythropenia develops from day D + 8. These modifications probably result in tissue hypoxia via diminished oxygen transport from lungs to tissues, and decreased oxygen release from oxyhemoglobin in tissues

  7. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge José Marciano; Fernando de Sá Del Fiol; Alessandra Cristina Marciano Tardelli Ferreira; Maria Cláudia Marques; Luciane Lopes Santana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus) into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobac...

  8. The influence of simple sugars and starch given during pre- or post-initiation on aberrant crypt foci in rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Thorup, Inger

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the enhancing effect of dietary sugar on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in male F344 rats initiated with azoxymethane (AOM). The potential role of sugar as either a co-initiator or a promoter was investigated by giving diets high...... in sucrose and dextrin (61%) during either the pre-initiation, the initiation, and/or the post initiation stage of the ACF development. The colonic cell proliferation, activity of colonic phase II enzymes, and a biomarker of lipid peroxidation were additionally examined in order to obtain information...... on the specific mechanisms involved in the suggested effect of sucrose and dextrin on ACF development. The number of large sized and the total number of ACF were significantly increased by feeding sucrose and dextrin in the post-initiation period. No positive association between colonic cell proliferation and ACF...

  9. Multisite Thrombus Imaging and Fibrin Content Estimation With a Single Whole-Body PET Scan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Francesco; Oliveira, Bruno L; Rietz, Tyson A; Rotile, Nicholas J; Naha, Pratap C; Cormode, David P; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Catana, Ciprian; Caravan, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current diagnostic strategies rely on imaging modalities that are specific for distinct vascular territories, but a thrombus-specific whole-body imaging approach is still missing. Moreover, imaging techniques to assess thrombus composition are underdeveloped, although therapeutic strategies may benefit from such technology. Therefore, our goal was to test whether positron emission tomography (PET) with the fibrin-binding probe (64)Cu-FBP8 allows multisite thrombus detection and fibrin content estimation. Thrombosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=32) by ferric chloride application on both carotid artery and femoral vein. (64)Cu-FBP8-PET/CT imaging was performed 1, 3, or 7 days after thrombosis to detect thrombus location and to evaluate age-dependent changes in target uptake. Ex vivo biodistribution, autoradiography, and histopathology were performed to validate imaging results. Arterial and venous thrombi were localized on fused PET/CT images with high accuracy (97.6%; 95% confidence interval, 92-100). A single whole-body PET/MR imaging session was sufficient to reveal the location of both arterial and venous thrombi after (64)Cu-FBP8 administration. PET imaging showed that probe uptake was greater in younger clots than in older ones for both arterial and venous thrombosis (P<0.0001). Quantitative histopathology revealed an age-dependent reduction of thrombus fibrin content (P<0.001), consistent with PET results. Biodistribution and autoradiography further confirmed the imaging findings. We demonstrated that (64)Cu-FBP8-PET is a feasible approach for whole-body thrombus detection and that molecular imaging of fibrin can provide, noninvasively, insight into clot composition. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. An Optimized IES Method and Its Inhibitory Effects and Mechanisms on Food Intake and Body Weight in Diet-Induced Obese Rats: IES for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinyue; Yin, Jieyun; Foreman, Robert; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to optimize stimulation parameters and durations for intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) and to explore the effects and mechanisms of chronic IES with optimized methodology in obesity rats. Sixteen diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were tested for food intake with four different sets of IES parameters each lasting 1 week. Then, another 12 DIO rats were used to test the effect of IES on food intake with different stimulation durations. Finally, 16 DIO rats were treated with IES or sham-IES for 4 weeks. Meal patterns, food intake, and body weight were observed. Mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were studied. (1) Acute IES with different parameters showed different inhibitory effects on food intake, and the most effective parameters were 0.6 s on, 0.9 s off, 80 Hz, 2 ms, and 4 mA with which 26.3% decrease in food intake was noted (p fasting and postprandial plasma levels of GLP-1 but not ghrelin. Twelve-hour daily IES using optimized stimulation parameters reduces food intake and body weight in DIO rats by altering gastrointestinal motility and GLP-1. The IES methodology derived in this study may have a therapeutic potential for obesity.

  11. Voluntary and forced exercise influence the survival and body composition of ageing male rats differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narath, E; Skalicky, M; Viidik, A

    2001-11-01

    The importance of maintaining physical fitness by engaging in exercise in a life-long perspective as well as the avoidance of obesity has been emphasised in recent years by epidemiological studies on human populations as well as studies on laboratory rodents. In laboratory studies, voluntary running in wheels and forced training in a treadmill have been used with beneficial results. Restriction of the food intake of sedentary laboratory rodents can be regarded either as life prolongation or prevention of life shortening by obesity. We compared the effects of these interventions on male Sprague-Dawley rats from the age of 5 to 23 months in the following groups: (1) RW=voluntary running in wheels; (2) PW=fed to pair weight with RW animals; (3) TM=forced training in a treadmill; and (4) S1=sedentary with ad libitum access to food. Each group consisted of 32 animals, all housed individually in cages. Two RW animals died, five died in each of the PW and S1 groups and 10 in the TM group (pmuch they run.

  12. Fourth ventricular thyrotropin induces satiety and increases body temperature in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedh, Ulrika; Scott, Karen A; Moran, Timothy H

    2018-05-01

    Besides its well-known action to stimulate thyroid hormone release, thyrotropin mRNA is expressed within the brain, and thyrotropin and its receptor have been shown to be present in brain areas that control feeding and gastrointestinal function. Here, the hypothesis that thyrotropin acts on receptors in the hindbrain to alter food intake and/or gastric function was tested. Fourth ventricular injections of thyrotropin (0.06, 0.60, and 6.00 µg) were given to rats with chronic intracerebroventricular cannulas aimed at the fourth ventricle. Thyrotropin produced an acute reduction of sucrose intake (30 min). The highest dose of thyrotropin caused inhibition of overnight solid food intake (22 h). In contrast, subcutaneous administration of corresponding thyrotropin doses had no effect on nutrient intake. The highest effective dose of fourth ventricular thyrotropin (6 µg) did not produce a conditioned flavor avoidance in a standardized two-bottle test, nor did it affect water intake or gastric emptying of glucose. Thyrotropin injected in the fourth ventricle produced a small but significant increase in rectal temperature and lowered plasma levels of tri-iodothyronin but did not affect plasma levels of thyroxine. In addition, there was a tendency toward a reduction in blood glucose 2 h after fourth ventricular thyrotropin injection ( P = 0.056). In conclusion, fourth ventricular thyrotropin specifically inhibits food intake, increases core temperature, and lowers plasma levels of tri-iodothyronin but does not affect gastromotor function.

  13. Phosphorylation of histone H2AX as an indicator of received dose of gamma radiation after whole-body irradiation of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Havelek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine whether phosphorylation of histone H2AX can be used as an indicator of received dose of gamma radiation after whole-body irradiation of rats. Wistar rats were irradiated by 1-10 Gy of gamma radiation by 60Co source. Value LD50/60 was 7.37 (4.68-8.05 Gy. Histone H2AX is phosphorylated by ATM kinase on serine 139 (γH2AX quickly after the irradiation. It forms microscopically visible foci in the site of double strand breaks of DNA. Flow-cytometric method was used for quantitative detection. This study is the first one that evaluated dose-dependency of H2AX phosphorylation in peripheral lymphocytes of rats irradiated by whole-body dose 1-10 Gy. Our data show a dose-dependent increase in γH2AX in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes 1 h after whole-body irradiation by the dose of 1-10 Gy. We proved that phosphorylation of histone H2AX is a prompt and reliable indicator of the received radiation dose suitable for rapid measurement before the number of lymphocytes in peripheral blood starts to decrease. It can be used already 1 h after the irradiation for an estimation of the received dose of radiation. Blood samples can be stored in 4 °C for 23 h without significantly affecting the result.

  14. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+ via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT, and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates. The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1 NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2 NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3 NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4 NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and the neurogenic gene (MASH1 indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional

  15. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Park, Thomas J; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+) via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT), and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR), Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates). The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR) to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1) NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2) NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3) NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4) NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the neurogenic gene (MASH1) indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional and

  16. Caffeine-induced hematological changes after whole-body irradiation in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hyang; Yoon Yong Dal [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Recent research indicated dietary antioxidants were useful radioprotectors to protect organisms against radiation-induced tissue lethality and other deleterious effects. Radioprotective effects of vitamin C have been demonstrated in certain cells and animals, which would result from scavenging free radicals. Moreover, the previous studies indicated that caffeine had been shown to potently act the radioprotector in irradiated mice. However it is not clear exactly about effects of caffeine treatments chronically after irradiation. So the present studies were designed to identify the hematological effect of caffeine treatments chronically one month after whole-body gamma irradiation.

  17. Reduced Bone and Body Mass in Young Male Rats Exposed to Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellipe Augusto Tocchini de Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to see whether there would be differences in whole blood versus tibia lead concentrations over time in growing rats prenatally. Lead was given in the drinking water at 30 mg/L from the time the dams were pregnant until offspring was 28- or 60-day-old. Concentrations of lead were measured in whole blood and in tibia after 28 (28D and 60 days (60D in control (C and in lead-exposed animals (Pb. Lead measurements were made by GF-AAS. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 in the concentration of whole blood lead between Pb-28D (8.0±1.1 μg/dL and Pb-60D (7.2±0.89 μg/dL, while both significantly varied (P<0.01 from controls (0.2 μg/dL. Bone lead concentrations significantly varied between the Pb-28D (8.02±1.12 μg/g and the Pb-60D (43.3±13.26 μg/g lead-exposed groups (P<0.01, while those exposed groups were also significantly higher (P<0.0001 than the 28D and 60D control groups (Pb < 1 μg/g. The Pb-60D group showed a 25% decrease in tibia mass as compared to the respective control. The five times higher amount of lead found in the bone of older animals (Pb-60D versus Pb-28D, which reinforces the importance of using bone lead as an exposure biomarker.

  18. Phytase supplementation increases bone mineral density, lean body mass and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-zinc diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Angus G; Marchitelli, Louis J; Whicker, Jered S; Song, Yang; Ho, Emily; Young, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with nutritionally essential minerals, including zinc (Zn). Animal studies show that addition of microbial phytase (P) to low-Zn diets improves Zn status and bone strength. The present study determined the effects of phytase supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and voluntary running activity of male rats fed a high phytic acid, low-Zn diet. In a factorial design, rats were assigned to ZnLO (5 mg/kg diet), ZnLO+P (ZnLO diet with 1500 U phytase/kg) or ZnAD (30 mg/kg diet) groups and were divided into voluntary exercise (EX) or sedentary (SED) groups, for 9 weeks. SED rats were significantly heavier from the second week, and no catch-up growth occurred in EX rats. Feed intakes were not different between groups throughout the study. ZnLO animals had decreased food efficiency ratios compared to both phytase-supplemented (ZnLO+P) and Zn-adequate (ZnAD) animals (Pbone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and BMD than rats fed ZnLO diets; and in rats fed ZnAD diets these indices were the highest. The dietary effects on BMC, BA and BMD were independent of activity level. We conclude that consuming supplemental dietary phytase or dietary Zn additively enhances Zn status to increase BMD, LBM and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-Zn diet. While the findings confirm that bone health is vulnerable to disruption by moderate Zn deficiency in rats, this new data suggests that if dietary Zn is limiting, supplemental phytase may have beneficial effects on LBM and performance activity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhaled /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats and dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Decker, J.R.; Lai, Y.L.; Lauhala, K.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Hiastala, M.P.; McGee, D.R.; Park, J.F.; Kuffel, E.G.; Ragan, H.A.; Cannon, W.C.; Yaniv, S.S.; Scott, B.R.

    1988-08-01

    Rats and beagle dogs were given doses of /sup 60/Co gamma radiation and/or body burdens of /sup 239/PuO/sub 2/ within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses of both species within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell concentrations and by long-term loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in animals of both species that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled plutonium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in both species, but its only effect on blood cell concentrations was lymphocytopenia in dogs. Combined gamma irradiation and plutonium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Plutonium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the long-term effect of plutonium lung burdens in both species. Rats were less sensitive to both kinds of radiation, whether administered alone or in combination. 71 refs., 105 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. Inhaled 239PuO2 and/or total-body gamma radiation: Early mortality and morbidity in rats and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Decker, J.R.; Lai, Y.L.

    1988-08-01

    Rats and beagle dogs were given doses of 60 Co gamma radiation and/or body burdens of 239 PuO 2 within lethal ranges in an experiment to determine and compare morbidity and mortality responses of both species within 1 year after exposure. Radiation-induced morbidity was assessed by measuring changes in body weights, hematologic parameters, and pulmonary-function parameters. Gamma radiation caused transient morbidity, reflected by immediately depressed blood cell concentrations and by long-term loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in animals of both species that survived the acute gamma radiation syndrome. Inhaled plutonium caused a loss of body weight and diminished pulmonary function in both species, but its only effect on blood cell concentrations was lymphocytopenia in dogs. Combined gamma irradiation and plutonium lung burdens were synergistic, in that animals receiving both radiation insults had higher morbidity and mortality rates than would be predicted based on the effect of either kind of radiation alone. Plutonium lung burdens enhanced the effect of gamma radiation in rats within the first 30 days of exposure, and gamma radiation enhanced the long-term effect of plutonium lung burdens in both species. Rats were less sensitive to both kinds of radiation, whether administered alone or in combination. 71 refs., 105 figs., 48 tabs

  1. The Effect of A Single Sub-Lethal Dose of Whole Body Irradiation on the Small Intestine of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ramli, M. A.; Kubba, M. A.; Al-Bassam, L. S.; Belhaj, K.; Al-shawish, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of whole body radiation with a single sub-lethal dose at 4 Gy on rat small intestine was studied histologically and quantitatively. Irradiated animals were euthanized at 24 hours, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post- irradiation. Crypts of Leiberkuhn and peyer's patches were especially targeted by irradiation. The crypts showed severe cellular fragmentation in the germinal cellular compartments twenty Four hours after irradiation resulting in partial denudation of villi especially at their Tips. At three days, these cells resumed their proliferative activity with the appearance of unusually large numbers of mitotic figures. Cellular regeneration in the crypts and on the villous surface showed improvement with advancing time till day 28 when the villi had complete epithelial covering and the proliferative activity of the germinal cryptic cells returned to normal. The quantitative study included the measurement of about fifty villi at each time after irradiation. A significant decrease in villous length was noticed at twenty four hours post-irradiation compared to the control values. The length of villi plateaued at about this level till day twenty one when it slightly increased to reach a sub normal mean length on day 28. We concluded that whole body irradiation with a single dose at 4 Gy was enough to induce cryptic cellular necrosis with sloughing of epithelial villous columnar covering. This cellular damage was, however, sub- total since quick regenerative cellular activity was noticed three days post-irradiation. The decrease in the villous length paralleled the cryptic cellular damage whereas full recovery was not achieved despite obvious cellular regeneration.

  2. Ketone bodies effectively compete with glucose for neuronal acetyl-CoA generation in rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente-Silva, Paula; Lemos, Cristina; Köfalvi, Attila; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Jones, John G

    2015-09-01

    Ketone bodies can be used for cerebral energy generation in situ, when their availability is increased as during fasting or ingestion of a ketogenic diet. However, it is not known how effectively ketone bodies compete with glucose, lactate, and pyruvate for energy generation in the brain parenchyma. Hence, the contributions of exogenous 5.0 mM [1-(13)C]glucose and 1.0 mM [2-(13)C]lactate + 0.1 mM pyruvate (combined [2-(13)C]lactate + [2-(13)C]pyruvate) to acetyl-CoA production were measured both without and with 5.0 mM [U-(13)C]3-hydroxybutyrate in superfused rat hippocampal slices by (13)C NMR non-steady-state isotopomer analysis of tissue glutamate and GABA. Without [U-(13)C]3-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, combined lactate + pyruvate, and unlabeled endogenous sources contributed (mean ± SEM) 70 ± 7%, 10 ± 2%, and 20 ± 8% of acetyl-CoA, respectively. With [U-(13)C]3-hydroxybutyrate, glucose contributions significantly fell from 70 ± 7% to 21 ± 3% (p neurons. The appearance of superfusate lactate derived from glycolysis of [1-(13)C]glucose did not decrease significantly in the presence of 3-hydroxybutyrate, hence total glycolytic flux (Krebs cycle inflow + exogenous lactate formation) was attenuated by 3-hydroxybutyrate. This indicates that, under these conditions, 3-hydroxybutyrate inhibited glycolytic flux upstream of pyruvate kinase. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Effect of Upper Body Mass and Initial Knee Flexion on the Injury Outcome of Post Mortem Human Subject Pedestrian Isolated Legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Dufaure, Nicolas; Dubois, Denis; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    In the ECE 127 Regulation on pedestrian leg protection, as well as in the Euro NCAP test protocol, a legform impactor hits the vehicle at the speed of 40 kph. In these tests, the knee is fully extended and the leg is not coupled to the upper body. However, the typical configuration of a pedestrian impact differs since the knee is flexed during most of the gait cycle and the hip joint applies an unknown force to the femur. This study aimed at investigating the influence of the inertia of the upper body (modelled using an upper body mass fixed at the proximal end of the femur) and the initial knee flexion angle on the lower limb injury outcome. In total, 18 tests were conducted on 18 legs from 9 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). The principle of these tests was to impact the leg at 40 kph using a sled equipped with 3 crushing steel tubes, the stiffness of which were representative of the front face of a European sedan (bonnet leading edge, bumper and spoiler). The mass of the equipped sled was 74.5 kg. The test matrix was designed to perform 4 tests in 4 configurations combining two upper body masses (either 0 or 3 kg) and two knee angles (0 or 20 degrees) at 40 kph (11 m/s) plus 2 tests at 9 m/s. Autopsies were performed on the lower limbs and an injury assessment was established. The findings of this study were first that the increase of the upper body mass resulted in more severe injuries, second that an initial flexion of the knee, corresponding to its natural position during the gait cycle, decreased the severity of the injuries, and third that based on the injury outcome, a test conducted with no upper body mass and the knee fully extended was as severe as a test conducted with a 3 kg upper body mass and an initial knee flexion of 20°.

  4. Determination of human and Sprague-Dawley rat trimethylseleonium ion and total selenium urine concentrations from endogenous body selenium pool by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Claassen, J.P.; Rack, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    This study determined trimethylselenonium ion [TMSe,(CH 3 ) 3 Se + ] and total organic selenium cationic species urinary excretion values for healthy human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats fed regular diets. The only source of TMSe was from the endogenous selenium body pool. Total selenium concentration in urine was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. TMSe and total selenium cationic species concentrations and percent of total selenium urine excretion were determined by chemical neutron activation analysis and coupled anion-cation exchange chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography, respectively. Within experimental error, mean values for TMSe and cationic species as percent selenium were comparable for both human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats. This study suggested that TMSe excreated in urine by healthy human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats fed a normal diet is not a minor but a general metabolite of selenium ingested in a normal diet. (author) 27 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  5. Radio-induced neuropathology: from early effects to late sequelae. Rat behavioural and metabolic studies after sublethal total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martigne, A.P.

    2010-05-01

    The radioresistance dogma of Central Nervous System (CNS) is now obsolete. Recent progress in neuroscience allow us to reconsider the radiation-induced cognitive dysfunctions observed after radiation therapy or after a nuclear accident, and to devise appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic means. We have developed a Rat model to study the effects of total body irradiation at a sublethal dose (4.5 Gy). This leads to impaired learning and memory of a task being acquired during the first month - which is prevented by administration of a radioprotector (amifostine) - while it does not appear to affect retrograde memory. Early, an apoptotic wave occurs in the sub-ventricular zone, 5 to 9 hours after exposure, while neuro-genesis is suppressed. Two days after irradiation, the metabolic study conducted by NMR HRMAS (High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning) suggests the presence of cerebral oedema and the study of brain lipids in liquid NMR confirms the membrane damages (elevated cholesterol and phospholipids). The lipid profile is then normalized while a gliosis appears. Finally, 1 month post-irradiation, the elevation of GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in 2 separate brain structures, occurs simultaneously with a taurine decrease in the hippocampus that lasts 6 months. Our integrated model allows validating bio-markers measurable in vivo NMR spectroscopy - the next experimental stage - and testing new radiation-protective agents. (author)

  6. Distribution of elements in rat peripheral axons and nerve cell bodies determined by x-ray microprobe analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LoPachin, R.M. Jr.; Lowery, J.; Eichberg, J.; Kirkpatrick, J.B.; Cartwright, J. Jr.; Saubermann, A.J.

    1988-09-01

    X-ray microprobe analysis was used to determine concentrations (millimoles of element per kilogram dry weight) of Na, P, Cl, K, and Ca in cellular compartments of frozen, unfixed sections of rat sciatic and tibial nerves and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Five compartments were examined in peripheral nerve (axoplasm, mitochondria, myelin, extraaxonal space, and Schwann cell cytoplasm), and four were analyzed in DRG nerve cell bodies (cytoplasm, mitochondria, nucleus, and nucleolus). Each morphological compartment exhibited characteristic concentrations of elements. The extraaxonal space contained high concentrations of Na, Cl, and Ca, whereas intraaxonal compartments exhibited lower concentrations of these elements but relatively high K contents. Nerve axoplasm and axonal mitochondria had similar elemental profiles, and both compartments displayed proximodistal gradients of decreasing levels of K, Cl, and, to some extent, Na. Myelin had a selectively high P concentration with low levels of other elements. The elemental concentrations of Schwann cell cytoplasm and DRG were similar, but both were different from that of axoplasm, in that K and Cl were markedly lower whereas P was higher. DRG cell nuclei contained substantially higher K levels than cytoplasm. The subcellular distribution of elements was clearly shown by color-coded images generated by computer-directed digital x-ray imaging. The results of this study demonstrate characteristic elemental distributions for each anatomical compartment, which doubtless reflect nerve cell structure and function.

  7. An initial psychometric evaluation and exploratory cross-sectional study of the body checking questionnaire among Brazilian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho Campana

    Full Text Available Body checking is considered an expression of an excessive preoccupation with appearance. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Body Checking Questionnaire (BCQ. Additionally, we wanted to examine the questionnaire's associations with body avoidance behaviour, body mass index, dietary habits, and the intensity, frequency, and length of physical exercise. Finally, we also examined the differences between the total BCQ score and the individual BCQ factor scores. Differences between active and sedentary persons and between non-dieters and those on weight-loss diets were also analyzed. For the psychometric study, 546 female public university students from four different courses were surveyed. Two minor samples of university students and eating disorders women were also recruited. In the second part of the study, 403 women were recruited from weight-loss programs, gyms, and a university. All participants were verbally invited to participate in the research and voluntarily took part. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the original model of the Brazilian BCQ that retained all 23 items. Satisfactory evidence of construct validity and internal consistency were also generated through analysis of factor loadings, t-values, Cronbach's alpha, and construct reliability tests. The results also showed associations among body checking and body avoidance, body satisfaction, social anxiety, body mass index, and the frequency and intensity of physical exercise. Significant differences were found between non-dieters and weight-loss dieters for all BCQ factors and the total BCQ score. For physically active and sedentary persons, a significant difference was only observed for idiosyncratic checking behaviour. In conclusion, the BCQ appears to be a valid and reliable scale for Brazilian research, and the associations and differences found in this study suggest that women at gyms

  8. Enhancement of distribution of dermal multipotent stem cells to bone marrow in rats of total body irradiation by platelet-derived growth factor-AA treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Zhaowen; Ren Yongchuan; Shen Yue; Chen Yonghua; Ran Xinze; Shi Chunmeng; Cheng Tianmin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe whether dermal multipotent stem cells (dMSCs) treated with platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA) could distribute more frequently to the bone marrow in rats of total body irradiation (TBI). Methods: Male dMSCs were isolated and 10 μg/L PDGF-AA was added to the culture medium and further cultured for 2 h. Then the expression of tenascin-C were examined by Western blot, and the migration ability of dMSCs was assessed in transwell chamber. The pre-treated dMSCs were transplanted by tail vein injection into female rats administered with total body irradiation, and 2 weeks after transplantation, real-time PCR was employed to measure the amount of dMSCs in bone marrow. Non-treated dMSCs served as control.Results PDGF-AA treatment increased the expression of tenascin-C in dMSCs, made (1.79 ± 0.13) × 10 5 cells migrate to the lower chamber under the effect of bone marrow extract, and distributed to bone marrow in TBI rats, significantly more than (1.24 ± 0.09) ×10 5 in non-treated dMSCs (t=8.833, P<0.01). Conclusions: PDGF-AA treatment could enhance the migration ability of dMSCs and increase the amount of dMSCs in bone marrow of TBI rats after transplantation. (authors)

  9. Response of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine to dietary protein deficiency and/or whole body gamma-irradiation in desert rodent and albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation

  10. Response of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine to dietary protein deficiency and/or whole body gamma-irradiation in desert rodent and albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roushdy, H M; El-Husseini, M; Saleh, F [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    1985-01-01

    The effect of whole body gamma-irradiation on the levels of plasma and urinary uric acid, creatine and creatinine was studied in the desert rodent, Psammomys obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats, the levels of uric acid in plasma and urine were higher in the animals kept on high protein diets than in those maintained on non-protein ones. Radiation exposure caused a significant increase in uric acid concentration both in plasma and urine of albino rats, whereas in Psammomys obesus obesus, it exerted a significant drop in uric acid concentration in blood paralleling a marked rise in the daily uric acid excretion in the urine, especially with the high radiation level of 1170 r. Creatinine concentrations in plasma and urine of albino rats were higher than the corresponding values in Psammomys obesus obesus. Radiation exposure in general caused an increase in the creatinine concentration in blood and a decrease in its concentration in urine. Plasma creatine was shown to increase due to the effect of radiation exposure. This runs in parallel with the increase in the excretion of creatine in urine. Creatinuria observed in whole body irradiation is obviously caused by a defect in the ability of skeletal muscle to take up creatine from blood. Such abnormality could be the result of direct damage to the muscle caused by incident radiation.

  11. Whole-body new-born and young rats' exposure assessment in a reverberating chamber operating at 2.4 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Tongning; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Wong, M-F; Gati, Azzedine; Wiart, Joe [Orange Labs R and D, Whist Lab 38-40 rue du General Leclerc, 92794 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France); Picon, Odile [Universite Paris-Est, ESYCOM, Cite Descartes 5, bd Descartes, 77454 Marne la Vallee Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: joe.wiart@orange-ftgroup.com

    2010-03-21

    This paper presents the whole-body specific absorption rate (WBSAR) assessment of embryos and new-born rats' exposure in a reverberating chamber (RC) operating at 2.4 GHz (WiFi). The finite difference in time domain (FDTD) method often used in bio-electromagnetism is facing very slow convergence. A new simulation-measurement hybrid approach has been proposed to characterize the incident power related to the RC and the WBSAR in rats, which are linked by the mean squared electric field strength in the working volume. Peak localized SAR in the rat under exposure is not included in the content of the study. Detailed parameters of this approach are determined by simulations. Evolutions for the physical and physiological parameters of the small rats at different ages are discussed. Simulations have been made to analyse all the variability factors contributing to the global results. WBSAR information and the variability for rats at different ages are also discussed in the paper.

  12. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy.

  13. Oral administration of O-2 lean, an anti-obesity herbal composition increased 5-HT metabolism, decreased food intake and body weight in overweight rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, F.; Akhtar, N.; Haleem, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behavior is complex processes controlled by the neruroendocrine system.5-HT play an important role in regulation of energy balance by suppressing food intake. Depletion of brain serotonin increase feeding behavior and develop obesity. Many serotoninergic compounds are available in market for the management of body weight. 02-Lean is an anti-obesity herbal formulation prepared by combination of different herbs. Oral administration of aqueous suspension of 02-Lean caused a significant decrease in body weight, food intake, and increase in whole brain 5-HT 5HIAA, tryptophan and plasma tryptophan in over weight rats treated with 0.096g/2ml 02-Lean in comparison to control group. (author)

  14. Alterations in rat cardiac myosin isozymes induced by whole-body irradiation are prevented by 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litten, R.Z.; Fein, H.G.; Gainey, G.T.; Walden, T.L.; Smallridge, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cardiac myosin isozymes and serum thyroid hormone levels were investigated in rats following 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The percent beta-myosin heavy chain increased from 21.3 ± 1.8 to 28.1 ± 6.8 (NS) at 3-day postirradiation, 37.7 ± 1.9 (P less than .001) at 6-day postirradiation, and 43.8 ± 3.3 (P less than .001) at 9-day postirradiation. Along with the change in myosin isozymes was a significant 53% decrease (P less than .001) in the serum thyroxine (T4) level by day 3 postirradiation, remaining depressed through day 9 postirradiation. The serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) level, however, was normal until day 9, when significant depression was also observed. In contrast, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased by fourfold at day 3, returning to near normal values by day 9 postirradiation. Daily injections of physiological doses of T3 (0.3 microgram/100 g body weight) prevented the change in the myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation. Daily pharmacological injections of T3 (3.0 micrograms/100 g body weight) to the irradiated rats produced a further decrease in the percent beta-myosin heavy chain (below control values) indicating tissue hyperthyroidism. Thus, this study suggests that the change in myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation is caused by an alteration in thyroid hormone activity

  15. The effect of low calorie structured lipid palm mid fraction, virgin coconut oil and canola oil blend on rats body weight and plasma profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Aftar Mizan Abu; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of low calorie cocoa butter substitutes, the structured lipids (SLs) on rats' body weight and plasma lipid levels. The SLs were developed from a ternary blending of palm mid fraction (PMF), virgin coconut oil (VCO) and canola oil (CO). The optimized blends were then underwent enzymatic acidolysisusing sn-1,3-specific lipase. This process produced A12, a SL which hasa solid fat content almost comparable to cocoa butter but has low calories. Therefore, it has a high potential to be used for cocoa butter substitute with great nutritional values. Fourty two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups and were force feed for a period of 2 months (56 days) and the group were Control 1(rodent chow), Control 2(cocoa butter), Control 3(PMF:VCO:CO 90:5:5 - S3 blend), High doseSL (A12:C8+S3), Medium dose SL (A12:C8+S3) and Low dose SL (A12:C8+S3). The body weight of each rat was recorded once daily. The plasma profile of treated and control rats, which comprised of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride was measured on day 0 (baseline) and day 56 (post-treatment). Low calorie structured lipid (SL) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction using sn 1-3-specific lipase of ThermomycesLanuginos (TLIM) among 25 samples with optimum parameter obtained from the RSM. Blood samples for plasma separation were collected using cardiac puncture and requiring anesthesia via tail vein(Anesthetics for rats: Ketamine/Xylazine) for day 0 and day 56. Results of the study showed that rats in group 1 and group 2 has gained weight by 1.66 g and 4.75 g respectively and showed significant difference (p0.05) between G3 on day 0 and 56 days for total cholesterol. Meanwhile, total plasma HDLcholesterol content of rats fed with C8:0 was significantly higher (pstructured lipids effectively altered the plasma cholesterol levels of experimental rats.

  16. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  17. β-Naphthoflavone enhances oxidative stress responses and the induction of preneoplastic lesions in a diethylnitrosamine-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis model in partially hepatectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewa, Yasuaki; Nishimura, Jihei; Muguruma, Masako; Jin, Meilan; Saegusa, Yukie; Okamura, Toshiya; Tasaki, Masako; Umemura, Takashi; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2008-01-01

    The tumour-promoting effects of β-naphthoflavone (BNF), a novel aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, were investigated using a medium-term hepatocarcinogenesis model in rats. Six-week-old male F344 rats received an intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight and were fed a diet containing 0% (basal diet), 0.5% or 1% BNF for 6 weeks from 2 weeks after DEN treatment. All animals were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy 1 week after the BNF treatment. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci significantly increased in the livers of rats treated with BNF with concomitantly increased cell proliferation compared to those in the livers of the DEN alone group. Global gene expression analysis and subsequent quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that BNF induced not only the 'AhR gene battery'Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Nqo1, Aldh3a1 and Ugt1a6 but also the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated genes such as Gstm1, Gpx2, Akr7a3 and Yc2 (and also Nqo1), presumably due to the adaptive response against BNF-triggered oxidative stress responses. Reactive oxygen species production increased in microsomes isolated from the livers of BNF-treated rats, and this enhancement was suppressed by the P450 inhibitor SKF-525A. Furthermore, BNF enhanced oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, estimated by the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. These results suggest that the administration of BNF at a high dose and over a long-term enhance oxidative stress responses which may contribute to its hepatocarcinogenic potential in rats

  18. Changes in protein metabolism after irradiation. Pt. 2. Protease activity, protease pattern, protein and free amino acids in cytoplasm and cell organelles of the rat liver after 600 R whole body X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valet, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie, Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Abt. fuer Experimentelle Medizin

    1976-01-01

    The protease activity of cytoplasm and cell organelles of the rat liver against liver protein and hemoglobin as a substrate increases during an initial reaction phase on the first day after 600 R whole body x irradiation. This is probably a consequence of the degradation of cellular debris. The protein, the protease activity and the free amino acids of the cytoplasm and the cell organelles decrease during the disease phase on day 3 and 4 after irradiation. The protein loss of the liver is therefore not explained by an increased protease activity. The protease activity and the free amino acids are increased in the cytoplasm and the cell organelles during the regeneration phase of the organism between day 15 and 18 after irradiation.

  19. Evaluation of brain and whole-body pharmacokinetics of 11C-labeled diphenylhydantoin in rats by means of planar positron imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yukinori; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hasegawa, Shinji; Shimosegawa, Eku; Kurachi, Yoshihisa; Hatazawa, Jun; Okamoto, Takashi; Matsui, Tamiko

    2008-01-01

    A planar positron imaging system (PPIS) enables whole-body dynamic imaging of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron-emitting nuclides. We evaluated the difference in the brain and whole-body pharmacokinetics of 11 C-diphenylhydantoin ( 11 C-DPH) between intravenous and duodenal administration in rats. Male Wistar rats (8 weeks old, mean body weight 250 g) were examined under anesthesia. A tracer amount of 11 C-DPH (2 μg or less; about 5 MBq) was injected into the tail vein (n=3) or duodenum (n=3). Immediately following the administration, PPIS scans were obtained for 20 min. Regions of interest (ROIs) were set on the brain, heart, liver, intestinal field, and urinary bladder, identified on the integrated images. The relative uptake value (RUV, %) was calculated as the regional count divided by the whole-body count multiplied by 100. Sequential changes in the RUV for each ROI were analyzed for the brain and other organs. Following intravenous injection of 11 C-DPH, the RUV in the brain was 1.59±0.07%, 1.53±0.09%, 1.40±0.09%, and 1.38±0.08% at 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, and 20 min after the injection, respectively. After duodenal administration, the corresponding values were 0.54±0.16%, 1.01±0.12%, 1.43±0.24%, and 1.52±0.06%, respectively. The 11 C-DPH distribution was significantly lower at 5 min and 10 min following duodenal administration than after intravenous injection (P 11 C-DPH between intravenous and duodenal administration in rats. Use of the PPIS is feasible for the evaluation of the pharmacokinetics in both the target organ and the whole body in small animals. (author)

  20. Increased variability of bone tissue mineral density resulting from estrogen deficiency influences creep behavior in a rat vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Navalgund, Anand R; Tee, Boon Ching; Noble, Garrett J; Hart, Richard T; Lee, Hye Ri

    2012-11-01

    Progressive vertebral deformation increases the fracture risk of a vertebral body in the postmenopausal patient. Many studies have observed that bone can demonstrate creep behavior, defined as continued time-dependent deformation even when mechanical loading is held constant. Creep is a characteristic of viscoelastic behavior, which is common in biological materials. We hypothesized that estrogen deficiency-dependent alteration of the mineral distribution of bone at the tissue level could influence the progressive postmenopausal vertebral deformity that is observed as the creep response at the organ level. The objective of this study was thus to examine whether the creep behavior of vertebral bone is changed by estrogen deficiency, and to determine which bone property parameters are responsible for the creep response of vertebral bone at physiological loading levels using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. Correlations of creep parameters with bone mineral density (BMD), tissue mineral density (TMD) and architectural parameters of both OVX and sham surgery vertebral bone were tested. As the vertebral creep was not fully recovered during the post-creep unloading period, there was substantial residual displacement for both the sham and OVX groups. A strong positive correlation between loading creep and residual displacement was found (r=0.868, pcreep behavior of the OVX group (pcreep caused progressive, permanent reduction in vertebral height for both the sham and OVX groups. In addition, estrogen deficiency-induced active bone remodeling increased variability of trabecular TMD in the OVX group. Taken together, these results suggest that increased variability of trabecular TMD resulting from high bone turnover influences creep behavior of the OVX vertebrae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of a high dosage of creatine and caffeine supplementation on the lean body mass composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro-Junior Miguel A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influences of creatine and caffeine supplementation associated with power exercise on lean body mass (LBM composition are not clear. The purpose of this research was to determine whether supplementation with high doses of creatine and caffeine, either solely or combined, affects the LBM composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: Sedentary (S or Exercised (E [placebo (Pl, creatine (Cr, caffeine (Caf or creatine plus caffeine (CrCaf]. The supplemented groups received creatine [load: 0.430 g/kg of body weight (BW for 7 days; and maintenance: 0.143 g/kg of BW for 35 days], caffeine (15 mg/kg of BW for 42 days or creatine plus caffeine. The exercised groups underwent a vertical jump training regime (load: 20 - 50% of BW, 4 sets of 10 jumps interspersed with 1 min resting intervals, 5 days/wk, for 6 weeks. LBM composition was evaluated by portions of water, protein and fat in the rat carcass. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test and Student's t test. Results Exercised animals presented a lower carcass weight (10.9%; P = 0.01, as compared to sedentary animals. However, no effect of supplementation was observed on carcass weight (P > 0.05. There were no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05 for percentage of water in the carcass. The percentage of fat in the group SCr was higher than in the groups SCaf and ECr (P Conclusions High combined doses of creatine and caffeine does not affect the LBM composition of either sedentary or exercised rats, however, caffeine supplementation alone reduces the percentage of fat. Vertical jumping training increases the percentages of water and protein and reduces the fat percentage in rats.

  2. Lack of efficacy of blueberry in nutritional prevention of azoxymethane-initiated cancers of rat small intestine and colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xianli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blueberries may lower relative risk for cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Previous work indicated an inhibitory effect of consumed blueberry (BB on formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colons of male Fisher F344 rats (inbred strain. However, effects of BB on colon tumors and in both genders are unknown. Methods We examined efficacy of BB in inhibition of azoxymethane (AOM-induced colon ACF and intestine tumors in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (outbred strain. Pregnant rats were fed a diet with or without 10% BB powder; progeny were weaned to the same diet as their dam and received AOM as young adults. Results Male and female rats on control diet had similar numbers of ACF at 6 weeks after AOM administration. BB increased (P P P > 0.05 to reduce overall gastrointestinal tract tumor incidence in males, however, tumor incidence in females was unaffected (P > 0.1 by BB. There was a tendency (0.1 > P > 0.05 for fewer adenocarcinomas (relative to total of adenomatous polyps plus adenocarcinomas in colons of female than male tumor-bearing rats; in small intestine, this gender difference was significant (P P Conclusion Results did not indicate robust cancer-preventive effects of BB. Blueberry influenced ACF occurrence in distal colon and tumor progression in duodenum, in gender-specific fashion. Data indicate the potential for slowing tumor progression (adenomatous polyp to adenocarcinoma by BB.

  3. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of protein and energy deficiency on the incorporation of /sup 14/C-Chlorella protein hydrolysate into body constituents of adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S; Wakabayashi, K; Niiyama, Y; Inoue, G [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1974-12-01

    The effects of protein and/or energy deficiency on /sup 14/C incorporation into body constituents and /sup 14/C output in expired air and urine were investigated in adult rats using /sup 14/C-Chlorella protein hydrolysate. Rats were given a protein-free diet (PFD) for 2 weeks and conrol rats were fed ad libitum or pari-fed with the PFD group on a 12% lactalbumin diet (LA and Pair-fed, respectively). On the 15th day, animals received /sup 14/C-Chlorella protein hydolysate with 5 g of their respective diet. One group of PFD animals was given tracer by stomach tube without food (PFD-fast). Normal control rats ate about twice as much diet as the PFD group. The respiratory /sup 14/C output in the PFD group was identical with those in the LA and Pair-fed groups and was less than that in the PFD-fast group. The rate of protein synthesis, provisionally expressed as relative specific radioactivity, was more in the PFD group than in the normal group in the liver and less than the latter in the muscle. The LA group retained less total radioactivity in the body than the Pair-fed or PFD group, indicating high capability to hold the body protein in protein deficiency. In addition, decreased conversion of amino acids to lipids and glycogen was observed in the PFD group. All these differences are interpreted as adaptations to protein shortage. On prolonged fasting (PFD-fast group), gluconeogenesis in the liver increased to provide energy, despite the protein deficiency. The relative importances of protein and energy for tissue protein synthesis are briefly discussed.

  5. Effects of protein and energy deficiency on the incorporation of 14C-Chlorella protein hydrolysate into body constituents of adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shigeru; Wakabayashi, Kazuo; Niiyama, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Goro

    1974-01-01

    The effects of protein and/or energy deficiency on 14 C incorporation into body constituents and 14 C output in expired air and urine were investigated in adult rats using 14 C-Chlorella protein hydrolysate. Rats were given a protein-free diet (PFD) for 2 weeks and conrol rats were fed ad libitum or pari-fed with the PFD group on a 12% lactalbumin diet (LA and Pair-fed, respectively). On the 15th day, animals received 14 C-Chlorella protein hydolysate with 5 g of their respective diet. One group of PFD animals was given tracer by stomach tube without food (PFD-fast). Normal control rats ate about twice as much diet as the PFD group. The respiratory 14 C output in the PFD group was identical with those in the LA and Pair-fed groups and was less than that in the PFD-fast group. The rate of protein synthesis, provisionally expressed as relative specific radioactivity, was more in the PFD group than in the normal group in the liver and less than the latter in the muscle. The LA group retained less total radioactivity in the body than the Pair-fed or PFD group, indicating high capability to hold the body protein in protein deficiency. In addition, decreased conversion of amino acids to lipids and glycogen was observed in the PFD group. All these differences are interpreted as adaptations to protein shortage. On prolonged fasting (PFD-fast group), gluconeogenesis in the liver increased to provide energy, despite the protein deficiency. The relative importances of protein and energy for tissue protein synthesis are briefly discussed. (author)

  6. Effect of Injection Minimal Dosages of Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA to Body Weight and Blood Chemistry Male Rat Strain Sprague-Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukman Moeloek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many family planning program focus more on men. Until now, vasectomy has been the commonly used method for male contraception. However, this method creates inconvenience such as irreversibility and psychological problems. One of the alternatives contraception is the combination of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and androgen. The minimum dosage of DMPA could suppress testosterone level that leads to reduced spermatogenesis and sperm viability. Nevertheless, until now it is not known whether minimum dosages of DMPA have an effect to body weight and blood chemistry. Therefore, this research aimed at determinate the effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry using male rats (Rattus norvegicus L. strain Sprague-Dawley as model. This research using completely randomized design, unequal size sample, castration treatments and several doses DMPA (1.25, 0.625, and 0.313 milligram. Injecting of DMPA conducted intramuscularly on week 0 and week 12. Normality/homogeneity Data normality were analyzed before ANOVA test. Then, abnormal data were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test. The result shows that injection of DMPA in various doses do not have an effect on body weight and blood chemistry such as erytrocytes, haemoglobin, hematocrite, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, SGOT, SGPT and triglyseride (p>0,05. Furthermore, it is concluded that that no effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry of rat.

  7. Intraspecific growth variation among rainbow trout and brook trout: Impact of initial body weight and feeding level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Ostenfeld, T.

    2010-01-01

    larger body weight (BW) CVs compared to BT (0.257 vs. 0.206, P differences in weight gains enhance size variations in terms...... for species (RT: 3.71, BT: 2.32, P > 0.05). The magnitude of slopes decreased over time (weeks 0–3:4.27, weeks 3–6:3.02 and weeks 6–9:1.74, P differences in weight gains between experimental groups were reflected in differences in coefficients of variations (CVs) for body growth. RT had...... of higher CVs, and this may have implications for feeding tactics in aquaculture where large size variations in groups may be disadvantageous to fish farmers....

  8. Studies on the percutaneous absorption of /sup 14/C-labelled Flurbiprofen, 3. Whole body autoradiography of rats and guinea-pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Soshichi; Sakai, Takeo; Hayakawa, Toru (Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Coll. of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine)

    1983-03-01

    Whole body autoradiography was carried out to clarify and compare the distribution of /sup 14/C-labelled Flurbiprofen which was applied to the skin as an ointment in rats and guinea-pigs. Both in rats and guinea-pigs almost the same autoradiogram was gained. The radioactivity was strongest at the skin area inspite of the time elapse, showing that the drug was fixed in the site of skin applied. In other parts of the body, however, it was small except the kidney and intestine. It seemed that the absorption of the drug was a little although the migration of the drug into the blood circulation is fast at the beginning as was shown in pigs previously. A stronger radioactivity in the kidney and intestine might indicate that a main pathway of excretion of this drug was through those two organs. Absorption, distribution and excretion of the drug were not different between rats and guinea-pigs, similar to those observed in pigs.

  9. Initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations of the scalar sector of theories of Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkenburg, Wessel; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We present a description for setting initial particle displacements and field values for simulations of arbitrary metric theories of gravity, for perfect and imperfect fluids with arbitrary characteristics. We extend the Zel'dovich Approximation to nontrivial theories of gravity, and show how scale dependence implies curved particle paths, even in the entirely linear regime of perturbations. For a viable choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, initial conditions set at high redshifts are affected at the level of up to 5% at Mpc scales, which exemplifies the importance of going beyond Λ-Cold Dark Matter initial conditions for modifications of gravity outside of the quasi-static approximation. In addition, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description. Our description paves the way for simulations and mock galaxy catalogs under theories of gravity beyond the standard model, crucial for progress towards precision tests of gravity and cosmology

  10. The Effects of Residency and Body Size on Contest Initiation and Outcome in the Territorial Dragon, Ctenophorus decresii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Osborne, Louise; Keogh, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Empirical studies of the determinants of contests have been attempting to unravel the complexity of animal contest behaviour for decades. This complexity requires that experiments incorporate multiple determinants into studies to tease apart their relative effects. In this study we examined the complex contest behaviour of the tawny dragon (Ctenophorus decresii), a territorial agamid lizard, with the specific aim of defining the factors that determine contest outcome. We manipulated the relative size and residency status of lizards in contests to weight their importance in determining contest outcome. We found that size, residency and initiating a fight were all important in determining outcomes of fights. We also tested whether residency or size was important in predicting the status of lizard that initiated a fight. We found that residency was the most important factor in predicting fight initiation. We discuss the effects of size and residency status in context of previous studies on contests in tawny dragons and other animals. Our study provides manipulative behavioural data in support of the overriding effects of residency on initiation fights and winning them. PMID:23077558

  11. The effects of residency and body size on contest initiation and outcome in the territorial dragon, Ctenophorus decresii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate D L Umbers

    Full Text Available Empirical studies of the determinants of contests have been attempting to unravel the complexity of animal contest behaviour for decades. This complexity requires that experiments incorporate multiple determinants into studies to tease apart their relative effects. In this study we examined the complex contest behaviour of the tawny dragon (Ctenophorus decresii, a territorial agamid lizard, with the specific aim of defining the factors that determine contest outcome. We manipulated the relative size and residency status of lizards in contests to weight their importance in determining contest outcome. We found that size, residency and initiating a fight were all important in determining outcomes of fights. We also tested whether residency or size was important in predicting the status of lizard that initiated a fight. We found that residency was the most important factor in predicting fight initiation. We discuss the effects of size and residency status in context of previous studies on contests in tawny dragons and other animals. Our study provides manipulative behavioural data in support of the overriding effects of residency on initiation fights and winning them.

  12. The ter mutation in the rat Dnd1 gene initiates gonadal teratomas and infertility in both genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Emily; Zschemisch, Nils-Holger; Eisenblätter, Regina; Glage, Silke; Wedekind, Dirk; Cuppen, Edwin; Dorsch, Martina; Hedrich, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    A spontaneous mutation leading to the formation of congenital ovarian and testicular tumors was detected in the WKY/Ztm rat strain. The histological evaluation revealed derivatives from all three germ layers, thereby identifying these tumors as teratomas. Teratocarcinogenesis was accompanied by infertility and the underlying mutation was termed ter. Linkage analysis of 58 (WKY-ter×SPRD-Cu3) F2 rats associated the ter mutation with RNO18 (LOD = 3.25). Sequencing of candidate genes detected a point mutation in exon 4 of the dead-end homolog 1 gene (Dnd1), which introduces a premature stop codon assumed to cause a truncation of the Dnd1 protein. Genotyping of the recessive ter mutation revealed a complete penetrance of teratocarcinogenesis and infertility in homozygous ter rats of both genders. Morphologically non-tumorous testes of homozygous ter males were reduced in both size and weight. This testicular malformation was linked to a lack of spermatogenesis using immunohistochemical and histological staining. Our WKY-Dnd1(ter)/Ztm rat is a novel animal model to investigate gonadal teratocarcinogenesis and the molecular mechanisms involved in germ cell development of both genders.

  13. The effects of the first two rises of adrenal gland activity on survival of rats after whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffigny, Herve; Pasquier, Christian.

    1980-04-01

    Lethal irradiation of rats results in two rises of adrenal gland activity around the 3rd hour and the 3rd day following exposure respectively. The effects of each rise on survival of rats were studied during either reaction, 1) by inhibition of corticosterone synthesis by metopirone 2) by corticosterone injection to adrenalectomized rats. The first rise seemed deleterious to survival, whereas the second one was without effect. The specificity of adrenal reaction following exposure might explain the significance of the succession of other stresses for survival in the particular case of combined stresses [fr

  14. Vitamin E supplementation and pneumonia risk in males who initiated smoking at an early age: effect modification by body weight and dietary vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprio Jaakko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We had found a 14% higher incidence of pneumonia with vitamin E supplementation in a subgroup of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC Study cohort: participants who had initiated smoking by the age of 20 years. In this study, we explored the modification of vitamin E effect by body weight, because the same dose could lead to a greater effect in participants with low body weight. Methods The ATBC Study recruited males aged 50–69 years who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day at the baseline; it was conducted in southwestern Finland in 1985–1993. The current study was restricted to 21,657 ATBC Study participants who initiated smoking by the age of 20 years; the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. The hospital-diagnosed pneumonia cases were retrieved from the national hospital discharge register (701 cases. Results Vitamin E supplementation had no effect on the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight in a range from 70 to 89 kg (n = 12,495, risk ratio (RR = 0.99 (95% CI: 0.81 to 1.22. Vitamin E increased the risk of pneumonia in participants with body weight less than 60 kg (n = 1054, RR = 1.61 (1.03 to 2.53, and in participants with body weight over 100 kg (n = 1328, RR = 2.34 (1.07 to 5.08. The harm of vitamin E supplementation was restricted to participants with dietary vitamin C intake above the median. Conclusion Vitamin E supplementation may cause harmful effects on health in certain groups of male smokers. The dose of vitamin E used in the ATBC Study, 50 mg/day, is substantially smaller than conventional vitamin E doses that are considered safe. Our findings should increase caution towards taking vitamin E supplements. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.

  15. [Influences of ration level and initial body weight on growth and size hierarchy of hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus x O. niloticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan

    2003-02-01

    72 hybrid tilapia were distributed into twelve tanks, each stocked in six fish (A, B, C, D, E, F) with different body size. The initial body weight was 62.69 +/- 1.46 g for fish A, 56.48 +/- 1.30 g for B, 50.75 +/- 1.19 g for C, 35.56 +/- 1.18 g for D, 31.05 +/- 0.88 g for E, and 27.35 +/- 0.95 g for F (mean +/- SE). The fish were reared under four ration levels (deprived of feed, fed at 1.5% body weight per day (BW.d-1), fed at 3.0% BW.d-1, or fed excess) throughout four weeks, respectively. The specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE) of the fish increased with increasing ration level up to 3.0% BW.d-1, and then, SGR maintained at a constant level while FE dropped with continuing increase of ration. The variance coefficient of SGR and final body weight was relatively high in the fish that fed at 1.5% BW.d-1. For fish A, SGR was not significantly different, between 1.5% BW.d-1, 3.0% BW.d-1 and fed excess, while in fish F, relatively high variations were found among different ration treatments. This experiment revealed that the growth and size hierarchy of hybrid tilapia were related to their ration level and initial body size. Under ration levels more than 3.0% BW.d-1, SGR was usually high, and size hierarchy was relatively weak.

  16. Initial studies on the contributions of body size and gastrointestinal passage rates to dietary flexibility among gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, M J

    2000-06-01

    Large body size has been traditionally seen as the primary dietary adaptation of gorillas, facilitating their consumption of fibrous foods (Schaller ¿1963 The Mountain Gorilla; Watts ¿1990 Int. J. Primatol. 11:21-45). Nevertheless, recent research has emphasized frugivory among western lowland gorillas, as well as the influence of habitat and seasonality on gorilla diet and behavior across subspecies (Watts ¿1990 Int. J. Primatol. 11:21-45; Tutin et al. ¿1991 Philos. R. Soc. Trans. Lond. Biol. 334:179-186; Remis ¿1994 Ph.D. Thesis, ¿1997a Am. J. Primatol. 43:87-109, ¿1997b Am. J. Primatol. 43:111-133, ¿1998 Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances, p 95-(1)108, ¿1999 Primates 40:383-396; Nishihara ¿1995 Primates 36:151-168; Goldsmith ¿1999a Int. J. Primatol. 20:1-23, Goldsmith [1999b] Nonhuman Primates, p 58-63). This study provides preliminary data to address the physiological underpinnings of dietary flexibility among gorillas, and their consumption of a broad range of fibrous and tannin-rich foods. To date, little is known about the digestive physiology of the African apes (but see Milton ¿1984 Adaptations for Foraging in Nonhuman Primates, p 249-279, Milton [1984] ¿1999Evol. Anthropol. 8:11-20; Milton and Demment ¿1988 J. Nutr. 118:1082-1088; Lambert ¿1997 Ph.D. Dissertation), although gastrointestinal morphology and proportions are roughly similar among species ( Chivers and Hladik ¿1980 J. Morphol. 166:337-386). This study provides additional experimental data on the gastrointestinal passage times of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) fed a captive diet in a zoological park setting and discusses results in relation to field research on gorilla feeding ecology. In this study, 480 small plastic markers were fed to six captive gorillas. The mean gut retention time (MRT) of the adult gorillas in this study was 50 hr, longer than the 31 hr reported for chimpanzees fed a similar diet (Lambert ¿1997 Ph.D. Dissertation). These data suggest that gorillas

  17. Influence of caffeine and/or coffee consumption on the initiation and promotion phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary gland tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, C W; DeHoog, J V; O'Connor, D H

    1988-04-15

    The effect of caffeine and/or coffee consumption (via the drinking water) during the initiation phase and promotion phase of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a commercial laboratory animal chow was examined. In the initiation studies, DMBA was administered once at 53-55 days of age; caffeine (100-860 mg/liter of drinking water) and/or coffee (moderate or high dose, sole source of drinking water) treatments were for 32 consecutive days, commencing 29 days prior to DMBA treatment and terminating 3 days after DMBA treatment. In the promotion studies, DMBA was administered once at 54-55 days of age; caffeine and/or coffee treatments were daily from 57-58 days of age to termination of experiments (12-21 weeks after carcinogen treatment). In the initiation studies, either moderate (100-400 mg) or high (860 mg) dose levels of caffeine or moderate to high dose levels of caffeinated coffee significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced mammary carcinoma multiplicity (number of tumors/rat). Consumption of high or moderate dose levels of decaffeinated coffee did not significantly alter mammary carcinoma multiplicity. The addition of caffeine to the moderate dose level of decaffeinated coffee resulted in a significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the promotion studies, prolonged consumption of moderated dose levels of caffeine or moderate or high dose levels of caffeinated coffee or decaffeinated coffee did not significantly effect mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the early stages of promotion, however, a significant (p less than 0.05) stimulatory effect of caffeine on mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed; an effect that was temperate and transitory. In both the initiation and promotion studies caffeine and/or coffee consumption did not significantly affect the incidence of mammary carcinomas (percentage of rats bearing mammary carcinomas) or the mean latency

  18. Persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport by isolated rat liver mitochondria after preincubation with adenine nucleotides and calcium ions

    OpenAIRE

    Vaartjes, W.J.; Breejen, J.N. den; Geelen, M.J.H.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1980-01-01

    1. Preincubation of isolated rat-liver mitochondria in the presence of adenine nucleotides or Ca2+ results in definite and persistent changes in the initial rate of pyruvate transport. 2. These changes in the rate of pyruvate transport are accompanied by equally persistent changes in the opposite direction of the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC. 1.2.4.1). 3. Changes of the transmembrane pH gradient and of the membrane potential, brought about by the pretreatments of the mitochondria, c...

  19. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi F. H.; Molck, Anne-Marie; Chapman, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different...... substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30–50% (4–6 mM versus 7–9 mM in controls). The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain......The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels...

  20. Antiobesity effects of the beta-cell hormone amylin in diet-induced obese rats: effects on food intake, body weight, composition, energy expenditure, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jonathan D; Hughes, Heather; Kendall, Eric; Baron, Alain D; Anderson, Christen M

    2006-12-01

    Effects of amylin and pair feeding (PF) on body weight and metabolic parameters were characterized in diet-induced obesity-prone rats. Peripherally administered rat amylin (300 microg/kg.d, 22d) reduced food intake and slowed weight gain: approximately 10% (Pcontrols; VEH), amylin did not. During wk 1, amylin and PF reduced 24-h respiratory quotient (mean+/-se, 0.82+/-0.0, 0.81+/-0.0, respectively; PEnergy expenditure (EE mean+/-se) tended to be reduced by PF (5.67+/-0.1 kcal/h.kg) and maintained by amylin (5.86+/-0.1 kcal/h.kg) relative to VEH (5.77+/-0.0 kcal/h.kg). By wk 3, respiratory quotient no longer differed; however, EE increased with amylin treatment (5.74+/-0.09 kcal/.kg; Pmetabolic effects.

  1. Infusion of exogenous cholecystokinin-8, gastrin releasing peptide-29 and their combination reduce body weight in diet-induced obese male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalhal, Thaer R; Washington, Martha C; Newman, Kayla; Heath, John C; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2017-02-01

    We hypothesized that exogenous gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) and their combination reduce body weight (BW). To test this hypothesis, BW was measured in four groups of diet-induced obese (DIO) male rats infused in the aorta (close to the junctions of the celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries) with saline, CCK-8 (0.5 nmol/kg), GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg) and CCK-8+GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg each) once daily for a total of 23 days. We found that CCK-8, GRP-29 and CCK-8+GRP-29 reduce BW relative to saline control. In conclusion, CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination reduce BW in the DIO rat model. If infused near their gastrointestinal sites of action CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination may have a role in regulating BW. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. IMPACT OF GENETIC STRAIN ON BODY FAT LOSS, FOOD CONSUMPTION, METABOLISM, VENTILATION, AND MOTOR ACTIVITY IN FREE RUNNING FEMALE RATS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Physiologic data associated with different strains of common laboratory rat strains. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gordon , C., P....

  3. Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Functional and Structural Disorders in Urogenital System of Male Albino Rats Induced by Whole Body Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezk, R.G.; Darwish, M.R

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds have long been used for health benefits and the seed oil has been shown to contain active beneficial components that may protect from oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the modulator role of pumpkin seed oil (PSO) supplementation on gamma radiation induced changes in certain biochemical and histological abnormalities in both kidney and testes tissues. Male rats received 5Gy whole body gamma-irradiation delivered as 1 Gy day after day to result in a cumulative dose of 5 Gy. PSO was orally administered to rats (20mg/Kg body weight) for 20 consecutive days before irradiation and during the period of irradiation. On days seven and twenty one after the last irradiation dose, rats were sacrificed. Biochemical analysis in the serum revealed that PSO supplementation diminished the radiation-induced increase in the level of urea, creatinine , follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Significant amelioration of the radiation-induced decreases in calcium (Ca +2 ), potassium (K + ) and testosterone levels were also recorded. PSO administration has attenuated the toxic effects of radiation by decreasing the level of lipid peroxides measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increasing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and the content of glutathione (GSH). Histological observations of photomicrographs of kidney sections of irradiated rats showed amorphoid glomeruli, renal sclerosis and high content of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, hemorrhage in glomeruli, ruptured proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Examination of testis tissues showed disappearance of seminiferous tubules, ruptured tunica albuginea, and degeneration of interstitial cells. PSO supplementation has obviously improved the radiation-induced histopathological changes in both tissues. It could be concluded that PSO can be used as a useful adjunct for maintaining

  4. Effect of neonatal administration of mono-sodium glutamate in rats on adult body weight and some blood lipids during acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Moneim, A.E.; Shousha, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    When a single dose of 4.0 mg MSG/g body weight was administered subcutaneously in new rats, they showed increased body weight (P< 0.01) than vehicle-injected control animals of the same strain at 1,2 and 3 months post-natal. This syndrome was most remarkable during the suckling period. At various time intervals of the trial, a marked sex difference (P< 0.01) was also observed. Experimental males were greater in weight than females. Two days following irradiation of one half the treated animals, serum triglycerides (T G) and total. cholesterol (Ch) in MSG-irradiated rats were significantly (P 0.01)) higher by comparison with MSG-treated and saline injected groups of their own sex. Although, sex has no significant effect on serum T G and Ch, MSG-irradiated males (the heavier in body weight) showed lower levels of these lipid fractions than females during the period of acute radiation sickness. 2 tabs

  5. Influence of age, body temperature, GABAA receptor inhibition and caffeine on the Hering-Breuer inflation reflex in unanesthetized rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Ashley V; Gore, Julie L; Rudkin, Alison; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C

    2013-03-01

    We measured the duration of apnea induced by sustained end-inspiratory lung inflation (the Hering Breuer Reflex, HBR) in unanesthetized infant rat pups aged 4 days (P4) to P20 at body temperatures of 32°C and 36°C. The expiratory prolongation elicited by the HBR lasted longer in the younger pups and lasted longer at the higher body temperature. Blockade of adenosine receptors by caffeine following injection into the cisterna magna (ICM) significantly blunted the thermal prolongation of the HBR. Blockade of gama-amino-butyric acid A (GABAA) receptors by pre-treatment with ICM bicuculline had no effect on the HBR duration at either body temperature. To test the hypothesis that developmental maturation of GABAergic inhibition of breathing was modifying the response to bicuculline, we pretreated rat pups with systemically administered bumetanide to lower the intracellular chloride concentration, and repeated the bicuculline studies. Bicuculline still did not alter the HBR at either temperature after bumetanide treatment. We administered PSB-36, a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, and this drug treatment did not modify the HBR. We conclude that caffeine blunts the thermal prolongation of the HBR, probably by blocking adenosine A2a receptors. The thermally sensitive adenosinergic prolongation of the HBR in these intact animals does not seem to depend on GABAA receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi F. H. Jensen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30–50% (4–6 mM versus 7–9 mM in controls. The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  7. Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose Transporter Levels in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Vivi F H; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Chapman, Melissa; Alifrangis, Lene; Andersen, Lene; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bøgh, Ingrid B

    2017-01-01

    The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30-50% (4-6 mM versus 7-9 mM in controls). The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.

  8. Prediction of postural risk of fall initiation based on a two-variable description of body dynamics: position and velocity of center of mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Mohammad Hadi; Nakashima, Motomu

    2013-10-01

    This research addresses the question: what is the risk of fall initiation at a certain human posture? There are postures from which no one is able to keep their balance and a fall will surely initiate (risk=1), and others from which everyone may regain their stability (risk=0). In other postures, only a portion of people can control their stability. One may interpret risk to chance of a fall to be initiated, and based on the portion of fallers assign a risk value to a given human posture (postural risk). Human posture can be mapped to a point in a 2-dimensional space: the x-v plane, the axes of which are horizontal components of the position and velocity of the center of mass of the body. For every pair of (x, v), the outcome of the balance recovery problem defines whether a person with a given strength level is able to regain their stability when released from a posture corresponding to that point. Using strength distribution data, we estimated the portion of the population who will initiate a fall if starting at a certain posture. A fast calculation approach is also introduced to replace the time-consuming method of solving the recovery problem many times. Postural risk of fall initiation for situations expressed by (x, v) pairs for the entire x-v plane is calculated and shown in a color-map. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Body Image Concern Inventory: validation in a multiethnic sample and initial development of a Spanish language version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2008-12-01

    Dysmorphic appearance concern encompasses preoccupation with a perceived appearance defect, defect checking and camouflaging, and social avoidance. The current study sought to evaluate the internal consistency, factor structure, and convergent validity of a measure of dysmorphic appearance concern, the Body Image Concern Inventory, as well as evaluate the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the instrument. Women recruited as part of a reproductive clinic-based clinical trial completed the BICI and other self-report measures of distress. A total of 1043 women completed the measures in English (M=29 years, range=18-55 years) and 573 women completed the measures in Spanish (M=32 years, range=18-55 years). Both the English and Spanish BICI were internally consistent and correlated moderately with measures of current psychological distress (STAI-S, CES-D). Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the measure's proposed factor structure. Applications of the BICI for future research are discussed.

  10. Adenosarcoma of the uterine body initially presenting as an interstitial small tumor of the uterus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, H; Tsuji, N; Jimi, T; Butsuhara, Y; Terakawa, K; Nagano, T

    2014-01-01

    Adenosarcoma of the uterine body is a rare mixed tumor in which a benign epithelial component is mixed with a malignant stromal element. It has been considered that this tumor originates from the endometrium and its most common finding of imaging is a polypoid tumor occupying the uterine cavity. The authors herein present a case of 37-year-old female with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. At the first visit, transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a round mass with a diameter of one cm in the uterine wall. No malignant pathological finding was detected. The patient visited the authors again one year later, because of continuous bleeding. At that time, they found a polypoid tumor in the uterine cavity, which turned out to be adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth. The round mass in the uterus detected at first time seems to have been incipience of adenosarcoma. Prodromal sign of adenosarcoma has not been reported previously.

  11. Alterations in rat cardiac myosin isozymes induced by whole-body irradiation are prevented by 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litten, R.Z.; Fein, H.G.; Gainey, G.T.; Walden, T.L.; Smallridge, R.C. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cardiac myosin isozymes and serum thyroid hormone levels were investigated in rats following 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The percent beta-myosin heavy chain increased from 21.3 {plus minus} 1.8 to 28.1 {plus minus} 6.8 (NS) at 3-day postirradiation, 37.7 {plus minus} 1.9 (P less than .001) at 6-day postirradiation, and 43.8 {plus minus} 3.3 (P less than .001) at 9-day postirradiation. Along with the change in myosin isozymes was a significant 53% decrease (P less than .001) in the serum thyroxine (T4) level by day 3 postirradiation, remaining depressed through day 9 postirradiation. The serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) level, however, was normal until day 9, when significant depression was also observed. In contrast, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased by fourfold at day 3, returning to near normal values by day 9 postirradiation. Daily injections of physiological doses of T3 (0.3 microgram/100 g body weight) prevented the change in the myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation. Daily pharmacological injections of T3 (3.0 micrograms/100 g body weight) to the irradiated rats produced a further decrease in the percent beta-myosin heavy chain (below control values) indicating tissue hyperthyroidism. Thus, this study suggests that the change in myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation is caused by an alteration in thyroid hormone activity.

  12. Change in concentration of inorganic phosphate and phosphocreatine in the rat diaphragm under the influence of whole-body gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, M A; Gaber, M; Abdel-Fatah, K I

    1987-01-01

    The influence of irradiation on the concentration of creatine phosphate and inorganic phosphate in the diaphragm muscle were studied in rats exposed to 400 rad and 800 rad whole-body gamma radiation. The results showed that on the first day of post-exposure with 400 rad, the creatine phosphate concentration significantly increased, while the level significantly decreased on the third up to the fourteenth days of post exposure. In animals exposed to 800 rad, the diaphragm phosphocreatine showed a significant decrease on the first up to the ninth day post-irradiation as compared with the control group.

  13. Pre-treatment with mild whole-body heating prevents gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water-immersion stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y H; Noguchi, R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the preventive effect of pre-mild whole-body heating (WBH) on gastric ulcer induced by restraint and water-immersion stress. The ulcer index and ulcer area ratio in rats exposed to restraint and water-immersion stress were significantly decreased (p immersion stress alone (p immersion, thereby preventing gastric ulcer formation. Pre-treatment with mild WBH is the safest cytoprotective method through the accumulation of HSP 70f. The concentration of HSP 70f in peripheral lymphocytes may be a useful clinical laboratory indicator for assessing the level of HSP 70f as having cytoprotective activity.

  14. Change in concentration of inorganic phosphate and phosphocreatine in the rat diaphragm under the influence of whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.A.; Gaber, M.; Abdel-Fatah, K.I.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of irradiation on the concentration of creatine phosphate and inorganic phosphate in the diaphragm muscle were studied in rats exposed to 400 rad and 800 rad whole-body gamma radiation. The results showed that on the first day of post-exposure with 400 rad, the creatine phosphate concentration significantly increased, while the level significantly decreased on the third up to the fourteenth days of post exposure. In animals exposed to 800 rad, the diaphragm phosphocreatine showed a significant decrease on the first up to the ninth day post-irradiation as compared with the control group

  15. Investigation of Figopitant and Its Metabolites in Rat Tissue by Combining Whole-Body Autoradiography with Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schadt, S.; Kallbach, S.; Almeida, R.

    2012-01-01

    tissue extraction, sample cleanup, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The parent drug and the N-dealkylated metabolite M474(1) (BIIF 1148) in varying ratios were the predominant compounds in all tissues investigated. In addition, several metabolites formed by oxygenation, dealkylation......This article describes the combination of whole-body autoradiography with liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and mass spectrometry (MS) to study the distribution of the tachykinin neurokinin-1 antagonist figopitant and its metabolites in tissue sections of rats after intravenous...

  16. Whole-Body Docosahexaenoic Acid Synthesis-Secretion Rates in Rats Are Constant across a Large Range of Dietary α-Linolenic Acid Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Metherel, Adam H; Chen, Chuck T; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) thought to be important for brain function. Although the main dietary source of DHA is fish, DHA can also be synthesized from α-linolenic acid (ALA), which is derived from plants. Enzymes involved in DHA synthesis are also active toward ω-6 (n-6) PUFAs to synthesize docosapentaenoic acid n-6 (DPAn-6). It is unclear whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient to maintain brain DHA. The objective of this study was to determine how different amounts of dietary ALA would affect whole-body DHA and DPAn-6 synthesis rates. Male Long-Evans rats were fed an ALA-deficient diet (ALA-D), an ALA-adequate (ALA-A) diet, or a high-ALA (ALA-H) diet for 8 wk from weaning. Dietary ALA concentrations were 0.07%, 3%, and 10% of the fatty acids, and ALA was the only dietary PUFA that differed between the diets. After 8 wk, steady-state stable isotope infusion of labeled ALA and linoleic acid (LA) was performed to determine the in vivo synthesis-secretion rates of DHA and DPAn-6. Rats fed the ALA-A diet had an ∼2-fold greater capacity to synthesize DHA than did rats fed the ALA-H and ALA-D diets, and a DHA synthesis rate that was similar to that of rats fed the ALA-H diet. However, rats fed the ALA-D diet had a 750% lower DHA synthesis rate than rats fed the ALA-A and ALA-H diets. Despite enrichment into arachidonic acid, we did not detect any labeled LA appearing as DPAn-6. Increasing dietary ALA from 3% to 10% of fatty acids did not increase DHA synthesis rates, because of a decreased capacity to synthesize DHA in rats fed the ALA-H diet. Tissue concentrations of DPAn-6 may be explained at least in part by longer plasma half-lives. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Sarah; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Cartier, Christel; Coméra, Christine; Gaultier, Eric; Dupuy, Jacques; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Grysan, Patrick; Reguer, Solenn; Thieriet, Nathalie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Carrière, Marie; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Pierre, Fabrice H; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Houdeau, Eric

    2017-01-20

    Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO 2 -NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO 2 -NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO 2 -NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO 2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO 2 -treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO 2 from dietary sources.

  18. Deposition and retention of 0.1 micron 67Ga2O3 aggregate aerosols in rats following whole body exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, R.K.; Griffis, L.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; McClellan, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    Determinations were made of respiratory tract deposition and gastrointestinal tract burdens following whole body inhalation exposures, typical of those used in many chronic exposures; these were compared to values obtained in nose-only exposures. Fischer-344 rats were exposed in large volume chambers, in a whole body mode, to 0.1 micron volume median diameter (VMD) 67 Ga 2 O 3 particles 5 hrs/day. Deposition per unit of exposure time and retention were essentially identical following either 1 or 3 day exposures. The lung deposition of particles was 2.8 units/hr for males and 2.2 units/hr for females if the exposure concentration was expressed as 1 unit/L. These values represent a deposition of approximately 15% of the inhaled particles, similar to values obtained for nose-only exposures. Aerosol deposition per kgm body weight was 24% higher in females than males. Passage of material into the gastrointestinal tract was 1.6-fold greater for these whole body exposures as compared to nose-only exposures to the same aerosol mainly resulting from extra material ingested by grooming of the pelt. Approximately 60% of the pelt burden was calculated to be ingested following whole body exposures

  19. AMPK agonist AICAR delays the initial decline in lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak, while voluntary wheel running fails to delay its initial decline in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toedebusch, Ryan G; Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Braselton, Joshua F; Heese, Alexander J; Hofheins, John C; Childs, Tom E; Thyfault, John P; Booth, Frank W

    2016-02-01

    There has never been an outcome measure for human health more important than peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), yet little is known regarding the molecular triggers for its lifetime decline with aging. We examined the ability of physical activity or 5 wk of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) administration to delay the initial aging-induced decline in lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak and potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Experiment 1 consisted of female rats with (RUN) and without (NO RUN) running wheels, while experiment 2 consisted of female nonrunning rats getting the AMPK agonist AICAR (0.5 mg/g/day) subcutaneously for 5 wk beginning at 17 wk of age. All rats underwent frequent, weekly or biweekly V̇o2 peak tests beginning at 10 wk of age. In experiment 1, lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak occurred at 19 wk of age in both RUN and NO RUN and decreased thereafter. V̇o2 peak measured across experiment 1 was ∼25% higher in RUN than in NO RUN. In experiment 2, AICAR delayed the chronological age observed in experiment 1 by 1 wk, from 19 wk to 20 wk of age. RUN and NO RUN showed different skeletal muscle transcriptomic profiles both pre- and postapex. Additionally, growth and development pathways are differentially regulated between RUN and NO RUN. Angiomotin mRNA was downregulated postapex in RUN and NO RUN. Furthermore, strong significant correlations to V̇o2 peak and trends for decreased protein concentration supports angiomotin's potential importance in our model. Contrary to our primary hypothesis, wheel running was not sufficient to delay the chronological age of lifetime-apex V̇o2 peak decline, whereas AICAR delayed it 1 wk. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Lamotrigine blocks NMDA receptor-initiated arachidonic acid signalling in rat brain: Implications for its efficacy in bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Epolia; Basselin, Mireille; Rao, Jagadeesh S.; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2011-01-01

    An upregulated brain arachidonic acid (AA) cascade and a hyperglutamatergic state characterize bipolar disorder (BD). Lamotrigine (LTG), a mood stabilizer approved for treating BD, is reported to interfere with glutamatergic neurotransmission involving N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). NMDARs allow extracellular calcium into the cell, thereby stimulating calcium-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) to release arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipid. We hypothesized that LTG, like other approved mood stabilizers, would reduce NMDAR-mediated AA signaling in rat brain. An acute subconvulsant dose of NMDA (25 mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally to unanesthetized rats that had been treated p.o. daily for 42 days with vehicle or a therapeutically relevant dose of LTG (10 mg/kg/.d). Regional brain AA incorporation coefficients k* and rates Jin, AA signals, were measured using quantitative autoradiography after intravenous [1-14C]AA infusion, as were other AA cascade markers. In chronic vehicle-treated rats, acute NMDA compared to saline increased k* and Jin in widespread regions of the brain, as well as prostaglandin (PG)E2 and thromboxane B2 concentrations. Chronic LTG treatment compared to vehicle reduced brain cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, PGE2 concentration, and DNA binding activity of the COX-2 transcription factor, NF-κB. Pretreatment with chronic LTG blocked the acute NMDA effects on AA cascade markers. In summary, chronic LTG like other mood stabilizers blocks NMDA-mediated signaling involving the AA metabolic cascade. Since markers of the AA cascade and of NMDAR signaling are up-regulated in the postmortem BD brain, mood stabilizers generally may be effective in BD by dampening NMDAR signalling and the AA cascade. PMID:21733229

  1. Structure formation from non-Gaussian initial conditions: Multivariate biasing, statistics, and comparison with N-body simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannantonio, Tommaso; Porciani, Cristiano

    2010-01-01

    We study structure formation in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type with parameters f NL and g NL . We show that the distribution of dark-matter halos is naturally described by a multivariate bias scheme where the halo overdensity depends not only on the underlying matter density fluctuation δ but also on the Gaussian part of the primordial gravitational potential φ. This corresponds to a non-local bias scheme in terms of δ only. We derive the coefficients of the bias expansion as a function of the halo mass by applying the peak-background split to common parametrizations for the halo mass function in the non-Gaussian scenario. We then compute the halo power spectrum and halo-matter cross spectrum in the framework of Eulerian perturbation theory up to third order. Comparing our results against N-body simulations, we find that our model accurately describes the numerical data for wave numbers k≤0.1-0.3h Mpc -1 depending on redshift and halo mass. In our multivariate approach, perturbations in the halo counts trace φ on large scales, and this explains why the halo and matter power spectra show different asymptotic trends for k→0. This strongly scale-dependent bias originates from terms at leading order in our expansion. This is different from what happens using the standard univariate local bias where the scale-dependent terms come from badly behaved higher-order corrections. On the other hand, our biasing scheme reduces to the usual local bias on smaller scales, where |φ| is typically much smaller than the density perturbations. We finally discuss the halo bispectrum in the context of multivariate biasing and show that, due to its strong scale and shape dependence, it is a powerful tool for the detection of primordial non-Gaussianity from future galaxy surveys.

  2. SU-F-P-05: Initial Experience with an Independent Certification Program for Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solberg, T; Robar, J; Gevaert, T; Todorovic, M; Howe, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The ASTRO document “Safety is no accident: A FRAMEWORK FOR QUALITY RADIATION ONCOLOGY AND CARE” recommends external reviews of specialized modalities. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the implementation of such a program for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body radiation Therapy (SBRT). Methods: The margin of error for SRS and SBRT delivery is significantly smaller than that of conventional radiotherapy and therefore requires special attention and diligence. The Novalis Certified program was created to fill an unmet need for specialized SRS / SBRT credentialing. A standards document was drafted by a panel of experts from several disciplines, including medical physics, radiation oncology and neurosurgery. The document, based on national and international standards, covers requirements in program structure, personnel, training, clinical application, technology, quality management, and patient and equipment QA. The credentialing process was modeled after existing certification programs and includes an institution-generated self-study, extensive document review and an onsite audit. Reviewers generate a descriptive report, which is reviewed by a multidisciplinary expert panel. Outcomes of the review may include mandatory requirements and optional recommendations. Results: 15 institutions have received Novalis Certification, including 3 in the US, 7 in Europe, 4 in Australia and 1 in Asia. 87 other centers are at various stages of the process. Nine reviews have resulted in mandatory requirements, however all of these were addressed within three months of the audit report. All reviews have produced specific recommendations ranging from programmatic to technical in nature. Institutions felt that the credentialing process addressed a critical need and was highly valuable to the institution. Conclusion: Novalis Certification is a unique peer review program assessing safety and quality in SRS and SBRT, while recognizing

  3. Non-traumatic incidental findings in patients undergoing whole-body computed tomography at initial emergency admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroczek, Eduard K; Wieners, Gero; Steffen, Ingo; Lindner, Tobias; Streitparth, Florian; Hamm, Bernd; Maurer, Martin H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the number, localisation and importance of non-traumatic incidental findings (IFs) in patients with suspected or obvious multiple trauma undergoing whole-body CT (WBCT) in a level-1 trauma centre. Between January 2009 and December 2013, a total of 2440 patients with trauma undergoing WBCT at admission to a level-1 trauma centre of a university hospital were retrospectively analysed, through imaging IFs unrelated to trauma with the radiological reports. All IFs were grouped into four categories according to their clinical relevance. Category 1: urgent treatment or further clarification needed; category 2: further examination and follow-up within 3-6 months required; category 3: findings with no immediate consequences for the treatment of the patient but of potential relevance in the future; category 4: harmless findings. Altogether, 5440 IFs in 2440 patients (1735 male, 705 female; mean age 45.1 years) were documented. In 204 patients (8.4%) urgent category 1 findings were reported, 766 patients (31.4%) had category 2 findings, 1236 patients (50.7%) had category 3 findings and 1173 patients (48.1%) had category 4 findings. Most IFs were detected in the abdomen/pelvis (42.5%). 602 (24.7%) of the patients had no IFs. WBCT scans of unrelated trauma patients demonstrate a high rate of IF. A substantial percentage (8.4%) of patients had urgent category 1IFs and a high percentage (31.4%) had category 2 IFs requiring a follow-up. This high number of patients with polytrauma undergoing WBCT, having IFs of high relevance, poses a major challenge for the level-1 trauma centre in the acute and postacute management of these patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. SU-F-P-05: Initial Experience with an Independent Certification Program for Stereotactic Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solberg, T [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Robar, J [Capital District Health Authority, Halifax, NS (Canada); Gevaert, T [University Hospital Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Todorovic, M [Universitats-Klinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Howe, J [Associates In Medical Physics, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The ASTRO document “Safety is no accident: A FRAMEWORK FOR QUALITY RADIATION ONCOLOGY AND CARE” recommends external reviews of specialized modalities. The purpose of this presentation is to describe the implementation of such a program for Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body radiation Therapy (SBRT). Methods: The margin of error for SRS and SBRT delivery is significantly smaller than that of conventional radiotherapy and therefore requires special attention and diligence. The Novalis Certified program was created to fill an unmet need for specialized SRS / SBRT credentialing. A standards document was drafted by a panel of experts from several disciplines, including medical physics, radiation oncology and neurosurgery. The document, based on national and international standards, covers requirements in program structure, personnel, training, clinical application, technology, quality management, and patient and equipment QA. The credentialing process was modeled after existing certification programs and includes an institution-generated self-study, extensive document review and an onsite audit. Reviewers generate a descriptive report, which is reviewed by a multidisciplinary expert panel. Outcomes of the review may include mandatory requirements and optional recommendations. Results: 15 institutions have received Novalis Certification, including 3 in the US, 7 in Europe, 4 in Australia and 1 in Asia. 87 other centers are at various stages of the process. Nine reviews have resulted in mandatory requirements, however all of these were addressed within three months of the audit report. All reviews have produced specific recommendations ranging from programmatic to technical in nature. Institutions felt that the credentialing process addressed a critical need and was highly valuable to the institution. Conclusion: Novalis Certification is a unique peer review program assessing safety and quality in SRS and SBRT, while recognizing

  5. Whole body X-irradiation and impact of dietary factors on brain and testes of albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, S.S.; Chaturvedi, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the radioprotective effect of protein diet on the irradiated brain and testes. The study indicated that the less availability of protein in the diet caused a marked reduction in the protein and nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) contents of brain after irradiation. Further, the protein deficiency in diet brought about an increased deamination of protein in the brain of irradiated rats. It was noted that in response to irradiation the testes of protein deficient diet fed rats got adversely affected as compared to high protein diet fed animals. This paper gives evidence that feeding of protein enriched diet provides protection against ionizing radiation. (orig.) [de

  6. Cannabinoid CB1 /CB2 receptor agonists attenuate hyperactivity and body weight loss in a rat model of activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherma, Maria; Satta, Valentina; Collu, Roberto; Boi, Maria Francesca; Usai, Paolo; Fratta, Walter; Fadda, Paola

    2017-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric condition characterized by excessive body weight loss and disturbed perceptions of body shape and size, often associated with excessive physical activity. There is currently no effective drug-related therapy of this disease and this leads to high relapse rate. Clinical data suggest that a promising therapy to treat and reduce reoccurrence of AN may be based on the use of drugs that target the endocannabinoid (EC) system, which appears dysregulated in AN patients. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) rodent model mimics the severe body weight loss and increased physical activity, as well as the neuroendocrine disturbances (i.e. hypoleptinaemia and hypercortisolaemia) in AN. This study investigated whether cannabinoid agonists can effectively modify anorexic-like behaviours and neuroendocrine changes in rats subjected to a repeated ABA regime that mimics the human condition in which patients repeatedly undergo a recovery and illness cycle. Our data show that subchronic treatment with both the natural CB 1 /CB 2 receptor agonist Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and the synthetic CB 1 /CB 2 receptor agonist CP-55,940 significantly reduced body weight loss and running wheel activity in ABA rats. These behavioural effects were accompanied by an increase in leptin signalling and a decrease in plasma levels of corticosterone. Taken together, our results further demonstrate the involvement of the EC system in AN pathophysiology and that strategies which modulate EC signalling are useful to treat this disorder, specifically in patients where physical hyperactivity plays a central role in its progression and maintenance. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Age-dependent exposure to radioactive iodine (131I) in the thyroid and total body of newborn, pubertal and adult fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Kamiya, Kenji; Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru

    2001-01-01

    Female rats of the Fischer 344 strain at ages of 1, 4 and 9 weeks were exposed to 131 I intraperitoneally with activities of 0.38, 1.03 and 3.42 kBq per gram of body weight under the condition of iodine deficiency. The absorbed doses in the thyroid increased linearly depending on the injected activities. Irradiation at 1 week old caused heavier exposure than those at 4 and 9 weeks old by 7.5 and 7.7 times, respectively; however, damage of the thyroid tissue was more obvious in the 4-week-old groups than in the 1-week-old groups. The absorbed doses in the total body were proportional to the square root of the injected activities. The one-week-old groups were exposed more heavily than the 4- and 9-week-old groups by 3.6 and 4.7 times, respectively, shown by the slow excretion of 131 I with the values of effective half-life of 131 I activity (T eff ). An IDD-treatment was not so effective to enhance the 131 I absorption in the total body, as in the thyroid. No matter how the iodine concentration in the blood changed, the 1-week-old groups could not react to normalize the level. We drew standard curves, which enabled us to estimate the absorbed doses in the thyroid and the total body in the case of the injected activities of 131 I for the newborn, pubertal and adult rats. (author)

  8. The effects of a high dosage of creatine and caffeine supplementation on the lean body mass composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Frederico Sc; Costa, Neuza Mb; Ferreira, Susana A; Carneiro-Junior, Miguel A; Natali, Antônio J

    2011-03-01

    The influences of creatine and caffeine supplementation associated with power exercise on lean body mass (LBM) composition are not clear. The purpose of this research was to determine whether supplementation with high doses of creatine and caffeine, either solely or combined, affects the LBM composition of rats submitted to vertical jumping training. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups: Sedentary (S) or Exercised (E) [placebo (Pl), creatine (Cr), caffeine (Caf) or creatine plus caffeine (CrCaf)]. The supplemented groups received creatine [load: 0.430 g/kg of body weight (BW) for 7 days; and maintenance: 0.143 g/kg of BW for 35 days], caffeine (15 mg/kg of BW for 42 days) or creatine plus caffeine. The exercised groups underwent a vertical jump training regime (load: 20 - 50% of BW, 4 sets of 10 jumps interspersed with 1 min resting intervals), 5 days/wk, for 6 weeks. LBM composition was evaluated by portions of water, protein and fat in the rat carcass. Data were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Tukey post hoc test and Student's t test. Exercised animals presented a lower carcass weight (10.9%; P = 0.01), as compared to sedentary animals. However, no effect of supplementation was observed on carcass weight (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05) for percentage of water in the carcass. The percentage of fat in the group SCr was higher than in the groups SCaf and ECr (P < 0.05). A higher percentage of protein was observed in the groups EPl and ECaf when compared to the groups SPl and SCaf (P < 0.001). The percentage of fat in the carcass decreased (P < 0.001), while those of water and protein increased (P < 0.05) in exercised animals, compared to sedentary animals. Caffeine groups presented reduced percentage of fat when compared to creatine supplemented groups (P < 0.05). High combined doses of creatine and caffeine does not affect the LBM composition of either sedentary or exercised rats, however, caffeine

  9. Representation of the body in the lateral striatum of the freely moving rat: Fast Spiking Interneurons respond to stimulation of individual body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Julianna M; Pawlak, Anthony P; Kalkat, Manraj; Coffey, Kevin R; West, Mark O

    2017-02-15

    Numerous studies have shown that certain types of striatal interneurons play a crucial role in selection and regulation of striatal output. Striatal Fast-Spiking Interneurons (FSIs) are parvalbumin positive, GABAergic interneurons that constitute less than 1% of the total striatal population. It is becoming increasingly evident that these sparsely distributed neurons exert a strong inhibitory effect on Medium Spiny projection Neurons (MSNs). MSNs in lateral striatum receive direct synaptic input from regions of cortex representing discrete body parts, and show phasic increases in activity during touch or movement of specific body parts. In the present study, we sought to determine whether lateral striatal FSIs identified by their electrophysiological properties, i.e., short-duration spike and fast firing rate (FR), display body part sensitivity similar to that exhibited by MSNs. During video recorded somatosensorimotor exams, each individual body part was stimulated and responses of single neurons were observed and quantified. Individual FSIs displayed patterns of activity related selectively to stimulation of a discrete body part. Most patterns of activity were similar to those exhibited by typical MSNs, but some phasic decreases were observed. These results serve as evidence that some striatal FSIs process information related to discrete body parts and participate in sensorimotor processing by striatal networks that contribute to motor output. Parvalbumin positive, striatal FSIs are hypothesized to play an important role in behavior by inhibiting MSNs. We asked a fundamental question regarding information processed during behavior by FSIs: whether FSIs, which preferentially occupy the sensorimotor portion of the striatum, process activity of discrete body parts. Our finding that they do, in a selective manner similar to MSNs, begins to reveal the types of phasic signals that FSI feed forward to projection neurons during striatal processing of cortical input

  10. High Whey Protein Intake Delayed the Loss of Lean Body Mass in Healthy Old Rats, whereas Protein Type and Polyphenol/Antioxidant Supplementation Had No Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia. PMID:25268515

  11. Effects of long-term consumption of high fructose corn syrup containing peach nectar on body weight gain in sprague dawley rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsah OZCAN SINIR

    Full Text Available Abstract High fructose corn syrup (HFCS is one of the most used sweeteners in the food industry. Health concerns regarding the consumption of HFCS-containing foods have developed in parallel with the increasing amount of people who become overweight. This study was conducted to investigate whether HFCS-containing peach nectar (pn-HFCS consumption has more detrimental effects on anthropometrical and biochemical parameters compared with sucrose-containing peach nectar (pn-sucrose. Fifty-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups and were fed (A pn-HFCS + ad libitum chow, (B pn-sucrose + ad libitum chow and (C only ad libitum chow for 7 months. The percentage change in body weight (PCBW, body mass index (BMI, and Lee index were calculated, and serum triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were measured. The PCBW, BMI, Lee index, serum triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were insignificant among the three groups. We can suggest that peach nectar consumption resulted in more energy intake than the control and since pn-HFCS group consumed more chow than the pn-sucrose group. The results show that long term daily HFCS or sucrose consumption in peach nectar is not associated with weight gain and does not stimulate metabolic changes in Sprague Dawley rats.

  12. The effects of different schedules of total-body irradiation in heterotopic vascularized bone transplantation. An experimental study in the Lewis rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of irradiation on heterotopically placed vascularized knee isografts, a single dose of 10 Gy of total-body irradiation was given to Lewis donor rats. Irradiation was delivered either 2 or 6 days prior to harvesting or subsequent transplantation, and evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after grafting. Irradiation caused endothelial depopulation of the graft artery, although vascular pedicle patency was maintained throughout the study. Bone graft viability and mineralization were normal. Dramatic changes in the bone marrow were seen that included an increase of its fat content (P less than 0.001), and a concomitant decrease in bone marrow-derived immunocompetent cells. These changes were more prominent in recipients of grafts from day -6 irradiated donor rats. Total-body irradiation did not prejudice the use of vascularized bone grafts, and exhibited an associated immunosuppresant effect over the vascular endothelium and bone marrow. This may be a further rational conditioning procedure to avoid recipient manipulation in vascularized bone allotransplantation

  13. Effects of the dietary amount and source of protein, resistance training and anabolic-androgenic steroids on body weight and lipid profile of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, V A; Sánchez, C; Ortega, F B; Nebot, E; Kapravelou, G; Porres, J M; Aranda, P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary protein amount and source, hypertrophy resistance training (RT) and anabolicandrogenic steroids (AAS) may affect body weight and plasma and hepatic lipid profile. 157 adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in 16 experimental groups resulting in: normal-protein (NP) or high-protein (HP) diets, whey or soy-protein diets, with or without RT and with or without AAS, for 3 months. Final body weight was lower in the RT and AAS groups compared to sedentary and non- AAS groups, respectively (all, pweight of rats that performed RT or ingested a HP diet (all, p<0.05). HDL-cholesterol was higher when RT was combined with HP diets (p=0.010) or non-AAS and when HP diets were combined with non-AAS (both,p<0.001). Groups that combined RT with non-AAS administration obtained the lowest hepatic TAG (p<0.05). Among all the interventions tested, AAS was the factor that most negatively affected plasma and hepatic lipid profile, whereas HP diets and RT could benefit lipid profile, especially when combined. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. The Cross-Sectional Relationship Between Body Mass Index, Waist-Hip Ratio and Cognitive Performance in Postmenopausal Women Enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Diana R.; Zhang, Yinghua; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Espeland, Mark A.; Van Horn, Linda; McTigue, Kathleen M.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Powell, Lynda; Kooperberg, Charles; Coker, Laura H.; Hoffmann, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine if body weight (BMI) is independently associated with cognitive function in postmenopausal women and the relationship between body fat distribution as estimated by waist-hip-ratio (WHR) and cognitive function. DESIGN Cross-sectional data analysis SETTING Baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials. PARTICIPANTS 8745 postmenopausal women aged 65–79 years, free of clinical evidence of dementia and completed baseline evaluation in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hormone trials. MEASUREMENTS Participants completed a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), health and lifestyle questionnaires, and standardized measurements of height, weight, body circumferences and blood pressure. Statistical analysis of associations between 3MSE scores, BMI and WHR after controlling for known confounders. RESULTS With the exception of smoking and exercise, vascular disease risk factors, including hypertension, waist measurement, heart disease and diabetes, were significantly associated with 3MSE score and were included as co-variables in subsequent analyses. BMI was inversely related to 3MSE scores, for every 1 unit increase in BMI, 3MSE decrease 0.988 (p=.0001) after adjusting for age, education and vascular disease risk factors. BMI had the most pronounced association with poorer cognitive functioning scores among women with smaller waist measurements. Among women with the highest WHR, cognitive scores increased with BMI. CONCLUSION Increasing BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in women with smaller WHR. Higher WHR, estimating central fat mass, is associated with higher cognitive function in this cross-sectional study. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism for this association. PMID:20646100

  15. The Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-31

    cookies, potato chips, salami, marshmallows , etc.) gained more weight than did the rats that were provided standard chow. The animals with access to...chip and cream filled cookies, salami, cheese, bananas, marshmallows , milk chocolate, and peanut butter (Sclafani & Springer, 1976). In fact... marshmallows , milk chocolate, potato chips, and peanut butter (Sclafani & Springer, 1976; Grunberg, Bowen, Maycock, & Nespor, 1985; Sclafani 2004

  16. Fluoride Ion Regeneration of Cyclosarin (GF) From Rat Blood Following Whole-Body Exposure to Lethal Levels of GF Vapor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jakubowski, E. M; Anthony, J. S; Mioduszewski, R. J; Manthei, J. H; Burnett, D. C; Way, R. A; Gaviola, B. I; Scotto, J. A; Muse, W. T; Whalley, C. E

    2003-01-01

    .... Levels of exposure ranged from 2 mg/m3 for 240 min to 41.9 mg/m3 for 10 min. The GF biomarker found in rat plasma and red blood cell samples was regenerated GF, which is the product of adding fluoride ion at pH 4 to the post exposure samples...

  17. Effect of noise stress on count, progressive and non-progressive sperm motility, body and genital organ weights of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It was decided to investigate the effect of noise pollution on the body weight, genital organ weights, and also on sperm parameters. Setting and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vitro. Materials and Methods: A total 20 adult male wistar rats were used in this study. All rats were divided into 2 equal groups (n = 10: (1 control group and (2 experimental group. Animals of the experimental group were exposed to noise for 50 days with an intensity of 90-120 db and frequency of 300 - 350 Hz for 12 hours daily. After 50 days, at first, body weights of all animals were recorded, and then they were killed. The right epididymides were removed and also, sperm concentration and motility were determined. Each organ was weighed separately on an electronic balance. Statistical Analysis Used: Data are reported as mean ± SD and percentage. The statistical significance of difference between the control and experimental groups was determined by the unpaired t-test. Results: The weights of the testes, epididymes, seminal vesicle, ventral prostate were found to be significantly decreased in rats exposed to noise pollution when compared with the weights of the same organs obtained from control group (P < 0.05. There was a statistical difference of P < 0.05 between the 2 groups in terms of sperm concentration. Conclusions: It is concluded that noise pollution has the bad effects on sperm concentration and motility; therefore, it is supposed that homes and places of working must be build far away of noisy of factories and other places with noise.

  18. Establishment of a novel dwarf rat strain: cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masami; Watanabe, Minoru; Yokomi, Izuru; Matsumoto, Naoki; Sudo, Katsuko; Satoh, Hitoshi; Igarashi, Tsuneo; Seki, Azusa; Amano, Hitoshi; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Ryu, Kakei; Shibata, Shunichi; Nagayama, Motohiko; Tanuma, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats.

  19. Establishment of a novel dwarf rat strain: cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANAKA, Masami; WATANABE, Minoru; YOKOMI, Izuru; MATSUMOTO, Naoki; SUDO, Katsuko; SATOH, Hitoshi; IGARASHI, Tsuneo; SEKI, Azusa; AMANO, Hitoshi; OHURA, Kiyoshi; RYU, Kakei; SHIBATA, Shunichi; NAGAYAMA, Motohiko; TANUMA, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Rats with dwarfism accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, such as shortness of the limbs, tail, and body (dwarf rats), emerged in a Jcl-derived Sprague-Dawley rat colony maintained at the Institute for Animal Experimentation, St. Marianna University Graduate School of Medicine. Since the dwarfism was assumed to be due to a genetic mutation based on its frequency, we bred the dwarf rats and investigated their characteristics in order to identify the causative factors of their phenotypes and whether they could be used as a human disease model. One male and female that produced dwarf progeny were selected, and reproduction was initiated by mating the pair. The incidence of dwarfism was 25.8% among the resultant litter, and dwarfism occurred in both genders, suggesting that it was inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. At 12 weeks of age, the body weights of the male and female dwarf rats were 40% and 57% of those of the normal rats, respectively. In soft X-ray radiographic and histological examinations, shortening and hypoplasia of the long bones, such as the tibia and femur, were observed, which were suggestive of endochondral ossification abnormalities. An immunohistochemical examination detected an aggrecan synthesis disorder, which might have led to delayed calcification and increased growth plate thickening in the dwarf rats. We hypothesized that the principal characteristics of the dwarf rats were systemically induced by insufficient cartilage calcification in their long bones; thus, we named them cartilage calcification insufficient (CCI) rats. PMID:25736479

  20. Hepato-toxic effect of diuron in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R C; Kumar, S

    1999-05-01

    Tumour initiating/promoting effect of diuron, a widely used substituted urea herbicide, was studied in rats using liver tumour model. Chronic exposure to diuron at a dose of 250 mg/kg body wt resulted in high mortality and weight loss in treated animals. The animals which received diuron + HCH treatment showed an increase in size and weight of liver as compared to controls. Liver tumours were not observed in any of the treated group whereas some significant histological changes were seen in diuron treated rat liver. Diuron thus has been found to be hepatotoxic albeit neither tumour initiating nor promoting in rat liver tumorigenesis assay system.

  1. Effect of age and lactose on 67Cu utilization in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, J.; Dowdy, R.; Michelmann, E.; Hill, G.; Zinn, K.; Trrokey, D.; Ellersieck, M.

    1991-01-01

    Young and old male Fischer 344 rats were fed a control diet or a lactose diet. After four weeks rats were gavaged with approximately 6.24 uCl 67 Cu, placed in metabolism cages, and fed their respective diets for an additional two weeks. Daily whole body, urine and fecal radioactivity measurements were made. Rats were killed on day 42 and livers removed for radioactivity determination. Diet had no effect on whole body retention of 67 Cu in the old rats; approximately 20% of the initial dose was retained by the end of the study. In the young rats, however, lactose appeared to enhance initial 67 Cu retention; by day three young control rats retained only 30% of the initial dose, while the young lactose rats retained about 50%. Retention of 67 Cu at the end of the study was approximately 15% and 20% for young control and young lactose rats, respectively. During the first four days post dosing, cumulative fecal 67 Cu excretion was approximately 83% for young control rats and 69% for young lactose rats indicating enhancement of 67 Cu absorption by lactose in the young rats. For old rats cumulative 67 Cu excretion in feces was about 50% regardless of diet. Cumulative urinary 67 Cu excretion was approximately 6% and 8% for young control and lactose rats, respectively vs about 11% for old rats. 67 Cu retention in liver was greater in old rats regardless of diet. The early increase in 67 Cu absorption after a bolus dose may have therapeutic implications. In light of current concern regarding Cu-carbohydrate interactions, the apparent enhancement Cu retention by lactose in young rats deserves further attention

  2. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  3. Assessment of asbestos body formation by high resolution FEG-SEM after exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats to chrysotile, crocidolite, or erionite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Nicola Bursi; Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Pollastri, Simone; Tibaldi, Eva; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2016-04-05

    This work presents a comparative FEG-SEM study of the morphological and chemical characteristics of both asbestos bodies and fibres found in the tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intraperitoneal or intrapleural injection of UICC chrysotile, UICC crocidolite and erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA), with monitoring up to 3 years after exposure. Due to unequal dosing based on number of fibres per mass for chrysotile with respect to crocidolite and erionite, excessive fibre burden and fibre aggregation during injection that especially for chrysotile would likely not represent what humans would be exposed to, caution must be taken in extrapolating our results based on instillation in experimental animals to human inhalation. Notwithstanding, the results of this study may help to better understand the mechanism of formation of asbestos bodies. For chrysotile and crocidolite, asbestos bodies are systematically formed on long asbestos fibres. The number of coated fibres is only 3.3% in chrysotile inoculated tissues. In UICC crocidolite, Mg, Si, and Fe are associated with the fibres whereas Fe, P and Ca are associated with the coating. Even for crocidolite, most of the observed fibres are uncoated as coated fibres are about 5.7%. Asbestos bodies do not form on erionite fibres. The crystal habit, crystallinity and chemistry of all fibre species do not change with contact time, with the exception of chrysotile which shows signs of leaching of Mg. A model for the formation of asbestos bodies from mineral fibres is postulated. Because the three fibre species show limited signs of dissolution in the tissue, they cannot act as source of elements (primarily Fe, P and Ca) promoting nucleation and growth of asbestos bodies. Hence, the limited number of coated fibres should be due to the lack of nutrients or organic nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term effects of 239Pu injection in adult, weanling, newborn and fetal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Mahlum, D.D.; Hess, J.O.; Carr, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    We have completed biological evaluations comparing long-term effects in rats exposed to 239 Pu citrate as adults, weanlings, newborns, or late fetuses, and statistical analyses have been initiated. In rats exposed postnatally, statistically significant alterations in terminal body weight and in weights of several organs were found at higher doses. Survivorship decreased with increasing dose in the postnatal groups, but not in rats exposed prenatally

  5. Gravity and body mass regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. E.; Horwitz, B. A.; Fuller, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of altered gravity on body mass, food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition are examined. Metabolic adjustments are reviewed in maintenance of energy balance, neural regulation, and humoral regulation are discussed. Experiments with rats indicate that genetically obese rats respond differently to hypergravity than lean rats.

  6. Inhibition of Gastric Lipase as a Mechanism for Body Weight and Plasma Lipids Reduction in Zucker Rats Fed a Rosemary Extract Rich in Carnosic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo Vaquero, María; Yáñez-Gascón, María-Josefa; García Villalba, Rocío; Larrosa, Mar; Fromentin, Emilie; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco; Espín de Gea, Juan Carlos; García-Conesa, María-Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (REs) exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely used in the food industry. REs are rich in carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol which may be responsible for some of the biological activities of REs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of lipase activity in the gut may be a mechanism by which a RE enriched in CA (40%) modulates body weight and lipids levels in a rat model of metabolic disorders and obesity. Methods and Principal Findings RE was administered for 64 days to lean (fa/+) and obese (fa/fa) female Zucker rats and body weight, food intake, feces weight and blood biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study. Lipase activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylbutyrate) was measured in the gastrointestinal tract at the end of the study and the contents of CA, carnosol and methyl carnosate were also determined. Sub-chronic administration of RE moderately reduced body weight gain in both lean and obese animals but did not affect food intake. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels were also markedly decreased in the lean animals supplemented with RE. Importantly, lipase activity was significantly inhibited in the stomach of the RE-supplemented animals where the highest content of intact CA and carnosol was detected. Conclusions Our results confirm that long-term administration of RE enriched in CA moderates weight gain and improves the plasma lipids profile, primarily in the lean animals. Our data also suggest that these effects may be caused, at least in part, by a significant inhibition of gastric lipase and subsequent reduction in fat absorption. PMID:22745826

  7. Inhibition of gastric lipase as a mechanism for body weight and plasma lipids reduction in Zucker rats fed a rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Romo Vaquero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts (REs exhibit hepatoprotective, anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties and are widely used in the food industry. REs are rich in carnosic acid (CA and carnosol which may be responsible for some of the biological activities of REs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inhibition of lipase activity in the gut may be a mechanism by which a RE enriched in CA (40% modulates body weight and lipids levels in a rat model of metabolic disorders and obesity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RE was administered for 64 days to lean (fa/+ and obese (fa/fa female Zucker rats and body weight, food intake, feces weight and blood biochemical parameters were monitored throughout the study. Lipase activity (hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylbutyrate was measured in the gastrointestinal tract at the end of the study and the contents of CA, carnosol and methyl carnosate were also determined. Sub-chronic administration of RE moderately reduced body weight gain in both lean and obese animals but did not affect food intake. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol and insulin levels were also markedly decreased in the lean animals supplemented with RE. Importantly, lipase activity was significantly inhibited in the stomach of the RE-supplemented animals where the highest content of intact CA and carnosol was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that long-term administration of RE enriched in CA moderates weight gain and improves the plasma lipids profile, primarily in the lean animals. Our data also suggest that these effects may be caused, at least in part, by a significant inhibition of gastric lipase and subsequent reduction in fat absorption.

  8. Ileal transposition surgery produces ileal length-dependent changes in food intake, body weight, gut hormones and glucose metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzy, A R; Nausheen, S; Chelikani, P K

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced stimulation of the lower gut is hypothesized to play a key role in the weight loss and resolution of diabetes following bariatric surgeries. Ileal transposition (IT) permits study of the effects of direct lower gut stimulation on body weight, glucose homeostasis and other metabolic adaptations without the confounds of gastric restriction or foregut exclusion. However, the underlying mechanisms and the length of the ileum sufficient to produce metabolic benefits following IT surgery remain largely unknown. To determine the effects of transposing varying lengths of the ileum to upper jejunum on food intake, body weight, glucose tolerance and lower gut hormones, and the expression of key markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of 5, 10 or 20 cm of the ileal segment to proximal jejunum or sham manipulations. Daily food intake and body weight were recorded, and an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed. Blood samples were assayed for hormones and tissue samples for mRNA (RT-qPCR) and/or protein abundance (immunoblotting) of regulatory metabolic markers. We demonstrate that IT surgery exerts ileal length-dependent effects on multiple parameters including: (1) decreased food intake and weight gain, (2) improved glucose tolerance, (3) increased tissue expression and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), and decreased leptin concentrations and (4) upregulation of key markers of glucose metabolism (glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), hexokinase (HK) and phosphofructokinase (PFK)) together with a downregulation of lipogenic markers (fatty acid synthase (FAS)) in muscle and adipose tissue. Together, our data demonstrate that the reduction in food intake and weight gain, increase in lower

  9. Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is often considered to result from either excessive food intake or insufficient physical activity. Adzuki beans have been evaluated as potential remedies for various health conditions, and recent studies have reported their effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism, but it remains to be determined whether they may be effective in overcoming obesity by regulating appetite and satiety. Objective: This study investigated the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus fed a high-fat diet. Design: The rats were fed for 8 weeks with a control diet containing 10 kcal% from fat (CD, a high-fat diet containing 60 kcal% from fat (HD, or a high-fat diet with 1% or 2% freeze-dried ethanolic extract powder of BAB (BAB-1 and BAB-2. Results: The body weights and epididymal fat weights were significantly reduced and the serum lipid profiles were improved in the group fed the diet containing BAB compared to the HD group. The expression of AGRP mRNA significantly decreased in the BAB groups, and treatment with BAB-2 resulted in a marked induction of the mRNA expression of POMC and CART, which are anorexigenic neuropeptides that suppress food intake. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ObRb, a gene related to leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus, were significantly higher in the BAB groups than in the HD group. Conclusions: These results suggest that supplementation with BAB has a significant effect on body weight via regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides.

  10. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung...... surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown......-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p

  11. [Effect of oxidative stress-associated damage to the lung tissue caused by different body mass index in the rat models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Zhang, X J; Zhao, J H; Xu, J Y

    2016-12-12

    Objective: To investigate the influence of different diets on serum protein expression levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the activities of Trx and TrxR, and to explore the effect of damage to the lung tissue and the underlying mechanisms of different body mass index caused by different diets in the rat models . Method: Healthy clean male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, emaciation group and fat group, which were raised by different diets for 6 months.Then the rats were sacrificed and the serum and lung tissue were prepared. The levels of 4-HNE, Trx and TrxR in peripheral blood were quantitatively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and the activities of Trx and TrxR were measured by chemical methods. Results: Compared with the normal group, the lung tissue had more apparent emphysema in the emaciation and the fat groups under light microscope, and more inflammatory cell infiltration in alveolar septum was observed in the fat group.The levels of 4-HNE in the fat group[(24.7±8.7)mg/L]was significantly higher than that in the normal group[(15.4±4.7)mg/L, P 0.05)in the levels of 4-HNE between the emaciation and the normal groups. The levels of TrxR in the emaciation group[(7.7±1.4)μg/ml]was significantly higher than that in the normal and the fat groups[(6.2±1.1), (4.9±1.4)μg/ml, all P 0.05). The activity of Trx in the emaciation group[(32.4±8.5)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 ]was significantly higher than that in the normal group[(19.6±3.3)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 ]and the fat group[(11.3±7.5)×10 -3 A ·min -1 ·mg -1 , all P 0.05). Conclusion: Both high BMI and low BMI can affect the oxidative stress of the body, resulting in increased oxidants and decreased antioxidants, and can cause damage to the lung tissue in the rat models.

  12. Preliminary studies of urinary metabolic profile in rats after acute total body homogeneous irradiation by 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huifang; Yang Biao; Guo Yuefeng; Guo Wanlong; Xing Lihong

    2011-01-01

    To detect the metabolic profile of rats urinary by use of 1 h-NMR, the rats were irradiated by 60 Cy γ-rays with a dose of 7 Gy (0.7 Gy/min). And the data was processed by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA). The results demonstrated that there were obvious differences in urine metabolites before and after irradiation, and the main metabolites included lactate, acetate, succinate, citrate, creatinine, trimethylamine-N-oxide and taurine. The relative content of lactate, acetate, creatinine and trimethylamine-N-oxide increased significantly on the first day following quickly decreasing on the second and third days, but increasing on the fourth day after irradiation. On the first three days after irradiation, the relative content of succinate and citrate had trending down, but had an ascending tendency on the fourth day. The relative content of taurine was basically stable but higher than pre-radiation. In conclusion, 1 H-NMR combined with PCA and PLS-DA provides a good research method to detect the urinary metabolic profile in rats before and after irradiation. (authors)

  13. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P mass (r = -0.68, P mass (r = -0.576, P mass (r = -0.439, P mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  14. Initial application of a ACI-rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma in the experiments of interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jun; Feng Gansheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of various methods of interventional therapy in the ACI-rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma, and to assess the value of this model in the experiments of interventional therapy. Methods: The subcapsular implantation of a solid Morris Hepatoma 3924A (1 mm 3 ) in the livers was carried out in 58 male ACI-rats. 13 days after the implantation, the tumor volume (V 1 ) was measured by using magnetic resonance tomography (MRT). After laparotomy and retrograde placement of catheter into the gastroduodenal artery (14 d), the following protocols of interventional therapy were performed: (A) Mitomycin C (n = 4); (B) Degradable starch microspheres (DSM) (n = 4); (C) Lipiodol (n = 5); (D) Ligation (n = 4); (E) Mitomycin C + DSM (n = 4); (F) Mitomycin C + ligation (n = 5); (G) Mitomycin C + Lipiodol (n = 5); (H) DSM + ligation (n = 4); (I) Lipiodol + ligation (n = 4); (J) Mitomycin C + Poly-lactide-coglycollide-microspheres (Plcg) (n = 4); (K) Mitomycin C + Lipiodol + ligation (n = 4); (L) Mitomycin C + DSM + ligation (n = 4); (M) 0.9% NaCl (control group, n = 7). 13 days after these therapies the change of the tumor volume (V 2 ) was determined by MRT again. Results: The rate of implantation was 100%. V 2 /V 1 was 4.50 in group A, 12.73 in group B, 15.84 in group C, 10.17 in group D, 90.20 in group E, 7.16 in group F, 4.08 in group G, 3.45 in group H, 9.99 in group I, 2.86 in group J, 3.76 in group K, 7.71 in group L, and 27.12 in group M, respectively. Compared to the control group, groups A, G, H, J and K showed significant reduced tumor growth (χ 2 = 5.238, 8.571, 5.238, 5.238, 5.238, P = 0.045, 0.008, 0.045, 0.045, 0.045) in the period of observation, whereas the other groups showed no statistical significant differences by the tumor growth [χ 2 = 1.016(B), 3.086(C), 1.016(D), 2.213(E), 3.086(F), 1.061(I), 1.061(L), P = 0.348 (B), 0.121 (C), 0.348 (D), 0.199 (E), 0.121 (F), 0.348 (I), 0.348(L)]. Conclusion: This model of

  15. Effect of different levels of dietary zinc supplementation on body weight and learning ability in rats%不同剂量补锌对大鼠体重和学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹; 李积胜

    2004-01-01

    [Objective]:To investigate the effect of increasing dietary zinc supplementation on body weight and learning ability in rats.[Methods]Zinc supplemental diet contained 200, 400, 600, 800 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc,respectively.Y-labyrinth test was applied to exam the learning and memory function of rats.[Results]Significantly greater weight gain was observed in rats fed with 400 mg/kg zinc diet than in rats fed with 200 mg/kg zinc diet(P<0.05). During the early experiment, lower weight increments were notably observed in rats with 600, 800 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc supplementation than that in control group, respectively. But the influence on weight relief became weaker in pace with time on the whole. Learning and memory function for rats were strikingly improved at level of 200 mg/kg zinc diet compared with the control level(P<0.05), and were damaged in varying degrees at higher(except 1 600 mg/kg) zinc supplementation levels in feeds, among which,800 mg/kg zinc dosage had produced obviously lesion for learning ability in rats compared with normal, 200 or 1 600 mg/kg zinc levels(P<0.05, respectively).[Conclusion]These results suggest that different levels of zinc supplementation have some incompletely parallel effects on the growth, memory and capacity to learn in rats.

  16. Perubahan Nilai Hematologi, Biokimia Darah, Bobot Organ dan Bobot Badan Tikus Putih pada Umur Berbeda (THE CHANGES ON HEMATOLOGICAL, BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL VALUES, ORGAN AND BODY WEIGHT OF RAT AT DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marice Sihombing

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Research and development of health science require an animal model which has been known for itsorigin and characteristics. One of experimental animal model which is commonly used is albino rat. Thepurpose of this study was to investigate weight of organs (kidney, liver, spleen, and lung, hematologicalvalues (hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte and leucocyte, and the values of the biochemical blood (SGPT,SGOT, glucose and total protein of the albino rat at different ages. This study used 60 rats, which weredivided into 3 groups based on age namely 1, 2, and 3 months and groups based on sex that each groupconsisted of 10 males and 10 females. Samples of age and sex groups of rat were taken randomly. Eachcage consisted of 5 rats with the same ages and sex. Those rats fed and tap water ad libitum. The rats weresacrificed anaesthetically by with ether to take their blood and measure their organ‘s weight. Data wasanalyzed using one way ANOVA test, except data from heart organ which was analyzed using nonparametrictest (Friedman Test. To find out the increase of rats body weight age 1 -3 months, it was usedregression linier test. Results of statistic showed that there were significantly difference (p < 0,05 in bodyweight change, average of hematological values, blood biochemical values and organs weight in accordancewith increasing of rats age in all age groups. In contrast, average of hematocrit values had no significantlydifference (p > 0,05. Generally, male rats were bigger than female rats but there was no difference in all

  17. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Mauderly, J.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Hahn, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary emphysema on deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 in the rat were investigated. The presence of emphysema in the rats tested was indicated by respiratory function measurements and confirmed microscopically. Initial lung burdens of 239 Pu per kg body weight were less in rats with emphysema than in control rats; however, the retention of 239 Pu was similar in emphysematous and control rats. Survival and lung tumor occurrence were similar in emphysematous and control rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 . We concluded that rats with pre-existing pulmonary emphysema were not more sensitive to the effects of inhaled 239 PuO 2 than control rats. (author)

  18. Inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in rats with pulmonary emphysema. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D L; Mauderly, J L; Carlton, W W; Hahn, F F

    1988-12-01

    The modifying effects of pre-existing pulmonary emphysema on deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} in the rat were investigated. The presence of emphysema in the rats tested was indicated by respiratory function measurements and confirmed microscopically. Initial lung burdens of {sup 239}Pu per kg body weight were less in rats with emphysema than in control rats; however, the retention of {sup 239}Pu was similar in emphysematous and control rats. Survival and lung tumor occurrence were similar in emphysematous and control rats exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. We concluded that rats with pre-existing pulmonary emphysema were not more sensitive to the effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} than control rats. (author)

  19. From the Cover: Prenatal Nicotinic Exposure Attenuates Respiratory Chemoreflexes Associated With Downregulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase and Neurokinin 1 Receptor in Rat Pup Carotid Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhuang, Jianguo; Gao, Xiuping; Ye, Chunyan; Lee, Lu-Yuan; Xu, Fadi

    2016-09-01

    Maternal cigarette smoke is the major risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A depressed ventilatory response to hypoxia (HVR) and hypercapnia (HCVR) is thought to be responsible for the pathogenesis of SIDS and the carotid body is critically involved in these responses. We have recently reported that prenatal nicotinic exposure (PNE) over the full gestation induces depressed HVR in rat pups. Here, we asked whether PNE (1) depressed not only HVR but also HCVR that were dependent on the carotid body, (2) affected some important receptors and neurochemicals expressed in the carotid body, such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), and (3) blunted the ventilatory responses to activation of these receptors. To this end, HVR and HCVR in Ctrl and PNE pups were measured with plethysmography before and after carotid body ablation (Series I), mRNA expression and/or immunoreactivity (IR) of TH, NK1R, and α7nAChR in the carotid body were examined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (Series II), and the ventilatory responses were tested before and after intracarotid injection of substance P (NK1R agonist) and AR-R17779 (α7nAChR agonist) (Series III). Our results showed that PNE (1) significantly depressed both HVR and HCVR and these depressions were abolished by carotid body ablation, (2) reduced the relative population of glomus cells, mRNA NK1R, and α7nAChR and IR of NK1R and TH in the carotid body, and (3) decreased ventilatory responses to intracarotid injection of substance P or AR-R17779. These results suggest that PNE acting via the carotid body could strikingly blunt HVR and HCVR, likely through downregulating TH and NK1R. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Maternal High Fat Feeding Does Not Have Long-Lasting Effects on Body Composition and Bone Health in Female and Male Wistar Rat Offspring at Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Miotto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High fat diets adversely affect body composition, bone mineral and strength, and alter bone fatty acid composition. It is unclear if maternal high fat (HF feeding permanently alters offspring body composition and bone health. Female rats were fed control (CON or HF diet for 10 weeks, bred, and continued their diets throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were studied at weaning and 3 months, following consumption of CON diet. At weaning, but not 3 months of age, male and female offspring from dams fed HF diet had lower lean mass and higher fat and bone mass, and higher femur bone mineral density (females only than offspring of dams fed CON diet. Male and female offspring femurs from dams fed HF diet had higher monounsaturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at weaning than offspring from dams fed CON diet, where females from dams fed HF diet had higher saturates and lower n6 polyunsaturates at 3 months of age. There were no differences in strength of femurs or lumbar vertebrae at 3 months of age in either male or female offspring. In conclusion, maternal HF feeding did not permanently affect body composition and bone health at young adulthood in offspring.

  1. Effect of Hydro Alcoholic Ginger Extracts on the Body Weight, Testis Weight and Spermatogenesis in Male Rats Undergoing Chemotherapy with Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sharifi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cyclophosphamide is used as an anti cancer medicine in chemotherapy. This is an alkalizing medicine and causes the binding of DNA strands, breaking of DNA and control of protein synthesis and RNA. The side effects of this medicine include lack of appetite, nausea, reduction in activity of sexual lymph nodes, causing amenorrhea, azoospermia and oligospermia. Ginger includes many compounds, some of which are shogaols, gingerols, pyrogallols and sesquiterpenes. Ginger has anti nauseating, anti cancer, anti oxidant effects and eliminates free radicals. This medicine is used along with cyclophosphamide to reduce its destructive side effects in the body. Methods: For 21 days, the rats were fed with ginger and cyclophosphamide. After 21 days, the animals were weighed and rendered unconscious. Their testes were removed and tissue samples were provided from their testes. Results: The results showed that cyclophosphamide alone reduces body weight, testes weight and spermatogenesis as compared to the control group. In other experimental groups that were fed with ginger and cyclophosphamide, increased dosage of ginger increased the body weight, the testes weight and spermatogenesis in comparison to the other experimental groups. Conclusion: It seems that compounds present in ginger are anti tumoral and control the production of active metabolites. Therefore, if administered together with Cyclophosphamide, it can be useful and effective in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  2. Spontaneous internal desynchronization of locomotor activity and body temperature rhythms from plasma melatonin rhythm in rats exposed to constant dim light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullock Nicole M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently reported that spontaneous internal desynchronization between the locomotor activity rhythm and the melatonin rhythm may occur in rats (30% of tested animals when they are maintained in constant dim red light (LLdim for 60 days. Previous work has also shown that melatonin plays an important role in the modulation of the circadian rhythms of running wheel activity (Rw and body temperature (Tb. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect that desynchronization of the melatonin rhythm may have on the coupling and expression of circadian rhythms in Rw and Tb. Methods Rats were maintained in a temperature controlled (23–24°C ventilated lightproof room under LLdim (red dim light 1 μW/cm2 [5 Lux], lower wavelength cutoff at 640 nm. Animals were individually housed in cages equipped with a running wheel and a magnetic sensor system to detect wheel rotation; Tb was monitored by telemetry. Tb and Rw data were recorded in 5-min bins and saved on disk. For each animal, we determined the mesor and the amplitude of the Rw and Tb rhythm using waveform analysis on 7-day segments of the data. After sixty days of LLdim exposure, blood samples (80–100 μM were collected every 4 hours over a 24-hrs period from the tail artery, and serum melatonin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results Twenty-one animals showed clear circadian rhythms Rw and Tb, whereas one animal was arrhythmic. Rw and Tb rhythms were always strictly associated and we did not observe desynchronization between these two rhythms. Plasma melatonin levels showed marked variations among individuals in the peak levels and in the night-to-day ratio. In six rats, the night-to-day ratio was less than 2, whereas in the rat that showed arrhythmicity in Rw and Tb melatonin levels were high and rhythmic with a large night-to-day ratio. In seven animals, serum melatonin levels peaked during the subjective day (from CT0 to CT8, thus suggesting

  3. Orlistat after initial dietary/behavioural treatment: changes in body weight and dietary maintenance in subjects with sleep related breathing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonstad Serena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and weight loss is recommended to overweight or obese patients with SRBD. However, maintenance of weight loss is difficult to achieve and strategies for weight loss maintenance is needed. Orlistat is a pharmacological agent that reduces the intestinal absorption of fat and may favour long-term weight maintenance. Objective To examine the change in body weight and dietary intake during a 1-year treatment with orlistat after an initial weight loss in obese subjects with SRBD. Furthermore, to explore the dietary determinants of weight maintenance during treatment with orlistat. Methods Men and women with SRBD aged 32-62 years (n = 63 participated in a 3-month dietary intervention to increase intake of vegetables and fruit. After an initial weight loss of 3.4 kg they achieved a mean body mass index of 34.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2. Subsequently they were treated with orlistat for 1 year. During this year, dietary and behavioural interventions to attain weight loss were provided in the course of 14 group sessions. Dietary intake, energy density and food choices were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire before and after orlistat treatment. Results With orlistat, body weight decreased by a mean of 3.5 kg (95% CI 1.5, 5.5. The dietary E% from saturated fat, intake of fatty dairy products and energy density increased after 1 year while intakes of oils, fish and vegetables decreased (all P adj = 0.19 [95% CI 0.10, 0.46], and inversely associated with E% saturated fat (R2adj = 0.20 [95% CI 0.12, 0.47] and fatty dairy products (R2adj = 0.23 [95% CI 0.12, 0.49]. Conclusions Orlistat induced further weight loss, but dietary compliance declined with time. Increasing dietary protein and restricting saturated fat and fatty dairy products may facilitate weight loss with orlistat.

  4. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate blunts negative age-related changes in body composition, functionality and myofiber dimensions in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of 16 wk. of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) administration on age-related changes in functionality and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) determined myofiber dimensions. Methods Twelve young (44 wk.), 6 middle-aged (60 wk.), 10 old (86 wk.), and 5 very old (102 wk.) male Fisher-344 rat's body composition and grip strength were assessed at baseline. Following, 6 young, 6 middle-aged, 5 old and 5 very old rats were sacrificed for baseline myofiber dimensions and gene transcript factor expression in the soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GAS). The remaining 6 young and 5 old rats were given HMB for 16 wk. and then sacrificed. Results Fat mass increased in the middle-aged control condition (+49%) but not the middle-aged HMB condition. In addition, fat mass declined (-56%) in the old HMB condition but not the old control condition. Normalized strength declined and maintained respectively in the control and HMB conditions from 44 to 60 wk. and increased (+23%) (p HMB condition. Declines occurred in myofiber size in all muscles from 44 to 102 wk. in the control condition(-10 to -15%), but not HMB condition. Atrogin-1 mRNA expression in the SOL and GAS muscles was greater in the 102-wk control condition than all other conditions: SOL (+45%) and GAS (+100%). This elevation was blunted by HMB in the 102 wk. old SOL. There was a condition effect in the SOL for myogenin, which significantly increased (+40%) only in the 102-wk. HMB group relative to the 44-wk. group. Conclusions HMB may blunt age-related losses of strength and myofiber dimensions, possibly through attenuating the rise in protein breakdown. PMID:22512917

  5. Radioprotective and Anti-infertility Role of Resveratrol in Adult Male Rats Exposed to Whole-body ?-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.M.; Tawfik, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    GAMMA-Radiation destroys the process of spermatogenesis and even leads to male infertility. Moreover, seminal oxidative stress is known to end in per oxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of its DNA integrity. Man infertility is defined as one year of regular and unprotected intercourse without conception. Plants provide a treatment option that is affordable and available for infertile couples and phyto therapy is an essential form of treatment in nowadays health system. Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural phytoalexin with a wide range of biological activities. Male rats were divided into six groups under investigation, each of six animals. Control group, two RSV groups which received intra gastric RSV (20 and 40 mg kg-1 day-1) for 7 weeks, irradiated group (2 Gy gamma-rays) and two irradiated and RSV groups which received the same preceding doses of RSV for the same period after 2 Gy gamma-rays exposure. Hormonal assay in serum; testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin were recorded for fertility assessment. The abnormalities occurred in the reproductive system of the irradiated rats were evaluated: Chromosomal aberration frequencies in spermatocytes, metaphase-1, sperm-head abnormalities and oxidative parameters in testes tissue; malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO). Also, the findings suggest that the anti-fertility effect of melatonin was proved to be transient and reversed completely or in part at the end of the second recovery period. The results showed that RSV has a curative role against the oxidative stress involved by gamma-rays in the rats and showed a significant improvement on the male reproductive functions.

  6. Chemoprevention of DMH-induced rat colon carcinoma initiation by combination administration of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Manpreet Kaur; Vaiphei, Kim; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2012-02-01

    Cancer research illustrated that combinatorial studies can provide significant improvement in safety and effectiveness over the monotherapy regimens. A combination of two drugs may restrain precancerous colon polyps, opening a new possible opportunity for chemoprevention of colon cancer. In this context, chemopreventive efficacy of a combination regimen of C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein present in Spirulina platensis, a cyanobacterium, which is a selective cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and piroxicam, a traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was considered in 1,2 dimethylhyadrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, DNA fragmentation, fluorescent staining, PGE(2) enzyme immunoassay, and carrageenan-induced paw edema test were performed along with morphological and histological analysis. DMH treatment showed a rich presence of preneoplastic lesions such as multiple plaque lesions, aberrant crypt foci, and well-characterized dysplasia. These features were reduced with piroxicam and C-phycocyanin administration. The number of apoptotic cells was featured prominently in all the groups compared with DMH. DMH treatment revealed intact high molecular weight genomic DNA with no signs of laddering/DNA fragmentation while it was noticeable significantly in control and DMH + piroxicam + C-phycocyanin. DMH group showed highest COX-2 expression and PGE(2) level in comparison with other groups. Doses of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin used in the present study were established at an anti-inflammatory range. A combination regimen of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin, rather than individually has the much greater potential for reduction of DMH-induced colon cancer development and COX-2 being the prime possible target in such chemoprevention.

  7. The influence of whole-body and local irradiation modified by hyperglycemia on metastatic Walker carcinosarcoma 256 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlimuratov, A.B.; Ivashkin, A.V.; Zakirkhodzhaev, U.D.

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that the local radiation therapy, and also radiation therapy modified by the short-term hyperglycemia really increase the life-span of rats with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma. At the same time the metastatic process also increases, especially after the modified radiation therapy. The total irradiation of experimental animals in a dose of 50 sGy before the modified radiation therapy considerably decreases the frequency of metastatic process. A conclusion is drawn that the total irradiation has a prophylactic influence on metastases under conditions of modified radiation therapy

  8. Induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis on the nuclear matrix of rat hepatocytes after whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezlepkin, V.G.; Malinovskij, Yu.Yu.; Kuznetsova, E.A.; Namvar, R.A.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    DNA synthesis in hepatocytes was studied by incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine administered of portal vein of γ-irradiated (80 Gy) rats. It was shown that the rate of replicative DNA synthesis decreased in hepatocytes of the regenerating liver and unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced at the nuclear matrix of resting cells of the intact liver. In addition to repair synthesis, DNA synthesis resembling replicative one (''aberrant'' DNA synthesis) accounts for a considerable fraction of γ-radiation-induced synthesis of DNA at the nuclear matrix

  9. Radioprotection of whole-body γ-irradiation-induced alteration in some haematological parameters by cysteine, vitamin E and their combination in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, A.A.; Hassan, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Radioprotective effect of cysteine, vitamin E and their combination on γ-irradiation-induced alteration in some haematological parameters in male rats has been studied 24 and 48 hrs after whole-body γ-irradiation at a dose level of 7.5 Gy. The results of this study reveal that γ-irradiation caused a significant decrease in red blood cells (RBCs) count with insignificant change in hemoglobin level, 24 and 48 hrs postirradiation, γ-irradiated rats showed as well a progressive decrease in their blood ATP, and serum-SH levels with a significant increase in blood glutathione (GSH) level. Administration of cysteine or vitamin E preceeding γ-radiation exposure gave a significant radioprotection to the above haematological parameters. However, combination of both agents afforded a better protection, so that most of the measured parameters were restored to the pre-irradiated values. Finally, the data demonstrate that the radioprotection provided by combined adminsistration of vitamin E and cysteine is feasible and perhaps, even more efficient against radiation injury to RBCs. This will appreciate the usage of such combination in protecting the patient during radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  10. Effects of protein deficiency on the rate of radioactivity loss from body constituents in adult rats given 14C-amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shigeru; Inoue, Goro

    1975-01-01

    The effect of protein deficiency on the rate of loss of radioactivity from body constituents was studied in adult rats administered 14 C-Chlorella protein hydrolysate or 14 C-lysine. Rats were kept on a protein-free diet for 3 weeks and then injected with labelled amino acids and fed on a protein-free diet for 3 more days to allow 14 C deposition in tissues. Then they were given experimental diets (protein-free diet, 1% and 10% wheat gluten diets pair-fed with the protein-free diet, and 10% wheat gluten diet ad libitum) for 7 days and sacrificed. The rates of loss of radioactivity from tissue proteins became low in general with the extent of protein deficiency. This increased capacity of tissues to retain 14 C-amino acids may result from higher efficiency of protein utilization in protein deficiency. The reutilization of free amino acids and the rate of catabolism of tissue protein are discussed on the basis of the results. The half-life of muscle protein was too long to observe the effects of experimental diets given for 7 days on the rate of loss of radioactivity. (auth.)

  11. Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 reduces body weight and cholecystokinin-8 enhances this reduction in diet-induced obese male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalhal, Thaer R; Washington, Martha C; Newman, Kayla; Heath, John C; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2017-10-01

    The sites of action regulating meal size (MS) and intermeal interval (IMI) length by glucagon like peptide-1 (7-36) (GLP-1 (7-36)) and cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) reside in the areas supplied by the two major branches of the abdominal aorta, celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries. We hypothesized that infusing GLP-1 near those sites reduces body weight (BW) and adding CCK-8 to this infusion enhances the reduction. Here, we measured BW in diet-induced obese (DIO) male rats maintained and tested on normal rat chow and infused with saline, GLP-1 (0.5nmol/kg) and GLP-1+CCK-8 (0.5nmol/kg each) in the aorta once daily for 21days. We found that GLP-1 and GLP-1+CCK-8 decrease BW relative to saline vehicle and GLP-1+CCK-8 reduced it more than GLP-1 alone. Reduction of BW by GLP-1 alone was accompanied by decreased 24-h food intake, first MS, duration of first meal and number of meals, and an increase in latency to first meal. Reduction of BW by the combination of the peptides was accompanied by decrease 24-h food intake, first MS, duration of first meal and number of meals, and increase in the IMI length, satiety ratio and latency to first meal. In conclusion, GLP-1 reduces BW and CCK-8 enhances this reduction if the peptides are given near their sites of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Influence of deuterium depleted water on freeze-dried tissue isotopic composition and morphofunctional body performance in rats of different generations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhimak, S S; Baryshev, M G; Basov, A A; Timakov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of deuterium depleted water on the body of different rats generations was investigated in physiological conditions. As a result of this study it was established that the most significant and rapid reduction in D/H equilibrium was observed in plasma (by 36.2%), and lyophilized kidney tissues (by 15.8%). Less pronounced deuterium decrease was characteristic of liver tissue (9.3%) and heart (8.5%). Stabilization of the isotopic exchange reaction rate was fixed in the blood and tissues of rats, starting from the second generation. At the same time when deuterium depleted water (40 ppm) was used in dietary intake, the change in morphological and functional parameters in laboratory animals associated with the processes of adaptation to the effects of substress isotopic D/H gradient was also noted. The study shows that modification of:only drinking water intake regime can't significantly change the deuterium content in tissues of metabolically active organs, because of the concurrent deuterium receipt in food substances of plant and animal origin.

  13. The Possible Effect Of Tamoxifen Vs Whole Body Irradiation Treatment On Thyroid Hormones in Female Rats Bearing Mammary Tumors Chemically Induced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in most developed and developing regions of the world. In women, this drug has tissuespecific effects, acting as an estrogen antagonist on the breast, and as an estrogen agonist on bone, lipid metabolism (increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and the endometrium. Thyroid hormones act on almost all organs throughout the body and regulate the basal metabolism of the organism. Thyroid hormone can also stimulate the proliferation in vitro of certain tumor cell lines. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the significant value of tamoxifen and/or irradiation treatment on thyroid hormones in breast cancer bearing female rats. Forty two female Sprague-Dawely rats randomly divided into seven groups and the effect of tamoxifen and post-irradiation was studied on breast cancer chemically induced. The results shows a T 4 and estradiol levels not T 3 were altered in different experimental groups. It could be concluded that irradiation-induced changes in the composition of the mammary microenvironment promote the expression of neoplastic potential by affecting both estradiol and thyroid hormones, and tamoxifen may alter the thyroid hormones. Irradiation and tamoxifen administration may have worth effects on T 4 and estradiol levels and it is recommended to further studies towards the bystander effect of radiation and tamoxifen on the tissue culture and molecular biology scale.

  14. Effects of cervical low-frequency electrical stimulation with various waveforms and densities on body mass, liver and kidney function, and death rate in ischemic stroke rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonghong Yang; Chengqi He; Lin Yang; Qiang Gao; Shasha Li; Jing He

    2011-01-01

    Low-frequency electrical stimulation has resulted in favorable effects in the treatment of post-stroke dysphagia. However, the safety of cervical low-frequency electrical stimulation remains unclear because of numerous nerves and blood vessels in the neck. In the present study, rats with ischemic stroke underwent low-frequency electrical stimulation, and systemic and local effects of electrical stimulation at different densities and waveforms were investigated. Electrical stimulation resulted in no significant effects on body mass, liver or kidney function, or mortality rate. In addition, no significant adverse reaction was observed, despite overly high intensity of low-frequency electrical stimulation, which induced laryngismus, results from the present study suggested that it is safe to stimulate the neck with a low-frequency electricity under certain intensities.

  15. Early changes in GABA and dlutamine levels and aminotransferase activity in rat brain after total-body γ-irradiation with absolutely lethal doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.A.; Karpovich, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of gaama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (GL) as well as GABA-aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase activities were measured in rat cerebellum, cerebral cortex and truncus cerebri 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 hr following total-body γ-irradiation ( 60 Co) with a dose of 30 Gy. All the indices under study changed in a similar way in the cortex and truncus cerebri while in the cerebellum, GABA level increased and GABA-α-ketoglutarate aminotransfearse activity decreased 60 min after irradiation. The levels of GABA and GL in the cortex and truncus cerebri decreased immediately and increased 24 hr after irradiation. Activity of aminotransferases changed in a phase manner: changes in aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase activity were more pronounced than those of GABA-α-ketoglutarate aminotransferase activity and correlated with the glutamate level changes

  16. Effect of Whole-Body X-Irradiation of the Synthesis of Individual Fatty Acids in Liver Slices from Normal and Fasted Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Hansen, Lisbeth Grænge; Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    (1) Using (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate as precursors, rat-liver fatty acids were synthesized in vitro and assayed by paper chromatography. (2) Whole-body x-irradiation induced a change in the synthetic pattern of hepatic fatty acids towards a relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitic acid....... (3) X-irradiation and fasting seem to have opposite effects on fatty-acid synthesis. X-irradiation counteracts the drop in total synthesis and the relatively enhanced synthesis of palmitoleic acid induced by fasting. The relative enhancement of palmitic-acid synthesis mentioned under (2) stands...... in contrast to the effect of fasting, which specifically decreases the hepatic synthesis of palmitic acid. (4) There is a general similarity between corresponding fatty-acid patterns based on synthesis from (2-14C) acetate and (1-14C) butyrate, respectively....

  17. Endothelin-1 and endothelin-2 initiate and maintain contractile responses by different mechanisms in rat mesenteric and cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compeer, M. G.; Janssen, G. M. J.; De Mey, J. G. R.

    2013-01-01

    , but relaxed ET-1-induced contractions in MRA. A PLC inhibitor prevented contractile responses to ET-1 and ET-2 in MRA and BA, and relaxed ET-1- and ET-2-induced responses in MRA and ET-1 effects in BA. A Rho-kinase inhibitor did not modify sensitivity, maximum and maintenance of responses to both peptides...... in both arteries but relaxed ET-2, but not ET-1, effects in MRA and ET-1 effects in BA. Conclusions and ImplicationsPLC played a key role in arterial contractile responses to ETs, but ET-1 and ET-2 initiated and maintained vasoconstriction through different mechanisms, and these differed between MRA...

  18. Body temperature and cardiac changes induced by peripherally administered oxytocin, vasopressin and the non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist WAY 267,464: a biotelemetry study in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C; Ramos, L; Reekie, T; Misagh, G H; Narlawar, R; Kassiou, M; McGregor, I S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is current interest in oxytocin (OT) as a possible therapeutic in psychiatric disorders. However, the usefulness of OT may be constrained by peripheral autonomic effects, which may involve an action at both OT and vasopressin V1A receptors. Here, we characterized the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory effects of OT, vasopressin (AVP) and the non-peptide OT receptor agonist WAY 267,464 in rats, and assessed the relative involvement of the OT and V1A receptors in these effects. Experimental Approach Biotelemetry in freely moving male Wistar rats was used to examine body temperature and heart rate after OT (0.01 – 1 mg kg−1; i.p.), AVP (0.001 – 0.1 mg kg−1; i.p.) or WAY 267,464 (10 and 100 mg kg−1; i.p.). The actions of the OT receptor antagonist Compound 25 (C25, 5 and 10 mg kg−1) and V1A receptor antagonist SR49059 (1 and 10 mg kg−1) were studied, as well as possible V1A receptor antagonist effects of WAY 267,464. Key Results OT and AVP dose-dependently reduced body temperature and heart rate. WAY 267,464 had similar, but more modest, effects. SR49059, but not C25, prevented the hypothermia and bradycardia induced by OT and AVP. WAY 267,464 (100 mg·kg−1) prevented the effects of OT, and to some extent AVP. Conclusions and Implications Peripherally administered OT and AVP have profound cardiovascular and thermoregulatory effects that appear to principally involve the V1A receptor rather than the OT receptor. Additionally, WAY 267,464 is not a simple OT receptor agonist, as it has functionally relevant V1A antagonist actions. PMID:24641248

  19. Body temperature and cardiac changes induced by peripherally administered oxytocin, vasopressin and the non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist WAY 267,464: a biotelemetry study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C; Ramos, L; Reekie, T; Misagh, G H; Narlawar, R; Kassiou, M; McGregor, I S

    2014-06-01

    There is current interest in oxytocin (OT) as a possible therapeutic in psychiatric disorders. However, the usefulness of OT may be constrained by peripheral autonomic effects, which may involve an action at both OT and vasopressin V1A receptors. Here, we characterized the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory effects of OT, vasopressin (AVP) and the non-peptide OT receptor agonist WAY 267,464 in rats, and assessed the relative involvement of the OT and V1A receptors in these effects. Biotelemetry in freely moving male Wistar rats was used to examine body temperature and heart rate after OT (0.01 - 1 mg kg(-1); i.p.), AVP (0.001 - 0.1 mg kg(-1); i.p.) or WAY 267,464 (10 and 100 mg kg(-1); i.p.). The actions of the OT receptor antagonist Compound 25 (C25, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) and V1A receptor antagonist SR49059 (1 and 10 mg kg(-1)) were studied, as well as possible V1A receptor antagonist effects of WAY 267,464. OT and AVP dose-dependently reduced body temperature and heart rate. WAY 267,464 had similar, but more modest, effects. SR49059, but not C25, prevented the hypothermia and bradycardia induced by OT and AVP. WAY 267,464 (100 mg·kg(-1)) prevented the effects of OT, and to some extent AVP. Peripherally administered OT and AVP have profound cardiovascular and thermoregulatory effects that appear to principally in